Sample records for uncover increasing complexities

  1. Multi-frequency complex network from time series for uncovering oil-water flow structure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Peng-Cheng; Jin, Ning-De; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Hu, Li-Dan

    2015-02-04

    Uncovering complex oil-water flow structure represents a challenge in diverse scientific disciplines. This challenge stimulates us to develop a new distributed conductance sensor for measuring local flow signals at different positions and then propose a novel approach based on multi-frequency complex network to uncover the flow structures from experimental multivariate measurements. In particular, based on the Fast Fourier transform, we demonstrate how to derive multi-frequency complex network from multivariate time series. We construct complex networks at different frequencies and then detect community structures. Our results indicate that the community structures faithfully represent the structural features of oil-water flow patterns. Furthermore, we investigate the network statistic at different frequencies for each derived network and find that the frequency clustering coefficient enables to uncover the evolution of flow patterns and yield deep insights into the formation of flow structures. Current results present a first step towards a network visualization of complex flow patterns from a community structure perspective.

  2. [Morphogenetic foundations for increased evolutionary complexity in the organization of thecate hydroids shoots (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae)].

    PubMed

    Kosevich, I A

    2012-01-01

    The morphogenetic approach is applied to analyze the diversity of spatial organization of shoots in thecate hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusa, Leptomedusae). The main tendencies and constraints of increased evolutionary complexity in thecate hydroids colonies are uncovered.

  3. Uncovering hidden nodes in complex networks in the presence of noise

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ri-Qi; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Xiao; Do, Younghae

    2014-01-01

    Ascertaining the existence of hidden objects in a complex system, objects that cannot be observed from the external world, not only is curiosity-driven but also has significant practical applications. Generally, uncovering a hidden node in a complex network requires successful identification of its neighboring nodes, but a challenge is to differentiate its effects from those of noise. We develop a completely data-driven, compressive-sensing based method to address this issue by utilizing complex weighted networks with continuous-time oscillatory or discrete-time evolutionary-game dynamics. For any node, compressive sensing enables accurate reconstruction of the dynamical equations and coupling functions, provided that time series from this node and all its neighbors are available. For a neighboring node of the hidden node, this condition cannot be met, resulting in abnormally large prediction errors that, counterintuitively, can be used to infer the existence of the hidden node. Based on the principle of differential signal, we demonstrate that, when strong noise is present, insofar as at least two neighboring nodes of the hidden node are subject to weak background noise only, unequivocal identification of the hidden node can be achieved. PMID:24487720

  4. Sustained response with ixekizumab treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis with scalp involvement: results from three phase 3 trials (UNCOVER-1, UNCOVER-2, UNCOVER-3).

    PubMed

    Reich, Kristian; Leonardi, Craig; Lebwohl, Mark; Kerdel, Francisco; Okubo, Yukari; Romiti, Ricardo; Goldblum, Orin; Dennehy, Ellen B; Kerr, Lisa; Sofen, Howard

    2017-06-01

    Scalp is a frequently affected and difficult-to-treat area in psoriasis patients. We assessed the efficacy of ixekizumab in the treatment of patients with scalp psoriasis over 60 weeks using the Psoriasis Scalp Severity Index (PSSI). In three Phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in UNCOVER-1 (N = 1296), UNCOVER-2 (N = 1224) and UNCOVER-3 (N = 1346) were randomized to subcutaneous 80 mg ixekizumab every two weeks (Q2W) or every four weeks (Q4W) after a 160 mg starting dose, or placebo through Week 12. Additional UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3 cohorts were randomized to 50 mg bi-weekly etanercept through Week 12. Patients entering the open-label long-term extension (LTE) (UNCOVER-3) received ixekizumab Q4W; UNCOVER-1 and UNCOVER-2 included a blinded maintenance period in which static physician global assessment (sPGA) 0/1 responders were re-randomized to placebo, ixekizumab Q4W, or 80 mg ixekizumab every 12 weeks (Q12W) through Week 60. In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis with baseline scalp involvement, PSSI 90 and 100 were achieved at Week 12 in higher percentages of patients treated with ixekizumab Q2W (81.7% and 74.6%) or ixekizumab Q4W (75.6% and 68.9%) compared with patients treated with placebo (7.6% and 6.7%; p < .001 each ixekizumab arm versus placebo) or etanercept (55.5% and 48.1%; p < .001 each ixekizumab arm versus etanercept). These outcomes were maintained through Week 60 of the maintenance (UNCOVER-1 and UNCOVER-2) and LTE (UNCOVER-3) period in patients who continued on ixekizumab Q4W. Ixekizumab was efficacious in treating scalp psoriasis in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, with most patients achieving complete or near-complete resolution of scalp psoriasis and maintaining this response over 60 weeks.

  5. Addiction Science: Uncovering Neurobiological Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Baler, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate “all” genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience. PMID:23688927

  6. Covered versus uncovered self-expandable metal stents for malignant biliary strictures: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew L; Cashman, Micheal; Volmar, Fritz H; Dhillon, Sonu; Forcione, David; Taneja, Deepak; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-09-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are used for palliating inoperable malignant biliary strictures. It is unclear if covered metal stents are superior to uncovered metal stents in these patients. We compared clinical outcomes in patients with covered and uncovered stents. Studies using covered and uncovered metallic stents for palliation in patients with malignant biliary stricture were reviewed. Articles were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, and Ovid journals. Fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the pooled proportions. Initial search identified 1436 reference articles, of which 132 were selected and reviewed. Thirteen studies (n = 2239) for covered and uncovered metallic stents which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Odds ratio for stent occlusion rates in covered vs. uncovered stents was 0.79 (95 % CI = 0.65 to 0.96). Survival benefit in patients with covered vs. uncovered stents showed the odds ratio to be 1.29 (95 % CI = 0.95 to 1.74). Pooled odds ratio for migration of covered vs. uncovered stents was 9.9 (95 % CI = 4.5 to 22.3). Covered stents seemed to have significantly lesser occlusion rates, increased odds of migration, and increased odds of pancreatitis compared to uncovered stents. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival benefit, overall adverse event rate, and patency period of covered vs. uncovered metal stents in patients with malignant biliary strictures.

  7. Uncovering the Motivating Factors behind Writing in English in en EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Büyükyavuz, Oya; Çakir, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Writing in a language, whether the target or native, is regarded as a complex activity operating on multiple cognitive levels. This study aimed to uncover the factors which motivate teacher trainees of English to write in English in an EFL context. The study also investigated the differences in the ways teacher trainees are motivated in terms of…

  8. Using a system of differential equations that models cattle growth to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits.

    PubMed

    Freua, Mateus Castelani; Santana, Miguel Henrique de Almeida; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Tedeschi, Luis Orlindo; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between dynamic models of biological systems and genomics is based on the assumption that genetic variation of the complex trait (i.e., outcome of model behavior) arises from component traits (i.e., model parameters) in lower hierarchical levels. In order to provide a proof of concept of this statement for a cattle growth model, we ask whether model parameters map genomic regions that harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) already described for the complex trait. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) with a Bayesian hierarchical LASSO method in two parameters of the Davis Growth Model, a system of three ordinary differential equations describing DNA accretion, protein synthesis and degradation, and fat synthesis. Phenotypic and genotypic data were available for 893 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle. Computed values for parameter k 1 (DNA accretion rate) ranged from 0.005 ± 0.003 and for α (constant for energy for maintenance requirement) 0.134 ± 0.024. The expected biological interpretation of the parameters is confirmed by QTLs mapped for k 1 and α. QTLs within genomic regions mapped for k 1 are expected to be correlated with the DNA pool: body size and weight. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which were significant for α mapped QTLs that had already been associated with residual feed intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain (ADG), body weight, and also dry matter intake. SNPs identified for k 1 were able to additionally explain 2.2% of the phenotypic variability of the complex ADG, even when SNPs for k 1 did not match the genomic regions associated with ADG. Although improvements are needed, our findings suggest that genomic analysis on component traits may help to uncover the genetic basis of more complex traits, particularly when lower biological hierarchies are mechanistically described by mathematical simulation models.

  9. Uncovering a New Moral Dilemma of Economic Optimization in Biotechnological Processing.

    PubMed

    Vochozka, Marek; Stehel, Vojtěch; Maroušková, Anna

    2017-06-08

    The trend of emerging biorefineries is to process the harvest as efficiently as possible and without any waste. From the most valuable phytomass, refined medicines, enzymes, dyes and other special reactants are created. Functional foods, food ingredients, oils, alcohol, solvents, plastics, fillers and a wide variety of other chemical products follow. After being treated with nutrient recovery techniques (for fertilizer production), biofuels or soil improvers are produced from the leftovers. Economic optimization algorithms have confirmed that such complex biorefineries can be financially viable only when a high degree of feedstock concentration is included. Because the plant material is extremely voluminous before processing, the farming intensity of special plants increases in the nearest vicinity of agglomerations where the biorefineries are built for logistical reasons. Interdisciplinary analyses revealed that these optimization measures lead to significantly increased pollen levels in neighbouring urban areas and subsequently an increased risk of allergies, respectively costs to the national health system. A new moral dilemma between the shareholder's profit and public interest was uncovered and subjected to disputation.

  10. Weaving Social Foundations through Dance Pedagogy: A Pedagogy of Uncovering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie; Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Today's dance educators enter classrooms populated by increasingly diverse students in which teachers' pedagogical knowledge necessitates heightened understandings of race, ethnicity, social class, gender, and sexuality. Uncovering taken-for-granted assumptions, dominant stereotypes, and educational structures that reproduce social…

  11. Familial Brugada syndrome uncovered by hyperkalaemic diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Postema, Pieter G; Vlaar, Alexander P J; DeVries, J Hans; Tan, Hanno L

    2011-10-01

    We describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis with concomitant hyperkalaemia that uncovered a typical Brugada syndrome electrocardiogram (ECG). Further provocation testing in the patient and his son confirmed familial Brugada syndrome. Diabetic ketoacidosis with hyperkalaemia may uncover an inheritable arrhythmia syndrome that may put the patient and his/her next of kin at risk for a sudden death, irrespective of diabetes mellitus.

  12. Uncovering the Math Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often express to Marulyn Burns their worry about the need to "cover the curriculum." In response, she draws on one of her favorite quotes: "You don't want to cover a subject; you want to uncover it." This quote is from "The Having of Wonderful Ideas and Other Essays on Teaching and Learning" by Eleanor…

  13. Rethinking the Psychogenic Model of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Somatoform Disorders and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Renee J.; Chopra, Pradeep; Richardi, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Explaining the etiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) from the psychogenic model is exceedingly unsophisticated, because neurocognitive deficits, neuroanatomical abnormalities, and distortions in cognitive mapping are features of CRPS pathology. More importantly, many people who have developed CRPS have no history of mental illness. The psychogenic model offers comfort to physicians and mental health practitioners (MHPs) who have difficulty understanding pain maintained by newly uncovered neuro inflammatory processes. With increased education about CRPS through a biopsychosocial perspective, both physicians and MHPs can better diagnose, treat, and manage CRPS symptomatology. PMID:24223338

  14. The Complexity of One-Step Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of one-step equations from a cognitive load theory perspective uncovers variation within one-step equations. The complexity of one-step equations arises from the element interactivity across the operational and relational lines. The higher the number of operational and relational lines, the greater the complexity of the equations.…

  15. High levels of cryptic species diversity uncovered in Amazonian frogs

    PubMed Central

    Funk, W. Chris; Caminer, Marcel; Ron, Santiago R.

