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Sample records for unaccompanied homeless youth

  1. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  2. Unaccompanied and Homeless Youth Review of Literature (1995-2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This review, compiled by the National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE), is based on literature published between 1995 and 2005 on issues concerning unaccompanied youth experiencing homelessness. It provides an overview of the challenges these young people face and includes research about why they leave their homes, how they live after leaving,…

  3. Unaccompanied, Unidentified and Uncounted: Developing Strategies to Meet the Needs of America's Homeless Youth. Issue Brief on the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleseed, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth appear to be one of the fastest growing and most vulnerable segments of the larger homeless population, but flawed information-gathering by government entities makes it impossible to be sure. This issue brief examines reasons why the plight of unaccompanied homeless youth is not fully captured through current models of…

  4. Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Intersections of Homelessness, School Experiences and Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann M.

    2011-01-01

    School districts are faced with the challenge of how best to serve the needs of a growing homeless student population. As the numbers of homeless children and youth continue to rise, it is imperative for educators and others to understand the experiences of unaccompanied homeless youth. A qualitative research project was undertaken to obtain the…

  5. Immigration and Schools: Supporting Success for Undocumented Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…

  6. Income Tax and the FAFSA for Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This two-page brief answers various questions about the relationship between the filing of tax returns and a youth's completion of the FAFSA. Questions answered include: How does a youth's decision to file a tax return affect the FAFSA?; Are youth required to file tax returns?; and What should an unaccompanied youth do if his/her parents claim…

  7. Using What We Know: Supporting the Education of Unaccompanied Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Unaccompanied youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public parks,…

  8. Who's There to Help? Assessment of Social Supports Received by Homeless and Unaccompanied Youth in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brase, Monica Kay

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how urban, young adults assessed received social supports (Vaux, 1988) during homelessness in high school. According to the National Alliance to End Homelessness (2007), approximately 1 to 1.5 million youth under the age of 18 in America experience at least one incident of homelessness each…

  9. Educational Rights of Homeless Youth: Exploring Racial Dimensions of Homeless Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Research that addresses educational rights of unaccompanied homeless youth in grades 9-12 is limited. The McKinney-Vento Act was created to address the many needs of homeless individuals, including children and youth's right to an education. McKinney-Vento was created over twenty-years ago, and this research sought to examine the implementation of…

  10. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Local Liaisons Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch…

  11. Immediate Enrollment under McKinney-Vento: How Schools Can Keep Homeless Students Safe. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in homeless situations, particularly unaccompanied youth and survivors of domestic violence, are at a high risk for experiencing violence and victimization. Frequently, unaccompanied youth become homeless after leaving abusive or destructive home environments. In turn, their homelessness, which often involves "couch…

  12. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  13. Developing Evidence-Based Effective Principles for Working with Homeless Youth: A Developmental Evaluation of the Otto Bremer Foundation's Support for Collaboration among Agencies Serving Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Nora F.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was trifold. First, it was an attempt to gain an understanding of the experiences of fourteen unaccompanied, homeless youth between the ages of 18 and 24, living in the Twin Cities metro area, who have utilized services at two or more of the six grantee organizations. The second purpose was to understand how the shared…

  14. Living the Research: Stories from Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Karen E.

    There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…

  15. Predictors of Homelessness among Street Living Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were…

  16. Youth Homelessness 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, David; Chamberlain, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The third national census of homeless school students, conducted in 2006, found that the number of homeless students had decreased since 2001. There were 9,389 homeless students in 2006 compared with 12,227 in 2001. Three groups were over-represented in the homeless population: Indigenous students, young people from single parent and blended…

  17. Predictors of Homelessness Among Street Living Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Dashora, Pushpanjali; Kang, Min Ju; Aukward, Erin

    2008-01-01

    While few studies have identified predictors of exiting homelessness among adults, even fewer studies have attempted to identify these predictors among homeless youth. The current study explored predictors of change in homelessness among 180 homeless youth between the ages of 14 and 22, recruited through an urban drop-in center. All youth were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The sample included 118 males and the reported ethnicity included Latino (n = 54), Anglo (n = 73), Native American (n = 24), African American (n = 6) and mixed ethnicity or “other” (n = 23). Four distinct patterns of change in homelessness were identified among youth which included those who (1) had fairly low rates of homelessness at each follow-up point, (2) started in the mid-range of homelessness, increased at 3 months and sharply declined at 6-months (MHL), (3) reported high rates of homelessness at baseline and low rates at each follow-up point (HLL), and finally, (4) remained consistently homeless across time (HMH). These patterns of change were most strongly predicted by social connections and engagement in HIV risk behaviors. The findings from this study suggest that developing trust and linkages between homeless youth and service providers may be a more powerful immediate target of intervention than targeting child abuse issues, substance use and mental health problems. PMID:18584069

  18. Health and street/ homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Katharine; Caputo, Tullio

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the Canadian literature on health issues for homeless/street youth couched in terms of the broad determinants of health. A description of the target population is presented, followed by a discussion of the health risks associated with living in marginal and precarious situations ;on the street'. In particular, the potential consequences of engaging in the risky and often dangerous activities (e.g. substance abuse and high-risk sex) associated with the street lifestyle are discussed. Key conclusions drawn from the relevant literature are taken into consideration in a final section that includes a discussion of the policy implications of this work.

  19. Finding Homeless Youth. Patterns Based on Geographical Area and Number of Homeless Episodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Andrea L.; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Batterham, Philip; May, Susanne; Brooks, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    A census of homeless youth was conducted in locations across Los Angeles County, California. Building on previous research that has focused on homeless youth in cruise areas, the authors examined demographic and behavioral differences between homeless youth in cruise and noncruise areas. Youth in cruise areas were more likely than youth in…

  20. Providing Lifelines for Our Nation's Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses educational challenges for homeless children and explains how districts can and must meet their needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education Federal Data Collection, 1,065,794 homeless children and youth were enrolled in public schools for the school year 2010-2011, the highest number on record. After listing…

  1. Successful Adaptation among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors: Perspectives of Youth and Foster Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Rana, Meenal; Lee, Jung Ah

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the adaptation of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee minors resettled in the US. Seven years after resettlement, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Sudanese youths and 20 foster parents regarding factors that contributed to successful adaptation. The youths emphasized personal agency and staying focused on getting an…

  2. The High-Stakes Literacies of Undocumented, Unaccompanied Immigrant Youth Detained in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullerton, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    Every year, thousands of undocumented, unaccompanied immigrant youth take dangerous journeys to the United States only to be apprehended by Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) upon arrival. These youth, who are both involuntary and voluntary immigrants, are then faced with the challenge of having to navigate the complex contexts of the legal…

  3. An Ecological Systems Comparison Between Homeless Sexual Minority Youths and Homeless Heterosexual Youths.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N

    2013-01-01

    This study examined risk and protective outcomes by comparing homeless sexual minority youths to heterosexual homeless youths regarding family, peer behaviors, school, mental health (suicide risk and depression), stigma, discrimination, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews (N = 147) were conducted with individuals ages 16-24 at three drop-in programs serving homeless youths in Toronto. Bivariate analyses indicated statistically significant differences between homeless sexual minorities (n=66) and their heterosexual counterparts (n=81) regarding all variables: family, peer behaviors, stigma, discrimination, mental health, substance use and sexual risk behaviors with the exception of school belonging. Specifically, homeless sexual minority youths fared more poorly (e.g. lower satisfaction with family communication, experienced more stigma, used more drugs and alcohol) than their heterosexual counterparts. Improving family communication may be a worthwhile intervention if the youths are still in contact with their families. Future research should focus on victimization in the context of multiple systems.

  4. [Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees].

    PubMed

    Schepker, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Institutionalized and Individual Crisis Intervention Between Youth Welfare and Adolescent Psychiatry, Specified for Unaccompanied Minor Refugees Minor refugees put a challenge to the intercultural openness, including an abdication from diagnostic schemes. They need creativity, modification of treatment manuals and the therapist's ability to engage himself as a person. They need another notion of abstinence and the ability to cooperate with interpreters of language and culture. In cooperation with youth welfare institutions for unaccompanied minor refugees, principles that have been developed for institutional cooperation and individual crisis intervention plans have been modified: high threshold inpatient admission, multi-step-approach and reliability of cooperation.

  5. Resilience and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverley, Kristin; Kidd, Sean A.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless and street-involved youth are considered an extremely high risk group, with many studies highlighting trajectories characterized by abusive, neglectful, and unstable family histories, victimization and criminal involvement while on the streets, high rates of physical and mental illness, and extremely high rates of mortality. While there…

  6. Addressing the Problems of Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless adolescents, known as "unaccompanied youth," constitute a small but important portion of the overall homeless population, one that needs particular attention at school. In this article, we review existing literature to provide a background for educational leaders, researchers, and policymakers hoping to understand the phenomenon of…

  7. A Critical Moment: Child & Youth Homelessness in Our Nation's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn has forced more families and youth to lose their footing, falling downward into the spiral of homelessness and jeopardizing children and youth's educational success. At the same time, a one-time increase in federal funding for school-based efforts to identify and support homeless children and youth has enabled more school…

  8. 24 CFR 578.89 - Limitation on use of grant funds to serve persons defined as homeless under other federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... serve persons defined as homeless under other federal laws. 578.89 Section 578.89 Housing and Urban... persons defined as homeless under other federal laws. (a) Application requirement. Applicants that intend to serve unaccompanied youth and families with children and youth defined as homeless under...

  9. 24 CFR 578.89 - Limitation on use of grant funds to serve persons defined as homeless under other federal laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... serve persons defined as homeless under other federal laws. 578.89 Section 578.89 Housing and Urban... persons defined as homeless under other federal laws. (a) Application requirement. Applicants that intend to serve unaccompanied youth and families with children and youth defined as homeless under...

  10. Network Approaches to Substance Use and HIV/Hepatitis C Risk among Homeless Youth and Adult Women in the United States: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Kirk; Sittner, Kelley; Crawford, Devan; Welch-Lazoritz, Melissa; Habecker, Patrick; Khan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    During the United States economic recession of 2008–2011, the number of homeless and unstably housed people in the United States increased considerably. Homeless adult women and unaccompanied homeless youth make up the most marginal segments of this population. Because homeless individuals are a hard to reach population, research into these marginal groups has traditionally been a challenge for researchers interested in substance abuse and mental health. Network analysis techniques and research strategies offer means for dealing with traditional challenges such as missing sampling frames, variation in definitions of homelessness and study inclusion criteria, and enumeration/population estimation procedures. This review focuses on the need for, and recent steps toward, solutions to these problems that involve network science strategies for data collection and analysis. Research from a range of fields is reviewed and organized according to a new stress process framework aimed at understanding how homeless status interacts with issues related to substance abuse and mental health. Three types of network innovation are discussed: network scale-up methods, a network ecology approach to social resources, and the integration of network variables into the proposed stress process model of homeless substance abuse and mental health. By employing network methods and integrating these methods into existing models, research on homeless and unstably housed women and unaccompanied young people can address existing research challenges and promote more effective intervention and care programs. PMID:28042394

  11. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  12. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  13. Daily Hassles and Coping Dispositions as Predictors of Psychological Adjustment: A Comparative Study of Young Unaccompanied Refugees and Youth in the Resettlement Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seglem, Karoline B.; Oppedal, Brit; Roysamb, Espen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined daily hassles and coping dispositions in relation to life satisfaction and depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugees and other youth in the resettlement country. A total of 223 unaccompanied refugees ("M" = 20 years) was compared with 609 ethnic minority and 427 majority youth in Norway. Unaccompanied…

  14. Substance Use and Health and Safety among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhule-Louie, Dana M.; Bowen, Sarah; Baer, John S.; Peterson, Peggy L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use is associated with the health and safety of homeless youth using cross-sectional, self-report data from 285 homeless adolescents. Path models were used to examine concurrent relationships between youth's substance use and multiple aspects of their health and safety, including measures of psychological…

  15. Characteristics of Homeless Youth Attending Two Different Youth Drop-In Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, A. M.; Bousman, C. A.; Clapp, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Services for homeless youth traditionally provided shelter and nourishment but do little to break the cycle of homelessness. A more comprehensive approach to serve homeless youth is the drop-in center model that provides safe and easy-to-find facilities within communities to bridge the gap between the streets and transitional/permanent housing.…

  16. Utilizing technology for longitudinal communication with homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly; Begun, Stephanie; DePrince, Anne; Haffejee, Badiah; Kaufmann, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated forms of technology (phone calls, texts, email and Facebook) for maintaining contact with homeless youth over baseline, 1-week, 6-week, and 3-month follow-up interviews. The study combined quantitative tracking of youths' response patterns and open-ended interviews regarding youths' preferred methods of communication. Results indicate that maintaining communication with homeless youth requires persistence, including frequent contact attempts over several days. Cell phone contacts (calls or texts) were most successful in communicating with youth, with e-mail and Facebook messaging useful when phones were lost or stolen. Youth who maintained contact were strikingly similar to youth who discontinued contact.

  17. Heart to Heart Art: Empowering Homeless Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jerri; Booth, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Heart to Heart Art, an after-school program developed for homeless children and youth at the YWCA in Spokane, Washington. Pre-service teacher candidates from a local university create meaningful activities that engage homeless students in visual art, music, drama, cooking, and community service. Heart to Heart Art was…

  18. Bringing It Home: Understanding the Lives of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on a special issue that explores how educational institutions serve homeless and highly mobile students as well as their families. The number of homeless youth continues to rise, leading the author to question why structural constraints have not been removed. In addition to reflecting on the articles, he…

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Sexual Risks Among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halcon, Linda L.; Lifson, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined prevalence of sexual risks among homeless adolescents and described factors associated with those risks. Community-based outreach methods were used successfully to access this difficult-to-reach population. The sample included 203 homeless youth aged 15-22 recruited from community sites. Questionnaire items addressed…

  20. Successful Transitions of Runaway/Homeless Youth from Shelter Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; House, Laura E.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Pollio, David E.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research indicates that runaway and homeless youth often achieve positive outcomes after shelter stays however few studies have examined how these outcomes are achieved. This study employs qualitative methods to explicate this phenomenon. Twenty-five providers and 21 youth from four shelters participated in this study. Youth were…

  1. Factors Associated with Homelessness of Adolescents under Supervision of the Youth Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Marie; Pauze, R.; Fournier, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are two factors that limit our knowledge of the risk factors associated with homelessness among runaway adolescents, namely (1) the samples used are often composed of youth homeless service users and/or youths living on the streets (visible homelessness), whereas most adolescents in fact use ''private'' resources (hidden homelessness), and…

  2. The Education of Homeless Children and Youth in New Jersey: A Plan for State Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Jay; And Others

    This state plan is New Jersey's response to the charge of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 (the McKinney Act) to assure educational access for homeless children and youth. The introductory section discusses the following issues: (1) the changing face of homelessness; (2) homeless children and youth; (3) the McKinney Act; and…

  3. Sexual Health Information Seeking Online Among Runaway and Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2011-06-01

    Research shows runaway and homeless youth are reluctant to seek help from traditional health providers. The Internet can be useful in engaging this population and meeting their needs for sexual health information, including information about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using a sample of homeless youth living in Los Angeles, California in June 2009, this study assesses the frequency with which runaway and homeless youth seek sexual health information via the Internet, and assesses which youth are more likely to engage in seeking health information from online sources. Drawing from Andersen's (1968) health behavior model and Pescosolido's (1992) network episode model, we develop and refine a model for seeking online sexual health information among homeless youth. Rather than testing the predicative strength of a given model, our aim is to identify and explore conceptually driven correlates that may shed light on the characteristics associated with these help seeking behaviors among homeless youth. Analyses using multivariate logistic regression models reveal that among the sample of youth, females and gay males most frequently seek sexual health information online. We demonstrate the structure of social network ties (e.g., connection with parents) and the content of interactions (e.g., e-mail forwards of health information) across ties are critical correlates of online sexual health information seeking. Results show a continued connection with parents via the Internet is significantly associated with youth seeking HIV or STI information. Similarly for content of interactions, more youth who were sent health information online also reported seeking HIV information and HIV-testing information. We discuss implications for intervention and practice, focusing on how the Internet may be used for dissemination of sexual health information and as a resource for social workers to link transient, runaway, and homeless youth to care.

  4. Predictors of Psychological Adjustment Among Homeless and Housed Female Youth

    PubMed Central

    Votta, Elizabeth; Farrell, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study explored differences in the impact of self-reported coping style, self-esteem and perceived support on the psychological adjustment of homeless and housed female youth. Method: Data were obtained from homeless female youth (n = 72, M = 17.5 years) accessing an emergency shelter in a large Canadian urban centre and a comparison group of housed females (n = 102 ; M = 17.2 years) from local high schools who had never resided in a shelter. Results: Homeless youth reported lower self-worth, increased suicidal behaviour, less perceived parental support and higher levels of depressive symptoms and both internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems than housed youth. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that disengagement coping was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms and both internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems in homeless and housed youth. Conclusions: Findings reflect the merit of considering coping style, parental support and self-worth in the presentation of depressive symptoms and behaviour problems in homeless and housed female youth. PMID:19495433

  5. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  6. Higher Education Act Reauthorization: Homeless and Foster Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Youth experiencing homelessness or in foster care face numerous barriers to higher education. Inadequate college readiness, the complexity of the financial aid process, and lack of housing and support services once enrolled in college make obtaining a college degree an often insurmountable challenge. Yet a college education offers these youth the…

  7. Feasibility Study of the Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To reduce mental health symptoms and high-risk behaviors and increase social support and service utilization among street-living youth, the authors conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the social enterprise intervention (SEI) at a homeless youth agency. Method: Convenience sampling was used to recruit 16 street-living…

  8. The Mental and Physical Health of Homeless Youth: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edidin, Jennifer P.; Ganim, Zoe; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.

    2012-01-01

    Youth homelessness is a growing concern in the United States. Despite difficulties studying this population due to inconsistent definitions of what it means to be a youth and homeless, the current body of research indicates that abuse, family breakdown, and disruptive family relationships are common contributing factors to youth homelessness.…

  9. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  10. Social Capital and Homeless Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on College Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences homeless youth face and the influence of social networks on their education. Using a social capital framework, we analyze the experiences that are different for poor youth in general and those homeless. Data used include interviews with 123 homeless youth and more than 40 policymakers, school counselors, and…

  11. Storying the street: transition narratives of homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Ottaway, N; King, K; Erickson, P G

    2009-06-01

    Toronto Youth Street Stories is an innovative, web-based storytelling project that was conducted with homeless youths in Toronto. As a collaborative knowledge dissemination initiative, the project engaged youthful participants, authors, community mentors, youth service agencies and university-based researchers. Over 50 youths were encouraged to express their personal perspectives through author-led, creative writing workshops, resulting in youth-created stories, poems and pictures about a wide array of feelings and experiences. Across the dozens of pieces of writing, there is evidence of a chronology of street life, or an "arc of experience", that ranges from living with abuse and despair, leaving home, living on the street, experiencing a crisis or turning point, accessing services and gradually moving away from street life toward self-sustaining independence and security. This arc of experience includes the stories of youth who have transitioned away from the street as well as those still facing homelessness. This paper describes this arc of experience and illustrates it with the subjective material generated by the youths' stories about their lives on the streets of Toronto. We conclude that this project provided an important, creative outlet for the youths, and increased understanding of the challenges, stigma and resilience of homeless youth.

  12. Treatment Outcome for Street-Living, Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L.; Meyers, Robert J.; Glassman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive intervention for homeless, street living youth that addresses substance use, social stability, physical and mental health issues has received very little attention. In this study, street living youth aged 14 to 22 were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or treatment as usual (TAU) through a drop-in center. Findings showed that youth assigned to CRA, compared to TAU, reported significantly reduced substance use (37% v. 17% reduction), depression (40% v. 23%) and increased social stability (58% v. 13%). Youth in both conditions improved in many other behavioral domains including substance use, internalizing and externalizing problems, and emotion and task oriented coping. This study indicates that homeless youth can be engaged into treatment and respond favorably to intervention efforts. However, more treatment development research is needed to address the barriers associated with serving these youth. PMID:16989957

  13. Capacity for Survival: Exploring Strengths of Homeless Street Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.; McManus, Holly; Lantry, Janet; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of research on homeless youth has focused on the multitude of problems faced by this vulnerable population. The current study, while acknowledging the hazards of life on the streets, seeks to explore the personal strengths and informal resources street youth rely on to navigate their environments. Qualitative data from seven focus groups conducted with street youth ages 18–24 were analyzed using content analysis. These data, rich with interactions among youth participants, highlight three important themes: developing “street smarts,” existence of personal strengths, and informal resources relied upon by youth to survive. Results provide valuable insights into the strengths of homeless youth that can be useful to providers in assessing street youths’ service needs and increasing the likelihood of long-term positive outcomes. PMID:19915687

  14. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications...

  17. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications...

  18. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications...

  19. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless...

  1. Trauma and homelessness in youth: Psychopathology and intervention.

    PubMed

    Davies, Benjamin R; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-03-24

    Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1-1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development.

  2. Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Title VII, Subtitle B of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Report to Congress, Fiscal Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC.

    This report compiles data submitted by state educational agencies in accordance with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. States are required to provide an estimate of: total number of homeless children and youth by grade level, number of homeless children and youth enrolled in public school by grade level, number of homeless children and…

  3. Homelessness among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth: Implications for Subsequent Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Although lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth with a history of homelessness (running away or being evicted from their homes by parents) report more psychological symptoms than homeless heterosexual peers, it is unclear whether symptoms are due to homelessness, given the absence of a non-homeless comparison group. This study longitudinally…

  4. Family Risk Factors and Prevalence of Dissociative Symptoms among Homeless and Runaway Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…

  5. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  6. No Place to Call Home: Child & Youth Homelessness in the United States. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…

  7. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  8. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  17. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  18. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  19. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  20. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  1. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  2. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  3. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  4. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.12 Section 1351.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.15 Section 1351.15 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.16 Section 1351.16 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.11 Section 1351.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and...

  8. Health-Seeking Challenges Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Angela L.; Nyamathi, Adeline; Greengold, Barbara; Slagle, Alexandra; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Getzoff, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 to 2 million homeless young persons live on the streets in the United States. With the current economic situation, research is needed on quality of services geared toward homeless young adults. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore homeless young adults' perspectives on barriers and facilitators of health-care-seeking behavior and their perspectives on improving existing programs for homeless persons. Methods This article is a descriptive qualitative study using focus groups, with a purposeful sample of 24 homeless drug-using young adults. Results Identified themes were failing access to care based on perceived structural barriers (limited clinic sites, limited hours of operation, priority health conditions, and long wait times) and social barriers (perception of discrimination by uncaring professionals, law enforcement, and society in general). Discussion Results provide insight into programmatic and agency resources that facilitate health-seeking behaviors among homeless young adults and include implications for more research with providers of homeless health and social services. PMID:20404776

  9. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  10. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  12. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  13. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and...

