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  1. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  2. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  3. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  4. Landslide vulnerability criteria: a case study from Umbria, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Galli, Mirco; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the vulnerability to landslides, despite landslides causing frequent and widespread damage to the population and the built-up environment in many areas of the world. Lack of information about vulnerability to landslides limits our ability to determine landslide risk. This paper provides information on the vulnerability of buildings and roads to landslides in Umbria, central Italy. Information on 103 landslides of the slide and slide-earth flow types that have resulted in damage to buildings and roads at 90 sites in Umbria is used to establish dependencies between the area of the landslide and the vulnerability to landslides. The dependencies obtained are applied in the hills surrounding the town of Collazzone, in central Umbria, an area for which a detailed landslide inventory map is available. By exploiting the landslide inventory and the established vulnerability curves, the geographical distribution of the vulnerability to landslides is mapped and statistics of the expected damage are calculated. Reliability and limits of the vulnerability thresholds and of the obtained vulnerability assessment are discussed.

  5. Rupture directivity of the major shocks in the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) sequence from regional broadband waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro Pino, Nicola; Mazza, Salvatore; Boschi, Enzo

    1999-07-01

    We derive the relative moment rate function for the main shocks in the Fall 1997 Central Italy seismic sequence (Mw=5.7; 6.0; 5.6) by applying an empirical Green function method. By using three conveniently placed broad-band MedNet stations we obtain clear source time functions indicating directivity effects for all of the three earthquakes, with southeastward rupture propagation for the two southernmost events and an opposite direction for the other and largest one. Taking a simple source model, forward modeling is utilized for determining fault parameters such as length, rupture propagation velocity and direction and slip distribution.

  6. Operational flood forecasting system of Umbria Region "Functional Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, N.; Pandolfo, C.; Stelluti, M.; Ponziani, F.; Viterbo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrometeorological alert office (called "Decentrate Functional Centre" - CFD) of Umbria Region, in central Italy, is the office that provides technical tools able to support decisions when significant flood/landslide events occur, furnishing 24h support for the whole duration of the emergency period, according to the national directive DPCM 27 February 2004 concerning the "Operating concepts for functional management of national and regional alert system during flooding and landslide events for civil protection activities purposes" that designs, within the Italian Civil Defence Emergency Management System, a network of 21 regional Functional Centres coordinated by a central office at the National Civil Protection Department in Rome. Due to its "linking" role between Civil Protection "real time" activities and environmental/planning "deferred time" ones, the Centre is in charge to acquire and collect both real time and quasi-static data: quantitative data from monitoring networks (hydrometeorological stations, meteo radar, ...), meteorological forecasting models output, Earth Observation data, hydraulic and hydrological simulation models, cartographic and thematic GIS data (vectorial and raster type), planning studies related to flooding areas mapping, dam managing plans during flood events, non instrumental information from direct control of "territorial presidium". A detailed procedure for the management of critical events was planned, also in order to define the different role of various authorities and institutions involved. Tiber River catchment, of which Umbria region represents the main upper-medium portion, includes also regional trans-boundary issues very important to cope with, especially for what concerns large dam behavior and management during heavy rainfall. The alert system is referred to 6 different warning areas in which the territory has been divided into and based on a threshold system of three different increasing critical levels according

  7. Active Tectonics of the Umbria Region (Central Italy) in the Framework of the Neogene-Quaternary Extension of the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, M. R.; Collettini, C.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Mirabella, F.; Pauselli, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Northern Apennines are interested by contemporaneous compression in the external part (Po Plain and Adriatic coast) and extension in the internal part (Apenninic Ridge), as revealed by seismological and geological data on the present-day stress field. The pair compression/extension has been migrating from W to E since Middle Miocene (i.e. about 20 Ma). The eastward migration of the extension reflects on the crustal setting of the Northern Apennines: the Western part (Tyrrhenian domain) is characterised by positive Bouguer anomalies, high values of heat flow and by a flat-young-thinned crust (20-25 km); whilst the eastern part (Adriatic domain) is characterised by negative gravity anomalies, low values of heat flow and a west-dipping-old crust, about 35 km thick. The CROP03, deep NVR profile, crossing the Italian peninsula from the Tyrrhenian coast (Punta Ala, Tuscany) to the Adriatic coast (Gabicce, Marche), gave an important contribution for understanding the geometry and modes of the extensional tectonics in the Northern Apennines, showing that the most relevant structural feature in the upper crust of the western domain is the presence of five main ENE dipping, crustal scale normal faults, producing severe extension of the Tuscan crust and deeply disrupting the previously formed, compressional features. At the hanging-wall of these extensional shear zones, antithetic, high angle, west-dipping normal faults are also present. The Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins of the region appear to be geometrically and genetically related to these major shear zones. Many recent studies, based on both geological and geophysical data, confirm the presence of these low angle detachments, and effectively depict the migration of the extension in space and time, from the Corsica basin to the axial zone of the Apennines. The easternmost of these shear zones, named Altotiberina fault , is located in Umbria, at the border between the western domain and the eastern Domain. The

  8. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Qc, Qβ, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Qβ. Both Qc and Qβ show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

  10. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  11. Fault fragment control in the 1997 Umbria-Marche, central Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Bosi, Vittorio; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    The Umbria-Marche region in central Italy experienced a sequence of shallow earthquakes in late 1997, including three mainshocks on September 26th (Ms 5.5 and 5.9) and October 14th (Ms 5.5). This seismic sequence illustrates the relationships between small-scale active faults and moderate-magnitude earthquakes. We suggest that a small-scale active fault corresponds to a “fault fragment” and that it refers to the fault area required for producing a coseismic deformation at the ground surface. The seismic activity and related three mainshocks occurred along three fault fragments which total ∼25 km in length and show a listric geometry at depth. Fault fragments are laterally controlled by pre-existing transverse fold-and-thrust structures and may constitute a major component of the seismic strain release in active continental regions.

  12. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls

  13. Landslide hazard assessment in the Collazzone area, Umbria, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, F.; Galli, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of the application of a recently proposed model to determine landslide hazard. The model predicts where landslides will occur, how frequently they will occur, and how large they will be in a given area. For the Collazzone area, in the central Italian Apennines, we prepared a multi-temporal inventory map through the interpretation of multiple sets of aerial photographs taken between 1941 and 1997 and field surveys conducted in the period between 1998 and 2004. We then partitioned the 79 square kilometres study area into 894 slope units, and obtained the probability of spatial occurrence of landslides by discriminant analysis of thematic variables, including morphology, lithology, structure and land use. For each slope unit, we computed the expected landslide recurrence by dividing the total number of landslide events inventoried in the terrain unit by the time span of the investigated period. Assuming landslide recurrence was constant, and adopting a Poisson probability model, we determined the exceedance probability of having one or more landslides in each slope unit, for different periods. We obtained the probability of landslide size, a proxy for landslide magnitude, by analysing the frequency-area statistics of landslides, obtained from the multi-temporal inventory map. Lastly, assuming independence, we determined landslide hazard for each slope unit as the joint probability of landslide size, of landslide temporal occurrence, and of landslide spatial occurrence.

  14. Landslide volumes and landslide mobilization rates in Umbria, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Ardizzone, Francesca; Cardinali, Mauro; Rossi, Mauro; Valigi, Daniela

    2009-03-01

    A catalogue of 677 landslides of the slide type was selected from a global database of geometrical measurements of individual landslides, including landslide area ( AL) and volume ( VL). The measurements were used to establish an empirical relationship to link AL (in m 2) to VL (in m 3). The relationship takes the form of a power law with a scaling exponent α = 1.450, covers eight orders of magnitude of AL and twelve orders of magnitude of VL, and is in general agreement with existing relationships published in the literature. The reduced scatter of the experiential data around the dependency line, and the fact that the considered landslides occurred in multiple physiographic and climatic environments and were caused by different triggers, indicate that the relationship between VL and AL is largely independent of the physiographical setting. The new relationship was used to determine the volume of individual landslides of the slide type in the Collazzone area, central Italy, a 78.9 km 2 area for which a multi-temporal landslide inventory covering the 69-year period from 1937 to 2005 is available. In the observation period, the total volume of landslide material was VLT = 4.78 × 10 7 m 3, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 8.8 mm yr - 1 . Exploiting the temporal information in the landslide inventory, the volume of material produced during different periods by new and reactivated landslides was singled out. The wet period from 1937 to 1941 was recognized as an episode of accelerated landslide production. During this 5-year period, approximately 45% of the total landslide material inventoried in the Collazzone area was produced, corresponding to an average rate of landslide mobilization φL = 54 mm yr - 1 , six times higher than the long term rate. The volume of landslide material in an event or period was used as a proxy for the magnitude of the event or period, defined as the logarithm (base 10) of the total landslide volume produced

  15. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  16. Crustal versus asthenospheric relaxation and post-seismic deformation for shallow normal faulting earthquakes:the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, R.; Aoudia, A.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Sabadini, R.; Panza, G. F.

    2000-06-01

    Following a normal mode approach for a stratified viscoelastic earth, we investigate the effects induced by shallow normal faulting earthquakes, on surface post-seismic vertical displacement and velocity at the surface, when stress relaxation occurs in the crust or in the asthenosphere. The modelled earthquake is a moderate one characteristic of some slowly deforming plate boundaries in the central Mediterranean region. We focus on the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) region where deep seismic reflection studies (CROP03) and the 1997 earthquake sequence clearly show a seismogenic layer decoupled from the lower crust by a sizeable transition zone. Accordingly, the crust is subdivided into three layers: an elastic upper crust, a transition zone and a low-viscosity lower crust. The fault is embedded in the upper crust. The layered viscoelastic structure of the crust and mantle imposes a pattern and scale on the modelled coseismic and post-seismic deformation with a major contribution from the transition crustal zone and low-viscosity lower crust, stress relaxation in the mantle being negligible. We show that significant vertical deformation rates of the order of 1mmyr-1 could be expected for a shallow and moderate event such as the recent Umbria-Marche earthquake for viscosity values of 1019 and 1018Pas in the crustal transition zone and lower crust, respectively.

  17. Seismic Q estimates in Umbria Marche (Central Italy): hints for the retrieval of a new attenuation law for seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisconti, Angelo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca; de Lorenzo, Salvatore

    2015-06-01

    In the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) region an important earthquake sequence occurred in 1997, characterized by nine earthquakes with magnitudes in the range between 5 and 6, that caused important damages and causalities. In the present paper, we separately estimate intrinsic and scattering Q-1 parameters, using the classical multiple lapse time window analysis (MLTWA) approach in the assumption of a half-space model. The results clearly show that the attenuation parameters Qi-1 and Qs-1 are frequency dependent. This estimate is compared with other attenuation studies carried out in the same area, and with all the other MLTWA estimates obtained till now in other tectonic environments in the Earth. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is investigated through numerical solutions of the energy transport equation in the more realistic assumption of a heterogeneous crust overlying a transparent mantle, with a Moho located at a depth ranging between 35 and 45 km below the surface. The bias introduced by the half-space assumption is significant only at high frequency. We finally show how the attenuation estimates, calculated with different techniques, lead to different peak ground acceleration decay with distance relationships, using the well-known and well proven Boore's method. This last result indicates that care must be used in selecting the correct estimate of the attenuation parameters for seismic risk purposes. We also discuss the reason why MLTWA may be chosen among all the other available techniques, due to its intrinsic stability, to obtain the right attenuation parameters.

  18. Does Fluid Migration Explain The 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) Seismic Sequence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaraluce, L.; Piccinini, D.; Antonioli, A.; Cocco, M.

    2005-12-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of seismicity during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence in terms of subsequent failures promoted by fluid flow. This seismic sequence is characterized by six earthquakes with 5 < Mw < 6 and by an aftershocks sequence of thousand of events in a time span of few months. All the maishocks and most of the aftershocks show very similar focal mechanisms, characterized by normal faults on SW shallow dipping planes. The seismic sequence is characterized by an evident migration of seismicity along the strike of the main fault structure from NW toward SE The diffusion process of pore-pressure relaxation is modeled as a pressure pulse generated by coseismic stress perturbations and propagating through a fluid saturated medium. The time interval between subsequent instabilities can be written as t= Xt * D-1 * X, where X is the inter-distance between the first (origin) event and following ones and D represents the diffusivity tensor, which depends on the permeability and porosity. The time interval t is measured from the origin time of the first event of the sequence, which is chosen as origin of the time-space coordinates This model allows the determination of diffusivity for both an isotropic and anisotropic poro-elastic medium. The estimated value of isotropic diffusivity for the whole sequence is D_{iso ≍ 50 m2/s. Diffusivity is largest along the average strike (N140°) direction of activated faults yielding an anisotropic value of Daniso ≥q 250 m2/s. Our results suggest that the observed spatio-temporal migration of seismicity is driven by fluid flow.

  19. Modelling coseismic displacements during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunstad, Ingrid; Anzidei, Marco; Cocco, Massimo; Baldi, Paolo; Galvani, Alessandro; Pesci, Arianna

    1999-11-01

    We propose a dislocation model for the two normal faulting earthquakes that struck the central Apennines (Umbria-Marche, Italy) on 1997 September 26 at 00:33 (Mw 5.7) and 09:40 GMT (Mw 6.0). We fit coseismic horizontal and vertical displacements resulting from GPS measurements at several monuments of the IGMI (Istituto Geografico Militare Italiano) by means of a dislocation model in an elastic, homogeneous, isotropic half-space. Our best-fitting model consists of two normal faults whose mechanisms and seismic moments have been taken from CMT solutions; it is consistent with other seismological and geophysical observations. The first fault, which is 6 km long and 7 km wide, ruptured during the 00:33 event with a unilateral rupture towards the SE and an average slip of 27 cm. The second fault is 12 km long and 10 km wide, and ruptured during the 09:40 event with a nearly unilateral rupture towards the NW. Slip distribution on this second fault is non-uniform and is concentrated in its SE portion (maximum slip is 65 cm), where rupture initiated. The 00:33 fault is deeper than the 09:40 one: the top of the first rupture is deeper than 1.7 km the top of the second is 0.6 km deep. In order to interpret the observed epicentral subsidence we have also considered the contributions of two further moderate-magnitude earthquakes that occurred on 1997 October 3 (Mw 5.2) and 6 (Mw 5.4), immediately before the GPS survey, and were located very close to the 09:40 event of September 26. We compare the pattern of vertical displacements resulting from our forward modelling of GPS data with that derived from SAR interferograms: the fit to SAR data is very good, confirming the reliability of the proposed dislocation model.

  20. Space and time variations of crustal anisotropy during the 1997 Umbria-Marche, central Italy, seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, D.; Margheriti, L.; Chiaraluce, L.; Cocco, M.

    2006-12-01

    We measure crustal anisotropy parameters from several hundreds of aftershocks (ML > 2.5) of the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence which occurred in a carbonatic fold and thrust belt in the shallow crust of central Apennines (Italy). The analysis of shear wave polarization shows clear S-wave splitting with prevalent fast direction ~140°N and average delay times of 0.06 s. The observed fast direction is parallel to the strike of the activated normal-fault system and to the maximum horizontal stress (σ2) active in the region. This is explained by the presence of stress-aligned microcracks or stress-opened fluid-filled cracks and fractures within the sedimentary coverage, even if the role of structural anisotropy cannot be completely ruled out since the maximum horizontal stress is subparallel to the major structural features of the area (main thrusts and normal faults). The peculiar spatio-temporal evolution of the seismic sequence gives us also the opportunity to investigate temporal variations of anisotropic parameters. We analyse those seismograms whose ray paths sample the crustal volume containing two of the major fault zones, before and after the occurrence of normal faulting mainshocks (Mw > 5). We observe variations of the anisotropic parameters during the days before and after the occurrence of mainshocks and we interpret them in terms of temporal variations of anisotropic parameters. This interpretation is consistent with temporal variations of the local stress condition and of the fluid pressure in the studied crustal volume proposed in the literature. However, since the spatial sampling of the selected ray paths varies with time, we cannot exclude the contribution of spatial variations of anisotropic parameters.

  1. Seismic anisotropy of the shallow crust in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Trabace, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Small magnitude earthquake data, recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic crisis, have been used to study the shear wave splitting in the central Apennine. Using the method of diagonalization of the covariance matrix, a set of 1234 S waves impinging the Earth at an angle less than the critical angle has been selected. The cross-correlation method was used to estimate the splitting time between the two horizontal S components and the direction of the symmetry axis of the anisotropic structure. A further analysis, based on visual inspection of corrected traces, allowed us to estimate the anisotropic parameters for 884 S waves. An average splitting time <τ>=32.3∓4ms has been estimated. Splitting times do not generally show a clear pattern with distance, which is an indication of possible spatial variations of seismic anisotropy. A minimum 2 km depth of the anisotropic layer is estimated. The trend of normalized splitting time vs. depth roughly indicates a maximum 4-5 km depth of the anisotropic layer. The distribution of the fast symmetry axis indicates a main symmetry axis oriented along the direction of the maximum compressive stress in the area and a secondary symmetry axis almost orthogonal to the first one. The stereographic plots of fast axis direction seem exclude a depth dependence of anisotropic parameters. A clear spatial correlation between the directions of the fast symmetry axes at the considered stations and the orientations of the nearest fault systems and thrust fronts is found, which confirms the spatial variability in the anisotropic properties of the area, as inferred by the analysis of splitting times. Based also on previous studies, results are interpreted in terms of the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The estimated crack density is always smaller than the critical coalescence value, enforcing the hypothesis that fluid-filled separated crack systems control the polarization of S waves.

  2. Fluid flow and seismicity pattern: Evidence from the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Cocco, Massimo

    2005-05-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of seismicity during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic sequence in terms of subsequent failures promoted by fluid flow. The diffusion process of pore-pressure relaxation is represented as a pressure perturbation generated by coseismic stress changes and propagating through a fluid saturated medium. The values of isotropic diffusivity range between 22 and 90 m2/s. The calculated value of anisotropic diffusivity (Daniso = 250 m2/s) is largest along the average strike (N140°) direction of activated faults. Our results suggest that the observed spatio-temporal migration of seismicity is consistent with fluid flow.

  3. The interplay between global tectonic processes and the seismic cycle in the Umbria-Marche seismogenic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardi, Annalisa; Sabadini, Roberto; Ferraro, Carmela; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2003-12-01

    For the central Apennines, peninsular Italy, a series of tectonic mechanisms are reproduced by means of finite-element models, in order to study the effects of active tectonics on the seismic cycle in the Umbria-Marche seismogenic zone. Continental extension and rift push effects induced by small-scale convection are modelled within 2-D viscoelastic models of the crust-lithosphere system, in vertical cross-sections perpendicular to the strike of the major tectonic structures under study, namely the Apennines and the Colfiorito fault zone, where the 1997 seismic sequence took place. With the aim of constraining the active tectonic mechanisms at the regional scale and the behaviour of the fault in the seismogenic zone at the local scale, modelled baseline rate of change are compared with newly acquired GPS data, retrieved from the two permanent GPS receivers of Camerino (CAME) and Elba (ELBA), deliberately installed along the modelled transect. These receivers are located at both edges of the continental extension in the front of the Apennines, close to the Adriatic Plate in the east, and in the rear of the chain, in the Tyrrhenian domain. The deformation pattern inferred from seismicity and from the geodetic data is consistent with small-scale convection in the Tyrrhenian domain, which reproduces extension in the rear of the Apennines and compression in the front of the chain. A convective mechanism, associated with backarc opening and doming of the asthenosphere, provides an extensional rate, along a baseline connecting two sites in the front of the chain (Camerino) and in its rear (Elba), comparable to the observed baseline rate of change. The viscosity of the lower crust plays a fundamental role in determining the style of stress in the crust-lithosphere system. Once constrained by means of the extensional baseline rate inferred from GPS, the modelled slip across the Colfiorito fault and the modelled earthquake recurrence time are consistent with the 1997 normal

  4. Coseismic and postseismic displacements related with the 1997 Earthquake Sequence in Umbria-Marche (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basili, Roberto; Meghraoui, Mustapha

    We study the coseismic and postseismic displacements related with the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence by means of leveling lines along a deformed aqueduct located in the epicentral area. Comparing the 1960 and 10/1997 measurements we obtain 0.49±0.10 m of coseismic displacement distributed along 3 km across the normal fault zone. Modeling of the coseismic surface dislocation is obtained from a combination of low angle (38°) faults at depth and high angle (80°) upper fault branches. The best fit model indicates that the upper branches stop at 0.4 km below the ground surface and have 60% of slip with respect to the lower faults. The postseismic displacement measured during 1998 is 0.18 m and represents 36% of the apparent coseismic deformation. Moderate earthquakes in the Apennines and related surface deformation may thus result from curved faults that reflect the brittle-elastic properties of the uppermost crustal structures.

  5. A 2-D hybrid technique to model the effect of topography on coseismic displacements. Application to the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) 1997 earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto

    2002-08-01

    We face the problem of modelling the influence of the irregular topography of the Earth's crust on coseismic displacements. The modelling technique we propose is valid for a homogeneous elastic 2-D domain and is based on a two-step approach that uses (1) the traditional analytical results valid for elastic spaces and elastic half-spaces with a flat free surface (FFS) and (2) a finite-element (FE) numerical code to compute the disturbance induced by the local topography. Attention is particularly focused on: (1) the comparison between the results obtained through our method and the analytical formulae valid for FFS geometries, which are used extensively today in both forward and inverse modelling even in the presence of irregular topography and (2) the advantages of our hybrid approach over pure FE models. After discussing the theoretical experiment of a Gaussian topography, we present an application to modelling the displacement fields induced by selected events of the earthquake sequence that hit the Umbria-Marche region in the central Apennines (Italy) in 1997, devoting major attention to the effect of the Apennines chain topography in the source region. In all cases the topography is found to play an important role and to introduce non-negligible corrections to the coseismic surface displacement components computed through the FFS approximation. The main effect is that topography not only affects the magnitude of the surface signal, but it may also lead to high-frequency disturbances that tend to grow with the shallowness of the fault.

  6. Viscoelastic relaxation and long-lasting after-slip following the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, R. E. M.; Borghi, A.; Aoudia, A.; Barzaghi, R.; Sabadini, R.; Panza, G. F.

    2007-05-01

    We combine Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements with forward modelling of viscoelastic relaxation and after-slip to study the post-seismic deformation of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Apennines) moderate shallow earthquake sequence. Campaign GPS measurements spanning the time period 1999-2003 are depicting a clear post-seismic deformation signal. Our results favour a normal faulting rupture model where most of the slip is located in the lower part of the seismogenic upper crust, consistent with the rupture models obtained from the inversion of strong motion data. The preferred rheological model, obtained from viscoelastic relaxation modelling, consists of an elastic upper crust, underlain by a transition zone with a viscosity of 1018 Pas, while the rheology of deeper layers is not relevant for the observed time-span. Shallow fault creep and after-slip at the base of the seismogenic upper crust are the first order processes behind the observed post-seismic deformation. The deep after-slip, below the fault zone at about 8 km depth, acting as a basal shear through localized time-dependent deformation, identifies a rheological discontinuity decoupling the seismogenic upper crust from the low-viscosity transition zone.

  7. Slope Instability In The Sbastardo A~é¸ Basint (umbria, Central Italy). The Landslide of Barattano.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cencetti, C.; Conversini, P.

    The paper discusses some aspects of the stability of natural slopes in the area known as SBastardo BasinT in Umbria, central Italy (Gregori, 1988; Barchi et al., 1991), in the & cedil;framework of a more general study of landslide phenomena in plio-pleistocenic clastic sequences of the SIntermountain Apenninic BasinsT of central Italy. Several natural & cedil;slopes in the Basin (80 km2 in area) are affected by evident slope movements which affect roads, buildings and other infrastructures, often resulting in serious damage. The great majority of these slope movements can be classified as rotational slides and/or flows. Often they present as Scomposite landslides" (WP/WLI, 1993) due to the com- & cedil;bination of the two aforementioned principal failure mechanism. The stratigraphic se- quence in the area is typical of intermountain basins: it is the filling series of the basin (coarsening upward), with lignitic clays at the base, followed by sands and gravels at the top. Such a sequence has been identified through a number of deep drillings, per- formed with the objective of defining the depth and thickness of lignitic layers for sub- sequent mining exploitation. Associated to the aforementioned series, sub-horizontal plates of lithic or earthy travertine of limited extension have been found. These plates do not form unitary and continuous geologic bodies, and they are probably related to the upwelling of waters saturated in CaCO3 through important faults bordering the basin, of evident tectonic origin. The landslide of Barattano, located in the heading area of the hydrographic basin of the River Puglia, is a typical example of the slope movements which can be observed in the area of Bastardo. The main interest in this landslide, rather than its extension, lies in the fact that the sliding mass can produce the temporary occlusion of the River Puglia, yielding risk conditions which have to be evaluated with care. The landslide, whose start dates back to the '70

  8. Frequency dependent Qα and Qβ in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region using a quadratic approximation of the coda-normalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Bianco, Francesca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2013-06-01

    The coda normalization method is one of the most used methods in the inference of attenuation parameters Qα and Qβ. Since, in this method, the geometrical spreading exponent γ is an unknown model parameter, the most part of studies assumes a fixed γ, generally equal to 1. However γ and Q could be also jointly inferred from the non-linear inversion of coda-normalized logarithms of amplitudes, but the trade-off between γ and Q could give rise to unreasonable values of these parameters. To minimize the trade-off between γ and Q, an inversion method based on a parabolic expression of the coda-normalization equation has been developed. The method has been applied to the waveforms recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic crisis. The Akaike criterion has been used to compare results of the parabolic model with those of the linear model, corresponding to γ = 1. A small deviation from the spherical geometrical spreading has been inferred, but this is accompanied by a significant variation of Qα and Qβ values. For almost all the considered stations, Qα smaller than Qβ has been inferred, confirming that seismic attenuation, in the Umbria-Marche region, is controlled by crustal pore fluids.

  9. The 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) Earthquake Sequence: Insights on the mainshock ruptures from near source strong motion records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, Aldo; Marcucci, Sandro; Milana, Giuliano; Capuano, Paolo

    A small size foreshock and the two mainshocks of the Umbria Marche earthquake sequence which occurred on September 26, 1997 have been recorded by two digital 3C accelerometers located at near source distances. The close epicentral distance and azimuthal location relative to the fault orientation and geometry make these records relevant to look at the detail of the rupture kinematics. S-wave polarizations, apparent source time duration and waveforms from strong motion records are used to constrain the location of the fracture origin point, the fault geometry, the final slip distribution, size and mechanism of the events. The final model shows that the seismic ruptures occurred along two adjacent, sub-parallel, low angle dipping normal faults. The relative timing, location and geometry of the mainshock faults suggest the presence of a transfer zone (barrier) which has probably controlled the amplitude increase of local stress released by the first rupture at its NW edge which triggered about 9 hours later the second rupture.

  10. Geodetic and seismologic evidence for slip variability along a blind normal fault in the Umbria-Marche 1997-1998 earthquakes (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco De Martini, Paolo; Alessandro Pino, Nicola; Valensise, Gianluca; Mazza, Salvatore

    2003-12-01

    We analysed elevation changes induced by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, central Apennines (Italy) earthquakes. We employed data from a first-order geodetic levelling line measured in 1951, 1992 and 1998. The line bears a record of pre-seismic and coseismic strains associated with the causative fault of the 1997 September 26, 09:40 mainshock (Mw= 6.0). A first level analysis performed under the assumption of slip homogeneity of coseismic slip shows misfits that cannot be reduced simply by altering the fault size and geometry. A more detailed analysis based on a distribution of coseismic slip obtained from broad-band seismograms provides a better fit and is in agreement with 1951-1992 elevation changes interpreted as precursory slip by previous investigators. The levelling data sets new constraints on the location, extent, dip and depth of the fault, in full agreement with seismological evidence and images from SAR interferometry. The data show no evidence for slip in the uppermost 3 km of the crust, suggesting that a major and widely recognized normal fault that exists in the area is no longer active and showing a tendency of present tectonic strains to revert the current topographic setting.

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  12. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Shear Wave Structure of Umbria and Marche, Italy, Strong Motion Seismometer Sites Affected by the 1997-98 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert; Scasserra, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Lanzo, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    A long sequence of earthquakes, eight with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck the Umbria and Marche regions of central Italy between September 26, 1997 and July 1998. The earthquake swarm caused severe structural damage, particularly to masonry buildings, and resulted in the loss of twelve lives and about 150 injuries. The source of the events was a single seismogenic structure that consists of several faults with a prevailing northwest-southeast strike and crosses the Umbria-Marche border. The focal mechanism of the largest shocks indicates that the events were the product of shallow extensional normal faulting along a NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines. The network of analog seismometer stations in the Umbria and Marche regions recorded motions of the main September and October 1997 events and a dense array of mobile digital stations, installed since September 29, recorded most of the swarm. The permanent national network Rete Accelerometrica Nazionale (RAN) is administered and maintained by Dipartimento delle Protezione Civile (DPC: Civil Protection Department); the temporary array was managed by Servizio Sismico Nazionale (SSN) in cooperation with small agencies and Universities. ENEA, the operator of many seismometer stations in Umbria, is the public Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment. Many of the temporary and permanent stations in the Italian seismic network have little or no characterization of seismic velocities. In this study, we investigated 17 Italian sites using an active-source approach that employs low frequency harmonic waves to measure the dispersive nature of surface waves in the ground. We used the Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) approach, coupled with an array of harmonic-wave electro-mechanical sources that are driven in-phase to excite the ground. An inversion algorithm using a non-linear least-squares best-fit method is used to compute shear wave velocities for up to 100

  14. [Use Of Hospital Services By The Immigrant Population In Umbria, Italy].

    PubMed

    Casadei, Riccardo; Angeli, Giuseppe; Casucci, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Pasquini, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible inequalities in the quality of health care services for the management of conditions such as cardiovascolar diseases, psychiatric disorders, appendectomy, and hysterectomy, offered to the immigrant population in the Umbria region (central Italy). Hospital discharge data covering the period 2009-2012 were analysed and crude and standardized hospitalization rates per 100,000 calculated. Immigrants were found to have an increased risk of undergoing procedures such as appendectomy and hysterectomy for benign disease, indicating a greater degree of nonappropriateness in this category of users. In the young immigrant population, admissions were mainly due to reproductive health problems in women, and injuries/trauma in men. The results of this study confirm that, despite regional efforts to reduce social inequalities and consequently inequalities in health, through regional legislation, information to the population, training of healthcare personnel, and cultural mediation, some inequalities are present in the quality of health care delivered to foreign-born persons in the region. Hence, there is a need to strengthen information campaigns for immigrants, to keep them informed of their rights, and to strengthen training courses among healthcare and social workers.

  15. [Use Of Hospital Services By The Immigrant Population In Umbria, Italy].

    PubMed

    Casadei, Riccardo; Angeli, Giuseppe; Casucci, Paola; Minelli, Liliana; Pasquini, Rossana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify possible inequalities in the quality of health care services for the management of conditions such as cardiovascolar diseases, psychiatric disorders, appendectomy, and hysterectomy, offered to the immigrant population in the Umbria region (central Italy). Hospital discharge data covering the period 2009-2012 were analysed and crude and standardized hospitalization rates per 100,000 calculated. Immigrants were found to have an increased risk of undergoing procedures such as appendectomy and hysterectomy for benign disease, indicating a greater degree of nonappropriateness in this category of users. In the young immigrant population, admissions were mainly due to reproductive health problems in women, and injuries/trauma in men. The results of this study confirm that, despite regional efforts to reduce social inequalities and consequently inequalities in health, through regional legislation, information to the population, training of healthcare personnel, and cultural mediation, some inequalities are present in the quality of health care delivered to foreign-born persons in the region. Hence, there is a need to strengthen information campaigns for immigrants, to keep them informed of their rights, and to strengthen training courses among healthcare and social workers. PMID:27077557

  16. Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: Examples from central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdenzi, S.; Menichetti, M.

    1995-07-01

    The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur.

  17. Postseismic deformation following the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) moderate normal faulting earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoudia, A.; Borghi, A.; Riva, R.; Barzaghi, R.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.; Sabadini, R.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.; Panza, G. F.

    2003-04-01

    We combine aftershock strain mapping, GPS measurements and leveling profiles with forward modeling of viscoelastic relaxation to study the postseismic deformation of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Apennines) earthquake sequence. We explore the feasibility of GPS monitoring of postseismic transients, for the first time in Italy, generated by shallow and moderate sources. Our data allow us to distinguish a preferred coseismic faulting model as well as insight into the rheology of the Central Apennines Earth's crust. The faulting model requires a listric geometry with most of the energy released in the lower half part of the elastic crust. The rheological model consists of an elastic thin upper crust, a transition zone of about 1018 Pa s underlain by a low-viscosity lower crust, ranging from 1017 to 1018 Pa s. The postseismic deformation is, both distributed in the transition zone - lower crust and confined to the fault zone.

  18. Regional Adaptation Strategies in Central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge on international, national, and regional scale. It affects the scientific world as well as policymakers, representatives of economy, and the public. Consequently, the need for a dialogue between experts in climate change and the people affected is needed. However, structuring and communicating climate change information on the various scales is challenging and demands coordination. Within the Helmholtz community in Germany, four regional Helmholtz climate offices are founded. One of their major goals is to encourage the communication between science and public. Primarily, this is done by close cooperation to the Helmholtz research centers at which each climate office is hosted. Second, a continuous exchange is supported beyond the Helmholtz research centers towards universities and authorities at state and federal level. Each regional Helmholtz climate office represents regional aspects of climate related research based on the scientific expertise from the hosting Helmholtz research institutes. In the Climate Office for central Germany, Land use changes are among the most important factors of climate change driven environmental changes which have to be managed by the society in the next years. Since 1991 UFZ scientists research the causes and consequences of far-reaching environmental changes. The Climate Office offers information about climate change effects on the environmental compartments, land use strategies as well as regional strategies of adaptation. The three federal states in Central Germany (Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia) handle adaptation to climate change very differently. The presentation focusses on alikeness and differences in the adaptation process.

  19. Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated

  20. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  1. Central regions of keloids are severely ischaemic.

    PubMed

    Touchi, Ryoma; Ueda, Koichi; Kurokawa, Norifumi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2016-02-01

    We classified scars as keloids, hypertrophic scars and mature scars, and then examined the scars for differences in central and marginal vascularization. We found significant differences in localized hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and vascular density in keloids, but no localized differences in hypertrophic or mature scars. The central areas of keloids exhibited higher HIF-1α expression and lower vascular density than marginal areas, suggesting that the former are severely ischaemic. PMID:26794626

  2. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  3. Active tectonics in Central Italy: constraints from surface wave tomography and source moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Saraò, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and active tectonics of Central Italy, with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area, by means of surface wave tomography and seismic moment tensor inversion. The data include: a large number of short period local and regional group velocity measurements sampling the Umbria-Marche Apennines and the Adria margin, respectively; incorporation of published phase velocity measurements sampling Italy and surroundings; results from deep seismic soundings which go through the Umbria-Marche area. The local group velocity maps, covering the area reactivated by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence, suggest an intimate relationship between the lateral earth structure variations and the distribution of the active fault systems and related sedimentary basins. The upper crustal models reveal the importance of inherited compressional tectonics on the recent extensional deformation and associated seismic activity. Source inversion studies of the main events of the 1997 earthquake sequence show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the fault segments, at the step-over, reveal that the prevailing deformation is of strike-slip faulting type. At the regional scale, the crust exhibits clear layering and varies in thickness from about 25 km below the Tuscan Metamorphic Complex (TMC), to about 30 km below the Val Tiberina extensional thick sedimentary basin and reaches about 35 km below the Umbria-Marche geological domain (UMD). The lithospheric mantle (lid) is thin (about 30 km) below TMC, while it is about 70 km thick below UMD. A lithospheric root about 120 km wide, between the TMC and UMD, reaches a depth of at least 130 km. A low-velocity zone, defined mantle wedge ( VS less than 4.2 km/s) in the uppermost mantle overlying the high velocity lid is detached. This wedge is about 20 km thick and decouples the underlying lid from the crust. The retrieved crust and upper mantle

  4. Anomalies of mantle-derived helium during the 1997-1998 seismic swarm of Umbria-Marche, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italiano, F.; Martinelli, G.; Nuccio, P. M.

    More than 100 ³He/4He isotope ratios were measured in CO2-dominated gas samples collected during the 1997-1998 seismic crisis that shook the Umbria-Marche, Central Apennines, Italy. Although the gas emissions were located in a typical “crustal” environment the measured values delineate variable mixing proportions between mantle-derived and crustal helium. During the monitoring period anomalous ³He/4He ratios were observed, together with a significant increase of fluid outflows. The observed ³He/4He anomalies appear to be driven by stress-induced crustal deformations affecting micro-fracturing and bulk permeability and, in turn, by a seismogenic-induced modification of the crustal permeability of rocks. Since crustal deformations can also occur aseismically, the geochemical anomalies must be considered indicators of processes occurring below the surface, which could eventually help to estimate the probability increase of an impending earthquake, instead of pure empirical precursors.

  5. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  6. Photometry of the central region of the Andromeda Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Sharov, A.S.; Liutyi, V.M.

    1980-05-01

    The photoelectric U, B, V observations of the central region of M81 made in 166 fields at distances of 54-351 arcsec from the center are used to explain the structure of the central condensation of the galaxy. The surface-brightness isophotes can be fit by ellipses varying in axial ratio from 0.9 to 0.6 and in position angle from 70 to 45 deg. The central condensation may include a bar in the form of a triaxial ellipsoid the nucleus occupies an asymmetric position in this condensation, shifted by 22 arcsec northwest relative to the most distant U isophote at a 368 arcsec. The apparent eccentricity with respect to the outlying isophotes is caused by distribution of dust, as shown by the colorimetric B - V, U - B color-index profiles reflecting the dust in the central condensation of M31.

  7. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 2. The North Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The North Central atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the North Central region (Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and that data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and international wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed direction and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  8. The major event of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) sequence: what could we learn from DInSAR and GPS data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belardinelli, M. E.; Sandri, L.; Baldi, P.

    2003-04-01

    The main event of the Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) sequence was an MW= 6 earthquake following another MW= 5.7 event that had occurred a few hours before. Two kinds of geodetic data enable us to image the coseismic displacement field related to these two earthquakes: GPS measurements over several points in the area and the vertical displacement field provided by DInSAR interferometry with respect to a preseismic stage. Both measurements were taken approximately 15 days after the main shock. Other two MW > 5 earthquakes occurred nearby, 6 and 9 days after the main shock, also contributed to the observed displacement field. The present study of the main structure involved in this sequence is based on the comparison between a dislocation model that is as simplified as possible and both kinds of deformational data. The seismogenic structures involved in the four events were described by several studies, made before the present one, where reference is also made to seismological evidence. The previously obtained inferences of fault geometry (length, width and slip heterogeneity) concerning the main event of the Umbria-Marche sequence are used here as a starting model. Compared with previous analyses of the same measurements, the present study identifies to what extent each fault parameter is constrained by the data, quantifying the uncertainties associated with its estimated value.