    2012-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for biodiversity conservation is the poor understanding of species diversity. Molecular methods have dramatically improved our ability to uncover cryptic species, but the magnitude of cryptic diversity remains unknown, particularly in diverse tropical regions such as the Amazon Basin. Uncovering cryptic diversity in amphibians is particularly pressing because amphibians are going extinct globally at an alarming rate. Here, we use an integrative analysis of two independent Amazonian frog clades, Engystomops toadlets and Hypsiboas treefrogs, to test whether species richness is underestimated and, if so, by how much. We sampled intensively in six countries with a focus in Ecuador (Engystomops: 252 individuals from 36 localities; Hypsiboas: 208 individuals from 65 localities) and combined mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, morphological, and bioacoustic data to detect cryptic species. We found that in both clades, species richness was severely underestimated, with more undescribed species than described species. In Engystomops, the two currently recognized species are actually five to seven species (a 150–250% increase in species richness); in Hypsiboas, two recognized species represent six to nine species (a 200–350% increase). Our results suggest that Amazonian frog biodiversity is much more severely underestimated than previously thought. PMID:22130600

  16. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  17. Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Flores Carmona, Diana Yamel; Alonso Lárraga, Juan Octavio; Hernández Guerrero, Angélica; Ramírez Solís, Mauro Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

  18. Uncovering One Trilingual Child's Multi-Literacies Development across Informal and Formal Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi Song

    2016-01-01

    Due to globalisation and rapid technological change, today's educators need to help students develop multi-literacy competencies to enable them to function successfully in our culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) and increasingly connected global and digital society. A qualitative, longitudinal case study attempted to uncover the…

  19. Covered self-expandable metal stents with an anti-migration system improve patency duration without increased complications compared with uncovered stents for distal biliary obstruction caused by pancreatic carcinoma: a randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Masayuki; Yamashita, Yukitaka; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yazumi, Shujiro; Nakai, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Osamu; Uehara, Hiroyuki; Mitoro, Akira; Sanuki, Tsuyoshi; Takaoka, Makoto; Koshitani, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Yoshifumi; Shiba, Masatsugu; Hoki, Noriyuki; Sato, Hideki; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Masako; Hasegawa, Kazunori; Kawabata, Hideaki; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hidekazu

    2013-11-01

    The requirements of biliary stents used in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction are a long duration of patency and minimal adverse effects. Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been shown to prevent tumor ingrowth, which is the most frequent complication of uncovered SEMSs. However, because they are prone to migration, the superiority of covered SEMS has yet to be convincingly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the superiority of covered over uncovered SEMSs in the palliation of distal biliary obstruction due to unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, using both stent types with relatively low axial force and uncovered flared ends to prevent their migration. From April 2009 to December 2010, 120 patients who were admitted to 22 tertiary-care centers because of distal biliary obstruction from unresectable pancreatic carcinomas were enrolled in this prospective randomized multicenter study. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a covered or uncovered SEMS deployed at the site of the biliary stricture during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Stent patency time, patient survival time, patient survival time without stent dysfunction (time to stent dysfunction or patient death), cause of stent dysfunction (ingrowth, overgrowth, migration, or sludge formation), and serious adverse events were compared between covered and uncovered SEMS groups. Patient survival time in the two groups did not significantly differ (median: 285 and 223 days, respectively; P=0.68). Patient survival time without stent dysfunction was significantly longer in the covered than in the uncovered SEMS group (median: 187 vs. 132 days; P=0.043). Stent patency was also significantly longer in the covered than in the uncovered SEMS group (mean±s.d.: 219.3±159.1 vs. 166.9±124.9 days; P=0.047). Reintervention for stent dysfunction was performed in 14 of 60 patients with covered SEMSs (23%) and in 22 of 60 patients with uncovered SEMSs (37%; P=0

  20. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Silveira, F A O; Oliveira, E G

    2013-05-01

    Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna) area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences) of Miconia albicans (SW.) Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS), shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE) and woodlands (cerradão, CD). As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  1. Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

    2015-02-07

    To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P < 0.05]. Moreover, the overall cumulative median duration of stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P < 0.05 by log-rank test] The overall cumulative median survival period was not different between the uncovered stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents.

  2. Comparison between uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placement in malignant duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Won; Jeong, Ji Bong; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Ahn, Dong Won; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Su Hwan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical outcomes of uncovered and covered self-expandable metal stent placements in patients with malignant duodenal obstruction. METHODS: A total of 67 patients were retrospectively enrolled from January 2003 to June 2013. All patients had symptomatic obstruction characterized by nausea, vomiting, reduced oral intake, and weight loss. The exclusion criteria included asymptomatic duodenal obstruction, perforation or peritonitis, concomitant small bowel obstruction, or duodenal obstruction caused by benign strictures. The technical and clinical success rate, complication rate, and stent patency were compared according to the placement of uncovered (n = 38) or covered (n = 29) stents. RESULTS: The technical and clinical success rates did not differ between the uncovered and covered stent groups (100% vs 96.6% and 89.5% vs 82.8%). There were no differences in the overall complication rates between the uncovered and covered stent groups (31.6% vs 41.4%). However, stent migration occurred more frequently with covered than uncovered stents [20.7% (6/29) vs 0% (0/38), P < 0.05]. Moreover, the overall cumulative median duration of stent patency was longer in uncovered than in covered stents [251 d (95%CI: 149.8 d-352.2 d) vs 139 d (95%CI: 45.5 d-232.5 d), P < 0.05 by log-rank test] The overall cumulative median survival period was not different between the uncovered stent (70 d) and covered stent groups (60 d). CONCLUSION: Uncovered stents may be preferable in malignant duodenal obstruction because of their greater resistance to stent migration and longer stent patency than covered stents. PMID:25663777

  3. Uncovering beat deafness: detecting rhythm disorders with synchronized finger tapping and perceptual timing tasks.

    PubMed

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-03-16

    A set of behavioral tasks for assessing perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) is presented here with the goal of uncovering rhythm disorders, such as beat deafness. Beat deafness is characterized by poor performance in perceiving durations in auditory rhythmic patterns or poor synchronization of movement with auditory rhythms (e.g., with musical beats). These tasks include the synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of simple and complex auditory stimuli and the detection of rhythmic irregularities (anisochrony detection task) embedded in the same stimuli. These tests, which are easy to administer, include an assessment of both perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities under different conditions (e.g., beat rates and types of auditory material) and are based on the same auditory stimuli, ranging from a simple metronome to a complex musical excerpt. The analysis of synchronized tapping data is performed with circular statistics, which provide reliable measures of synchronization accuracy (e.g., the difference between the timing of the taps and the timing of the pacing stimuli) and consistency. Circular statistics on tapping data are particularly well-suited for detecting individual differences in the general population. Synchronized tapping and anisochrony detection are sensitive measures for identifying profiles of rhythm disorders and have been used with success to uncover cases of poor synchronization with spared perceptual timing. This systematic assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing can be extended to populations of patients with brain damage, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Parkinson's disease), and developmental disorders (e.g., Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).

  4. Genome diversity of tuber-bearing Solanum uncovers complex evolutionary history and targets of domestication in the cultivated potato

    PubMed Central

    Hardigan, Michael A.; Laimbeer, F. Parker E.; Newton, Linsey; Crisovan, Emily; Hamilton, John P.; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Wiegert-Rininger, Krystle; Wood, Joshua C.; Douches, David S.; Farré, Eva M.; Veilleux, Richard E.; Buell, C. Robin

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), domesticated from wild Solanum species native to the Andes of southern Peru, possess a diverse gene pool representing more than 100 tuber-bearing relatives (Solanum section Petota). A diversity panel of wild species, landraces, and cultivars was sequenced to assess genetic variation within tuber-bearing Solanum and the impact of domestication on genome diversity and identify key loci selected for cultivation in North and South America. Sequence diversity of diploid and tetraploid S. tuberosum exceeded any crop resequencing study to date, in part due to expanded wild introgressions following polyploidy that captured alleles outside of their geographic origin. We identified 2,622 genes as under selection, with only 14–16% shared by North American and Andean cultivars, showing that a limited gene set drove early improvement of cultivated potato, while adaptation of upland (S. tuberosum group Andigena) and lowland (S. tuberosum groups Chilotanum and Tuberosum) populations targeted distinct loci. Signatures of selection were uncovered in genes controlling carbohydrate metabolism, glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, the shikimate pathway, the cell cycle, and circadian rhythm. Reduced sexual fertility that accompanied the shift to asexual reproduction in cultivars was reflected by signatures of selection in genes regulating pollen development/gametogenesis. Exploration of haplotype diversity at potato’s maturity locus (StCDF1) revealed introgression of truncated alleles from wild species, particularly S. microdontum in long-day–adapted cultivars. This study uncovers a historic role of wild Solanum species in the diversification of long-day–adapted tetraploid potatoes, showing that extant natural populations represent an essential source of untapped adaptive potential. PMID:29087343

  5. An improved game-theoretic approach to uncover overlapping communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-Liang; Ch'Ng, Eugene; Yong, Xi; Garibaldi, Jonathan M.; See, Simon; Chen, Duan-Bing

    How can we uncover overlapping communities from complex networks to understand the inherent structures and functions? Chen et al. firstly proposed a community game (Game) to study this problem, and the overlapping communities have been discovered when the game is convergent. It is based on the assumption that each vertex of the underlying network is a rational game player to maximize its utility. In this paper, we investigate how similar vertices affect the formation of community game. The Adamic-Adar Index (AA Index) has been employed to define the new utility function. This novel method has been evaluated on both synthetic and real-world networks. Experimental study shows that it has significant improvement of accuracy (from 4.8% to 37.6%) compared with the Game on 10 real networks. It is more efficient on Facebook networks (FN) and Amazon co-purchasing networks than on other networks. This result implicates that “friend circles of friends” of Facebook are valuable to understand the overlapping community division.

  6. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental... review of the uncovered finished water reservoir requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water... uncovered finished water reservoir requirement and the agency's Six Year Review process. EPA also plans to...

  7. Uncovering the requirements of cognitive work.

    PubMed

    Roth, Emilie M

    2008-06-01

    In this article, the author provides an overview of cognitive analysis methods and how they can be used to inform system analysis and design. Human factors has seen a shift toward modeling and support of cognitively intensive work (e.g., military command and control, medical planning and decision making, supervisory control of automated systems). Cognitive task analysis and cognitive work analysis methods extend traditional task analysis techniques to uncover the knowledge and thought processes that underlie performance in cognitively complex settings. The author reviews the multidisciplinary roots of cognitive analysis and the variety of cognitive task analysis and cognitive work analysis methods that have emerged. Cognitive analysis methods have been used successfully to guide system design, as well as development of function allocation, team structure, and training, so as to enhance performance and reduce the potential for error. A comprehensive characterization of cognitive work requires two mutually informing analyses: (a) examination of domain characteristics and constraints that define cognitive requirements and challenges and (b) examination of practitioner knowledge and strategies that underlie both expert and error-vulnerable performance. A variety of specific methods can be adapted to achieve these aims within the pragmatic constraints of particular projects. Cognitive analysis methods can be used effectively to anticipate cognitive performance problems and specify ways to improve individual and team cognitive performance (be it through new forms of training, user interfaces, or decision aids).

  8. The work is never ending: uncovering teamwork sustainability using realistic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Frykman, Mandus; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Muntlin Athlin, Åsa; Hasson, Henna; Mazzocato, Pamela

    2017-03-20

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover the mechanisms influencing the sustainability of behavior changes following the implementation of teamwork. Design/methodology/approach Realistic evaluation was combined with a framework (DCOM®) based on applied behavior analysis to study the sustainability of behavior changes two and a half years after the initial implementation of teamwork at an emergency department. The DCOM® framework was used to categorize the mechanisms of behavior change interventions (BCIs) into the four categories of direction, competence, opportunity, and motivation. Non-participant observation and interview data were used. Findings The teamwork behaviors were not sustained. A substantial fallback in managerial activities in combination with a complex context contributed to reduced direction, opportunity, and motivation. Reduced direction made staff members unclear about how and why they should work in teams. Deterioration of opportunity was evident from the lack of problem-solving resources resulting in accumulated barriers to teamwork. Motivation in terms of management support and feedback was reduced. Practical implications The implementation of complex organizational changes in complex healthcare contexts requires continuous adaption and managerial activities well beyond the initial implementation period. Originality/value By integrating the DCOM® framework with realistic evaluation, this study responds to the call for theoretically based research on behavioral mechanisms that can explain how BCIs interact with context and how this interaction influences sustainability.

  9. Comparison of Covered Versus Uncovered Stents for Benign Superior Vena Cava (SVC) Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mustafa M; Simmons, Benjamin; McPhail, Ian R; Kalra, Manju; Neisen, Melissa J; Johnson, Matthew P; Stockland, Andrew H; Andrews, James C; Misra, Sanjay; Bjarnason, Haraldur

    2018-05-01

    To identify whether long-term symptom relief and stent patency vary with the use of covered versus uncovered stents for the treatment of benign SVC obstruction. We retrospectively identified all patients with benign SVC syndrome treated to stent placement between January 2003 and December 2015 (n = 59). Only cases with both clinical and imaging follow-up were included (n = 47). In 33 (70%) of the patients, the obstruction was due to a central line or pacemaker wires, and in 14 (30%), the cause was fibrosing mediastinitis. Covered stents were placed in 17 (36%) of the patients, and 30 (64%) patients had an uncovered stent. Clinical and treatment outcomes, complications, and the percent stenosis of each stent were evaluated. Technical success was achieved in all cases at first attempt. Average clinical and imaging follow-up in years was 2.7 (range 0.1-11.1) (covered) and 1.7 (range 0.2-10.5) (uncovered), respectively. There was a significant difference (p = 0.044) in the number of patients who reported a return of symptoms between the covered (5/17 or 29.4%) and uncovered (18/30 or 60%) groups. There was also a significant difference (p = < 0.001) in the mean percent stenosis after stent placement between the covered [17.9% (range 0-100) ± 26.2] and uncovered [48.3% (range 6.8-100) ± 33.5] groups. No significant difference (p = 0.227) was found in the time (days) between the date of the procedure and the date of clinical follow-up where a return of symptoms was reported [covered: 426.6 (range 28-1554) ± 633.9 and uncovered 778.1 (range 23-3851) ± 1066.8]. One patient in the uncovered group had non-endovascular surgical intervention (innominate to right atrial bypass), while none in the covered group required surgical intervention. One major complication (SIR grade C) occurred that consisted of a pericardial hemorrhagic effusion after angioplasty that required covered stent placement. There were no procedure-related deaths. Both covered and

  10. 78 FR 41784 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-928] Uncovered Innerspring Units... Commerce. Preliminary Determination The Department has preliminarily determined that uncovered innerspring... Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) [[Page 41785...

  11. Uncovering clinical knowledge and caring practices.

    PubMed

    Feldman, M E

    1993-06-01

    Narrative storytelling is a means by which knowledge embedded in nursing practice is uncovered and examined. Benner uses this method to study and explore skill acquisition and experience-based knowledge in nursing practice. By sharing these stories, knowledge that is unique to the experienced clinician is preserved and extended. The narrative presented here describes the expert coaching, discretionary judgment, and skilled involvement in the care of a patient in the PACU.