  14. A Social Capital Approach to Identifying Correlates of Perceived Social Support among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Bowen, Elizabeth; Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background: The ability of homeless youth to accumulate resources through their personal relationships with others (i.e. social capital) is often associated with improved outcomes across multiple domains. Despite growing evidence documenting the heterogeneity of homeless youths' relationships, many youth still experience adversities or lack access…

  15. Pet Ownership among Homeless Youth: Associations with Mental Health, Service Utilization and Housing Status

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    As many as 25% of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets. PMID:24728815

  16. Pet ownership among homeless youth: associations with mental health, service utilization and housing status.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2015-04-01

    As many as 25 % of homeless persons have pets. To our knowledge, pet ownership has not been studied quantitatively with homeless youth. This study examined pet ownership among 398 homeless youth utilizing two Los Angeles drop-in centers. Twenty-three percent of homeless youth had a pet. The majority of pet owners reported that their pets kept them company and made them feel loved; nearly half reported that their pets made it more difficult to stay in a shelter. Pet owners reported fewer symptoms of depression and loneliness than their non-pet owning peers. Pet ownership was associated with decreased utilization of housing and job-finding services, and decreased likelihood of currently staying in a shelter. These findings elucidate many of the positive benefits of pet ownership for homeless youth, but importantly highlight that pet ownership may negatively impact housing options. Housing and other services must be sensitive to the needs of homeless youth with pets.

  17. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... existing or proposed community-based runaway and homeless youth projects to provide temporary shelter and care to runaway or otherwise homeless youth who are in need of temporary shelter, counseling...

  18. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... existing or proposed community-based runaway and homeless youth projects to provide temporary shelter and care to runaway or otherwise homeless youth who are in need of temporary shelter, counseling...

  19. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... existing or proposed community-based runaway and homeless youth projects to provide temporary shelter and care to runaway or otherwise homeless youth who are in need of temporary shelter, counseling...

  20. Staying in School: The Efficacy of the McKinney-Vento Act for Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausikaitis, Ashley Etzel; Wynne, Martha Ellen; Persaud, Schevita; Pitt, Rachel; Hosek, Aaron; Reker, Kayse; Turner, Carina; Flores, Sandy; Flores, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of homeless youth in the United States presents many social justice concerns, including issues of educational access, stigma, and self-advocacy. These problems become even more apparent when homelessness and educational attainment intersect. The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987 was enacted to address these…

  1. PSINET: Assisting HIV Prevention Amongst Homeless Youth by Planning Ahead

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, A.; Marcolino, L. S.; Rice, E.; Petering, R.; Winetrobe, H.; Rhoades, H.; Tambe, M.; Carmichael, H.

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth are prone to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) due to their engagement in high risk behavior such as unprotected sex, sex under influence of drugs, etc. Many non-profit agencies conduct interventions to educate and train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention and treatment practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network’s structure and evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; and (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ~60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend’s Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials. PMID:27642227

  2. A Different Kind of Smart: A Study of the Educational Obstacles Confronting Homeless Youth in New England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Melanie; Houghton, Alison

    This study provides information on obstacles facing homeless youth in school. Research occurred in four diverse New England cities. Researchers collected detailed case histories on youth age 10-15 years who were currently homeless or who had recently been homeless. Data came from staff of local youth agencies, government officials, and youths…

  3. The Care-System for Homeless Youth in the Netherlands: Perceptions of Youngsters through a Peer Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noom, Marc J.; de Winter, Micha; Korf, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the perceptions of homeless youth of the care they receive. Since we wanted to involve homeless youth as participants in this project, we adopted the approach of peer-research. This form of collaborative research has a major role for homeless youth in making an inventory of the problems. A parallel is drawn…

  4. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Additional Requirements § 1351.20 What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and...

  8. Unaccompanied Minors: Immigrant Youth, School Choice, and the Pursuit of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattin-Bajaj, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    School choice-now a pillar of education reform in the United States-is widely touted as a strategy for addressing educational inequity. Yet efforts to implement school choice can exacerbate, rather than counteract, inequities. "Unaccompanied Minors" takes a close look at the experience of immigrant students and their families navigating…

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member…

  10. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Homeless Youth in Columbus, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and…

  11. Exploring Family Environment Characteristics and Multiple Abuse Experiences among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study used data from the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) pilot study, a comprehensive vocational training program with integrated clinical services for homeless youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with 28 homeless youth participating in the SEI study to explore their perceptions of family environment characteristics and…

  12. Evaluating Child and Youth Homelessness: The Example of New Haven, Connecticut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Scrimenti, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    Following a review of approaches taken to generate accurate estimates of the scale of child and youth homelessness in America, this article documents the methods and results of a multipronged count of homeless children and youth in New Haven, Connecticut. The survey used in this count accessed demographics and service needs, and was administered…

  13. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? HHS requires a non-Federal...

  14. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? HHS requires a non-Federal...

  15. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? HHS requires a non-Federal...

  16. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? HHS requires a non-Federal...

  17. 45 CFR 1351.13 - What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? 1351.13 Section 1351.13 Public Welfare Regulations... HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.13 What are the Federal and non-Federal match requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth grant? HHS requires a non-Federal...

  18. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    PubMed

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S

    2009-04-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  19. Mobile Phone and Social Media Use of Homeless Youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Harpin, Scott; Davis, Jillian; Low, Hana; Gilroy, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate homeless youth mobile phone and social media use, to plan health promotion efforts. Nearly half (46.7%) of runaway/homeless youth in this sample (n = 181) owned a mobile phone and a majority of those devices were smart phones. Ownership did not vary significantly by shelter location, though regular use of Facebook was more prevalent among those in housing programs or camping, than those living on the streets. Over 90% of youth in the sample reported using Facebook. Such media use might facilitate parent, family, and health provider communications with homeless youth.

  20. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  1. Homeless Youths' Caretakers: The Mediating Role of Childhood Abuse on Street Victimization and Housing Instability.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Zhang, Jing; Brakenhoff, Brittany

    2016-04-01

    Homeless youths who live on the streets are particularly vulnerable to victimization and continued homelessness. Identifying factors associated with housing stability and victimization while homeless can offer useful guidance for those who serve these youths. The current study examined the relationship between multiple caretakers and the unique effect of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, neglect) on past-year housing and victimization experiences. Seventy-nine substance-using, street-living youths ages 14 to 24 years completed the survey. Findings confirmed a relationship between multiple caretaker transitions and childhood sexual abuse and neglect, but not physical abuse. Sexual abuse was further associated with higher street victimization and reduced housing stability. In addition, sexual abuse mediated the relationship between multiple caretakers and past-year victimization and housing instability. These findings suggest that sexually abused homeless youths are at particular risk for future victimization and housing instability compared with other youths, and specialized intervention for these youths is indicated.

  2. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications.

  3. Homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers: Investigating the importance of social networks.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers and risk and protective characteristics of their social networks. Data were from the Social Network and Homeless Youth Project. A total of 249 youth aged 14-21 years were interviewed over 15 months in three Midwestern cities in the United States using a systematic sampling strategy. Multivariate results revealed that homeless youth with a greater average number of network members who engaged in more drug risk behaviors and who pressured them into precarious behaviors at least once were more likely to have participated in a greater number of HIV risk behaviors with strangers compared to homeless youth without such network characteristics. Additionally, 19-21 year olds, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered youth, and those who have run away from home more frequently, participated in more HIV risk behaviors with strangers than 14-18 year olds, heterosexual youth, and those who have run away less often. The final model explained 43 % of the variance in homeless youths' HIV risk behaviors with strangers. It is important to identify network characteristics that are harmful to homeless youth because continued exposure to such networks and participation in dangerous behaviors may result in detrimental outcomes, including contraction of sexually transmitted infections and potentially HIV.

  4. Social networks as the context for understanding employment services utilization among homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the "Event based-approach" strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth.

  5. Social Networks as the Context for Understanding Employment Services Utilization among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that could capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the “Event based-approach” strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. PMID:24780279

  6. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  8. The Education of Homeless Children and Youth: A Compendium of Research & Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H., Comp.; Popp, Patricia, Comp.

    This publication provides current research and related literature on issues surrounding the education of homeless children and youth. It includes a variety of perspectives, reflecting the most recent trends in homelessness, determined by changes in policies, economics, and demographics. It also offers the latest research and scholarly opinions…

  9. Who Is Supporting Homeless Youth? Predictors of Support in Personal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth lack the traditional support networks of their housed peers, which increases their risk for poor health outcomes. Using a multilevel dyadic analytic approach, this study identified characteristics of social contacts, relationships, and social networks associated with the provision of tangible and emotional support to homeless youth…

  10. Supporting Homeless Youth during the Transition to Adulthood: Housing-Based Independent Living Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2010-01-01

    While many young people depend on parental financial and emotional support well past the age of 18, those who are homeless must make the transition to adulthood without that support. This article discusses the needs of homeless youth as they transition to adulthood. It then describes three housing-based independent living programs designed to…

  11. A Long Road Ahead: A Progress Report on Educating Homeless Children and Youth in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes progress made in recent years in addressing the educational needs of homeless children and youth in America and notes concerns that remain, including awareness and perceptions of homelessness, early childhood educational needs, interventions, interagency collaboration, and the need for comprehensive evaluations of educational efforts for…

  12. Condomless Sex Among Homeless Youth: The Role of Multidimensional Social Norms and Gender.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Begun, Stephanie; Portillo, Andrea Perez; Rice, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Most studies of condomless sex among homeless youth have focused on peer norms, while excluding other potentially pertinent influences. This study explored how different types of relationships contributed to norms about condomless sex and whether such norms were associated with engagement in condomless sex among homeless youth. Additionally, because recent work has noted gender differences in social networks of male and female homeless youth, gender differences in social network norms of condomless sex were also assessed. Egocentric network data were collected from homeless youth accessing services at two drop-in centers in Los Angeles, CA (N = 976). Multivariate analyses (non-stratified and stratified by gender) assessed associations between descriptive, injunctive, and communicative norms and participants' engagement in condomless sex. Multivariate analyses indicated that perception of peer condom use and communication with sexual partners were significantly associated with not engaging in condomless sex. These relationships, however, varied by gender. Implications for interventions are discussed.

  13. Internet and Social Media Use as a Resource Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Barman-Adhikari, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about internet and social media use among homeless youth. Consistent with typologies prevalent among housed youth, we found that homeless youth were using internet and social media for entertainment, sociability, and instrumental purposes. Using Haythornwaite's (2001) premise that it is important to look at the types of ties accessed in understanding the impact of new media, we found that homeless youth were predominantly using e-mail to reach out to their parents, caseworkers, and potential employers, while, using social media to communicate with their peers. Using the "Social Capital" perspective, we found that youth who were connecting to maintained or bridging social ties were more likely to look for jobs and housing online than youth who did not.

  14. Enhancing Risk Detection Among Homeless Youth: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Promising Pilot Intervention.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kimberly A; DePrince, Anne; Begun, Stephanie; Hathaway, Jessica; Haffejee, Badiah; Schau, Nicholas

    2016-03-02

    Homeless youth frequently experience victimization, and youth with histories of trauma often fail to detect danger risks, making them vulnerable to subsequent victimization. The current study describes a pilot test of a skills-based intervention designed to improve risk detection among homeless youth through focusing attention to internal, interpersonal, and environmental cues. Youth aged 18 to 21 years (N = 74) were recruited from a shelter and randomly assigned to receive usual case management services or usual services plus a 3-day manualized risk detection intervention. Pretest and posttest interviews assessed youths' risk detection abilities through vignettes describing risky situations and asking youth to identify risk cues present. Separate 2 (intervention vs. control) × 2 (pretest vs. posttest) mixed ANOVAs found significant interaction effects, as intervention youth significantly improved in overall risk detection compared with control youth. Post hoc subgroup analyses found the intervention had a greater effect for youth without previous experiences of indirect victimization than those with previous indirect victimization experiences.

  15. Report to the Congress on the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program of the Family and Youth Services Bureau for Fiscal Years 1993 and 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    This report to Congress on the Federal Runaway and Homeless Youth Program summarizes the work of the Family and Youth Services Bureau (FSYB) and its grantees during fiscal years (FY) 1993 and 1994. In FY 1994, the FSYB celebrated its twentieth anniversary. During the first 20 years of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, the FSYB conducted a…

  16. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  17. Unprotected Sex of Homeless Youth: Results from a Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Social Network, and Relationship Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Tucker, Joan S.; Green, Harold D.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Homeless youth have elevated risk of HIV through sexual behavior. This project investigates the multiple levels of influence on unprotected sex among homeless youth, including social network, individual, and partner level influences. Findings are based on analyses of an exploratory, semi-structured interview (n=40) and a structured personal network interview (n=240) with randomly selected homeless youth in Los Angeles. Previous social network studies of risky sex by homeless youth have collected limited social network data from non-random samples and have not distinguished sex partner influences from other network influences. The present analyses have identified significant associations with unprotected sex at multiple levels, including individual, partner, and, to a lesser extent, the social network. Analyses also distinguished between youth who wished they used condoms after having unprotected sex and youth who did not regret having unprotected sex. Implications for social network based HIV risk interventions with homeless youth are discussed. PMID:22610421

  18. Social control correlates of arrest behavior among homeless youth in five U.S. cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Maccio, Elaine M; Xie, Bin; Pollio, David

    2011-01-01

    This study identified homelessness, substance use, employment, and mental health correlates of homeless youths' arrest activity in 5 cities. Two hundred thirty-eight street youth from Los Angeles, Austin, Denver, New Orleans, and St. Louis were recruited using comparable sampling strategies. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results reveal that being arrested for criminal activity is associated with length of homelessness, history of juvenile detention and incarceration, receiving income from theft, substance abuse, and mental illness. Arrests are also associated with interactions between lack of formal employment income and receiving income from theft and between drug and alcohol abuse/ dependency. Understanding the health and situational factors associated with homeless youths' delinquent activity has implications for providing more comprehensive health, mental health, and substance abuse services.

  19. Out on the street: a public health and policy agenda for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Keuroghlian, Alex S; Shtasel, Derri; Bassuk, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    A disproportionate number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience homelessness each year in the United States. LGBT youth who are homeless have particularly high rates of mental health and substance use problems, suicidal acts, violent victimization, and a range of HIV risk behaviors. Given the intense needs of LGBT youth experiencing homelessness, it is imperative to understand their unique experiences and develop responsive practices and policies. The range and severity of health risks vary across subgroups of all homeless LGBT youth, and because the population is nonhomogeneous, their particular needs must be identified and addressed. Thus, the purpose of this article is to review the causes of homelessness among LGBT youth, discuss the mental health and victimization risks faced by this population, address differences among homeless LGBT subgoups, and recommend effective interventions and best practices. The authors conclude by discussing promising future research and public policy directions.

  20. In the Shadow of Opportunity: Removing Barriers and Creating Success for America's Homeless Children and Youth. A Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Coordinators for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, Austin, TX.

    This report highlights selected states' attempts to meet the requirements of the 1990 amendments to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (SMHAA), which lays the groundwork for assuring that homeless children and youth have access to and success in schools. A homeless child's success story and an issue that impacts a state's ability to…

  1. Relationships Between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health Among Homeless Families

    PubMed Central

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and trauma exposure among homeless families, in order to better serve the needs of this vulnerable population. The objective of this study is to explore the relationships between caregiver exposure to violence, caregiver depression, and youth depression and behavioral problems among homeless families. Preliminary findings indicate that among this sample of homeless families, caregiver violence exposure has statistically significant relationships with both youth behavioral problems and youth depression symptoms, as mediated by caregiver depression. These findings indicate that youth behavioral health is associated with caregiver mental health, which, in turn, is associated with caregiver trauma exposure. This highlights the importance of taking into account adult mental health while treating youth externalizing and internalizing behaviors and ensuring that caregivers, too, have access to adequate treatment and supports. Furthermore, this treatment should be trauma informed, given the link between trauma and mental health. PMID:26420978

  2. A support intervention to promote health and coping among homeless youths.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Miriam; Reutter, Linda; Letourneau, Nicole; Makwarimba, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Homeless youths are often vulnerable to limited support resources and loneliness. Peers are a potent source of social support. A support intervention for homeless youths was designed to optimize peer influence and was pilot tested. The intervention was based on an initial assessment of support needs and intervention preferences from the perspective of 36 homeless youths and 27 service providers. Based on the results, a 20-week pilot intervention program was designed, consisting of 4 support groups, optional one-on-one support, group recreational activities, and meals. Support was provided by professional and peer mentors, including formerly homeless youths. A total of 56 homeless youths aged 16 to 24 took part. Participants completed pre-, mid-, and post-test quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. In spite of challenges due primarily to attrition, the youths reported enhanced health behaviours, improved mental well-being, decreased loneliness, expanded social network, increased coping skills, enhanced self-efficacy, and diminished use of drugs and alcohol. Further research could focus on replication at other sites with a larger sample.

  3. Falling through the Gaps: Homeless Children and Youth. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Phillip; DeBaun, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In each state, between 41 percent and 91 percent of the homeless students identified by the U.S. Department of Education (ED) are not considered homeless by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). Nationwide, as many as 715,238 homeless students fall into a bureaucratic gap between HUD and ED. This is because ED, HUD, and other…

  4. Homeless and Runaway Youth: Attachment Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henk, Joanne M.

    The "new homeless" of the eighties and nineties are not only more numerous; they are younger, more likely to use drugs, and they exhibit symptoms of mental illness. Homeless mentally ill individuals typically have estranged family relationships and fewer supportive relationships compared with other homeless persons. They typically have…

  5. The Educational Success of Homeless Youth in California: Challenges and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julianelle, Patricia F.

    2007-01-01

    The California Research Bureau (CRB), in participation with the California Council on Youth Relations (CCYR), and with support from The California Wellness Foundation, has been conducting a major research and policy initiative to bring attention to the issues facing homeless youth in California. These include lack of shelter and educational…

  6. A Qualitative Study of Early Family Histories and Transitions of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    Using intensive qualitative interviews with 40 homeless youth, this study examined their early family histories for abuse, neglect, and other family problems and the number and types of transitions that youth experienced. Multiple forms of child maltreatment, family alcoholism, drug use, and criminal activity characterized early family histories…

  7. Implementing a Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless, Street-Living Youths in Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2007-01-01

    Homeless, street-dwelling youths are an at-risk population who often use survival behaviors to meet their basic needs. The traditional outreach approach brings services into the streets, yet does not adequately replace the youths' high-risk behaviors. Similarly, job training programs often fail to address the mental health issues that constitute…

  8. Social connectedness and self-esteem: predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dang, Michelle T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health.

  9. International note: association between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours in homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Homeless youth are regarded as an extremely high risk group, susceptible to suicidal ideation substance abuse, and high rates of mental illness. While there exists a substantial body of knowledge regarding resilience of homeless youth, few studies has examined the relationship between perceived resilience and health risk behaviours. The present study describes the findings from a quantitative examination of street-related demographics, resilience, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, sexual risk behaviours and violent related behaviours among 227 homeless youth. The findings revealed that perceived resilience was negatively related to suicidal ideation, substance abuse and violence. Suicidal ideation was positively related to both substance abuse and violence, whilst violence and substance abuse were positively correlated. Multiple regressions showed that perceived resilience served as a protective factor for suicidal ideation and having multiple sexual lifetime partners, suggesting that youth with lower level of perceived resilience were more likely to engage in various health risks behaviours.

  10. A Snapshot of Homelessness in Massachusetts Public High Schools: 2005 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Massachusetts Annual Homeless Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Massachusetts Department of Education (Department) during the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) suggest that, despite significant efforts to identify homeless students, many are going undetected by their schools. Since the reauthorization of the McKinney Vento Homeless Assistance Education Improvement Act under the No…

  11. Runaway and Homeless Youth Grants: Improvements Needed in the Grant Award Process. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kay E.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) awards grants to provide shelter and services to runaway and homeless youth through the Basic Center, Transitional Living and Street Outreach Programs. In response to a mandate for a review of the grant award process for these programs in the Reconnecting Homeless Youth Act of 2008 (Pub. L. No.…

  12. Out of the Shadows: Building an Agenda and Strategies for Preventing HIV Infection and AIDS among Street and Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    This report summarizes the findings of a conference that examined the problem of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) among street and homeless youth. Street and homeless youth, by virtue of their circumstances and the behaviors they engage in, are at great risk of becoming infected with HIV,…

  13. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior.

  14. A snapshot of substance abuse among homeless and runaway youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Van Leeuwen, James M; Hopfer, Christian; Hooks, Sabrina; White, Roxane; Petersen, Jerene; Pirkopf, John

    2004-06-01

    We report on results of a one-day survey measuring rates of substance use and HIV risk behaviors among the homeless youth population of Denver, Colorado. On March 15, 2001, staff of Urban Peak, conducted a single-day survey of homeless and runaway youth in the Denver metropolitan region, going to locations known to be frequented by this population. All youth encountered were asked to fill out a brief survey asking about past nine month use of the following substances: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, hallucinogens, ecstasy and ketamine, and HIV risk behaviors. Chi-square analyses of the association of substance used and gender, age, living situation, and ethnicity were conducted. In addition, the use of any club drug was examined. One-hundred-eighty-six homeless or runaway youth were surveyed; 74 percent were between 16 and 25. Rates of use over the last nine months were as follows: alcohol, 69 percent; marijuana, 75 percent; methamphetamine, 18 percent; cocaine, 19 percent; heroin, 12 percent; hallucinogens, 30 percent; ecstasy, 25 percent; and ketamine, 13 percent. Eleven percent reported trading sex for drugs, money, food, or shelter; and 13 percent reported sharing needles. There were significant associations between living situation and use of marijuana, cocaine and hallucinogens. Prevalence rates of club drugs show 75 percent, 77 percent and 77 percent of homeless or runaway youth ihaving used ecstasy, ketamine and hallucinogens one to three times per month over the last nine months, respectively. Prevalence rates of substance use among homeless youth in the Denver metropolitan are similar to rates reported in other larger metropolitan areas. Routine screening for every substance needs to be part of the assessment for all homeless youth. Initial data points to a need for more research exploring protective factors among this population and to better understand the prevalence of club drug use.

  15. Mental health and substance abuse indicators among homeless youth in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Merscham, Carrie; Van Leeuwen, James M; McGuire, Megan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of mental health evaluations from 182 homeless youth residing in a Denver, Colorado, shelter. The literature on homeless youth, although developing, is still somewhat limited as it relates to mental health, substance abuse, and trauma. This study was motivated by clinically observed high rates of mental illness, trauma, dangerousness issues, and drug and alcohol abuse. Using archival data from mental health evaluations conducted over two years, variables including gender, age, ethnicity, primary diagnosis, drug of choice, trauma history, suicidal ideation, homicidal ideation, and legal history were assessed. Results discovered significantly higher than expected diagnoses of mental illness and associations between drug of choice and diagnosis, trauma history and suicidal ideation, and trauma history and diagnosis. Results suggest a strong need for co-occurring treatment, trauma-focused therapy, and attention to both mental illness and substance abuse in homeless youth.

  16. Parent-adolescent violence and later behavioral health problems among homeless and housed youth.

    PubMed

    Haber, Mason G; Toro, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Parent-adolescent violence (i.e., violence between parents and adolescents) is an important pathway to homelessness and predicts poor behavioral health outcomes among youth. However, few studies have examined links between parent violence and outcomes among youth who are homeless. Existing research has also tended to ignore adolescent violence toward parents, despite evidence that mutual violence is common. The current study examines prospective links of parent-adolescent violence to outcomes among youth who were homeless and demographically matched youth, through two complementary substudies: (a) an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of items measuring parent and adolescent violence combined in the same analysis; and (b) an examination of predictive relationships between the factors identified in the EFA and behavioral health problems, including mental health and alcohol abuse problems. Predictive relationships were examined in the overall sample and by gender, ethnic, and housing status subgroups. Results of the EFA suggested that parent-adolescent violence includes intraindividual (i.e., separate parent and adolescent) physical components and a shared psychological component. Each of these components contributed uniquely to predicting later youth behavioral health. Implications for research and practice with youth who are homeless are discussed.