  9. Lithosphere-asthenosphere Structure and Active Tectonics In Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimera, G.; Aoudia, A.; Saraò, A.; Panza, G. F.

    We investigate the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area by means of surface-wave tomography, and inversion studies for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include seismic waveforms, a large compilation of local group velocities (0.8-4s) and regional phase and group velocity (10-100s) measurements. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest a relation between the lat- eral heterogeneity and distribution of the active faults and related basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the deeper structure from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the uppermost part of the crust using the Umbria-Marche models along with the CROP03 profile and related shear wave velocity, and invert the additional long period dispersion measure- ments. The results of the inversion show the geometry and lateral heterogeneity of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The retrieved models for the Umbria-Marche up- per crust reveal the importance of the inherited compression on the ongoing extension and related seismic activity. The reactivated 1997 normal fault zone displays a thrust fault geometry as evidenced by the lateral extent of the faulted Late Triassic evap- orites that did not yet balance the cumulative normal faulting deformation attesting therefore recent extensional tectonics within the thrust belt. Our data are in favor of a listric geometry of faulting at depth. Source inversion studies of the two main crustal events of September 26 and October 14, 1997 show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the reactivated fault segments re- veal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type. The rupture of the three distinct and

  10. Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Mengchun

    2015-08-01

    The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies. In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies. For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous

  11. Unexpected spreading of G12P[8] rotavirus strains among young children in a small area of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Roberto; Ianiro, Giovanni; Camilloni, Barbara; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2015-08-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is associated mainly with the five genotypes G1,3,4,9P[8] and G2P[4] that are common worldwide, but emerging strains including G6, G8, and G12 are also reported sporadically. G12P[8] rotavirus was observed unexpectedly to spread in a limited area of Italy during the rotavirus surveillance season 2012-2013. All strains were genotyped for VP7 and VP4 and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Amino acid sequences of antigenic regions were compared with vaccine and field strains. G12P[8] strains were detected in the stools of 52 of 69 (75%) children infected with rotavirus in the central Italian region of Umbria. All G12 strains belonged to lineage III, and presented the P[8] genotype. Sequence analysis showed close nucleotide identity of both VP4 and VP7 genes among Umbria G12P[8] strains. The VP7 gene was also similar to other G12 strains circulating in different years and countries, and the VP4 gene was closely related to other local and global P[8] strains possessing different G-types. Overall findings suggest either the introduction and evolution of a G12 VP7 gene into the local Wa-like rotavirus population or the spreading of a strain novel for the area. Comparison of the VP8* and VP7 antigenic regions showed high conservation between the amino acid sequences of Umbria G12P[8] strains, and revealed various substitutions in the VP8* antigenic regions between the Italian G12P[8] strains and RotaTeq™ and Rotarix™ vaccine strains. The sudden and unexpected emergence of G12P[8] rotavirus confirms that these strains have the potential to become a sixth common genotype across the world.

  12. North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. The geologic factor and variables include deep mines and quarries, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, groundwater resources, state of stress, thickness of rock mass, and thickness of overburden. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, thickness, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the rock bodies. A discussion is also presented of the relationship between the US Department of Energy Siting Guidelines (10 CFR 960) and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process. 43 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Land use and environmental assessment in the central Atlantic region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H.; Fitzpatrick, K.; Lins, H. F., Jr.; Mcginty, H. K., III

    1975-01-01

    Data from high altitude aircraft, LANDSAT and Skylab were used in a comprehensive regional survey of land use and its associated environmental impact in the Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS). Each sensor system has advantages that were demonstrated by producing experimental land use maps and other data products, applying them to typical problems encountered in regional planning and environmental impact assessment, and presenting the results to prospective users for evaluation. An archival collection of imagery, maps, data summaries, and technical reports was assembled, constituting an environmental profile of the central Atlantic region. The investigation was organized into four closely-related modules, a land use information module, an environmental impact module, a user interaction and evaluation module, and a geographic information systems module. Results revealed a heterogeneous user community with diverse information needs, tending, however, definitely toward the higher-resolution sensor data and the larger-scale land use maps and related information products. Among project recommendations are greater efforts toward improving compatibility of federal, state, and local land use information programs, and greater efforts toward a broader exchange of imagery, computer tapes, and land use information derived therefrom.

  14. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  15. Revised draft: North Central Regional geologic characterization report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This report presents available geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For each of the states within the North Central Region, information is provided on the disqualifying factor and the screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening. These factors and variables include hydrologically significant natural resources, rock mass extent, post-emplacement faulting, suspected Quaternary faulting, seismicity, rock and mineral resources, major groundwater discharge zones, water resources, groundwater salinity, and state of stress. Information is presented on age, areal extent, shape, thickness of overburden, composition, texture, degree and type of alteration, and structural features associated with each rock body or complex. Regional seismic and tectonic information is presented, including patterns of earthquake occurrence, earthquake magnitudes, horizontal ground accelerations, and vertical crustal movements. Also included are discussions of the rock and mineral deposits or mines located within or near crystalline rock bodies; groundwater resources and regional hydrology; postulated changes in climate and the associated effects; and landforms, surface processes, and surficial materials on or near the subject rock bodies. A discussion of the relationship between the DOE Siting Guidelines and the geologic disqualifying factor and regional screening variables to be used in the region-to-area screening process is also presented.

  16. Central and regional hemodynamics in prolonged space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazenko, O. G.; Shulzhenko, E. B.; Turchaninova, V. F.; Egorov, A. D.

    This paper presents the results of measuring central and regional (head, forearm, calf) hemodynamics at rest and during provocative tests by the method of tetrapolar rheography in the course of Salyut-6-Soyuz and Salyut-7-Soyuz missions. The measurements were carried out during short-term (19 man-flights of 7 days in duration) and long-term (21 man-flights of 65-237 days in duration) manned missions. At rest, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) as well as heart rate (HR) decreased insignificantly (in short-term flights) or remained essentially unchanged (in long-term flights). In prolonged flights CO increased significantly in response to exercise tests due to an increase in HR and the lack of changes in SV. After exercise tests SV and CO decreased as compared to the preflight level. During lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tests HR and CO were slightly higher than preflight. Changes in regional hemodynamics included a distinct decrease of pulse blood filling (PBF) of the calf, a reduction of the tone of large vessels of the calf and small vessels of the forearm. Head examination (in the region of the internal carotid artery) showed a decrease of PBF of the left hemisphere (during flight months 2-8) and a distinct decline of the tone of small vessels, mainly, in the right hemisphere. During LBNP tests the tone of pre- and postcapillary vessels of the brain returned to normal while PBF of the right and left hemisphere vessels declined. It has been shown that regional circulation variations depend on the area examined and are induced by a rearrangement of total hemodynamics of the human body in microgravity. This paper reviews the data concerning changes in central and regional circulation of men in space flights of different duration.

  17. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  18. [Central and regional hemodynamics in long space flights].

    PubMed

    Turchaninova, V F; Egorov, A D; Domracheva, M V

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of studying central and regional hemodynamics in short-term (7 days) and long-term (65-237 days) space mission onboard Salyut-6--Soyuz and Salyut-7--Soyuz using the method of tetrapolar rheography. During space flights circulation changes were observed: variations in pulse blood filling and tone of regional vessels (head, forearm, leg) and insignificant changes of stroke volume and cardiac output. In response to exercise tests the contribution of stroke volume to cardiac output decreased and that of the chronotropic function of the heart increased. These changes were induced by variations in the hemodynamic status of the human body and were, to a certain extent, dependent on flight duration and position of the vascular area relative to the heart. The changes suggested that the circulation system retained its adaptive capabilities in flights of 237 days in duration.

  19. Northern and Central Appalachian region assessment: The Pittsburgh coal bed

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.

    1996-12-31

    Approximately 40% of the Nation`s coal is produced in the six states (Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky) that occupy parts of the Northern and Central Appalachian region. Coal is, and will continue to be, the primary energy commodity in this region where more than 50 coal beds and coal zones are currently being mined. About one-half of the productions is from just eight coal beds or zones. Three of these, the Pittsburgh and Upper Freeport coal beds and the Kittanning coal zone, are located in the northern part of the region. The remaining beds or zones, the Pond Creek, Fire Clay, Alma, Upper Elkhorn No. 3, and the Pocahontas No. 3, are located primarily in the central part of the region. This study is designed to utilize the data and expertise existing within the USGS and the State Geological Surveys to produce bed-specific, digital, coal resource assessments for most of the top-producing coal beds and coal zones. Unlike past USGS assessments, this study will emphasize not only the quantity of coal but also the quality of the coal. Particular attention will be paid to the geochemical parameters that are thought to adversely effect combustion characteristics and possibly have adverse effects on the environment, including ash yield, sulfur, calorific value, and, the elements listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Geochemical databases produced for the assessed beds will be augmented by new, representative, coal analyses of major, minor, and trace elements. Products will include stratigraphic and geochemical data bases, original and remaining source calculations, and comprehensive digital maps at a scale of 1:250,000 or 1:500,000 of crop-line, coal thickness, coal structure, overburden thickness, mined-out areas, and geochemistry for each assessed coal beds.

  20. An anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian reference sections in the Umbria-Marche Basin, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Montanari, A.; Coccioni, R.

    2012-04-01

    In the Umbria-Marche basin, the aftermath of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2, Bonarelli Level) is represented by the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa Formation. The Scaglia Rossa pelagic limestones were studied in the classic Contessa and Bottaccione sections near Gubbio, in the Umbria-Marche region of the northeastern Apennines of Italy. Oscillations between radiolarian cherts interbedded with foram-coccolith pelagic limestones are interpreted to follow the rhythm of precession and show hierarchical bundles, which are suggestive of eccentricity-related grouping. Eccentricity-bundles are correlated amongst the two studied sections. Moreover, the magnetic susceptibility signal of the Bottaccione section and the δ18O and δ13C record of both sections clearly demonstrate the imprint of precession and eccentricity. Eccentricity minima are associated with relatively warm periods (δ18O minima), characterized by an increased magnetic susceptibility signal and radiolarian blooms, which are expressed by frequent chert beds. Radiolarian blooms seem to hamper primary productivity, given that they correlate with δ13C minima. The delineated astronomical cycles constitute an eccentricity-based cyclostratigraphy for the Turonian part of the Scaglia Rossa. Moreover, the constructed cyclostratigraphy is anchored to numerical time by calibration with the astronomical solution La2010 (Laskar et al., 2011) and with recent radioisotopic ages from the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval near the GSSP in Colorado, USA (Meyers et al., 2012). The numerical age (93.9 ± 0.15 Ma; Meyers et al., 2012) of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (0.75 m above the top of the Bonarelli Level in the Contessa section; Tsikos et al., 2004; Kennedy et al., 2005) is used as the pinpoint to which our astronomical time-scale is anchored. Using the anchored astronomical time-scale for the Turonian of the Umbria-Marche basin, the top of the Bonarelli Level is placed at 93.97 ± 0.25 Ma, and the boundary

  1. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre L; Hall, Paula

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service. PMID:22346397

  2. Development assistance for health in central and eastern European Region.

    PubMed Central

    Suhrcke, Marc; Rechel, Bernd; Michaud, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify development assistance for health to countries of central and eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CEE-CIS). METHODS: We used the International Development Statistics database of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the database on development assistance for health compiled for the Commission on Macroeconomics and Health to quantify health development assistance to the region, compared to global and overall development assistance. We based our analysis on standard health indicators, including child mortality, life expectancy at birth and health expenditures. FINDINGS: Although total development assistance per capita to CEE-CIS was higher than that for most other regions of the world, development assistance for health was very low compared to other countries with similar levels of child mortality, life expectancy at birth and national expenditures on health. CONCLUSION: The allocation of development assistance for health on a global scale seems to be related far more to child mortality rather than adult mortality. Countries of CEE-CIS have a high burden of adult morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases, which does not appear to attract proportionate development assistance. Levels of development assistance for health should be determined in consideration of the region's particular burden of disease. PMID:16462984

  3. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.124 - North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.124 North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  8. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  9. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  11. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  12. 40 CFR 81.271 - Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality... Quality Control Regions § 81.271 Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  13. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  14. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  15. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  16. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  17. 40 CFR 81.243 - Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Minnesota Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.243 Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Minnesota Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  18. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  19. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  1. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.127 - Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central New York Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.127 Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central New York Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  4. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  5. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  7. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  8. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  9. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  10. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the...

  12. 40 CFR 81.160 - North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false North Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.160 North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  13. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166 South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial...

  14. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  15. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  16. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  17. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  18. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  19. Human mucin gene MUC5AC: organization of its 5'-region and central repetitive region.

    PubMed Central

    Escande, F; Aubert, J P; Porchet, N; Buisine, M P

    2001-01-01

    Human mucin gene MUC5AC is clustered with MUC2, MUC5B and MUC6 on chromosome 11p15.5. We report here the full length cDNA sequence upstream of the repetitive region of human MUC5AC. We have also determined the sequence of its large central tandem repeat array. The 5'-region reveals high degree of sequence similarity with MUC2 and MUC5B and codes for 1336 amino acids organized into a signal peptide, four pro-von Willebrand factor-like D domains (D1, D2, D' and D3) and a short domain which connects to the central repetitive region. In the central region, 17 major domains have been identified. Nine code for cysteine-rich domains (Cys-domains 1-9) and exhibit high sequence similarity to the cysteine-rich domains described in the central region of MUC2 and MUC5B. Cys-domains 1-5 are interspersed by domains enriched with serine, threonine, and proline residues. Cys-domains 1-9 are interspersed by four domains (TR1-TR4) composed of various numbers of MUC5AC-type repeats. Southern-blot analyses reveal allelic variations both in length and nucleotide sequence. The length polymorphism which is due to variable numbers of tandem repeats is located in TR1 and TR4, whereas a mutation polymorphism detected with TaqI is located in Cys-domain 6. In this study, the organization of MUC5AC has been entirely elucidated showing extensive similarity to the other chromosome 11p15 MUC genes, particularly MUC5B, and providing additional arguments for common evolution from a single ancestral gene. PMID:11535137

  20. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  1. Water demand studies. [central and southern California regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.; Estes, J. E.; Churchman, C. W.; Johnson, C. W.; Huning, J. R.; Rozelle, K.; Hamilton, J.; Washburn, G.; Tinney, L. R.; Thaman, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    The areas of focus of the Santa Barbara and Riverside groups in conducting water demand studies are the central and southern California regional test sites, respectively. Within each test site, sub-areas have been selected for use in the making of detailed investigations. Within each of these sub-areas an in-depth evaluation is being made as to the capability of remote sensing systems to provide pertinent data relative to water demand phenomena. These more limited sub-areas are: (1) Kern County and the San Joaquin Basin; (2) Chino-Riverside Basin; and (3) the Imperial Valley. Rational for the selection of these subareas included the following: Much of the previous remote sensing research had been conducted in these areas and therefore a great deal of remote sensing imagery and pertinent ground truth for the areas was already available.

  2. Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra

  3. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition.

  4. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    PubMed

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition. PMID:25223718

  5. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  6. Integrated stratigraphy of the Smirra Coring: a new reference sedimentary record for the early Paleogene from the Umbria-Marche Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtù, Antonio; Lauretano, Vittoria; Catanzariti, Rita; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca; Moretti, Matteo; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Paleogene represents a critical time interval in Earth's history characterized by prolonged greenhouse conditions, culminating in a series of extreme global warming events (i.e. hyperthermals), as well as large uncertainties in the Geological Time Scale. Therefore new, high-resolution, geological records are crucial in providing novel constraints on these topics. The Paleogene Umbria-Marche sections of the Northern Apennines (Italy) have shown to be suitable for integrated stratigraphy allowing regional-to-global correlations and environmental reconstructions across this time interval. Among several well-known sections, a new sedimentary record is provided by the Smirra Coring, which recovered an undisturbed sequence of rocks (~120 m from 4 overlapping holes) spanning the upper Scaglia Fms. (early Paleocene - middle Eocene) of the Umbria-Marche pelagic succession. Here we present a new, high-resolution, integrated stratigraphic framework (magnetostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, physical properties, calibrated XRF core scanning and cyclostratigraphy) of the ~93 m composite section drilled in Smirra Holes 1 and 2. The succession extends almost continuously, with modest tectonic disturbance affecting its lowermost part with minor faulting. The resulting magnetic stratigraphy defines a succession of normal and reversed polarity magnetozones. The correlation of the paleomagnetic polarity sequence with the latest Geomagnetic Polarity Timescales (GPTSs; e.g. CK95, GTS 2004 and 2012), also constrained through nannofossil biostratigraphy, shows that the section spans the late Paleocene - middle Eocene from chrons C21n (~46 Ma) to C26r (~60 Ma). The overall sedimentation rates computed at Smirra are fully comparable with those from coeval sections from the Umbria-Marche Basin, ranging from ~10 m/Ma, between chrons C21n and C22n, to ~6 m/Ma, between chrons C22r and the base of the section. However, the sedimentation rates vary considerably

  7. Central America Regional Climate Change Program: Tools for Your Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Dan; Irving, Bill; Yeager, Carey

    2006-01-01

    USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team, in partnership with EPA, NASA, Oak Ridge National Lab, and the Central American Commission for Environment and Development (CCAD), have had a significant impact on the region's ability to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to environmental threats. Environmental decision-making tools and data are posted on a website (SERVIR: http://servir.nsstc.nasa.pov/home.html)that provides satellite and geographic data and maps to anybody with an Internet connection. The SERVIR program has been identified as the model for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) - a major international effort to develop a 21st century system for environmental management and disaster response. In coordination with the USAID/EPA program, NASA has developed a GIs tool that enables countries to examine their forest cover and document changes on an annual basis. This information is used in calculating carbon emissions as part of greenhouse gas inventories, but also serves a valuable monitoring function. In addition, USAID/E-CAM and EGAT's Global Climate Change Team in collaboration with EPA are helping countries meet their obligations as signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). EPA is assisting Central American governments to improve the quality of their greenhouse gas emission inventories reported to the UNFCCC through the development of tools and improvements in data quality. New EPA tools developed include software to automatically calculate greenhouse gas emissions for the agricultural and forestry sector inventories, determine key sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and document institutional arrangements. Several of these tools are state of the art and are comparable to tools currently used in the U.S.

  8. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  9. Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The Chandra image reveals a large population of extremely bright x-ray sources in this area of intense star formation. These x-ray sources, which emit 10 to several hundred times more x-ray power than similar sources in our own galaxy, are believed to be either massive black holes, or black holes that are beaming their energy toward Earth. In this x-ray image, red represents the low energy band, green intermediate, and blue the highest observed energies. The white and yellow sources are those that emit significant amounts of both low and high energy x-rays. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the gala

  10. Collision of Anternae Central Regions Observed by Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Chandra image shows the central regions of two colliding galaxies known collectively as the Antennae (NGC-4038/4039). The dozens of bright pointy-like sources are neutron stars or black holes pulling gas off nearby stars. The bright fuzzy patches are multimillion degree gas superbubbles, thousands of light years in diameter that were produced by the accumulated power of thousands of supernovae. The remaining glow of x-ray emission could be due to many faint x-ray sources or to clouds of hot gas in the galaxies. About 60 million light years from Earth in the constellation Corvus, the Antennae Galaxies got their nickname from the wispy anntennae-like streams of gas as seen by optical telescopes. These ongoing wisps are believed to have been produced approximately 100 million years ago by the collision between the galaxies. Although it is rare for stars to hit each other during a galactic collision, clouds of dust and gas do collide. Compression of these clouds can lead to the rebirth of millions of stars, and a few million years later, to thousands of supernovae.

  11. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  12. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  13. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  14. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  15. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  16. How Did States in the Central Region Evaluate Supplemental Educational Services in 2007?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    In state needs assessment meetings held in late June 2008, the leadership of two Central Region state departments of education, South Dakota and Missouri, asked Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central to determine how the states in the region evaluate their supplemental educational service (SES) providers. Specifically, these SEA staff…

  17. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  18. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  19. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  20. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  1. 40 CFR 81.253 - South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.253 Section 81.253 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.253 South Central Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  2. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  3. Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR

  4. Determinants of deforestation in Nepal's Central Development Region.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Keshav; Conway, Dennis; Yousef, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    The process of deforestation in the Central Development Region (CDR) of Nepal is diverse in space and time, with rapid deforestation still occurring in areas outside the national parks and wildlife reserves. This paper identifies the spatial driving forces (SDFs) of deforestation in the CDR for 1975-2000 using satellite data of 1975 (MSS), 1990 (TM), and 2000 (ETM+) along with socio-demographic and socioeconomic variables. Radiometrically calibrated satellite images are individually classified into seven distinct classes and merged together to cover the entire CDR. Classification accuracies are also assessed. Areas of land use and cover within the areas of each Village Development Committee (VDC) and municipality represented by GIS polygons are calculated from the classified images by overlaying vector files of 1845 polygons representing sections of VDCs and municipalities in 30-1199 m, 1200-2399 m, 2400-4999 m and >5000 m elevation levels. These elevation levels were estimated from the DEM compiled from 24 ASTER scenes taken on different dates. Only the first three elevation levels are used in the analysis because area >5000 m is under permanent snow cover where human related forestry activities are almost negligible. A transition matrix is generated for 1975-1990 using classified images of 1975 and 1990 and then this product is used to further develop another transition matrix for 1990-2000 with the classified ETM+ 2000 images as the final stage. The GIS polygon layer is overlaid on the transition matrices to calculate deforestation areas for 1975-1990 and 1990-2000. Biophysical and socioeconomic information collected from various sources is then brought into a GIS platform for statistical analyses. Six linear regression models are estimated using SAS; in effect, two models for each elevation range representing the 1975-1990 and 1990-2000 periods of change to identify SDF influences on deforestation. These regression analyses reveal that deforestation in the CDR

  5. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  6. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  7. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  8. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  9. 40 CFR 81.236 - Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.236 Central Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The...

  10. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    SciTech Connect

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  11. The 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) earthquake sequence: Relationship between ground deformation and seismogenic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, F. R.; Cucci, L.; Marra, F.; Montone, P.

    A field survey performed during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence led us to recognize ground and pavement ruptures associated with the three largest shocks (Mw ≥ 5.7). The ruptures are concentrated in narrow bands that, in part, are on and near previously mapped high-angle normal faults. The geometry of the ground deformation is consistent with the NE-trending extension indicated by CMT focal solutions of the mainshocks. The distribution of aftershocks suggests that the three mainshocks occurred on ∼40° SW-dipping normal faults. Geological investigations, modelling of expected coseismic elevation changes, and seismic data, suggest that the surface deformation is not the direct result of primary rupture of faults at depth.

  12. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the

  13. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  14. Phylogeography of Supralittoral Rocky Intertidal Ligia Isopods in the Pacific Region from Central California to Central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Luis A.; Mateos, Mariana; Santamaria, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ligia isopods are widely distributed in the Pacific rocky intertidal shores from central California to central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. Yet, their biological characteristics restrict them to complete their life cycles in a very narrow range of the rocky intertidal supralittoral. Herein, we examine phylogeographic patterns of Ligia isopods from 122 localities between central California and central Mexico. We expect to find high levels of allopatric diversity. In addition, we expect the phylogeographic patterns to show signatures of past vicariant events that occurred in this geologically dynamic region. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced two mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome Oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA). We conducted Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We found many divergent clades that, in general, group according to geography. Some of the most striking features of the Ligia phylogeographic pattern include: (1) deep mid-peninsular phylogeographic breaks on the Pacific and Gulf sides of Baja peninsula; (2) within the Gulf lineages, the northern peninsula is most closely related to the northern mainland, while the southern peninsula is most closely related to the central-southern mainland; and, (3) the southernmost portion of the peninsula (Cape Region) is most closely related to the southernmost portion of mainland. Conclusions/Significance Our results shed light on the phylogenetic relationships of Ligia populations in the study area. This study probably represents the finest-scale phylogeographic examination for any organism to date in this region. Presence of highly divergent lineages suggests multiple Ligia species exist in this region. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the Gulf of California and Baja peninsula are incongruent with a widely accepted vicariant scenario among phylogeographers, but consistent with aspects of alternative geological hypotheses and phylo- and biogeographic patterns of

  15. 40 CFR 81.247 - South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.247 Section 81.247 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.247 South Central Alaska Intrastate Air Quality Control Region....

  16. Regional Art History: A Procedural Model for Research, Central Ohio 1945-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher A.

    This paper documents the creation of a procedural model for researching regional art history. It focuses on the region of Central Ohio and identifies art historical resources and a sampling of artists from 1945-1995. Topics discussed include: art history in Europe and in the United States; the problem of researching regional art history; review of…

  17. Oceanic Anoxic Event 1b: insights and new data from the Poggio le Guaine section (Umbria-Marche Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, Nadia; Sprovieri, Mario; Coccioni, Rodolfo; Salvagio Manta, Daniela; Gardin, Silvia; Baudin, François

    2015-04-01

    The upper Aptian to lower Albian interval (~114-109 Ma) represents a crucial period during Earth's history, with a major evolution in the nature of mid-Cretaceous tectonics, sea level, climate, and marine plankton communities. Interestingly, it also includes multiple prominent black shale horizons that are the sedimentary expression of oceanic anoxic event (OAE) 1b. An high-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy in combination with an integrated study of multiple geochemical proxies (δ13Ccarb, δ13Corg, TOC, HI, CaCO3, trace elements/Al ratios) of the late Aptian-early Albian OAE 1b has been performed on the pelagic sedimentary sequence of Poggio le Guaine (Umbria-Marche Basin, central Italy). A comparison of the newly collected stable isotope carbon curve with the records from the Vocontian Basin (SE France), DSDP Site 545 and Hole 1049C provided a reliable and precise identification of the four main prominent black shale levels (113/Jacob, Kilian, Urbino/Paquier and Leenhardt) that definitively punctuate the OAE 1b. The studied record shows an increase in the marine organic carbon accumulation rate, in particular in the 113/Jacob and Urbino/Paquier levels. In the other black shales, TOC values are < 1%, with evidence of degraded marine organic matter. Completely anoxic conditions were never established during the sediment deposition, although evidence of oxygen depletion at the bottom of the basin is clearly documented by the distribution pattern of redox-sensitive trace metals. The results suggest an increase in organic carbon burial rates during the OAE 1b due to the effect of enhanced surface productivity, as supported by a major increase in Ba/Al, and reduced bottom water ventilation. Noteworthy, the Kilian and Urbino/Paquier levels from the PLG section are characterized by the absence of correlative shifts in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. The increase in the δ13Corg, values in these levels is explained by an increase in

  18. Insect Pollination at North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station – Past and Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, or NCRPIS, is a joint venture among USDA-ARS, the Agricultural Experimental Stations of the 12 North Central States, and Iowa State University (ISU). As a component of the National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS), NCRPIS is dedicated to the conse...

  19. FAST TRACK PAPER: An advanced slip model for the Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence: coseismic displacements observed by SAR interferometry and model inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, B.; Crosetto, M.; Biescas, E.; Troise, C.; Pingue, F.; de Natale, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report an improved slip model for the 1997 September-October Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence in central Italy. The model is based on coseismic displacements estimated by differential synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR) interferometry using an advanced inverse modelling approach that enables the characteristics of the SAR data, especially their dense spatial sampling, to be fully exploited. The paper first looks at DInSAR analysis using the simplest configuration, that is, a single-image pair that temporally covers the earthquake sequence. Yet, given that this DInSAR configuration is often used for coseismic studies and the limited availability of SAR data, we duly consider the limitations of the DInSAR results and discuss the rigorous DInSAR procedure carried out, highlighting key errors associated with such observations. We then focus on the inversion of the estimated DInSAR displacements and on our advanced heterogeneous slip model for this earthquake sequence's main shocks, emphasizing its most significant features.

  20. Mount Chacaltaya Regional GAW Station in the Central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaratti, Francesco; Forno, Ricardo N.; Lolli, Simone

    2010-05-01

    The Mount Chacaltaya Laboratory (MCL), located 30 km from the city of La Paz , at 5300 m asl, is well known as a cosmic ray laboratory that made important contributions to the Elementary Particles Physics in the 40's and 50's of the last century. Since its beginnings, the MCL has also hosted instruments and experiments devoted to atmospheric research and health studies at high altitude locations. In addition, the Chacaltaya glacier has attracted the interest of worldwide climatologists, due to its dramatic retreat. In fact, this glacier does not exist almost anymore. Recently, the Atmospheric Physics Laboratory (LFA-UMSA) has begun to take permanent and field measurements of some relevant atmospheric parameters at MCL, such as carbon dioxide, aerosols and ultraviolet irradiance. In this work we show some characteristics that made Chacaltaya a Regional GAW Station (CHC), recently nominated by WMO. In addition we show some pioneering steps of this project, supported by research institutes from France, Italy, Switzerland and USA. Finally, thanks to the vigorous co-operation of the Raman lidar group at Goddard Space Flight Center, a new YAG Laser is being installed, to be operated together with the "old" Alexandrite Lidar in the study of aerosols at La Paz.

  1. Paleoseismological analysis in Tehran region (Central Alborz, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritz, J. F.; Nazari, H.; Solaymani, S.; Salamati, R.; Rizza, M.; Ghorashi, M.; Abbassi, M. R.; Balescu, S.; Michelot, J. L.; Massault, M.; Mahan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The North Tehran, Taleghan and Mosha faults are three major active faults menacing the 15 millions peoples leaving in Tehran metropolis and its suburbs areas. These three faults located at the southern piedmont of Central Alborz and have been described as the sources of several large historical earthquakes in the past. To assess the seismic hazard associated with these faults, we carried paleoseismological studies. The North Tehran fault: Our study shows that the fault extends up to 110 km and corresponds to a reverse fault associated with a left-lateral component within its north-western part. This fault zone is also characterized by secondary active fold-and-thrust structures affecting the alluvial deposits within Tehran itself (e.g. Milad Tower foreberg). Between Tehran and Karaj, where the fault trend changes from NE-SW (eastwards) to NW-SE (westwards), we found a ~ 3 m fault scarp affecting the Pleistocene-Holocene deposits. Trenching across the scarp showed a N 115° E trending 30° N dipping reverse fault. We found evidences for 8 events (Mw > 6.5) during the past ~30000 years yielding a [3200- 4100 yrs] mean return period. The shortening rate across the fault is ~ 0.25 mm/yr during the Late Pleistocene - Holocene. The Taleghan fault: So far described as a south-dipping reverse fault, our study shows that the Taleghan fault is not a reverse fault but a left-lateral strike-slip fault with a normal component. Its strike, dip and rake within its eastern part are 105, 60° and -20/40°, respectively. Our paleoseismological analysis shows that 2 (maybe 3) events with magnitudes Mw ≥ 7 occurred during the past ~ 3500 years. The recurrence interval for earthquakes is comprised between ~1200 and ~1800 years and the horizontal slip rate is ~ 1.5 mm/yr. The Mosha fault: As for the Taleghan fault, we found many evidences at different scales, of left-lateral strike slip movements associated with a small normal component showing that the Mosha active fault is mainly a

  2. Vertigenesis in soils of the central chernozemic region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitrov, N. B.

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of soil studies along routes and on key plots, 35 new areas of soils with definite features of vertigenesis have been identified in Belgorod and Voronezh oblasts and in the northern part of Volgograd oblast (in the Don River basin). Earlier, vertic soils were not noted for these areas. In the studied region, their portion in the soil cover is much less than 1%. All the delineated areas of vertic soils are confined to the outcrops of swelling clay materials of different origins (marine, lacustrine, glacial, and colluvial sediments) and ages (Quaternary or Tertiary) that may be found in four landscape positions: (1) in the deep closed depressions within vast flat watersheds; (2) in the bottoms of wide hollows on interfluvial slopes and, sometimes, on steeper slopes of local ravines; (3) in the hydromorphic solonetzic soil complexes, and (4) on step-like interfluvial surfaces with the outcrops of Tertiary clays. Within the studied areas, soils with different degrees of expression (six grades) of vertic properties are present. These soils belong to the type of dark vertic soils proper and to vertic subtypes of different soil types according to the Russian soil classification system; according to the WRB system, they belong to Vertisols proper and to reference soil units with a Vertic prefix in the groups of Chernozems, Phaeozems, and Solonetzes. Statistical data on the morphometric indices of the vertic properties (the depth and thickness of the soil horizons with slickensides, a wedge-shaped structure, and cracks filled with material from the upper horizons) and the depth and thickness of the Vertic horizon are analyzed.

  3. 40 CFR 81.166 - South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Central Coast Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.166 Section 81.166 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.166...

  4. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  5. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-08-01

    I will present recent ALMA results on the dense molecular gas in the central regions of local active galaxies, including NGC 1068, NGC 1097, and NGC 7469, hosting both AGN and circumnuclear starburst regions. Impact of X-ray radiation, outflows, and shocks from active nuclei on the physical and chemical properties of the surrouding dense molecular medium will be discussed.

  6. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  7. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.95 Section 81.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.95...

  8. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  9. 40 CFR 81.157 - North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.157 Section 81.157 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.157 North Central Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control...

  10. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions §...

  11. From the Ground Up: Growing Entrepreneurship in the North Central Region. RRD 191

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Mary

    2008-01-01

    More than 300 people in the North Central region added their voices to a discussion on the importance of entrepreneurship to rural community vitality, often traveling long distances to attend one of 11 listening sessions held throughout the region. Among those attending were local leaders, service providers, entrepreneurs, and educators. The…

  12. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  13. Heat sources for tertiary metamorphism and anatexis in the Annapurna-Manaslu region, central Nepal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Philip; Le Fort, Patrick; Molnar, Peter; Pecher, Arnaud

    1992-01-01

    The metamorphic evolution of the rocks near the Main Central Thrust in the Annapurna-Manaslu region of central Nepal is examined. In this region, all three types of metamorphic features can be observed: regional metamorphism, anatectic granitoids, and inverted metamorphic isograds. In this work, each phase of metamorphism is treated separately to estimate the heat sources required for each process. This approach makes it possible to identify the important parameters for each process, to draw preliminary conclusions about the heat sources required for each of these phases, and to determine which parameters need to be measured more precisely in order to constrain these heat sources.

  14. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  15. The contribution of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia to seismic hazard and risk assessment in the Central Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parolai, S.; Bindi, D.; Haberland, C. A.; Pittore, M.; Pilz, M.; Rosenau, M.; Schurr, B.; Wieland, M.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    Central Asia has one of the world's highest levels of earthquake hazard, owing to its exceptionally high deformation rates. Moreover, vulnerability to natural disasters in general is increasing, due to rising populations and a growing dependence on complex lifelines and technology. Therefore, there is an urgent need to undertake seismic hazard and risk assessment in this region, while at the same time improving upon existing methodologies, including the consideration of temporal variability in the seismic hazard, and in structural and social vulnerability. Over the last few years, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ), in collaboration with local partners, has initiated a number of scientific activities within the framework of the Global Change Observatory Central Asia (GCO-CA). The work is divided into projects with specific concerns: - The installation and maintenance of the Central-Asian Real-time Earthquake MOnitoring Network (CAREMON) and the setup of a permanent wireless mesh network for structural health monitoring in Bishkek. - The TIPAGE and TIPTIMON projects focus on the geodynamics of the Tien-Shan, Pamir and Hindu Kush region, the deepest and most active intra-continental subduction zone in the world. The work covers time scales from millions of years to short-term snapshots based on geophysical measurements of seismotectonic activity and of the physical properties of the crust and upper mantle, as well as their coupling with other surface processes (e.g., landslides). - Existing risk analysis methods assume time-independent earthquake hazard and risk, although temporal changes are likely to occur due to, for example, co- and post-seismic changes in the regional stress field. We therefore aim to develop systematic time-dependent hazard and risk analysis methods in order to undertake the temporal quantification of earthquake activity (PROGRESS). - To improve seismic hazard assessment for better loss estimation, detailed site effects studies

  16. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  17. On the formation of dipolar magnetic fields in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasyan, R. R.

    A model of the formation of large-scale magnetic fields of dipolar configuration in the central regions of active galaxies is studied. It is assumed that these regions contain a rapidly rotating partly ionized gas. Ionized matter escapes with a high velocity from the center of this region and is entrained by the rotation of the surrounding medium. Biermann's "battery" effect (L.Biermann, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65, 1950) operates under such conditions, and circular electric curents are generated in the medium, which amplify the dipolar magnetic fields. Dipolar magnetic fields of opposite orientation with respect to the angular momentum of the central engine can be amplified where there is accretion of gaseous matter onto the rotating central part of a galaxy. The direction of the "Halo" magnetic field of our Galaxy is in accordance with the first model.

  18. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to

  19. Urban impacts on regional carbonaceous aerosols: case study in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Tate E; Sheesley, Rebecca J

    2014-08-01

    Rural and background sites provide valuable information on the concentration and optical properties of organic, elemental, and water-soluble organic carbon (OC, EC, and WSOC), which are relevant for understanding the climate forcing potential of regional atmospheric aerosols. To quantify climate- and air quality-relevant characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in the central United States, a regional background site in central Texas was chosen for long-term measurement. Back trajectory (BT) analysis, ambient OC, EC, and WSOC concentrations and absorption parameters are reported for the first 15 months of a long-term campaign (May 2011-August 2012). BT analysis indicates consistent north-south airflow connecting central Texas to the Central Plains. Central Texas aerosols exhibited seasonal trends with increased fine particulate matter (< 2.5 microm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) and OC during the summer (PM2.5 = 10.9 microg m(-3) and OC = 3.0 microg m(-3)) and elevated EC during the winter (0.22 microg m(-3)). When compared to measurements in Dallas and Houston, TX, central Texas OC appears to have mixed urban and rural sources. However central Texas EC appears to be dominated by transport of urban emissions. WSOC averaged 63% of the annual OC, with little seasonal variability in this ratio. To monitor brown carbon (BrC), absorption was measured for the aqueous WSOC extracts. Light absorption coefficients for EC and BrC were highest during summer (EC MAC = 11 m2 g(-1) and BRC MAE365 = 0.15 m2 g(-1)). Results from optical analysis indicate that regional aerosol absorption is mostly due to EC with summertime peaks in BrC attenuation. This study represents the first reported values of WSOC absorption, MAE365, for the central United States. Implications: Background concentration and absorption measurements are essential in determining regional potential radiative forcing due to atmospheric aerosols. Back trajectory, chemical, and optical analysis of PM2.5 was used to

  20. Rainfall Induced Natural Disaster in Central America, a challenge for Regional Risk Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estuardo Guinea Barrientos, Héctor; Swain, Ashok

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall induced natural disasters rank first among all natural disasters in Central America. According to the records of the EM-DAT international database, 248 out of 486 disasters registered in Central America were disasters triggered by rainfall invents, in countries like Belize and Honduras, rainfall-induced natural disasters, mainly floods and landslides, account for more than 90% of the total number of casualties as well as the economic damage of all the disasters. Due to the natural conditions of the Central American Isthmus, precipitation events often struck more than one country at the time, for example Hurricane Mitch in 1998 affected the entire Central American region causing more than 18,000 casualties. In this context, the Central America countries have been working on joint programs and policies aiming transboundary cooperation and management of natural disasters, a clear example of this effort is CEPREDENAC which is the intergovernmental body with the mandate of promoting activities, projects and programs towards reduction of the risks to disasters in order to avoid loss of life and economic assets in the Central America, however, transnational management face several challenges that fall mostly in the political, economical and technical areas. In this paper we described and analyzed the rainfall induced natural disasters, their impacts and the inherent management challenges in the Central American context. Key words: Central America, Natural Disasters, Risk Management, International Cooperation

  1. Central Atlantic regional ecological test site: A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A comparison of photomorphic regions from an uncontrolled ERTS-1 mosaic of CARETS to land use areas on a map published in the National Atlas revealed close correlations in non-urban regions. Such regional scale analysis of ERTS-1 data has the potential for providing an economical sampling strategy for selecting sites for more detailed field measurements if other environmental variables can be correlated with patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. ERTS-1 imagery has also revealed for the first time the appearance of CARETS during the winter months. Investigators have identified extensive areas of conifers, which have previously been indistinguishable from deciduous vegetation. Imagery has also shown very clearly the extent of snow cover at a particular time over the region. The evaluation of ERTS-1 imagery used for the land use mapping of the shore zone of CARETS, has shown that the presence or absence of elements of an hierarchal system of shoreline landforms can help identify areas of potential rapid change. Changes in land use class distributions on the Barrier Islands signify the environmental response to natural and man-caused processes. Both environmental vulnerability and sensitivity can be estimated from the repetitive ERTS-1 coverage of long reaches of the CARETS coast. Results indicate potential applications to land use planning, management, and regional environmental quality analysis.