  12. Uncovering paradoxes from physicians' experiences of patient-centered ward-round.

    PubMed

    Bååthe, Fredrik; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Edgren, Lars; Lagström, Annica; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2016-05-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to uncover paradoxes emerging from physicians' experiences of a patient-centered and team-based ward round, in an internal medicine department. Design/methodology/approach Abductive reasoning relates empirical material to complex responsive processes theory in a dialectical process to further understandings. Findings This paper found the response from physicians, to a patient-centered and team-based ward round, related to whether the new demands challenged or confirmed individual physician's professional identity. Two empirically divergent perspectives on enacting the role of physician during ward round emerged: We-perspective and I-perspective, based on where the physician's professional identity was centered. Physicians with more of a We-perspective experienced challenges with the new round, while physicians with more of an I-perspective experienced alignment with their professional identity and embraced the new round. When identity is challenged, anxiety is aroused, and if anxiety is not catered to, then resistance is likely to follow and changes are likely to be hampered. Practical implications For change processes affecting physicians' professional identity, it is important for managers and change leaders to acknowledge paradox and find a balance between new knowledge that needs to be learnt and who the physician is becoming in this new procedure. Originality/value This paper provides increased understanding about how physicians' professional identity is interacting with a patient-centered ward round. It adds to the knowledge about developing health care in line with recent societal requests and with sustainable physician engagement.

  13. Information Processing by Schizophrenics When Task Complexity Increases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirt, Michael; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The performance of hospitalized paranoid schizophrenics, nonparanoids, and hospitalized controls was compared on motor, perceptual, and cognitive tasks of increasing complexity. The data were examined within the context of comparing differential predictions made by input and central processing theories of information-processing deficit. (Editor)

  14. Association between increased EEG signal complexity and cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Laprevote, Vincent; Bon, Laura; Krieg, Julien; Schwitzer, Thomas; Bourion-Bedes, Stéphanie; Maillard, Louis; Schwan, Raymund

    2017-12-01

    Both acute and regular cannabis use affects the functioning of the brain. While several studies have demonstrated that regular cannabis use can impair the capacity to synchronize neural assemblies during specific tasks, less is known about spontaneous brain activity. This can be explored by measuring EEG complexity, which reflects the spontaneous variability of human brain activity. A recent study has shown that acute cannabis use can affect that complexity. Since the characteristics of cannabis use can affect the impact on brain functioning, this study sets out to measure EEG complexity in regular cannabis users with or without dependence, in comparison with healthy controls. We recruited 26 healthy controls, 25 cannabis users without cannabis dependence and 14 cannabis users with cannabis dependence, based on DSM IV TR criteria. The EEG signal was extracted from at least 250 epochs of the 500ms pre-stimulation phase during a visual evoked potential paradigm. Brain complexity was estimated using Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC), which was compared across groups by non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant difference between the groups, with higher LZC in participants with cannabis dependence than in non-dependent cannabis users. There was no specific localization of this effect across electrodes. We showed that cannabis dependence is associated to an increased spontaneous brain complexity in regular users. This result is in line with previous results in acute cannabis users. It may reflect increased randomness of neural activity in cannabis dependence. Future studies should explore whether this effect is permanent or diminishes with cannabis cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Predictability of Extreme Climate Events via a Complex Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhkin, D.; Kurths, J.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. This concept is then applied to Monsoon data; in particular, we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. Applying this method, we uncover a new mechanism of extreme floods in the eastern Central Andes which could be used for operational forecasts. Moreover, we analyze the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) and identify two regions of high importance. By estimating an underlying critical point, this leads to an improved prediction of the onset of the ISM; this scheme was successful in 2016 and 2017.

  16. 3D Geological Mapping - uncovering the subsurface to increase environmental understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, H.; Mathers, S.; Peach, D.

    2012-12-01

    parameterize their numerical models using outputs from 3D mapping. In some cases model code is being re-designed in order to deal with the increasing geological complexity expressed by Geologists. These 3D maps contain have inherent uncertainty, just as their predecessors, 2D geological maps had, and there remains a significant body of work to quantify and effectively communicate this uncertainty. Here we present examples of regional and national 3D maps from Geological Survey Organisations worldwide and how these are being used to better solve real-life environmental problems. The future challenge for geologists is to make these 3D maps easily available in an accessible and interoperable form so that the environmental science community can truly integrate the hidden subsurface into a common understanding of the whole geosphere.

  17. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    PubMed

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  18. Electrodermal complexity during the Stroop colour word test.

    PubMed

    Svetlak, Miroslav; Bob, Petr; Cernik, Michal; Kukleta, Miloslav

    2010-01-15

    Several recent studies suggest that quantitative description of signal complexity using algorithms of nonlinear analysis could uncover new information about the autonomic system that is not reflected using common methods applied to measures of autonomic activity. With this aim we have performed complexity analysis of electrodermal activity (EDA) assessed in 106 healthy university students during rest conditions and non-conflicting and conflicting Stroop task. Complexity analysis applied to EDA was performed using Skinner's algorithm for pointwise correlation dimension (PD2). Results have shown that EDA responses during the Stroop Colour Word test are related to significantly increased or decreased complexity. Particularly significant result is that PD2 has a unique ability to predict to an extent the change in EDA response to stress i.e. that subjects with low initial PD2 tended to respond to experimental stress by its increase and subjects with high initial PD2 values tended to respond by its decrease. This response was not found in EDA measures where increase of the EDA presented predominant response to experimental stress in majority of the subjects. These findings suggest that PD2 is more sensitive to subtle aspects of functionally and spatially distributed modulatory influences of various parts of the brain that are involved in the EDA modulation and provides novel information in comparison to traditional methods.

  19. Partially Covered Metal Stents May Not Prolong Stent Patency Compared to Uncovered Stents in Unresectable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Yun; Ko, Gyu Bong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Yun Nah; Cho, Young Sin; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Choi, Hyun Jong; Cha, Sang-Woo; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2017-05-15

    Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs.

  20. Partially Covered Metal Stents May Not Prolong Stent Patency Compared to Uncovered Stents in Unresectable Malignant Distal Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Yun; Ko, Gyu Bong; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Yun Nah; Cho, Young Sin; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Choi, Hyun Jong; Cha, Sang-Woo; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Controversy still exists regarding the benefits of covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) compared to uncovered SEMSs. We aimed to compare the patency and stent-related adverse events of partially covered SEMSs (PC-SEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Methods A total of 134 patients who received a PC-SEMS or uncovered SEMS for palliation of unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. The main outcome measures were stent patency, stent-related adverse events, and overall survival. Results The median stent patency was 118 days (range, 3 to 802 days) with PC-SEMSs and 105 days (range, 2 to 485 days) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.718). The overall endoscopic revision rate due to stent dysfunction was 36.6% (26/71) with PC-SEMSs and 36.5% (23/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.589). Tumor ingrowth was more frequent with uncovered SEMSs (4.2% vs 19.1%, p=0.013), but migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs (11.2% vs 1.5%, p=0.04). The incidence of stent-related adverse events was 2.8% (2/71) with PC-SEMSs and 9.5% (6/63) with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.224). The median overall survival was 166 days with PC-SEMSs and 168 days with uncovered SEMSs (p=0.189). Conclusions Compared to uncovered SEMSs, PC-SEMSs did not prolong stent patency in unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. Stent migration was more frequent with PC-SEMSs. However, tumor ingrowth was less frequent with PC-SEMSs compared to uncovered SEMSs. PMID:28208003

  1. The bacterial flagellar switch complex is getting more complex

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Ben-Lulu, Galit N; Francis, Noreen R; Shimoni, Eyal; Noy, Dror; Davidov, Yaacov; Prasad, Krishna; Sagi, Yael; Cecchini, Gary; Johnstone, Rose M; Eisenbach, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of function of the bacterial flagellar switch, which determines the direction of flagellar rotation and is essential for chemotaxis, has remained an enigma for many years. Here we show that the switch complex associates with the membrane-bound respiratory protein fumarate reductase (FRD). We provide evidence that FRD binds to preparations of isolated switch complexes, forms a 1:1 complex with the switch protein FliG, and that this interaction is required for both flagellar assembly and switching the direction of flagellar rotation. We further show that fumarate, known to be a clockwise/switch factor, affects the direction of flagellar rotation through FRD. These results not only uncover a new component important for switching and flagellar assembly, but they also reveal that FRD, an enzyme known to be primarily expressed and functional under anaerobic conditions in Escherichia coli, nonetheless, has important, unexpected functions under aerobic conditions. PMID:18337747

  2. Modeling ultrasound propagation through material of increasing geometrical complexity.

    PubMed

    Odabaee, Maryam; Odabaee, Mostafa; Pelekanos, Matthew; Leinenga, Gerhard; Götz, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being recognized as a neuromodulatory and therapeutic tool, inducing a broad range of bio-effects in the tissue of experimental animals and humans. To achieve these effects in a predictable manner in the human brain, the thick cancellous skull presents a problem, causing attenuation. In order to overcome this challenge, as a first step, the acoustic properties of a set of simple bone-modeling resin samples that displayed an increasing geometrical complexity (increasing step sizes) were analyzed. Using two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) transducers, we found that Wiener deconvolution predicted the Ultrasound Acoustic Response (UAR) and attenuation caused by the samples. However, whereas the UAR of samples with step sizes larger than the wavelength could be accurately estimated, the prediction was not accurate when the sample had a smaller step size. Furthermore, a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) performed in ANSYS determined that the scattering and refraction of sound waves was significantly higher in complex samples with smaller step sizes compared to simple samples with a larger step size. Together, this reveals an interaction of frequency and geometrical complexity in predicting the UAR and attenuation. These findings could in future be applied to poro-visco-elastic materials that better model the human skull. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased ventilatory variability and complexity in patients with hyperventilation disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokov, Plamen; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Chenivesse, Cécile; Straus, Christian; Similowski, Thomas; Delclaux, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    It has been hypothesized that hyperventilation disorders could be characterized by an abnormal ventilatory control leading to enhanced variability of resting ventilation. The variability of tidal volume (VT) often depicts a nonnormal distribution that can be described by the negative slope characterizing augmented breaths formed by the relationship between the probability density distribution of VT and VT on a log-log scale. The objectives of this study were to describe the variability of resting ventilation [coefficient of variation (CV) of VT and slope], the stability in respiratory control (loop, controller and plant gains characterizing ventilatory-chemoresponsiveness interactions) and the chaotic-like dynamics (embedding dimension, Kappa values characterizing complexity) of resting ventilation in patients with a well-defined dysfunctional breathing pattern characterized by air hunger and constantly decreased PaCO2 during a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Compared with 14 healthy subjects with similar anthropometrics, 23 patients with hyperventilation were characterized by increased variability of resting tidal ventilation (CV of VT median [interquartile]: 26% [19-35] vs. 36% [28-48], P = 0.020; slope: -6.63 [-7.65; -5.36] vs. -3.88 [-5.91; -2.66], P = 0.004) that was not related to increased chemical drive (loop gain: 0.051 [0.039-0.221] vs. 0.044 [0.012-0.087], P = 0.149) but that was related to an increased ventilatory complexity (Kappa values, P < 0.05). Plant gain was decreased in patients and correlated with complexity (with Kappa 5 - degree 5: Rho = -0.48, P = 0.006). In conclusion, well-defined patients suffering from hyperventilation disorder are characterized by increased variability of their resting ventilation due to increased ventilatory complexity with stable ventilatory-chemoresponsiveness interactions. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Litter box preference in domestic cats: covered versus uncovered.

    PubMed

    Grigg, Emma K; Pick, Lindsay; Nibblett, Belle

    2013-04-01

    Feline inappropriate elimination (periuria and/or perichezia) remains a very common behavioral complaint of cat owners. Treatment recommendations often include improving the attractiveness of the litter boxes available to the cat. One frequent recommendation is to avoid covered litter boxes, although this has not previously been tested experimentally. The goal of this study was to assess whether, all else being equal, cats preferentially used uncovered litter boxes over covered litter boxes. Twenty-eight cats were enrolled in the study and offered the choice of a covered or uncovered box. Waste was scooped daily from each box, and the weight of waste in the different box styles was compared and evaluated using paired t-tests and χ(2) analyses. Overall, there was no significant difference between use of the two box styles. Eight individual cats did exhibit a preference (four for covered, four for uncovered), but individual preference results are not evenly distributed, with more cats than expected showing no preference between litter box types. We postulate that, if boxes are kept sufficiently clean (ie, once daily minimum cleaning), most cats will not show a preference for either box type. The observation that a minority of cats in the study exhibited a preference supports the recommendation of providing individual cats with a 'cafeteria' of litter box styles, including a covered box, to determine whether such a preference exists. These findings add to existing literature on the topic of feline inappropriate elimination and provide additional information for clinicians recommending treatment options for cats exhibiting this behavior.