  17. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  18. Homelessness Comes to School: How Homeless Children and Youths Can Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph F.; Tobin, Kerri J.

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness is a complex and layered phenomenon, but schools can be effective in reducing its educational consequences. Schools currently are not doing enough. The next step is to consider the services that are needed for students as they arrive on the school campus. Taking care of homeless children in school systems involves seven provisos:…

  19. Counting and Surveying Homeless Youth: Recommendations from YouthCount 2.0!, a Community-Academic Partnership.

    PubMed

    Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane M; Ha, Yoonsook; Cooper, Jenna; Schieszler, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Communities across the United States are increasing efforts to find and count homeless youth. This paper presents findings and lessons learned from a community/academic partnership to count homeless youth and conduct an in depth research survey focused on the health needs of this population. Over a 4 week recruitment period, 632 youth were counted and 420 surveyed. Methodological successes included an extended counting period, broader inclusion criteria to capture those in unstable housing, use of student volunteers in health training programs, recruiting from magnet events for high risk youth, and partnering with community agencies to disseminate findings. Strategies that did not facilitate recruitment included respondent driven sampling, street canvassing beyond known hotspots, and having community agencies lead data collection. Surveying was successful in gathering data on reasons for homelessness, history in public systems of care, mental health history and needs, sexual risk behaviors, health status, and substance use. Youth were successfully surveyed across housing types including shelters or transitional housing (n = 205), those in unstable housing such as doubled up with friends or acquaintances (n = 75), and those who were literally on the streets or living in a place not meant for human habitation (n = 140). Most youth completed the self-report survey and provided detailed information about risk behaviors. Recommendations to combine research data collection with counting are presented.

  20. Implementing a social enterprise intervention with homeless, street-living youths in Los Angeles.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2007-04-01

    Homeless, street-dwelling youths are an at-risk population who often use survival behaviors to meet their basic needs. The traditional outreach approach brings services into the streets, yet does not adequately replace the youths' high-risk behaviors. Similarly, job training programs often fail to address the mental health issues that constitute barriers to their productive employment. Drawing on social development principles, the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) model is proposed as an alternative approach. The SEI seeks the tripartite effect of employment, service-related, and mental health outcomes for street youths. This article compares existing intervention models and suggests that through the SEI, homeless youths can acquire vocational and business skills, clinical mentorship, and linkages to services that otherwise would not be available to them, given their street-dwelling status.

  1. Prep/Tech: Volume 1, No. 1, Youth on homelessness

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    PREP/TECH is a skill development, academic enrichment program of U. of Toledo in Toledo OH and The Engineers Foundation of Ohio; it addresses the mathematics, science, language, and intellectual needs of about 100 African-American and Hispanic-American 7th, 8th, and 9th graders in Toledo. This summer, after 3 weeks of classes, the 80 students returned for a second 3 week session and were divided into two groups, one studying the growing problem of homelessness in America. This group researched and published a pamphlet on homelessness. This report is divided into: myths, causes, descriptions, and solutions. Finally, a brief account is given of the homelessness project.

  2. The Challenge of Pregnancy among Homeless Youth: Reclaiming a Lost Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Marcela; Bourgois, Philippe; Auerswald, Colette L.

    2011-01-01

    Young, homeless women often become pregnant, but little is known about how street youth experience their pregnancies. We documented 26 pregnancy outcomes among 13 homeless women (ages 18–26) and eight homeless men through interviews and participant-observation. Eight pregnancies were voluntarily terminated, three were miscarried, and fifteen were carried to term. Regardless of pregnancy outcome, street youths’ narratives focused on ambivalence about parenting, traumatic childhood experiences, and current challenges. Despite significant obstacles, almost all were convinced of their personal capacity to change their lives. While most wanted to be parents, the majority lost custody of their newborns and consequently associated contact with medical and social services with punitive outcomes. Most of the youth who chose to terminate successfully sought safe medical care. We offer recommendations for changing the approach of services to take full advantage of pregnancy as a potential catalyst event for change in this highly vulnerable and underserved population. PMID:20453382

  3. Chasing the European Dream: Unaccompanied African Youths' Educational Experience in a Canary Islands' Reception Centre and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auger-Voyer, Valérie; Montero-Sieburth, Martha; Perez, Lidia Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    In the last two decades, Spain's Canary Islands have received thousands of undocumented migrants arriving by boat from the coasts of North and West Africa. The sharp increase of unaccompanied minors has presented a particular challenge, as these minors fall under the State's protection system and are entitled to an education and other rights, once…

  4. Long-term and chronic homelessness in homeless women and women with children.

    PubMed

    Zlotnick, Cheryl; Tam, Tammy; Bradley, Kimberly

    2010-09-01

    The Chronic Homelessness initiative has directed millions of federal dollars to services for single "unaccompanied homeless" individuals, specifically excluding women living with their children. Using a data set with a nationally representative sample of homeless adults, we calculated the prevalence rates and profiles of long-term homelessness in homeless women (n = 849). With the exception of the criterion of being a single "unaccompanied individual," many women, including women with children, met the criteria for chronic homelessness including having a disability of mental health or substance abuse problems. Our findings suggest that the federal definition of chronic homelessness needs to be revised.

  5. Alternative Methods To Estimate the Number of Homeless Children and Youth. Final Report. Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.

    This report presents the results of a federally mandated study done to determine the best means of identifying, locating, and counting homeless children and youth, for the purpose of facilitating their successful participation in school and other educational activities. Several alternative approaches to obtaining consistent national estimates of…

  6. "My Life Is a Rollercoaster": A Survey of Homeless Youth Who Attended an Alternative High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Abby; Nicholson, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about long-term outcomes for homeless youth once they leave secondary school. The present study aimed to fill this gap. An online survey was completed by 29 ex-students who, during 1997-2011, attended a small alternative secondary school in an inner suburb of a large city in Australia. While at the school most achieved at least a…

  7. The power of the drug, nature of support, and their impact on homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Greengold, Barbara; Griffin, Deborah Koniak; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Gedzoff, Danny; Reid, Courtney

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore homeless youths' perspectives on the power of drugs in their lives, the preferred type of drugs used, barriers to treatment, and strategies to prevent drug initiation and abuse. This was a descriptive, qualitative study using focus groups with a purposeful sample of 24 drug-using homeless youth. The results provided insight into the lives of drug-using homeless youth. The most commonly used drugs were marijuana and alcohol. Reported reasons for drug use were parental drug use, low self-esteem, and harsh living conditions on the streets. Barriers to treatment were pleasurable enjoyment of the drug, physical dependence, and non-empathetic mental health providers. Strategies to prevent initiation and abuse of drugs were creative activities, such as art, sports, and music, and disdain for parental/family drug use and abuse. Comparative research is needed on specific personal factors that cause initiation and deterrence of drugs use/abuse among homeless youth.

  8. Dimensions and Correlates of Client Satisfaction: An Evaluation of a Shelter for Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Shimon E.; Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat

    2009-01-01

    Client satisfaction surveys give clients a voice in the planning and management of services. While their use is quite widespread, they have hardly at all been used in the evaluation of shelters for homeless youths. In this article, the authors present findings of a client satisfaction survey conducted among residents of a shelter for homeless…

  9. The Economic Crisis Hits Home: The Unfolding Increase in Child & Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Lovell, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    While the economic downturn has appropriately become the top priority of policy makers, one element of the crisis has gone largely unnoticed: its impact on children and youth. Largely due to the economic and housing crises, many school districts across the country report increases in the number of homeless students in the classroom. "The Economic…

  10. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless…

  11. The Most Frequently Asked Questions on the Education Rights of Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Updated September 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Julianelle, Patricia; Santos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations, based on the amendments made by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, which took effect on October 1, 2016. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes,…

  12. U.S. Minority Homeless Youth's Access to and Use of Mobile Phones: Implications for mHealth Intervention Design.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Larissa; Lee, Nicole; Shore, Deborah; Strohminger, Nancy; Allison, Burgundi; Conserve, Donaldson F; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2016-07-01

    Few interventions for homeless youth have leveraged the potential of mHealth technologies, in part because of the limited data on phone behaviors, perceptions, and intervention preferences among youth experiencing homelessness. We conducted 9 focus groups (n = 52 homeless youth) and 41 individual structured interviews also with homeless youth in underserved communities in Baltimore and Washington, DC, to ascertain how youth perceived their mobile phone, acquired and maintained mobile services over time, and thought mHealth programs for this population should be designed. We also measured phone use, functionality, source, duration of ownership, and reasons for changing phones or numbers. Results showed that mobile coverage was high, as most youth self-purchased phones or received gift payments from others. Maintaining mobile connectivity was often challenging because of financial constraints and interpersonal conflict. Youth valued phones to access social support but used several tactics to avoid perceived negative consequences of phone ownership, such as harassment, theft, or relational disputes. Youth most preferred mHealth content relating to sexual, reproductive, and mental health provided that mobile communication was confidential, empowering, and integrated with other digital media. Integrating hidden phones, financial support, and safety management may improve homeless youth's access to and engagement with mHealth strategies over time.

  13. Sexual risk, substance use, mental health, and trauma experiences of gang-involved homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Petering, Robin

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the associations of sexual risk behaviors, substance use, mental health, and trauma with varying levels of gang involvement in a sample of Los Angeles-based homeless youths. Data were collected from 505 homeless youths who self-reported various health information and whether they have ever identified as or been closely affiliated with a gang member. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations of lifetime gang involvement with risk taking behaviors and negative health outcomes. Results revealed seventeen percent of youths have ever identified as a gang member and 46% as gang affiliated. Both gang members and affiliates were at greater risk of many negative behaviors than non-gang involved youths. Gang members and affiliates were more likely to report recent methamphetamine use, cocaine use, chronic marijuana use, having sex while intoxicated, and symptoms of depression, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse and witnessing family violence. Gang members were more likely to ever attempt suicide, experience recent partner violence, and report physical abuse during childhood. Results suggest that lifetime gang involvement is related to a trajectory of negative outcomes and amplified risk for youths experiencing homelessness. Additionally, being closely connected to a gang member appears to have just as much as an impact on risk as personally identifying as a gang member. Given the lack of knowledge regarding the intersection between youth homelessness and gang involvement, future research is needed to inform policies and programs that can address the specific needs of this population.

  14. For Youth, by Youth: A Third Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    This past winter, the third student-run homeless shelter in the United States came into being. Two recent Harvard graduates, Sam Greenberg and Sarah Rosenkrantz, who had volunteered at the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter as college students, saw a need within the Boston and Cambridge communities for a homeless shelter serving young adults. Drawing…

  15. ESSA and Homeless Youth. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsi, Ace; Duffield, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    As state and district leaders evaluate characteristics of their student populations, many will find one number particularly startling: The number of homeless students has doubled in less than a decade. States can take several actions to serve these students better, some of which are incorporated in the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Some of…

  16. Social Networking Technology Use and Engagement in HIV-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors Among Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric; Bender, Kimberly; Lengnick-Hall, Rebecca; Yoshioka-Maxwell, Amanda; Rhoades, Harmony

    2016-07-01

    Preliminary studies with homeless youth have found surprisingly pervasive social media use and suggest that youth's online interactions may be associated with their HIV-related risk and protective behaviors. As homeless youth are transient and difficult to engage in place-based services, social media may represent a novel venue for intervention. A critical 1st step in intervention development is gaining greater understanding of how homeless youth use social media, especially as it relates to who they connect to and around what topics. Given the salience of social networking sites in the lives of these otherwise difficult-to-reach adolescents, and their potential to disseminate prevention interventions, this study assessed associations between online social networking technology use and HIV risk behaviors among homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Homeless youth ages 13 through 24 (N = 1,046) were recruited through 3 drop-in centers and surveyed about their social media use and self-reported HIV-related risk behaviors. Results suggest that social media use is widely prevalent among this population, and the content of these online interactions is associated with whether youth engage in risk or protective behaviors. Implications for interventions and further research are discussed.

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Formation and Composition of Social Networks Among Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social networks are essential for explaining protective and risk factors among homeless youth, little is known about the formation and composition of these groups. In this study, we utilized 19 in-depth interviews with homeless youth to investigate their social network formation, role relationships, housing status, and network member functions. Our findings reveal that the formation of these networks occurred in different ways including meeting network members through others or in specific social situations. The majority of social network members were currently housed and provided various functions including instrumental and social support and protection. Responses from participants provide valuable insight into the formation of social networks and potentially explain their subsequent involvement in risky behaviors. PMID:22121330

  18. Unaccompanied status as a risk factor in Vietnamese Amerasians.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, R S; Webb, J A

    1995-07-01

    This study prospectively evaluates the relationship between unaccompanied status and levels of psychological distress in a group of Vietnamese Amerasians both prior to, and during, migration. Its objective was to determine whether unaccompanied migrant status functions as an independent post-departure risk factor for psychological distress, or if unaccompanied migrants are already at increased risk for, and have higher levels of, psychological distress prior to departure and the acquisition of unaccompanied status. Seventy-five Vietnamese Amerasian youth were evaluated at two points during their migration utilizing Felsman's Personal Information Form, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, and the Youth Self-Report. The first assessment was conducted prior to migration at the Amerasian Transit Center in Vietnam, and the second during migration at the Philippine Refugee Processing Center. Unaccompanied Amerasians were found to have significantly higher risk levels for, and significantly more symptoms of, psychological distress prior to migration than accompanied Amerasians. During migration the difference in levels of psychological distress between accompanied and unaccompanied Amerasians increased beyond that attributable to predeparture risk levels alone. This significant differential increase in levels of psychological distress among unaccompanied Amerasians is attributable to unaccompanied status. Unaccompanied migrant status thus appears to function both as an independent postdeparture risk factor for psychological distress and also as a marker for increased levels of risk and psychological distress prior to migration.

  19. Homelessness Assistance and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families Youth Youth Main Page Provider Tools RRH Models Housing and Education Collaboration Decriminalizing Homelessness Disasters Health Affordable Care Act HIV/AIDS Disease Risks Human Trafficking Human ...

  20. Federally Supported Centers Provide Needed Services for Runaways and Homeless Youths. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    The Runaway and Homeless Youth Act authorizes funds under the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 for community-based centers that serve the shelter needs of runaway or homeless youths. To examine the effectiveness of the programs and the characteristics of program participants, the Government Accounting Office (GAO) visited 17…

  1. Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences...Prevalence, Drug Use, and Other At-Risk Behaviors. A FYSB Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Professionals who work with runaway, throwaway, and homeless youth have long known that many of these young people leave home to escape abusive and/or destructive family situations. This update presents the findings of a national study on such children. Results of the study, "Youth with Runaway, Throwaway, and Homeless Experiences:…

  2. The impact of an integrated treatment on HIV risk behavior among homeless youth: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Kang, Min Ju

    2008-01-01

    While many studies provide useful information on the risk behaviors in which homeless youth engage, few prior studies evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk related reduction strategies. In this study, homeless youth (n = 180) were recruited from a drop-in center and randomly assigned to one of two conditions, either an integrated individual cognitive-behavioral treatment and HIV prevention intervention that focused on skills building and education or to treatment as usual. All youth were assessed at entry into the program and at 3 and 6 month follow-up points. Findings showed an interaction between treatment condition, age and time. In the interaction, youth assigned to the integrated treatment reported greater condom usage than youth assigned to treatment as usual, with younger youth assigned to treatment as usual showing no change in condom use. The number of sexual partners reported by youth in both treatment conditions was also reduced over time. However, youth in both conditions continued to engage in other high-risk behaviors. The integrated treatment findings are promising and suggest that interventions which target both HIV risk behavior in addition to other life areas (substance use, mental health and housing) among homeless youth may be necessary in order to significantly impact high-risk behaviors among this unique group. PMID:17940861

  3. Merging the fields of mental health and social enterprise: lessons from abroad and cumulative findings from research with homeless youths.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2012-08-01

    Despite the growing integration of supported employment within the mental health system in the United States as well as the widespread use of social enterprises abroad, the fields of mental health and social enterprises remain largely separate in the USA. The mental health field currently lacks a response that strengthens homeless youths' existing human and social capital, provides them with marketable job skills and employment, and impacts their mental health. To address this gap, this paper establishes a case for using social enterprises with homeless youths, drawing on both global precedents and findings from a mixed-methods study of a social enterprise intervention with homeless youths. Recommendations are offered for how to integrate social enterprises with mental health treatment as well as how to evaluate their impact on mental health outcomes.

  4. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Two Urgent Single-Source Grants To Support Unaccompanied Alien Children...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Support Unaccompanied Alien Children Program Services AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS... from the Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to Youth for Tomorrow in Bristow VA and Lincoln Hall in... will support grants to two organizations that are providing services under the Unaccompanied...

  5. Mobilizing Homeless Youth for HIV Prevention: A Social Network Analysis of the Acceptability of a Face-to-Face and Online Social Networking Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…

  6. Higher Education: Actions Needed to Improve Access to Federal Financial Assistance for Homeless and Foster Youth. Report to the Ranking Member, Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. GAO-16-343

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth and youth in foster care are often unprepared for the transition to adulthood. Given the economic benefits of college, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) was asked to examine the college experiences of these vulnerable youth. GAO examined: (1) college enrollment and completion for foster and homeless youth; (2) the extent to…

  7. Influence of gang membership on negative affect, substance use, and antisocial behavior among homeless African American male youth.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Davidson, Jonathan; Hosek, Sybil G

    2008-09-01

    The current study examined differences between gang-involved and non-gang-involved homeless African American male youth with regard to negative affect, substance use, and antisocial/violent behavior. A total of 69 homeless African American young men were recruited from community agencies and completed structured face-to-face interviews. Overall, gang members reported higher rates of negative mental and physical health outcomes than did non-gang members, with current gang members reporting higher levels of depression and anxiety, greater levels of antisocial and violent behavior, and higher levels of lifetime alcohol and marijuana use. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that greater levels of gang involvement were associated with more frequent lifetime use of alcohol and marijuana and higher levels of participation in violent behaviors. Implications of these findings for interventions with homeless African American male youth and future research directions are discussed.

  8. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.17 Section 1351.17 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE...

  9. Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"--Even in the Castro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This study, focused on five transgender and gay youth of color from San Francisco, explored how family problems, poverty, homophobia, and transphobia propelled them into homelessness and made gay-friendly spaces and resources especially meaningful to them. These young people describe seeking support in San Francisco's well-known gay enclave, the…

  10. The Mediating Roles of Stress and Maladaptive Behaviors on Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among Runaway and Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A.; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-01-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and…

  11. Educating Homeless Children and Youth: How Are We Measuring Up? A Progress Report, School Year 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Div. of Compensatory Education and Support Services.

    This report measures how well Maryland educators are working together to provide a public education that meets the long- and short-term needs of homeless children and youth by providing environments that support their physical, social, and emotional growth. It outlines accomplishments for the 1990-91 school year, recommends ways of addressing…

  12. Joined-Up Practice: Five Areas of Exemplary Practice for Social Workers and Educators to Re-Engage Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Phil; Livock, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Young people seen as "at risk" are a substantial focus across a wide range of policy and practice fields in national and international contexts. This article addresses two of those fields, youth homelessness and young people failing to obtain a basic education that will give them access to employment and full community participation. By…

  13. The Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Learning To Succeed. Volume I: Reducing Barriers for Homeless Children and Youth for Access and Achievement. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarenda M.; Wodatch, Jessica K.; Kelliher, Catherine T.

    A 1984 amendment to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act instructs states to ensure that homeless students have equal access to the same free and appropriate public education as nonhomeless students. It provides local educational authorities increased flexibility to use funds, specify the rights of homeless preschoolers, give parents of…

  14. A Youth-Friendly Intervention for Homeless and Street-Involved Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Barbara Virley; MacDonald, Brian J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a community intervention for a population of youth who are often distrustful of mainstream mental health services. Program focuses on not viewing youth as patients but as experts in working with adults to design youth-friendly interventions. Outlines the development and implementation of a support-group model tailored specifically to the…

  15. Understanding Condom Use Decision-Making among Homeless Youth using Event-Level Data

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Yashodhara; Brown, Ryan A.; Kennedy, David P.; Ryan, Gery W.; Stern, Stefanie; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the first qualitative event-based studies to understand the various mechanisms through which multiple factors influence condom use decision-making among homeless youth. Event-level interviews which explore characteristics of the environment surrounding sexual events were conducted with 29 youth, who were asked to describe two recent sexual encounters. In thematic analyses of data across events, reasons that youth gave for engaging in unprotected sex included the expectation of having sex and use of alternative methods of protection against pregnancy. Other non-event factors that influenced condom use decision-making were related to attributes of the partnership (e.g., testing, trust and love, and assessments of risk) and attributes of the youth (e.g., perceptions of diseases, concerns over pregnancy, and discomfort using condoms). Additional event analyses conducted within the same individuals found that decision-making was influenced by multiple interacting factors, with different pathways operating for event and non-event factors. Future interventions should consider taking a multilevel and individualized approach that focuses on event-based determinants of risky sex in this population. PMID:25396781

  16. Is Substance Use Associated with Perpetration and Victimization of Physically Violent Behavior and Property Offences among Homeless Youth? A Systematic Review of International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Substance use is a commonly reported problem associated with numerous adverse outcomes among homeless youth. Homelessness is reportedly a covariate to perpetration of, and victimization from, physically violent behavior and property offences. Of particular importance in both the perpetration of, and victimization from these behaviors,…

  17. Children and Youths: About 68,000 Homeless and 186,000 in Shared Housing at Any Given Time. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    In compliance with Section 724 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of July 22, 1987 (Public Law 100-77), this GAO report to Congressional Committees provides estimates of the number of homeless children and youth in all states. Estimates are reported, along with additional information on subgroups for whom it was not possible to…

  18. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  19. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2013-09-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.

  20. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Ream, Geoffrey L; Barnhart, Kate F; Lotz, Kevin V

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states.

  1. Decision Processes about Condom Use among Shelter-Homeless LGBT Youth in Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Barnhart, Kate F.; Lotz, Kevin V.

    2012-01-01

    Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to “member check” participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18–26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states. PMID:22693658

  2. An Intervention to Enhance Psychological Capital and Health Outcomes in Homeless Female Youths.

    PubMed

    Rew, Lynn; Powell, Tara; Brown, Adama; Becker, Heather; Slesnick, Natasha

    2016-07-13

    Female homeless youths are vulnerable to risky sex and substance use behaviors, yet they have strengths known as psychological capital. A quasi-experimental pre-post research design with repeated measures was used to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a brief intervention to enhance psychological capital, reduce health-risk behaviors, and achieve short-term behavioral goals. Study participants were 80 ethnically diverse homeless women between the ages of 18 and 23 years. Intervention participants had significant improvements in psychological capital, hope, resilience, and self-efficacy to refuse alcohol, social connectedness, and substance use (p < .05). There was a significant group by time interaction for safe sex self-efficacy; intervention participants had greater self-confidence in negotiating safer sex practices than comparison participants. At the follow-up post-test, 82% of intervention participants who remained in the study had met or exceeded their short-term goals. This brief, street-based intervention was feasible and showed preliminary efficacy.