  2. High Resolution HC3N Observations toward the Central Region of Sagittarius B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Masaki

    1994-04-01

    We have observed the emission of HC3N J=4-3, 5-4, 10-9 and 12-11 transitions toward the Sgr B2 central region in an area of 150"*150" with resolution of 16"-48". The intensities and central velocities of line profiles show significant variations with positions. In contrast to the intensities of the low J-level transitions which gradually increase from the central source toward the outside region, the HC3N emission of the high J-level transition become stronger toward the central radio continuum source MD5. Systematic change in the radial velocity of each line profile occurs along north-south direction. There are a few peaks in most line profiles, and these indicate that there are multiple velocity components along the line of sight. Distributions of excitation temperature and column density which were estimated from the excitation calculations show the existence of a small(1*2pc), hot(Tex > 50K) core which contains two temperature peaks at about 15" east and north of MD5. The column density of HC3N is (1-3)*10E14 /cm2. Column density at distant position from MD5 is larger than that in the central region. We have deduced that this 'hot-core' has a mass of 10E5 Mo, which is about an order of magnitude larger than those obtained by previous studies.

  3. Integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning of Smirra cores, lower Eocene, Umbria-Marche basin, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauretano, Vittoria; Turtù, Antonio; Hilgen, Frits; Galeotti, Simone; Catanzariti, Rita; Reichart, Gert Jan; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Eocene represents an ideal case study to analyse the impact of increase global warming on the ocean-atmosphere system. During this time interval, the Earth's surface experienced a long-term warming trend that culminated in a period of sustained high temperatures called the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These perturbations of the ocean-atmosphere system involved the global carbon cycle and global temperatures and have been linked to orbital forcing. Unravelling this complex climatic system strictly depends on the availability of high-quality suitable geological records and accurate age models. However, discrepancies between the astrochronological and radioisotopic dating techniques complicate the development of a robust time scale for the early Eocene (49-54 Ma). Here we present the first magneto-, bio-, chemo- and cyclostratigraphic results of the drilling of the land-based Smirra section, in the Umbria Marche Basin. The sediments recovered at Smirra provide a remarkably well-preserved and undisturbed succession of the early Palaeogene pelagic stratigraphy. Bulk stable carbon isotope and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) scanning records are employed in the construction of an astronomically tuned age model for the time interval between ~49 and ~54 Ma based on the tuning to long-eccentricity. These results are then compared to the astronomical tuning of the benthic carbon isotope record of ODP Site 1263 to evaluate the different age model options and improve the time scale of the early Eocene by assessing the precise number of eccentricity-related cycles comprised in this critical interval.

  4. Remediation/Restoration of Degraded Soil to Improve Productivity In The Central Great Plains Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and productivity of some farmlands in the central Great Plains Region (CGPR) have been lost through wind and water erosion induced by tillage and poor soil management. Productivity of degraded/eroded soils can be restored using organic amendments such as manure and improved crop and soil...

  5. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  6. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  7. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  8. THE EXTENT OF MINE DRAINAGE INTO STREAMS OF THE CENTRAL APPALACHIAN AND ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Runoff and drainage from active and inactive mines are contaminating streams throughout the United States with acidic and metal contaminated waters and sediments. The extent of mining impacts on streams of the coal bearing region of the Central Appalachians and the metal bearing...

  9. Access to Supplemental Educational Services in the Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-No. 007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barley, Zoe; Wegner, Sandra K.

    2007-01-01

    The Central Region states (Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming) lag behind the nation in the rate of participation in supplemental educational services that schools failing to make adequate progress for three consecutive years must offer to eligible students under the No Child Left Behind Act. This study…

  10. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  11. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  12. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  13. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  14. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.142 Section 81.142 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation...

  15. A Survey of Teacher Supply and Demand Data Collection Systems in NASDTEC Central Region States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Robert A.

    The Central Region States of the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification (NASDTEC) were surveyed in 1980 regarding their systems for collecting information and their information needs on teacher supply and demand. The 13 states involved were Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri,…

  16. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  17. Fault plane orientations of small earthquakes of the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic sequence from P-wave polarities and rise times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippucci, Marilena; de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Boschi, Enzo

    2006-07-01

    A two-step technique has been developed with the aim of retrieving the fault plane orientation of a small-magnitude earthquake. The technique uses a set of non-linear equations, which relate the rise times of first P waves to source parameters (source dimension L, dip δ and strike φ of the fault) and intrinsic Qp. At the first step of the technique, the inversion of P polarities provides two fault plane orientations for each focal mechanism solution. At the second step, the inversion of rise times is carried out to retrieve L and Qp by fixing δ and φ to the values of the fault plane orientation inferred at the first step. A robust analysis, based on the random deviates technique, allows us to evaluate if one fault plane exists which systematically better fits data and can be considered the `true' fault plane. A parameter is introduced to quantify the level of resolution of the `true' fault plane. A probabilistic approach, based on the assumption that errors on data are Gaussian distributed, allows us to a posteriori validate or reject the `true' fault plane. The technique has been applied to 47 small earthquakes (1.3 < ML < 3.9) occurred below the town of Sellano, during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Central Italy) seismic crisis. The strike of the inferred fault planes is generally along the Apennine direction. Fault plane solutions can be mainly subdivided into two groups: a first group of SW-dipping faults and a second group of NE-dipping faults. These results agree with the present day knowledge of the fault systems in the area. An average Qp equal to 354 +/- 63 has been estimated, in agreement with previous attenuation studies.

  18. 2D kinematic study of the central region of NGC 4501.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, P.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Freitas-Lemes, P.; Rodrigues, I.; de Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2016-09-01

    GMOS-IFU observational data were used to study the detailed two dimensional gas kinematics and morphological structures within the ˜ 500 × 421 pc2 of the active Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4501. We provide empirical evidences of possible outflowing material from the central zones of NGC 4501 to the observer. In addition, we performed a spectral synthesis and diagnostic diagram analysis to determine respectively the dominant stellar population in the inner disc of this galaxy and to unveil the actual nature of the central engine of NGC 4501. The principal finding of this work is that the central regions of NGC 4501 are dominated by non circular motions connected to probable outflows of matter from the nuclear regions of this galaxy. A predominant old stellar population inhabits the internal zones of NGC 4501 excluding the possibility of ongoing starburst activity in the central parsecs of this galaxy. The latter result is confirmed by the diagnostic diagram analysis that establishes a preponderant active galactic nucleus character for NGC 4501. These outcomes together provide a general description of the gas motion and the corresponding nuclear activity in the internal disc of NGC 4501 in an attempt to elucidate the possible relation among the central activity and the induced kinematic properties of this nearby galaxy.

  19. Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site (CARETS): A prototype regional environmental information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Accomplishments have included: (1) completion of the research design for the USGS/CARETS demonstration project; (2) preparation of photomossics and land use maps at a scale of 1:100,000 for entire area; (3) demonstration of the feasibility of extracting several categories of land use information from ERTS-1 MSS data for a portion of the CARETS region; (4) demonstration of the feasibility of detecting some significant land use changes on ERTS-1 imagery; (5) demonstration of the feasibility of attaching environmental impact significance to the remote sensor-derived land use data; (6) delivery of land use information derived from high altitude aircraft data to the Maryland state planning agency for use in its statewide land use inventory; (7) demonstration of high interest by other use groups in the test region in products and services provided by investigation; and (8) determination of the viability of setting up a computerized geographic information system as part of the CARETS investigation, to facilitate handling of sensor-derived land use data in a variety of formats to suit user requirements.

  20. On the continuing stellar formation in the central regions of some globular clusters and their relation to the pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komberg, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The discrepancy between the predicted and observed quantities of gas in the central regions of massive globular clusters is discussed. It is hypothesized that star formation continues in the central regions by means of gas released during stellar evolution or trapped by the central region when the globular clusters pass through the center of the galaxy. Nine globular clusters are indicated at distances less than 1000 ps from which radio pulsars or X-ray sources are observed. It is argued that they could have formed relatively recently in closed pairs in the central regions and then ejected at the stage of supernova bursts with velocities over 100 ks/s.

  1. Atmospheric Transport of Arid Aerosol from Desert Regions of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Boris; Solomon, Paul; Sitnov, Sergei; Grechko, Evgeny; Maximenkov, Leonid; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    Investigation of atmospheric transport of arid aerosol from Central Asia was held within the ISTC project 3715. Particular attention was paid to the removal of aerosol from the Aral Sea region and its further transport, because aerosol and pollutants emission from Central Asia affect the airspace of the entire Asian continent. At the same time measurements of aerosols in the atmosphere of Central Asia are holding in a small number of stations, and currently available data are insufficient to define the initial conditions and/or verification of models of long-range transport. To identify sources of pollution transported from Central Asia, in Kyrgyzstan measurement and sampling of air were organized: at the station on the northern slope of the Kirgiz Range, 30 km south of Bishkek, at an altitude of 1700 m above sea level (Bishkek Site, 42,683N; 74,694E ), and on permanent alpine Teploklyuchenka lidar station in the Central Tien Shan at an altitude of 2000 m above sea level (Lidar Site, 42,467N; 78,533E). The chemical analysis of collected aerosol and soils samples was carried out. Measurements of aerosol at these stations have been merged with the simulation of the trajectories of air masses in the study region and with the satellite (the Terra and Aqua satellites) observations of aerosol optical thickness in this region. Satellite data for the region 43-47 N, and 58-62 E (Aral Sea) from April 2008 to September 2009 were analyzed. The moments were selected, when the value of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was greatest (more than 0.5), and the transport from the Aral Sea region to the observation sites took place. For each of these days, the forward trajectories, which started at 6 points within the region, were calculated using the HYSPLIT model. The days, on which the trajectories reached the BISHKEK and LIDAR sites, were determined from the data obtained. Calculations on the basis of the RAMS model were performed for these days. These calculations were performed

  2. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  3. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  4. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  5. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  6. Climatic variability, fire, and vegetation modeling in the North American Central Grassland Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1994-06-01

    In developing an equilibrium vegetation model for assessing the sensitivity of natural vegetation to climatic change in the Central Grasslands, we encountered difficulties in establishing solely climatic determinants for grasslands. Under the normal climate, woody plant dominance was predicted for much of the region supporting open grassland at the time of European settlement. Climatic data for historic periods and a fire model were used to test whether grass dominance was promoted by (1) climatic periods distinct from the normal period, (2) by fire, or (3) by the interactive effect of both. Grass/woody ratios in test simulations exhibited spatio-temporal variation produced by complex interactions among PET, precipitation seasonality, competition for soil moisture, and fuel characteristics determining fire intensity. Results support concepts of plant community thresholds and multiple steady states in the Central Grassland region.

  7. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study to evaluate dirigibles as transport vehicles in the mainly undeveloped and heavily forested Selva Central region of Peru is discussed. The basic requirements for dirigible service in the region are described, including those pertaining to cargoes and routes, airports, weather conditions, ground facilities, operations and maintenance base, hangars, ballast, and helium supply. Dirigible types, sizes, and economics were analyzed, and the analytical methods and results are reported. Total costs are determined and compared with those for other aircraft. It is concluded that dirigibles can be used as transport in the Selva Central and that conventional dirigibles in normal operation will require expansion of exisiting airfields. Conventional dirigibles are more economical as their size increases and are cost effective compared to selected aircraft.

  8. Linear polarization observations in selected celestial zones - the central region of our Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, R.C.; Simard-Normandin, M.; Vallee, J.P.

    1988-07-01

    The Algonquin Radio Observatory and the very large array have been used to obtain the linear polarization integrated over the angular size of a radio galaxy or quasar. All sources are located in a celestial angular zone encompassing the central region of the Galaxy. In addition to the total intensity (Stokes I) flux density, the percentage and position angle of the linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) are obtained for 14 sources at several centimetric wavelengths. 15 references.

  9. Mechanism of formation of a dipole magnetic field in the central regions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasyan, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    A model of the formation of large-scale magnetic fields of dipole configuration in the central regions (r ≈ 100 pc) of active galaxies is studied. It is assumed that these regions contain a rapidly rotating, highly ionized gas (Ω ≈ 5·10-15 sec, Ne ≈ 103 cm-3). Ionized matter escapes from the center of the region with a velocity of several hundred km/sec and is entrained by the rotation of the surrounding medium. Biermann's "battery" effect [L. Biermann, Z. Naturforsch., 5a, 65 (1950)] operates under such conditions, and circular electric currents are formed in the medium, which amplify the dipole magnetic fields. During the active phase of a galaxy, about 108 years, the magnetic field strength at the boundary of this region may reach 10-4 10-3 G.

  10. Assessment of geothermal energy potential by geophysical methods: Nevşehir Region, Central Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıyak, Alper; Karavul, Can; Gülen, Levent; Pekşen, Ertan; Kılıç, A. Rıza

    2015-03-01

    In this study, geothermal potential of the Nevşehir region (Central Anatolia) was assessed by using vertical electrical sounding (VES), self-potential (SP), magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and gravity 3D Euler deconvolution structure analysis methods. Extensive volcanic activity occurred in this region from Upper Miocene to Holocene time. Due to the young volcanic activity Nevşehir region can be viewed as a potential geothermal area. We collected data from 54 VES points along 5 profiles, from 28 MT measurement points along 2 profiles (at frequency range between 320 and 0.0001 Hz), and from 4 SP profiles (total 19 km long). The obtained results based on different geophysical methods are consistent with each other. Joint interpretation of all geological and geophysical data suggests that this region has geothermal potential and an exploration well validated this assessment beyond doubt.

  11. The magnetic field structure of the central region in M 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gießübel, R.; Beck, R.

    2014-11-01

    Context. The Andromeda Galaxy (M 31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far, most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M 31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. Aims: The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6 ≤ r ≤ 14 kpc is extended to the innermost part r ≤ 0.5 kpc to ultimately achieve a picture of the entire magnetic field in M 31. Methods: We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (φobs). We developed a simplified 3D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observables. Results: Our 3D model of a quadrupolar or dipolar dynamo field can explain the observed patterns in PI, RM, and φobs, while a 2D configuration is not sufficient to explain the azimuthal behaviour. In addition and independent of our model, the RM pattern shows that the spiral magnetic field in the inner 0.5 kpc points outward, which is opposite to that in the outer disk, and has a pitch angle of ≃33°, which is much larger than that of 8°-19° in the outer disk. Conclusions: The physical conditions in the central region differ significantly from those in the 10 kpc ring. In addition, the orientation of this region with respect to the outer disk is completely different. The opposite magnetic field directions suggest that the central region is decoupled from the outer disk, and we propose that an independent dynamo is active in the central region. FITS files of the recombined Stokes IQU images at the two frequencies are only

  12. The regional distribution of receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Staun-Olsen, P; Ottesen, B; Gammeltoft, S; Fahrenkrug, J

    1985-03-25

    The regional distribution of receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was studied in the rat central nervous system (CNS). The specific binding was highest in cerebral cortex, limbic forebrain and cerebellum, whereas moderate to low binding was found in hypothalamus, thalamus, brainstem and pituitary. The lowest binding was observed in pons and spinal cord. Scatchard analysis showed curvilinear plots with upward concavity, which was interpreted as two classes of binding sites. The Kd values were similar in all regions and calculated as 2.4 and 62 nmol/liter, respectively. The variations of specific [125I]VIP binding were due to differences in the total amount of receptors and were in the range of 1.7-8.6 pmol per mg protein. The regional distribution of VIP receptors was parallel with the occurrence of VIP-containing nerve terminals with exceptions of cerebellum, olfactory areas and nucleus caudatus, where a greater number of receptors than expected from the VIP content was found. In these regions, VIP may interact with receptors for a different, but homologous neuropeptide. In conclusion, the regional distribution of VIP receptors in CNS gives further evidence for the role of VIP as a central neurotransmitter.

  13. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties and Zoogeographical Composition of the Family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties and zoogeographical composition of Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Central Anatolian region. 72 species belonging to seven subfamilies and 25 genera were identified. The major part of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is formed by the subfamilies Elaterinae and Cardiophorinae. The genus Cardiophorus was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Central Anatolian region is partially consistent with known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Central Anatolian region shares most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic as does the Elateridae fauna of Turkey. Detailed localities of nine species are given for the first time for Turkey, with emphasis on the Central Anatolian region. PMID:21864150

  14. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  15. Molecular Gas and Star-formation Properties in the Central and Bar Regions of NGC 6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Kuno, Nario; Koda, Jin; Hirota, Akihiko; Sorai, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of 13CO (1-0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1-0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival 12CO (1-0), 12CO(2-1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to 12CO (1-0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  16. An investigation of transmission ratio distortion in the central region of the human MHC.

    PubMed

    Hanchard, N; Rockett, K; Udalova, I; Wilson, J; Keating, B; Koch, O; Nijnik, A; Diakite, M; Herbert, M; Kwiatkowski, D

    2006-01-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) describes a significant departure from expected Mendelian inheritance ratios that is fundamental to both the biology of reproduction and statistical genetics. The relatively high fetal wastage in humans, with consequent selection of alleles in utero, makes it likely that TRD is prevalent in the human genome. The central region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a strong TRD candidate, as it houses a number of immune and regulatory genes that may be important in pregnancy outcome. We used a nonhaplotype-based method to select 13 tagging SNPs from three central MHC candidate regions, and analysed their transmission in 380 newborns and their parents (1138 individuals). A TRD of 54:46 was noted in favour of the common allele of a promoter SNP in the CLIC1 gene (P = 0.025), with a similar distortion using haplotypes across the same gene region (P = 0.016). We also found evidence that markers in the CLIC1 gene region may have been subject to recent selection (P < 0.001). The study illustrates the potential benefits of screening for TRD and highlights the difficulties encountered therein. PMID:16341054

  17. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  18. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  19. Inherited weaknesses control deformation in the flat slab region of Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas region of west-central Argentina has long been considered a geologic type-area for flat-slab induced thick-skinned deformation. Frictional coupling between the horizontal subducting plate and South American lithosphere from ~12 Ma to the present provides an obvious causal mechanism for the basement block uplifts that characterize this region. New low temperature thermochronometry data show basement rocks from the central Sierras Pampeanas (~ longitude 66 ̊ W) including Sierras Cadena de Paiman, Velasco and Mazan retain a cooling history of Paleozoic - Mesozoic tectonics events. Results from this study indicate that less than 2 km of basement has been exhumed since at least the Mesozoic. These trends recorded by both apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometry suggest that recent Mio-Pliocene thick-skinned deformation associated with flat-slab subduction follow inherited zones of weakness from Paleozoic terrane sutures and shear zones and Mesozoic rifting. If a Cenozoic foreland basin exisited in this region, its thickness was minimal and was controlled by paleotopography. Pre-Cenozoic cooling ages in these ranges that now reach as high as 4 km imply significant exhumation of basement rocks before the advent of flat slab subduction in the mid-late Miocene. It also suggests that thick-skinned deformation associated with flat slab subduction may at least be facilitated by inherited crustal-scale weaknesses. At the most, pre-existing zones of weakness may be required in regions of thick-skinned deformation. Although flat-slab subduction plays an important role in the exhumation of the Sierras Pampeanas, it is likely not the sole mechanism responsible for thick-skinned deformation in this region. This insight sheds light on the interpretation of modern and ancient regions of thick-skinned deformation in Cordilleran systems.

  20. A Study of Regional Wave Source Time Functions of Central Asian Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Perry, M. R.; Schult, F. R.; Wood, J.

    2014-12-01

    Despite the extensive use of seismic regional waves in seismic event identification and attenuation tomography, very little is known on how seismic sources radiate energy into these waves. For example, whether regional Lg wave has the same source spectrum as that of the local S has been questioned by Harr et al. and Frenkel et al. three decades ago; many current investigators assume source spectra in Lg, Sn, Pg, Pn and Lg coda waves have either the same or very similar corner frequencies, in contrast to local P and S spectra whose corner frequencies differ. The most complete information on how the finite source ruptures radiate energy into regional waves is contained in the time domain source time functions (STFs). To estimate the STFs of regional waves using the empirical Green's function (EGF) method, we have been substantially modifying a semi-automotive computer procedure to cope with the increasingly diverse and inconsistent naming patterns of new data files from the IRIS DMC. We are applying the modified procedure to many earthquakes in central Asia to study the STFs of various regional waves to see whether they have the same durations and pulse shapes, and how frequently source directivity occur. When applicable, we also examine the differences between STFs of local P and S waves and those of regional waves. The result of these analyses will be presented at the meeting.

  1. Investigating drought over the Central Highland, Vietnam, using regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Minh Tue; Raghavan, Srivatsan V.; Pham, Duc Minh; Liong, Shie-Yui

    2015-07-01

    The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) has been computed based on the monthly precipitation for different observed and modelled datasets over the Central Highland, Vietnam during the period 1990-2005. Station data from a total of 13 stations were collected from the study region and used for benchmarking to compare gridded observation data and two regional climate models (RCMs). Various characteristics of drought across the study region were analyzed using spatial and temporal distributions, number of drought events, their frequency and their deficit. The RCMs were able to capture the SPI temporal distributions of station data fairly well. The analysis from RCMs showed close estimation for the number of drought events to station data and gridded observations. In terms of Drought Deficit and frequency, the RCMs matched the station data better than gridded observations. The drought trend was carried out using a Modified Mann-Kendall trend test which yielded no clear trends that suggested the need for longer records of data. The results also highlight uncertainties in gridded data and the need for robust station data quality and record lengths. The regional climate models proved to be appropriate tools in assessing drought over the study area as they can serve as good proxies over data sparse regions, especially in developing countries, for studying detailed climate features at sub regional and local scales.

  2. First geochronological study of the volcanic plateau of aubrac (French Massif Central) - tectonic and regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baubron, J. C.; Demange, J.

    1982-10-01

    The volcanism of the Aubrac fissural basaltic plateau is located between Cantal a large stratovolcano to the north, and the Causse of Séverac-le-Château - a limestone plateau on which crop out some basaltic intrusions - to the south. The first K/Ar age determinations show that this volcanism mainly took place between 8 and 7.5 m.y. preceded and followed by short episodes around 9.2 and 5.8 m.y. The occurrence of differentiated products is discussed and correlated with substratum geology of these volcanic centres. The episode of activity (i.e. 8 to 7.5 m.y.) discovered in Aubrac and Causse of Séveracle-Château, is not a localized event, but part of a regional activity in the central area of the Massif Central. The occurrence of magmatic activity correlates with the old Hercynian tectonic.

  3. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  4. Central obesity and risk of cardiovascular disease in the Asia Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio as risk factors for ischaemic heart disease and stroke in Asia Pacific populations. We undertook a pooled analysis involving six cohort studies (45 988 participants) and used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess the associations of the four anthropometric indices with stroke and ischaemic heart disease by age, sex and region. During a mean follow-up of six years, 346 stroke and 601 ischaemic heart disease events (fatal and non-fatal) were documented. Overall, a one-standard deviation increase in index was associated with an increase in risk of ischaemic heart disease of 17% (95% CI 7-27%) for body mass index, 27% (95% CI 14-40%) for waist circumference, 10% (95% CI 1-20%) for hip circumference, and 36% (95% CI 21-52%) for waist-hip ratio. There were no significant differences between age groups, sex, and region. None of the four anthropometric indices had a strong association with risk of stroke. These data indicate that measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio are strongly associated with risk of ischaemic heart disease in this region. Therefore, we suggest that, along with calculation of body mass index, measures of central obesity such as waist circumference and waist-hip ratio should be undertaken routinely. PMID:16837418

  5. The growth of the central region by acquisition of counterrotating gas in star-forming galaxies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Shi, Yong; Tremonti, Christy A.; Bershady, Matt; Merrifield, Michael; Emsellem, Eric; Jin, Yi-Fei; Huang, Song; Fu, Hai; Wake, David A.; Bundy, Kevin; Stark, David; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, Maria; Bergmann, Thaisa Storchi; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel; Bureau, Martin; Chisholm, John; Drory, Niv; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Pan, Kai-Ke; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel; Wang, Lan; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Ren-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Here, based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies). The central regions of blue counter-rotators show younger stellar populations and more intense, ongoing star formation than their outer parts, indicating ongoing growth of the central regions. The result offers observational evidence that the acquisition of external gas in blue galaxies is possible; the interaction with pre-existing gas funnels the gas into nuclear regions (<1 kpc) to form new stars. PMID:27759033

  6. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  7. Tectonic style and regional relations of the central Nevada thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, J.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Taylor, W.J. . Dept. of Geoscience); Fryxell, J.E. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schmitt, J.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Vandervoort, D.S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Walker, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The Mesozoic( ) Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) lies in a geographically and structurally central position in the Great Basin. Understanding the structural geometries and timing of deformation in this belt is critical to reconstructing pre-thrusting sedimentary basins, post-thrusting sediment source locations and the syn- to post-thrusting Cretaceous Newark Canyon basins. The authors recent detailed studies in the thrust belt better constrain the structural geometries, associated sedimentary basins and timing of deformation in the CNTB. They suggest that contractile structures in the CNTB east and south of Railroad Valley are part of the same orogen as the Eureka belt which north and west of that valley. Therefore, the CNTB is an essentially continuous orogen for 250 km along strike, from Alamo to Eureka, Nevada. The structural style effects paleogeographic reconstructions. The CNTB is made up of a stack of at least six separate thrusts. Many thrusts have long ramps that cut from the Mississippian into the Cambrian ([approximately] 2,200 m of section) suggesting large vertical uplifts. Shortening in the CNTB is bracketed between Late Permian and Cretaceous, but regional correlations indicate it may be Jurassic to Cretaceous. The youngest contraction is no younger than Early Cretaceous as indicated by (1) folding and thrusting of parts of the Albian-Aptian Newark Canyon Formation, (2) intrusion of an anticline by the 84.6 Ma (new date) Troy stocked, and (3) intrusion of another anticline by the [approximately]100 Ma (new date) Lincoln stock. The onset of shortening is more difficult to ascertain because Triassic and Jurassic rocks are not present. Rocks as young as Pennsylvanian in the south and Permian in central region are deformed. A Jurassic age is based on regional correlations with the Jurassic Elko orogenic belt.

  8. Telemagmatic metamorphism superimposed on regional metamorphism: Evidence from coals in central China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Coal (Lower Permian No. 1) in north-central Henan province, central China, exhibits a zoned rank distribution. The rank varies between high-volatile bituminous and anthracite. Highest rank coal occurs in a northwest-southeast trending zone that cuts across the center of the study area. Coal rank decreases from this central zone towards both the northeast and southwest. Core data indicate that the anthracite is currently overlain by over 4,600 m of sedimentary cover, which represents more or less continuous sedimentation during the Permian and Triassic. In the lower rank area to the southwest, erosion has removed all but approximately 1,000 m of strata. The rank distribution in this area has been attributed to regional metamorphism by previous workers as the higher coal rank coincides with the thicker strata. However, this study reveals that anthracite in the area has a much higher vitrinite reflectance, between 3--6% (Ro max, in oil), with some locations exhibiting reflectances greater than 6%. Petrographically, the anthracite is characterized by well developed pores (5--10 [mu]m in diameter) and mosaic structure. It is suggested that the higher heat flow is due to the presence of deep-seated plutons. It is proposed that coal metamorphism in this area involved three stages: (1) Pre-orogenic (early Permian-late Triassic). Regional metamorphism produced coals of subbituminous to high-volatile bituminous rank; (2) Orogenic (early Jurassic-late Cretaceous). Telemagmatic metamorphism resulted in zones of higher rank coal (medium volatile through anthracite rank); (3) Post-orogenic (Tertiary-Quaternary). Shallow burial depth due to the tectonic uplift followed by erosion had a negligible effect on coal rank. It is suggested, therefore, that coalification in this area is the result of regional metamorphism overprinted by telemagmatic metamorphism.

  9. Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Subarcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH2CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from ~3 km s-1 in the innermost part to ~16 km s-1 at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of ~1.15 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1. The dense core has a mass of ~0.47 M ⊙ and a dynamical age of ~400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of 12C/13C and 14N/15N are 9 ± 4 and 150 ± 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  10. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Rodrigues, Mariana; Paz, Daniel; Costa, Marcos Devanir; Santos, Bruno; Braga, Vinicius; Paiva Neto, Manoel de; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2015-11-01

    The central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  11. Crustal structure of the Pannonian-Carpathian region, Central Europe, from ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Stuart, G. W.; Houseman, G. A.; Carpathian Basins Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The Pannonian Basin of Central Europe is a major extensional basin surrounded by the Carpathian Mountains. During the evolution of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, extension of the crust and lithosphere created several inter-related basins of which the Pannonian basin is the largest. Imaging the seismic velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle may help us understand the structure and geodynamic evolution of this part of central Europe. Here, we use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crust and uppermost mantle structure in the region. We have collected and processed continuous data from 56 temporary stations deployed in the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) for 16 months (2005-2007) and 41 permanent broadband stations; this dataset enables the most well-resolved images of the S-wave structure of the region yet obtained. We computed the cross-correlation between vertical component seismograms from pairs of stations and stacked the correlated waveforms over 1-2 years to estimate the Rayleigh wave Green’s function. Frequency-time analysis is used to measure the group velocity dispersion curves, which are then inverted for the group velocity maps. Our 4-10 s group velocity maps exhibit low velocity anomalies which clearly defined the major sediment depo-centers in the Carpathian region. A broad low velocity anomaly in the center of the 5 s group velocity map can be associated with the Pannonian Basin, whereas an anomaly in the southeastern region is related to the Moesian platform. Further east, the Vienna Basin can also be seen on our maps. A fast anomaly in the central region can be associated with the Mid-Hungarian line. At periods from 18 to 24 seconds, group velocities become increasingly sensitive to crustal thickness. The maps also reveal low-velocity anomalies associated with the Carpathians. The low velocity anomalies are probably caused by deeper crustal roots beneath the mountain ranges which occur due to isostatic compensation. CBP

  12. Tracing impacts of local and regional emission sources on the aerosols over Central Himalayan region during GVAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Shivraj; Sagar, Ram; Pant, P.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Venkata Phanikumar, Devulapalli; Dumka, Umesh Chandra; Pant, Vimlesh; Singh, Narendra; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Naja, Manish; Satheesh, S. K.

    2012-07-01

    Observational site ARIES, Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E; 1950 m a.m.s.l) is ideally located to study the tropospheric background (TB) of various atmospheric components and their characteristics representing northern India. Observations at this site could provide useful information of the aerosol properties before, after and during the south-west monsoon. Higher levels of trace gases and aerosols surround this region during winter/spring period in space-borne observations. This period also coincides with the intensive crop residue burning season in the region. In view of this, extensive observation of aerosols, radiation and meteorological parameters are made at the site under the Regional Aerosol Warming Experiment-Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (RAWEX-GVAX) from June 2011. This experiment thus pose an unique opportunity to study the impact of local and regional pollution and study the influence of long-range transport to the pristine region of Central Himalayas. Results from collocated in-situ measurement of aerosol physical properties [absorption coefficient (σ ab), scattering coefficients (σ s), back scatter ratio (Bfr), aerosol number concentration (Ncn), Cloud condensation nuclei count (Nccn), single scattering albedo (ω ), angstrom exponent (α ), hygroscopic growth factor, f(RH)] with state of the art measurement techniques are presented here. Preliminary analyses of the measurements show that the site is mostly dominated by small size fraction of aerosol (mainly accumulation mode), whose number concentration varies from below 500 cm-3 to above 6000 cm-3 during the study period (upto November 2011). The 'ω ', 'α ' and hygroscopic property of the aerosol observed in GVAX indicate a lesser possibility of impact from fossil fuel combustion as compared to that from biomass/firewood burning. Though daily variations show dominance of local impact, possibility of long-range transport however, cannot be ruled out. Anticipating possibility of both local and long

  13. Ion source and low energy injection line for a central region model cyclotrona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianjue; Li, Zhenguo; Lu, Yinlong; Wei, Sumin; Cai, Hongru; Ge, Tao; Wu, Longcheng; Pan, Gaofeng; Yao, Hongjuan; Kuo, T.; Yuan, D.

    2008-02-01

    At CIAE, a 100MeV H- cyclotron (CYCIAE-100) is under design and construction. A central region model (CRM) cyclotron was built for various experimental verifications for the CYCIAE-100 project and for research and development of high current injection to accelerate milliampere H- beam. The H- multicusp source built in 2003 has been improved recently to make the source operation more stable. A new injection line for axial low energy high current injection has been designed and constructed for the CRM cyclotron.

  14. Second phase of the European Project CERGOP-2/Environment (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledzinski, Janusz

    The paper includes concise information on the status of the international geodynamic project CERGOP (Central Europe Regional Geodynamics Project). The achievements of the realisation of the first phase of the Project are summarised. The enlarged objectives, the programme and scope of work of the second phase of the Project are shortly described. List of workpackages covering particular fields of activities within the Project is given. Project is supported financially by the European Commission. Project CERGOP was an impulse for the establishment of the CEGRN Consortium of institutes involved in realisation of the Project. The Consortium will also be a seedbed of new European projects and initiatives.

  15. Vortex flows with suspended separation regions and long-range untwisted central jets

    SciTech Connect

    Abramovich, G.N.; Trofimov, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    A study is made of possible physicoaerodynamic configurations of vortical flow with suspended separation regions and untwisted central jets. Such flows are encountered in power plants (heat exchangers, combustion chambers, and chemical reactors) and in nature (tornadoes). The basic configurations of several flows of this type are described, including the structure of a flow formed by coaxial cocurrent twisted jets, the flow in a conical swirl chamber with the formation of an untwisted long-range axial jet, the flow pattern in a gas turbine engine chamber, and some considerations regarding the aerodynamics of a tornado.

  16. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  17. Gamma-rays from Dark Matter Annihilation in the Central Region of the Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale Dario; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we review the prospects for the FERMI satellite (formerly known as GLAST) to detect gamma-rays from dark matter annihilations in the Central Region of the Milky Way, in light of the recent observations and discoveries of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. While the existence of significant astrophysical backgrounds in this part of the sky limits FERMI's discovery potential to some degree, this can be mitigated by exploiting the peculiar energy spectrum and angular distribution of the dark matter annihilation signal relative to those of astrophysical backgrounds.

  18. Regional Geochemical Trends in Young Basalts Along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, M.; Furman, T.; Hanan, B. B.; Kurkcuoglu, B.; Sayit, K.

    2009-12-01

    The regional neotectonics and volcanism along the margins of the Anatolian microplate (Turkey) are broadly well-constrained. The African and Arabian plates currently push Anatolia against the relatively stable Eurasian plate and as a result, Anatolia has had a west-southwest movement for the last 12 Ma in what is called ‘escape tectonics’. The tectonic environments and their associated volcanism include slab rollback in Western Anatolia (post-Miocene alkaline basalts and basanites) and slab detachment in Eastern Anatolia (mid-Miocene calc-alkaline to Quaternary alkaline). However, the situation in Central Anatolia is less clear: extensional forces govern the neo-tectonic environment and Pliocene-Recent basalts through basaltic andesites and dacites form large stratovolcanoes in extensional basins as well as both small and large basalt fields. The geochemistry of these basalts requires contributions from a poorly-defined mantle source lithology that has been enriched by subduction processes. However, available plate reconstructions indicate that the leading edge of the subducted African plate did not reach Central Anatolia, suggesting that the subduction environment could be related to closure of the neo-Tethyan Ocean in Paleozoic time. Geochemical compositions of mafic lavas along the Central Anatolian Fault Zone (CAFZ) provide new clarity on the question of the extent of lithospheric melting and the influence of the subducting slab. Moving southward along the CAFZ, incompatible trace element compositions of Central Anatolian basalts increase systematically in La/Nb concentrations and other incompatible trace element indicators trend from MORB and OIB signatures to more enriched values. Small negative Nb and no Ta anomalies are present in basalts from the northern CAFZ, and increase to larger negative Nb anomalies and Ta anomalies in the north. The incompatible trace element variations along the CAFZ point to an increase in lithospheric or slab involvement

  19. Regional flood relations for unregulated lakes in west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopez, M.A.; Hayes, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Regional lake flood altitude in the Southwest Florida Water Management District for 2- to 500-year recurrence intervals was estimated by multiple linear-regression analysis. The average lake altitude was used as a reference above which flood volumes are related to lake geometry, watershed characteristics, and rainfall. Average altitude at surface-outflow lakes is related to the altitude of the lake surface shown on topographic maps, lake-outlet altitude, and annual rainfall. Average altitude at closed-basin lakes is related to the altitude of the lake surface shown on topographic maps. Flood volume above average altitude for surface-outflow lakes is related to lake geometry, watershed characteristics, and rainfall. The average standard error of estimate for regional relations of surface-outflow lakes ranges from 29 to 54 percent in the Central Lake District and from 50 to 58 percent in the Ocala Uplift District. The average standard error of estimate for regional relations of closed-basin lakes ranges from 22 to 40 percent. Regional relations for average altitude and flood volume above average altitude are used to weight station flood-altitude data. Tables comparing station, regional, and weighted lake flood altitudes are shown for 47 lakes used in the analysis. (USGS)

  20. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  1. Structural development of the central Kyrenia Range (north Cyprus) in its regional setting in the eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. H. F.; Kinnaird, T. C.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed structural analysis of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic geological development of the central segment of the Kyrenia Range in its regional tectonic context is given here. The structural evidence comes from five structural traverses, outcrop observations, small-scale structures and related regional evidence. The majority of the structures are fault planes, of which a subordinate number exhibit slickenlines (fault plane data, n = 2688; with kinematics, n = 537). Additional kinematic data were obtained from C-S fabrics and folds. Small-scale structures in each stratigraphic unit were `backstripped' to reveal relative chronology. Synthesis of the structural information indicates three phases of convergence-related deformation: (1) Late Cretaceous, associated with greenschist facies metamorphism, followed by exhumation that was probably associated with WNW-ESE to ENE-WSW-trending high-angle faulting; (2) Mid-Eocene, associated with southward thrusting, coupled with ~N-S strike-slip (transfer faulting) and oblique faulting in an overall sinistral transpressive stress regime; (3) Late Miocene-earliest Pliocene, involving southward thrusting and folding, localised back-thrusting, extensive fault reactivation and large-scale segmentation of the range. Intense uplift of the Kyrenia Range took place during the Plio-Pleistocene, possibly related to the collision of the Eratosthenes Seamount with the Cyprus trench to the south of the island. The three main convergent phases relate to stages of northward subduction and diachronous continental collision affecting the northerly, active continental margin of the Southern Neotethys.