  5. Malignant Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Treatment with Self-Expanding Uncovered Wallstent

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gutzeit, Andreas, E-mail: Andreas.Gutzeit@ksw.ch; Binkert, Christoph A.; Schoch, Eric

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a self-expanding uncovered Wallstent in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Materials and Methods: Under combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic guidance, 29 patients with a malignant gastroduodenal stenosis were treated with a self-expanding uncovered metallic Wallstent. A dysphagia score was assessed before and after the intervention to measure the success of this palliative therapy. The dysphagia score ranged between grade 0 to grade 4: grade 0 = able to tolerate solid food, grade 1 = able to tolerate soft food, grade 2 = able to tolerate thick liquids, grade 3 = able to toleratemore » water or clear fluids, and grade 4 = unable to tolerate anything perorally. Stent patency and patients survival rates were calculated. Results: The insertion of the gastroduodenal stent was technically successful in 28 patients (96.5%). After stenting, 25 patients (86.2%) showed clinical improvement by at least one score point. During follow-up, 22 (78.5%) of 28 patients showed no stent occlusion until death and did not have to undergo any further intervention. In six patients (20.6%), all of whom were treated with secondary stent insertions, occlusion with tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth was observed after the intervention. The median period of primary stent patency in our study was 240 days. Conclusion: Placement of an uncovered Wallstent is clinically effective in patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. Stent placement is associated with high technical success, good palliation effect, and high durability of stent function.« less

  6. Uncovering the Mysteries of Mars Habitability

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wiens, Roger; Lanza, Nina; Clegg, Sam

    Los Alamos scientists are uncovering clues about the habitability of ancient Mars using the ChemCam instrument that sits atop NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover. ChemCam has discovered 25 different elements on Mars—including manganese and boron—providing important information about conditions that could potentially have supported life on the Red Planet. Los Alamos is now developing a new instrument called SuperCam that will ride aboard the Mars 2020 rover and provide greater detail about the mineralogy and the presence of compounds related to the possibility of life on the surface of Mars.

  7. Partially covered versus uncovered self-expandable nitinol stents with anti-migration properties for the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Jae; Kim, Jin Hong; Yoo, Byung Moo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Lee, Ki Seong; Kang, Joon Koo; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Shin, Sung Jae; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lee, Kee Myung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Cho, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used as alternatives to uncovered SEMSs for the palliation of inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction to counteract tumor ingrowth. We aimed to compare the outcomes of partially covered and uncovered SEMSs with identical mesh structures and anti-migration properties, such as low axial force and flared ends. One hundred and three patients who were diagnosed with inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction between January 2006 and August 2013 were randomly assigned to either the partially covered (n = 51) or uncovered (n = 52) SEMS group. There were no significant differences in the cumulative stent patency, overall patient survival, stent dysfunction-free survival and overall adverse events, including pancreatitis and cholecystitis, between the two groups. Compared to the uncovered group, stent migration (5.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.118) and tumor overgrowth (7.8% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.205) were non-significantly more frequent in the partially covered group, whereas tumor ingrowth showed a significantly higher incidence in the uncovered group (5.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.041). Stent migration in the partially covered group occurred only in patients with short stenosis of the utmost distal bile duct (two in ampullary cancer, one in bile duct cancer), and did not occur in any patients with pancreatic cancer. For the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction, endoscopic placement of partially covered SEMSs with anti-migration designs and identical mesh structures to uncovered SEMSs failed to prolong cumulative stent patency or reduce stent migration.

  8. 20. UNCOVERED TEST CELL AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. UNCOVERED TEST CELL AT THE STATIC TEST TOWER ON THE WEST SIDE WHERE F-1 ENGINE WAS TESTED. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn Propulsion & Structural Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Conformable covered versus uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction: a randomized prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sun Gyo; Kim, Jin Hong; Lee, Kee Myung; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Kim, Kyung Ho; Kim, Ho Gak; Yang, Chang Heon

    2014-07-01

    A conformable self-expandable metallic stent was developed to overcome the limitation of previous self-expandable metallic stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes after placement of conformable covered and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents for palliation of malignant gastroduodenal obstruction. A single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, prospective study were conducted in 4 medical centres between March 2009 and July 2012. 134 patients with unresectable malignant gastroduodenal obstruction were assigned to a covered double-layered (n=66) or uncovered unfixed-cell braided (n=68) stent placement group. Primary analysis was performed to compare re-intervention rates between two groups. 120 patients were analysed (59 in the covered group and 61 in the uncovered group). Overall rates of re-intervention were not significantly different between the two groups: 13/59 (22.0%) in the covered group vs. 13/61 (21.3%) in the uncovered group, p=0.999. Stent migration was more frequent in the covered group than in the uncovered group (p=0.003). The tumour ingrowth rate was higher in the uncovered group than in the covered group (p=0.016). The rates of re-intervention did not significantly differ between the two stents. Conformable covered double-layered and uncovered unfixed-cell braided stents were associated with different patterns of stent malfunction. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Uncovering an Existential Barrier to Breast Self-exam Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Jamie L.; Arndt, Jamie; Hart, Joshua; Routledge, Clay

    2008-01-01

    The present research applies an analysis derived from terror management theory to the health domain of breast examination, and in doing so uncovers previously unrecognized factors that may contribute to women’s reluctance to perform breast self-examinations (BSEs). In Study 1, when concerns about mortality were primed, reminders of human beings’ physical nature (i.e., creatureliness) reduced intentions to conduct BSEs compared to reminders of humans’ uniqueness. In Study 2, women conducted shorter exams on a breast model (an experience found to increase death-thought accessibility) when creatureliness was primed compared to a uniqueness and no essay condition. In Study 3, after a creatureliness prime, women performed shorter BSEs when a placebo did not provide an alternative explanation for their discomfort compared to when it did. Advances for theory and breast self-exam promotion are discussed. PMID:19255593

  11. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant—pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant’s proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant—pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly

  12. Lessons from Red Data Books: Plant Vulnerability Increases with Floral Complexity.

    PubMed

    Stefanaki, Anastasia; Kantsa, Aphrodite; Tscheulin, Thomas; Charitonidou, Martha; Petanidou, Theodora

    2015-01-01

    The architectural complexity of flower structures (hereafter referred to as floral complexity) may be linked to pollination by specialized pollinators that can increase the probability of successful seed set. As plant-pollinator systems become fragile, a loss of such specialized pollinators could presumably result in an increased likelihood of pollination failure. This is an issue likely to be particularly evident in plants that are currently rare. Using a novel index describing floral complexity we explored whether this aspect of the structure of flowers could be used to predict vulnerability of plant species to extinction. To do this we defined plant vulnerability using the Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece, a Mediterranean biodiversity hotspot. We also tested whether other intrinsic (e.g. life form, asexual reproduction) or extrinsic (e.g. habitat, altitude, range-restrictedness) factors could affect plant vulnerability. We found that plants with high floral complexity scores were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to extinction. Among all the floral complexity components only floral symmetry was found to have a significant effect, with radial-flower plants appearing to be less vulnerable. Life form was also a predictor of vulnerability, with woody perennial plants having significantly lower risk of extinction. Among the extrinsic factors, both habitat and maximum range were significantly associated with plant vulnerability (coastal plants and narrow-ranged plants are more likely to face higher risk). Although extrinsic and in particular anthropogenic factors determine plant extinction risk, intrinsic traits can indicate a plant's proneness to vulnerability. This raises the potential threat of declining global pollinator diversity interacting with floral complexity to increase the vulnerability of individual plant species. There is potential scope for using plant-pollinator specializations to identify plant species particularly at

  13. Losartan ameliorates dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa and uncovers new disease mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Alexander; Thriene, Kerstin; Mittapalli, Venugopal; Kern, Johannes S; Kiritsi, Dimitra; Dengjel, Jörn; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena

    2015-01-01

    Genetic loss of collagen VII causes recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB)—a severe skin fragility disorder associated with lifelong blistering and disabling progressive soft tissue fibrosis. Causative therapies for this complex disorder face major hurdles, and clinical implementation remains elusive. Here, we report an alternative evidence-based approach to ameliorate fibrosis and relieve symptoms in RDEB. Based on the findings that TGF-β activity is elevated in injured RDEB skin, we targeted TGF-β activity with losartan in a preclinical setting. Long-term treatment of RDEB mice efficiently reduced TGF-β signaling in chronically injured forepaws and halted fibrosis and subsequent fusion of the digits. In addition, proteomics analysis of losartan- vs. vehicle-treated RDEB skin uncovered changes in multiple proteins related to tissue inflammation. In line with this, losartan reduced inflammation and diminished TNF-α and IL-6 expression in injured forepaws. Collectively, the data argue that RDEB fibrosis is a consequence of a cascade encompassing tissue damage, TGF-β-mediated inflammation, and matrix remodeling. Inhibition of TGF-β activity limits these unwanted outcomes and thereby substantially ameliorates long-term symptoms. PMID:26194911

  14. Arrest of trans-SNARE zippering uncovers loosely and tightly docked intermediates in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Halenur; Kattan, Iman; Hernandez, Javier Matias; Hofnagel, Oliver; Witkowska, Agata; Raunser, Stefan; Walla, Peter Jomo; Jahn, Reinhard

    2018-04-17

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate intracellular membrane fusion in the secretory pathway. They contain conserved regions, termed SNARE motifs, that assemble between opposing membranes directionally from their N-termini to their membrane-proximal C-termini in a highly exergonic reaction. However, how this energy is utilized to overcome the energy barriers along the fusion pathway is still under debate. Here we have used mutants of the SNARE synaptobrevin to arrest trans-SNARE zippering at defined stages. We have uncovered two distinct vesicle docking intermediates, where the membranes are loosely and tightly connected, respectively. The tightly connected state is irreversible and independent of maintaining assembled SNARE complexes. Together, our results shed new light on the intermediate stages along the pathway of membrane fusion. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Comparison of covered versus uncovered wire mesh stents in the canine biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Silvis, S E; Sievert, C E; Vennes, J A; Abeyta, B K; Brennecke, L H

    1994-01-01

    Self-expanding wire mesh stents have been developed for endoscopic placement across malignant biliary strictures, but tumor ingrowth may limit the usefulness of open mesh stents. We reasoned that coating the wire mesh might prevent tumor ingrowth. Tissue response to covered and uncovered stents was compared in dogs. Stents were surgically placed in the bile ducts of 22 mongrel dogs through the sphincter of Oddi. Either a silicone-covered stent or an uncovered stent was inserted. Liver function test values remained normal throughout a 1- or 3-month study. Necropsy revealed that all ducts were unobstructed. Bile duct histologic examination revealed mild-to-moderate cellular infiltration in all animals. Mucosal hyperplasia was more marked in the animals with uncovered stents and the bare wires became deeply embedded in bile duct epithelium, whereas the wires of covered stents did not. We conclude that covered stents are well tolerated by the canine bile duct. These results suggest that such stents may be removable, making self-expanding metal stents an appropriate treatment for both benign and malignant biliary strictures.

  16. Controlling extreme events on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2014-08-01

    Extreme events, a type of collective behavior in complex networked dynamical systems, often can have catastrophic consequences. To develop effective strategies to control extreme events is of fundamental importance and practical interest. Utilizing transportation dynamics on complex networks as a prototypical setting, we find that making the network ``mobile'' can effectively suppress extreme events. A striking, resonance-like phenomenon is uncovered, where an optimal degree of mobility exists for which the probability of extreme events is minimized. We derive an analytic theory to understand the mechanism of control at a detailed and quantitative level, and validate the theory numerically. Implications of our finding to current areas such as cybersecurity are discussed.

  17. L1 to Teach L2: Complexities and Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copland, Fiona; Neokleous, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    This article uncovers the complexities and contradictions inherent in making decisions about L1 use in the English language classroom. Through an analysis of data from classrooms in a Cypriot context and from interviews with Cypriot teachers, a number of functions for L1 use are identified, as are the teachers' rationales for using L1 for…

  18. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p < 0.05) by 5.0 and 2.6 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn increased (p < 0.05) by 3.1 percentage unit with enzyme complex addition. As the effect of enzyme complex was the greatest in corn digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p < 0.05) by 16.0, 2.8 and 1.2 percentage unit, respectively. The IVTTD of DM for corn starch and hull also increased (p < 0.05) by 8.6 and 0.9 percentage unit, respectively, with enzyme complex addition. In conclusion, the enzyme complex increases in vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  19. Uncovering Contents of Mentor Teachers' Interactive Cognitions during Mentoring Dialogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennissen, Paul; Crasborn, Frank; Brouwer, Niels; Korthagen, Fred; Bergen, Theo

    2010-01-01

    In the context of developing mentor teachers' use of supervisory skills, two consecutive studies were conducted, using stimulated recall. Firstly, with eight participants, an instrument was developed to categorize contents of interactive cognitions. Secondly, with 30 participants, the instrument was applied to uncover contents of mentor teachers'…

  20. When weight management lasts. Lower perceived rule complexity increases adherence.

    PubMed

    Mata, Jutta; Todd, Peter M; Lippke, Sonia

    2010-02-01

    Maintaining behavior change is one of the major challenges in weight management and long-term weight loss. We investigated the impact of the cognitive complexity of eating rules on adherence to weight management programs. We studied whether popular weight management programs can fail if participants find the rules too complicated from a cognitive perspective, meaning that individuals are not able to recall or process all required information for deciding what to eat. The impact on program adherence of participants' perceptions of eating rule complexity and other behavioral factors known to influence adherence (including previous weight management, self-efficacy, and planning) was assessed via a longitudinal online questionnaire given to 390 participants on two different popular weight management regimens. As we show, the regimens, Weight Watchers and a popular German recipe diet (Brigitte), strongly differ in objective rule complexity and thus their cognitive demands on the dieter. Perceived rule complexity was the strongest factor associated with increased risk of quitting the cognitively demanding weight management program (Weight Watchers); it was not related to adherence length for the low cognitive demand program (Brigitte). Higher self-efficacy generally helped in maintaining a program. The results emphasize the importance of considering rule complexity to promote long-term weight management. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A density-based clustering model for community detection in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiang; Li, Yantao; Qu, Zehui

    2018-04-01

    Network clustering (or graph partitioning) is an important technique for uncovering the underlying community structures in complex networks, which has been widely applied in various fields including astronomy, bioinformatics, sociology, and bibliometric. In this paper, we propose a density-based clustering model for community detection in complex networks (DCCN). The key idea is to find group centers with a higher density than their neighbors and a relatively large integrated-distance from nodes with higher density. The experimental results indicate that our approach is efficient and effective for community detection of complex networks.