  3. Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Young Adults Art Messaging as a Medium to Engage Homeless Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. Yet, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Objectives The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Methods Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica. Results The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in person communication, flyers, music, documentary film and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. Conclusions The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real and truthful. . Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use. PMID:21441664

  4. Gambling in the Landscape of Adversity in Youth: Reflections from Men Who Live with Poverty and Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Guilcher, Sara J. T.; Schuler, Andrée; Wendaferew, Aklilu; Hwang, Stephen W.; Matheson, Flora I.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the research on gambling behaviour among youth has been quantitative and focused on measuring prevalence. As a result, little is known about the contextual experiences of youth gambling, particularly among those most vulnerable. In this paper, we explore the previous experiences of youth gambling in a sample of adult men experiencing housing instability and problem gambling. We present findings from a qualitative study on problem gambling and housing instability conducted in Toronto, Canada. Thirty men with histories of problem or pathological gambling and housing instability or homelessness were interviewed. Two thirds of these men reported that they began gambling in youth. Five representative cases were selected and the main themes discussed. We found that gambling began in early life while the men, as youth, were also experiencing adversity (e.g., physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse, neglect, housing instability, homelessness, substance addiction and poverty). Men reported they had access to gambling activity through their family and wider networks of school, community and the streets. Gambling provided a way to gain acceptance, escape from emotional pain, and/or earn money. For these men problematic gambling behaviour that began in youth, continued into adulthood. PMID:27589784

  5. The P, A and R of Participatory Action Research with Unaccompanied Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukko, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities and the challenges of conducting participatory action research (PAR) with unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and youth. Drawing from a PAR project with 12 unaccompanied asylum-seeking girls in a Finnish reception centre, the paper explores the P, A and R of PAR asking the following questions: what kind…

  6. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jessica S.; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  7. Education and Community Support for Homeless Children and Youth: Profiles of 15 Innovative and Promising Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeldin, Shepherd; Bogart, Joanne

    This report profiles 15 programs that are providing education and support services to homeless students. These programs have been selected from over 40 nominations from state homeless coordinators and from national organizations concerned with services to the homeless. The profiled programs were selected on the basis of innovative educational…

  8. Homeless Families, Children, and Youth in Stanislaus County--Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boley, Ellen

    The homeless crisis in America is a complex issue with no "quick fixes." In Stanislaus County, California, it seems that there are many programs operating in isolation of one another. Approximately 5% of the county's population is homeless. Homeless persons have survival needs for food and clothing, hygiene, health care, affordable…

  9. Increased Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among Migratory Homeless Youth: Exploring the Role of Social Network Composition

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steven C.; Tucker, Joan S.; Ryan, Gery; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Golinelli, Daniela; Munjas, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Travelers are a migratory subgroup of homeless youth who may be especially prone to engaging in risky behavior. This study compared the substance use and sexual behavior of young homeless travelers and non-travelers to evaluate the extent and possible sources of travelers' increased risk. Data came from face-to-face interviews with 419 homeless youth (36.6% female, 34.0% white, 23.9% African American, and 20.0% Hispanic) between the ages of 13 and 24 years (M = 20.1 years, SD = 2.5) who were randomly sampled from 41 shelters, drop-in centers, and street sites in Los Angeles. Travelers were almost twice as likely as non-travelers to exhibit recent heavy drinking, 37% more likely to exhibit recent marijuana use, and five times as likely to have injected drugs. Travelers also had more recent sex partners and were more likely to report having casual or need-based sexual partners and combining sex with substance use. Mediation analyses suggest that travelers' deviant peer associations and disconnection to conventional individuals and institutions may drive their elevated substance use. Differences in sexual risk behaviors are likely attributable to demographic differences between the two groups. Overall, these differences between travelers and non-travelers suggest different service needs and the need for different service approaches. PMID:21400037

  10. National Center on Family Homelessness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events You are here Home National Center on Family Homelessness Center A staggering 2.5 million children ... the impact of homelessness on children, youth, and families. Through research, programs, trainings, and partnerships with the ...

  11. YTH StreetConnect: Development and Usability of a Mobile App for Homeless and Unstably Housed Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gamedze, Londiwe; Williams, Samantha; Ford, Jessie VanNess; Habel, Melissa A

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless and unstably housed (H/UH) youth are disproportionately affected by sexual health issues, including human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and dating violence, and are at a higher risk for poor mental health and underutilization of services. Research suggests that linking health care to H/UH adolescents might help improve their continuity of care, with most preferring to access health care information via the Internet. YTH StreetConnect is a dual-purpose mobile app that helps H/UH youth access health and vital services in Santa Clara County, CA, USA. We developed YTH StreetConnect PRO in parallel with the youth app as a companion tablet app for providers who serve H/UH youth. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a mobile app to support H/UH youth and their providers in accessing health and vital resources, and to conduct usability and feasibility testing of the app among H/UH youth and technical consultants with local expertise in serving H/UH youth. Methods Formative research included a literature review on H/UH youths’ mobile phone and Internet usage. In January 2015, we conducted interviews with medical and service providers of H/UH youth. Usability and feasibility testing were done with target audiences. Additionally, we conducted focus groups with youth regarding the app’s youth friendliness, accessibility, and usefulness. Results H/UH youth and their providers noted the app’s functionality, youth friendliness, and resources. Usability testing proposed improvements to the app, including visual updates to the user interface, map icons, new underrepresented resource categories, and the addition of a peer rating system. Limitations included a small sample size among H/UH youth and providers and a single site for the study (Santa Clara County, CA), making the findings ungeneralizable to the US population. Conclusions YTH StreetConnect is a promising way to increase service utilization

  12. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  13. Institutional Discharges and Subsequent Shelter Use among Unaccompanied Adults in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metraux, Stephen; Byrne, Thomas; Culhane, Dennis P.

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically examines the link between homelessness and discharges from other institutions. An administrative record match was undertaken to determine rates of discharge from institutional care for 9,247 unaccompanied adult shelter users in New York City. Cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis was then used to…

  14. Are Parental Relationships Always Protective? A Social Network Analysis of Black, Latino, and White Homeless Youth and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Craddock, Jaih B; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2016-11-01

    Black and Latino homeless youth are at high risk of HIV, and yet no HIV prevention interventions have been specifically designed for these groups. Given the success of parent-child intervention programs for housed Black and Latino youth, this study examined parental relationships that could be leveraged for future HIV prevention efforts targeting minority homeless youth, specifically the associations among presence of parents in social networks, parental influence, and parental support. A convenience sample of Black, Latino, and White homeless youth (N = 754) was recruited from three drop-in centers in Los Angeles. Participants completed a computerized, self-administered questionnaire and an interviewer-led personal social network interview. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association between parental relationships and sexual risk behaviors. Forty-five percent (n = 338) of youth identified a parent in their network. Having at least one parent in their network was significantly associated with decreased odds of using a condom for Black and White youth. Black youth were almost four times more likely to report being tested for HIV if they spoke to their parents about sex, whereas Latino youth were 91 % less likely to report being tested for HIV if they talked with their parents about sex. Black youth who identified a parent as a positive influence (i.e., promoting condom use or discouraging multiple partners) were almost four times more likely to have used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Parent-child HIV prevention interventions targeting homeless youth would benefit from culturally tailored adaptations.

  15. The McKinney-Vento Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program: Implications for Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losinski, Mickey; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Ryan, Joseph B.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2008-2009 academic school year, nearly a million (956,914) students were reported by school districts as being homeless, a 41% increase over just a 2-year period year. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of national legislative efforts to address the education of children who are homeless, with a particular…

  16. Policy, Behavior, and Research: Changing Schooling for Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.; Oakley, Joye L.

    1993-01-01

    Considers state and national policies directed toward the homeless. Problems with policies for immunization and vaccination requirements, transportation, parent participation, domestic violence, and home schooling are discussed. Alternative solutions that may be more conducive to the education of the homeless are offered. (SLD)

  17. Becoming homeless, being homeless, and resolving homelessness among women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to more comprehensively articulate the experiences of homeless women and make evidence-based inferences regarding optimal social services. This study was conducted using qualitative meta-synthesis methods. As youth, homeless women experience challenging circumstances that leave them ill-prepared to prevent and resolve homelessness in adulthood. Resolution of homelessness occurs in iterative stages: crisis, assessment, and sustained action. To enhance forward progression through these stages, nurses are encouraged to promote empowerment in concordance with the Transtheoretical and Harm Reduction Models. Services that are highly valued include physical and mental health care and child care assistance.

  18. The U.S. Homeless Student Population: Homeless Youth Education, Review of Research Classifications and Typologies, and the U.S. Federal Legislative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Mai Abdul; Turner, J. Fidel; Elbedour, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Background: The drastic surge in the number of homeless families in the United States (U.S.) has resulted in an increase in the number of homeless students attending U.S. public schools. Meanwhile, the U.S. public school system is struggling to meet the educational needs of their homeless students. Objective: This study examined the historical…

  19. Invited Commentary: Seeking a Coherent Strategy in Our Response to Homeless and Street-Involved Youth--A Historical Review and Suggested Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This invited commentary seeks to encourage a critical dialogue about youth homelessness that might assist in re-energizing a field that seems increasingly stagnant with a research body focused primarily on analyses of risk, hopelessly inadequate policy frameworks in most cities, diminishing funds for services, and decreasing media attention.…

  20. A demographic and behavioral profile of homeless youth in New York City: implications for AIDS outreach and prevention.

    PubMed

    Clatts, M C; Davis, W R

    1999-09-01

    Rapid changes in the world market economy have served to destabilize many local institutions, widening the gap between the rich and the poor and undermining viability of key social and economic institutions such as family and household. Among those most deeply affected by this displacement are children and adolescents, many of whom are forced to leave family institutions before they have acquired the skills and maturity needed to become economically self-sufficient. Fending for themselves amid the vagaries of the underworld of virtually every major city in the world, these youths are at exceptional risk for a wide range of poor health outcomes and premature death. While perhaps a familiar sight in many non-Western countries, this phenomenon also has emerged in the industrialized world, a fact that accounts for the rise in exposure to violence and disease among street-involved youth and young adults in nations such as the United States. There are as yet few empirical data available about the nature of these youth populations or the constellation of behaviors that place them at increased risk for disease outcomes. In this report we construct a demographic and behavioral profile of the homeless youth population in New York City, particularly as behavioral patterns relate to risk associated with HIV infection.

  1. Homeless Adolescents' Perceptions of Positive Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nott, Brooke Dolenc; Vuchinich, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: While some recent research has addressed homeless youth from a strengths-based approach, comparative studies of homeless and non-homeless youth from a strengths perspective are few; research that includes youth's views on positive youth development are also limited. Objective: Addressing these gaps and using an inductive approach,…

  2. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  3. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  4. 34 CFR 303.17 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Homeless children. 303.17 Section 303.17 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.17 Homeless children. Homeless children means children who meet the definition given the term homeless children and youths in section 725 (42 U.S.C....

  5. The mediating roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors on self-harm and suicide attempts among runaway and homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, Amanda; Stein, Judith A; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2013-07-01

    Runaway and homeless youth often have a constellation of background behavioral, emotional, and familial problems that contribute to stress and maladaptive behaviors, which, in turn, can lead to self-harming and suicidal behaviors. The current study examined the roles of stress and maladaptive behaviors as mediators between demographic and psychosocial background characteristics and self-injurious outcomes through the lens of the stress process paradigm. The model was tested in a sample of runaway and homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N = 474, age 12-24, 41 % female, 17 % White, 32.5 % African American, 21.5 % Hispanic/Latino). Background variables (gender, age, sexual minority status, parental drug use history, and emotional distress) predicted hypothesized mediators of maladaptive behaviors and recent stress. In turn, it was hypothesized that the mediators would predict self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in the last 3 months. Females and LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) youth were more likely to have self-harmed and attempted suicide; younger participants reported more self-harming. The mediating constructs were associated more highly with self-harming than suicide attempts bivariately, although differences were modest. Maladaptive behaviors and recent stress were significant predictors of self-harm, whereas only recent stress was a significant predictor of suicide attempts. All background factors were significant predictors of recent stress. Older age, a history of parental drug use, and greater emotional distress predicted problem drug use. Males, younger participants, and participants with emotional distress reported more delinquent behaviors. Significant indirect effects on self-harming behaviors were mediated through stress and maladaptive behaviors. The hypothesized paradigm was useful in explaining the associations among background factors and self-injurious outcomes and the influence of mediating factors on these

  6. Evaluating a Transitional Living Program for Homeless, Former Foster Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    The goals of this study were to (a) assess the outcomes of former foster care youth using transitional living programs and (b) compare outcomes achieved by former foster care youth who participated in an employment training program with similar youth who did not. The study sampled 23 former foster care youth using transitional living services in…

  7. Supporting Two Households: Unaccompanied Mexican Minors and Their Absences from U.S. Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This article illustrates simultaneous household participation in the lives of undocumented, unaccompanied Mexican teenage minors in New York City and its impact on their school attendance. Emigrating without parents, some Mexican youths arrive to enter into the labor market, not school. Unable to assume monetary dependence, these youths' absences…

  8. Trials, Tribulations, and Occasional Jubilations while Conducting Research with Homeless Children, Youth, and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    A personal account of a program of research on homelessness and poverty spanning the past 20 years is provided, with a focus on the many methodological, practical, and ethical difficulties encountered. Interesting discoveries and enjoyable aspects of the research process are also presented. Several role conflicts that arose for the researcher in…

  9. "We're Locking the Door": Family Histories in a Sample of Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvi, Shahid; Scott, Hannah; Stanyon, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the pathways to homelessness for young people are embedded in often ongoing negative childhood experiences. Many of these experiences are rooted in multiple and intersecting problems including, but not limited to: family conflict, abuse, addictions, and mental health issues. The authors draw upon qualitative interviews…

  10. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify what is most important to the quality of life (QoL) of those who experience homelessness by directly soliciting the views of homeless and hard-to-house Canadians themselves. These individuals live within a unique social context that differs considerably from that of the general population. To understand the life areas that are most important to them, it is critical to have direct input from target populations of homeless and hard-to-house persons. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 140 individuals aged 15 to 73 years who were homeless or hard-to-house to explore the circumstances in which they were living and to capture what they find to be important and relevant domains of QoL. Participants were recruited in Toronto, Ottawa, Montreal, and Vancouver. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Six major content themes emerged: Health/health care; Living conditions; Financial situation; Employment situation; Relationships; and Recreational and leisure activities. These themes were linked to broader concepts that included having choices, stability, respect, and the same rights as other members of society. Conclusions These findings not only aid our understanding of QoL in this group, but may be used to develop measures that capture QoL in this population and help programs and policies become more effective in improving the life situation for persons who are homeless and hard-to-house. Quality of life themes in Canadian adults and street youth who are homeless or hard-to-house: A multi-site focus group study. PMID:22894551

  11. Negative Cultural Capital and Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which homeless young people find a sense of self-worth and dignity within the conditions of youth homelessness. It notes that, while homeless young people seek a space where they do not feel marginalised and can attain a form of social status and cultural competence, they also engage in practices and acts of…

  12. That Is Not What Homeless Is: A School District's Journey toward Serving Homeless, Doubled-Up, and Economically Displaced Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Skrla, Linda; Low, Justin

    2015-01-01

    School districts play a key role in identifying, supporting, and educating homeless students. This qualitative case study of a school district in Northern California illustrates how district leadership serves as a bridge between federal policy and local school sites. In this case study, federal funding funneled through the state served as the…

  13. Personality and Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Repression, Resilience and Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huemer, Julia; Volkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Karnik, Niranjan; Denny, Katherine G.; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Mitterer, Michaela; Humphreys, Keith; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Steiner, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Examining personality and psychopathological symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs), we measured intra-individual dimensions (repression and correlates thereof) usually associated with resilience. Forty-one URMs completed the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI), assessing personality, and the Youth Self-Report (YSR), describing…

  14. Family and Youth Services Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homeless Youth Help for Victims & Survivors of Domestic Violence Help for Victims of Human Trafficking & Commercial Sexual Exploitation General Help Programs Runaway & Homeless Youth Family Violence Prevention & Services Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Grants Grant Awards ...

  15. Ending child homelessness in America.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L

    2010-10-01

    Approximately 1.5 million children experience homelessness in America each year. The current economic recession and staggering numbers of housing foreclosures have caused the numbers of homeless families to increase dramatically. The impact of homelessness on families and children is devastating. Without a place to call home, children are severely challenged by unpredictability, dislocation, and chaos. Homelessness and exposure to traumatic stresses place them at high risk for poor mental health outcomes. Despite the pressing needs of these children, federal policy during the last decade has focused primarily on chronically homeless adult individuals-to the exclusion of the families. In 2010, however, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness issued a comprehensive plan to eradicate homelessness for all people through interagency collaboration and aligning mainstream services. A key goal is to prevent and end homelessness for families, youth, and children within 10 years. This policy-focused article describes several tools that can be used to help achieve this goal, including: general principles of care for serving homeless families and children; BSAFE-a promising practice that helps families access community-based services and supports; and the Campaign to End Child Homelessness aimed at action on behalf of homeless families and children at the national, state, and local levels.

  16. Estrangement Factors Associated with Addiction to Alcohol and Drugs among Homeless Youth in Three U. S. Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna; Jun, Jina; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Pollio, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent among homeless, street-involved young people. Societal estrangement is often associated with substance use, particularly among this population. The current study sought to identify four domains of social estrangement (disaffiliation, human capital, identification with homeless culture, and psychological…

  17. A Comparison of Weight-Related Behaviors among High School Students Who Are Homeless and Non-Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Mary E.; Austin, S. Bryn; Samples, Cathryn L.; Goodenow, Carol S.; Wylie, Sarah A.; Corliss, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk…

  18. [Caring for unaccompanied minors: an experience from Lausanne].

    PubMed

    Depallens Villanueva, S; Ambresin, A E

    2010-06-16

    Medical treatment of an unaccompanied minor is made more complicated firstly by its connections with the politics of immigration and secondly by the difficulty in gaining recognition of the priority of the minor's interests. Enabling healthcare teams to travel and meet these particularly vulnerable youths makes medical care more accessible to them and facilitates an optimal bio-psycho-social treatment. For most of these adolescents it is their lack of plans for the future which remains the major obstacle to their development and mental and physical health.

  19. Meeting the Needs of Unaccompanied Child Refugees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Unaccompanied child migrants have been entering the United States for years, but the recent spike in their arrivals has made the issue more pressing. Though the unaccompanied child population has been characterized as temporary in nature, it is likely that a large number of these children will live in the United States for a long period, perhaps…

  20. Are childhood abuse and neglect related to age of first homelessness episode among currently homeless adults?

    PubMed

    Mar, Marissa Y; Linden, Isabelle A; Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 500 homeless adults and the associations between childhood maltreatment types and the age of first reported homelessness episode. Those first experiencing homelessness in youth (age 24 years or younger; 46%) were compared with those first experiencing homelessness at a later age (older than age 24 years). In individual models, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect were associated with first experiencing homelessness during youth (p < .02 for all types of maltreatment). In the simultaneous model, only emotional abuse remained significantly associated (p = .002). In addition, increasing numbers of maltreatment were associated with becoming homeless during youth (p < .0001). These results highlight the unique associations between childhood maltreatment types and becoming homeless earlier in life and support the need for early interventions with at-risk families.

  1. Educating Homeless Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (Phoenix, Arizona, September 5, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, which was held in Phoenix, Arizona, focused on ensuring equal educational opportunities for homeless children. After an opening statement by the Honorable Matt Solomon, Subcommittee on Early…

  2. "Stealing and Being Stolen From": Perpetration of Property Offenses and Property Victimization Among Homeless Youth--A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heerde, Jessica A.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Homelessness is purportedly a predictor of property offending and property victimization, yet published studies examining this occurrence are scarce. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies reporting the rates of perpetration of property offenses and property victimization, and associations between homelessness…

  3. Education Rights of Homeless Students: A Guide for Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Law Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    There is no question that students who are homeless, like all students, are entitled to be educated. A federal law, known as the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, requires states to provide homeless children and youth with the same access to free public education as is available to other students. The Act also requires states to eliminate…

  4. What about America's Homeless Children? Hide and Seek. Sage Sourcebooks for the Human Services Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Paul G.

    This book aims to present what is known about homeless children and to let the stories of some homeless families make their situations clear. The first part of the book covers the background and social, educational, and health issues of homeless children, with a discussion of causes. Part 2 presents some stories of homeless youth and families,…

  5. Problems of Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on Problems of and Services Provided for Runaway and Homeless Youth, Focusing on Support to State and Local Governments and Nonprofit Agencies for the Development of Community-Based Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    These hearings, focusing on financial support for community-based programs dealing with problems of runaway and homeless youths, explore the scope of the problem, types of activities which are being undertaken, and paths for future action. Testimony and prepared statements are presented by several witnesses including a commissioner of the…

  6. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  7. Hearings on the Reauthorization of Title 3(b) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988: Drug Abuse Education and Prevention Programs for Runaway and Homeless Youth and Youth Gangs. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Washington, D.C., July 18, 1991; Downey, California, August 2, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document contains witness testimonies from two Congressional hearings examining the reauthorization of Title 3(b) of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 relating to the drug abuse education and prevention for runaway and homeless youth and youth gangs. Opening statements are included from Representatives Martinez and Fawell. Witnesses providing…

  8. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-30

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain.

  9. National Symposium on Transportation for Homeless Children and Youth. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (Williamsburg, Virginia, February 20-21, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana, Comp.; Bundy, Atticia, Comp.; Peoples, Abigail, Comp.

    In February 2000, the National Center for Homeless Education convened 25 experts to examine issues pertaining to the transportation of homeless students in a move to ensure their access to education. In a variety of presentations and discussions, participants examined and analyzed the complex issues surrounding transporting homeless students. The…

  10. Educational Experiences of Hidden Homeless Teenagers: Living Doubled-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Homeless youth face countless barriers that limit their ability to complete a high school diploma and transition to postsecondary education. Their experiences vary widely based on family, access to social services, and where they live. More than half of the 1.5 million homeless youth in America are in fact living "doubled-up," staying with family…

  11. Predictors of Social Network Composition among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…

  12. The role of social support in the acculturation and mental health of unaccompanied minor asylum seekers.

    PubMed

    Oppedal, Brit; Idsoe, Thormod

    2015-04-01

    There is a lack of knowledge about psychosocial resources that may sustain post-resettlement psychological adjustment among unaccompanied minor asylum-seekers. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of social support from family abroad and friends on acculturation, discrimination, and mental health among these vulnerable children and youth. Questionnaire data were collected from a population-based multi-ethnic sample involving 895 unaccompanied minors resettled in municipalities in all regions of the country. They met in groups in their local communities. The informants were on average 18.6 years, and had an average length of stay in Norway of 3.5 years. The findings showed that the participants suffered from high levels of ongoing war related intrusive symptoms and depression. Still, at the same time they engaged in adaptation processes that are normative to youth with immigrant backgrounds, in terms of constructing supportive networks and developing culture competence. In accordance with the main effect hypothesis, social support had direct effects on depression and indirect effects by increasing culture competence that may aid the young refugees in dealing with discrimination. However, there were no effects of social support on symptoms of PTSD. The findings give direction to areas of interventions, beyond dealing with the sequel of the traumas the unaccompanied minors have been exposed to, not only for clinicians, but also social workers and school personnel.