  2. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  3. Spectra of double-cumulative photons in the central rapidity region at high transverse momenta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, I. G.; Golubev, A. A.; Goryachev, V. S.; Dzubenko, G. B.; Dolgolenko, A. G.; Zhigareva, N. M.; Kiselev, S. M.; Mikhaylov, K. R.; Morozova, E. A.; Polozov, P. A.; Prokudin, M. S.; Romanov, D. V.; Svirida, D. N.; Stavinsky, A. V.; Stolin, V. L.; Sharkov, G. B.

    2015-11-01

    The spectra of photons produced in the interaction between carbon ions of kinetic energy 2.0 and 3.2 GeV per nucleon and beryllium nuclei were measured at the FLINT facility by means of electromagnetic calorimeters that is deployed at the accelerator of the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow). The spectra in question were measured in the central rapidity region (at angles between 35° and 73° in the laboratory frame) at photon energies of 1 to 3 GeV by using a cumulative-photon trigger. An analysis of the data obtained in this way reveals that the interaction of multinucleon fluctuation in the projectile nucleus with a multinucleon fluctuation in the target nucleus is a dominant process that leads to photon production in the measured region of angles and momenta. As a development of the generally accepted terminology, an interaction of this type may be called a double cumulative interaction.

  4. Estimating annual suspended-sediment loads in the northern and central Appalachian Coal region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple-regression equations were developed for estimating the annual suspended-sediment load, for a given year, from small to medium-sized basins in the northern and central parts of the Appalachian coal region. The regression analysis was performed with data for land use, basin characteristics, streamflow, rainfall, and suspended-sediment load for 15 sites in the region. Two variables, the maximum mean-daily discharge occurring within the year and the annual peak discharge, explained much of the variation in the annual suspended-sediment load. Separate equations were developed employing each of these discharge variables. Standard errors for both equations are relatively large, which suggests that future predictions will probably have a low level of precision. This level of precision, however, may be acceptable for certain purposes. It is therefore left to the user to asses whether the level of precision provided by these equations is acceptable for the intended application.

  5. Projecting the vegetation response to climatic change in the North American Central Grasslands Region

    SciTech Connect

    Lenihan, J.M.; Neilson, R.P. )

    1993-06-01

    An interdisciplinary modeling effort is underway in which high-resolution climate change projections will drive the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System (MAPSS) to simulate vegetation change in the Central Grasslands Region. MAPSS calculates a complete site water balance and solves for the leaf area (LAI) of both woody and grass lifeforms in full competition for both light and water. Fire is a necessary constraint on simulated shrub LAI throughout much of the grasslands region, and incorporation of weather variability is critical for obtaining accurate tree/grass LAI ratios in the Prairie Peninsula. Initial estimates of the potential impact of climatic change include significant changes in both lifeform LAI and the distribution of subformation vegetation types, but the magnitude and even the direction of change varies with the climate scenario and with assumptions concerning wind speed and plant water-use efficiency.

  6. Evaluating historical climate and hydrologic trends in the Central Appalachian region of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, B. A.; Zegre, N.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is surfacing as one of the most important environmental and social issues of the 21st century. Over the last 100 years, observations show increasing trends in global temperatures and intensity and frequency of precipitation events such as flooding, drought, and extreme storms. Global circulation models (GCM) show similar trends for historic and future climate indicators, albeit with geographic and topographic variability at regional and local scale. In order to assess the utility of GCM projections for hydrologic modeling, it is important to quantify how robust GCM outputs are compared to robust historical observations at finer spatial scales. Previous research in the United States has primarily focused on the Western and Northeastern regions due to dominance of snow melt for runoff and aquifer recharge but the impact of climate warming in the mountainous central Appalachian Region is poorly understood. In this research, we assess the performance of GCM-generated historical climate compared to historical observations primarily in the context of forcing data for macro-scale hydrologic modeling. Our results show significant spatial heterogeneity of modeled climate indices when compared to observational trends at the watershed scale. Observational data is showing considerable variability within maximum temperature and precipitation trends, with consistent increases in minimum temperature. The geographic, temperature, and complex topographic gradient throughout the central Appalachian region is likely the contributing factor in temperature and precipitation variability. Variable climate changes are leading to more severe and frequent climate events such as temperature extremes and storm events, which can have significant impacts on our drinking water supply, infrastructure, and health of all downstream communities.

  7. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  8. CHARACTER AND REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF GREAT FALLS TECTONIC ZONE, EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO AND WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Lopez, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The Great Falls tectonic zone, here named, is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can be traced from the Idaho batholith in the Cordilleran miogeocline, across thrust-belt structures and basement rocks of west-central and southwestern Montana, through cratonic rocks of central Montana, and into southwestern-most Saskatchewan, Canada. Geologic mapping in east-central Idaho and west-central Montana has outlined a continuous zone of high-angle faults and shear zones. Recurrent fault movement in this zone and strong structural control over igneous intrusion suggest a fundamental tectonic feature that has influenced the tectonic development of the Idaho-Montana area from a least middle Proterozoic time to the present. Refs.

  9. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants

  10. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  11. Alterations in the central vasopressin and oxytocin axis after lesion of a brain osmotic sensory region.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela R; Franci, Celso R; Rodovalho, Gisele V; Franci, Janete A A; Morris, Mariana; Rocha, Maria José A

    2004-07-15

    The anteroventral region of the third ventricle (AV3V) is critical in mediating osmotic sensitivity. AV3V lesions increase plasma osmolality and block osmotic-induced vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion. The aim was to evaluate the effects of AV3V lesions on neurosecretion under control/water replete conditions and after 48 h dehydration. The focus was on central peptidergic changes with measurement of OT and VP content in the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (OT) regions and the posterior pituitary. AV3V-lesioned rats exhibited an elevated plasma osmolality and higher OT content in SON and PVN. There was an increase in VP content in PVN, but no change in SON. As predicted, the plasma peptide response to dehydration was absent in lesioned animals. However, dehydration produced depletion in posterior pituitary VP in lesioned animals with no change in OT. No changes in nuclear VP and OT levels were seen after dehydration. These results demonstrate that AV3V lesions alter the VP and OT neurosecretory system, seen as a blockade of osmotic-induced release and an increase in basal nuclear peptide content. The data indicate that interruption of the osmotic sensory system affects the central neurosecretory axis, resulting in a backup in content and likely changes in synthesis and processing.

  12. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  13. [Supporting system for regional medical liaison and role of a central hospital].

    PubMed

    Kitano, Seigo

    2003-04-01

    The current status and future development of the supporting system for regional medical liaison and a role of the central hospital in the network were outlined. One of such supportive systems for regional medical network would be tele-medicine or tele-mentoring that include radiological and pathological diagnoses in distance, tele-surgery, and tele-education. Most of these systems are facilitated in the universities and affiliated hospitals and generally need high-cost communication equipment. Another approach is the information sharing system through the modern telecommunication network. Electronic patient record (EPR) systems are the key to achieving this and currently active in several areas. Since the recent progress in information technology (IT) is astonishing, community-based EPR systems are practical with the capability of clinical information exchange between different institutions and even with patients. The role of a central hospital in these systems must be capacious. Management and continuous operation of the system would be the most important affairs. For extending these supporting systems to the ones working in a broader area, the establishment of a "one ID for one patient" system is crucial. Strict security management of the data base and legal institution for distant medical practice still remain as the future tasks.

  14. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  15. Classroom Assessment for Student Learning: Impact on Elementary School Mathematics in the Central Region. Final Report. NCEE 2011-4005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randel, Bruce; Beesley, Andrea D.; Apthorp, Helen; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin; Cicchinelli, Louis F.; Williams, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Central Region Educational Laboratory (REL Central) administered by Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning to provide educators and policymakers with rigorous evidence about the potential of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL) to improve student achievement. CASL is a widely used professional…

  16. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  17. 2. Wind speed change in central Europe: the projections based on regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, M.

    2010-09-01

    This work presents dynamically downscaled near-surface wind speed fields and examines the impact of climate changes on wind speed across central Europe. The analysis is based on regional model simulation (5 RCM simulations taken from the project PRUDENCE and CLM regional climate model from M&D group) forced by IPCC emission scenario SRES - A2. Each model provided data from two 30-year simulations: a control run under present day climate conditions for the period 1961-90 and a simulation under conditions projected for the period 2021-2050. The research domain covered region from 42°N to 62°N and from 6°E to 36°E. The model ensemble shows a possible increase in future mean wind speed during winter season, especially over zonal belt from North German to North Poland where the future mean wind speed is 0.4 m/s higher than in the control period. The projected climate change in summer over most research domain shows a decrease of mean wind speed (about 0.2 m/s). The Jutland Peninsula and North German is the region with the highest simulated wind speed. The simulated changes are more pronounced in 95th percentile than in the mean. In winter, the values of the 95th percentile will increase over the North German, Jutland Peninsula and North Poland but the highest change is projected over east coast of Baltic Sea (1m/s).

  18. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  19. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  20. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  1. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    PubMed

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  2. Evidence and effects of wrench faulting, north central Gulf Coast region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.K.

    1995-10-01

    North central Gulf Coast Middle Mesozoic zones of crustal weakness caused by tranform faulting associated with plate separation and rifting, became ideal areas for subsequent tectonic adjustments. Several lines of evidence - manifested in wrench faulting - point toward the existence of such adjustments occurring in the Upper Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata of this area. Eight lines of evidence suggest that there are at least four zones of faulting in the region which have been affected by lateral (and vertical) movements and associated extension fracturing. Isopach maps, en echelon fault/fold patterns, location of time-specific igneous activity, offset basement features, anomalous saltwater incursions into freshwater aquifers, offset surface geomorphic features, surface lineaments, and regional hydrocarbon migration patterns all suggest dominant lateral motion along the affected zones in the subsurface and/or surface. Two main results of the region`s wrench faulting are evident in (1) the development of vertical pathways or conduits facilitating hydrocarbon migration from deep, thermally mature source rocks to shallower reservoirs located in non-mature source rock zones; and (2) the development of extension fractures that enhance reservoir porosity. Both results have created the potential for increasing hydrocarbon source volumes available for migration and reservoiring.

  3. Discriminating Mining Induced Seismicity from Natural Tectonic Earthquakes in the Wasatch Plateau Region of Central Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. R.; Pankow, K. L.; Koper, K. D.; McCarter, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    On average, several hundred earthquakes are located each year within the Wasatch Plateau region of central Utah. This region includes the boundary between the relatively stable Colorado Plateau and the actively extending Basin and Range physiographic provinces. Earthquakes in this region tend to fall in the intermountain seismic belt (ISB), a continuous band of seismicity that extends from Montana to Arizona. While most of the earthquakes in the ISB are of tectonic origin, events in the Wasatch Plateau also include mining induced seismicity (MIS) from local underground coal mining operations. Using a catalog of 16,182 seismic events (-0.25 < M < 4.5) recorded from 1981 to 2011, we use double difference relocation and waveform cross correlation techniques to help discriminate between these two populations of events. Double difference relocation greatly improves the relative locations between the many events that occur in this area. From the relative relocations, spatial differences between event types are used to differentiate between shallow MIS and considerably deeper events associated with tectonic seismicity. Additionally, waveform cross-correlation is used to cluster events with similar waveforms—meaning that events in each cluster should have a similar source location and mechanism—in order to more finely group seismic events occurring in the Wasatch Plateau. The results of this study provide both an increased understanding of the influence mining induced seismicity has on the number of earthquakes detected within this region, as well as better constraints on the deeper tectonic structure.

  4. 2000 resource assessment of selected coal beds and zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Northern and Central Appalachian Basin Coal Regions Assessment Team

    2001-01-01

    This report includes results of a digital assessment of six coal beds or zones in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions that produce over 15 percent of the Nation's coal. Other chapters include an executive summary, a report on geology and mining, a report summarizing other selected coal zones that were not assessed, and a report on USGS coal availability and recoverablity studies in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions.

  5. Simulations of the future precipitation climate of the Central Andes using a coupled regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, S.; Mohr, K. I.

    2014-12-01

    The meridional extent and complex orography of the South American continent contributes to a wide diversity of climate regimes ranging from hyper-arid deserts to tropical rainforests to sub-polar highland regions. Global climate models, although capable of resolving synoptic-scale South American climate features, are inadequate for fully-resolving the strong gradients between climate regimes and the complex orography which define the Tropical Andes given their low spatial and temporal resolution. Recent computational advances now make practical regional climate modeling with prognostic mesoscale atmosphere-ocean coupled models, such as the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system, to climate research. Previous work has shown COAWST to reasonably simulate the both the entire 2003-2004 wet season (Dec-Feb) as validated against both satellite and model analysis data. More recently, COAWST simulations have also been shown to sensibly reproduce the entire annual cycle of rainfall (Oct 2003 - Oct 2004) with historical climate model input. Using future global climate model input for COAWST, the present work involves year-long cycle spanning October to October for the years 2031, 2059, and 2087 assuming the most likely regional climate pathway (RCP): RCP 6.0. COAWST output is used to investigate how global climate change impacts the spatial distribution, precipitation rates, and diurnal cycle of precipitation patterns in the Central Andes vary in these yearly "snapshots". Initial results show little change to precipitation coverage or its diurnal cycle, however precipitation amounts did tend drier over the Brazilian Plateau and wetter over the Western Amazon and Central Andes. These results suggest potential adjustments to large-scale climate features (such as the Bolivian High).

  6. The Early Proterozoic structural and tectonic history of the south central Lake Superior Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueng, Wen-Long C.; Larue, Dave K.

    1988-06-01

    The early Proterozoic tectonic evolution of the south central Lake Superior region is complex, owing to the presence of four tectonostratigraphic terranes, which were affected by six phases of deformation. The four terranes are the passive margin of the Superior craton, two paraautochthonous passive margin terranes (Crystal Falls and Florence-Niagara terranes), and a southern magmatic arc complex which is probably allochthonous with respect to the other terranes. Four of the six deformational episodes accompanied subhorizontal shortening, while two were caused by subvertical shortening. The first and the most penetrative phase of deformation is marked by subhorizontal shortening in a NNE-SSW direction. The second and fourth deformations were characterized by subvertical shortening and did not significantly modify the structural orientations from previous events in the study area. The third, fifth, and sixth deformations mostly caused open folding, and shortening directions were NW, NE, and W, respectively. Because all the terranes in the south central Lake Superior region share parallel deformational histories, it is suggested that the accretion of these terranes occurred during the first deformational episode. After removal of younger deformational effects, including open folding of the suture zone, the tectonostratigraphic assemblages in this region show the following sequence from NNE to SSW: a platformal assemblage overlying sialic basement, a basinal assemblage of tholeiitic volcanic rocks overlain by deep-water turbidites, an assemblage of basin floor deposits (Crystal Falls terrane) with apparently no demonstratably underlying crystalline basement, a fault-bounded terrane with highly strained passive margin strata (Florence-Niagara terrane), and a calc-alkaline magmatic arc assemblage. Such an arrangement of tectonostratigraphic assemblages is comparable with cross sections through Phanerozoic accretionary continental margins and therefore supports an arc

  7. Substantial primary production in the land-remote region of the central and northern Scotia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M. J.; Atkinson, A.; Korb, R. E.; Venables, H. J.; Pond, D. W.; Gordon, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Scotia Sea area has high productivity relative to the Southern Ocean as a whole, but this displays strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients. Elucidating the extent of these from a single cruise is problematic, given the high variability of bloom timing and location in this region. Therefore, this study used data from transects across the central Scotia Sea in spring, summer and autumn of 2006, 2008 and 2009, combined with satellite data, to obtain a larger-scale appreciation of the latitudinal contrasts in phytoplankton standing stock and primary production across the region. Concentrations of nitrate, phosphate and particularly silicic acid increased towards the south of the transect with the latter showing a step change at the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SACCF). Changes in seasonal nutrient concentrations indicated increasing phytoplankton uptake north of ˜57°S that peaked at ˜53°S in the Georgia Basin. Based on seasonal depletions of nitrate relative to phosphate, the highest relative nitrate uptake occurred northwest of South Georgia on the periphery of the Georgia Basin, indicating efficient nitrate use here due to iron-replete conditions. An integrative approach to examine these gradients was with the use of 10-year satellite climatology data. These showed that the lowest mean chlorophyll a (chl- a) values were in the central/northern Scotia Sea, but these were still substantial values, 67% of values within the Georgia Basin bloom. Cruise data on chl- a and on microplankton biomass from cell counts support this finding of substantial biomass in the central Scotia Sea; since these averaged half of values in the iron-fertilised bloom of the Georgia Basin downstream of South Georgia. Given that our transect was nearly 1000 km long and in parts was land remote with low iron concentrations, the relatively high production in the central and northern Scotia Sea is surprising. Iron levels may be maintained here by efficient recycling

  8. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The

  9. MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2013-06-20

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  10. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  11. Regional tectonic synthesis of central foldbelt and Indus plain of Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Everett, J.R.; Russell, O.R.; Dolan, P.

    1989-03-01

    A regional tectonic synthesis based on detailed interpretation of 32 Landsat images, review of literature and maps, and integration of a regional stratigraphic analysis reveals a great deal about the development and distribution of deformational features in Pakistan and indicates a number of oil and gas exploration opportunities that may have been overlooked. It appears that the original shape of the Indian and Eurasian plates and their convergence vector through time controlled the overall pattern of deformation resulting from their collision. The details of plate convergence history, distribution of previously existing structural features, distribution of lithologic units, and their mechanical properties profoundly influence the morphology and architecture of the ranges comprising the Central foldbelt and the effects of the collision in the Indus Plain. In particular, the distribution of low-viscosity units that act as detachment zones (e.g., the Infracambrian evaporite sequence, Cretaceous and Eocene shales and evaporites) control the location of folded thrust belts, thrust duplexes, and passive-roof complexes. Taken together, the tectonic synthesis and regional stratigraphic analysis indicate a wide variety of untested exploration opportunities. These opportunities range from the obvious testing of undrilled structures within productive foldbelts such as the Potwar Plateau and Sulaiman Range to the pursuit of distal folds and the more obscure extension of foldbelts beneath the alluvial cover of the Indus Plain and delta.

  12. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned. PMID:25242952

  13. Acaricides efficiency on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from Bahia state North-Central region.

    PubMed

    Raynal, José Tadeu; Silva, Aretha Alves Borges da; Sousa, Thiago de Jesus; Bahiense, Thiago Campanharo; Meyer, Roberto; Portela, Ricardo Wagner

    2013-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for major losses in the Brazilian livestock, mainly due to reduction in cattle productive performance. Resistance development to major classes of acaricide widely used nowadays has been extensively reported, as well as the occurrence of residues from these compounds in animal products and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of acaricides on R. (B.) microplus collected from rural properties in the North-Central region of Bahia State. Ticks were collected in several cattle farms in the cited region, and an in vitro acaricide efficiency assay was performed based on the immersion of ticks in acaricide solutions made according to manufacturers' recommendations. The results obtained in the experiments indicated varying degrees of efficiency of the several bases studied, with the products benzofenilurea, macrocyclic lactone and fipronil showing the highest levels of efficiency, 100%, 100% and 97.34%, respectively. It was possible to conclude that, for the region studied, there are different degrees of commercial acaricides efficiency, and many present less than 95% effectiveness, value determined as acceptable by the Brazilian legislation. PMID:23538503

  14. A preliminary evaluation of regional ground-water flow in south-central Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Sala, A. M.; Doty, G.C.; Pearson, F.J.

    1973-01-01

    The characteristics of regional ground-water flow were investigated in a 4,500-square-mile region of south-central Washington, centered on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Hanford Reservation. The investigation is part of the Commission's feasibility study on storing high-level radioactive waste in chambers mined in basaltic rocks at a. depth of about 3,000 feet or more below the surface. Ground-water flow., on a regional scale, occurs principally in the basalt and-in interbedded sediments of the Columbia River Group, and is controlled by topography, the structure of the basalt, and the large streams--the Columbia, Snake, and Yakima Rivers. The ground water beneath the main part of the Hanford Reservation, south and west of the Columbia River, inures southeastward from recharge areas in the uplands, including Cold Creek and Dry Creek valleys, and ultimately discharges to the Columbia River south of the reservation: East and southeast of the Columbia River, ground water flows generally southwestward and discharges to the River. The Yakima River valley contains a distinct flow system in which movement is toward the Yakima River from the topographic divides. A large southward-flowing ground-water system beneath the southern flank of the Horse Heaven Hills discharges to the Columbia River in the westward-trending reach downstream from Wallula Gap.

  15. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  16. Regional offshore geology of central and western Solomon Islands and Bougainville, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect

    Vedder, J.G.; Colwell, J.B.; Bruns, T.R.; Cooper, A.K.

    1986-07-01

    The central and western Solomon Islands and the Bougainville regions are parts of a complex island-arc system that includes an intra-arc basin and remnants of both forearc and back-arc depositional wedges. These features formed in response to episodic Cenozoic tectonism along the convergent boundary between the Pacific and Australia-India plates. Presumed early Tertiary southwest-directed subduction of the Pacific plate and associated arc magmatism were curtailed by impingement of the leading edge of the Ontong Java Plateau. Aprons of back-arc and forearc sediment were derived from highstanding parts of the arc during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. Late Tertiary arc-polarity reversal and northeastward-directed subduction of the Woodlark spreading system caused a renewal of island-arc magmatism that completed the construction of the Central Solomons Trough as an enclosed intra-arc basin. Interpretations of multichannel profiles from 1982 and 1984 CCOP/SOPAC Tripartite Cruises of the research vessel R/V S.P. Lee indicate that the Central Solomons Trough is a composite intra-arc basin containing as much as 5.5 km of late Oligocene(.) and younger sedimentary rocks. As many as five lenticular seismic-stratigraphic units can be identified on the basis of unconformities and abrupt velocity changes. Late Miocene and younger folds and faults deform the northeast and southwest flanks of the basin. Profiles across the Kilinailau Trench show Ontong Java Plateau rocks covered by 2-4 km of trench sediment. The inner trench wall consists of folded, upfaulted, and rotated blocks of trench and forearc strata. The deep-water basin northwest of Bougainville is a southeastward extension of the New Ireland forearc basin, the southern margin of which is formed by a subsided part of the early Cenozoic arc. There, Oligocene(.) and younger basin strata, as much as 7 km thick, are deformed by pre-Pliocene faults and folds.

  17. The Diversity of Coolia spp. (Dinophyceae Ostreopsidaceae) in the Central Great Barrier Reef Region

    PubMed Central

    Momigliano, Paolo; Sparrow, Leanne; Blair, David; Heimann, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are important primary producers, crucial in marine food webs. Toxic strains, however, are the main causative agents of non-bacterial seafood poisoning, a major concern for public health worldwide. Despite their importance, taxonomic uncertainty within many genera of dinoflagellates is still high. The genus Coolia includes potentially harmful species and the diversity within the genus is just starting to become apparent. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, cultures were established from strains of Coolia spp. isolated from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Cultures were identified based on thecal plate morphology and analyses of sequences (18S, ITS and 28S) from the nuclear rRNA operon. We report that the central GBR harbors a high diversity of Coolia species, including two species known to be capable of toxin production (C. tropicalis and C. malayensis), as well as the non-toxic C. canariensis. The strain of C. canariensis isolated from the GBR may in fact be a cryptic species, closely related but nevertheless phylogenetically distinct from the strain on which the holotype of C. canariensis was based. We also found evidence of the occurrence of a cryptic species morphologically very similar to both C. malayensis and C. monotis. The consequences of taxonomic confusion within the genus are discussed. Conclusion/Significance The central GBR region harbors a previously unreported high diversity of Coolia spp., including two species known to potentially produce toxins. The presence of a cryptic species of unknown toxicity highlights the importance of cryptic diversity within dinoflagellates. PMID:24194962

  18. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  19. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  20. Central heating plant modernization study for defense distribution Region East. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Durbin, T.E.; McCammon, T.; Carroll, R.

    1996-08-01

    Due to the age of its central heating plant (CHP) equipment and changes in energy industry environmental regulations, the Defense Distribution Region East (DDRE), New Cumberland, PA, began investigating modernization opportunities for its CHP. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was tasked with performing a central heating plant modernization study to determine viable options to provide energy for the coming years. Energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment were determined, and five major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated on the basis of energy consumption and economics, including initial capital costs, annual fuel consumption, and annual Operations and Maintenance (OM) costs. For economy, it was recommended that boiler replacement be delayed until the year 2009, and that natural gas be used as fuel both before and after replacement, provided that funding for a natural gas pipeline can be obtained. If funding to replace the boilers does become available, the small difference in Life Cycle Cost should not delay DDRE from an immediate equipment upgrade.

  1. A sharp Moho step under Central and Eastern Betics, Western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lis Mancilla, Flor; Aguilera-Molina, Antonio; Heit, Benjamin; Morales, Jose; Yuan, Xiaohui; Stich, Daniel; Martin, Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Previous geophysical studies in the northern limit of the western Mediterranean region have showed that the Iberian crust understrusts the Alboran domain under its contact with the External zones. They observe the presence of slab-type feature of Iberian lithosphere at the western Betics and interpret tearing and delamination of this Iberian slab at central and eastern Betics. To map the variations of the lithospheric structure between the different geological domains under central and eastern Betics, we deploy two dense seismic profiles (~120 and ~160 km length). The spacing between stations, around 2-3 km, allows mapping with high accuracy variations of the crustal structure. By interpreting P-receiver functions, we observe sharp Moho steps of ~15-17 km underneath the Internal zones (Alboran domain) at both profiles. The images suggest that the Iberian crust undertrusts the more deformed Alboran crust and terminates sharply under the contact between the Alpujarride and the Nevado-Filabre complexes (Alboran domain). The thickness of the Iberian crust near the edge, ~17 km, and its position along the contact suggest that the breaking of the Iberian slab occurs in the transitional crust of the Iberian Paleomargin.

  2. Remote climate drivers as predictors of precipitation in data sparse regions, an example from Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Samuel G.; Wilby, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    It is widely understood that hydrologic variables, such as precipitation and stream flow can be significantly influenced by large scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Global scale analysis of teleconnection patterns between remote large scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) and hydrologic variables has highlighted the potential for forecasting precipitation anomalies (Dai and Wigley, 2000). Detailed analysis at smaller spatial scales is required to determine the strength of relationships at the catchment scale. These relationships have significant potential for regions with sparse ground based monitoring networks, such as Central Asia. However, sparse observations hinder the determination of relationships between remote climate drivers and patterns of precipitation. The area based nature of remotely sensed precipitation estimates can combat this problem allowing precipitation patterns to be understood at relatively high spatial and temporal scales. Using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation estimates, correlation patterns are determined between several remote climate drivers (ENSO, NAO and South Asian Monsoon) and Central Asian precipitation. Preliminary analysis has shown statistically significant negative correlations between Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and winter precipitation over the headwaters of the Amu Darya (Pamir Mountains, Tajikistan). Introducing a lag interval of up to six months increases correlations across Tajikistan, as well as introducing statistically significant correlations over the headwaters of the Syr Darya (Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan). These findings open promising avenues for exploration, including the potential to use remote climate drivers as predictors for seasonal flow forecasting.

  3. Regional differences in health, diet and weaning patterns amongst the first Neolithic farmers of central Europe.

    PubMed

    Ash, Abigail; Francken, Michael; Pap, Ildikó; Tvrdý, Zdeněk; Wahl, Joachim; Pinhasi, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Across much of central Europe, the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) represents the first Neolithic communities. Arising in Transdanubia around 5500 cal. BC the LBK spread west to the Rhine within two to three hundred years, carrying elements of a mixed agricultural economy and a relatively homogeneous material culture. Colonisation of new regions during this progress would have required economic adaptations to varied ecological conditions within the landscape. This paper investigates whether such adaptation at a local scale affected health patterns and altered the dietary habits of populations that otherwise shared a common cultural and biological origin. Analysis of non-specific stress (linear enamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia) within five LBK populations from across central Europe in conjunction with published carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data from each site revealed a high prevalence of porotic hyperostosis and cribra orbitalia in western populations that was associated with a lower animal protein intake. Hypoplastic enamel was more frequently observed in eastern populations however, and may reflect geographic differences in childhood morbidity and mortality as a result of variation in social practices relating to weaning. Local socio-economic adaptations within the LBK were therefore an important factor in the exposure of populations to non-specific stress. PMID:27385276

  4. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects

    PubMed Central

    Muscedere, Mario L.; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S.; Traniello, James F. A.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations. PMID:24741016

  5. Essential and toxic elements in honeys from a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, M A; Desideri, D; Roselli, C; Benedetti, C; Feduzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in several types of honey produced in a region of Central Italy were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The degree of humidity, sugar content, pH, free acidity, combined acidity (lactones), and total acidity were also measured. These elements were found to be present in honey in various proportions depending upon (1) the area foraged by bees, (2) flower type visited for collection of nectar, and (3) quality of water in the vicinity of the hive. Strong positive correlations occurred between Pb and Hg, Pb and Cd, Pb and Fe, Pb and Cr, Hg and Cd, and Hg and Fe. The honey products synthesized in Central Italy were of good quality, but not completely free of heavy metal contamination. Compared with established recommended daily intakes, heavy metals or trace element intoxication following honey consumption in Italy was found not to be a concern for human health. PMID:26039679

  6. Chandra Observations of The X-ray Jets and Central Region in R Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, E.; Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J.; Lyon, R.

    2001-05-01

    The R Aqr symbiotic binary system is understood to contain an M giant and a compact companion in an evolved stellar system of mass ~2-3 Msun. We reported at HEAD 2000 on the discovery of x-ray jets 0.1 LY in extent using Chandra, whereas radio and UV jets have been discovered in past VLA and HST observations. The SW x-ray jet, 3.8 times fainter than the NE component, is a completely new phenomenon, with no known optical, UV nor radio counterpart. The skewed shape of the jets supports earlier observations of jet precession. We report further on the morphology and x-ray spectra of jet and central components. An adaptively smoothed image of low surface brightness outer portions of the jet is presented. An x-ray spectrum analysis is presented with jet temperatures of ~1.6x 106 K. The spectrum of the central region surrounding the star appears to be hot gas at ~2.1*E7 K, plus Fe I Kα emission, with a suggestion of Kα emission from other elements of similar atomic number, whose origin is yet to be explained. We gratefully acknowledge support from NASA under grant #GO0-1062A and for EK from NASA contract # NAS8-39073.

  7. Peculiar radio structures in the central regions of galaxy cluster Abell 585

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamrozy, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Marchenko, V.; Kuźmicz, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sikora, M.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we analyse the peculiar radio structure observed across the central region of the galaxy cluster Abell 585 (z = 0.12). In the low-resolution radio maps, this structure appears uniform and diffuse on angular scales of ˜3 arcmin, and is seemingly related to the distant (z = 2.5) radio quasar B3 0727+409 rather than to the cluster itself. However, after a careful investigation of the unpublished archival radio data with better angular resolution, we resolve the structure into two distinct arcmin-scale features, which resemble typical lobes of cluster radio galaxies with no obvious connection to the background quasar. We support this conclusion by examining the spectral and polarization properties of the features, demonstrating in addition that the analysed structure can hardly be associated with any sort of a radio mini-halo or relics of the cluster. Yet at the same time we are not able to identify host galaxies of the radio lobes in the available optical and infrared surveys. We consider some speculative explanations for our findings, including gravitational wave recoil kicks of supermassive black holes responsible for the lobes' formation in the process of merging massive ellipticals within the central parts of a rich cluster environment, but we do not reach any robust conclusions regarding the origin of the detected radio features.

  8. Functional-environmental assessment of Chernozems' technogenic changes in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviatova, Tatiana; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena

    2015-04-01

    Long-term research revealed the significant changes in Chernozems of the recreational, urban, industrial and transport areas in the eastern part of the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia. They are reflected in the soil properties and regimes disturbances that determine their environmental functions. The level of the Chernozems' anthropogenic degradation is usually determined not only by their pollutants composition and quantity but by landscape, microclimatic, hydrological and soil features too. The Chernozems strongest degradation has been observed in the industrial zone and central part of Voronezh, and also in the 20-m zone of the highway "Don" with maximum technogenic input intensity and depth. The Chernozems' resistance to contamination is determined by their texture, organic matter content and quality, microbial activity and biochemical processes, pH and redox power. The level of the pollution impact on the organic substances decomposition can be evaluated according to the extracellular biological processes changes from their standard rates: <10% - low-hazard, 10-25% - moderately hazardous, 25-50% - hazardous, > 50% - very hazardous (ecotoxicological scale). The investigated soil types and subtypes have essentially different resistance to their contamination. In case of the gray forest soils already medium input of pollutants often results in irreversible changes in their biocenosis functions. In case of the leached Chernozems 50%-drop in their biological state occurs only at high levels of pollution. The developed criteria reflect the man-made ecosystems' soil principal changes and can be useful in prediction of their environmental functions.

  9. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Barbizzi, S; Calvarese, S; Fico, R; Belli, M; Sansone, U

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e Molise 'G. Caporale' in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella). The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the (137)Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  10. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  11. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    PubMed Central

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  12. The population of galaxies in the central region of the Antlia Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Castelli, A. V.; Bassino, L. P.; Cellone, S. A.; Richtler, T.; Dirsch, B.; Infante, L.; Aruta, C.; Gómez, M.

    We present results of the study of the galaxy population in the central region of the Antlia cluster. Our work is based on Washington photometric observations obtained with the MOSAIC camera of the 4-m Blanco telescope (CTIO), as well as on spectra taken with the IMACS camera at the Magellan I Baade 6.5-m telescope (Las Campanas Observatory). Our main result is that early-type dwarf galaxies that are confirmed or likely members of Antlia define a very narrow relation in the colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). Since in this diagram, the location of different types of galaxies is also tightly related to their membership status, we obtained as an additional result that the CMD can be used to identify background galaxies, which are a significant source of contamination.

  13. Ephrins as negative regulators of adult neurogenesis in diverse regions of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jian-wei; Feldheim, David A.; Chen, Dong Feng

    2008-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in only two restricted areas, the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ). Isolation of multipotent progenitor cells from other CNS regions suggests that their neurogenic potential is dictated by local environmental cues. Here, we report that astrocytes in areas outside of the SGZ and SVZ of adult mice express high levels of ephrin-A2 and -A3, which present an inhibitory niche, negatively regulating neural progenitor cell growth. Adult mice lacking both ephrin-A2 and -A3 display active ongoing neurogenesis throughout the CNS. These findings suggest that neural cell replacement therapies for neurodegeneration or injury in the adult CNS may be achieved by manipulating ephrin signaling pathways. PMID:18562299

  14. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  15. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    PubMed

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  16. Clonal distribution of Streptococcus suis isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Bárbara; Ruiz, Álvaro; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of 29 Chilean field strains of Streptococcus suis recovered between 2007 and 2011 from pigs with clinical signs at different farms were studied. Serotyping with use of the coagglutination test revealed that all but 1 strain belonged to serotype 6; the remaining strain was serotype 22. All the serotype-6 strains were suilysin (hemolysin)-negative; in addition, they were found to be genotypically homogeneous by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and sensitive to ampicillin, ceftiofur, penicillin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The results indicate that, in contrast to what is generally observed in other countries, a single clone of S. suis was isolated from diseased pigs in the central region of Chile. PMID:26424917

  17. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  18. Federally owned coal and Federal lands in the Northern and Central Appalachian Basin coal regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed five coal beds or coal zones in the northern and central Appalachian Basin coal regions for the National Coal Resource Assessment: the Pittsburgh coal bed, the Upper Freeport coal bed, the Fire Clay coal zone, the Pond Creek coal zone, and the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed. The assessment produced stratigraphic and geochemical databases and digital coal maps, or models, which characterized the coal beds and coal zones. Using the assessment models, the USGS estimated original and remaining (unmined) resources for these coal beds or zones. The Appalachian Basin assessment was conducted in collaboration with the State geological surveys of West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, Kentucky, and Virginia.

  19. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J. T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ∼0.2) in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2-90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ∼0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of pollutants

  20. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Anthony M.; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-05-01

    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function f(E), or differential energy distribution N(E), such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through f(E) or N(E) generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at log(r/r-2) lesssim -2, where r-2 is the largest radius where dlog(ρ)/dlog(r) = -2. We show that the shape of their N(E) can roughly predict the amplitude of oscillations. Class 2 systems which are a product of dynamical evolution, consist of observed and simulated galaxies and clusters, and pure dark matter halos. Oscillations in the density profile slope seem pervasive in the central regions of Class 2 systems. We argue that in these systems, slope oscillations are an indication that a system is not fully relaxed. We show that these oscillations can be reproduced by small modifications to N(E) of DARKexp. These affect a small fraction of systems' mass and are confined to log(r/r-2) lesssim 0. The size of these modifications serves as a potential diagnostic for quantifying how far a system is from being relaxed.