  2. The importance of including dynamic social networks when modeling epidemics of airborne infections: does increasing complexity increase accuracy?

    PubMed

    Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-07-19

    Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability.

  3. Uncovering dental implants using a new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology with tissue air-cooling.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Belikov, Andrey V; Skrypnik, Alexei V; Feldchtein, Felix I; Smirnov, Michael Z; Altshuler, Gregory B

    2015-07-01

    Uncovering implants with lasers, while bloodless, has been associated with a risk of implant and bone overheating. The present study evaluated the effect of using a new generation of high-power diode lasers on the temperature of a dental implant and the surrounding tissues using an in vitro model. The implant temperature was measured at three locations using micro thermocouples. Collateral thermal damage of uncovered soft tissues was evaluated using NTBC stain. Implant temperature rise during and collateral thermal soft-tissue damage following implant uncovering with and without tissue air-cooling was studied using both the classic operational mode and the new thermo-optically powered (TOP) technology. For the classic surgical mode using a cork-initiated tip and constant laser power set at 3.4 W, the maximum temperature rise in the coronal and apical parts of the implant was 23.2 ± 4.1°С and 9.5 ± 1.8°С, respectively, while 1.5 ± 0.5 mm of collateral thermal damage of the soft tissue surrounding the implant model occurred. Using the TOP surgical tip with constant laser power reduced implant overheating by 30%; collateral thermal soft-tissue damage was 0.8 ± 0.2 mm. Using the TOP surgical mode with a tip temperature setting of 800°C and air-cooling reduced the implant temperature rise by more than 300%, and only 0.2 ± 0.1 mm of collateral thermal soft-tissue damage occurred, typical for optimized CO2 laser surgery. Furthermore, use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) appeared to reduce the time required for implant uncovering by a factor of two, compared to the standard surgical mode. Use of the new generation diode technology (TOP surgical mode) may significantly reduce overheating of dental implants during uncovering and seems to be safer for the adjacent soft and hard tissues. Use of such diode lasers with air-cooling can radically reduce the rise in implant temperatures (by more than three times

  4. Increasing mortality burden among adults with complex congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Greutmann, Matthias; Tobler, Daniel; Kovacs, Adrienne H; Greutmann-Yantiri, Mehtap; Haile, Sarah R; Held, Leonhard; Ivanov, Joan; Williams, William G; Oechslin, Erwin N; Silversides, Candice K; Colman, Jack M

    2015-01-01

    Progress in management of congenital heart disease has shifted mortality largely to adulthood. However, adult survivors with complex congenital heart disease are not cured and remain at risk of premature death as young adults. Thus, our aim was to describe the evolution and mortality risk of adult patient cohorts with complex congenital heart disease. Among 12,644 adults with congenital heart disease followed at a single center from 1980 to 2009, 176 had Eisenmenger syndrome, 76 had unrepaired cyanotic defects, 221 had atrial switch operations for transposition of the great arteries, 158 had congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries, 227 had Fontan palliation, and 789 had repaired tetralogy of Fallot. We depict the 30-year evolution of these 6 patient cohorts, analyze survival probabilities in adulthood, and predict future number of deaths through 2029. Since 1980, there has been a steady increase in numbers of patients followed, except in cohorts with Eisenmenger syndrome and unrepaired cyanotic defects. Between 1980 and 2009, 308 patients in the study cohorts (19%) died. At the end of 2009, 85% of survivors were younger than 50 years. Survival estimates for all cohorts were markedly lower than for the general population, with important differences between cohorts. Over the upcoming two decades, we predict a substantial increase in numbers of deaths among young adults with subaortic right ventricles, Fontan palliation, and repaired tetralogy of Fallot. Anticipatory action is needed to prepare clinical services for increasing numbers of young adults at risk of dying from complex congenital heart disease. © 2014 The Authors. Congenital Heart Disease Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Room temperature neutron crystallography of drug resistant HIV-1 protease uncovers limitations of X-ray structural analysis at 100K

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gerlits, Oksana O.; Keen, David A.; Blakeley, Matthew P.

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors are crucial for treatment of HIV-1/AIDS, but their effectiveness is thwarted by rapid emergence of drug resistance. To better understand binding of clinical inhibitors to resistant HIV-1 protease, we used room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) crystallography to obtain an atomic-resolution structure of the protease triple mutant (V32I/I47V/V82I) in complex with amprenavir. The XN structure reveals a D+ ion located midway between the inner Oδ1 oxygen atoms of the catalytic aspartic acid residues. Comparison of the current XN structure with our previous XN structure of the wild-type HIV-1 protease-amprenavir complex suggests that the three mutations do not significantly altermore » the drug–enzyme interactions. This is in contrast to the observations in previous 100 K X-ray structures of these complexes that indicated loss of interactions by the drug with the triple mutant protease. These findings, thus, uncover limitations of structural analysis of drug binding using X-ray structures obtained at 100 K.« less

  6. Room temperature neutron crystallography of drug resistant HIV-1 protease uncovers limitations of X-ray structural analysis at 100K

    DOE PAGES

    Gerlits, Oksana O.; Keen, David A.; Blakeley, Matthew P.; ...

    2017-02-14

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors are crucial for treatment of HIV-1/AIDS, but their effectiveness is thwarted by rapid emergence of drug resistance. To better understand binding of clinical inhibitors to resistant HIV-1 protease, we used room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron (XN) crystallography to obtain an atomic-resolution structure of the protease triple mutant (V32I/I47V/V82I) in complex with amprenavir. The XN structure reveals a D+ ion located midway between the inner Oδ1 oxygen atoms of the catalytic aspartic acid residues. Comparison of the current XN structure with our previous XN structure of the wild-type HIV-1 protease-amprenavir complex suggests that the three mutations do not significantly altermore » the drug–enzyme interactions. This is in contrast to the observations in previous 100 K X-ray structures of these complexes that indicated loss of interactions by the drug with the triple mutant protease. These findings, thus, uncover limitations of structural analysis of drug binding using X-ray structures obtained at 100 K.« less

  7. 40 CFR 141.714 - Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for uncovered finished water storage facilities. 141.714 Section 141.714 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Enhanced Treatment for Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique...

  8. Exposure to nitric oxide increases the nitrosyl-iron complexes content in sorghum embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Simontacchi, Marcela; Buet, Agustina; Lamattina, Lorenzo; Puntarulo, Susana

    2012-02-01

    This work was aimed to investigate nitrosyl-Fe complexes formation by reaction of endogenous ligands and Fe, in sorghum embryonic axes exposed to NO-donors. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was employed to detect the presence of nitrosyl-Fe complexes in plant embryos, as well as changes in labile iron pool (LIP). Nitrosyl-Fe complexes formation was detected in sorghum embryonic axes homogenates incubated in vitro in the presence of 1 mM of NO donors: diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA NONOate), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In axes isolated from seeds incubated in vivo in the presence of 1 mM SNP for 24 h, the content of NO was increased by 2-fold, and the EPR spectrum from mononitrosyl-Fe complexes (MNIC) was observed with a concomitant increase in the fresh weight of sorghum axes. The simultaneous exposure to deferoxamine and the NO donor precluded the increase in fresh weight observed in the presence of excess NO. While total Fe content in the axes isolated from seeds exposed to 1mM SNP was not significantly affected as compared to control axes, the LIP was increased by over 2-fold.The data reported suggest a critical role for the generation of complexes between Fe and NO when cells faced a situation leading to a significant increase in NO content. Moreover, demonstrate the presence of MNICs as one of the important components of the LIP, which could actively participate in Fe cellular mobilization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TGFβ1-induced leucine limitation uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading.

    PubMed

    Loayza-Puch, Fabricio; Rooijers, Koos; Zijlstra, Jelle; Moumbeini, Behzad; Zaal, Esther A; Oude Vrielink, Joachim F; Lopes, Rui; Ugalde, Alejandro P; Berkers, Celia R; Agami, Reuven

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells modulate their metabolic networks to support cell proliferation and a higher demand of building blocks. These changes may restrict the availability of certain amino acids for protein synthesis, which can be utilized for cancer therapy. However, little is known about the amino acid demand changes occurring during aggressive and invasive stages of cancer. Recently, we developed diricore, an approach based on ribosome profiling that can uncover amino acid limitations. Here, we applied diricore to a cellular model in which epithelial breast cells respond rapidly to TGFβ1, a cytokine essential for cancer progression and metastasis, and uncovered shortage of leucine. Further analyses indicated that TGFβ1 treatment of human breast epithelial cells reduces the expression of SLC3A2, a subunit of the leucine transporter, which diminishes leucine uptake and inhibits cell proliferation. Thus, we identified a specific amino acid limitation associated with the TGFβ1 response, a vulnerability that might be associated with aggressiveness in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  10. Uncovering Heavily Obscured AGN with WISE and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M.; Yan, Wei; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hainline, Kevin N.; NuSTAR Obscured AGN Team

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes gain their mass through accretion as active galactic nuclei (AGN), but it is now clear that a large fraction of this growth is "hidden" behind large columns of gas and dust. Of particular interest are Compton-thick (CT) AGN, with columns NH > 1024 cm-2, that have been difficult to identify using optical or soft X-ray surveys. We will present two studies of heavily obscured AGN that aim to uncover more of the full population of "hidden" growing black holes: (1) Analysis of the spectral energy distributions of millions of galaxies with photometry from WISE (mid-IR), UKIDSS (near-IR), and SDSS (optical), that uncovers large populations of weak or heavily buried AGN, and (2) NuSTAR observations of a sample of candidate highly obscured AGN, selected from WISE and SDSS photometry,and confirmed using SALT and Keck spectroscopy. The NuSTAR data reveal the existence of powerful CT quasars with extremely large columns NH > 1025 cm-2, which may represent a significant fraction of previously hidden black hole growth. This work is supported by NASA grant numbers NNX16AN48G and NNX15AP24G, and the NSF through grant numbers 1515364 and 1554584.

  11. Decreased resting-state brain activity complexity in schizophrenia characterized by both increased regularity and randomness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Albert C; Hong, Chen-Jee; Liou, Yin-Jay; Huang, Kai-Lin; Huang, Chu-Chung; Liu, Mu-En; Lo, Men-Tzung; Huang, Norden E; Peng, Chung-Kang; Lin, Ching-Po; Tsai, Shih-Jen

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous pathophysiology. Using multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis, which enables capturing complex dynamics of time series, we characterized MSE patterns of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals across different time scales and determined whether BOLD activity in patients with schizophrenia exhibits increased complexity (increased entropy in all time scales), decreased complexity toward regularity (decreased entropy in all time scales), or decreased complexity toward uncorrelated randomness (high entropy in short time scales followed by decayed entropy as the time scale increases). We recruited 105 patients with schizophrenia with an age of onset between 18 and 35 years and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Results showed that MSE of BOLD signals in patients with schizophrenia exhibited two routes of decreased BOLD complexity toward either regular or random patterns. Reduced BOLD complexity toward regular patterns was observed in the cerebellum and temporal, middle, and superior frontal regions, and reduced BOLD complexity toward randomness was observed extensively in the inferior frontal, occipital, and postcentral cortices as well as in the insula and middle cingulum. Furthermore, we determined that the two types of complexity change were associated differently with psychopathology; specifically, the regular type of BOLD complexity change was associated with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, whereas the randomness type of BOLD complexity was associated with negative symptoms of the illness. These results collectively suggested that resting-state dynamics in schizophrenia exhibit two routes of pathologic change toward regular or random patterns, which contribute to the differences in syndrome domains of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Uncovering Neuronal Networks Defined by Consistent Between-Neuron Spike Timing from Neuronal Spike Recordings

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Abstract It is widely assumed that distributed neuronal networks are fundamental to the functioning of the brain. Consistent spike timing between neurons is thought to be one of the key principles for the formation of these networks. This can involve synchronous spiking or spiking with time delays, forming spike sequences when the order of spiking is consistent. Finding networks defined by their sequence of time-shifted spikes, denoted here as spike timing networks, is a tremendous challenge. As neurons can participate in multiple spike sequences at multiple between-spike time delays, the possible complexity of networks is prohibitively large. We present a novel approach that is capable of (1) extracting spike timing networks regardless of their sequence complexity, and (2) that describes their spiking sequences with high temporal precision. We achieve this by decomposing frequency-transformed neuronal spiking into separate networks, characterizing each network’s spike sequence by a time delay per neuron, forming a spike sequence timeline. These networks provide a detailed template for an investigation of the experimental relevance of their spike sequences. Using simulated spike timing networks, we show network extraction is robust to spiking noise, spike timing jitter, and partial occurrences of the involved spike sequences. Using rat multineuron recordings, we demonstrate the approach is capable of revealing real spike timing networks with sub-millisecond temporal precision. By uncovering spike timing networks, the prevalence, structure, and function of complex spike sequences can be investigated in greater detail, allowing us to gain a better understanding of their role in neuronal functioning. PMID:29789811