  13. A Comparison of Three Interventions for Homeless Youth Evidencing Substance Use Disorders: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Bantchevska, Denitza

    2015-01-01

    While research on homeless adolescents and young adults evidencing substance use disorder is increasing, there is a dearth of information regarding effective interventions, and more research is needed to guide those who serve this population. The current study builds upon prior research showing promising findings of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) (Slesnick, Prestopnik, Meyers, & Glassman, 2007). Homeless adolescents and young adults between the ages of 14 to 20 years were randomized to one of three theoretically distinct interventions: (1) CRA (n = 93), (2) Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET, n = 86), or (3) Case Management (CM, n = 91). The relative effectiveness of these interventions was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Findings indicated that substance use and associated problems were significantly reduced in all three interventions across time. Several moderating effects were found, especially for sex and history of childhood abuse. Findings show little evidence of superiority or inferiority of the three interventions and suggest that drop-in centers have choices for addressing the range of problems that these adolescents and young adults face. PMID:25736623

  14. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children: Whose Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernesjo, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen increasing attention being paid to unaccompanied asylum-seeking children. This article provides an overview of research in the field and its implications for an understanding of these children as a particularly vulnerable category. The existing research focuses primarily on investigating the children's emotional well-being…

  15. Repatriation and Reintegration of Unaccompanied Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migration World Magazine, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The international community must protect the rights of unaccompanied refugee children as they are repatriated or resettled into their own countries. The establishment of guidelines to ensure this and the creation of an independent watch group to monitor reintegration are recommended. (SLD)

  16. Emotional expressiveness and avoidance in narratives of unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Julia; Nelson, Kristin; Karnik, Niranjan; Völkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Seidel, Stefan; Ebner, Nina; Ryst, Erika; Friedrich, Max; Shaw, Richard J.; Realubit, Cassey; Steiner, Hans; Skala, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine a cohort of unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) by means of psycholinguistic methods in order to obtain a more subtle picture of their degree of traumatization. Methods Twenty-eight participants were included in the Stress-Inducing Speech Task (SIST) consisting of a free association (FA) and a stress (STR) condition. Narratives were examined by means of (1) quantitative parameters (word count); (2) psycholinguistic variables (temporal junctures, TJs), narrative structure, referential activity (RA)—a measure of emotional expressivity; and (3) content analysis ratings. Results Word count was significantly lower than in age-matched norms. In the FA condition, TJs were lower, but in the STR condition, rates were comparable. RA was significantly higher in both conditions. Content analysis ratings showed that the experiences described by these youths were potentially traumatic in nature. Conclusions This pattern of narrative shows a mixture of fulfilling the task demand, while containing an emotionally charged narrative. Narrative structure was absent in the FA condition, but preserved in the STR condition, as URMs struggled with the description of non-normative events. This indicates that these youths have not yet emotionally dealt with and fully integrated their trauma experiences. PMID:26955827

  17. Unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents: the glaring contrast between a legal and a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Derluyn, Ilse; Broekaert, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents are a vulnerable group: they live not only in a relatively difficult situation as minor refugees staying in another country, but also face other risks due to the absence of their parents, such as traumatic experiences, exploitation or abuse. The difficult living situation of these unaccompanied refugee children and adolescents might therefore threaten their emotional well-being, resulting in important emotional and behavioural problems. This 'psychological' perspective shows the necessity of a strongly elaborated reception and care system for these children and adolescents in order to meet their specific situation and needs. Nevertheless, the case study of unaccompanied refugee minors living in Belgium, as explored in this paper, shows that the legal perspective on these youths - considering them as 'refugees' and 'migrants', not as 'children' - is predominantly the starting point to build the care system on. Moreover, this legal perspective contrasts sharply with the psychological perspective, as such that these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate support and care as they need.

  18. Unaccompanied Personnel Housing. A Programming Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Outstanding Young Women of America. Major Pinkerton spent the last four years at the Pentagon working both military family housing and unaccompanied personnel...sections of the DD Form 1657 dealing with per- sonnel strenths. Then SV contacts the CE Military Family Housing (MPH office to obtain the family housing 1...strength figures annotated on the DD Form 1378. (2) The Civil Engineering Military Family Housing (MFH) Office will give you a copy of the most recent

  19. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  20. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  1. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  2. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  3. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  4. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  5. 19 CFR 148.114 - Shipment of unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipment of unaccompanied articles. 148.114 Section 148.114 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... States § 148.114 Shipment of unaccompanied articles. One copy of the validated Customs Form 255 shall...

  6. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written declaration for unaccompanied articles... of the United States § 148.111 Written declaration for unaccompanied articles. The baggage... covers articles which do not accompany him and: (a) The articles are entitled to free entry under the...

  7. Spaces of Trauma: Young People, Homelessness and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lucinda

    2012-01-01

    Little contemporary research has examined young people's experiences of violence and homelessness in detail within the Australian context. This article draws upon qualitative research with 33 homeless youth in Melbourne and seeks to enhance understanding of the impact of violence on young people. It argues that everyday experiences of violence…

  8. The Invisible Crisis: Connecting Schools with Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Carolyn M.; Warke, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth represent a growing proportion of the homeless population. Using the lens of transformative leadership, this multifamily case study explores the realities of homeless children, the challenges their families face, and the role of school leaders in ensuring that they receive a quality education. It recommends that leaders (1)…

  9. Pregnancy and Sexual Health among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of…

  10. Educating Homeless Children: Issues and Answers. Fastback 313.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Tenhouse, Cheri

    This publication summarizes issues relating to the education of homeless children and youth and reviews programs that are effective in the delivery of educational services to this population. The report is comprised of five sections. The first section, "Introduction," surveys factors contributing to homelessness and indicates the special…

  11. Pregnancy and Sexual Health Among Homeless Young Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hathazi, Dodi; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Research on pregnancy and sexual health among homeless youth is limited. In this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 41 homeless young injection drug users (IDUs) in Los Angeles with a history of pregnancy. The relationship between recent pregnancy outcomes, contraception practices, housing status, substance use, utilization of prenatal care, and histories of sexual victimization are described. A total of 81 lifetime pregnancies and 26 children were reported. Infrequent and ineffective use of contraception was common. While pregnancy motivated some homeless youth to establish housing, miscarriages and terminations were more frequent among youth who reported being housed. Widespread access to prenatal and medical services was reported during pregnancy, but utilization varied. Many women continued to use substances throughout pregnancy. Several youth reported childhood sexual abuse and sexual victimization while homeless. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity to encourage positive health behaviors in a high-risk population seldom seen in a clinical setting. PMID:18692891

  12. Access to Pre-K Education under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Pre-K Policy Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Ellen; Splansky, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The federal McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act ("McKinney-Vento") provides federal funding to states to address the problems that homeless children and youth encounter in enrolling, attending, and succeeding in the nation's public schools. McKinney-Vento requires states to develop plans that ensure homeless children and youth the…

  13. 24 CFR 91.100 - Consultation; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... children, veterans and their families, and unaccompanied youth) and persons at risk of homelessness, the... institutions and systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care...

  14. 24 CFR 91.100 - Consultation; local governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... children, veterans and their families, and unaccompanied youth) and persons at risk of homelessness, the... institutions and systems of care that may discharge persons into homelessness (such as health-care...

  15. 45 CFR 400.116 - Service for unaccompanied minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unaccompanied minors with the same range of child welfare benefits and services available in foster care cases to other children in the State. Allowable benefits and services may include foster care...

  16. 45 CFR 400.116 - Service for unaccompanied minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unaccompanied minors with the same range of child welfare benefits and services available in foster care cases to other children in the State. Allowable benefits and services may include foster care...

  17. 45 CFR 400.116 - Service for unaccompanied minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unaccompanied minors with the same range of child welfare benefits and services available in foster care cases to other children in the State. Allowable benefits and services may include foster care...

  18. 45 CFR 400.116 - Service for unaccompanied minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unaccompanied minors with the same range of child welfare benefits and services available in foster care cases to other children in the State. Allowable benefits and services may include foster care...

  19. 45 CFR 400.116 - Service for unaccompanied minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unaccompanied minors with the same range of child welfare benefits and services available in foster care cases to other children in the State. Allowable benefits and services may include foster care...

  20. 19 CFR 148.111 - Written declaration for unaccompanied articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Unaccompanied... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), or (b) The articles are noncommerical importations of limited value subject...

  1. Homelessness in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a theoretical and practical approach in defining the "problem" of homelessness in libraries. The author examines three fundamental problems on homelessness. The three fundamental questions are: (a) Who are the homeless? (b) Why are they homeless? (c) What are their information needs in libraries? These questions are important in…

  2. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Homeless Veterans programs), employment assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), transitional...needs of female veterans , whose numbers are increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could contribute to their risks of homelessness . They are... homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women with children. Veterans

  3. The Student Homelessness Crisis and the Role of School Psychology: Missed Opportunities, Room for Improvement, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Affecting more than 1 million youth, student homelessness is growing at an unprecedented rate in the United States. This is alarming because homeless students face significant barriers to their academic success and positive life outcomes. Unfortunately, despite the significant risks and challenges they face, homeless students often are overlooked…

  4. Increasing School Stability for Students Experiencing Homelessness: Overcoming Challenges to Providing Transportation to the School of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Diana; Barksdale, Katina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this monograph is to review the provisions of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act as related to the provision of transportation of homeless children and youth to their school of origin and provide recommendations for implementing the transportation mandate. The National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE) in 2003-2004…

  5. Unaccompanied Immigrant Minors: Where to Begin.

    PubMed

    Ciaccia, Kimberly A; John, Rita Marie

    2016-01-01

    The number of unaccompanied immigrant minors (UIMs) from Central America significantly increased in 2014. Nearly 50,000 children from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras crossed the United States-Mexico border in 2014, compared with 3,933 in 2011. Few resources exist to guide pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) in their care of UIM. The multifactorial reasons behind migration and the state of children's health in Central America provide insight into the needs of UIMs. Guidelines for similar groups such as foreign-born children and refugees offer direction for the health care considerations of UIMs. This article provides demographic information on UIMs, highlights the unique and challenging medical and mental health issues facing UIMs, and discusses the role of the PNP. A UIM's initial visit with a PNP serves as an opportunity to build trust through culturally competent, trauma-informed care, provide preventive care, assess for unmet health needs, and screen for mental health conditions.

  6. Understanding the Attainment of Stable Housing: A Seven-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Braciszewski, Jordan M.; Toro, Paul A.; Stout, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Stable housing provides a solid foundation for youth development, making it an essential topic of study among young homeless people. Although gains have been made in research with adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness, few longitudinal studies of this population exist, clouding the long-term housing outcome picture. The current study examined the course and risk factors for homelessness in a sample of 243 homeless adolescents followed over a seven-year period. The vast majority of youth returned to stable housing quickly; however, early experiences of homelessness, even at this young age, were observed to have a substantial negative impact on future housing. Participants from poorer neighborhoods and those identifying as ethnic minorities also took longer to achieve stable housing. The data suggest that family reunification interventions may serve this population well. Preparing youth for returning home may prevent subsequent homeless episodes, while also improving their overall functioning. PMID:26997683

  7. Helping the Homeless in School and out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holgersson-Shorter, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children can be hard to identify and even harder to help. But teachers can do a great deal to make sure that they do not fall through the cracks. Teachers of highly mobile students must develop the skills to make these children and youth feel welcome while quickly weaving them into classroom routines. They must rapidly assess new…

  8. 45 CFR 1351.19 - What additional information should an applicant or grantee have about a Runaway and Homeless...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... private gain for themselves or others, particularly those with whom they have family, business or other... AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES... consent of the youth and family. Youth served by a runaway and homeless youth project shall have the...

  9. Case report: manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy with an unaccompanied refugee minor girl

    PubMed Central

    Unterhitzenberger, Johanna; Rosner, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background There is uncertainty whether young traumatized refugees should be treated with culturally adapted psychotherapy or with an evidence-based western approach. As yet, empirical studies on culturally adapted treatments for unaccompanied young refugees in industrialized host countries are not available. Studies do, however, suggest that trauma-focused treatment is promising for this group. Objective We describe the treatment of an unaccompanied refugee minor girl with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who underwent manualized trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT; Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006). Methods A 17-year-old girl from East Africa, who came to Germany without a caregiver, was treated for PTSD resulting from several traumatic experiences and losses in her home country and while fleeing. She lived in a group home for adolescents. Baseline, post, and follow-up data are reported. Results The girl participated in 12 sessions of manualized TF-CBT. Her caregiver from the youth services received another 12 sessions in line with the treatment manual. Symptoms decreased in a clinically significant manner; at the end of the treatment, the girl was deemed to have recovered from PTSD. Treatment success remained stable over 6 months. Conclusions Manualized TF-CBT is feasible for young refugees without significant cultural adaptations. It can, however, be seen as culturally sensitive. PMID:26781638

  10. Sudanese Refugee Youth in Foster Care: The "Lost Boys" in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Laura; Baird, Diane; Johnson, Deborah J.; Lee, Robert E.; Luster, Tom; Rehagen, Christine

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the resettlement experiences of unaccompanied Sudanese refugee youth placed in foster care from the perspectives of the youth, foster parents, and agency caseworkers. Youth experienced considerable success. The challenges of adjusting to school and family life, however, suggest a need for funding to support more intensive…

  11. 76 FR 11254 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... the Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles (CBP Form 255). This request for comment is being made... Unaccompanied Articles. OMB Number: 1651-0030. Form Number: CBP Form 255. Abstract: CBP Form 255 is completed...

  12. 77 FR 76063 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland... the Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles (Form 3299). This request for comment is...: Title: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles OMB Number: 1651-0014 Form Number: Form...

  13. 76 FR 26302 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; Reunification Procedures for Unaccompanied Alien Children Description Following the passage of the 2002 Homeland... Resettlement (ORR), is charged with the care and placement of unaccompanied alien children in Federal custody... unaccompanied alien. Annual Burden Estimates Number of Average Instrument Number of responses per burden...

  14. Parenting while Being Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Williams, Reginald; Fields, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the dynamics of parenting while being in a homeless context. The mosaic of stressors involved in this homeless parenting process are explicated and discussed. In addition, resources and strategies that may support parenting are presented and discussed.

  15. Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumohl, Jim, Ed.

    This book about homelessness in the United States offers 16 chapters in three parts. Part 1, "History Definitions, and Causes," includes: (1) "Redefining the Cursed Word: A Historical Interpretation of American Homelessness" (Kim Hopper and Jim Baumohl); (2) "Homelessness: Definitions and Counts" (Martha R. Burt); (3)…

  16. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-31

    assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), transitional housing (Grant and Per Diem and Loan... homelessness . Another emerging issue is the needs of female veterans , whose numbers are increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could...male veterans to be single parents. Few homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women

  17. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-26

    homelessness . They are more likely to have experienced sexual abuse than women in the general population and are more likely than male veterans to be...single parents. Few homeless programs for veterans have the facilities to provide separate accommodations for women and women with children. Veterans ...23 Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program

  18. Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of homeless children in America has more than doubled. Educators, however, are still legally obligated to enroll and support them, because of the passage of the "No Child Left Behind" Act of 2001, which reauthorized the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. Although schools cannot solve homelessness,…

  19. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  20. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness.

  1. Substance dependency among homeless American Indians.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Susan; Vaughan, Margaret Mortensen

    2003-01-01

    Extensive qualitative research in the San Francisco Bay Area in California and in Tucson, Arizona, indicates strong associations between substance abuse and homelessness among American Indians. This article takes a comparative approach to describe and analyze precipitating factors and survival patterns of those who are both homeless and who suffer from substance dependency. Possible precipitating factors presented through case studies consider the complex interaction of childhood fostering or adoption into non-Native families, different types of involuntary institutionalization during youth, and the personal impact of accident, trauma and loss. Coping strategies and keys to survival are examined, including the role of the extended family and close friendships, American Indian and mainstream organizations that offer formal and informal services, the existence of anchor or key households, the helping relationships and sobriety groups among homeless individuals, spirituality, and cultural resiliency.

  2. Family and Child Homelessness. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide information about family and child homelessness and the need to address homelessness within the context of community development. The following sections are included: (1) "Family Homelessness" (Homelessness Information Exchange); (2) "A Report on the 1988 National Survey on Shelters for the Homeless"…

  3. Silencing Street Voices: The Demise of Federal Funding for Adult Education for the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabb, Sally S.

    1997-01-01

    Describes successful outcomes of the Travelers Aid programs for homeless people in Rhode Island--the Learning Center, Street Voices publications, and OASIS project for runaway youth. Discusses the potential impact of the termination of the federal Adult Education for the Homeless program. (SK)

  4. Homeless Adolescent Parents: HIV Risk, Family Structure and Individual Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Glebova, Tatiana; Glade, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined differences between homeless teenage fathers and mothers compared with nonparents. Overall, parents reported significantly more lifetime runaway episodes, more people growing up in their home, and reported higher lifetime HIV risk behaviors than did nonparents. Findings highlight the need for targeted prevention and intervention efforts for this subgroup of homeless youth. PMID:17046522

  5. Poor Parenting and Antisocial Behavior among Homeless Young Adults: Links to Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…

  6. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  7. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

  8. Factors Related to Educational Resilience among Sudanese Unaccompanied Minors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Meenal; Qin, Desiree Baolian; Bates, Laura; Luster, Tom; Saltarelli, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Educational resilience is defined as having successful outcomes in school despite the adversities one has faced in life. There is a dearth of research on a particularly high-risk group--unaccompanied refugee minors who are separated from their parents by war and lack the protection and advocacy provided by adult caretakers.…

  9. A Risk and Resilience Perspective on Unaccompanied Refugee Minors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cacciatore, Joanne; Klimek, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are a diverse and extremely vulnerable group served by social workers about whom there is little research. URMs enter the United States from many lands without parents or kin, often having experienced war and other traumatic events. Using a risk and resilience framework, we summarize the…

  10. Insecure Identities: Unaccompanied Minors as Refugees in Hamburg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and…

  11. Unaccompanied Refugee Minors; A Challenging Group to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Tammy; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Spinhoven, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM), like all adolescents, have the right to be able to develop emotionally and cognitively to their fullest potential in host countries (Article 6, Convention of the Rights of the Child, 1991). URM make up a very special and vulnerable population of young people under the age of 18 who have been separated from their…

  12. Predictors of depressive symptoms among resettled unaccompanied refugee minors.

    PubMed

    Seglem, Karoline B; Oppedal, Brit; Raeder, Sabine

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the level and predictors of depressive symptoms among unaccompanied refugee minors after resettlement in Norway. Participants (N = 414) were resettled in 26 municipalities from all regions of the country. The average length of resettlement time was 3.4 years. They originated from 33 different countries, mainly Afghanistan (n = 116), Somalia (n = 74), Sri Lanka (n = 41) and Iraq (n = 43). Participants completed a self-report questionnaire administered in groups. Findings show that unaccompanied minors are a high-risk group for mental health problems also after resettlement in a new country. A multilevel model predicting depressive symptoms from individual and contextual demographic factors indicated that, controlling for post-traumatic stress, females had more symptoms than males and Somalis had fewer symptoms than participants from other countries. Variation in symptom levels as a function of gender and ethnic background indicates that some groups may have inherent protective or vulnerability factors that need to be further studied to understand differences in psychosocial adaptation among unaccompanied minors. Further, findings imply that researchers, policy makers and mental health care workers need to expand their attention beyond the first phases of arrival of unaccompanied asylum seeking and refugee minors to the continuing experience of mental health problems after resettlement.

  13. Educating Transient Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on Educational Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald Edward

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth face many barriers that limit their ability to complete a high school diploma and transition to postsecondary education. The federal government passed the McKinney-Vento Act over 20 years ago to address issues of access to public education for homeless youth. The most recent reauthorization of the law expanded the definition of…

  14. The New Homelessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Barrett A.; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Wright, James D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘new homelessness’ has drawn sustained attention from scholars over the past three decades. Definitional inconsistencies and data limitations rendered early work during this period largely speculative in nature. Thanks to conceptual, theoretical, and methodological progress, however, the research literature now provides a fuller understanding of homelessness. Contributions by sociologists and other social scientists since the mid-1990s differentiate among types of homelessness, provide credible demographic estimates, and show how being homeless affects a person's life chances and coping strategies. Agreement also exists about the main macro- and micro-level causes of homelessness. Active lines of inquiry examine public, media, and governmental responses to the problem as well as homeless people's efforts to mobilize on their own behalf. Despite the obstacles faced when studying a stigmatized population marked by high turnover and weak anchors to place, recent investigations have significantly influenced homelessness policy. A greater emphasis on prevention should further strengthen the research-policy nexus. PMID:24910495

  15. Veterans and Homelessness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-29

    programs), employment assistance ( Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program and Compensated Work Therapy program), and transitional housing (Grant and Per...increasing. Women veterans face challenges that could contribute to their risks of homelessness . They are more likely to have experienced sexual trauma...than women in the general population and are more likely than male veterans to be single parents. Historically, few homeless programs for veterans have

  16. Southeast Asian Refugee Youth: An Annotated Bibliography. Southeast Asian Refugee Studies Occasional Papers. Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ruth E., Comp.; Hendricks, Glenn L., Comp.

    This annotated bibliography comprises books and articles on Southeast Asian refugee youth. It is divided into the following cross-referenced sections: (1) Adaptation and Acculturation; (2) Education; (3) Physical and Mental Health; (4) Unaccompanied Minors and Amerasian Youth; (5) Courtship and Marriage; (6) General Topics; (7) Journalism; and (8)…

  17. Barriers and facilitators to shelter utilization among homeless young adults.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yoonsook; Narendorf, Sarah C; Santa Maria, Diane; Bezette-Flores, Noel

    2015-12-01

    Rates of shelter use among homeless youth are low compared to use of other supportive services, yet research on barriers to shelter use has been conducted in limited regions, specifically in West Coast or Midwest cities. Additionally, while studies have generally focused on barriers to shelter use, studies on what might facilitate shelter use are lacking. This study explores barriers and facilitators to shelter use among homeless young adults from a large city in the Southwest region. Focus groups were conducted with a diverse sample of 49 homeless young adults ages 18-24. Drawing on models of health service use, findings were categorized into two domains--attitudinal and access. Themes related to attitudinal barriers include stigma/shame and self-reliance/pride. Attitudinal facilitators include the desire to extricate themselves from street life and turn their lives in a new direction. Access-related themes include barriers such as a lack of shelters and services available to meet the needs of youth, adverse shelter conditions, staff attitudes that are not acceptable to youth, restrictive shelter rules, restrictive definitions of homelessness, and a desire to differentiate themselves from older homeless individuals. Certain characteristics or circumstances (e.g., being pregnant), having supportive others, and shelters' ability to connect them to other services emerged as access facilitators to shelter use. Implications for policymakers, service providers, and future research are discussed.