  1. Visual function among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Kyei, Samuel; Asare, Frederick Afum; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Awuah, Agnes; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the relationship between some visual functions: colour vision defects, abnormal stereopsis, visual acuity and the occurrence of road traffic accident (RTAs) among commercial vehicle drivers in the central region of Ghana, and to assess their knowledge of these anomalies. Method A descriptive cross-sectional study employing a multi-stage random sampling approach was conducted in the major commercial towns within the central region of Ghana. Participants were taken through a comprehensive eye examination after the administration of a structured questionnaire. Results 520 male commercial vehicle drivers were enrolled for this study with a mean age of 39.23 years ±10.96 years and mean visual acuity of 0.02 ± 0.08 logMAR. Protans were more likely to be involved in RTAs (χ2 = 6.194, p = 0.034). However, there was no statistically significant association between abnormal stereopsis (OR = 0.89 95% CI: 0.44–1.80, p = 0.56), poor vision due to refractive error (χ2 = 3.090, p = 0.388) and the occurrence of RTAs. While 86.9% were aware of abnormal stereopsis, only 45% were aware of colour vision defects. There was a statistically significant association between stereopsis anomaly and colour vision defect (r = 0.371, p < 0.005). Conclusion The study found an association between protanopia and RTAs but none between stereopsis anomalies, refractive errors and the occurrence of RTAs. Drivers were less knowledgeable on colour vision defects as compared to stereopsis anomalies. PMID:26364760

  2. A regional inventory of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the central Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alberti, Stefano; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2013-03-01

    We present a regional inventory of rock glaciers (n = 1514) and protalus ramparts (228) for the Lombardy region, central Italian Alps. To identify and classify the landforms we inspect three sequential air-orthophoto mosaics and a 2 m-DSM, and conduct confirmatory field work. The inventory forms an empirical basis to analyze: (i) the relative contribution of hillslope (i.e., talus slopes) and glacial (i.e., moraines) sediment stores to rock glacier sediment supply; (ii) linkages between the landforms inventoried and local topographic attributes; (iii) the spatial variability of periglacial activity in relation to a parsimonious set of environmental variables (i.e., elevation, precipitation, and lithology); and (iv) the effects of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition on the distribution of intact and relict landforms. This analysis reveals that the elevation of rock glacier termini can vary over 200 m as a function of slope aspect. In turn, the distribution of rock glaciers among aspect categories is controlled by the structure of the valley network that promotes NW and SE exposures. Talus rock glaciers prevail numerically over the glacier-related typology, even though the latter population appears to have increased during the Holocene. Relict and intact rock glaciers have distinct spatial patterns in that the former display, on average, a 400-m elevation drop and a less clustered distribution towards northern aspects, suggesting that they have developed in more "permafrost-prone" climatic conditions. Analyzing the study region through a 27.5 km-grid has been instrumental for showing that the rock glacier specific area and terminus elevation are: (i) positively correlated with terrain elevation; and (ii) negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation. As a consequence, in relation to Holocene generalized atmospheric temperature rise, intact rock glaciers have progressively disappeared from the wetter and milder portions of the central Italian Alps

  3. The Central Regions of Early-Type Galaxies in Nearby Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Lisa Anne

    Remarkably, the central regions of galaxies are very important in shaping and influencing galaxies as a whole. As such, galaxy cores can be used for classification, to determine which processes may be important in galaxy formation and evolution. Past studies, for example, have found a dichotomy in the inner slopes of early-type galaxy surface brightness profiles. Using deprojections of the galaxies from the ACS Virgo and Fornax Cluster Surveys (ACSVCS/FCS), we show that, in fact, this dichotomy does not exist. Instead, we demonstrate that the brightest early-type galaxies tend to have central light deficits, a trend which gradually transitions to central light excesses -- also known as compact stellar nuclei -- as we go to fainter galaxies. This effect is quantified, and can be used to determine what evolutionary factors are important as we move along the galaxy luminosity function. The number of stellar nuclei that we observe is, in fact, an unexpected result emerging from the ACSVCS/FCS. Being three times more common than previously thought, they are present in the vast majority of intermediate and low-luminosity galaxies. Conversely, it has been known for over a decade that there is likely a supermassive black hole weighing millions to billions of solar masses at the center of virtually every galaxy of sufficient size. These black holes are known to follow scaling relations with their host galaxies. Using the ACSVCS, along with new kinematical data from long-slit spectroscopy, we measure the dynamical masses of 83 galaxies, and show that supermassive black holes and nuclei appear to fall along the same scaling relation with host mass. Both represent approximately 0.2% of their host's mass, implying an important link between the two types of central massive objects. Finally, we extract elliptical isophotes and fit parameterized models to the surface brightness profiles of new Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the ACSVCS galaxies, observed in infrared and

  4. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J. P.; Shafer, M. M.; Schauer, J. J.; Solomon, P. A.; Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Cheng, Y. F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; et al

    2015-02-18

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Predicted aerosol optical depth (AOD) values (annual mean value ~0.2) in CA vary seasonally, with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ~10 μg m-3) also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly valuesmore » from 2 to 90 μg m-3). Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC) (mean value ~0.1 μg m-3) show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD as well as PM2.5, PM10, BC, and organic carbon (OC) mass concentrations at two regional sites in Kyrgyzstan (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST) and Bishkek). The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrates that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  5. Description of data files compiled for the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helgesen, John O.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    1989-01-01

    Several types of geologic and hydrologic data were collected and compiled as part of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. The study described the hydrology of Cambrian-age through Cretaceous-age rocks in all of Kansas and Nebraska and parts of eight other states. Information from both water wells and petroleum wells was obtained from numerous State, Federal, and private sources. The completeness, quality, and distribution of the data varies considerably. Most data files contain data selected to represent the regional scope of the study. The log data file contains about 850 lithologic logs and about 750 geophysical logs. The hydraulic-head data file contains about 1 ,400 measured water levels and about 2,600 values of equivalent freshwater head derived from drill-stem-test analyses. The hydrochemical data file contains about 2,900 water quality analyses. The aquifer-property data file contains about 1,050 values. In addition to site-specific data, areal information in the form of model-data arrays is available for initial hydraulic head, transmissivity, and vertical leakance. These data describe the major geohydrologic units studied in terms of a three-dimensional grid, 28 rows x 33 columns x 5 layers. Parts of the hydraulic-head, hydrochemical, and aquifer-property data files are proprietary. The fluid-withdrawal data file was developed for study use only. Most other data described herein are available on magnetic tape from the U.S. Geological Survey in Lawrence, Kansas. (USGS)

  6. Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

  7. Modeling and mapping regional land use/land cover change in South Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranatunga, T.; Messen, D.

    2014-12-01

    Houston-Galveston Area Council (H-GAC) conducted a land use/land cover (LULC) change detection study to generate information about the LULC changes in a 15-county area of South Central Texas. Such information is essential in regional planning, natural resource management, monitoring and modeling of environmental characteristics. The objectives of this study are (1) Identification of regional spatial patterns of each LULC conversion, (2) Estimation of the area coverage of each LULC conversion, and (3) Estimation of the net gain and losses of each LULC classes. To achieve these objectives, ArcGIS Spatial analysis functions and data management tools were employed in python environment. Change detection was estimated from 1992 to 2011 using datasets from NLCD (National Land Cover Database) 1992, NLCD 2001 and NOAA C-CAP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Coastal Change Analysis Program) 2011. Through visual analysis and comparisons with aerial imagery, we established that NLCD 1992 and 2001 datasets contained more classification inaccuracies than the NOAA 2011 dataset. The misclassified cells in the 1992 and 2001 NLCD datasets were corrected to be consistent with the 2011 C-CAP dataset. The NLCD 2001 dataset was first corrected using a logical evaluation with 2011 classes in each pixel. Then the NLCD 1992 dataset was corrected using the correct 2001 dataset. After correcting 1992 dataset, a cell by cell comparison was conducted with the NOAA 2011 dataset, and individual changes were recorded.

  8. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    PubMed

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation. PMID:25980715

  9. Health in the central and eastern countries of the WHO European Region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nanda, A; Nossikov, A; Prokhorskas, R; Shabanah, M H

    1993-01-01

    The enormous social, political and economic changes that began in the CCEE/NIS in the late 1980s included the revelation and public discussion of a widening health gap between these countries and the other Member States of the European Region. The continuing economic problems and their effects on health increase the urgency of the need for assistance from the international community. Diverging trends in life expectancy became evident in the mid-1970s, and the gap continued to widen in the 1980s for all major causes of death, particularly cardiovascular diseases. The situation is worse in the NIS than in the CCEE, and worst in the central Asian countries. In 1990, the worst infant mortality rate in these countries was eight times the best rate elsewhere in the Region. Non-mortality data, while patchy, confirm the indications given by mortality data. There is no single reason for the health gap, but contributory factors include the increasing prevalence of major risk factors in lifestyles and the environment, and the low efficiency and effectiveness of health care systems. The current situation and short-term prospects are mixed, but the negative trends in mortality and morbidity patterns are likely to continue for some time. While the worst health problems of the transition period in the CCEE/NIS could largely have been avoided, there is no doubt that economizing on health today will exact large costs tomorrow.

  10. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  11. The flood event of 10-12 November 2013 on the Tiber River basin (central Italy): real-time flood forecasting with uncertainty supporting risk management and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Italian national hydro-meteorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres, CF). Umbria Region (central Italy) CF provides early warning for floods and landslides, real-time monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) for the Civil Defence Authorities when significant events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. The real-time flood forecasting system is based also on different hydrological and hydraulic forecasting models. Among these, the MISDc rainfall-runoff model ("Modello Idrologico SemiDistribuito in continuo"; Brocca et al., 2011) and the flood routing model named STAFOM-RCM (STAge Forecasting Model-Rating Curve Model; Barbetta et al., 2014) are continuously operative in real-time providing discharge and stage forecasts, respectively, with lead-times up to 24 hours (when quantitative precipitation forecasts are used) in several gauged river sections in the Upper-Middle Tiber River basin. Models results are published in real-time in the open source CF web platform: www.cfumbria.it. MISDc provides discharge and soil moisture forecasts for different sub-basins while STAFOM-RCM provides stage forecasts at hydrometric sections. Moreover, through STAFOM-RCM the uncertainty of the forecast stage hydrograph is provided in terms of 95% Confidence Interval (CI) assessed by analyzing the statistical properties of model output in terms of lateral. In the period 10th-12th November 2013, a severe flood event occurred in Umbria mainly affecting the north-eastern area and causing significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties. The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 400 mm in 72 hours. In the most affected area, the recorded rainfall depths

  12. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  13. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  14. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  15. Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35°S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the

  16. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries. PMID:24636888

  17. Assessment of carbon footprint and energy performance of the extra virgin olive oil chain in Umbria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E

    2014-06-01

    The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries.

  18. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  19. Estimation of Vulnerability of Coastal Regions Using the Central Pressure of Typhoon Based on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimura, R.

    2014-12-01

    Typhoons strike the Kyushu Island in the west of Japan a few times a year. Damage of the maritime structures by storm surges and wind waves induced by typhoon frequently occurs in the western prefectures, for example, Kumamoto Prefecture. The coastline in this prefecture is complex. It faces open and closed seas. The coastline is divided into 4 coastal regions in this paper. Each coast has different topographical characteristics. Using data on the damage of maritime structures caused by typhoons during past 25 years from 1980 to 2004 and the path and central pressure of typhoons during past 110 years from 1902 to 2011, damage of 4 regions along the coast line of Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan for 13 groups of typhoon with different paths is estimated. All typhoons had passed through an area delineated by a latitude of 30° N and 35° N and at a longitude of 127° E and 132° E. The improved Central Pressure (iCP) Method can be used to estimate the damage of maritime structures that will occur along the coast before typhoon strikes. The improved Central Pressure Method is developed based on the 25 years from 1980 to 2004. The estimation of the damage is done using the central pressure of typhoon at a latitude of 30° N. To develop the central pressure method considering the influence of global warming, the data of the central pressure of typhoons based on the 100 years more term is needed. The trend of the depression of central pressure due to the global warming is discussed using the central pressure based on the 110 years term typhoon data. Furthermore, the risk of each coastal regions in a future is estimated using the increasing or decreasing value of central pressure which is determined on this period data.

  20. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  1. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for <15% of TSP, but most TSP is only slightly larger (typical median size, 15-20 μm) after about 100-800 km transport distances. Correlations between TSP and PM10 values indicate increases in both fractions during regional wind storms, especially related to Pacific frontal systems during late winter to late spring. These measurements and observations indicate that most dust deposition and associated air-quality problems in the interior American West are connected to regional dust sources and not to those in

  2. Central nervous system PET-CT imaging reveals regional impairments in pediatric patients with Wolfram syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zmyslowska, Agnieszka; Malkowski, Bogdan; Fendler, Wojciech; Borowiec, Maciej; Antosik, Karolina; Gnys, Piotr; Baranska, Dobromila; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is inherited as an autosomal recessive disease with main clinical features of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness. However, various neurological defects may also be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate aspects of brain structure and function using PET-CT (positron emission tomography and computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) in pediatric patients with WFS. Regional changes in brain glucose metabolism were measured using standardized uptake values (SUVs) based on images of (18F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in 7 WFS patients aged 10.1-16.0 years (mean 12.9±2.4) and in 20 healthy children aged 3-17.9 years (mean 12.8±4.1). In all patients the diagnosis of WFS was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the WFS1 gene. Hierarchical clustering showed remarkable similarities of glucose uptake patterns among WFS patients and their differences from the control group. SUV data were subsequently standardized for age groups <13 years old and>13 years old to account for developmental differences. Reduced SUVs in WFS patients as compared to the control group for the bilateral brain regions such as occipital lobe (-1.24±1.20 vs. -0.13±1.05; p = 0.028) and cerebellum (-1.11±0.69 vs. -0.204±1.00; p = 0.036) were observed and the same tendency for cingulate (-1.13±1.05 vs. -0.15±1.12; p = 0.056), temporal lobe (-1.10±0.98 vs. -0.15±1.10; p = 0.057), parietal lobe (-1.06±1.20 vs. -0.08±1.08; p = 0.058), central region (-1.01±1.04 vs. -0.09±1.06; p = 0.060), basal ganglia (-1.05±0.74 vs. -0.20±1.07; p = 0.066) and mesial temporal lobe (-1.06±0.82 vs. -0.26±1.08; p = 0.087) was also noticed. After adjusting for multiple hypothesis testing, the differences in glucose uptake were non-significant. For the first time, regional differences in brain glucose metabolism among patients with WFS were shown using PET-CT imaging.

  3. INTERFEROMETRIC CO(3-2) OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE CENTRAL REGION OF NGC 1068

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Mengchun; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Matsushita, Satoki; Espada, Daniel; Baker, Andrew J.

    2012-02-20

    We present CO(3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 using the Submillimeter Array, together with CO(1-0) data taken with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission lines are mainly distributed within {approx}5 arcsec of the nucleus and along the spiral arms, but the intensity distributions show differences: the CO(3-2) map peaks in the nucleus, while the CO(1-0) emission is mainly located along the spiral arms. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio is about 3.1 in the nucleus, which is four times as large as the average line ratio in the spiral arms, suggesting that the molecular gas there must be affected by the radiation arising from the active galactic nucleus. On the other hand, the line ratios in the spiral arms vary over a wide range from 0.24 to 2.34 with an average value around 0.75, which is similar to the line ratios of star formation regions, indicating that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. Besides, we see a tight correlation between CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratios in the spiral arms and star formation rate surface densities derived from Spitzer 8 {mu}m dust flux densities. We also compare the CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio and the star formation rate at different positions within the spiral arms; both are found to decrease as the radius from the nucleus increases.

  4. Particulate matter source apportionment in a village situated in industrial region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Pokorná, P; Hovorka, J; Krouzek, J; Hopke, P K

    2013-12-01

    The bilinear receptor model positive matrix factorization (PMF) was used to apportion particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 1-10 microm (PM1-10) sources in a village, Brezno, situated in an industrial region of northern Bohemia in Central Europe. The receptor model analyzed the data sets of 90- and 60-min integrations of PM1-10 mass concentrations and elemental composition for 27 elements. The 14-day sampling campaigns were conducted in the village in summer 2008 and winter 2010. Also, to ensure seasonal and regional representativeness of the data sets recorded in the village, the spatial-temporal variability of the 24-hr PM10 and PM1-10 within 2008-2010 in winter and summer across the multiple sites was evaluated. There were statistically significant interseasonal differences of the 24-hr PM data, but not intrasummer or intrawinter differences of the 24-hr PM1-10 data across the multiple sites. PMF resolved seven sources of PM1-10. They were high-temperature coal combustion; combustion in local heating boilers; marine aerosol; mineral dust; primary biological/wood burning; road dust, car brakes; and gypsum. The main summer factors were assigned to mineral dust (38.2%) and primary biological/wood burning (33.1%). In winter, combustion factors dominated (80%) contribution to PM1-10. The conditional probability function (CPF) helped to identified local sources of PM1-10. The source of marine aerosol from the North Sea and English Channel was indicated by the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT).

  5. Helium Isotope Compositions in Springs From the Three Sisters Region, Central Oregon, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B. M.; Evans, W. C.; Mariner, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    The Three Sisters region has recently come under increased scrutiny after the discovery by Satellite Radar Interferometry (InSAR) of a broad area of uplift centered approximately 5 km west of the South Sister volcanic edifice (Wicks et al., 2001). The bulge, which at its center reaches a maximum of 10 cm, formed between 1998-2000. The exact cause for the uplift is unknown, but observations from other volcanoes and results from numerical modeling imply that the most likely cause is the movement of magma up to mid-crustal ( ~6.5 km depth) levels (Wicks et al., 2001). The area of uplift coincides with an area where spring chemistry shows anomalously high levels of chloride and carbon emissions (Ingebritsen et al., 1994). These features pre-date the bulge by at least a decade and can also be indicative of a magmatic source. It is unclear if the bulge and the geochemical anomalies are directly related, but both point to the presence of magma below the Three Sisters area. Within the scope of a monitoring project that has recently been initiated to study the development of the bulge and any accompanying changes in the fluid/gas chemistry of springs in the Three Sisters area, 10 gas samples were collected for noble gas analysis in July 2001. Two of these samples were taken from cold bubbling springs located close to the center of the bulge and the remaining 8 were obtained from well documented geothermal springs within the general area of Central Oregon. Helium isotope ratios (reported as Rc/Ra where Rc = air corrected 3He/4Hesample and Ra = 3He/4Heair) for these 8 samples range from 2.8 to 5.1 Ra which is in agreement with existing data reported in a study carried out by Unocal in the early 1980's of geothermal springs in this area. The data show a relationship with distance to the bulge/South Sister volcano: all samples within a radius of ~30 km have helium isotope ratios in the range of 4.5 to 5.1 Ra, while samples that fall outside this radius have distinctly lower

  6. Differential sensitivity to regional-scale drought in six central US grasslands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Alan K; Carroll, Charles J W; Denton, Elsie M; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Collins, Scott L; Smith, Melinda D

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems often vary dramatically in their responses to drought, but the reasons for this are unclear. With climate change forecasts for more frequent and extensive drought in the future, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that determine differential ecosystem sensitivity to drought is needed. In 2012, the Central US experienced the fourth largest drought in a century, with a regional-scale 40% reduction in growing season precipitation affecting ecosystems ranging from desert grassland to mesic tallgrass prairie. This provided an opportunity to assess ecosystem sensitivity to a drought of common magnitude in six native grasslands. We tested the prediction that drought sensitivity is inversely related to mean annual precipitation (MAP) by quantifying reductions in aboveground net primary production (ANPP). Long-term ANPP data available for each site (mean length = 16 years) were used as a baseline for calculating reductions in ANPP, and drought sensitivity was estimated as the reduction in ANPP per millimeter reduction in precipitation. Arid grasslands were the most sensitive to drought, but drought responses and sensitivity varied by more than twofold among the six grasslands, despite all sites experiencing 40% reductions in growing season precipitation. Although drought sensitivity generally decreased with increasing MAP as predicted, there was evidence that the identity and traits of the dominant species, as well as plant functional diversity, influenced sensitivity. A more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms leading to differences in drought sensitivity will require multi-site manipulative experiments designed to assess both biotic and abiotic determinants of ecosystem sensitivity.

  7. Radiological studies in the hot spring region of Mahallat, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Beitollahi, M; Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Esmaeli, A; Dunker, R

    2007-01-01

    Five hot springs called 'Abegarm-e-Mahallat', located in the central part of Iran, have a mean water temperature of 46 +/- 1 degrees C and are used by visitors as spas. This is an area of high natural radiation background due to the presence of (226)Ra and its decay products in the deposited travertine (CaCO(3)). The mean concentration of (226)Ra in these hot springs, measured by the emanation method, ranged from 0.48 +/- 0.05 to 1.35 +/- 0.13 Bq l(-1). (222)Rn concentrations measured in the hot springs using a liquid scintillation counter ranged from 145 +/- 37 to 2731 +/- 98 Bq l(-1). Mean radon concentrations in air were 487 +/- 160 and 15.4 +/- 2.7 Bq m(-3) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. Radiation levels above that of normal background ( approximately 100 nGy h(-1)) were mainly limited to the Quaternary travertine formations in the vicinity of the hot springs. The results of environmental radiological studies in this region are presented and discussed. PMID:17166871

  8. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  9. Ecological aspects of the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperettii in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadoon, Mohammad K.; Paray, Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Feeding ecology of any species can help us to understand its natural history, ecological requirements and approaches involved in searching for food. Feeding ecology and sexual dimorphism in the horned viper, Cerastes cerastes gasperetti collected from the Al-Thumama area, central region of Saudi Arabia was described. The gut content of Cerastes c. gasperetti mainly consisted of rodents (70%) in addition to arthropods (15%) and lizards (10%). Least sexual size dimorphism was noticed in the species in terms of total length. Significant difference was noticed between males and females in terms of two correlation points vent tail length (VT) and total length (TL) with the males attaining a larger size (P < 0.05). The mean number of the dorsal body scales, ventrals and subcaudals for the females was 102, 156 and 33 scales respectively which were significantly different from respective ones in males 95, 160 and 38 scales. There are many aspects of the feeding of this snake that remain unknown and further studies are clearly needed. PMID:26858550

  10. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Aysen; Celik, Zumrut; Akbulut, Mustafa; Bilgener, Sukriye; Ercisli, Sezai; Gunes, Mehmet; Gercekcioglu, Resul; Esitken, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66), while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84) in terms of morphology. PMID:24453921

  11. An exploration of nitrate concentrations in groundwater aquifers of central-west region of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Ratan K; Hasnat, Mohammad A; Hossain, Shahadat; Ikeue, Keita; Machida, Masato

    2008-11-30

    Groundwater and river water samples were collected from the study area to investigate the spatial distribution of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the central-west region of Bangladesh. The shallow and deep groundwater nitrate concentrations ranged from <0.10 to 75.12 and <0.10 to 40.78 mg/L, respectively. Major river water NO(3)(-) concentrations were ranged from 0.98 to 2.32 mg/L with an average of 1.8 mg/L. The average Cl(-)/NO(3)(-) ratio (4.9) of major river water has been considered as reference point to delineate denitrification processes. The alluvial fan, alluvial, deltaic and coastal deposits shallow groundwater having C1(-)/NO(3)(-) values less than that of the average river water value (4.9), suggested denitrification processes within the aquifers. On the other hand, denitrification processes are insignificant in the Pleistocene terraces area aquifers related to relatively higher concentrations of nitrate. Iron pyrite has been found as insignificant effect on denitrification. PMID:18406518

  12. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  13. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  14. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity.

  15. The Frequency of Exfoliation Syndrome in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Raşit; Sezer, Hafize; Çomçalı, Sebile Ü.; Bayraktar, Serdar; Göktolga, Gökay; Çakmak, Yasin; Çetin, Abdi B.; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of exfoliation syndrome in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey and to evaluate its relationship with cardiovascular and ocular diseases. Methods. Patients over the age of 45 years who presented to the clinic were included in the study. All cases underwent a comprehensive ophthalmology examination. Exfoliation syndrome was diagnosed with the presence of exfoliative material on the lens anterior capsule or iris on slit lamp examination. The patients were divided into two groups as the exfoliation syndrome group and nonexfoliation syndrome group according to the presence of exfoliative material. Results. Exfoliative material was found in one or both eyes of 212 of the 2103 patients (10.1%) evaluated within the scope of the study. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and increasing age and male gender. A significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and glaucoma, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and phacodonesis. While no relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and hypertension or diabetes mellitus, a significant relationship was found with coronary artery disease. Conclusion. The unilateral or bilateral exfoliation syndrome frequency was 10.1% in this hospital-based study. A statistically significant relationship was found between exfoliation syndrome and advancing age, gender, and coronary artery disease. PMID:25165574

  16. Radiological studies in the hot spring region of Mahallat, Central Iran.

    PubMed

    Beitollahi, M; Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Esmaeli, A; Dunker, R

    2007-01-01

    Five hot springs called 'Abegarm-e-Mahallat', located in the central part of Iran, have a mean water temperature of 46 +/- 1 degrees C and are used by visitors as spas. This is an area of high natural radiation background due to the presence of (226)Ra and its decay products in the deposited travertine (CaCO(3)). The mean concentration of (226)Ra in these hot springs, measured by the emanation method, ranged from 0.48 +/- 0.05 to 1.35 +/- 0.13 Bq l(-1). (222)Rn concentrations measured in the hot springs using a liquid scintillation counter ranged from 145 +/- 37 to 2731 +/- 98 Bq l(-1). Mean radon concentrations in air were 487 +/- 160 and 15.4 +/- 2.7 Bq m(-3) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. Radiation levels above that of normal background ( approximately 100 nGy h(-1)) were mainly limited to the Quaternary travertine formations in the vicinity of the hot springs. The results of environmental radiological studies in this region are presented and discussed.

  17. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this carbo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100km/hr.

  18. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential for dirigibles as transports in the Selva Central region of Peru was evaluated by means of a mission and economic analysis. A total requirement to transport over 19 million tons (t) of agricultural produce, lumber, and meat was projected by the year 2004. A primary route involving zones for loading and delivering this cargo was identified. Although dirigibles are capable of short field operation, all existing airfields must be enlarged in width to allow for all conditions of wind and weather and to provide space for overnight mooring. A maintenance base and operations headquarters, complete with hangar and other service facilities would be required. The quantities of cargo to be carried establish requirements for fleets of dirigibles of various sizes and capacities. Cargo capacities of 5 to 100 tons were identified. Fleet sizes up to 106 dirigibles (in 20 t capacities) would be required. Dirigibles were assumed to be of the nonrigid type except in the 100 t category for which rigid characteristics were assumed. A method of determining dirigible costs was developed. The values derived were then applied to an economic analysis to determine initial investment and operating costs. It was found that larger dirigibles of approximately 20 t capacities or higher could offer significant cost benefits over airplanes, provided cruise speeds were higher than 100 km/hr.

  19. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

    PubMed Central

    Rondelaud, Daniel; Vignoles, Philippe; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra). Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%), Haplometra cylindracea (5.3%) and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10). The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat. PMID:26692260

  20. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma.

  1. Sedimentary environments of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoffin, Terence P.; Tudhope, Alexander W.

    1985-09-01

    The sediments and calcareous organisms on the outer reefal shelf of the Central Region of the Great Barrier Reef were collected and observed by SCUBA diving and research vessel techniques (including underwater television) to understand the production and processes of deposition of the sediment. The carbonate grains are mainly sand and gravel size and solely of skeletal origin. Over the whole area the major CaCO3 producers, in order of decreasing importance are: benthic foraminiferans (chiefly Operculina, Amphistegina, Marginopora, Alveolinella and Cycloclypeus), the calcareous green alga Halimeda, molluscs and corals. Coral abundance is high only close to reefs and submerged rocky substrates. Benthic foraminiferal sands dominate the inter-reef areas i.e. the bulk of the shelf, and Halimeda gravels form an outer shelf band between 60 and 100 m depths. Seven distinct facies are recognised after quantitative analyses of the sediments. These are: A. Shelf edge slope (>120 m depth); B. Shelf edge (with rocky outcrops); C. Outer shelf with high Halimeda (>40%); D. Inter-reef I; E. Inter-reef II ( 100 m depth but >2% pelagics); F. Lee-ward reef talus wedge (<2 km from sea level reefs); G. Lagoonal.

  2. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  3. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans.

  4. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  5. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, Marylynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John (Ryan)

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  6. Broadband regional waveform modeling to investigate crustal structure and tectonics of the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Jennifer Lyn

    We use broadband regional waveform modeling of earthquakes in the central Andes to determine seismic properties of the Altiplano crust. Properties of the shear-coupled P-wavetrain (SPL ) from intermediate-depth events provide particularly important information about the structure of the crust. We utilize broadband seismic data recorded at the BANJO and SEDA stations, and synthetic seismograms computed with a reflectivity technique to study the sensitivity of SPL to crustal and upper mantle parameters at regional distances. We find that the long-period SPL-wavetrain is most sensitive to crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios, average crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. A comprehensive grid search method developed to investigate these four parameters suggests that although trade-offs exist between model parameters, models of the Altiplano which provide the best fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust. We apply our grid search technique and sensitivity analysis results to model the full waveforms from 6 intermediate-depth and 2 shallow-focus earthquakes recorded at regional distances by BANJO and SEDA stations. Results suggest that the Altiplano crust is much thicker (55--65 km) and slower (5.75--6.25 km/s) than global average values. Low crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios together with the lack of evidence for a high-velocity lower crust suggests a bulk felsic crustal composition, resulting in an overall weak crust. Our results favor a model of crustal thickening involving large-scale tectonic shortening of a predominantly felsic crust. To better understand the mechanics of earthquake rupture along the South American subduction zone, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic P-waves and utilize single- and multi-station inversion techniques to constrain source characteristics for the 12 November 1996 Peru subduction zone earthquake. Aftershock locations, intensity reports

  7. On the long-term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2016-02-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). The modeling system's air quality related outputs were evaluated using AirBase, and EMEP surface measurements showed reasonable reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), but the annual cycle of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) is more biased. In terms of hourly correlations, values achieved for ozone and NO2 are 0.5-0.8 and 0.4-0.6, but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. European air quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to

  8. On the long term impact of emissions from central European cities on regional air-quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huszar, P.; Belda, M.; Halenka, T.

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the impact of urban emission from Central European cities on the present-day regional air-quality, the regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled with the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions. A series of simulations was carried out for the 2001-2010 period either with all urban emissions included (base case) or without considering urban emissions. Further, the sensitivity of ozone production to urban emissions was examined by performing reduction experiments with -20 % emission perturbation of NOx and/or NMVOC. The validation of the modeling system's air-quality related outputs using AirBase and EMEP surface measurements showed satisfactory reproduction of the monthly variation for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In terms of hourly correlations, reasonable values are achieved for ozone (r around 0.5-0.8) and for NO2 (0.4-0.6), but SO2 is poorly or not correlated at all with measurements (r around 0.2-0.5). The modeled fine particulates (PM2.5) are usually underestimated, especially in winter, mainly due to underestimation of nitrates and carbonaceous aerosols. EC air-quality measures were chosen as metrics describing the cities emission impact on regional air pollution. Due to urban emissions, significant ozone titration occurs over cities while over rural areas remote from cities, ozone production is modeled, mainly in terms of number of exceedances and accumulated exceedances over the threshold of 40 ppbv. Urban NOx, SO2 and PM2.5 emissions also significantly contribute to concentrations in the cities themselves (up to 50-70 % for NOx and SO2, and up to 60 % for PM2.5), but the contribution is large over rural areas as well (10-20 %). Although air pollution over cities is largely determined by the local urban emissions, considerable (often a few tens of %) fraction of the concentration is attributable to other sources from rural areas and minor cities. Further

  9. Calibration of strong motion models for Central America region and its use in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Climent, A.; Benito, M. B.; Piedra, R.; Lindholm, C.; Gaspar-Escribano, J.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study aimed at choosing the more suitable strong-motion models for seismic hazard analysis in the Central America (CA) Region. After a careful revision of the state of the art, different models developed for subduction and volcanic crustal zones, in tectonic environment similar to those of CA, were selected. These models were calibrated with accelerograms recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua and El Salvador. The peak ground acceleration PGA and Spectral Acceleration SA (T) derived from the records were compared with the ones predicted by the models in similar conditions of magnitude, distance and soil. The type of magnitude (Ms, Mb, MW), distance (Rhyp, Rrup, etc) and ground motion parameter (maximum horizontal component, geometrical mean, etc ) was taken into account in the comparison with the real data. As results of the analysis, the models which present a best fit with the local data were identified. These models have been applied for carrying out seismic hazard analysis in the region, in the frame of the RESIS II project financed by the Norwegian Foreign Department and also by the Spanish project SISMOCAES. The methodology followed is based on the direct comparison between PGA and SA 5 % damped response values extracted from actual records with the corresponding acceleration values predicted by the selected ground-motion models for similar magnitude, distance and soil conditions. Residuals between observed and predicted values for PGA, and SA (1sec) are calculated and plotted as a function of distance and magnitude, analyzing their deviation from the mean value. Besides and most important, a statistical analysis of the normalized residuals was carry out using the criteria proposed by Scherbaum et al. (2004), which consists in categorizing ground motion models based in a likelihood parameter that reflects the goodness-of-fit of the median values as well as the shape of the underlying distribution of ground motion residuals. Considering

  10. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  11. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, Tatiana V.; Giglio, Louis; Boschetti, Luigi; Justice, Christopher O.

    2012-06-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass- and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia. This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually. Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia. Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region. Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution. Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data. We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001 and 2009. The results show that on average ˜15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area burned in August and September in grasslands. Fire is used as a common crop residue management practice across the region. Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan, where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands, respectively, are burned annually.

  12. Preface to the special issue on "Regional moment tensors and stress field in South and Central America"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, Franck; Zahradnik, Jiri; Assumpção, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    This special issue follows from the Symposium "Regional Moment Tensor Solutions: advances and new applications" held in Bogotá, Colombia, at the I Regional Assembly of the IASPEI's Latin American and Caribbean Seismological Commission (LACSC) in 2014. Seven papers are presented dealing with determination of moment tensors, focal mechanisms and the stress field in Central and South America. The study areas of each paper are indicated in the index Map of Fig. 1.

  13. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  14. 78 FR 37537 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Independent System Operators; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory... Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators (RTOs/ISOs) (centralized capacity markets)....

  15. Moment tensor analysis of the Central Italy Earthquake Sequence of September-October 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekström, Göran; Morelli, Andrea; Boschi, Enzo; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    The larger earthquakes in the Umbria-Marche (central Italy) seismic sequence of September-October 1997 are analyzed using long-period seismograms from the Mediterranean seismographic network (MedNet) and additional data from the global seismographic network (GSN). We modify the Harvard centroid-moment tensor (CMT) algorithm to allow moment tensor inversion of long-period waveforms, primarily Rayleigh and Love waves, for small earthquakes at local to regional distances (Δ<15°). For the three largest earthquakes (MW>5.5) in the sequence, moment tensors have previously been determined using teleseismic waveforms and standard methods of analysis; our results agree well with those of earlier studies. We determine additional moment tensors for the largest foreshock and 10 aftershocks with MW>4.2. The earthquakes are characterized by normal faulting mechanisms, with a NE-SW tension axis, and the presumed fault plane dips towards the SW. Only one of the fourteen events studied has a different faulting geometry, indicating instead right-lateral strike-slip faulting on a plane oriented approximately E-W, or left-lateral faulting on a plane oriented N-S. The September 26 mainshock (09:40 UT) accounts for only approximately ˜50% of the total moment release in the sequence.

  16. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  17. Popular Participation and Farming Systems Research and Extension: Examining the Central Visayas Regional Project 1 in Bohol, Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubchen, Jonathan M.

    The Central Visayas Regional Project (CVRP) 1 aims to use community based participation to address environmental dilemmas, particularly watershed management, which are exacerbated by harmful local production practices. The CVRP employs many characteristics of Farming Systems Research and Extension (FSR&E) which provides technical training in…

  18. Central Virginia Community College and Virginia's Region 2000: A Quality First Partnership for a Community of Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelan, Belle; And Others

    Based on the principles of quality and productivity improvement, Central Virginia Community College's (CVCC's) Quality First initiative is designed to provide continuous quality training to existing business, government, and educational institutions and enhance regional development activities to attract new business and jobs. Since its inception…

  19. CFD model of ITER CICC. Part VI: Heat and mass transfer between cable region and central channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanino, R.; Giors, S.; Richard, L. Savoldi

    2010-03-01

    Dual-channel cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC) are used in the superconducting magnets for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As the CICC axial/transverse size ratio is typically ˜1000, 1D axial models are customarily used for the CICC, but they require constitutive relations for the transverse fluxes. A novel approach, based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), was recently proposed by these authors to understand the complex transverse thermal-hydraulic processes in an ITER CICC from first principles. Multidimensional (2D, 3D) Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes models implemented in the commercial CFD code FLUENT were validated against compact heat exchanger and ITER-relevant experimental data, and applied to compute the friction factor and the heat transfer coefficient in fully turbulent spiral rib-roughened pipes, mimicking the central channel of an ITER CICC. That analysis is extended here to the problem of heat and mass transfer through the perforated spiral separating the central channel from the cable bundle region, by combining the previously developed central channel model with a porous medium model for the cable region. The resulting 2D model is used to analyze several key features of the transport processes occurring between the two regions including the relation between transverse mass transfer and transverse pressure drop, the influence of transverse mass transfer on axial pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient between central channel and annular cable bundle region.

  20. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  1. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  2. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  3. Managing the Night Off-Peak Power Demand in the Central Region UPS with Newly Commissioned NPP Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Aminov, R. Z.; Pron’, D. M.

    2014-01-15

    The use of hydrogen technologies as a controlled-load consumer based on the newly commissioned base-load nuclear power plants to level out the daily load profile is justified for the Unified Power System (UPS) of the Central Region of Russia, as an example, for the period till 2020.

  4. Sociological Variables Perceived in the Study of Ghanaian Languages in Central and Western Regional Colleges of Education in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaicoe, Kate; Adams, Francis Hull; Bersah, Vivian Adoboah; Baah, Kwabena Appiah

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in two Colleges of Education in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana to find out how Colleges of Education students and tutors perceive the study of Ghanaian Languages. The target population comprised all staff and students of the Colleges of Education but the accessible population comprised students and tutors of the…

  5. Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 122

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apthorp, Helen; Wang, Xin; Ryan, Susan; Cicchinelli, Louis F.

    2012-01-01

    This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement. Key…

  6. The PRESSCA operational early warning system for landslide forecasting: the 11-12 November 2013 rainfall event in Central Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, Luca; Brocca, Luca; Ponziani, Francesco; Berni, Nicola; Stelluti, Marco; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2014-05-01

    The Umbria Region, located in Central Italy, is one of the most landslide risk prone area in Italy, almost yearly affected by landslides events at different spatial scales. For early warning procedures aimed at the assessment of the hydrogeological risk, the rainfall thresholds represent the main tool for the Italian Civil Protection System. As shown in previous studies, soil moisture plays a key-role in landslides triggering. In fact, acting on the pore water pressure, soil moisture influences the rainfall amount needed for activating a landslide. In this work, an operational physically-based early warning system, named PRESSCA, that takes into account soil moisture for the definition of rainfall thresholds is presented. Specifically, the soil moisture conditions are evaluated in PRESSCA by using a distributed soil water balance model that is recently coupled with near real-time satellite soil moisture product obtained from ASCAT (Advanced SCATterometer) and from in-situ monitoring data. The integration of three different sources of soil moisture information allows to estimate the most accurate possible soil moisture condition. Then, both observed and forecasted rainfall data are compared with the soil moisture-based thresholds in order to obtain risk indicators over a grid of ~ 5 km. These indicators are then used for the daily hydrogeological risk evaluation and management by the Civil Protection regional service, through the sharing/delivering of near real-time landslide risk scenarios (also through an open source web platform: www.cfumbria.it). On the 11th-12th November, 2013, Umbria Region was hit by an exceptional rainfall event with up to 430mm/72hours that resulted in significant economic damages, but fortunately no casualties among the population. In this study, the results during the rainfall event of PRESSCA system are described, by underlining the model capability to reproduce, two days in advance, landslide risk scenarios in good spatial and temporal

  7. An X-Ray Spectral Analysis of the Central Regions of NGC 4593

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Laura W.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wilms, Jörn; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of XMM-Newton EPIC-pn data for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593. We discuss the X-ray spectral properties of this source, as well as its variations with time. The 0.5-10 keV spectrum shows significant complexity beyond a simple power-law form, with clear evidence existing for a ``soft excess,'' as well as absorption by highly ionized plasma (a warm absorber) within the central engine of this active galactic nucleus. We show that the soft excess is best described as originating from thermal Comptonization by plasma that is appreciably cooler than the primary X-ray-emitting plasma; we find that the form of the soft excess cannot be reproduced adequately by reflection from an ionized accretion disk. The only measurable deviation from the power-law continuum in the hard spectrum comes from the presence of cold and ionized fluorescent iron Kα emission lines at 6.4 and 6.97 keV, respectively. While constraints on the ionized iron line are weak, the cold line is found to be narrow at CCD resolution with a flux that does not track the temporal changes in the underlying continuum, implying an origin in the outer radii of the accretion disk or the putative molecular torus of Seyfert unification schemes. The X-ray continuum itself varies on all accessible timescales. We detect a ~230 s time lag between soft and hard EPIC-pn bands that, if interpreted as scattering timescales within a Comptonizing disk corona, can be used to constrain the physical size of the primary X-ray source to a characteristic length scale of ~2rg. Taken together, the small implied coronal size and the large implied iron-line emitting region indicate a departure from the current picture of a ``typical'' AGN geometry.