  13. Archaeology for Kids: Uncovering the Mysteries of Our Past--25 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panchyk, Richard

    This book provides 25 activities giving children hands-on archeological experience, teaches how archaeologists work, and shows what they have discovered from digging up prehistoric bones between the time when dinosaurs roamed the earth to the uncovering of modern artifacts at a contemporary office building. Ancient civilizations come to life as…

  14. Complementary Proteomic and Biochemical Analysis of Peptidases in Lobster Gastric Juice Uncovers the Functional Role of Individual Enzymes in Food Digestion.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Craik, Charles S; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Crustaceans are a diverse group, distributed in widely variable environmental conditions for which they show an equally extensive range of biochemical adaptations. Some digestive enzymes have been studied by purification/characterization approaches. However, global analysis is crucial to understand how digestive enzymes interplay. Here, we present the first proteomic analysis of the digestive fluid from a crustacean (Homarus americanus) and identify glycosidases and peptidases as the most abundant classes of hydrolytic enzymes. The digestion pathway of complex carbohydrates was predicted by comparing the lobster enzymes to similar enzymes from other crustaceans. A novel and unbiased substrate profiling approach was used to uncover the global proteolytic specificity of gastric juice and determine the contribution of cysteine and aspartic acid peptidases. These enzymes were separated by gel electrophoresis and their individual substrate specificities uncovered from the resulting gel bands. This new technique is called zymoMSP. Each cysteine peptidase cleaves a set of unique peptide bonds and the S2 pocket determines their substrate specificity. Finally, affinity chromatography was used to enrich for a digestive cathepsin D1 to compare its substrate specificity and cold-adapted enzymatic properties to mammalian enzymes. We conclude that the H. americanus digestive peptidases may have useful therapeutic applications, due to their cold-adaptation properties and ability to hydrolyze collagen.

  15. IMAGE: Simulation for Understanding Complex Situations and Increasing Future Force Agility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    IMAGE: SIMULATION FOR UNDERSTANDING COMPLEX SITUATIONS AND INCREASING FUTURE FORCE AGILITY Michel Lizotte, François Bernier, Marielle Mokhtari ...Valcartier TM, 2008. [Bernier et al., 2007] Bernier, F., Boivin, E., DuCharme, M., Lizotte, M., Mokhtari , M., Pestov, I., and Pous- sart, D., Selection

  16. Increasing morphological complexity in multiple parallel lineages of the Crustacea

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Sarah J.; Purvis, Andy; Wills, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    The prospect of finding macroevolutionary trends and rules in the history of life is tremendously appealing, but very few pervasive trends have been found. Here, we demonstrate a parallel increase in the morphological complexity of most of the deep lineages within a major clade. We focus on the Crustacea, measuring the morphological differentiation of limbs. First, we show a clear trend of increasing complexity among 66 free-living, ordinal-level taxa from the Phanerozoic fossil record. We next demonstrate that this trend is pervasive, occurring in 10 or 11 of 12 matched-pair comparisons (across five morphological diversity indices) between extinct Paleozoic and related Recent taxa. This clearly differentiates the pattern from the effects of lineage sorting. Furthermore, newly appearing taxa tend to have had more types of limbs and a higher degree of limb differentiation than the contemporaneous average, whereas those going extinct showed higher-than-average limb redundancy. Patterns of contemporary species diversity partially reflect the paleontological trend. These results provide a rare demonstration of a large-scale and probably driven trend occurring across multiple independent lineages and influencing both the form and number of species through deep time and in the present day. PMID:18347335

  17. Application of fuzzy c-means clustering to PRTR chemicals uncovering their release and toxicity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Xue, Mianqiang; Zhou, Liang; Kojima, Naoya; Dos Muchangos, Leticia Sarmento; Machimura, Takashi; Tokai, Akihiro

    2018-05-01

    Increasing manufacture and usage of chemicals have not been matched by the increase in our understanding of their risks. Pollutant release and transfer register (PRTR) is becoming a popular measure for collecting chemical data and enhancing the public right to know. However, these data are usually in high dimensionality which restricts their wider use. The present study partitions Japanese PRTR chemicals into five fuzzy clusters by fuzzy c-mean clustering (FCM) to explore the implicit information. Each chemical with membership degrees belongs to each cluster. Cluster I features high releases from non-listed industries and the household sector and high environmental toxicity. Cluster II is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold, mutagenicity, and high environmental toxicity. Chemicals in cluster III have characteristics of high releases from non-listed industries and low toxicity. Cluster IV is characterized by high reported releases and transfers from 24 listed industries above the threshold and extremely high environmental toxicity. Cluster V is characterized by low releases yet mutagenicity and high carcinogenicity. Chemicals with the highest membership degree were identified as representatives for each cluster. For the highest membership degree, half of the chemicals have a value higher than 0.74. If we look at both the highest and the second highest membership degrees simultaneously, about 94% of the chemicals have a value higher than 0.5. FCM can serve as an approach to uncover the implicit information of highly complex chemical dataset, which subsequently supports the strategy development for efficient and effective chemical management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of complex carbohydrate catabolism in the pathogenesis of invasive streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Shelburne, Samuel A.; Davenport, Michael T.; Keith, David B.; Musser, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the study of bacterial catabolism of complex carbohydrates has contributed to understanding basic bacterial physiology. Recently, however, genome-wide screens of streptococcal pathogenesis have identified genes encoding proteins involved in complex carbohydrate catabolism as participating in pathogen infectivity. Subsequent studies have focused on specific mechanisms by which carbohydrate utilization proteins might contribute to the ability of streptococci to colonize and infect the host. Moreover, transcriptome and biochemical analyses have uncovered novel regulatory pathways by which streptococci link environmental carbohydrate availability to virulence factor production. Herein we review new insights into the role of complex carbohydrates in streptococcal host-pathogen interaction. PMID:18508271

  19. A chemical family-based strategy for uncovering hidden bioactive molecules and multicomponent interactions in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui-Peng; Wu, Si-Qi; Hao, Haiping; Chen, Jun; Lu, Jun; Xu, Xiaojun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-03-30

    Two concepts involving natural products were proposed and demonstrated in this paper. (1) Natural product libraries (e.g. herbal extract) are not perfect for bioactivity screening because of the vast complexity of compound compositions, and thus a library reconstruction procedure is necessary before screening. (2) The traditional mode of "screening single compound" could be improved to "screening single compound, drug combination and multicomponent interaction" due to the fact that herbal medicines work by integrative effects of multi-components rather than single effective constituents. Based on the two concepts, we established a novel strategy aiming to make screening easier and deeper. Using thrombin as the model enzyme, we firstly uncovered the minor lead compounds, potential drug combinations and multicomponent interactions in an herbal medicine of Dan-Qi pair, showing a significant advantage over previous methods. This strategy was expected to be a new and promising mode for investigation of herbal medicines.

  20. Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hazawa, Masaharu; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Saotome-Nakamura, Ai

    Highlights: • Radiation increases cellular uptake of exosomes. • Radiation induces colocalization of CD29 and CD81. • Exosomes selectively bind the CD29/CD81 complex. • Radiation increases the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. - Abstract: Exosomes mediate intercellular communication, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) or their secreted exosomes affect a number of pathophysiologic states. Clinical applications of MSC and exosomes are increasingly anticipated. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic tool for a number of various conditions. The cellular uptake mechanisms of exosomes and the effects of radiation on exosome–cell interactions are crucial, but they are not well understood.more » Here we examined the basic mechanisms and effects of radiation on exosome uptake processes in MSC. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes. Radiation markedly enhanced the initial cellular attachment to exosomes and induced the colocalization of integrin CD29 and tetraspanin CD81 on the cell surface without affecting their expression levels. Exosomes dominantly bound to the CD29/CD81 complex. Knockdown of CD29 completely inhibited the radiation-induced uptake, and additional or single knockdown of CD81 inhibited basal uptake as well as the increase in radiation-induced uptake. We also examined possible exosome uptake processes affected by radiation. Radiation-induced changes did not involve dynamin2, reactive oxygen species, or their evoked p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent endocytic or pinocytic pathways. Radiation increased the cellular uptake of exosomes through CD29/CD81 complex formation. These findings provide essential basic insights for potential therapeutic applications of exosomes or MSC in combination with radiation.« less

  1. Comparison of ixekizumab with etanercept or placebo in moderate-to-severe psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3): results from two phase 3 randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Christopher E M; Reich, Kristian; Lebwohl, Mark; van de Kerkhof, Peter; Paul, Carle; Menter, Alan; Cameron, Gregory S; Erickson, Janelle; Zhang, Lu; Secrest, Roberta J; Ball, Susan; Braun, Daniel K; Osuntokun, Olawale O; Heffernan, Michael P; Nickoloff, Brian J; Papp, Kim

    2015-08-08

    Ixekizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody against the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 17A. We report two studies of ixekizumab compared with placebo or etanercept to assess the safety and efficacy of specifically targeting interleukin 17A in patients with widespread moderate-to-severe psoriasis. In two prospective, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3 studies (UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3), eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had a confirmed diagnosis of chronic plaque psoriasis at least 6 months before baseline (randomisation), 10% or greater body-surface area involvement at both screening and baseline visits, at least a moderate clinical severity as measured by a static physician global assessment (sPGA) score of 3 or more, and a psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score of 12. Participants were randomly assigned (1:2:2:2) by computer-generated random sequence with an interactive voice response system to receive subcutaneous placebo, etanercept (50 mg twice weekly), or one injection of 80 mg ixekizumab every 2 weeks, or every 4 weeks after a 160 mg starting dose. Blinding was maintained with a double-dummy design. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were proportions of patients achieving sPGA score 0 or 1 and 75% or greater improvement in PASI at week 12. Analysis was by intention to treat. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01597245 and NCT01646177. Between May 30, 2012, and Dec 30, 2013, 1224 patients in UNCOVER-2 were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous placebo (n=168), etanercept (n=358), or ixekizumab every 2 weeks (n=351) or every 4 weeks (n=347); between Aug 11, 2012, and Feb 27, 2014, 1346 patients in UNCOVER-3 were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=193), etanercept (n=382), ixekizumab every 2 weeks (n=385), or ixekizumab every 4 weeks (n=386). At week 12, both primary endpoints were met in both studies. For UNCOVER-2 and UNCOVER-3 respectively, in the ixekizumab every 2 weeks group, PASI 75 was achieved

  2. Partially covered metal stents have longer patency than uncovered and fully covered metal stents in the management of distal malignant biliary obstruction: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yudai; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Takano, Shinichi; Kadokura, Makoto; Shindo, Hiroko; Takahashi, Ei; Hirose, Sumio; Kawakami, Satoshi; Fukasawa, Yoshimitsu; Sato, Tadashi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2017-10-11

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are widely used for malignant biliary obstructions. Nitinol-covered SEMSs have been developed to improve stent patency. Currently, SEMSs may be uncovered, partially covered, or fully covered; however, there is no consensus on the best stent type for the management of malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Patients with unresectable MDBO receiving SEMS (Wallflex™) were retrospectively analyzed. Time to recurrent biliary obstruction (TRBO) and survival time were compared among the three types of SEMSs. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for stent dysfunction. In total, 101 patients received SEMSs for unresectable MDBO (44 uncovered, 28 partially covered, and 29 fully covered SEMSs). Median survival time was 200, 168, and 276 days in the uncovered, partially covered, and fully covered SEMSs groups, respectively. There were no differences in survival among the three groups. Median TRBO was 199, 444, and 194 days in the uncovered, partially covered, and fully covered SEMSs groups, respectively. Partially covered SEMSs had longer TRBO than uncovered (p = 0.013) and fully covered (p = 0.010) SEMSs. Tumor ingrowth occurred only with uncovered SEMSs and stent migration occurred only with fully covered SEMSs. Multivariate analyses confirmed that partially covered SEMSs have lower risk of dysfunction. Partially covered SEMSs with a proximal uncovered flared end have longer patency than uncovered and fully covered SEMSs by preventing tumor ingrowth and stent migration.

  3. Community structure from spectral properties in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servedio, V. D. P.; Colaiori, F.; Capocci, A.; Caldarelli, G.

    2005-06-01

    We analyze the spectral properties of complex networks focusing on their relation to the community structure, and develop an algorithm based on correlations among components of different eigenvectors. The algorithm applies to general weighted networks, and, in a suitably modified version, to the case of directed networks. Our method allows to correctly detect communities in sharply partitioned graphs, however it is useful to the analysis of more complex networks, without a well defined cluster structure, as social and information networks. As an example, we test the algorithm on a large scale data-set from a psychological experiment of free word association, where it proves to be successful both in clustering words, and in uncovering mental association patterns.

  4. Uncovering Oscillations, Complexity, and Chaos in Chemical Kinetics Using Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. M. C.; Ferreira, W. C., Jr.; Lino, A. C. S.; Porto, M. E. G.