  18. Predicting Homelessness among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Shah, Melissa Ford; Liu, Qinghua; Mark Eddy, J; Barkan, Susan; Marshall, David; Mancuso, David; Lucenko, Barbara; Huber, Alice

    2016-11-10

    This study examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after "aging out" of foster care. Using a state-level integrated administrative database, we identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. Initial bivariate analyses were conducted to assess the association between candidate predictive factors and an indicator of homelessness in a 12-month follow-up period. After deploying a stepwise regression process, the final logistic regression model included 15 predictive factors. Youth who were parents, who had recently experienced housing instability, or who were African American had approximately twice the odds of experiencing homelessness in the year after exiting foster care. In addition, youth who had experienced disrupted adoptions, had multiple foster care placements (especially in congregate care settings), or had been involved with the juvenile justice system were more likely to become homeless. In contrast, youth were less likely to experience homelessness if they had ever been placed with a relative while in foster care or had a high cumulative grade point average relative to their peers.

  19. Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…

  20. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah

    2014-01-01

    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  1. [Drawing, a tool to use with unaccompanied foreign minors].

    PubMed

    Touhami, Fatima; Minassian, Sevan; Radjack, Rahmeth; Moro, Marie Rose

    Supporting unaccompanied foreign minors requires a different clinical approach. These youngsters must be given individualised support to help them make the transition from exile and loss, to an existence as an individual, yet still a son or daughter. The drawing, as a transcultural and atemporal imprint, constitutes a tool enabling these young people to bring to the surface their unconscious thought processes, to exist and to come into being with dignity.

  2. Homelessness: A General Information Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homelessness Exchange, Washington, DC.

    This packet contains documents that provide general information about homelessness and the need for both Federal and local action to help the homeless people in America. Sections 1 and 2 contain the following articles released by the Homelessness Information Exchange: (1) "The Problem of Homelessness Nationwide"; and "Alternative Family Housing…

  3. Housing and Homelessness: A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Alliance to End Homelessness, Washington, DC.

    This report focuses on options for rehousing the individuals and families who are currently homeless in America, and on strategies for preventing homelessness of additional people. As many as 736,000 persons are estimated to be homeless on any given night, and between 1.3 million and 2 million different individuals may experience homelessness at…

  4. How to open and sustain a drop-in center for homeless youth⋆

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Garren, Rikki; Toviessi, Paula; Bantchevska, Denitza; Dashora, Pushpanjali

    2008-01-01

    Drop-in centers have the potential to facilitate engagement of homeless youth into treatment and back into the mainstream. However, little guidance was found in the literature regarding how to open and sustain a drop-in center for homeless youth. This paper offers such guidance, including information that may be useful for developing a change philosophy that guides the center structure, and for identifying a building and location conducive to facilitate activities and access for the youth. Guidance for structuring the drop-in center and for hiring and training staff is also offered. Since the U.S. suffers from a dearth of services for homeless youth, the direction offered in this paper may help guide those who seek to provide services to these vulnerable and underserved youth. PMID:18584064

  5. Intellectual Disability and Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, C.; Picard, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a…

  6. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People.

    PubMed

    Falci, Christina D; Whitbeck, Les B; Hoyt, Dan R; Rose, Trina

    2011-12-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over three years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer home ties, especially to parents, and a more rapid loss of emotional home ties over time. Homeless youth with major depression start out with small networks, but are more likely to maintain network ties. Youth with substance abuse problems are more likely to maintain instrumental home ties. Finally, homeless adolescents tend to reconnect with their parents for instrumental aid and form romantic relationship that provide emotional support.

  7. Homeless youth’s overwhelming health burden: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulik, Dina M; Gaetz, Stephen; Crowe, Cathy; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth (Lee)

    2011-01-01

    Homelessness has reached epidemic proportions in Canada. Canadian children and adolescents are the most vulnerable because youth comprise the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. A systematic literature review was undertaken using MEDLINE, Web of Science and the Homeless Hub (www.homelesshub.ca) to encompass the time frame from January 1990 to June 2009. The following terms were used as key words: ‘homelessness’, ‘homeless youth’, ‘poverty’, ‘street youth’ and ‘runaway’. The present review identified an intersection among education deficits, social service insufficiencies, and poor mental and physical health in homeless youth. Health care delivery to homeless youth was often nonanticipatory, inconsistent and perceived as discriminatory. However, street youth were identified as requiring health care for pregnancy, mental health concerns, sexually transmitted illnesses, respiratory conditions, substance abuse and a myriad of other illnesses. Plenty of work is still required to reduce health inequalities and improve the daily living conditions of Canadian youth living in poverty. PMID:22654549

  8. Transitions to Adulthood for Homeless Adolescents: Education and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.; Gupton, Jarrett T.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Education plays a critical role in how adolescents mature into adults. A vulnerable, and often forgotten, sub-population of the poor is homeless youth, for whom lack of a stable or adequate residence creates a unique set of educational barriers. The Center for Higher Education Policy Analysis (CHEPA) spent 18 months documenting the experiences of…

  9. 77 FR 58404 - Announcing the Award of Three Single-Source Program Expansion Supplement Grants to Unaccompanied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Expansion Supplement Grants to Unaccompanied Alien Children's Shelter Care Grantees AGENCY: Office of... single-source program expansion supplement grants from its Unaccompanied Alien Children's Program to two... will support services to unaccompanied alien children through September 30, 2012. The supplement...

  10. Ensuring Full Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities for Students Experiencing Homelessness. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Extra-curricular school activities, such as sports, music, theater, debate, and clubs, are often a key to engaging children and youth in school. They can provide students with a sense of belonging, stability, pride, and responsibility and strengthen a student's applications for higher education admission and scholarships. Homelessness, however,…

  11. Validation of the Teacher's Report Form for Teachers of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Tammy; Mooijaart, A.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Spinhoven, Philip

    2007-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Dutch Teacher's Report Form (TRF) for teachers of Unaccompanied Refugee Minors (URM) were evaluated in this study. The teachers (n = 486) that participated received a Dutch TRF to report on the mental health of the unaccompanied minor. Hierarchical confirmative factor analysis and individual confirmatory factor…

  12. Homeless "squeegee kids": food insecurity and daily survival.

    PubMed

    Dachner, Naomi; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2002-04-01

    Current knowledge about food insecurity in North America is largely based on research with low-income households. Much less is known about the food experiences of homeless people, a group who are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. This study explored the food experiences of street youth, one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in Canada. To gain an in-depth understanding of food insecurity within the context of daily life, ethnographic research was undertaken with street youth at one inner-city drop-in centre in Toronto, Canada. Results of this study reveal that street youth's access to food was precarious amidst the instability and chaos of street life. The day-to-day lives of the street youth encountered in this study were characterized by a constant struggle to find safe, secure shelter, generate income, and obtain sufficient food. In this context, food was a precious commodity. Food access was inextricably linked to and contingent upon conditions of health, shelter, and income. Food access was precarious since everyday food sources purchased food and charitable food assistance were ultimately insecure. "Squeegeeing" (washing car windows), the primary source of income for youth in the study, was dependent on the weather, political and public will, and youth's physical health, and thus did not generate enough money to continuously meet basic food needs. Charitable food assistance was considered poor quality and was associated with food sickness. The often unsavoury atmosphere of charitable food programmes, their locations, capacity, and idiosyncratic rules, policies, and hours of operation also affected access. Findings from this study extend the current understanding of food insecurity to homeless youth and offer insight into current responses to hunger and homelessness.

  13. Maltreatment and Victimization in Homeless Adolescents: Out of the Frying Pan and into the Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauce, Ana Mari; Tyler, Kimberly A.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    2004-01-01

    Homelessness among adolescents is a growing concern, with 1 to 1.5 million youths in any given year spending some period of time in emergency shelters or on the streets. These vulnerable youth have been found to exhibit a host of emotional and behavioral problems including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic reactions, drug and alcohol abuse, and…

  14. 20 CFR 668.430 - What individuals are eligible to receive supplemental youth services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... level appropriate to their age group; (4) Pregnant or parenting; (5) Have disabilities, including learning disabilities; (6) Homeless or runaway youth; (7) Offenders; or (8) Other eligible youth who...

  15. For Homeless Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... integrate clinical care, social services, enhanced access and community coordination. How They Work H-PACTS co-locate medical staff, social workers, mental health and substance use counselors, nurses and homeless program staff. This team provides Veterans ...

  16. Family Friends in Homeless Shelters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Aging, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Family Friends is a nationwide outreach program that enlists the support of senior volunteers in providing nurturing help to children and their parents. Homeless Children is a branch of the program in which volunteers are matched to homeless families with young children, and, during biweekly visits to homeless shelters, become surrogate…

  17. No Homeless Child Left behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Although it is difficult to determine the precise number of homeless children, the National Coalition for the Homeless reports that there are more than 1.3 million children lacking a permanent residence on any given night. Further, 39 percent of the homeless population was comprised of children under the age of 18 in July 2009, the most recent…

  18. What's Age Gotta Do with It? Understanding the Age-Identities and School-Going Practices of Mexican Immigrant Youth in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Recent reports of out-of-school immigrant youth have brought attention to predominantly Mexican and Central American immigrant youth who immigrate to the United States and do not enroll in formal schooling (Fry, 2002; Hill and Hayes, 2007). Many arrive to the United States unaccompanied, joining their older, undocumented counterparts in becoming…

  19. Confirming Eligibility for McKinney-Vento Services: Do's and Don'ts for Local Liaisons. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, schools must identify children and youth in homeless situations and provide appropriate services. One such service is immediate enrollment in school, even when students lack paperwork normally required for enrollment, such as school records, proof of guardianship, a birth certificate, immunization…

  20. Confirming Eligibility for McKinney-Vento Services: Do's and Don'ts for School Districts. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Under the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, schools must identify children and youth in homeless situations and provide appropriate services. One such service is immediate enrollment in school, even when students lack paperwork normally required for enrollment, such as school records, proof of guardianship, a birth certificate, immunization…

  1. Street youth and the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luna, G C; Rotheram-Borus, M J

    1992-01-01

    Children responsible for their own survival exist in all countries. Despite social and cultural differences between street youth in developing countries versus homeless youth in developed countries, the predictors and correlates of homelessness are similar among youth. The AIDS pandemic is inextricably linked to homelessness and is a particularly devastating threat to the welfare of the world's disenfranchised youth, as they are continually forced into multiple HIV-related high risk situations and behaviors. Specific recommendations regarding clinical care, prevention programs, research, and the implications for policy and legislative action are discussed in relation to reducing the incidences and impact of HIV. For the world's populations of street children the issue of globally providing AIDS education and prevention within the context of health care services is emphasized, particularly by the promotion and training of physicians and other health professionals in street-based care.

  2. Jobs, Welfare and Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einbinder, Susan; And Others

    This report provides objective information about the relationship of poverty, welfare, and homelessness to California's regional economy and about the design of programs that help people in poverty build working lives. California does not have enough jobs for its workforce, and welfare caseloads are consequently determined by the economy. The…

  3. [Health of the homeless].

    PubMed

    Cha, Olivier

    2013-02-01

    The homeless population is difficult to define and its number difficult to evaluate. In France, it is estimated that almost 4 million people living in substandard accommodation, and 85,000 homeless people. Most homeless people rarely frequent public spaces. One-third have a job, one-quarter live with children, and one-third are between 18 and 29 years old. Shared characteristics include a collapse of social ties and a complete lack of stable accommodation. There are no illnesses specific to homeless people, but their epidemiology differs from the general population: the incidence rate of tuberculosis is 30 times higher, for example. Medical care often arrives far too late. As a result, functional deficits are common, often following serious accidents, and hospitalization is three times more frequent. A chronic disease is present in 45% of cases. Average life expectancy is only 47.6 years-between 30 and 35 years lower than for the general French population. Medical care can only be fully effective if these patients' social and housing issues are dealt with too.

  4. Social networking technology, social network composition, and reductions in substance use among homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G; Monro, William

    2011-03-01

    Peer-based prevention programs for homeless youth are complicated by the potential for reinforcing high-risk behaviors among participants. The goal of this study is to understand how homeless youth could be linked to positive peers in prevention programming by understanding where in social and physical space positive peers for homeless youth are located, how these ties are associated with substance use, and the role of social networking technologies (e.g., internet and cell phones) in this process. Personal social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Los Angeles, CA. Respondents reported on composition of their social networks with respect to: home-based peers and parents (accessed via social networking technology; e.g., the internet, cell phone, texting), homeless peers and agency staff (accessed face-to-face) and whether or not network members were substance-using or non-substance-using. Associations between respondent's lifetime cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use and recent (previous 30 days) alcohol and marijuana use were assessed by the number of non-substance-using versus substance-using ties in multivariate linear regression models. 43% of adolescents reported a non-substance-using home-based tie. More of these ties were associated with less recent alcohol use. 62% of adolescents reported a substance-using homeless tie. More of these ties were associated with more recent marijuana use as well as more lifetime heroin and methamphetamine use. For homeless youth, who are physically disconnected from positive peers, social networking technologies can be used to facilitate the sorts of positive social ties that effective peer-based prevention programs require.

  5. Homeless Children and Youth Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Feinstein, Dianne [D-CA

    2014-07-24

    07/24/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4905-4906) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Homeless Children and Youth Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Stivers, Steve [R-OH-15

    2014-07-24

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Pastoral care and counseling with the "un-homeless homeless": understanding cultures of homelessness.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a subset of findings from a larger study exploring the lived experiences of 16 former residents of a 90-day emergency family shelter program in Los Angeles County. Interpretative phenomenological analysis serves as a qualitative method for understanding the cultural uniqueness of the "un-homeless homeless." The findings offer implications for culturally competent pastoral care and counseling in the context of family homelessness and attend to both the process and content of caregiving.

  8. Homelessness: An Annotated Bibliography of Australian Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Jenny, Comp.; Davis, Mari, Comp.

    This bibliography, compiled for the International Year of Shelter for the Homeless, lists Australian works published since 1974 about homelessness. It includes definitions of homelessness from the literature and an introductory article looking at different perspectives on homelessness. The entries, mainly taken from FAMILY database, are each…

  9. Homeless Students: A Search for Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Donna Friedman

    1998-01-01

    Describes a qualitative research project examining homelessness's effects on children's schooling, highlighting a South Carolina intervention program's success. Research disclosed an informal homelessness "caste system," the political unpopularity of providing homeless services, homeless kids' high rates of academic failure and problem…

  10. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  11. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  12. 24 CFR 576.405 - Homeless participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Homeless participation. 576.405... Homeless participation. (a) Unless the recipient is a State, the recipient must provide for the participation of not less than one homeless individual or formerly homeless individual on the board of...

  13. Can Better National Policy End Family Homelessness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Nan

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the close link between federal policy and family homelessness is critical for ensuring that one day no child in the United States is homeless. This article discusses the nature of family homelessness, the national policy framework that exists to help vulnerable families, the homeless assistance system that federal policy has…

  14. Patterns of attachment organization, social connectedness, and substance use in a sample of older homeless adolescents: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Seehafer, Margaret; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Steiker, Lori Holleran

    2008-01-01

    Social researchers continue to strive to understand the development and social decision-making processes of homeless adolescents. While it has been established that attachment is a salient factor with regard to childhood maltreatment and later psychosocial problems, there is a dearth of information on how homeless youths' thoughts and feelings about attachment may also be linked to behavioral risks including alcohol and substance use. This exploratory study examines older homeless adolescent's perspectives on attachment, trauma, and substance use via the semistructured Adult Attachment Interview and survey data. The findings illuminate the relationship between these factors and implications for future research and work with this population.

  15. Research on Homelessness: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Marybeth; Weitzman, Beth C.

    1990-01-01

    Introduces an issue on the causes, consequences, and social response to homelessness, with contributions by scholars in anthropology, history, medicine, sociology, economics, public administration, law, and psychology. Much attention has been given to the problems of homeless individuals; this issue attempts a comprehensive overview of the…

  16. The Homeless in Contemporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Richard D.; And Others

    This book consists of 15 chapters on understanding and helping the homeless. The first seven chapters present the "new" homeless in historical context and describe this population and its situation. The remaining eight chapters discuss policy and program options of the government and other organizations in attempting to alleviate the problems of…

  17. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  18. The Real Cost of Linking Homeless Young People to Employment, Education and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…

  19. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  20. Foster Care Placement, Poor Parenting, and Negative Outcomes among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…

  1. Child Abuse, Street Victimization, and Substance Use among Homeless Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…

  2. Advocating for the McKinney-Vento Homelessness Act: The Role of Professional Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Sandra I.; Peek, Sarah; Muhammad, Sharien; Gonder, Ty; Cook, Janice; Bolton, Jessica; Parrish, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Homeless youth in the United States is rapidly increasing with more children living in unstable or temporary environments. They may encounter difficulties meeting enrollment requirements, have poor attendance, low academic performance, and experience behavioral and emotional issues. The reauthorization of McKinney-Vento Act (MCKV) in 2002 was…

  3. On the Road: Examining Self-Representation and Discourses of Homelessness in Young Adult Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Theresa; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors analyze representations of social issues within contemporary memoirs written for and marketed to a young adult audience and multimodal zines produced by homeless youth. To read across these distinctly different texts (mass marketed and do-it-yourself cultural productions) and genres (memoir and zines), the authors…

  4. An Investigation of School Counselors' Efforts to Serve Students Who Are Homeless: The Role of Perceived Knowledge, Preparation, Advocacy Role, and Self-Efficacy to Their Involvement in Recommended Interventions and Partnership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaenzle, Stacey Anita

    2012-01-01

    With the array of challenges faced by children and youth who are homeless, approaches to support their needs must be systemic and involve partnerships with all key stakeholders. This study examined school counselors' involvement in partnership practices and interventions to meet the needs of students who are homeless. Further, this study explored…

  5. Preventing Family and Educational Disconnection through Wilderness-Based Therapy Targeting Youth at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…

  6. Serving Transgender Youth: The Role of Child Welfare Systems. Proceedings of a Colloquium, September 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCrescenzo, Teresa; Mallon, Gerald P.

    The need to respond to the concerns of transgender youth in care is compelling. Transgender youth, particularly those involved with the child welfare system, are often severely stereotyped and subject to abuse, homelessness, depression, and fear. The Child Welfare Leaguer of America convened a roundtable of professionals and transgender youth to…

  7. Serving Refugee Students and Unaccompanied Minors: More than Just Learning English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kasimu, Nakachi

    2015-01-01

    Unrest, crime, and poverty in Central America and other parts of the world have led to periodic migrations of unaccompanied children and young refugees into the United States. These children then enroll in U.S. schools--public education for all children, including undocumented children, is a right guaranteed by the 1982 "Plyler v. Doe"…

  8. [When time stops... Psychiatric reactions to deportation orders of unaccompanied children and teenagers seeking asylum].

    PubMed

    Christensen, A M; Lindskov, T

    2000-04-17

    Five cases of psychiatric disturbances in unaccompanied children who were refused political asylum are described. The children showed severe reactions with suicidal thoughts or psychosis, with a characteristic loss of perception of time during the long period of waiting for a decision. These children with severe reactions constituted a minority of the total who were refused asylum.

  9. Constructing "Deservingness": DREAMers and Central American Unaccompanied Children in the National Immigration Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez Huber, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing a Latina/o Critical Theory framework (LatCrit), I examine the narratives that emerged within national newsprint media coverage of DREAMers and Central American unaccompanied children. Data included 268 newspaper articles published during periods of heightened national media attention about DREAMers (96 articles) and Central American…

  10. 76 FR 51381 - Supplemental Awards to Seven Unaccompanied Alien Shelter Care Providers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Care Providers AGENCY: Office of Refugee Resettlement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: The Office of Refugee... Shelter Care Providers. CFDA Number: 93.676. Statutory Authority: Awards announced in this notice are... supplement grants to seven unaccompanied alien shelter care providers for a total of $5,016,218....

  11. 76 FR 27079 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 30.... SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security will...

  12. 78 FR 16521 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ..., Office of Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the OMB Desk Officer for U.S. Customs... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration for Free Entry of Unaccompanied Articles AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  13. Risk and Resilience for Psychological Distress amongst Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodes, Matthew; Jagdev, Daljit; Chandra, Navin; Cunniff, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the level of posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms, and background risk and protective factors that might increase or ameliorate this distress amongst unaccompanied asylum-seeking children and adolescents (UASC). Methods: Cross-sectional survey carried out in London. Participants were 78 UASC aged 13-18 years,…

  14. Homeless, and Often Sleepless Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homeless people are especially likely to suffer from insomnia, fatigue and lack of sleep, a new French study shows. "We believe that improving sleep deserves more attention in this vulnerable group," wrote the study authors, ...

  15. Homeless in God's Country: Coping Strategies and Felt Experiences of the Rural Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Timothy; DeJong, Cornell

    2010-01-01

    This study examines coping behaviors and felt experiences of homeless adults in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Data from in-depth interviews with 55 homeless adults reveal 5 general coping pattern groups: shelter users, campers, couch hoppers, mixed users, and circumstantial homeless. Homeless adults within each group experienced similar levels of…

  16. Homeless, Not Hopeless. An Informational Guide for School Personnel: Understanding and Educating Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Elli; Stauffer, Carol

    This guide explains how to educate homeless students within the public schools, focusing on the Saint Paul, Minnesota, public schools. Section 1 defines homelessness. Section 2 presents data on the increasing numbers of homeless students in the area. Section 3 describes common problems faced by homeless students, including family mobility,…

  17. 41 CFR 302-7.300 - When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage (UAB) shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.300 When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage...

  18. 41 CFR 302-7.300 - When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage (UAB) shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.300 When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage...

  19. Education for Homeless Adults: Strategies for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Workplace Preparation and Continuing Education.

    This instructional guide is intended for use by adult education teachers who deal with homeless students either on an occasional or an exclusive basis. An introduction defines homelessness, describes how education can help, and offers a mission statement. The second section focuses on what teachers of the homeless need. It defines categories of…

  20. Homelessness and Its Effects on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart-Shegos, Ellen

    Homelessness influences every facet of children's lives, inhibiting their physical, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral development. Homeless women face such obstacles to healthy pregnancies as chemical abuse, chronic health problems, and lack of prenatal care. Homeless infants are more likely to have low birth weights and are at greater…

  1. The Second Student-Run Homeless Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    From 1983-2011, the Harvard Square Homeless Shelter (HSHS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, was the only student-run homeless shelter in the United States. However, college students at Villanova, Temple, Drexel, the University of Pennsylvania, and Swarthmore drew upon the HSHS model to open their own student-run homeless shelter in Philadelphia,…

  2. The Paradox of Homelessness in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Schillmoeller, Susan

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the midst of relative prosperity. However, as the problem persists, the public may be becoming increasingly less compassionate to the homeless and annoyed by the problem. Although it is difficult to determine how many people are homeless, the most widely circulated estimate puts their number at about 600,000.…

  3. The Lonely and Homeless: Causes and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2004-01-01

    Both, homelessness and loneliness are quite pervasive in North America. This study compared the causes of the loneliness experienced by the homeless to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and five hundred and ninety five men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no questionnaire. The causes of…

  4. Pushed Out: America's Homeless. Thanksgiving 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    By winter 1987, up to three million men, women, and children will be homeless; the number of homeless persons will continue to increase at a rate of 25 percent. This report surveys the changes in the homeless population in the following 23 cities over the past year: Albuquerque (New Mexico), Atlanta (Georgia), Boston (Massachusetts), Chicago…

  5. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  6. 34 CFR 300.19 - Homeless children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Homeless children. 300.19 Section 300.19 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.19 Homeless children. Homeless children has...