  8. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Tate, M.T.; Engle, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  9. Giant magmatic water reservoir beneath Uturuncu volcano and Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Muir, Duncan; Blundy, Jon; Unsworth, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism at continental arcs is the surface manifestation of long-lived crustal magmatic processes whereby mantle-derived hydrous basalt magma differentiates to more silica-rich magmas by a combination of crystallization and crustal melting. What erupts is just a fraction of the total volume of magma produced by these processes; the unerupted, plutonic residues solidify and are inaccessible to direct study until millions of years of uplift and erosion bring them to the surface. In contrast, geophysical surveys, using electromagnetic and seismic waves, can provide real-time images of subduction zone magmatic systems. Several such studies have revealed that arc volcanoes are underlain by large partially molten regions at depths of >10 km, the largest known example being the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB) in central Andes. Interpreting such geophysical images in terms of amount, composition and distribution of partial melts is limited by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of silicate melts at elevated pressures and temperatures. Here we present high-pressure, in situ experimental data showing that the electrical conductivity of andesitic melts is primarily controlled by their dissolved water contents. Linking our new measurements to petrological constraints from andesites erupted on the Altiplano, we show that the APMB is composed of 10-20% of an andesitic melt containing 8-10 wt% dissolved water. This implies that the APMB is a giant water anomaly in the global subduction system, with a total mass of dissolved magmatic water about half of the water contained within the Adriatic Sea. In addition to the controls on the physical properties of the melts, the abundance of dissolved water governs the structural levels of magma ponding, equivalent to the depth of water saturation, where degassing and crystallisation promote partial melting and weakening of the upper crust. Unexpectedly, very high concentrations of water in andesite magmas shall impede their

  10. Regional-scale variation in size and abundance of the bivalve Varicorbula (Middle Miocene, Central Paratethys)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuksi, Tomáš; Tomašových, Adam; Rušin, Luboš

    2016-04-01

    Varicorbula gibba (Olivi, 1792) is a geologically long-ranging and ecologically generalistic bivalve species that appears in the Oligocene and persists to present, occurring in the tropical and northern temperate Eastern Atlantic and in the Mediterranean. Although it is one of the most frequent species in the benthic communities in the Paratethys during the Middle Miocene, spatial variation in its abundance, size, and shape is poorly known. Using bulk samples sieved with 1 mm mesh size, we investigate size and abundance variation of this taxon in molluscan communities in two basins in the Middle Miocene (Serravalian) sediments of the Central Paratethys. Bulk samples are derived from boreholes from the western (Vienna Basin) and eastern (Danube Basin) margins of the Malé Karpaty Mountains (Slovakia). We find that this taxon shows significant regional-scale differences in size distribution between the Vienna and Danube basins. In subtidal muds in the northern parts of the Vienna Basin, it achieves very high proportional community-level abundance and its median shell width ranges between 6-10 mm. In contrast, in muddy sands on the northeastern margin of the Danube Basin, community composition is more even and median width ranges just between 3-4 mm. The higher sandy content and lower sedimentation rates (as evidenced by higher taphonomic damage, with higher proportion of bored specimens, in the Danube Basin) imply that the size can partly positively correlate with nutrient supply. Morphometric analyses indicate that height and width of individuals of this taxon undergo significant allometry and that smaller-sized individuals in the Danube Basin have a smaller width/height ratio, suggesting that some shape differences between the two basins are unrelated to size differences.

  11. Two-dimensional Kinematics of the Central Region of NGC 2110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M. R.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2014-10-01

    We present a two-dimensional mapping of the central region of the active galaxy NGC 2110, using K-band integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini NIFS at a spatial resolution of ≍ 25 pc. We present flux distributions and kinematics for the molecular and ionized gas emission lines, as well as the stellar kinematics. The maps for the kinematics and flux distributions of the emitting gas for NGC 2110 were obtained by fitting the H_{2} λ 2.1218 μ m and H Iλ 2.1661 μ m emission-line profiles by Gauss-Hermite series. The H_{2} presents extended emission in the whole field of observation, while the Brγ is extended only to the southeast - northwest direction. The H_{2} emission is consistent with emission of gas excited by thermal processes, such as gas heated by X-rays from the AGN or shocks. We estimated an excitation temperature of ≍ 2100-2700 K for H_{2} emitting gas. The gas velocity fields present a similar rotation pattern than those observed for the stars. In addition, the H_{2} velocity field presents other kinematic components. Two spiral structures are observed in blueshifts to the north of the nucleus and redshifts to the south of it. If these kinematic structures are originated from emission of gas located in the plane of the galaxy, they can be interpreted as gas flows towards the nucleus (inflows) of the galaxy. In this case, the mass inflow rate is estimated to be ≍ 4.1 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}. Another kinematic component observed for H_{2} emitting gas was interpreted as an ejection of gas from the nucleus (outflows) within a bi-cone with a mass outflow rate of ≍ 4.6 × 10^{-4} M_{odot} yr^{-1}.

  12. Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

  13. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  14. Active normal faulting during the 1997 seismic sequence in Colfiorito, Umbria: Did slip propagate to the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mildon, Zoë K.; Roberts, Gerald P.; Faure Walker, Joanna P.; Wedmore, Luke N. J.; McCaffrey, Ken J. W.

    2016-10-01

    In order to determine whether slip during an earthquake on the 26th September 1997 propagated to the surface, structural data have been collected along a bedrock fault scarp in Umbria, Italy. These collected data are used to investigate the relationship between the throw associated with a debated surface rupture (observed as a pale unweathered stripe at the base of the bedrock fault scarp) and the strike, dip and slip-vector. Previous studies have suggested that the surface rupture was produced either by primary surface slip or secondary compaction of hangingwall sediments. Some authors favour the latter because sparse surface fault dip measurements do not match nodal plane dips at depth. It is demonstrated herein that the strike, dip and height of the surface rupture, represented by a pale unweathered stripe at the base of the bedrock scarp, shows a systematic relationship with respect to the geometry and kinematics of faulting in the bedrock. The strike and dip co-vary and the throw is greatest where the strike is oblique to the slip-vector azimuth where the highest dip values are recorded. This implies that the throw values vary to accommodate spatial variation in the strike and dip of the fault across fault plane corrugations, a feature that is predicted by theory describing conservation of strain along faults, but not by compaction. Furthermore, published earthquake locations and reported fault dips are consistent with the analysed surface scarps when natural variation for surface dips and uncertainty for nodal plane dips at depth are taken into account. This implies that the fresh stripe is indeed a primary coseismic surface rupture whose slip is connected to the seismogenic fault at depth. We discuss how this knowledge of the locations and geometry of the active faults can be used as an input for seismic hazard assessment.

  15. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  16. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

    1989-06-01

    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  17. Direct radiative effect modeled for regional aerosols in central Europe including the effect of relative humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorga, G.; Hitzenberger, R.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Puxbaum, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In view of both the climatic relevance of aerosols and the fact that aerosol burdens in central Europe are heavily impacted by anthropogenic sources, this study is focused on estimating the regional-scale direct radiative effect of aerosols in Austria. The aerosol data (over 80 samples in total) were collected during measurement campaigns at five sampling sites: the urban areas of Vienna, Linz, and Graz and on Mt. Rax (1644 m, regional background aerosol) and Mt. Sonnblick (3106 m, background aerosol). Aerosol mass size distributions were obtained with eight-stage (size range: 0.06-16 μm diameter) and six-stage (size range 0.1-10 μm) low-pressure cascade impactors. The size-segregated samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and inorganic ions. The aerosol at these five locations is compared in terms of size distributions, optical properties, and direct forcing. Mie calculations are performed for the dry aerosol at 60 wavelengths in the range 0.3-40 μm. Using mass growth factors determined earlier, the optical properties are also estimated for higher relative humidities (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). A box model was used to estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF). The presence of absorbing species (BC) was found to reduce the cooling effect of the aerosols. The water-soluble substances dominate radiative forcing at the urban sites, while on Rax and Sonnblick BC plays the most important role. This result can be explained by the effect of the surface albedo, which is much lower in the urban regions (0.16) than at the ice and snow-covered mountain sites. Shortwave (below 4 μm) and longwave surface albedo values for ice were 0.35 and 0.5, while for snow surface albedo, values of 0.8 (shortwave) and 0.5 (longwave) were used. In the case of dry aerosol, especially for urban sites, the unidentified material may contribute a large part to the forcing. Depending on the sampling site the estimated forcing gets more negative with increasing humidity

  18. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  19. August, 2002 - floods events, affected areas revitalisation and prevention for the future in the central Bohemian region, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, L.; Vacha, F.; Vodova, J.

    2003-04-01

    Central Bohemian Region is located in a shape of a ring surrounding the capitol of Prague. Its total territorial area is 11.014 sq.km and population of 1 130.000 inhabitants. According to EU nomenclature of regional statistical units, the Central Bohemian Region is classified as an independent NUTS II. Bohemia's biggest rivers, Vltava and Labe form the region's backbone dividing it along a north-south line, besides that there are Sazava and Berounka, the two big headwaters of Vltava, which flow through the region and there also are some cascade man made lakes and 2 important big dams - Orlik and Slapy on the Vltava River in the area of the region. Overflowing of these rivers and their feeders including cracking of high-water dams during the floods in August 2002 caused total or partial destruction or damage of more than 200 towns and villages and total losses to the extend of 450 mil. EUR. The worst impact was on damaged or destroyed human dwellings, social infrastructure (schools, kindergartens, humanitarian facilities) and technical infrastructure (roads, waterworks, power distribution). Also businesses were considerably damaged including transport terminals in the area of river ports. Flowage of Spolana Neratovice chemical works caused critical environmental havoc. Regional crisis staff with regional Governor in the lead worked continuously during the floods and a regional integrated rescue system was subordinated to it. Due to the huge extent of the floods the crisis staff coordinated its work with central bodies of state including the Government and single "power" resorts (army, interior, transport). Immediately after floods a regional - controlled management was set up including an executive body for regional revitalisation which is connected to state coordinating resort - Ministry for Local Development, EU sources and humanitarian aid. In addition to a program of regional revitalisation additional preventive flood control programs are being developed

  20. Holocene aeolian development in Central Spain; chronology, regional correlations and causal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hidalgo, José F.; Temiño, Javier; Segura, Manuel

    2007-10-01

    Extensive areas in the southern part of the Duero Tertiary Basin (Central Spain) are covered by aeolian sands. Presently, the aeolian system is relict but in its origin and development it can be described as a "wet aeolian system". Climatic and environmental changes during the Holocene are typified by alternating humid and arid periods. These are recorded in the sedimentary record as either organic-rich sandy palaeosols or clean aeolian sand, respectively. Palaeosol dating (12 radiocarbon dated samples) and stratigraphical and sedimentological analysis of several dunefields in quarries and boreholes allow the distinction of four periods of palaeosol development since the Allerød. Aeolian sediments commonly rest on fluvial deposits, which were themselves the major source area for aeolian sands. These fluvial deposits have an age of about 14,000 cal yr BP. The first phase of aeolian activity postdates these fluvial sediments and has an upper age of about 12,000-11,700 cal yr BP, probably corresponding to the last cold oscillation of the Lateglacial (Younger Dryas). The second phase ranges from about 11,500 to 9500 cal yr BP, during which period the majority of dunes in the Tierra de Pinares area formed. This is also a major phase of aeolian activity in other areas of the Iberian Peninsula. A third and probably discontinuous phase of aeolian activity took place between 6800 and about 3000 cal yr BP. The age for this phase is supported by the presence of Visigothic burial sites covered by aeolian sands. The presence of charred material and degraded slipfaces clearly indicate stabilisation by vegetation and the final degradation of the aeolian system at the end of the fourth aeolian phase (990-540 cal yr BP). Minor aeolian activity has also occurred subsequently in this area, since aeolian sand movement was even reported in the 20th century. The aeolian phases can be tentatively correlated with aeolian phases in Europe. Aeolian activity tends to occur regionally during

  1. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  2. Regional distance shear-coupled PL propagation within the northern Altiplano, central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George

    1999-12-01

    Properties of the shear-coupled P wavetrain (SPL) from regional earthquakes provide important information about the structure of the crust and upper mantle. We investigate broad-band seismic data from intermediate-depth earthquakes and develop a grid search technique using synthetic seismograms to study the sensitivity of SPL and to model the crustal structure of the northern Altiplano, central Andes. Waveforms from an earthquake that occurred on 1994 December 12 within the Nazca slab beneath the Altiplano display a clear SPL wavetrain at the temporary stations deployed during the BANJO and SEDA experiments. We relocate this event and determine the moment tensor by inverting the complete long-period waveforms. With these source parameters fixed, we perform sensitivity analyses using a reflectivity technique to compute synthetic seismograms at a distance of 313 km (BANJO station 2, SALI). We find that, at this distance, the long-period SPL wavetrain is sensitive to the following model parameters, in order of decreasing sensitivity: crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness, focal depth, distance (location), crustal Qα and Qβ, and mantle velocity. We develop a grid search method to investigate the four parameters of the crust/upper mantle model to which the synthetic seismograms are most sensitive at SALI (crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness). Trade-offs exist among all four of the model parameters, resulting in a range of acceptable crustal models that provide excellent fits between the data and synthetic seismograms in the passband of 15-100 s at a single station. However, by using data at a range of distances (150-450 km) we find that the model that provides the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms, and thus best approximates the average characteristics of the crust and upper mantle structure of the northern Altiplano, is characterized by an average crustal velocity of 6

  3. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    PubMed

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  4. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  5. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Y.; Deng, J.

    2002-01-01

    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events

  6. Burden of Complicated Malaria in a Densely Forested Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh State (Central India)

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vidhan; Basak, Sanjay; Bhandari, Sneha; Bharti, Praveen K.; Thomas, Trilok; Singh, Mrigendra P.; Singh, Neeru

    2014-01-01

    Background A prospective study on severe and complicated malaria was undertaken in the tribal dominated area of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh (CG), Central India, with an objective to understand the clinical epidemiology of complicated malaria in patients attending at a referral hospital. Methods Blood smears, collected from the general medicine and pediatric wards of a government tertiary health care facility located in Jagdalpur, CG, were microscopically examined for malaria parasite from July 2010 to December 2013. The Plasmodium falciparum positive malaria cases who met enrollment criteria and provided written informed consent were enrolled under different malaria categories following WHO guidelines. PCR was performed to reconfirm the presence of P.falciparum mono infection among enrolled cases. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify different risk factors using STATA 11.0. Results A total of 40,924 cases were screened for malaria. The prevalence of malaria and P.falciparum associated complicated malaria (severe and cerebral both) in the hospital was 6% and 0.81%, respectively. P.falciparum malaria prevalence, severity and associated mortality in this region peaked at the age of>4–5 years and declined with increasing age. P.falciparum malaria was significantly more prevalent in children than adults (P<0.00001). Among adults, males had significantly more P.falciparum malaria than females (P<0.00001). Case fatality rate due to cerebral malaria and severe malaria was, respectively, 32% and 9% among PCR confirmed mono P.falciparum cases. Coma was the only independent predictor of mortality in multivariate regression analysis. Mortality was significantly associated with multi-organ complication score (P = 0.0003). Conclusion This study has revealed that the pattern of morbidity and mortality in this part of India is very different from earlier reported studies from India. We find that the peak morbidity and mortality in

  7. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  8. Regional patterns in current and future export production in the central Arctic Ocean quantified from nitrate fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randelhoff, Achim; Guthrie, John D.

    2016-08-01

    Due to severe nutrient and light limitation, the central Arctic Ocean has been characterized as a region of low primary productivity, with high retention of carbon in the surface waters. Using an in-depth analysis of published and new measurements of turbulent microstructure and high-resolution profiles of nitrate concentration, we reassess the vertical supply of nitrate to the Polar Mixed Layer and the associated export of particulate organic matter across the nitracline. We estimate annual export production to be approximately 1.5-3 g C m-2, but regional differences in both current and future potential of export production are large, with the eastern Arctic being least constrained by vertical nutrient supply and the western Arctic the most. Future changes in export production are assessed using a 1-D budget model; increases in the Atlantic sector are possibly compensated by decreases in the rest of the central Arctic Ocean such that the net change might be insignificant.

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Nelson, Philip H.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Potter, Christopher J.; Rouse, William A.; Saltus, Richard W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Shah, Anjana K.; Valin, Zenon C.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a new assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Cook Inlet region of south-central Alaska. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids remain to be found in this area.

  10. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  11. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  12. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices. PMID:23689930

  13. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  14. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  15. Production of gold and ruby-red lustres in Gubbio (Umbria, Italy) during the Renaissance period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    The aim of this work is to gain a further insight into the knowledge of the production process of lustre-decorated ancient majolicas. Lustre is a sophisticated technique employed in the decoration of majolicas as used in central Italy during the Renaissance period. It consists of a beautiful iridescent gold or ruby-red thin metallic film, containing silver, copper and other substances and obtained in a reducing atmosphere on a previously glazed ceramic. Nowadays, it is not possible to replicate the outstanding results obtained by the ancient ceramicists, since the original recipes were lost. It is quite interesting to study lustre-production technology by means of analytical techniques now employed for advanced research on materials (XRD, ETAAS, ICP-OES, TEM-EDX-SAED and UV-Vis). In this work, we have focussed our attention on ceramic fragments decorated with both gold and ruby-red lustres, which were difficult to obtain due to complex reduction conditions required and which were a prerogative of Gubbio production. The two lustre colours differ in their chemical composition as well in their nanostructure. The presence of bismuth was disclosed and it was ascertained to be a distinctive feature of the Italian production.

  16. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p < 0.01. Therefore, artificial neural network is sufficient to forecast construction materials price indexes in Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  17. The Regional Tectonic Stress Field in Central and Southern California, and its Relevance to Fault Interaction Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, J.; Zoback, M. D.

    2001-12-01

    Fault interaction and earthquake triggering models depend strongly on the regional stress orientation and magnitude and on the assumed constitutive laws governing fault slip. In this study we compare observations with theoretical studies of principal stress orientations in Central and Southern California to provide an appropriate regional stress orientation model for use in fault interaction studies. First, we compare in situ stress orientations obtained from focal mechanism inversions and wellbore breakouts with stress orientations calculated from lithospheric buoyancy (based on topographic and geoid data) and plate interaction effects (based on geodetic and geologic data; Flesch et al., 2000). The two sets of results exhibit a remarkable degree of overall consistency, implying that the principal source of stress acting along the plate boundary is that resulting from lithospheric buoyancy. A relatively small component of the stress field appears to stem from plate interaction effects. In particular, both the theoretical and observed stress fields indicate that the regional orientation of SHmax is NNE-SSW, and is generally at an angle to the strike of the San Andreas fault of >80° in Central California and ~60--65° in Southern California. These results provide a model of regional stress orientations in Central and Southern California that should prove useful in future studies of fault interaction and seismic triggering. Because there appears to be no significant variation of SHmax orientations in the near field of the San Andreas fault in either region, this analysis supports the hypothesis that the frictional strength the San Andreas fault is markedly lower than that of the surrounding crust.

  18. Variation in stochastic demography between and within central and peripheral regions in a widespread short-lived herb.

    PubMed

    Villellas, Jesús; Morris, William F; García, María B

    2013-06-01

    Analyzing intraspecific variation in population dynamics in relation to environmental factors is crucial to understand the current and future distributions of plant species. Across ranges, peripheral populations are often expected to show lower and more temporally variable vital rates than central populations, although it remains unclear how much any differences in vital rates actually contribute to differences in population growth rates. Moreover, few demographic studies accounting for environmental stochasticity have been carried out both at continental and regional scales. In this study we calculated stochastic growth rates in five central and six northern peripheral populations of the widespread shortlived herb Plantago coronopus along the Atlantic Coast in Europe. To evaluate at two spatial scales how mean values and variability of vital rates (i.e., fecundity, recruitment, survival, growth, and shrinkage) contributed to the differences in stochastic growth rates, we performed Stochastic Life Table Response Experiment (SLTRE) analyses between and within central and peripheral regions. Additionally, we searched for correlations between vital rate contributions and local environmental conditions. Lower mean values and greater variability for some vital rates in peripheral than in central populations had an overall negative but nonsignificant effect on the stochastic growth rates in the periphery. Different life cycle components accounted for differences in population growth depending on spatial scale, although recruitment was the vital rate with the highest influence both between and within regions. Interestingly, the same pattern of differentiation among populations was found within central and peripheral areas: in both regions, one group of populations displayed positive contributions of growth and shrinkage and negative contributions of recruitment and survival; the opposite pattern was found in the remaining populations. These differences in vital rate

  19. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  20. Sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, M K; Li, X; Kwok, W H; Ho, A M-H; Ngan Kee, W D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The use of ultrasound to guide peripheral nerve blocks is now a well-established technique in regional anaesthesia. However, despite reports of ultrasound guided epidural access via the paramedian approach, there are limited data on the use of ultrasound for central neuraxial blocks, which may be due to a poor understanding of spinal sonoanatomy. The aim of this study was to define the sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Methods The sonoanatomy of the lumbar spine relevant for central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach was defined using a “water-based spine phantom”, young volunteers and anatomical slices rendered from the Visible Human Project data set. Results The water-based spine phantom was a simple model to study the sonoanatomy of the osseous elements of the lumbar spine. Each osseous element of the lumbar spine, in the spine phantom, produced a “signature pattern” on the paramedian sagittal scans, which was comparable to its sonographic appearance in vivo. In the volunteers, despite the narrow acoustic window, the ultrasound visibility of the neuraxial structures at the L3/L4 and L4/L5 lumbar intervertebral spaces was good, and we were able to delineate the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach. Conclusion Using a simple water-based spine phantom, volunteer scans and anatomical slices from the Visible Human Project (cadaver) we have described the sonoanatomy relevant for ultrasound-guided central neuraxial blocks via the paramedian approach in the lumbar region. PMID:22010025

  1. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  2. A Multi-wavelength View of the Central Kiloparsec Region in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alberdi, Antxon; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Hernández-García, Lorena; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-01

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ~100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r <~ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  3. An assessment of fire occurrence regime and performance of Canadian fire weather index in south central Siberian boreal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T.; Guo, X.

    2014-07-01

    Wildfire is the dominant natural disturbance in Eurasian boreal region, which acts as a major driver of the global carbon cycle. An effectiveness of wildfire management requires suitable tools for fire prevention and fire risk assessment. This study aims to investigate fire occurrence patterns in relation to fire weather conditions in the remote south central Siberia region. The Canadian Fire Weather Index derived from large-scale meteorological reanalysis data was evaluated with respects to fire regimes during 14 consecutive fire seasons in south central Siberian environment. All the fire weather codes and indices, including the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC), the Drought Code (DC), the Buildup Index (BUI), the Initial Spread Index (ISI), and the Fire Weather Index (FWI), were highly reflected inter-annual variation of fire activity in south central Siberia. Even though human-caused fires were major events in Russian boreal forest including south central Siberia, extreme fire years were strongly correlated with ambient weather conditions (e.g. Arctic Oscillation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind), showing by in-phase (or positive linear relationship) and significant wavelet coherence between fire activity and DMC, ISI, BUI, and FWI. Time series observation of 14 fire seasons showed that there was an average of about 3 months lags between the peaks of fire weather conditions and fire activity, which should take into account when using coarse scale fire weather indices in the assessment of fire danger in the study area. The results are expected to contribute to a better reconstruction and prediction of fire activity using large-scale reanalysis data in remote regions in which station data are very few.

  4. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    SciTech Connect

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C.; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  5. The Relation between Stellar and Dynamical Surface Densities in the Central Regions of Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves database to study the relation between the central surface density of stars {{{Σ }}}\\star (0) and dynamical mass {{{Σ }}}{{dyn}}(0) in 135 disk galaxies (S0 to dIrr). We find that {{{Σ }}}{{dyn}}(0) correlates tightly with {{{Σ }}}\\star (0) over 4 dex. This central density relation can be described by a double power law. High surface brightness galaxies are consistent with a 1:1 relation, suggesting that they are self-gravitating and baryon dominated in the inner parts. Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies systematically deviate from the 1:1 line, indicating that the dark matter contribution progressively increases but remains tightly coupled to the stellar one. The observed scatter is small (˜0.2 dex) and largely driven by observational uncertainties. The residuals show no correlations with other galaxy properties like stellar mass, size, or gas fraction.

  6. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in martens and fishers from the Algonquin region of south-central Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Steeves, T.; Strickland, M. ); Frank, R.; Rasper, J. ); Douglas, C.W.

    1991-03-01

    Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine insecticides (OCI) has been restricted in the Province of Ontario, Canada, since 1971. This study reports on OCI and PCB levels in two carnivores, fishers (Martes pennanti) and martens (Martes americana), collected in the Algonquin Region of south-central Ontario in 1976 and 1981, and compares them to data collected for the same species in the same area in 1972-74. Algonquin Region is a forested area of 43,000 km{sup 2} on the Precambrian shield, and has no major industrial or agricultural development. Except for DDT, which was used in the 1950's and 1960's to control biting insects around tourist establishments, there has been little use of OCIs or PCBs in this area. Their occurrence in the Algonquin Region is most likely due to atmospheric transport.

  7. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turp, M. T.; Ozturk, T.; An, N.; Türkeş, M.; Kurnaz, L.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period of 2071-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3°C up to more than 7°C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  8. Simulations of Future Drought Conditions in Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by Using RegCM4.3.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent; An, Nazan

    2015-04-01

    In this work, projected future changes in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology, inter-annual and seasonal variability and climatic aridity/humidity conditions for the period 2070-2100 over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (from 1970 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3.5) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. HadGEM2 global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the CORDEX Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by using 2 different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation almost all part of the domain. The results of our study show that surface temperatures in the region will increase from 3 °C up to more than 7 °C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period 2070-2100 with respect to past period 1970-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation and also resultant or associated increased aridity and more frequent and severe drought events very likely adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already characterised with mostly arid and semi-arid climate and ecosystems.

  9. Cerreto di Spoleto (Umbria-Italy): Seismic amplification at the ENEA local array stations

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldis, Dario

    2008-07-08

    The Nerina valley, where Borgo Cerreto is located, is surrounded by the Apennine mount chain at the top of which lies the historical centre of Cerreto di Spoleto. The study is part of a research project aiming at analysing natural disasters and their impact on the Italian cultural heritage. Within the framework of this research project, local seismic records were analysed for both the carbonate ridge and the bordering alluvial valley. The choice of Cerreto di Spoleto as a test site derives from the analysis of Italian seismic hazard maps, obtained in terms of peak ground velocity and taking into account regional geology. The maps highlight the considerable seismic hazard which characterises the Apennine belt and its possible increase due to the effect of alluvial deposits. To this aim, ENEA installed in the 80's an accelerometric array (CODISMA up to 2000 and, in the following years, ETNA; for more detailed description see [1]. The 14 October event, was recorded both at the roof of CSM and at BCT stations. This is important to check the features observed comparing the FAS of acceleration at CSM and BCT during the 26 September events. Unfortunately the station at CSM basement did not record the above mentioned events but several aftershocks were recorded at each array station. Velocimetric records of both ambient noise and small-magnitude earthquakes were analysed in order to identify amplification conditions. The analysis was carried out in the time domain, through directional energy evaluation, and in the frequency domain, through H/V spectral ratios and spectral ratios with respect to a reference station.

  10. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map database of the map area that improves understanding of the regional geologic framework and its influence on the regional groundwater flow system. Furthermore, additional edits were made to the Ponca and Jasper quadrangles in the following ways: new control points on important contacts were obtained using modern GPS; recent higher resolution elevation data allowed further control on placement of contacts; some new contacts were added, in particular the contact separating the upper and lower Everton Formation.

  11. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Madan Mohan; Das, Josodhir; Kamal; Das, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying b-value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  12. Crustal structure of east central Oregon: Relation between Newberry Volcano and regional crustal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Mooney, W. D.

    1988-09-01

    A 180-km-long seismic refraction transect from the eastern High Cascades, across Newberry Volcano, to the eastern High Lava Plains is used to investigate the subvolcanic crustal and upper mantle velocity structure there. Near-surface volcanic flows and sedimentary debris (1.6-4.7 km/s), ranging from 3 to 5 km in thickness, overlie subvolcanic Basin and Range structures. East and west of Newberry Volcano, the subvolcanic basement (5.6 km/s) has been downwarped, producing 5-km-deep basins. The midcrust (8- to 28-km depth) is characterized by velocities ranging from 6.1 to 6.5 km/s and varies laterally in thicknesses. The lower crust is characterized by art unusually high velocity (about 7.4 km/s), and its geometry mirrors the subvolcanic basement geometry. The Moho is located at a depth of 37 km and represents a transition to an upper mantle velocity of 8.1 km/s. The shallow subsurface (1.2 km) beneath Newberry Volcano is characterized by high-velocity (5.6 km/s, versus 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area) intrusions and appears to be located on a basement high. Beneath the seismic refraction array at Newberry Volcano, an absence of low-velocity anomalies suggests that large silicic magma chambers do not exist in the upper crust, but apparent high attenuation of the seismic wave field may be consistent with either partial melts in small volumes, elevated crustal temperatures, and/or poor geophonerecording site coupling. The east central Oregon velocity structure is nearly identical to that of the northwestern Nevada Basin and Range and the Modoc Plateau of northeastern California, and variations in the deep crustal structure about Newberry Volcano are consistent with tectonism involving crustal underplating, melting, and extension. If paleomagnetic estimates of extension in the east central Oregon area are correct, the North American continent experienced significant growth through extension, underplating, and volcanism in east central Oregon. Comparison of east

  13. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  14. Exploitation of high-density DInSAR data points of the Umbria-Marche (Italy) 1997 seismic sequence for fault characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Via, G.; Crippa, B.; Toraldo Serra, E. M.; Giacomuzzi, G.; Sabadini, R.

    2007-09-01

    High spatial resolution DInSAR data for the Umbria Marche 1997 seismic sequence are exploited by relaxing constraints derived from datasets of different nature, such as seismologically derived fault dimensions. DInSAR data are thus inverted for a realistic slip distribution over the faults, in terms of depth distribution and roughness, which allows us to relocate the main faults and to minimize the misfit between the vertical displacement pattern derived from DInSAR and model predictions. Our analysis reveals that slip affected not only the shallowest part of the fault system but also its deepest part, rupturing the whole seismogenic layer of the crust down to 10 km, reaching slip values up to 30 cm at the base of the seismogenic layer. Misfit is reduced by a factor of two with respect to previous analyses based on a smaller number of digitized fringe points.

  15. Pre-seismic slip on the 26 September 1997, Umbria-Marche Earthquake fault? Unexpected clues from the analysis of 1951-1992 elevation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martini, P. M.; Valensise, G.

    1999-07-01

    We studied 1951-1992 elevation changes recorded by a first order leveling line that intercepts the surface projection of the 26 Sep. 1997, Mw 6.0, Umbria-Marche earthquake causative fault. The line documents 1951-1992 localized subsidence along a 12 km section above the fault. We calculated the expected 1997 coseismic elevation changes along the line using standard dislocation modeling and found that their trend has an amplitude three times larger than the trend of the observed pre-1997 signal but with a similar shape. We suggest that this signal is the result of 10 cm of pre-1992 slip along the northernmost 5 km of the 1997 earthquake fault, where coseismic slip was found to be less than the average estimated for the entire fault. This result implies unusually fast slip along this section of the fault and may suggest slip acceleration in preparation for the impending failure.

  16. The Great 2006 and 2007 Kuril Earthquakes, Forearc Segmentation and Seismic Activity of the Central Kuril Islands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, B. V.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Dozorova, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a structural study of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, where the great megathrust tsunamigenic earthquake ( M w 8.3) occurred on November 15, 2006. Based on new bathymetry and seismic profiles obtained during two research cruises of R/V Akademik Lavrentiev in 2005 and 2006, ten crustal segments with along-arc length ranging from 30 to 100 km, separated by NS- and NW-trending transcurrent faults were identified within the forearc region. The transcurrent faults may serve as barriers impeding stress transfer between the neighboring segments, so that stress accumulated within separate forearc segments is usually released by earthquakes of moderate-to-strong magnitudes. However, the great November 15, 2006 earthquake ruptured seven of the crustal segments probably following a 226-year gap since the last great earthquake in 1780. The geographic extent of earthquake rupture zones, aftershock areas and earthquake clusters correlate well with forearc crustal segments identified using the geophysical data. Based on segmented structure of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, we consider and discuss three scenarios of a great earthquake occurrence within this area. Although the margin is segmented, we suggest that a rupture could occupy the entire seismic gap with a total length of about 500 km. In such a case, the earthquake magnitude M w might exceed 8.5, and such an event might generate tsunami waves significantly exceeding in height to those produced by the great 2006-2007 Kuril earthquakes.

  17. Hydrologic characteristics of soils in the High Plains, northern Great Plains, and Central Texas Carbonates Regional Aquifer Systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Hobbs, Ryne D.; Ihm, Laurie A.

    1990-01-01

    Certain physical characteristics of soils, including permeability, available water capacity, thickness, and topographic position, have a measurable effect on the hydrology of an area. These characteristics control the rate at which precipitation infiltrates or is transmitted through the soil, and thus they have an important role in determining the rates of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), groundwater recharge, and surface runoff. In studies of groundwater hydrology, it is useful to differentiate soils spatially according to their physical characteristics and to assign values that indicate their hydrologic responses.The principal purpose of this report is to describe the relation between the hydrologic characteristics of the soils in the study area and those environmental factors that affect the development and distribution of the soils. This objective will be achieved by (1) defining both qualitatively and quantitatively those soil characteristics that affect hydrology, and (2) classifying and delineating the boundaries of the soils in the study area according to these hydrologic characteristics.The study area includes the High Plains, Northern Great Plains, the Central Texas Carbonates, and parts of the Central Midwest Regional Aquifer Systems as described by the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program (Sun, 1986, p.5and Sun, personal commun., June 1985) and shown in figures 1 through 5. The spatial patterns of the soils classified according to their quantifiable hydrologic characteristics will subsequently serve as an integral component in the analysis of actual evapotranspiration (consumptive water use), consumptive irrigation requirements, and potential ground-water recharge of the study area.The classification system used to describe the soils in this report is compatible with that of Dugan (1986). Dugan described the same characteristics of soils that are immediately underlain by principal aquifers of

  18. Real time earthquake information and tsunami estimation system for Indonesia, Philippines and Central-South American regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido Hernandez, N. E.; Inazu, D.; Saito, T.; Senda, J.; Fukuyama, E.; Kumagai, H.

    2015-12-01

    Southeast Asia as well as Central-South American regions are within the most active seismic regions in the world. To contribute to the understanding of source process of earthquakes the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention NIED maintains the international seismic Network (ISN) since 2007. Continuous seismic waveforms from 294 broadband seismic stations in Indonesia, Philippines, and Central-South America regions are received in real time at NIED, and used for automatic location of seismic events. Using these data we perform automatic and manual estimation of moment tensor of seismic events (Mw>4.5) by using the SWIFT program developed at NIED. We simulate the propagation of local tsunamis in these regions using a tsunami simulation code and visualization system developed at NIED, combined with CMT parameters estimated by SWIFT. The goals of the system are to provide a rapid and reliable earthquake and tsunami information in particular for large seismic, and produce an appropriate database of earthquake source parameters and tsunami simulations for research. The system uses the hypocenter location and magnitude of earthquakes automatically determined at NIED by the SeisComP3 system (GFZ) from the continuous seismic waveforms in the region, to perform the automated calculation of moment tensors by SWIFT, and then carry out the automatic simulation and visualization of tsunami. The system generates maps of maximum tsunami heights within the target regions and along the coasts and display them with the fault model parameters used for tsunami simulations. Tsunami calculations are performed for all events with available automatic SWIFT/CMT solutions. Tsunami calculations are re-computed using SWIFT manual solutions for events with Mw>5.5 and centroid depths shallower than 100 km. Revised maximum tsunami heights as well as animation of tsunami propagation are also calculated and displayed for the two double couple solutions by SWIFT

  19. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  20. Resting-State Coupling between Core Regions within the Central-Executive and Salience Networks Contributes to Working Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuanchao; Zhou, Yuan; Cheng, Luqi; Li, Jin; Wang, Yulin; Friston, Karl J.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory (WM). However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to WM is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core WM regions by linking WM accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC; a principal region in the central-executive network, CEN). Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling (spDCM) analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with WM accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and WM performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dLPFC and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and between the right dLPFC and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex (FIC) were correlated with WM accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dACC to the bilateral dLPFC and from the right dLPFC to the left FIC could predict individual differences in WM. Because the dACC and FIC are core regions of the salience network (SN), we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the CEN and SN is functionally relevant for WM performance. In summary, the current study identified the dLPFC-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying WM and suggests that individual differences in cognitive ability could be characterized by resting-state effective connectivity. PMID:26941629

  1. Occurrence of gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state.

    PubMed

    Zanette, Régis A; da Silva, Aleksandro S; Lunardi, Fabiane; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitism by gastrointestinal protozoa in Didelphis albiventris (opossum) in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul state. Fecal samples from six free living opossums were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Eimeria sp. were observed in four of the six opossums. All four infected marsupials showed mild infection by protozoa. This is the first report of Giardia sp. in D. albiventris.

  2. Paleomagnetic and structural evidence for middle Tertiary counterclockwise block rotation in the Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, M.R.; Geissman, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    Paleomagnetic data from late Oligocene to early Miocene ash-flow tuffs at four localities in the northern Dixie Valley region, west-central Nevada, indicate that parts of the crust have rotated counterclockwise by at least 25/sup 0/ and perhaps significantly more in late Cenozoic time. Field relations in White Rock Canyon, Stillwater Range, suggest that rotation (1) was accommodated by right-lateral slip on northwest-trending faults, (2) spanned ash-flow tuff emplacement, and (3) probably ceased before eruption of overlying middle Miocene basalts. Accurate estimates of Cenozoic extension, as well as evaluation of earlier Mesozoic structures, must include the strain partitioned into rotation in the area.