    1999-06-01

    Unlike reactions with no peculiar temporal behavior, in oscillatory reactions concentrations can rise and fall spontaneously in a cyclic or disorganized fashion. In this article, the software Mathematica is used for a theoretical study of kinetic mechanisms of oscillating and chaotic reactions. A first simple example is introduced through a three-step reaction, called the Lotka model, which exhibits a temporal behavior characterized by damped oscillations. The phase plane method of dynamic systems theory is introduced for a geometric interpretation of the reaction kinetics without solving the differential rate equations. The equations are later numerically solved using the built-in routine NDSolve and the results are plotted. The next example, still with a very simple mechanism, is the Lotka-Volterra model reaction, which oscillates indefinitely. The kinetic process and rate equations are also represented by a three-step reaction mechanism. The most important difference between this and the former reaction is that the undamped oscillation has two autocatalytic steps instead of one. The periods of oscillations are obtained by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-a well-known tool in spectroscopy, although not so common in this context. In the last section, it is shown how a simple model of biochemical interactions can be useful to understand the complex behavior of important biological systems. The model consists of two allosteric enzymes coupled in series and activated by its own products. This reaction scheme is important for explaining many metabolic mechanisms, such as the glycolytic oscillations in muscles, yeast glycolysis, and the periodic synthesis of cyclic AMP. A few of many possible dynamic behaviors are exemplified through a prototype glycolytic enzymatic reaction proposed by Decroly and Goldbeter. By simply modifying the initial concentrations, limit cycles, chaos, and birhythmicity are computationally obtained and visualized.

  5. Response Times to Stimuli of Increasing Complexity as a Function of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, T. C.; Rabbitt, P. M. A.

    1977-01-01

    These experiments consider the effects of aging on response times to stimuli of increasing complexity in serial choice RT tasks, whether age differences were reduced or abolished on such tasks, and examines repetition effects of a particular coding rule. (Author/RK)

  6. Managing Increasing Complexity in Undergraduate Digital Media Design Education: The Impact and Benefits of Multidisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Katja; Daniel, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Increasing complexity is one of the most pertinent issues when discussing the role and future of design, designers and their education. The evolving nature of digital media technology has resulted in a profession in a state of flux with increasingly complex communication and design problems. The ability to collaborate and interact with other…

  7. Uncovering Pre-Service Teacher Beliefs about Young Children: A Photographic Elicitation Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Davis, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This illustrative paper provides an introduction to using mixed qualitative methods of photo-elicitation, face to face interviews and semiotic analysis to uncover pre-service students' beliefs about young children. The researchers share their experience on conducting a study using photo-elicitation and engaging pre-service teachers in a discussion…

  8. Clustering high-dimensional mixed data to uncover sub-phenotypes: joint analysis of phenotypic and genotypic data.

    PubMed

    McParland, D; Phillips, C M; Brennan, L; Roche, H M; Gormley, I C

    2017-12-10

    The LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX study, like many others, recorded high-dimensional continuous phenotypic data and categorical genotypic data. LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX focuses on the need to account for both phenotypic and genetic factors when studying the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a complex disorder that can lead to higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Interest lies in clustering the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants into homogeneous groups or sub-phenotypes, by jointly considering their phenotypic and genotypic data, and in determining which variables are discriminatory. A novel latent variable model that elegantly accommodates high dimensional, mixed data is developed to cluster LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX participants using a Bayesian finite mixture model. A computationally efficient variable selection algorithm is incorporated, estimation is via a Gibbs sampling algorithm and an approximate BIC-MCMC criterion is developed to select the optimal model. Two clusters or sub-phenotypes ('healthy' and 'at risk') are uncovered. A small subset of variables is deemed discriminatory, which notably includes phenotypic and genotypic variables, highlighting the need to jointly consider both factors. Further, 7 years after the LIPGENE-SU.VI.MAX data were collected, participants underwent further analysis to diagnose presence or absence of the MetS. The two uncovered sub-phenotypes strongly correspond to the 7-year follow-up disease classification, highlighting the role of phenotypic and genotypic factors in the MetS and emphasising the potential utility of the clustering approach in early screening. Additionally, the ability of the proposed approach to define the uncertainty in sub-phenotype membership at the participant level is synonymous with the concepts of precision medicine and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pilot testing model to uncover industrial symbiosis in Brazilian industrial clusters.

    PubMed

    Saraceni, Adriana Valélia; Resende, Luis Mauricio; de Andrade Júnior, Pedro Paulo; Pontes, Joseane

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to create a pilot model to uncover industrial symbiosis practices in Brazilian industrial clusters. For this purpose, a systematic revision was conducted in journals selected from two categories of the ISI Web of Knowledge: Engineering, Environmental and Engineering, Industrial. After an in-depth revision of literature, results allowed the creation of an analysis structure. A methodology based on fuzzy logic was applied and used to attribute the weights of industrial symbiosis variables. It was thus possible to extract the intensity indicators of the interrelations required to analyse the development level of each correlation between the variables. Determination of variables and their weights initially resulted in a framework for the theory of industrial symbiosis assessments. Research results allowed the creation of a pilot model that could precisely identify the loopholes or development levels in each sphere. Ontology charts for data analysis were also generated. This study contributes to science by presenting the foundations for building an instrument that enables application and compilation of the pilot model, in order to identify opportunity to symbiotic development, which derives from "uncovering" existing symbioses.

  10. A Combined Computational and Genetic Approach Uncovers Network Interactions of the Cyanobacterial Circadian Clock.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Joseph S; Cheng, Ryan R; Paddock, Mark L; Sancar, Cigdem; Morcos, Faruck; Golden, Susan S

    2016-09-15

    confirmed known interactions and revealed a core set of subnetworks within the larger HK-RR set. We validated high-scoring candidate proteins via combinatorial genetics, demonstrating that DCA can be utilized to reduce the search space of complex protein networks and to infer undiscovered specific interactions for signaling proteins in vivo Significantly, new interactions that link circadian response to cell division and fitness in a light/dark cycle were uncovered. The combined analysis also uncovered a more basic core clock, illustrating the synergy and applicability of a combined computational and genetic approach for investigating prokaryotic signaling networks. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Communication complexity and information complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  12. A Teachable Moment Uncovered by Video Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Early in their study of one-dimensional kinematics, my students build an algebraic model that describes the effects of a rolling ball's (perpendicular) collision with a wall. The goal is for the model to predict the ball's velocity when it returns to a fixed point approximately 50-100 cm from the wall as a function of its velocity as it passes this point initially. They are told to assume that the ball's velocity does not change while it rolls to or from the wall—that the velocity change all happens very quickly and only at the wall. In order to evaluate this assumption following the data collection, I have the students analyze one such collision using video analysis. The results uncover an excellent teachable moment about assumptions and their impact on models and error analysis.

  13. What Makes Professional Development Coherent? Uncovering Teacher Perspectives on a Science Literacy Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohnen, Angela M.; Whitacre, Michelle P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the authors sought to uncover the characteristics of professional development (PD) that were identified by teacher-participants as being important to their implementation of project ideas. Using phenomenological interviewing, the authors talked with nine teacher-participants about changes to their teaching practices after they…

  14. Activities for Challenging Gifted Learners by Increasing Complexity in the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeone, Alyssa; Caruso, Lenora; Bettle, Kailyn; Chase, Ashley; Bryson, Bridget; Schneider, Jean S.; Rule, Audrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Gifted learners need opportunities for critical and creative thinking to stretch their minds and imaginations. Strategies for increasing complexity in the four core areas of language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies were addressed using the Common Core and Iowa Core Standards through several methods. Descriptive adjective object…

  15. Uncovering Highly-Excited State Mixing in Acetone Using Ultrafast VUV Pulses and Coincidence Imaging Techniques

    DOE PAGES

    Couch, David E.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.; ...

    2017-03-17

    Here, understanding the ultrafast dynamics of highly-excited electronic states of small molecules is critical for a better understanding of atmospheric and astrophysical processes, as well as for designing coherent control strategies for manipulating chemical dynamics. In highly excited states, nonadiabatic coupling, electron-electron interactions, and the high density of states govern dynamics. However, these states are computationally and experimentally challenging to access. Fortunately, new sources of ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet pulses, in combination with electron-ion coincidence spectroscopies, provide new tools to unravel the complex electronic landscape. Here we report time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments using 8 eV pump photons to study the highlymore » excited states of acetone. We uncover for the first time direct evidence that the resulting excited state consists of a mixture of both n y → 3p and π → π* character, which decays with a time constant of 330 fs. In the future, this approach can inform models of VUV photochemistry and aid in designing coherent control strategies for manipulating chemical reactions.« less

  16. Uncovering Highly-Excited State Mixing in Acetone Using Ultrafast VUV Pulses and Coincidence Imaging Techniques

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Couch, David E.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret M.

    Here, understanding the ultrafast dynamics of highly-excited electronic states of small molecules is critical for a better understanding of atmospheric and astrophysical processes, as well as for designing coherent control strategies for manipulating chemical dynamics. In highly excited states, nonadiabatic coupling, electron-electron interactions, and the high density of states govern dynamics. However, these states are computationally and experimentally challenging to access. Fortunately, new sources of ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet pulses, in combination with electron-ion coincidence spectroscopies, provide new tools to unravel the complex electronic landscape. Here we report time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence experiments using 8 eV pump photons to study the highlymore » excited states of acetone. We uncover for the first time direct evidence that the resulting excited state consists of a mixture of both n y → 3p and π → π* character, which decays with a time constant of 330 fs. In the future, this approach can inform models of VUV photochemistry and aid in designing coherent control strategies for manipulating chemical reactions.« less

  17. Comparison of outcomes among secondary covered metallic, uncovered metallic, and plastic biliary stents in treating occluded primary metallic stents in malignant distal biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Hee; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Jeong Youp; Kim, Hee Man; Kim, Yoon Jae; Park, Seung Woo; Chung, Jae Bock; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2011-02-01

    The self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been widely used for unresectable malignant biliary obstruction but eventually becomes occluded by tumor ingrowth/overgrowth and sludge. Therefore, we aimed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of secondary stents and to find differences according to various combinations of the first and second stents for the management of occluded SEMSs in patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction. Between 1999 and November 2008, 77 patients with malignant biliary obstruction underwent secondary biliary stent placement as "stent-in-stent" at three university hospitals in Korea (40 covered, 26 uncovered, and 11 plastic stents). The membrane of the covered SEMS was regarded as the barrier against tumor ingrowth. We categorized the patients into three groups based on whether the covered SEMS was either the first or the second stent: membrane-SEMS (18 covered-covered; 9 covered-uncovered; 22 uncovered-covered SEMS), bare-SEMS (17 uncovered-uncovered SEMS), and plastic stent (3 covered-plastic; 8 uncovered-plastic). The median patency of second stents was 138, 109, and 88 days (covered, uncovered, and plastic stents). The second covered SEMSs had a significantly longer patency than plastic stents (p=0.047). In a multivariate analysis including membrane-SEMS, bare-SEMS, and plastic stent groups, the bare-SEMS had a worse cumulative stent patency (HR=2.04, CI=1.08-3.86) and survival time (HR=2.37, CI=1.25-4.49) than the membrane-SEMS. Patients with ampulla of Vater cancer had better stent patency (HR=0.27, CI=0.08-0.98) and survival (HR=0.17, CI=0.04-0.77) than those with other pancreatobiliary malignancies. In addition, antitumor treatment prolonged survival time (HR=0.50, CI=0.26-0.99). The placement of additional biliary stents using the "stent-in-stent" method is an effective treatment for an occluded metallic primary stent. In addition, double biliary SEMS placement using at least one covered SEMS (in the primary and

  18. Increased spontaneous MEG signal diversity for psychoactive doses of ketamine, LSD and psilocybin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartner, Michael M.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2017-04-01

    What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes. This increase is most pronounced for the single-channel LZ complexity measure, and hence for temporal, as opposed to spatial, signal diversity. We also uncover selective correlations between changes in signal diversity and phenomenological reports of the intensity of psychedelic experience. This is the first time that these measures have been applied to the psychedelic state and, crucially, that they have yielded values exceeding those of normal waking consciousness. These findings suggest that the sustained occurrence of psychedelic phenomenology constitutes an elevated level of consciousness - as measured by neural signal diversity.

  19. Increased spontaneous MEG signal diversity for psychoactive doses of ketamine, LSD and psilocybin

    PubMed Central

    Schartner, Michael M.; Carhart-Harris, Robin L.; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D.