  7. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  8. The impact of homelessness prevention programs on homelessness.

    PubMed

    Evans, William N; Sullivan, James X; Wallskog, Melanie

    2016-08-12

    Despite the prevalence of temporary financial assistance programs for those facing imminent homelessness, there is little evidence of their impact. Using data from Chicago from 2010 to 2012 (n = 4448), we demonstrate that the volatile nature of funding availability leads to good-as-random variation in the allocation of resources to individuals seeking assistance. To estimate impacts, we compare families that call when funds are available with those who call when they are not. We find that those calling when funding is available are 76% less likely to enter a homeless shelter. The per-person cost of averting homelessness through financial assistance is estimated as $10,300 and would be much less with better targeting of benefits to lower-income callers. The estimated benefits, not including many health benefits, exceed $20,000.

  9. When Working Together Works: Academic Success for Students in Out-of-Home Care. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Center for Homeless Education and the Legal Center for Foster Care and Education present this brief to help educators and child welfare advocates work together to support the academic success of children and youth in out-of-home care. The brief offers practical, proven strategies for implementing two federal laws collaboratively: The…

  10. Education Research on Homeless and Housed Children Living in Poverty: Comments on Masten, Fantuzzo, Herbers, and Voight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary on articles by Masten, Fantuzzo, Herbers, and Voight (and their colleagues) summarizes the findings of each study and discusses their respective contributions. The author of this comment relates his own experiences in conducting similar research with homeless and other low-income youths and reports lessons he has learned that can…

  11. Pathways to Homelessness among Older Homeless Adults: Results from the HOPE HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Goodman, Leah; Guzman, David; Tieu, Lina; Ponath, Claudia; Kushel, Margot B.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about pathways to homelessness among older adults. We identified life course experiences associated with earlier versus later onset of homelessness in older homeless adults and examined current health and functional status by age at first homelessness. We interviewed 350 homeless adults, aged 50 and older, recruited via population-based sampling. Participants reported age at first episode of adult homelessness and their life experiences during 3 time periods: childhood (<18 years), young adulthood (ages 18–25), and middle adulthood (ages 26–49). We used a structured modeling approach to identify experiences associated with first adult homelessness before age 50 versus at age 50 or older. Participants reported current health and functional status, including recent mental health and substance use problems. Older homeless adults who first became homeless before 50 had more adverse life experiences (i.e., mental health and substance use problems, imprisonment) and lower attainment of adult milestones (i.e., marriage, full-time employment) compared to individuals with later onset. After multivariable adjustment, adverse experiences were independently associated with experiencing a first episode of homelessness before age 50. Individuals who first became homeless before age 50 had higher prevalence of recent mental health and substance use problems and more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living. Life course experiences and current vulnerabilities of older homeless adults with first homelessness before age 50 differed from those with later onset of homelessness. Prevention and service interventions should be adapted to meet different needs. PMID:27163478

  12. Homelessness: Recent Statistics, Targeted Federal Programs, and Recent Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-31

    program; the Emergency Shelter Grants (ESG) program; the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP); the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV...12 Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12...Labor (DOL) Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program. (38 U.S.C. §2021) The Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) provides grants to states or

  13. Homelessness: Issues and Legislation in the 101st Congress. Updated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasem, Ruth Ellen

    This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental…

  14. Homelessness as culture: How transcultural nursing theory can assist caring for the homeless.

    PubMed

    Law, Kate; John, William

    2012-11-01

    The concepts of culture and homelessness are both complex and contested. This paper examines homelessness through the lens of transcultural nursing theory, increasing understanding of both homelessness and transcultural theory. We argue that homelessness can be usefully conceptualised as a culture and that the application of transcultural theory to caring for homeless people will add further to the utility of these theories. The application of transcultural theory can add to the repertoire of skills the nurse needs to care for not only homeless clients, but, for a diverse range of client groups.

  15. Community-based surveillance to monitor trends in unaccompanied and separated children in eastern DRC.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Beth L; Spencer, Craig; Mansourian, Hani; Noble, Eva; Munganga, Gustave B; Stark, Lindsay

    2015-12-01

    Children who are separated from their families and usual caregivers in emergencies face a multitude of risks. The humanitarian community lacks methods to systematically capture changes in the frequency and nature of such separations over time. A mobile phone-based community surveillance system was piloted in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The goal was to identify new cases of unaccompanied and separated children on a weekly basis. Over an 11-week period, community focal points reported 62 cases of separation across 10 communities. The majority of children had been under the care of their parents prior to separation. More than half of the children were unaccompanied, meaning that they were living without an adult relative or customary caregiver. The pilot results suggest that implementing a mobile phone-based surveillance system in a humanitarian setting may be feasible and cost-effective and fills a critical gap in the measurement of separated and unaccompanied children in emergencies. A longer pilot to better understand how the system performs over time is recommended.

  16. Psychopharmacologic Services for Homeless Veterans: Comparing Psychotropic Prescription Fills Among Homeless and Non-Homeless Veterans with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Eric; Rosenheck, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Using national Veterans Health Administration (VHA) administrative data, this study evaluated differences in psychotropic medication use between homeless and non-homeless adults with serious mental illness (SMI) who used VHA services in 2010. The adjusted mean number of psychotropic prescription fills associated with homeless individuals were identified using regression models adjusted for socio-demographics, diagnoses, and use of health services. Of the 876,989 individuals with SMI using VHA services, 7.2 % were homeless at some time during 2010. In bivariate analysis, homeless individuals filled more psychotropic medication prescriptions compared with non-homeless individuals. However, after adjusting for potentially confounding variables, homeless individuals were found to have filled 16.2 % fewer prescriptions than non-homeless individuals when all psychotropics were analyzed together (F = 6947.1, p < .001) and for most individual classes of psychotropics. Greater use of residential/inpatient mental health services by the homeless was the most important single factor associated with filling more psychotropic prescriptions than non-homeless individuals.

  17. Elderly Homeless Veterans in Los Angeles: Chronicity and Precipitants of Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; McGuire, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the characteristics of chronically homeless and acutely homeless elderly veterans to better understand precipitants of homelessness. Methods. We conducted interviews with 33 chronically and 26 acutely homeless veterans aged 65 years and older receiving transitional housing services in Los Angeles, California, between 2003 and 2005. We asked questions regarding their sociodemographic characteristics and other social status measures. Other precipitants of homelessness were acquired via observation and open-ended and structured questions. Results. Both veterans groups were more similar than different, with substantial levels of physical, psychiatric, and social impairment. They differed significantly in homelessness history, with chronically homeless veterans having more homelessness episodes and more total time homeless. They were also less educated and had smaller social networks. In response to open-ended questioning, elderly homeless veterans revealed how health and substance use issues interacted with loss of social support and eviction to exacerbate homelessness. Conclusions. Assessment of a range of factors is needed to address risk factors and events leading to homelessness. Further research with larger samples is needed to confirm the characteristics and needs of the elderly homeless veteran population. PMID:24148059

  18. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-06-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness.

  19. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-01-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness. PMID:12939894

  20. Homeless--And Doubled Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The bank foreclosed on your home because your parents divorced and don't have enough money to pay the mortgage. You're locked out of your house. Where will the family sleep? Most families turn to friends and relatives at times like these. That's why about 75 percent of the 1,258,182 homeless students in the United States live…

  1. The Homeless. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roleff, Tamara L., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of the problem of homelessness. According to a 1994 report by the U..S. Conference of Mayors, the number…

  2. Homelessness: The Foster Care Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Children and Poverty, New York, NY.

    Roughly 600,000 families are homeless today in America, while over 2.7 million children are in foster care or out-of-home placements. Few policymakers have examined these issues together, or understood that they are interrelated and must be addressed jointly to break the cycle of family disintegration, violence, and poverty. A recent survey by the…

  3. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  4. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  5. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  6. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse or domestic partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... partner does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... accompany you but travels unaccompanied at a different time, he/she will receive the same per diem rate...

  7. 41 CFR 302-4.204 - If my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem rate will he/she receive? 302-4.204 Section 302-4.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System... my spouse does not accompany me but travels unaccompanied at a different time, what per diem...

  8. Homelessness Outcome Reporting Normative Framework: Systems-Level Evaluation of Progress in Ending Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austen, Tyrone; Pauly, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Homelessness is a serious and growing issue. Evaluations of systemic-level changes are needed to determine progress in reducing or ending homelessness. The report card methodology is one means of systems-level assessment. Rather than solely establishing an enumeration, homelessness report cards can capture pertinent information about structural…

  9. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    HERBERT, CLAIRE W.; MORENOFF, JEFFREY D.; HARDING, DAVID J.

    2016-01-01

    The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports. PMID:26913294

  10. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  11. Can't Do It Alone: Housing Collaborations to Improve Foster Youth Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choca, Miryam J.; Minoff, Jedediah; Angene, Lyn; Byrnes, Michele; Kenneally, Lois; Norris, DeWayne; Pearn, Deanne; Rivers, Marina M.

    2004-01-01

    Research documents that youth transitioning out of the foster care system experience a variety of negative outcomes, including homelessness. Housing collaborations, which aim to comprehensively address resource and service needs for transitioning youth, including permanent connections, education, and employment, have resulted in innovative…

  12. Unaccompanied Children at the United States Border, a Human Rights Crisis that can be Addressed with Policy Change.

    PubMed

    Ataiants, Janna; Cohen, Chari; Riley, Amy Henderson; Tellez Lieberman, Jamile; Reidy, Mary Clare; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-08

    In recent years, unaccompanied minors have been journeying to the United States (U.S.)-Mexico border in great numbers in order to escape violence, poverty and exploitation in their home countries. Yet, unaccompanied children attempting to cross the United States border face treatment at the hands of government representatives which violates their inherent rights as children. The result is a human rights crisis that has severe health consequences for the children. Their rights as children are clearly delineated in various, international human rights documents which merit increased understanding of and recognition by the U.S. government. This paper calls for the improvement of policies and procedures for addressing the rights of unaccompanied immigrant children; it provides specific, rights-based recommendations which work together to safeguard the rights of the child at the U.S. southwestern border.

  13. Risk Factors for Homelessness Among US Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans. PMID:25595171

  14. Addressing the Needs of Homeless Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews studies on the plight and needs of homeless students. Includes reports on family mobility and school attendance, dysfunctional families, and school intervention strategies. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  15. Geriatric Homelessness: Association with Emergency Department Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hategan, Ana; Tisi, Daniel; Abdurrahman, Mariam; Bourgeois, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeless adults frequently use emergency departments (EDs), yet previous studies investigating ED utilization by the older segment received little attention. This study sought to characterize older homeless adults who utilized local urban EDs. Methods ED encounters at three hospitals in Hamilton (Ont.) were analyzed, and demographic and clinical characteristics of the older homeless (age > 50) vs. younger counterparts (age ≤ 50) were compared during a 24-month period. Results Of all adults, 1,330 were homeless, of whom 66% were above age 50. Older homeless adults sought less acute care within 30 days from an index visit compared with their younger counterparts. Non-acute illnesses constituted only 18% of triaged cases. Older homeless women with access to a primary care physician (PCP) were 3.3 times more likely to return to ED within 30 days, whereas older homeless men (irrespective of PCP access) were less likely to return to ED. Conclusions Despite high homeless patient acuity, a lesser number of ED visits with increasing age remains concerning because of previously reported high morbidity and mortality rates. Access to primary care may not be enough to reduce ED utilization. Further research is needed to evaluate acute care interventions and their effectiveness in ED, and to identify homeless patients requiring more targeted services. PMID:28050223

  16. Risk factors for homelessness among US veterans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this is the first systematic review to summarize research on risk factors for homelessness among US veterans and to evaluate the evidence for these risk factors. Thirty-one studies published from 1987 to 2014 were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous studies, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors. There was some evidence that social isolation, adverse childhood experiences, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless adults. More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed. This review identifies substance use disorders, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans.

  17. Pellagra in 2 homeless men.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, S G

    2001-03-01

    Pellagra is a nutritional disease with cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. Because of the diversity of pellagra's signs and symptoms, diagnosis is difficult without an appropriate index of suspicion. Untreated, pellagra is fatal. Two cases of pellagra in contemporary homeless people are described. Complete evaluation supported a clinical diagnosis of pellagra after exclusion of other possibilities. Signs and symptoms resolved after institution of niacin therapy and change in diet. Appropriate suspicion for a diagnosis of pellagra requires attention to a combination of socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for nutritional deficiency. The combination of homelessness, alcohol abuse, and failure to eat regularly--particularly, failure to make use of shelter-based meal programs--may identify people at special risk in contemporary settings.

  18. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed.

  19. Surveillance for parasites in unaccompanied minor refugees migrating to Germany in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Heudorf, Ursel; Karathana, Maria; Krackhardt, Bernhard; Huber, Meike; Raupp, Peter; Zinn, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, most of the refugees arriving in Germany originated from countries with poor hygienic and sanitary conditions. Stool samples of 1,230 minor refugees unaccompanied by adults were investigated for possible parasites. Giardia lamblia was by far the most frequently detected parasite (n=165); all other parasites were considerably less frequent and encountered in the following order: Hymenolepis nana (n=23), Entamoeba histolytica (n=17), Trichuris trichiura (n=8), and Blastocystis hominis (n=1). Ascaris lumbricoides was not detected among any of the screened refugees. Considerable differences in prevalence rates in refugees originating from different countries could be observed. PMID:26958459

  20. Pharmaceutical research involving the homeless.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Jennings, Bruce; Kinney, Eleanor D; Levine, Robert J

    2002-10-01

    Discussions of research involving vulnerable populations have left the homeless comparatively ignored. Participation by these subjects in drug studies has the potential to be upsetting, inconvenient, or unpleasant. Participation occasionally produces injury, health emergencies, and chronic health problems. Nonetheless, no ethical justification exists for the categorical exclusion of homeless persons from research. The appropriate framework for informed consent for these subjects of pharmaceutical research is not a single event of oral or written consent, but a multi-staged arrangement of disclosure, dialogue, and permission-giving. Payments and other rewards in biomedical research raise issues of whether it is ethical to offer inducements to the homeless in exchange for participation in drug studies. Such inducements can influence desperate persons who are seriously lacking in resources. The key is to strike a balance between a rate of payment high enough that it does not exploit subjects by underpayment and low enough that it does not create an irresistible inducement. This proposal does not underestimate the risks of research, which are often overestimated and need to be appraised in light of the relevant empirical literature.

  1. Florida's Adult Homeless Literacy Training & Basic Skills Assistance Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    Some facts about the homeless population in Florida are the following: (1) 40,000 persons in Florida are homeless on any given day, with 40 percent of the total being families; (2) 65 percent are new homeless (not chronic); (3) 30 percent of the homeless are addicted to drugs or alcohol and 20 percent are mentally ill; (4) causes of homelessness…

  2. Over the Edge: Homeless Families and the Welfare System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.

    Homelessness among families is quickly reaching crisis proportions across the country. Over 30 percent of America's three million homeless people are members of families, and families are the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Perhaps more disturbing, homelessness represents only the most extreme manifestation of a more…

  3. 24 CFR 576.56 - Homeless assistance and participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeless assistance and... HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.56 Homeless assistance and participation. (a) Assistance. (1) Grantees and recipients must assure that homeless individuals and families are given...

  4. 24 CFR 576.56 - Homeless assistance and participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Homeless assistance and... HOMELESS ASSISTANCE ACT Program Requirements § 576.56 Homeless assistance and participation. (a) Assistance. (1) Grantees and recipients must assure that homeless individuals and families are given...

  5. Who Is Doing Well? A Typology of Newly Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Norweeta; Liang, Li-Jung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Rosenthal, Doreen; Mallett, Shelley; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Lester, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support developing new typologies for homeless adolescents. Current typologies focus on the risks associated with being homeless, with less consideration of the positive attributes of homeless adolescents. The authors examined both risk and protective factors in a sample of newly homeless adolescents. Using cluster…

  6. Shelters for Houseless Youth: A Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekel, Rachel; Peled, Einat; Spiro, Shimon E.

    2003-01-01

    Follows Israeli youngsters who had been residents of shelters for runaway and homeless youths. A majority of the youngsters had either returned to their family homes, or had been placed out of home. Post-shelter place of residence was related to length of stay at the shelter, amount of contact with their family while at the shelter, and manner of…

  7. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  8. Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

  9. Measuring pain in the context of homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Rebecca; Kline, Susan; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to inform the development of measures of pain impact appropriate for all respondents, including homeless individuals, so that they can be used in clinical research and practice. The secondary objective was to increase understanding about the unique experience of homeless people with pain. Methods Seventeen homeless individuals with chronic health conditions (often associated with pain) participated in cognitive interviews to test the functioning of 56 pain measurement items and provided information about their experience living with and accessing treatment for pain. Results The most common problems identified with items were that they lacked clarity or were irrelevant in the context of homelessness. Items that were unclear, irrelevant and/or had other identified problems made it difficult for participants to respond. Participants also described multiple ways in which their pain was exacerbated by conditions of homelessness and identified barriers to accessing appropriate treatment. Conclusions Results suggested that the majority of items were problematic for the homeless and require substantial modifications to make the pain impact bank relevant to this population. Additional recommendations include involving homeless in future item bank development, conducting research on the topic of pain and homelessness, and using cognitive interviewing in other types of health disparities research. PMID:19582592

  10. Perceptions about Homeless Elders and Community Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane; Jacobs, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Human service students were surveyed ("N" = 207) to determine their perceptions about homeless elders and communal responsibility for their well-being. Using a backward regression analysis, a final model ("F" = 15.617, "df" = 7, "p" < 0.001) for Perceptions about Homeless Persons and Community…

  11. The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…

  12. Intervention Strategies with the Homeless Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    A literature review describing psychological and sociological factors of homelessness. Methods of estimating the frequency of homelessness are described, along with recent point-in-time and period-of-time estimates. Models of service delivery are reviewed. A biopsychosocial model of intervention is proposed that describes stages of intervention…

  13. Spirituality and Mental Health among Homeless Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…

  14. Working to End Family Homelessness. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Family Homelessness (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Center on Family Homelessness is determined to end family homelessness. Sheltering families provides a temporary safe haven. Connecting families to permanent housing, essential services, and critical supports can change their lives forever. Through research the Center learns what families need to rebound from the housing, economic,…

  15. The challenges of the homeless haemophilia patient.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L

    2013-07-01

    The current economic hardships within the United States can increase the risk of persons becoming homeless. In 2001, it was estimated that between 0.1% and 2.1% of the population were homeless every night and that 2.3 - 3.5 million persons could become homeless every year [1]. Many issues can increase the risk of homelessness including: home foreclosure, declining work force due to declining wages, low-wage opportunities and less secure jobs, decline in public assistance, lack of affordable housing with limited housing assistance programs, poverty, lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Many on the streets may suffer from mental illness, developmental disabilities, and or chronic physical illness [6]. Given these issues, the Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) can expect to experience the issue of homelessness within their own population of persons with hemophilia. Currently, there are no studies that address the issue of the person with hemophilia who may become homeless. This presents unique challenges that this population may encounter to survive in addition to managing bleeding issues related to the diagnosis of hemophilia. This article will review the issues related to homelessness in the general population. Two case studies of persons with hemophilia who became homeless will be discussed outlining the strategies utilized to assist the patient during this crisis.

  16. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  17. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2…

  18. A systematic review of cognitive functioning among young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty.

    PubMed

    Fry, Charlotte E; Langley, Kate; Shelton, Katherine H

    2016-09-01

    Young people who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty are among the most disadvantaged in society. This review examines whether young people who have these experiences differ from their non-disadvantaged peers with respect to their cognitive skills and abilities, and whether cognitive profiles differ between these three groups. Three electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published between 1 January 1995 and 1 February 2015 on cognitive functioning among young people aged 15 to 24 years who have experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. Articles were screened using pre-determined inclusion criteria, then the data were extracted, and its quality assessed. A total of 31 studies were included. Compared to non-disadvantaged youth or published norms, cognitive performance was generally found to be impaired in young people who had experienced homelessness, foster care, or poverty. A common area of difficulty across all groups is working memory. General cognitive functioning, attention, and executive function deficits are shared by the homeless and poverty groups. Creativity emerges as a potential strength for homeless young people. The cognitive functioning of young people with experiences of impermanent housing and poverty has been relatively neglected and more research is needed to further establish cognitive profiles and replicate the findings reviewed here. As some aspects of cognitive functioning may show improvement with training, these could represent a target for intervention.

  19. Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan.

    PubMed

    Viwatpanich, Kanvee

    2015-03-01

    The combination between quantitative and qualitative research, "Homelessness among the Elderly in Bangkok Metropolitan" aimed to study causes of homelessness, patterns of living, problems, health status, social and health needs. Purposive sampling of 60 older homeless people could be divided into two groups; temporary and permanent homeless. Causes of homelessness were health problems, money problems, family background, emotional management, cultural sensitivities, limitation of extended family, financial management, political control, and domestic violence. Their living problems included:financial insecurity, police suppression, social and medical services, attacks from the young generations, sexual harassment, stealing, and social hierarchy of homelessness. 63.3% reported having hearing problems and a peptic ulcer before becoming homeless. These evolved into musculo-skeletal problems, accident-injuries, and skin diseases. 95% performed ADL/IADLs independently, 78.3% were depressed, 5% diagnosed with severe stress depression. 70% rated themselves happier than the rest ofthe population, and 75% were identified as having normal cognition. 58.3% had a good relationship with a religious network, 55% still had some contacts with theirfamily members. More than 90% indicated that they were satisfied, could sustainin a life on the street, were happy with theirfreedom, liked being close to green areas, learned about human life,fulfilled the dhamma, and felt close to the king.

  20. Risk factors associated with recurrent homelessness after a first homeless episode.

    PubMed

    McQuistion, Hunter L; Gorroochurn, Prakash; Hsu, Eustace; Caton, Carol L M

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol and drug use are commonly associated with the experience of homelessness. In order to better understand this, we explored the prevalence of drug and alcohol use as it related to successful re-housing within a sample of first-time single homeless adults at municipal shelters. From within this sample, we compared the features of recurrent homelessness with those of chronic homelessness and of being stably housed. We interviewed 344 subjects upon shelter entry and followed each one every six months for 18 months using standardized social and mental health measures. We analyzed baseline assessments relative to housing experiences during follow-up using Chi square and multinomial logistic regression. Eighty-one percent (N = 278) obtained housing over 18 months, of which 23.7 % (N = 66) experienced homelessness again. Recurrent homelessness was more common among those with a high school education and if initially re-housed with family. Bivariate analysis resulted in the observation of the highest rate of alcohol and other drug use among this recurrent group and multinomial logistic regression supported this only with the coupling of arrest history and diagnosed antisocial personality disorder. With relatively high rates of recurrent homelessness, there were differences between subjects who experienced recurrent homelessness compared to those who were stably housed and with chronic homelessness. That alcohol and other substance use disorders were associated with recurrent homelessness only if they were linked to other risk factors highlights the complexity of causes for homelessness and a resultant need to organize them into constellations of causal risk factors. Consistent with this, there should be initiatives that span bureaucratic boundaries so as to flexibly meet multiple complex service needs, thus improving outcomes concerning episodes of recurrent homelessness.