  3. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...

  4. Modeling groundwater levels on the Calera Aquifer Region in Central Mexico using ModFLow.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conceptual model for the Calera Aquifer has been created to represent the aquifer system beneath the Calera Aquifer Region (CAR) in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. The CAR area was uniformly partitioned into a 500 X 500 m grid generating a high resolution model that represented the natural boundar...

  5. 78 FR 65632 - Centralized Capacity Markets in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Independent System Operators; Notice Allowing Post- Technical Conference Comments On September 25, 2013, the... York Independent System Operator, Inc. (NYISO), and PJM Interconnection, L.L.C. (PJM) are supporting... other eastern Regional Transmission Organization (RTO)/Independent System Operator (ISO)...

  6. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H; Hughes, M. Joseph; Hayes, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  7. Effectiveness of traditional climatic responses in the central Texas region in maintaining thermal comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, D.; Chabannes, G.

    1982-01-01

    Traditional building responses to the Central Texas climate are compared and evaluated in a parametric study. Building parameters of size, shape, orientation, capacitance and resistance values of materials, ceiling height, porch chading devices, and ventilation strategies are simulated using the DEROB computer code. Unassisted thermal comfort parameters of air temperature and mean radiant surface temperature are tabulated by hour into temperature bins to allow comparison of the relative effect of each response. Results indicate that high capacitance materials are more effective in maintaining thermal comfort in winter, and high resistance materials are more effective in summer. Building elongation improves summer performance, but reduces winter performance. Increased ceiling height provides marginal improvement in both winter and summer performance of traditional structures. The presence of a porch shading device improves summer performance slightly, but degrades winter performance by a similar degree. Ventilation strategies also show an improvement in summer building performance.

  8. Vertical Ground Deformation Detected by the Leveling and the Tidal Observation in Tokai Region, Central Japan in 1980 - 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, K.; Kimata, F.; Fujii, N.

    2003-12-01

    SSE is characterized by the uplift of 3-4cm around Hamana Lake, central Tokai region, which is detected by GPS measurements, precise leveling, and tide gauge measurement (Ozawa et al., 2002; Oota et al., 2003). The same uplift is detected by precise leveling and tide gauge in late 1988, Episodic changes of tilt movements also detected by bore hall tilt meter north Hamana Lake site in 2001 and 1988 (Yamamoto et al., 2003). It is sure that Tokai SSE should be occurred in the central Tokai in 1988. We have one conclusion that SSE has repeated in Tokai region at least in last 20 years.

  9. Small-scale structure and chemical differentiation in the central region of the Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Snell, R.L.; Hasegawa, T.; Ukita, N.

    1987-03-01

    Fifteen arcsec angular resolution observations of a number of molecular species in the center of the Sgr B2 molecular cloud, including HC3N in the ground and v7 = 1 vibrational states, SO, OCS,l and HNCO, have been performed. Emission from HC3N is fairly uniformly distributed over the region studied; SO and OCS have a spatially extended component but are strongly centrally peaked. HNCO and vibrationally excited HC/sub 3/N emission are essentially restricted to a very small region around the center of activity in the north. The difference between the spatial distributions are attributed to variation in the chemical abundances of the various clumps. The excitation requirements of the vibrationally excited HC/sub 3/N imply the presence of dust and gas at high temperatures. The results further heighten the apparent contradiction presented by the lack of infrared emission from this source. 53 references.

  10. Performance of ENSEMBLES regional climate models over Central Europe using various metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtanová, Eva; Mikšovský, Jiří; Kalvová, Jaroslava; Pišoft, Petr; Motl, Martin

    2012-05-01

    We show the evaluation of ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis ERA40 over a region centered at the Czech Republic. Attention is paid especially to the model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ, being used as the basis of the new climate change scenarios simulation for the Czech Republic. The validation criteria used here are based on monthly or seasonal mean air temperature and precipitation. We concentrate not only on spatiotemporal mean values but also on temporal standard deviation, inter-annual variability, the mean annual cycle, and the skill of the models to represent the observed spatial patterns of these quantities. Model ALADIN-CLIMATE/CZ performs quite well in comparison to the other RCMs; we find its performance satisfactory for further use for impact studies. However, it is also shown that the results of evaluation of the RCMs' skill in simulating observed climate strongly depend on the criteria incorporated for the evaluation.

  11. Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

  12. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; ,; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  14. Studies of the central regions in globular clusters: Kinematics, mass modeling, and a search for binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Bingrong

    Globular clusters (GCs) are one of the oldest structures in the universe. The strongest constraints on the predictions of dynamical models of GCs come from the kinematics in the central few arcminutes, where the effects of mass segregation, core collapse, or a possible massive black hole (if any) are most significant. In my dissertation, I have conducted a variety of studies in the central regions of GCs using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot Imaging Spectrometer, including the kinematics, mass modeling, searching for binary stars, and searching for the correlation between kinematics and the metallicity. We performed non-parametric mass modeling of NGC 6752 and found that there is no evidence of a large central mass-to-light ratio for NGC 6752 from the measured velocity dispersion. We addressed a series of studies of o Centauri (NGC 5139, hereafter o Cen). In one, we measured the velocity dispersion profile, the projected rotation map, and the mass-to-light ratio profile. In another, we correlated our kinematics data and the metallicities from Stromgren photometry to give constraints on the pictures of the origin of o Cen. In another, we used Monte Carlo simulations to calculate a binary fraction and found that o Cen is not deficient in binary stars compared to other GCs.

  15. The 1997 Umbria-Marche, Italy, Earthquake Sequence: A first look at the main shocks and aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, A.; Azzara, R.; Chiarabba, C.; Cimini, G. B.; Cocco, M.; Di Bona, M.; Margheriti, L.; Mazza, S.; Mele, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Basili, A.; Boschi, E.; Courboulex, F.; Deschamps, A.; Gaffet, S.; Bittarelli, G.; Chiaraluce, L.; Piccinini, D.; Ripepe, M.

    A long sequence of earthquakes, six with magnitudes between 5 and 6, struck Central Italy starting on September 26, 1997, causing severe damages and loss of human lives. The seismogenic structure consists of a NW-SE elongated fault zone extending for about 40 km. The focal mechanisms of the largest shocks reveal normal faulting with NE-SW extension perpendicular to the trend of the Apennines, consistently with the Quaternary tectonic setting of the internal sector of the belt and with previous earthquakes in adjacent regions. Preliminary data on the main shocks and aftershocks show that extension in this region of the Apennines is accomplished by normal faults dipping at low angle (∼40°) to the southwest, and confined in the upper ∼8 km of the crust. These normal faults might have reactivated thrust planes of the Pliocene compressional tectonics. The aftershock distribution and the damage patterns also suggest that the three main shocks ruptured distinct 5 to 15 km-long fault segments, adjacent and slightly offset from one another.

  16. Selective central alpha-2 adrenoceptor control of regional haemodynamic responses to air jet stress in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, D R; Knardahl, S; Koepke, J P; Johnson, A K; DiBona, G F

    1989-03-01

    The role of central nervous system alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the regulation of peripheral sympathetic outflow to regional vascular resistance beds during environmental stress was examined in conscious chronically instrumented spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR were instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes on the renal and mesenteric arteries and the lower abdominal aorta. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and regional vascular resistance responses to air jet stress were determined before and after cumulative administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, guanabenz, into the lateral cerebral ventricle in doses of 5 and 25 micrograms. Compared with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of isotonic saline vehicle which did not affect baseline systemic and regional haemodynamic measurements, guanabenz produced significant decreases in baseline MAP and heart rate but did not affect regional vascular resistances. During air jet stress, the characteristic pattern of the classic defense reaction with an increase in MAP, heart rate, renal and mesenteric vascular resistances and a decrease in hindquarters vascular resistance was observed and was not affected by i.c.v. administration of isotonic saline vehicle. Guanabenz did not affect the MAP, heart rate or renal vascular resistance responses to air jet stress. The air jet stress-induced increase in mesenteric vascular resistance was reduced by 25 micrograms guanabenz. The air jet stress-induced decrease in hindquarters vascular resistance was converted to an increase by 25 micrograms guanabenz. These results demonstrate that the regulation of environmental stress-stimulated sympathetic neural outflow to different vascular beds may be independently controlled by central nervous system alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  17. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  18. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral

  19. ISOTOPIC RATIOS OF {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O IN THE GALACTIC CENTRAL REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. S.; Sun, L. L.; Riquelme, D.; Henkel, C.; Lu, D. R.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Li, J.; Wang, M.

    2015-08-15

    The {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O isotopic ratio of oxygen is a crucial measure of the secular enrichment of the interstellar medium by ejecta from high-mass versus intermediate-mass stars. So far, however, there is a lack of data, particularly from the Galactic center (GC) region. Therefore, we have mapped typical molecular clouds in this region in the J = 1–0 lines of C{sup 18}O and C{sup 17}O with the Delingha 13.7 m telescope (DLH). Complementary pointed observations toward selected positions throughout the GC region were obtained with the IRAM 30 m and Mopra 22 m telescopes. C{sup 18}O/C{sup 17}O abundance ratios reflecting the {sup 18}O/{sup 17}O isotope ratios were obtained from integrated intensity ratios of C{sup 18}O and C{sup 17}O. For the first time, C{sup 18}O/C{sup 17}O abundance ratios are determined for Sgr C (V ∼ −58 km s{sup −1}), Sgr D (V ∼ 80 km s{sup −1}), and the 1.°3 complex (V ∼ 80 km s{sup −1}). Through our mapping observations, abundance ratios are also obtained for Sgr A (∼0 and ∼50 km s{sup −1} component) and Sgr B2 (∼60 km s{sup −1}), which are consistent with the results from previous single-point observations. Our frequency-corrected abundance ratios of the GC clouds range from 2.58 ± 0.07 (Sgr D, V ∼ 80 km s{sup −1}, DLH) to 3.54 ± 0.12 (Sgr A, ∼50 km s{sup −1}). In addition, strong narrow components (line width less than 5 km s{sup −1}) from the foreground clouds are detected toward Sgr D (−18 km s{sup −1}), the 1.°3 complex (−18 km s{sup −1}), and M+5.3−0.3 (22 km s{sup −1}), with a larger abundance ratio around 4.0. Our results show a clear trend of lower C{sup 18}O/C{sup 17}O abundance ratios toward the GC region relative to molecular clouds in the Galactic disk. Furthermore, even inside the GC region, ratios appear not to be uniform. The low GC values are consistent with an inside-out formation scenario for our Galaxy.

  20. Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential

  1. Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/ω-conotoxin GVIA/ω-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings

  2. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: multiresistant tick.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabrício Amadori; Pivoto, Felipe Lamberti; Ferreira, Maiara Sanitá Tafner; Gregorio, Fabiano de Vargas; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the acaricide resistance of tick populations in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), which has not previously been reported. Fifty-four cattle farms were visited and specimens of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were collected and subjected to the adult immersion test, using nine commercial acaricides in the amidine, pyrethroid and organophosphate groups. Climatic data, including monthly precipitation, were recorded. The results from the present study demonstrated that seven of the acaricides analyzed presented mean efficacy values of less than 95%, with large differences among the products tested. Nine of them exhibited satisfactory and unsatisfactory acaricide results on at least one farm. In conclusion, the farms located in the western-central region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, exhibited populations of R. (Boophilus) microplus with variable degrees of susceptibility to different acaricides, thus suggesting that resistance to the active compounds exists. It is suggested that treatment protocols should be implemented at the beginning of winter and summer, using the acaricides that showed efficacy in the adult immersion test. PMID:25271453

  3. Numerical study of local/regional atmospheric changes caused by a large solar central receiver power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhumralkar, C. M.; Slemmons, A. J.; Nitz, K. C.

    1981-06-01

    A two-dimensional numerical atmospheric mesoscale model with a vertical cross section is applied to study the potential local/regional atmospheric effects of the installation of a 100 MWe solar thermal central receiver power plant in California. The plant comprises heliostats (mirrors) covering a portion of ground surface and reflecting sunlight onto a central receiving tower. The model is able to simulate the changes in surface characteristics associated with the installation of heliostats and other power plant ancillaries and can also simulate the effects of waste heat from cooling towers. The model equations are integrated to simulate typical summer and atypical summer. The results for typical summer conditions at the site and in the surrounding region demonstrate that the power plant has the potential to increase local humidity and wind circulation but cannot induce the formation of clouds or rain. The results for atypical summer conditions show that the solar power plant is potentially able to increase the wind circulation and form clouds and rain. It is noted, however, that the life cycle of such formations is only 2-3 h.

  4. Relict nebkhas (pimple mounds) record prolonged late Holocene drought in the forested region of south-central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, Christopher L.; Cox, Randel Tom; Forman, Steven L.; Foti, Tom L.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; McColgan, Andrew T.

    2009-05-01

    The origin and significance of pimple mounds (low, elliptical to circular dune-like features found across much of the south-central United States) have been debated for nearly two centuries. We cored pimple mounds at four sites spanning the Ozark Plateau, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and found that these mounds have a regionally consistent textural asymmetry such that there is a significant excess of coarse-grained sediment within their northwest flanks. We interpret this asymmetry as evidence of an eolian depositional origin of these mounds and conclude they are relict nebkhas (coppice dunes) deposited during protracted middle to late Holocene droughts. These four mounds yield optically stimulated luminescence ages between 2400 and 700 yr that correlate with well-documented periods of eolian activity and droughts on the southern Great Plains, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We conclude vegetation loss during extended droughts led to local eolian deflation and pimple mound deposition. These mounds reflect landscape response to multi-decadal droughts for the south-central U.S. The spatial extent of pimple mounds across this region further underscores the severity and duration of late Holocene droughts, which were significantly greater than historic droughts.

  5. Assessment of human exposure to environmental heavy metals in soils and bryophytes of the central region of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Reis, Amélia Paula; Patinha, Carla; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Sousa, António; Figueira, Rui; Sérgio, Cecilia; Novais, Vera

    2010-04-01

    This study intends to identify the spatial patterns of variation for some metals and metalloids, in soils and mosses, in the central region of Portugal. The purposes were: (i) to identify relationships amongst five elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and As) in three different media (topsoil, bottom soil and bryophytes) and with some site-specific characteristics, using Multiple Correspondence Analysis; (ii) to define spatial patterns of variation for the associations identified by Multiple Correspondence Analysis using Variography and Ordinary Kriging; and (iii) to assess atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals to the topsoil by crossing results with the biomonitors. The results indicated relatively low metal concentrations in soils and mosses. Some metal associations and dissociations were identified. The spatial patterns of variation of bottom and topsoil are distinct. There is some evidence that different site-specific characteristics control the spatial distribution of different elements. The areas within the central region of Portugal with a higher vulnerability to metal contamination were identified.

  6. Socioeconomic effects of power marketing alternatives for the Central Valley and Washoe Projects: 2005 regional econmic impact analysis using IMPLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.M.; Godoy-Kain, P.; Gu, A.Y.; Ulibarri, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) was founded by the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 to market and transmit federal hydroelectric power in 15 western states outside the Pacific Northwest, which is served by the Bonneville Power Administration. Western is divided into four independent Customer Service Regions including the Sierra Nevada Region (Sierra Nevada), the focus of this report. The Central Valley Project (CVP) and the Washoe Project provide the primary power resources marketed by Sierra Nevada. Sierra Nevada also purchases and markets power generated by the Bonneville Power Administration, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), and various power pools. Sierra Nevada currently markets approximately 1,480 megawatts of power to 77 customers in northern and central California. These customers include investor-owned utilities, public utilities, government agencies, military bases, and irrigation districts. Methods and conclusions from an economic analysis are summarized concerning distributional effects of alternative actions that Sierra Nevada could take with it`s new marketing plan.

  7. Development of regional skews for selected flood durations for the Central Valley Region, California, based on data through water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamontagne, Jonathan R.; Stedinger, Jery R.; Berenbrock, Charles; Veilleux, Andrea G.; Ferris, Justin C.; Knifong, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency information is important in the Central Valley region of California because of the high risk of catastrophic flooding. Most traditional flood-frequency studies focus on peak flows, but for the assessment of the adequacy of reservoirs, levees, other flood control structures, sustained flood flow (flood duration) frequency data are needed. This study focuses on rainfall or rain-on-snow floods, rather than the annual maximum, because rain events produce the largest floods in the region. A key to estimating flood-duration frequency is determining the regional skew for such data. Of the 50 sites used in this study to determine regional skew, 28 sites were considered to have little to no significant regulated flows, and for the 22 sites considered significantly regulated, unregulated daily flow data were synthesized by using reservoir storage changes and diversion records. The unregulated, annual maximum rainfall flood flows for selected durations (1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 15-day, and 30-day) for all 50 sites were furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Station skew was determined by using the expected moments algorithm program for fitting the Pearson Type 3 flood-frequency distribution to the logarithms of annual flood-duration data. Bayesian generalized least squares regression procedures used in earlier studies were modified to address problems caused by large cross correlations among concurrent rainfall floods in California and to address the extensive censoring of low outliers at some sites, by using the new expected moments algorithm for fitting the LP3 distribution to rainfall flood-duration data. To properly account for these problems and to develop suitable regional-skew regression models and regression diagnostics, a combination of ordinary least squares, weighted least squares, and Bayesian generalized least squares regressions were adopted. This new methodology determined that a nonlinear model relating regional skew to mean basin elevation

  8. [Regional differences of inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in South Central China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan-yao; Wu, Jin-shui; Zhou, Jiao-gen; Xiao, He-ai; Zhou, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This article analyzed the inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in the cropland of South Central China, i.e., Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi, and then calculated the budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), based on the data from field investigations and peasant household surveys in the four provinces. The results showed that total amounts of organic matter inputs in the four provinces was ranked as follow: 8993 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 6390 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 5012 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 4630 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong, and average NPK inputs in the four provinces were ranked as follow: 777.5 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 501.6 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 486.4 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 340.4 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong. The N and P input surpluses were greatest in Guangxi (67.2% and 99.0% as for N and P, respectively) , followed by Hunan (33.2% and 50.8%), Hubei (11.8% and 11.0%), and Guangdong (7.8% and 30.0%). However, K input was deficient in Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong (6.6%, 18.7% and 12.4%), but surplus in Guangxi (19.5%). PMID:26785554

  9. Evolution of mantle sources in the Black Hills region of the central Arizona Transition Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, S. . Dept. of Geology); Wittke, J.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Two principal Tertiary basaltic units occur in the central Arizona Transition Zone: [1] the Hickey Formation (10--15 Ma) and [2] the Perkinsville and Verde Formations (3--8 Ma). Lavas in these units were extruded before and after local Basin and Range extensional faulting. Middle Miocene Hickey volcanic centers are spaced across the Transition Zone, in a line roughly perpendicular to the edge of the Colorado Plateau. Early Hickey flows are commonly alkaline and include both potassic (shoshonite, trachybasalt, tephrite) and sodic lavas (basanite, alkali olivine basalt, hawaiite). Production of alkaline lavas was followed by the extrusion of subalkaline lavas (tholeite, basaltic andesite). Early Pliocene Perkinsville and Verde lavas are mostly subalkaline with subordinate alkaline flows that are less alkalic than the Hickey flow. Detailed trace-element and isotopic data reveal a systematic transition from lithospheric to mixed, to asthenospheric lavas. These data suggest that the size of the lithospheric component in Transition Zone magmas decreased with time as asthenospheric liquids stripped the lithosphere of its easily fusible components. Basin and Range extension of the thermally-worked lithosphere permitted eruption of essentially unmodified asthenospheric melts. The transition from lithosphere-dominated magmas to asthenosphere-dominated magmas took about 10 Ma in this area.

  10. Seasonality in planktic foraminifera of the central California coastal upwelling region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Catherine V.; Hill, Tessa M.; Russell, Ann D.; Gaylord, Brian; Jahncke, Jaime

    2016-09-01

    The close association between planktic foraminiferal assemblages and local hydrography make foraminifera invaluable proxies for environmental conditions. Modern foraminiferal seasonality is important for interpreting fossil distributions and shell geochemistry as paleoclimate proxies. Understanding this seasonality in an active upwelling area is also critical for anticipating which species may be vulnerable to future changes in upwelling intensity and ocean acidification. Two years (2012-2014) of plankton tows, along with conductivity-temperature-depth profiles and carbonate chemistry measurements taken along the north-central California shelf, offer new insights into the seasonal dynamics of planktic foraminifera in a seasonal coastal upwelling regime. This study finds an upwelling affinity for Neogloboquadrina pachyderma as well as a seasonal and upwelling associated alternation between dominance of N. pachyderma and Neogloboquadrina incompta, consistent with previous observations. Globigerina bulloides, however, shows a strong affinity for non-upwelled waters, in contrast to findings in Southern California where the species is often associated with upwelling. We also find an apparent lunar periodicity in the abundances of all species and document the presence of foraminifera even at very low saturation states of calcite.

  11. Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ciglenečki, I; Eyema, R; Kabanda, C; Taafo, F; Mekaoui, H; Urbaniak, V

    2011-03-01

    Konzo is a spastic paraparesis of sudden onset, linked to the exclusive consumption of insufficiently processed bitter cassava as staple food combined with low protein intake. Around 60,000 refugees from the Central African Republic sought refuge in villages in eastern Cameroon between 2005 and 2007. Médecins Sans Frontières was providing nutritional and medical assistance in the villages affected by displacement. We describe cases of konzo seen at the mobile clinics organized in these villages. Basic information including demographic data, history and clinical presentation was recorded for each konzo patient. All patients were given nutritional supplements, and selected cases were referred for physiotherapy to a rehabilitation center. A total of 469 patients were diagnosed with konzo. The majority (80%) were refugees. Children and women of reproductive age predominated. Most of the patients developed symptoms after 2007 in a seasonal pattern with most of the cases occurring during the dry winter season. Most of the patients complained about walking difficulties and weight loss and had exaggerated lower limb reflexes and muscle wasting on observation. Eastern Cameroon is an area with konzo. More effort needs to be put into preventive and educational measures. In addition, timely balanced food rations have to be provided to refugees.

  12. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  13. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kheireddine, Malika; Jones, Burton

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  14. Review of the Ordovician stratigraphy and fauna of the Anarak Region in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Hairapetian, Vachik; Evans, David H.; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Holmer, Lars E.; Baars, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The Ordovician sedimentary succession of the Pol-e Khavand area, situated on the northern margin of the Yazd block, has important differences from those in other parts of Central Iran. It has been established that the presumably terminal Cambrian to Lower Ordovician volcano-sedimentary Polekhavand Formation, exposed in the Pol-e Khavand area, has non-conformable contact with greenschists of the Doshakh Metamorphic Complex. The succeeding, mainly siliciclastic Chahgonbad Formation contains low to moderately diverse faunal assemblages, including brachiopods, cephalopods, trilobites and tentaculitids. The Darriwilian age of the lower part of the formation is well established by the co-occurrence of brachiopod genera Camerella, Phragmorthis, Tritoechia and Yangtzeella. The associated rich cephalopod fauna is different from the Darriwilian cephalopod associations of the Alborz terrane and may show some affinity with warm water faunas of North China and South Korea. It is likely that the Mid Ordovician fauna recovered from the lower part of the Chahgonbad Formation settled in the area sometime during a warming episode in the late Darriwilian. By contrast the low diversity mid Katian brachiopod association includes only three taxa, which occur together with the trilobite Vietnamia cf. teichmulleri and abundant, but poorly preserved tentaculitids questionably assigned to the genus Costatulites. This faunal association bears clear signatures linking it to the contemporaneous cold water faunas of the Arabian, Mediterranean and North African segments of Gondwana. Four brachiopod species recovered from the Chahgonbad Formation, including Hibernodonta lakhensis, Hindella prima, Lomatorthis? multilamellosa and Yangtzeella chupananica are new to science.

  15. Concordance between macrophytes and macroinvertebrates in a Mediterranean river of central Apennine region.

    PubMed

    Traversetti, Lorenzo; Scalici, Massimiliano; Ginepri, Valeria; Manfrin, Alessandro; Ceschin, Simona

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to improve the knowledge about the concordance among macrophytes and macroinvertebrates to provide complementary information and facilitate the procedures for quality assessment of river ecosystems. Macrophytes and macroinvertebrates were collected in 11 sampling sites along a central Apennine calcareous river in October 2008 and June 2009. The concordance between the two biomonitoring groups was tested according to several environmental parameters. The comparison of data matrix similarities by Mantel test showed differences in the assemblage of macrophytes and macroinvertebrates along the river since correlation values were 0.04, p > 0.05 in October 2008 and 0.39, p > 0.05 in June 2009. The study revealed lack of concordance between the two groups, emphasizing that the information provided by macrophytes and macroinvertebrates does not overlap in terms of response to environmental parameters. Indeed, the two different biological groups resulted useful descriptors of different parameters. Together, they could represent a complementary tool to reflect the river environmental quality.

  16. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  17. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. PMID:24487256

  18. Late-stage phases of glacial Lake Ojibway in the central Abitibi region, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Martin; Veillette, Jean J.; Daubois, Virginie; Ménard, Maxime

    2015-11-01

    The decay of the Laurentide ice sheet southern margin during the last deglaciation led to the development of Lake Ojibway that covered large expanses of northeastern Ontario and northwestern Quebec. The history of Ojibway lake phases is poorly detailed mainly because of the physical configuration of the lake basin and the dominance of fine-grained glaciolacustrine sediments that prevent the formation of well-developed and extensive sandy strandlines. Here we use a complex sequence of relict terraces carved in glaciolacustrine rhythmites to document the evolution of Lake Ojibway in northwestern Quebec. Specifically, lake levels were constrained by measuring the elevation of 154 raised wave-cut scarps present in the eastern Lake Abitibi region. Results provide evidence for four distinct shorelines with elevations of 299, 289, 282, and 272 m (± 1 m) at the latitude of La Sarre. The highest lake level documented appears to be linked to one of the two known (Kinojévis) phases of Lake Ojibway, while the three other lake levels project well below the main outlet system that controlled the elevation of the lake during the deglaciation. The elevation, uplift gradients, and areal extent of these lower shorelines suggest that the two intermediate lake levels likely formed during late stages of the deglaciation, following abrupt drawdowns of the lake's surface. The fourth and lowest shoreline is associated with a postglacial lake that developed after the complete withdrawal of Ojibway water from the region. These low-elevation shorelines bring new evidence for significant changes in the areal extent and depth of Lake Ojibway near the end of the deglaciation. Although the origin of these late-stage phases remains unspecified, the associated drawdowns likely implied routing events into newly deglaciated regions and/or (subglacial) meltwater discharges into the North Atlantic.

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

  20. Timing of Proterozoic regional deformation in the southern Manzano Mountains, central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, P.W. ); Bowring, S.A. . Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences); Karlstrom, K.E. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Early Proterozoic supracrustal and plutonic rocks of the Manzano Mtns have sustained a remarkably complex history of ductile deformation, metamorphism, and plutonism. A comparison of field relations and deformational features between the two southernmost plutons suggests that they differ greatly in timing of intrusion with respect to regional deformation. The Monte Largo pluton consists of medium-grained granodiorite and quartz monzonite that is bounded on three sides by strongly deformed quartzite and phyllite. An S1 foliation is folded by upright, N-trending folds (F2). S2, axial planar to F2, is mylonitic along the E pluton margin. The degree of deformation in the pluton is comparable to that in the country rock. The Monte Largo pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.66 Ga. The Priest pluton is a 10-km-long, N-S elongate, megacrystic quartz monzonite that is intrusive into quartzite sand schists. Large microcline crystals define a magmatic foliation. The body contains a weakly to moderately well-developed NE-striking tectonic foliation defined by flattened quartz grains, best developed along the W margin. On the N end of the pluton, map-scale folds in quartzite and schist have been cross-cut, and a contact metamorphic aureole cross-cuts country rock structures. The degree of deformation in the pluton is significantly less than that of country rock quartzites, some of which are mylonitic. The Priest Pluton has a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 1.45 Ga. These data suggest that the ca. 1.66 Ga Monte Largo pluton is syntectonic with respect to regional deformation, whereas the ca. 1.45 Ga priest pluton is post-tectonic with respect to the regional deformation.

  1. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  2. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year.

  3. Three-dimensional velocity structure, seismicity, and fault structure in the Parkfield region, central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Michael, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examines the three-dimensional velocity structure in a 60- by 80-km region containing the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault. The San Andreas fault (SAF), characterized by a sharp across-fault velocity gradient, is the primary feature in the velocity solution. The model also shows significant variations in the velocity and in the complexity of the velocity patterns along the SAF. There may be a general relation between increasing velocity and increasing ability of the rocks to store strain energy and release it as brittle failure. -from Authors

  4. Water-resources information for the Withlacoochee River region, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert A.; Anderson, Warren; Navoy, Anthony S.; Smoot, James L.; Belles, Roger G.

    1981-01-01

    Daily water use in the Withlacoochee River region in 1977 averaged about 2,005 million gallons per day, 94 percent being saline surface water used in thermoelectric power-generation cooling. The largest user of freshwater was Hernando County, using 43.02 million gallons per day. The Floridan aquifer in the region consists mostly of limestones and dolomites, and is as much as 1,500 feet thick. Transmissivities are known to be as high as 25 million feet squared per day. Yields of 2,000 gallons per minutes from 12-inch wells are possible. Although the range in fluctuations of the potentiometric surface is as great as 20 feet, no significant change has occurred since the 1930 's when data were first collected. The quality of water in the Floridan aquifer is generally excellent. Saltwater is present in the aquifer near the Gulf Coast and in extreme east Marion County, near the St. Johns River. The predominant chemical type for both streams and springs is calcium and magnesium bicarbonate due to the dissolution process of the carbonate rocks. The majority of the streams have average dissolved-solid concentrations between 100 and 200 milligrams per liter, maximum-observed specific conductance between 250 and 750 micromhos per centimeter, and average total nitrogen concentrations of less than 1.2 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  5. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiapu; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases which are serious neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals occur in various of species. Unlike many other neurodegenerative diseases affected by amyloid, prion diseases can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in many species. In humans, prion diseases include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Strussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and Kuru etc. In animals, prion diseases are related to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) found in deer and elk, and scrapie seen in sheep and goats, etc. More seriously, the fact that transmission of the prion diseases across the species barrier to other species such as humans has caused a major public health concern worldwide. For example, the BSE in Europe, the CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK. Fortunately, it is discovered that the hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions (PrP(Sc)), which provide some clues in control of such diseases. This article provides a detailed survey of recent studies with respect to the PrP hydrophobic region of human PrP(110-136) using molecular dynamics studies. PMID:25373387

  6. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  7. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  8. Quality of streams in the Bull Mountains region, south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapton, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    In October 1977, water-quality monitoring stations were established on five small streams that drain the Bull Mountains and also on the Musselshell River to document present water-quality conditions in a coal area of south-central Montana. Relatively static water-quality conditions exist throughout the annual flow cycle on the small streams but water quality varies with time on the Musselshell River. The near absence of surface runoff in the Bull Mountains during the study and the dominance by the base-flow component account for stability of water quality in the small streams. High-mountain runoff coupled with storms and prairie runoff impact the base flow of the Musselshell River. Bicarbonate and sulfate were the principal anions and are present in nearly equal proportions in all small streams. Except for West Parrot Creek, magnesium was the most dominant cation. West Parrot Creek, which consistently contained the smallest levels of dissolved solids, had sodium rather than magnesium as the principal cation. Fattig Creek was highest in dissolved solids with an approximate concentration range of 900 to 2,100 milligrams per liter. Suspended-sediment discharge in the streams was relatively small; no stream exceeded 0.32 ton per day. The Musselshell River had dissolved solids concentrations that ranged from about 450 milligrams per liter during spring runoff to 1,800 milligrams per liter during periods of base flow. The sodium sulfate-type water, which is common during base flow, is diluted during runoff with water having principal ions of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate. Suspended-sediment loads ranged from 0.56 to 37,300 tons per day and correlated directly to stream discharge. (USGS)

  9. Isopach Map and Regional Correlations of the Fire Clay Tonstein, Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Outerbridge, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A tonstein that occurs within the Middle Pennsylvanian Fire Clay coal zone is a widespread marker bed that has been used for correlation purposes since the early 1900?s. Seiders (1965) first demonstrated that this tonstein is an altered volcanic air-fall ash deposit. Lyons and others (1992) have correlated the tonstein across Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee on the basis of mineralogical and geochemical ?fingerprinting?. The correlation of the tonstein, herein often referred to as the Fire Clay tonstein over this four-state area, and the abundance of thickness data on this tonstein permit construction of an isopach map that depicts its distribution. In general, the tonstein thins from Tennessee, where it is up to 12 inches (30 cm) thick, northeastward to central West Virginia, where it is less than 4 in. (10 cm) thick, and its preserved area is about 14,300 sq. mi. (37,000 sq. km). The preserved volume is 0.90 cu. mi or 3.7 cu. km. The compaction ratio of ash to rock is 6:1, so the original ash volume deposited in this area was 5.4 cubic miles (22.2 cubic kilometers). The trends in thickness suggest the source of the ash was a volcano in the Yucatan tectonic plate, which, had it not moved relative to the North American Plate since the Pennsylvanian, would be located in the present Gulf of Mexico, south of Louisiana. The thickness and extent of the tonstein appears to have been controlled partly by winds and partly by the surface on which it landed. Its absence in some areas indicates that the ash was not preserved, probably because it floated downstream as pumice.

  10. Geothermal potential of the Lavic Lake Region, Central Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, A.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Meade, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Lavic Lake is a playa lake located immediately south of Pisgah Crater within lands controlled by the Marine Corps Air/Ground Combat Center in the central Mojave Desert. The Department of the Navy`s Geothermal Program Office (GPO) recently completed a second season of drilling to assess the geothermal potential at Lavic Lake. Drilling was preceded by geologic reconnaissance and a detailed gravity and ground magnetic survey. Lavic Lake is bounded to the west by the northwest-trending, right-lateral Pisgah fault and an unnamed west-trending fault to the north. The {approximately}200 ka Sunshine basalt flows and the {approximately}2-20 ka Pisgah basalt flows straddle these northwest- and west-trending faults, respectively, in the Lavic Lake area. An extensional depression related to a right bend of the Pisgah fault forms the southwest end of Lavic Lake and was the focus of the above studies. A localized 10 mgal gravity low and a coincident 500 gamma aeromagnetic low are centered within this depression. The combination of elevated temperature gradients in initial shallow holes, recent basaltic volcanism, a seismicly active fluid conduit (Pisgah fault), and hydrothermal alteration in the nearby hectorite deposit prompted the GPO to focus deeper drilling adjacent to the geophysical anomalies at the southwest end of Lavic Lake. Drilling results reveal that the geothermal potential for electrical use is negligible; however, LLTGH-5 and -6 both encountered highly fractured zones. LLTGH-6 crossed a zone of warm (110{degrees}F) fluid at 750 ft and intercepted highly fractured granitic basement at 4,175 ft.

  11. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  12. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  13. A summary of the Cenozoic stratigraphy and geologic history of the Coalinga region, central California

    SciTech Connect

    Bartow, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Cenozoic strata along the southwest side of the San Joaquin Valley provide a nearly complete record of the depositional history and structural evolution of this large sedimentary basin. The diverse sedimentary facies represented are evidence of repeated cycles of transgression and regression that are due to relative changes in sea level. These changes, in turn, can be interpreted in terms of either tectonic activity - that is, uplift or subsidence - or eustatic sea-level change. This chapter briefly describes the stratigraphy and outlines the geologic history of the region surrounding Coalinga and the epicenter of the May 2, 1983, earthquake, concentrating on Cenozoic time, during which tectonic relations most relevant to the existing stress field were established. This paper describes the geologic setting; Paleogene history; and Neogene and Quaternary history.