  1. Hurricane Sandy's impact on the predisaster homeless and homeless shelter services in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Settembrino, Marc R

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there is little research on how people experiencing homelessness prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Existing emergency management literature does not provide an understanding of how disasters affect homeless shelter services. The present study seeks to fill these gaps by examining how Hurricane Sandy impacted homeless shelters and their guests in New Jersey. Presenting findings from ethnographic research in Atlantic City and Hoboken, this study identifies several areas in which homeless shelters and their guests may be able to assist in emergency response and disaster recovery such as preparing meals for victims, sorting and processing donated items, and assisting victims in filing for emergency assistance.

  2. Forget Me Not, 2000. Help Homeless Kids Blossom: Kids' Day on Capitol Hill. Educational Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Better Homes Fund, Newton, MA.

    This packet presents educational materials to help teachers, students, and parents understand homelessness. Section 1, "America's Homeless Children: Educational Information for Students, Teachers, and Parents," discusses what it is like to be homeless, how many children are homeless, how homelessness is harmful, how children become homeless, and…

  3. Larkin Street Youth Services: helping kids get off the street for good (1982-2007).

    PubMed

    Farrar, Loren; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Larkin Street Youth Services is a pioneering nonprofit organization that was established in 1981 to serve the growing urban homeless and runaway youth population. What began as a neighborhood effort has evolved into a $12 million organization over the course of its 25-year history. Larkin Street Youth Services delivers a continuum of services to homeless youth including counseling, housing, education, employment, and HIV services. The agency has received significant local and national attention for the success of its targeted program model and continuum of care services. The history of Larkin Street Youth Services provides an example of the important role of internal operations in an agency's ability to re-invent itself and respond to a larger community need.

  4. Parenting and homelessness: overview and introduction to the Special Section.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Kristen; Bassuk, Ellen L

    2009-07-01

    This overview of parenting and homelessness includes the characteristics and needs of families who are homeless, with a focus on the unique challenges faced by mothers, fathers, and children. In addition, the authors discuss how homeless families are narrowly defined based on the family members who present at shelters and other service programs. In order to fully support parents and their children as they exit homelessness, homeless service programs should consider the broader context of the nontraditional family system and support networks. The overview also includes common challenges to parenting while homeless, a summary of the articles in the Special Section, and recommendations for research, practice, and policy.

  5. [The health situation and health care needs of unaccompanied minor refugees - an approximation based on qualitative and quantitative studies from Bielefeld, Germany].

    PubMed

    Spallek, Jacob; Tempes, Jana; Ricksgers, Hannah; Marquardt, Louisa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Krämer, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Unaccompanied minor refugees are children or adolescents below the age of 18 years who are not accompanied by their parents. International studies show that unaccompanied minor refugees represent a special risk group. Currently, empirical study results about the health status of unaccompanied minor refugees barely exist for Germany. Therefore, the goal of this article is an assessment of the health status and health care of unaccompanied minor refugees in Bielefeld, Germany. For this purpose, two qualitative studies and one quantitative study from Bielefeld are used.Results demonstrate that the health care of unaccompanied minor refugees underlies certain peculiarities that indicate major medical needs: Firstly, the need for psychological/psychiatric care and secondly the need for health care regarding infectious diseases. Further challenges in the health care needs of this population group result from its specific situation, and comprise legal conditions, as well as language and cultural competencies on behalf of the health care providers and the unaccompanied minor refugees themselves.

  6. The mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors on arrival in the host country.

    PubMed

    Vervliet, Marianne; Meyer Demott, Melinda A; Jakobsen, Marianne; Broekaert, Eric; Heir, Trond; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-02-01

    Despite increasing numbers of unaccompanied refugee minors (UM) in Europe and heightened concerns for this group, research on their mental health has seldom included the factor "time since arrival." As a result, our knowledge of the mental health statuses of UM at specific points in time and over periods in their resettlement trajectories in European host countries is limited. This study therefore examined the mental health of UM shortly after their arrival in Norway (n = 204) and Belgium (n = 103) through the use of self-report questionnaires (HSCL-37A, SLE, RATS, HTQ). High prevalence scores of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were found. In addition, particular associations were found with the number of traumatic events the UM reported. The results indicate that all UM have high support needs on arrival in the host country. Longitudinal studies following up patterns of continuity and change in their mental health during their trajectories in the host country are necessary.

  7. Intonation in unaccompanied singing: accuracy, drift, and a model of reference pitch memory.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Matthias; Frieler, Klaus; Dixon, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation and intonation drift in unaccompanied singing, and proposes a simple model of reference pitch memory that accounts for many of the effects observed. Singing experiments were conducted with 24 singers of varying ability under three conditions (Normal, Masked, Imagined). Over the duration of a recording, ∼50 s, a median absolute intonation drift of 11 cents was observed. While smaller than the median note error (19 cents), drift was significant in 22% of recordings. Drift magnitude did not correlate with other measures of singing accuracy, singing experience, or the presence of conditions tested. Furthermore, it is shown that neither a static intonation memory model nor a memoryless interval-based intonation model can account for the accuracy and drift behavior observed. The proposed causal model provides a better explanation as it treats the reference pitch as a changing latent variable.

  8. The homeless: help from hotels and restaurants.

    PubMed

    Hales, A; Eyster, J J; Ford, J L

    1993-07-01

    Specific examples and information are given to service providers to address the needs of homeless people. Together nurses and restaurant and hotel managers combined their expertise to assist local agencies in their community kitchens and shelters.

  9. Unsheltered Homelessness Among Veterans: Correlates and Profiles.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Thomas; Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Fargo, Jamison D

    2016-02-01

    We identified correlates of unsheltered status among Veterans experiencing homelessness and described distinct subgroups within the unsheltered homeless Veteran population using data from a screening instrument for homelessness that is administered to all Veterans accessing outpatient care at a Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility. Correlates of unsheltered homelessness included male gender, white race, older age, lower levels of VHA eligibility, substance use disorders, frequent use of VHA inpatient and infrequent use of VHA outpatient services, and residing in the West. We identified six distinct subgroups of unsheltered Veterans; the tri-morbid frequent users represented the highest need group, but the largest group was comprised of Veterans who made highly infrequent use of VHA healthcare services. Differences between sheltered and unsheltered Veterans and heterogeneity within the unsheltered Veteran population should be considered in targeting housing and other interventions.

  10. Health care for homeless veterans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-08-23

    This final rule establishes regulations for contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The HCHV program assists certain homeless veterans in obtaining treatment from non-VA community-based providers. The final rule formalizes VA's policies and procedures in connection with this program and clarifies that veterans with substance use disorders may qualify for the program.

  11. Illness narratives of people who are homeless.

    PubMed

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and "freedom" in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets.

  12. Illness narratives of people who are homeless

    PubMed Central

    Håkanson, Cecilia; Öhlén, Joakim

    2016-01-01

    Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs. The findings revealed experiences of illness embedded in narratives about falling ill, being ill, and the future. The particularity of these illness narratives and the way that they are shaped by homelessness give rise to several observations: the necessity of a capable body for survival; chaos and profound solitude in illness and self-care management; ambiguous feelings about receiving care, transitioning from independence, and “freedom” in the streets to dependency and being institutionalized; and finally, the absence of hope and desire for recovery or a better future. The narratives are discussed from the perspective of Frank's four types of illness stories (restitution, chaos, quest, and testimony). The findings stress that to provide appropriate care and support to people who are homeless and have multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions, health care professionals need to be informed both about the individual's biography and about the circumstances under which illness and self-care takes place in the streets. PMID:27914194

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  16. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.1200 - How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? 102-75.1200 Section 102-75... Assist the Homeless Application Process § 102-75.1200 How may representatives of the homeless apply for the use of properties to assist the homeless? (a) Holding period. (1) Properties published...

  18. Water, sanitation and hygiene for homeless people.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Walters, Vicky; Gaillard, J C; Hridi, Sanjida Marium; McSherry, Alice

    2016-02-01

    This short communication provides insights into water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) for homeless people through a scoping study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It investigates homeless access to WASH through the lens of a rights-based approach. It demonstrates that homeless people's denial of their right to WASH reflects their marginal position in society and an unequal distribution of power and opportunities. The study ultimately suggests a rights-based approach to work toward dealing with the root causes of discrimination and marginalisation rather than just the symptoms. For the homeless, who not only lack substantive rights, but also the means through which to claim their rights, an integrated rights-based approach to WASH offers the possibility for social inclusion and significant improvements in their life conditions. Given the unique deprivation of homelessness it is argued that in addressing the lack of access to adequate WASH for homeless people the immediate goal should be the fulfilment and protection of the right to adequate shelter.

  19. Who Are Homeless Families? A Profile of Homelessness in New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homes for the Homeless, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document presents results of a survey involving 400 homeless families on a number of social and economic factors, including family structure, housing history, employment background, educational attainment, and various interpersonal problems. The study sought to gain a greater understanding of the demographics surrounding homelessness.…

  20. From Homelessness to Community: Psychological Integration of Women Who Have Experienced Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemiroff, Rebecca; Aubry, Tim; Klodawsky, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined psychological integration of women who were homeless at the study's outset. Participants (N = 101) were recruited at homeless shelters and participated in 2 in-person interviews, approximately 2 years apart. A predictive model identifying factors associated with having a psychological sense of community within…

  1. Youth Helping Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James S.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the evaluation of a suburban hotline. Among its foci is the interrelationship between the growth and development of a core group of youthful phone aides and that of the organization as a whole. (Author/AM)

  2. Runaway and Homeless Youth Inclusion Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Moore, Gwen [D-WI-4

    2013-08-01

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Youth Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  4. Notes from the field: hospitalizations for respiratory disease among unaccompanied children from Central America - multiple States, June-July 2014.

    PubMed

    Nyangoma, Edith N; Arriola, Carmen Sofia; Hagan, Jose; Socias, Christina; Tomczyk, Sara; Watkins, Louise Francois; Westercamp, Matthew; Kim, Curi

    2014-08-15

    During October 2013-June 2014, approximately 54,000 unaccompanied children, mostly from the Central American countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, were identified attempting entry into the United States from Mexico, exceeding numbers reported in previous years. Once identified in the United States, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, processes the unaccompanied children and transfers them to the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR), an office of the Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. ORR cares for the children in shelters until they can be released to a sponsor, typically a parent or relative, who can care for the child while their immigration case is processed. In June 2014, in response to the increased number of unaccompanied children, U.S. Customs and Border Protection expanded operations to accommodate children at a processing center in Nogales, Arizona. ORR, together with the U.S. Department of Defense, opened additional large temporary shelters for the children at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas; U.S. Army Garrison Ft. Sill, Oklahoma; and Naval Base Ventura County, California.

  5. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children’s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers’ and Police Officers’ Health and Job Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children who are due for forced repatriation. In addition, the role of psychosocial job characteristics in such relationships was investigated. A questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics, the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, and the 12-item General Mental Health Questionnaire were distributed nationally. Univariate and multivariable regression models were used. Poorer mental health was associated with working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children among social workers but not among police officers. Psychological job demand was a significant predictor for general mental health among social workers, while psychological job demand, decision latitude, and marital status were predictors among police officers. Findings are discussed with special regard to the context of social work and police professions in Sweden. PMID:26153185

  6. Survey of Needs: Single Homeless Men. Denver Metro Area, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Adult Learning Source Homeless Program of the Colorado Department of Education conducted an educational needs assessment of single homeless men in the Denver metropolitan area. A questionnaire was developed with the input of social services workers and administered to 74 homeless men in the summer of 1993. Forty-one percent were White, 24…

  7. Crossing the Threshhold: Successful Learning Provision for Homeless People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Helen; McKaig, Wendy; Taylor, Sue

    This guide tells the story of a successful collaboration between The City Literary Institute and homelessness agencies to create an arts-based learning program for homeless people in central London. It identifies guidelines and good practice to stimulate similar work in other locations with problems of homelessness and rough sleeping. The guide is…

  8. Rural Homelessness in Northwest Ohio: Reasons, Patterns, Statistics, and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podlin, Georgette A.

    Rural homelessness in America is difficult to define, to count, and to see. This article reports the findings of a 1993 county-wide study of rural homelessness. During a one year survey, 118 homeless households were interviewed. Of those surveyed, 25.8 percent were male adults, 30.9 percent were female adults, and 43.2 percent were children.…

  9. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  10. Homeless People and Health Care: An Unrelenting Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neibacher, Susan L.

    In 1985, the New York City Health Care for the Homeless Program began providing health care and social services to homeless people. The program seeks to provide care to those homeless people with the least access to services, reaching out to them in soup kitchens, shelters, and hotels. This paper summarizes what has been learned since 1985 about…

  11. The Multi-Dimensional Lives of Children Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grineski, Steve

    2014-01-01

    It is widely reported that children who are homeless are victimized by overwhelming challenges like poverty and ill-advised policy decisions, such as underfunding the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. This act is the only federal legislation devoted to this marginalized group. Children who are homeless, however, should not be characterized…

  12. 76 FR 52575 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the... enrolled in the VA health care system. Through the HCHV program, VA identifies homeless veterans...

  13. 75 FR 79323 - Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 63 RIN 2900-AN73 Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program AGENCY: Department of... contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program... ``RIN 2900-AN73, Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program.'' Copies of comments received will...

  14. Private Lives in Public Places: Loneliness of the Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2005-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, both loneliness and homelessness are more pervasive than we would possibly like to admit. In this study, the experience of loneliness of the homeless was compared to that of the general population. Two hundred and sixty six homeless and 595 men and women from the general population answered a 30 item yes/no…

  15. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  16. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  17. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  18. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  19. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  20. Transforming Teacher Constructs of Children and Families Who Are Homeless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers-Costello, Beth; Swick, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on articulating the importance of teacher development of constructs about homeless children and families and examining factors that influence teachers' perceptions of children and families who are homeless or at high-risk of becoming homeless. The article also explores some strategies to support teachers in…

  1. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  2. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  3. 7 CFR 272.9 - Approval of homeless meal providers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of homeless meal providers. 272.9 Section 272... AGENCIES § 272.9 Approval of homeless meal providers. The State food stamp agency, or another appropriate... establishments serving the homeless upon sufficient evidence, as determined by the agency, that the...

  4. 24 CFR 91.405 - Housing and homeless needs assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing and homeless needs... Consortia; Contents of Consolidated Plan § 91.405 Housing and homeless needs assessment. Housing and homeless needs must be described in the consolidated plan in accordance with the provisions of § 91.205...

  5. Homelessness in America: Unabated and Increasing. A 10-Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffield, Barbara; Gleason, Mary Ann

    Ten years after passage of the McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, homelessness was studied in 11 urban, rural, and suburban communities and 4 states. The first section of the report examines the findings of detailed research on homelessness in these locations. The second section draws conclusions and outlines future directions for efforts to…

  6. Homelessness in the Elementary School Classroom: Social and Emotional Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Kirby A.; Mistry, Rashmita S.; Melchor, Vanessa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined elementary school teachers' experiences working with homeless students. Specifically, we focused on the psychosocial impacts of homelessness on students and their teachers. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 teachers who worked at designated public schools for family homeless shelters. A prominent…

  7. Supporting Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness: CCDF State Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bires, Carie; Garcia, Carmen; Zhu, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness has a devastating impact on children. Research has shown that homelessness puts children at increased risk of health problems, developmental delays, academic underachievement and mental health problems. Homelessness also has a disproportionate impact on the youngest children, who account for more than half of all children in…

  8. From substance use to homelessness or vice versa?

    PubMed

    McVicar, Duncan; Moschion, Julie; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Homelessness is associated with substance use, but whether substance use precedes or follows homelessness is unclear. We investigate the nature of the relationship between homelessness and substance use using data from the unique Australian panel dataset Journeys Home collected in 4 surveys over the period from October 2011 to May 2013. Our data refer to 1325 individuals who were homeless or at risk of becoming homeless. We investigate dynamics in homelessness and substance use over the survey period. We find that the two are closely related: homeless individuals are more likely to be substance users and substance users are more likely to be homeless. These relationships, however, are predominantly driven by observed and unobserved individual characteristics which cause individuals to be both more likely to be homeless and to be substance users. Once we take these personal characteristics into account it seems that homelessness does not affect substance use, although we cannot rule out that alcohol use increases the probability that an individual becomes homeless. These overall relationships also hide some interesting heterogeneity by 'type' of homelessness.

  9. Homeless High School Students in America: Who Counts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.

    2012-01-01

    After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…

  10. Exploring the Lived Experiences of Homeless Families with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…

  11. Health status and utilisation of the healthcare system by homeless and non-homeless people in Vienna.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Julia; Diehl, Katharina; Mutsch, Livia; Löffler, Walter; Burkert, Nathalie; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    This case-control study describes the health situation, internal and external resources, and utilisation of healthcare facilities by a marginalised population consisting of homeless people in Vienna, Austria, compared with a non-homeless control population. Among the homeless group, participants lived in halfway houses (70%) or permanent housing (30%) in Vienna. Personal interviews were conducted in July 2010 with 66 homeless individuals, and their data were compared with data from non-homeless subjects from the Austrian Health Interview Survey using conditional logistic regression. Compared with the control group, homeless persons suffered more often from chronic diseases (P < 0.001) and rated their health considerably lower than the comparison group (P < 0.001). Homeless people suffered significantly more often from psychiatric disorders, respiratory diseases, hypertension (P < 0.001), digestive system diseases (P = 0.002) and heart diseases (P = 0.015) in comparison with the control group. Additionally, among homeless and non-homeless individuals, the former more often consulted a general practitioner in a period of 28 days (P = 0.002). A significantly greater proportion of homeless people did not have any teeth (P = 0.024) and smoked significantly more (P = 0.002). The results demonstrate deficits in the areas of health, health behaviour, and individual and social resources of homeless people, even though homeless people seek medical care at a higher rate than controls. Continuing health promotion projects for this high-risk group and the strengthening of social resources are recommended.

  12. Homelessness: Programs and the People They Serve. Summary Report. Findings of the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Martha R.; Aron, Laudan Y.; Douglas, Toby; Valente, Jesse; Lee, Edgar; Iwen, Britta

    The National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients (NSHAPC) was conducted to provide information about the providers of homeless assistance services and the characteristics of homeless clients who use them. This survey was conducted for use by federal agencies and other interested parties responsible for administering homeless…

  13. Death, drugs, and disaster: mortality among New Orleans' homeless.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, Rachel L; Pals, Heili; Wright, James D

    2012-01-01

    Tracking homeless individuals over time has proved to be extremely difficult; thus, only limited longitudinal data on the homeless exist. We analyze longitudinal data originally collected from the New Orleans Homeless Substance Abusers Program in 1991-1993, supplemented with mortality data for the same sample by year 2010. We use social bonding theory to examine the effect of conventional social ties on mortality among a sample of substance abusing homeless people. This is of special concern when researching the older homeless persons. We find that social bonding theory does not help to understand mortality among this population. However, alcohol abuse, as compared to crack cocaine, does increase the likelihood of early mortality.

  14. College Access and Success for Students Experiencing Homelessness: A Toolkit for Educators and Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…

  15. The hunger-obesity paradox: obesity in the homeless.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Hoy, Jessica S; O'Connell, James J; Montgomery, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007-2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP). This population was compared to non-homeless adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Among 5,632 homeless adults, the mean BMI was 28.4 kg/m(2) and the prevalence of obesity was 32.3 %. Only 1.6 % of homeless adults were underweight. Compared to mean BMI in NHANES (28.6 kg/m(2)), the difference was not significant in unadjusted analysis (p = 0.14). Adjusted analyses predicting BMI or likelihood of obesity also showed that the homeless had a weight distribution not statistically different from the general population. Although underweight has been traditionally associated with homelessness, this study suggests that obesity may be the new malnutrition of the homeless in the United States.

  16. Correlates of frailty among homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Salem, Benissa E; Nyamathi, Adeline M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Phillips, Linda R; Mentes, Janet C; Sarkisian, Catherine; Leake, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Frailty, a relatively unexplored concept among vulnerable populations, may be a significant issue for homeless adults. This cross-sectional study assessed correlates of frailty among middle age and older homeless adults (N = 150, 40-73). A Pearson (r) bivariate correlation revealed a weak relationship between frailty and being female (r = .230, p < .01). Significant moderate negative correlations were found between frailty and resilience (r = -.395, p < .01), social support (r = -.377, p < .01), and nutrition (r = -.652, p < .01). Furthermore, Spearman's rho (r s) bivariate correlations revealed a moderate positive relationship between frailty and health care utilization (r(s) = .444, p < .01). A stepwise backward linear regression analysis was conducted and in the final model, age, gender, health care utilization, nutrition, and resilience were significantly related to frailty. Over the next two decades, there is an anticipated increase in the number of homeless adults which will necessitate a greater understanding of the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  17. Surviving Violence in Everyday Life: A Communicative Approach to Homelessness.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-17

    In this narrative review, the author synthesizes the literature on homelessness across various disciplines (e.g., public health, social work, sociology, and communication) to demonstrate how the experiences of homelessness can be created, maintained, and reinforced through communication, including interpersonal interactions and public discourse. By conceptualizing homelessness as a culturally constructed and socially situated phenomenon, the author examines (a) the complex conceptualization of homelessness, (b) everyday violence faced by people who are homeless, and (c) coping strategies of people who are homeless. In summary, homelessness is a complex social phenomenon, involving tensions between individuals, families, and social systems, all of which are situated in the larger sociocultural and sociopolitical contexts of a specific time and place.

  18. Art Education for Children and Youth Living in an Emergency Housing Shelter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Kara

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefit of an art program to children and youth living in an emergency housing facility. Factors leading to homelessness are explored and examples of the positive influence of art for children experiencing crisis and trauma are presented. Through action research, an art program was implemented where…

  19. Mentoring and Social Skills Training: Ensuring Better Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Youth in foster care face significant life challenges that make it more likely that they will face negative outcomes (i.e., school failure, homelessness, and incarceration). While the reason(s) for out-of-home placement (i.e., family violence, abuse, neglect and/or abandonment) provide some context for negative outcomes, such negative outcomes…

  20. Senseless Violence Against Central American Unaccompanied Minors: Historical Background and Call for Help.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Cheryl B; Márquez, Judith

    2017-01-02

    The southwestern U.S. border has recently seen a significant increase in the number of unaccompanied children from Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador illegally crossing the Mexican border into the United States. Many of these children leave home to flee violence, starvation, impoverished living conditions, or other life-threatening situations. The treatment of acute stress, anxiety, and depression associated with traumatic events is crucial in helping these children address these negative psychological events they have experienced so that they can move forward with their lives. Untreated, traumatic events experienced by this population can develop into Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, a potentially life-changing and physically threatening psychological and medical issue. The United States needs to effectively address the serious matter of responding to mental health issues facing refugees from war-torn or impoverished nations so as to help them to successfully adjust to American systems. There is a need for researchers in the mental health field to focus efforts in designing, implementing, and evaluating methodologies that can help these children develop healthy strategies for living with a very difficult and complex past.