  14. Larval trematode infections in Galba truncatula (Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae) from the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2016-05-01

    Adult Galba truncatula ( ≥ 4 mm in shell height) were collected from 135 habitats for 3 years (2012-2014) to identify parasite species via the study of cercariae, and to determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the type of snail habitat (six types). A total of 323 infected snails and ten digenean species were noted in the bodies of 11,025 G. truncatula after their dissection. Snails with Calicophoron daubneyi and/or Fasciola hepatica were found in 20.7% and 12.5% of the habitats, respectively, and most of these infected snails were collected from rainwater-draining furrows and pools in meadows. The percentages were lower for snails with Echinostoma revolutum (9.6% of habitats) and Haplometra cylindracea (7.4%), and were less than 5% for those parasitized by any of the other five species of digenean. The highest prevalence of all digenean infections was noted in pools (9.4%), followed by furrows located in meadows (8.3%) and ponds (5.1%). The prevalence noted for each digenean infection varied with the type of habitat. In furrows located in meadows, the infection rate of C. daubneyi in snails (3.5%) was significantly higher than that of F. hepatica (2.2%). In pools, values greater than 1.5% were noted for C. daubneyi, H. cylindracea and Opistoglyphe ranae. In ponds, E. revolutum was the dominant species (prevalence, 2.5%). Parasite species richness in G. truncatula was greater in the Brenne Natural Regional Park than in the nearby region of Limousin (ten instead of eight). The distribution and prevalence of each parasite species were dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  15. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  16. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at Olkalou District Hospital, Central Region, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Muchemi, Onesmus Maina; Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ninety-two percent of Low Birth Weight(LBW) infants are born in developing countries, 70% in Asia and 22% in Africa. WHO and UNICEF estimate LBW in Kenya as11% and 6%by 2009 Kenya Demographic Health Survey. The same survey estimated LBW to be 5.5% in Central Province, Kenya. Data in Olkalou hospital indicated that prevalence of LBW was high. However, factors giving rise to the problem remained unknown. Methods A cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital. LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g. We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 women were randomly selected from 500mothers. Data was managed using Epi Info 3.3.2. Results The prevalence of LBW was 12.3% (n=40). The mean age of mothers was 25.6±6.2 years. Mean birth weight was 2928±533 grams. There were 51.1% (n=165) male neonates and 48.9% (n=158) females. The following factors were significantly associated with LBW:LBW delivery in a previous birth (OR=4.7, 95%C.I.=1.53-14.24), premature rapture of membranes (OR=2.95, 95%C.I.=1.14-7.62), premature births (OR=3.65, 95%C.I.=1.31-10.38), and female newborn (OR=2.32, 95%C.I.=1.15-4.70). On logistic regression only delivery of LBW baby in a previous birth (OR=5.07, 95%C.I.=1.59-16.21) and female infant (OR=3.37, 95%C.I.=1.14-10.00)were independently associated with LBW. Conclusion Prevalence of LBW in the hospital was higher than national estimates. Female infant and LBW baby in a previous birth are independent factors. Local prevention efforts are necessary to mitigate the problem. Population-based study is necessary to provide accurate estimates in the area. PMID:26090056

  17. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  18. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  19. The Tectonic Evolution of Kinematic Blocks Along Major Plate Boundaries: the Case History of the Hyblean Region (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, S.; Romagnoli, G.; Tortorici, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Hyblean Region (SE Sicily) in the Central Mediterranean represents a crustal block, which is entrapped at the junction between two major plate boundaries. The former consists of the E-W oriented Nubia-Eurasia boundary and the latter is represented by an incipient, roughly N-S trending, divergent margin, which has propagated from the Italian Peninsula through the African continental domains of Sicily. Usually interpreted as part of the stable African platform, the Hyblean region, during the Quaternary, has actually played the role of an independent crustal block, if framed in the larger scale plate motion. Since about 1.5 Ma, the Hyblean Block, in fact, was isolated from the rest of the Africa margin, as consequence of the propagation of the divergent margin through the SE Sicily. Since the Middle Pleistocene (≤0.8Ma), the Hyblean Block was accreted to the Nubia-Eurasia boundary, as the result of a sudden east-ward jumping of the divergent margin, to its present location. The Quaternary evolution of the Hyblean Block has emphasized some peculiar tectonic, kinematic and dynamic features that, being potentially diagnostic also for the identification of microplates, can be summarised as follow: 1. Occurrence of main regional Quaternary (<1.5 Ma) tectonics that are incongruent with the stress-in-situ measurements, focal mechanisms and geodetic data; 2. Evidence of very recent positive tectonic inversion of the Early Quaternary structures, coupled with sudden change in the displacement rate, not accompanied by variation in the larger scale plate motion; 3. Distribution of high- magnitude seismicity (6≤M≤7) along the tectonic boundaries of the crustal block; 4. Distribution of low- magnitude seismicity within the block, mostly independent from the geometry of the major Quaternary tectonics. The recognition of the Hyblean Block represents a key constraint in modelling the large scale deformation of the Central Mediterranean region. The correction of the GPS

  20. Deep regional resistivity structure across the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin trends, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetotelluric data collected along four, regional scale, southwest-to-northeast profiles show deep resistivity structures beneath the Battle Mountain-Eureka and Carlin gold trends in north-central Nevada, which appear consistent with tectonic breaks in the crust that possibly served as channels for hydrothermal fluids. It seems likely that gold deposits along these linear trends were, therefore, controlled by deep regional crustal fault systems. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of the magnetotelluric data generally show resistive (30 to 1,000 ohm-m) crustal blocks broken by narrow, sub-vertical, two-dimensional, conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) zones that are indicative of large-scale crustal fault zones. These inferred fault zones are regional in scale, trend southeast-to-northwest, and extend to mid-crustal (20 km) depths. The conductors are about 3 to 15 km wide, extend from 1 to 8 km below the surface to about 20 km depth, and show two-dimensional electrical structure with general north to northwesterly strikes. From connecting the locations of the conductors together, a single regional crustal fault zone can be inferred that is about 10 km wide within the upper crust and about 150-km long. It coincides with the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral trend. The images also show regional changes in the resistive crust from north to south. Most of Reese River Valley and Boulder Valley are underlain by a thick (20 km) southwest-to-northeast section of conductive (1 to 10 ohm-m) rock, suggesting that hightemperature fluids are more pervasive in this area (Battle Mountain Heat-Flow High), which implies that the crust beneath these valleys is more fractured than in the areas surveyed to the south

  1. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  2. Quantification and regionalization of groundwater recharge in South-Central Kansas: Integrating field characterization, statistical analysis, and GIS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    2000-01-01

    A practical methodology for recharge characterization was developed based on several years of field-oriented research at 10 sites in the Great Bend Prairie of south-central Kansas. This methodology combines the soil-water budget on a storm-by-storm year-round basis with the resulting watertable rises. The estimated 1985-1992 average annual recharge was less than 50mm/year with a range from 15 mm/year (during the 1998 drought) to 178 mm/year (during the 1993 flood year). Most of this recharge occurs during the spring months. To regionalize these site-specific estimates, an additional methodology based on multiple (forward) regression analysis combined with classification and GIS overlay analyses was developed and implemented. The multiple regression analysis showed that the most influential variables were, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation, average maximum springtime soil-profile water storage, average shallowest springtime depth to watertable, and average springtime precipitation rate. Therefore, four GIS (ARC/INFO) data "layers" or coverages were constructed for the study region based on these four variables, and each such coverage was classified into the same number of data classes to avoid biasing the results. The normalized regression coefficients were employed to weigh the class rankings of each recharge-affecting variable. This approach resulted in recharge zonations that agreed well with the site recharge estimates. During the "Great Flood of 1993," when rainfall totals exceeded normal levels by -200% in the northern portion of the study region, the developed regionalization methodology was tested against such extreme conditions, and proved to be both practical, based on readily available or easily measurable data, and robust. It was concluded that the combination of multiple regression and GIS overlay analyses is a powerful and practical approach to regionalizing small samples of recharge estimates.

  3. Nitrogen and metals in two regions in Central Europe: significant differences in accumulation in mosses due to land use?

    PubMed

    Schröder, Winfried; Hornsmann, Inga; Pesch, Roland; Schmidt, Gunther; Markert, Bernd; Fränzle, Stefan; Wünschmann, Simone; Heidenreich, Heike

    2007-10-01

    The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the regional variability of nitrogen (N) and metal accumulations in terrestrial ecosystems are due to historical and recent ways of landuse. To this end, two regions of Central Europe were selected for investigation: the Weser-Ems Region (WER) and the Euro Region Nissa (ERN). They were assumed to have land use-specific accumulation profiles. Thus, the metal and N accumulations in both regions were examined by means of geostatistically based comparative moss analysis. The sampling and chemical analysis of mosses were conducted in accordance with the convenient guidelines and methods, respectively. The spatial representativity of the sampling sites was computed by means of a land classification which was calculated for Europe by means of classification trees and GIS-techniques. The differences of deposition loads were tested for statistical significance with regard to time and space. The measurement values corroborated the decline of metal accumulation observed since the beginning of the European Metals in Mosses Surveys in 1990. The metal loads of the mosses in the ERN exceeded those in the WER significantly. The opposite holds true for the N concentrations: those in the WER were significantly higher than those in the ERN. The reduction of emissions from power plants, factories and houses was strongly correlated with the decline of deposition and bioaccumulation of metals. As proved by the European Metals in Mosses Surveys, this tendency is due to successful environmental policies. But no such success could be verified by monitoring the accumulation of N in mosses.

  4. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  5. Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G

    2011-04-01

    A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Three acoustic forms of Allen's galagos (primates; Galagonidae) in the Central African region.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Lesley

    2003-01-01

    This study identifies populations currently classified as Allen's galago (Galago alleni) at ten locations in Gabon, Cameroon and Bioko Island. Morphological diversity was evident both within and between populations. Attention to the loud calls revealed three distinct vocal profiles which are consistent within biogeographical regions. This work is based on the Recognition Concept of Species which refers to a Specific Mate Recognition System. Galagos rely less on visual signals than diurnal primates and recognise each other principally by means of auditory and olfactory signals. Galagos possess repertoires of loud calls relating to contact and alarm which are thought to be species-specific. Other studies of nocturnal prosimians (galagos, tarsiers) have demonstrated that the unique loud call repertoires are reliable indicators of species boundaries; whereas characters such as body size and pelage coloration are highly variable, even within populations. The vocal data in this study provide evidence of at least three acoustic forms of galago within the Allen's group which are predicted to represent three distinct species: the Allen's form on Bioko Island and south-west Cameroon, the Gabon form in southern Cameroon and northern Gabon and the Makandé form in Gabon south of the Ogooué river. Some populations may be vulnerable to extinction due to limited distributions and habitat destruction.

  7. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Although Cenozoic deposits are not uniformly differentiated, interstate correlations of major Paleocene and Eocene units are generally established throughout the area. Younger deposits are not as well differentiated. Some stratigraphic designations made at surface exposures cannot be extended into the sub-surface, and the scarcity of distinct geologic horizons has hampered differentiation on a regional scale. The complexities of facies development in Oligocene and younger coastal deposits preclude the development of extensive recognizable horizons needed for stratigraphic applications. Coastal deposits are a heterogeneous assemblage of deltaic, lagoonal, lacustrine, palustrine, eolian, and fluvial clastic facies and local calcareous reef facies. Even major time boundaries, as between geologic series, are not fully resolved. Surficial Quaternary deposits overlie the truncated subcrops of Tertiary strata and generally are distinguishable, although some contacts between Pleistocene and underlying Pliocene deposits have been a ?lstoncal source of controversy. Glacially related terraces are characteristic of the Pleistocene Epoch, and alluvium of aggrading streams typifies the Holocene. 

  8. Pre-Wisconsin glacial stratigraphy of the central plains region in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hallberg, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent investigations have documented the presence of several tills and interglacial paleosols that were not recognized in the simple Kansan-Aftonian-Nebraskan stratigraphic sequence. Also, the single 'Pearlette ash' recognized by early workers now is known to be three different Pearlette family ash beds of greatly contrasting ages. The complexity of the stratigraphy, as it is currently understood, and the miscorrelations of early work necessitate abandonment of the archaic terms Kansan, Aftonian, and Nebraskan in stratigraphic terminology. Continued use of those terms will only promote confusion of stratigraphic nomenclature and erroneous correlations of stratigraphic units. The limited chronometric control available within the early and middle Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence is provided directly by dating or by correlation of buried soils and volcanic ash beds and it is provided inferentially by interpretation of magnetic polarity data. These controls provide, at best, a general time framework to begin a new synthesis of the Quaternary history of the region. New methods of dating are needed to facilitate long-distance correlation of early and middle Pleistocene deposits. ?? 1986.

  9. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  10. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Ernesto; Macías, Analía; Paolicchi, Fernando; Magnano, Gabriel; Zapata, Laura; Fernández, Analía; Canal, Ana; Garbaccio, Sergio; Cataldi, Angel; Caimi, Karina; Zumárraga, Martín

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011). By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism. PMID:24676658

  11. Regional distribution of neuropeptide Y and its receptor in the porcine central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Busch-Sørensen, M; Sheikh, S P; O'Hare, M; Tortora, O; Schwartz, T W; Gammeltoft, S

    1989-05-01

    The regional distribution of neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity and receptor binding was studied in the porcine CNS. The highest amounts of immunoreactive NPY were found in the hypothalamus, septum pellucidum, gyrus cinguli, cortex frontalis, parietalis, and piriformis, corpus amygdaloideum, and bulbus olfactorius (200-1,000 pmol/g wet weight). In the cortex temporalis and occipitalis, striatum, hippocampus, tractus olfactorius, corpus mamillare, thalamus, and globus pallidus, the NPY content was 50-200 pmol/g wet weight, whereas the striatum, colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis contained less than 50 pmol/g wet weight. The receptor binding of NPY was highest in the hippocampus, corpus fornicis, corpus amygdaloideum, nucleus accumbens, and neurohypophysis, with a range of 1.0-5.87 pmol/mg of protein. Intermediate binding (0.5-1.0 pmol/mg of protein) was found in the septum pellucidum, columna fornicis, corpus mamillare, cortex piriformis, gyrus cinguli, striatum, substantia grisea centralis, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. In the corpus callosum, basal ganglia, corpus pineale, colliculi, corpus geniculatum mediale, nucleus ruber, pons, medulla oblongata, and medulla spinalis, receptor binding of NPY was detectable but less than 0.5 pmol/mg of protein. No binding was observed in the bulbus and tractus olfactorius and adenohypophysis. In conclusion, immunoreactive NPY and its receptors are widespread in the porcine CNS, with predominant location in the limbic system, olfactory system, hypothalamoneurohypophysial tract, corpus striatum, and cerebral cortex.

  12. Regional reconstruction of flash flood history in the Guadarrama range (Central System, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Morata, C; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Trappmann, D; Beniston, M; Stoffel, M

    2016-04-15

    Flash floods are a common natural hazard in Mediterranean mountain environments and responsible for serious economic and human disasters. The study of flash flood dynamics and their triggers is a key issue; however, the retrieval of historical data is often limited in mountain regions as a result of short time series and the systematic lack of historical data. In this study, we attempt to overcome data deficiency by supplementing existing records with dendrogeomorphic techniques which were employed in seven mountain streams along the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountain range. Here we present results derived from the tree-ring analysis of 117 samples from 63 Pinus sylvestris L. trees injured by flash floods, to complement existing flash flood records covering the last ~200years and comment on their hydro-meteorological triggers. To understand the varying number of reconstructed flash flood events in each of the catchments, we also performed a comparative analysis of geomorphic catchment characteristics, land use evolution and forest management. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of dendrogeomorphic techniques applied in managed forests.

  13. Regional reconstruction of flash flood history in the Guadarrama range (Central System, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Morata, C; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J A; Trappmann, D; Beniston, M; Stoffel, M

    2016-04-15

    Flash floods are a common natural hazard in Mediterranean mountain environments and responsible for serious economic and human disasters. The study of flash flood dynamics and their triggers is a key issue; however, the retrieval of historical data is often limited in mountain regions as a result of short time series and the systematic lack of historical data. In this study, we attempt to overcome data deficiency by supplementing existing records with dendrogeomorphic techniques which were employed in seven mountain streams along the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountain range. Here we present results derived from the tree-ring analysis of 117 samples from 63 Pinus sylvestris L. trees injured by flash floods, to complement existing flash flood records covering the last ~200years and comment on their hydro-meteorological triggers. To understand the varying number of reconstructed flash flood events in each of the catchments, we also performed a comparative analysis of geomorphic catchment characteristics, land use evolution and forest management. Furthermore, we discuss the limitations of dendrogeomorphic techniques applied in managed forests. PMID:26845178

  14. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

    2012-08-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 μS cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines. PMID:22788537

  15. Surficial geology of the Safsaf region, south-central Egypt, derived from remote-sensing and field data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, P.A.; Breed, C.S.; McCauley, J.F.; Schaber, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    We used a decorrelation-stretched image of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 1, 4, and 7 and field data to map and describe the main surficial units in the hyperarid Safsaf region in south-central Egypt. We show that the near-infrared bands on Landsat TM, which are sensitive to very subtle changes in mineralogy common to arid regions, significantly improve the geologist's capability to discriminate geologic units in desert regions. These data also provide the spatial and spectral information necessary to determine the migration patterns and provenance of eolian materials. The Safsaf area was the focus of our post flight field studies using Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data following the discovery of buried paleochannels in North Africa. Most of the channels discernible on SIR images are not expressed in TM data, but traces of a few channels are present in both the SIR and the TM data within the Wadi Safsaf area. Here we present a detailed digital examination of the SIR and the TM-band reflectance and reflectance-ratio data at three locations of the more obvious surface expressions of the buried channels. Our results indicate that the TM expressions of the channels are not purely topographic but are more compositional in nature. Two possibilities may account for the TM expressions of the buried channels: 1) concentrations of windblown, iron-rich materials that accumulated along subtle curvilinear topograpohic traps, or 2) curvilinear exposures of an iron-rich underlying unit of the flat sand sheet. ?? 1993.

  16. Glacial stratigraphy of the Bulkley River region: A depositional framework for the late Pleistocene in central British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, A.J.; Broster, B.E.; Levson, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    A depositional framework for late Pleistocene sediments in central British Columbia was developed from the composite stratigraphy of glacial sediments found in the Bulkley River region. Nonglacial deposits correlated to the Olympia Nonglacial Interval, are overlain in succession by sub-till, ice-advance sediments, Late Wisconsinan (Fraser Glaciation) till, and late-glacial sediments. Due to local erosion and depositional variability, some of the units are not continuous throughout the region and differ locally in their thickness and complexity. At the onset of the Fraser Glaciation, ice advance was marked by rising base levels in rivers, lake ponding, and ice marginal sub-aqueous deposition. Physiography and glacier dynamics influenced the position of drainage outlets, direction of water flow, and ponding. The region was completely ice covered during this glaciation and ice-flow directions were variable, being dominantly influenced by the migrating position of ice divides. Deglaciation was marked by the widespread deposition of fine-grained sediments in proglacial lakes and glaciofluvial sands and gravels at locations with unrestricted drainage.

  17. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.

  18. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  19. How many mountains can we mine? Assessing the regional degradation of Central Appalachian rivers by surface coal mining.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Emily S; Lutz, Brian D; King, Ryan S; Fay, John P; Carter, Catherine E; Helton, Ashley M; Campagna, David; Amos, John

    2012-08-01

    Surface coal mining is the dominant form of land cover change in Central Appalachia, yet the extent to which surface coal mine runoff is polluting regional rivers is currently unknown. We mapped surface mining from 1976 to 2005 for a 19,581 km(2) area of southern West Virginia and linked these maps with water quality and biological data for 223 streams. The extent of surface mining within catchments is highly correlated with the ionic strength and sulfate concentrations of receiving streams. Generalized additive models were used to estimate the amount of watershed mining, stream ionic strength, or sulfate concentrations beyond which biological impairment (based on state biocriteria) is likely. We find this threshold is reached once surface coal mines occupy >5.4% of their contributing watershed area, ionic strength exceeds 308 μS cm(-1), or sulfate concentrations exceed 50 mg L(-1). Significant losses of many intolerant macroinvertebrate taxa occur when as little as 2.2% of contributing catchments are mined. As of 2005, 5% of the land area of southern WV was converted to surface mines, 6% of regional streams were buried in valley fills, and 22% of the regional stream network length drained watersheds with >5.4% of their surface area converted to mines.

  20. Spatial dependence of the star formation history in the central regions of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino, Andrés; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Aparicio, Antonio; Gallart, Carme; Carrera, Ricardo; Monelli, Matteo; Buonanno, Roberto; Marconi, Gianni

    2013-08-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) and the age-metallicity relation (AMR) in three fields of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. They sample a region spanning from the centre of the galaxy to beyond one core radius, which allows studying galactocentric gradients. In all the cases, we found stars as old as 12 Gyr, together with intermediate-age and young stellar populations. The last star formation events, as young as 1 Gyr old, are mainly located in the central region, which may indicate that the gas reservoir in the outer parts of the galaxy would have been exhausted earlier than in the centre or removed by tidal interactions. The AMR is smoothly increasing in the three analysed regions and similar to each other, indicating that no significant metallicity gradient is apparent within and around the core radius of Fornax. No significant traces of global UV-reionization or local SNe feedback are appreciated in the early SFH of Fornax. Our study is based on VLT photometry as deep as I ˜ 24.5 and the IAC-STAR/IAC-POP/MINNIAC suite of codes for the determination of the SFH in resolved stellar populations.

  1. Cattle ticks in Cameroon: is Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus absent in Cameroon and the Central African region?

    PubMed

    Awa, D N; Adakal, H; Luogbou, N D D; Wachong, K H; Leinyuy, I; Achukwi, M D

    2015-03-01

    In most parts of the world, ticks are rapidly developing resistance to commonly used acaricides thus rendering control difficult. This constraint is further compounded by the introduction of new species in areas where they did not exist before. Such is the case with the introduction into and rapid spread of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in some countries of West Africa. With the looming threat of its further spread in the region, the objective of the present study was to update knowledge on cattle ticks in Cameroon. Among 19,189 ticks collected monthly from 60 animals in 5 herds from March 2012 to February 2013, Rh. (B.) decoloratus was the most abundant species with a relative prevalence of 62.2%, followed by Amblyomma variegatum (28.4%), Rh. (B.) annulatus (0.2%), Rh. (B.) geigyi (0.03%), other Rhipicephalus spp. (8.4%) and Hyalomma spp. (0.3%). Rh. (B.) decoloratus and A. variegatum were also the most widely distributed in space. Infestation rate was generally high, with average tick count/animal of about 80 during peak periods. Tick distribution and abundance in the different sites was as varied as the underlying factors, among which the most important were management systems and climatic factors. The effects of rainfall and temperature were confounded by other factors and difficult to evaluate. However, it appears tick development depends among other factors, on a humidity threshold, above which there is not much more effect. Rh. microplus was not found during this study, but more extensive tick collections have to be done to confirm this. In conclusion, cattle tick infestation in Cameroon remains an important cause for concern. Farmers need assistance in the use and management of acaricides in order to increase their efficiency and reduce the development of resistance. Although Rh. microplus was not found, its introduction from other West African countries is imminent if adequate measures, especially in the control and limitation of animal movements

  2. Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food. PMID:24083902

  3. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  4. Water resources of the Fort Union coal region, east-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The shallow ground-water system in the Fort Union coal region overlies the Upper Cretaceous Bearpaw Shale. It includes the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills Sandstone and the overlying Hell Creek Formation, Paleocene Fort Union Formation, and Pleistocene and Holocene glacial deposits, terrace deposits, and alluvium. Two general flow patterns are present in aquifers above the Hell Creek Formation and a third may occur in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer. Recharge to the shallow ground-water system from direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall is about 50 ,000 acre-ft/yr. Discharge from the system is to perennial streams (about 5,000 acre-ft/yr to the Redwater River), withdrawal by wells (about 2,000 acre-ft/yr for livestock use and 2,500 acre-ft/yr for domestic use), and 34 to 45 in./yr to evapotranspiration. Primary constituents in water above the Hell Creek Formation are sodium, bicarbonate, and sulfate, and dissolved-solids concentrations are about 1,800 mg/L; water below a depth of about 200 feet contains more sodium and bicarbonate. Water in the Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer has an average dissolved-solids concentration of 1,180 mg/L. Flows in most streams have large seasonal variations, with the largest flows occurring in the spring as a result of snowmelt and rainfall. Dissolved-solids concentrations of streams generally are largest during low flow and smallest during high flow. Concentrations ranged from 160 to 6,960 mg/L in small streams and from 400 to 600 mg/L in the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. (USGS)

  5. Occurrence of drugs of abuse and benzodiazepines in river waters from the Madrid Region (Central Spain).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, A; López de Alda, M; González-Alonso, S; Mastroianni, N; Barceló, D; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020 ng L(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020 ng L(-1)), BE (823 ng L(-1)), EDDP (151 ng L(-1)), and LOR (167 ng L(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food.

  6. CHANDRA IDENTIFICATION OF 26 NEW BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-06-20

    We have previously identified 10 M31 black hole candidates (BHCs) in M31 from their X-ray properties alone. They exhibit ''hard state'' emission spectra that are seen at luminosities {approx}<10% Eddington in X-ray binaries (XBs) containing a neutron star (NS) or black hole, at luminosities that significantly exceed the NS threshold. Nine of these are associated with globular clusters (GCs); hence, these are most likely low mass X-ray binaries; eight are included in this survey. We have recently discovered that analysis of the long term 0.5-4.5 keV variability of XBs via structure functions allows us to separate XBs from active galactic nuclei, even though the emission spectra are often similar; this has enabled us to search for BHCs outside of GCs. We have identified 26 new BHCs (12 strong, 14 plausible) within 20' of the M31 nucleus (M31*), using 152 Chandra observations spaced over {approx}13 yr; some of our classifications were enhanced with XMM-Newton observations. Of these, seven appear within 100'' of M31*; this supports the theory suggesting that this region experiences enhanced XB production via dynamical processes similar to those seen in GCs. We have found a parameter space where our BHCs are separated from Galactic NS binaries: we show that modeling a simulated hard state spectrum with a disk blackbody + blackbody model yields parameters that lie outside the space occupied by NS binaries that are modeled this way. The probability that our BHCs all lie within the NS parameter space is {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -29}.

  7. Type Region of the Ione Formation (Eocene), Central California: Stratigraphy, Paleogeography, and Relation to Auriferous Gravels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creely, Scott; Force, Eric R.

    2007-01-01

    The middle Eocene Ione Formation extends over 200 miles (320 km) along the western edge of the Sierra Nevada. Our study was concentrated in the type region, 30 miles (48 km) along strike. There a bedrock ridge forms the seaward western side of the Ione depositional tract, defining a subbasin margin. The eastern limit of the type Ione is locally defined by high-angle faults. Ione sediments were spread over Upper Mesozoic metamorphic and plutonic bedrock, fed by gold-bearing streams dissecting the western slope of the ancestral Sierra Nevada. By middle Eocene time, a tropical or subtropical climate prevailed, leading to deep chemical weathering (including laterization) and a distinctively mature mineral assemblage was fed to and generated within Ione deposits. The Ione is noted for its abundant kaolinitic clay, some of it coarsely crystalline; the clay is present as both detrital grains and authigenic cement. Quartz is abundant, mostly as angular grains. Heavy mineral fractions are dominated by altered ilmenite and zircon. Distribution of feldspar is irregular, both stratigraphically and areally. Non-marine facies are most voluminous, and include conglomerates, especially at the base and along the eastern margins of the formation where they pass into Sierran auriferous gravels. Clays, grading into lignites, and gritty sands are also common facies. Both braided and meandering fluvial facies have been recognized. Shallow marine waters flooded the basin probably twice. Tongues of sediment exhibiting a variety of estuarine to marine indicators are underlain and overlain by fluvial deposits. Marine body fossils are found at only a few localities, but burrows identified as Ophiomorpha and cf. Thalassinoides are abundant in many places. Other clues to marginal marine deposition are the occurrence of glauconite in one bed, typical relations of lagoonal to beach (locally heavy-mineral-rich) lithofacies, closed-basin three-dimensional morphology of basinal facies, and high

  8. [The primary role of central region of HC-pro of potato Y potyvirus in synergism of plant viruses].

    PubMed

    Lu, R F; Li, W M; Wang, H Y; Guo, M; Peng, X X

    2001-05-01

    Five deleted mutants of HC-Pro gene of Chinese isolate of potato Y potyvirus (PVY-C) were obtained by PCR mutation, and their plant expression vectors were constructed. They were transformed into tobacco K326 (Nicotina tabacum cv. K326) mediated by Agrobacterium. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed that PVY-C HC-Pro gene and its deleted mutants were integrated into tobacco genome, and Western blot analysis showed that they were all expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, infection test demonstrated that the central region of PVY-C HC-Pro can mediate synergism of PVY-C/cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and PVY-C/potato X potexvirus (PVX), identifying that it is functional domain in synergism.

  9. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  10. The Vallenar Discontinuity and the Maipo Orocline: Regional significance of clockwise vertical-axis rotations in the central Chilean Andes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Charrier, R.; Yanez, G.; Farias, M.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most prominent tectonic features of the Andes is the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP), which is closely related to the Bolivian Orocline and characterized by paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations in northern Chile and counterclockwise rotations in southern Peru (Arriagada et al., 2008). Along the Chilean margin, between 29°S and 38°S, three prominent curvatures are observed. The Vallenar Discontinuity near ˜29°S corresponds to the southern limit of the Bolivian Orocline. North of 29°S the major structural elements (Paleozoic basement highs and thrusts) are NNE oriented while from 29°S down to 32°S the structures are mainly NS. The central Chilean margin presents also significant bends near Santiago (˜33°S, Maipo Orocline) and in the Arauco region (˜38°S). Near Santiago, the Maipo bend coincides with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR). During the last five years we have undertaken new paleomagnetic and structural studies along the forearc of northern and central Chile in order to understand the origin of the bends in the Chilean margin and the consequence of its indentation by the JFR. Clockwise rotations are, consistently large (30°S- 45°) north of the Vallenar discontinuity, but south of the Vallenar discontinuity, the segment between 29°S to 32°S was not subjected to significant clockwise rotation. South of ˜33°S, significant clockwise deflections up to 39° of the declinations are again observed. Rotations occur both in Mesozoic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera and Tertiary rocks of the Main Cordillera. Whereas most of the CARP rotations, involving bending of the Bolivian Orocline and clockwise rotations north of the Vallenar Discontinuity, occurred essentially during the Paleogene, the paleomagnetic rotations obtained in Tertiary formations of central Chile constrain the maximum possible age for the occurrence of rotations of the Maipo Orocline to the Miocene. Neogene shortening in the foreland belt

  11. Genetic composition of contemporary swine influenza viruses in the West Central region of the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Evseenko, Vasiliy A.; Boon, Adrianus C. M.; Brockwell‐Staats, Christy; Franks, John; Rubrum, Adam; Daniels, Curt S.; Gramer, Marie R.; Webby, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Evseenko et al. (2011) Genetic composition of contemporary swine influenza viruses in the West Central region of the United States of America. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2010.00189.x. Background  Because of continuous circulation in different animal species and humans, influenza viruses have host‐specific phenotypic and genetic features. Reassortment of the genome segments can significantly change virus phenotype, potentially generating virus with pandemic potential. In 2009, a new pandemic influenza virus emerged. Objectives  In this study, we attempted to find precursor viruses or genes of pandemic H1N1 influenza 2009 among 25 swine influenza viruses, isolated in the West Central region of the United States of America (USA), between 2007 and 2009. The Phylogenetically Similar Triple‐Reassortant Internal Genes (PSTRIG) cassette of all the viruses studied here as well as the PSTRIG cassette of pandemic H1N1 viruses have close but equidistant phylogenetic relationships to the early triple‐reassortant swine H3N2 influenza A isolated in the USA in 1998. Methods  Samples (nasal swabs and lung tissue lavage) were taken from swine with or without clinical signs of respiratory disease via farmer‐funded syndromic surveillance. All studied viruses were isolated in Madin–Darby Canine Kidney cell cultures from the above‐mentioned samples according to standard protocols recommended for influenza virus isolation. Sequences were obtained using BigDye Terminator v3.1 Cycle Sequencing kit. Phylogenetic trees were built with MEGA 4.0 software using maximum composite likelihood algorithm and neighbor‐joining method for tree topology reconstruction. Results  Among the 25 viruses studied, we have not found any gene segments of Eurasian origin. Our results suggest that pandemic H1N1 viruses diverged and are not directly descended from swine viruses that have been circulating in USA since 1998

  12. Influence of air mass source region on nanoparticle events and hygroscopicity in central Virginia, U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, T. L.; Fuentes, J. D.; Collins, D. R.; Cleveland, M. J.; Keene, W. C.

    During autumn, 2006, variation in the frequency of aerosol nucleation events, as inferred from nanoparticle growth events, and associated hygroscopicity were investigated as a function of air mass transport history at a mixed deciduous forest in central Virginia, U.S. Above-canopy size distributions of aerosols between 0.012 and 0.700 μm diameter, size-resolved particle hygroscopicity at eight dry diameters between 0.012 and 0.400 μm, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity were characterized. Air mass back trajectories were clustered to identify source regions. Growth events were most frequent in fast-moving air masses (mean = 9 m s -1) that originated over the north central U.S. Under these flow regimes, mean values for preexisting sub-μm aerosol number concentrations (4700 cm -3), corresponding surface area (142 μm 2 cm -3), air temperature (6.2 °C), and relative humidity (RH, 49.4%) were relatively low compared to other regimes. Under stagnant flow conditions (mean = 3 m s -1), mean number concentrations were higher (>6000 cm -3) and size fractions <0.1 μm diameter exhibited enhanced hygroscopicity compared to other source regions. These results indicate that precursors emitted into relatively clean, cold, and dry air transported over the southeastern U.S. reacted to form condensable intermediates that subsequently produced new aerosols via nucleation and growth. This pathway was an important source for CCN. During events in October, nanoparticles were produced in greater numbers and grew more rapidly compared to November and December.

  13. The Effect of Recent Aerosol Trends on Solar Radiation in the Central and Southeastern United States: Implications for Regional Hydrology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusworth, D.; Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Iacono, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observations show large increases in summertime (JJA) surface solar radiation (SWdn) over the central and southeastern United States during the last 20 years, as much as a +40 Wm-2 at midday. At the same time, in response to environmental regulations in the early 1990s, emissions of U.S. aerosol precursors have decreased by as much as 60%. Detecting a possible connection between these two trends has been difficult due to the secondary effects of aerosols on cloud concentration and lifetime, and previous efforts have failed to find a direct link. Here we investigate the clear-sky direct effect of decreasing U.S. aerosols on climate, using a radiative transfer model (RRTMG) driven by 1997-2014 measurements of aerosol optical depth at Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD) sites in the central and southeastern United States. We impose aerosol asymmetry parameters and single scattering albedos from nearby Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Preliminary results indicate that declining aerosols drive a summer noontime change in clear-sky SWdn of +25 Wm-2 since 1997 at Goodwin Creek, MS, accounting for 56% of the observed increase in SWdn at that site. Similarly, we find that aerosols increase clear-sky SWdn by +6.5 Wm-2 in Bondville, IL, which accounts for 21% of the observed SWdn trend there. These results suggest that the climate in these regions of the U.S. may be sensitive to recent reductions in aerosol concentrations, especially during summer months. We also analyze in situ soil measurements from the Illinois Climate Network from 1990-present, and find that a significant decrease in soil moisture (-0.6 m3 m-3 a-1) accompanies the increase in SWdn, implying a link between aerosol trends and regional hydrology. Aerosol reductions are expected to continue in the United States and may further influence regional climate including hydrological factors. Our work has implications for polluted regions outside the U.S., where future reductions in the aerosol burden

  14. Neotectonic deformation in the western sector of tectonic escape in Anatolia: palaeomagnetic study of the Afyon region, central Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürsoy, H.; Piper, J. D. A.; Tatar, O.

    2003-10-01

    Following final closure of the Neotethyan Ocean during the late Miocene, deformation in central Turkey has led to crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau followed by westward extrusion of terranes by strike-slip. Widespread volcanism has accompanied this latter (neotectonic) phase, and palaeomagnetic study of the volcanism shows a coherent record of differential block rotations, indicating that the Anatolian region is not a plate (or 'platelet') sensu stricto but is undergoing distributed internal deformation. To evaluate the scale of neotectonic rotations in the transition zone near the western limit of tectonic escape and the border of the extensional domain in central-west Turkey, we have studied the palaeomagnetism at 82 sites in volcanic suites distributed along a ˜140-km lineament with north-south trend and ranging in age from 18 to 8 Ma. Comparable deflection of magnetic remanence from the present field direction is identified along the full length of the lineament. A mean clockwise rotation of 12.3±4.2° is determined for this western sector of the Anatolian strike-slip province. Since similar rotations are observed in the youngest and oldest units, this cumulative rotation occurred after the late Miocene. When interpreted together with results elsewhere in Anatolia, it is inferred that the rotation is later than crustal thickening and uplift of the Anatolian Plateau and entirely a facet of the tectonic escape. Inclinations are mostly ˜10° shallower than the predicted Miocene field and are considered to reflect the presence of a persistent inclination anomaly in the Mediterranean region. Larger rotations departing from the regional trend are also observed within the study region, but are confined to the vicinity of major faults, notably those bounding the Afyon-Akşehir Graben. The pattern of neotectonic declinations across Anatolia identifies strong anticlockwise rotation in the east near the Arabian pincer with progressive

  15. Process Domains in Synthetic Landscapes: Slope-Area Relationships in the Mountaintop Mining Region of Central Appalachia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, K. L.; Ross, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Landscapes and the governing geomorphic processes that shape them have been described in a conceptual framework of process domains. At a coarse scale, process domains are segregated between hillslope, colluvial, and alluvial processes, which can be distinguished by governing erosional processes and partitioned by local slope-drainage area relationships. In landscapes that have experienced dramatic topographic alteration such as the mountaintop coal-mining (MTM) region of central Appalachia, the resulting modified environment may be considered a synthetic landscape. Such a landscape has process domains that are decoupled from prior landscape evolution trajectories. In particular, landslide and debris flow processes, which are a predominant geomorphic agent in these steep mountain systems and a primary sediment delivery mechanism to the downstream fluvial network, may be eliminated from this landscape and detectable through changes in slope-area relationships. We evaluate differences in slope-area relationships using 10-m DEMs between two time periods, pre-mined and post-mined. At five study site located within the MTM region in the central Appalachian Mountains, US, we compare slope-area changes to adjacent unmined landscapes over the same time periods. Distinct differences exist in the character of slope-area relationships between unmined and MTM sites and local slopes are systematically and considerably reduced in all process zones of mined sites. In particular, there is an expansion of the unchanneled valley zone through either an individual or simultaneous upslope shift into the hillslope region and downslope shift into the debris flow region. In addition, local slopes are markedly reduced (33% to 44%) in the post-mined period relative to the pre-mined period at all sites and are generally below the threshold required to trigger landslides and debris flows. The consequence of altered erosion processes in this upper portion of the catchment, particularly the

  16. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  17. Source mechanisms of the 2000 earthquake swarm in the West Bohemia/Vogtland region (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, Josef; Šílený, Jan

    2013-08-01

    An earthquake swarm of magnitudes up to ML = 3.2 occurred in the region of West Bohemia/Vogtland (border area between Czech Republic and Germany) in autumn 2000. This swarm consisted of nine episodic phases and lasted 4 months. We retrieved source mechanisms of 102 earthquakes with magnitudes between ML = 1.6 and 3.2 applying inversion of the peak amplitudes of direct P and SH waves, which were determined from ground motion seismograms. The investigated events cover the whole swarm activity in both time and space. We use data from permanent stations of seismic network WEBNET and from temporal stations, which were deployed in the epicentral area during the swarm; the number of stations varied from 7 to 18. The unconstrained moment tensor (MT) expression of the mechanism, which describes a general system of dipoles, that is both double-couple (DC) and non-DC sources, was applied. MTs of each earthquake were estimated by inversion of three different sets of data: P-wave amplitudes only, P- and SH-wave amplitudes and P-wave amplitudes along with the SH-wave amplitudes from a priori selected four `base' WEBNET stations, the respective MT solutions are nearly identical for each event investigated. The resultant mechanisms of all events are dominantly DCs with only insignificant non-DC components mostly not exceeding 10 per cent. We checked reliability of the MTs in jackknife trials eliminating some data; we simulated the mislocation of hypocentre or contaminated the P- and SH-wave amplitudes by accidental errors. These tests proved stable and well constrained MT solutions. The massive dominance of the DC in all investigated events implies that the 2000 swarm consisted of a large number of pure shears along a fault plane. The focal mechanisms indicate both oblique-normal and oblique-thrust faulting, however, the oblique-normal faulting prevails. The predominant strikes and dips of the oblique-normal events fit well the geometry of the main fault plane Nový Kostel (NK

  18. Tertiary Volcanic Stratigraphy and Structure of the Sonora Pass Region, Central Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, C. J.; Rood, D.; Wagner, D.

    2003-12-01

    thicken from west to east (over a map distance of 25 km) but locally thicken dramatically into paleocanyons cut in Mesozoic granitic rocks. A paleocanyon along the present-day Sierran crest trends NNW-SSE from Stanislaus Peak to Sonora Peak; it is sited along NNW-SSE, steeply-dipping faults in the Merhten Formation and filled by undeformed Stanislaus Formation latite flows. Similar relations occur along what is probably the same fault 5 km to the SSE at Sardine Falls. To the west of the crest, a pair of paleocanyons trending ENE-WSW occur at the Dardenelles in the north and the Red Peak-Bald Peak area in the south. This pair of paleocanyons is cut by a series of steeply-dipping NNW-SSE trending faults that include (from west to east): 1) a down-to-the-west fault between the Dardenelles and Dardenelles Cone, along which the Merhten Formation is highly deformed in a 250 m wide shear zone, and thickens from about 60 m to 200 m to the west across the fault, while overlying latite flows are only downdropped 60 m to the west, 2) the Bald Peak fault, also down to the west, where Merhten Formation thickens from 50 to 100 m to the west across the fault,