    2017-01-01

    What is the level of consciousness of the psychedelic state? Empirically, measures of neural signal diversity such as entropy and Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity score higher for wakeful rest than for states with lower conscious level like propofol-induced anesthesia. Here we compute these measures for spontaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals from humans during altered states of consciousness induced by three psychedelic substances: psilocybin, ketamine and LSD. For all three, we find reliably higher spontaneous signal diversity, even when controlling for spectral changes. This increase is most pronounced for the single-channel LZ complexity measure, and hence for temporal, as opposed to spatial, signal diversity. We also uncover selective correlations between changes in signal diversity and phenomenological reports of the intensity of psychedelic experience. This is the first time that these measures have been applied to the psychedelic state and, crucially, that they have yielded values exceeding those of normal waking consciousness. These findings suggest that the sustained occurrence of psychedelic phenomenology constitutes an elevated level of consciousness - as measured by neural signal diversity. PMID:28422113

  20. Community of protein complexes impacts disease association

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianghu; Liu, Weisha; Ning, Shangwei; Ye, Jingrun; Huang, Teng; Li, Yan; Wang, Peng; Shi, Hongbo; Li, Xia

    2012-01-01

    One important challenge in the post-genomic era is uncovering the relationships among distinct pathophenotypes by using molecular signatures. Given the complex functional interdependencies between cellular components, a disease is seldom the consequence of a defect in a single gene product, instead reflecting the perturbations of a group of closely related gene products that carry out specific functions together. Therefore, it is meaningful to explore how the community of protein complexes impacts disease associations. Here, by integrating a large amount of information from protein complexes and the cellular basis of diseases, we built a human disease network in which two diseases are linked if they share common disease-related protein complex. A systemic analysis revealed that linked disease pairs exhibit higher comorbidity than those that have no links, and that the stronger association two diseases have based on protein complexes, the higher comorbidity they are prone to display. Moreover, more connected diseases tend to be malignant, which have high prevalence. We provide novel disease associations that cannot be identified through previous analysis. These findings will potentially provide biologists and clinicians new insights into the etiology, classification and treatment of diseases. PMID:22549411

  1. Continually emerging mechanistic complexity of the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven P; Bayer, Edward A; Czjzek, Mirjam

    2017-06-01

    The robust plant cell wall polysaccharide-degrading properties of anaerobic bacteria are harnessed within elegant, marcomolecular assemblages called cellulosomes, in which proteins of complementary activities amass on scaffold protein networks. Research efforts have focused and continue to focus on providing detailed mechanistic insights into cellulosomal complex assembly, topology, and function. The accumulated information is expanding our fundamental understanding of the lignocellulosic biomass decomposition process and enhancing the potential of engineered cellulosomal systems for biotechnological purposes. Ongoing biochemical studies continue to reveal unexpected functional diversity within traditional cellulase families. Genomic, proteomic, and functional analyses have uncovered unanticipated cellulosomal proteins that augment the function of the native and designer cellulosomes. In addition, complementary structural and computational methods are continuing to provide much needed insights on the influence of cellulosomal interdomain linker regions on cellulosomal assembly and activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Missing heritability and strategies for finding the underlying causes of complex disease

    PubMed Central

    Eichler, Evan E.; Flint, Jonathan; Gibson, Greg; Kong, Augustine; Leal, Suzanne M.; Moore, Jason H.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    Although recent genome-wide studies have provided valuable insights into the genetic basis of human disease, they have explained relatively little of the heritability of most complex traits, and the variants identified through these studies have small effect sizes. This has led to the important and hotly debated issue of where the ‘missing heritability’ of complex diseases might be found. Here, seven leading geneticists offer their opinion about where this heritability is likely to lie, what this could tell us about the underlying genetic architecture of common diseases and how this could inform research strategies for uncovering genetic risk factors. PMID:20479774

  3. Impact of environment on dynamics of exciton complexes in a WS2 monolayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubczyk, Tomasz; Nogajewski, Karol; Molas, Maciej R.; Bartos, Miroslav; Langbein, Wolfgang; Potemski, Marek; Kasprzak, Jacek

    2018-07-01

    Scientific curiosity to uncover original optical properties and functionalities of atomically thin semiconductors, stemming from unusual Coulomb interactions in the two-dimensional geometry and multi-valley band structure, drives the research on monolayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). While recent works ascertained the exotic energetic schemes of exciton complexes in TMDs, we here infer their unusual coherent dynamics occurring on subpicosecond time scale. The dynamics is largely affected by the disorder landscape on the submicron scale, thus can be uncovered using four-wave mixing in the frequency domain, which enables microscopic investigations and imaging. Focusing on a WS2 monolayer, we observe that exciton coherence is lost primarily due to interaction with phonons and relaxation processes towards optically dark excitonic states. Notably, when temperature is low and disorder weak, excitons large coherence volume results in enhanced oscillator strength, allowing to reach the regime of radiatively limited dephasing. Additionally, we observe long valley coherence for the negatively charged exciton complex. We therefore elucidate the crucial role of exciton environment in the TMDs on its dynamics and show that revealed mechanisms are ubiquitous within this family.

  4. Uncovering the Connection Between Low-Frequency Dynamics and Phase Transformation Phenomena in Molecular Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Michael T.; Zhang, Wei; Bond, Andrew D.; Mittleman, Daniel M.; Zeitler, J. Axel

    2018-05-01

    The low-frequency motions of molecules in the condensed phase have been shown to be vital to a large number of physical properties and processes. However, in the case of disordered systems, it is often difficult to elucidate the atomic-level details surrounding these phenomena. In this work, we have performed an extensive experimental and computational study on the molecular solid camphor, which exhibits a rich and complex structure-dynamics relationship, and undergoes an order-disorder transition near ambient conditions. The combination of x-ray diffraction, variable temperature and pressure terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics, and periodic density functional theory calculations enables a complete picture of the phase transition to be obtained, inclusive of mechanistic, structural, and thermodynamic phenomena. Additionally, the low-frequency vibrations of a disordered solid are characterized for the first time with atomic-level precision, uncovering a clear link between such motions and the phase transformation. Overall, this combination of methods allows for significant details to be obtained for disordered solids and the associated transformations, providing a framework that can be directly applied for a wide range of similar systems.

  5. Uncovering the Connection Between Low-Frequency Dynamics and Phase Transformation Phenomena in Molecular Solids.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Michael T; Zhang, Wei; Bond, Andrew D; Mittleman, Daniel M; Zeitler, J Axel

    2018-05-11

    The low-frequency motions of molecules in the condensed phase have been shown to be vital to a large number of physical properties and processes. However, in the case of disordered systems, it is often difficult to elucidate the atomic-level details surrounding these phenomena. In this work, we have performed an extensive experimental and computational study on the molecular solid camphor, which exhibits a rich and complex structure-dynamics relationship, and undergoes an order-disorder transition near ambient conditions. The combination of x-ray diffraction, variable temperature and pressure terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, ab initio molecular dynamics, and periodic density functional theory calculations enables a complete picture of the phase transition to be obtained, inclusive of mechanistic, structural, and thermodynamic phenomena. Additionally, the low-frequency vibrations of a disordered solid are characterized for the first time with atomic-level precision, uncovering a clear link between such motions and the phase transformation. Overall, this combination of methods allows for significant details to be obtained for disordered solids and the associated transformations, providing a framework that can be directly applied for a wide range of similar systems.

  6. Evolution of Integrated Causal Structures in Animats Exposed to Environments of Increasing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Albantakis, Larissa; Hintze, Arend; Koch, Christof; Adami, Christoph; Tononi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors the evolution of brains that can capture fitness-relevant features of the environment's causal structure. We investigated the evolution of small, adaptive logic-gate networks (“animats”) in task environments where falling blocks of different sizes have to be caught or avoided in a ‘Tetris-like’ game. Solving these tasks requires the integration of sensor inputs and memory. Evolved networks were evaluated using measures of information integration, including the number of evolved concepts and the total amount of integrated conceptual information. The results show that, over the course of the animats' adaptation, i) the number of concepts grows; ii) integrated conceptual information increases; iii) this increase depends on the complexity of the environment, especially on the requirement for sequential memory. These results suggest that the need to capture the causal structure of a rich environment, given limited sensors and internal mechanisms, is an important driving force for organisms to develop highly integrated networks (“brains”) with many concepts, leading to an increase in their internal complexity. PMID:25521484

  7. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Stenting with Uncovered Self-Expandable Metallic Stents in Patients with Malignant Biliary Obstruction - Efficacy and Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pranculis, Andrius; Kievišas, Mantas; Kievišienė, Lina; Vaičius, Artūras; Vanagas, Tomas; Kaupas, Rytis Stasys; Dambrauskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess short- and long-term outcomes of malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) treatment by percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) with uncovered selfexpandable metallic stents (SEMS), and to identify predictors of survival. A nine-year, single-centre study from a prospectively collected database included 222 patients with inoperable MBO treated by PTBS with uncovered nitinol SEMS. Technical and clinical success rates were 95.9% and 82.4%, respectively. The total rate of postprocedural complications was 14.4%. The mean durations of the primary and secondary stent patency were 114.7±15.1 and 146.4±21.2 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 15.3% with no procedure-related deaths. The mean estimated length of survival was 143.3±20.6 days. Independent predictors increasing the risk of death included higher than 115 μmol/L serum bilirubin 2-5 days after biliary stenting (HR 3.274, P =0.019), distal (non-hilar) obstruction of the bile ducts (HR 3.711, P =0.008), Bismuth-Corlette type IV stricture (HR 2.082, P =0.008), obstruction due to gallbladder cancer (HR 31.029, P =0.012) and only partial drainage of liver parenchyma (HR 4.158, P =0.040). PTBS with uncovered SEMS is an effective and safe method for palliative treatment of MBO. Serum bilirubin higher than 115 μmol/L 2-5 days after the procedure has a significant negative impact on patients' survival. Lower survival is also determined by distal bile duct obstruction, Bismuth- Corlette type IV stricture, biliary obstruction caused by gallbladder cancer and when only partial liver drainage is applied.

  8. Argon plasma coagulation in the management of uncovered tracheal stent fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Yiu-Hei; Geck, Robert D.; Andrews, Arthur D.; Rumbak, Mark J.; Camporesi, Enrico M.

    2014-01-01

    Endotracheal and endobronchial stenting, particularly with uncovered stents, can be complicated by stent fracture, granulation tissue formation, direct airway injury, and airway obstruction. While stent removal is possible, it can result in significant complications and long-term benefit is not guaranteed. Argon plasma coagulation can be employed to trim fractured stent fragments and remove granulation tissue simultaneously. In this manuscript, we report a case and describe our experience with using this technique. PMID:26029557

  9. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  10. Micro-navigation in complex periodic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamolly, Alexander; Ishikawa, Takuji; Lauga, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Natural and artificial small-scale swimmers may often self-propel in environments subject to complex geometrical constraints. While most past theoretical work on low-Reynolds number locomotion addressed idealised geometrical situations, not much is known on the motion of swimmers in heterogeneous environments. We investigate theoretically and numerically the behaviour of a single spherical micro-swimmer located in an infinite, periodic body-centred cubic lattice consisting of rigid inert spheres of the same size as the swimmer. We uncover a surprising and complex phase diagram of qualitatively different trajectories depending on the lattice packing density and swimming actuation strength. These results are then rationalised using hydrodynamic theory. In particular we show that the far-field nature of the swimmer (pusher vs. puller) governs the behaviour even at high volume fractions. ERC Grant PhyMeBa (682754, EL); JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (17H00853, TI).

  11. Mild Airflow Limitation during N2 Sleep Increases K-complex Frequency and Slows Electroencephalographic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Chinh D.; Wellman, Andrew; Jordan, Amy S.; Eckert, Danny J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the effects of mild airflow limitation on K-complex frequency and morphology and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power. Methods: Transient reductions in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during stable N2 sleep were performed to induce mild airflow limitation in 20 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 10 healthy controls aged 44 ± 13 y. EEG at C3 and airflow were measured in 1-min windows to quantify K-complex properties and EEG spectral power immediately before and during transient reductions in CPAP. The frequency and morphology (amplitude and latency of P200, N550 and N900 components) of K-complexes and EEG spectral power were compared between conditions. Results: During mild airflow limitation (18% reduction in peak inspiratory airflow from baseline, 0.38 ± 0.11 versus 0.31 ± 0.1 L/sec) insufficient to cause American Academy of Sleep Medicine-defined cortical arousal, K-complex frequency (9.5 ± 4.5 versus 13.7 ± 6.4 per min, P < 0.01), N550 amplitude (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μV, P < 0.01) and EEG spectral power (delta: 147 ± 48 versus 230 ± 99 μV2, P < 0.01 and theta bands: 31 ± 14 versus 34 ± 13 μV2, P < 0.01) significantly increased whereas beta band power decreased (14 ± 5 versus 11 ± 4 μV2, P < 0.01) compared to the preceding non flow-limited period on CPAP. K-complex frequency, morphology, and timing did not differ between patients and controls. Conclusion: Mild airflow limitation increases K-complex frequency, N550 amplitude, and spectral power of delta and theta bands. In addition to providing mechanistic insight into the role of mild airflow limitation on K-complex characteristics and EEG activity, these findings may have important implications for respiratory conditions in which airflow limitation during sleep is common (e.g., snoring and OSA). Citation: Nguyen CD, Wellman A, Jordan AS, Eckert DJ. Mild airflow limitation during N2 sleep increases k-complex frequency and slows

  12. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students.

    PubMed

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  13. Using Text Mining to Uncover Students' Technology-Related Problems in Live Video Streaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…

  14. Dramatic expansion of the black widow toxin arsenal uncovered by multi-tissue transcriptomics and venom proteomics.

    PubMed

    Haney, Robert A; Ayoub, Nadia A; Clarke, Thomas H; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Garb, Jessica E

    2014-06-11

    Animal venoms attract enormous interest given their potential for pharmacological discovery and understanding the evolution of natural chemistries. Next-generation transcriptomics and proteomics provide unparalleled, but underexploited, capabilities for venom characterization. We combined multi-tissue RNA-Seq with mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses to determine venom gland specific transcripts and venom proteins from the Western black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus) and investigated their evolution. We estimated expression of 97,217 L. hesperus transcripts in venom glands relative to silk and cephalothorax tissues. We identified 695 venom gland specific transcripts (VSTs), many of which BLAST and GO term analyses indicate may function as toxins or their delivery agents. ~38% of VSTs had BLAST hits, including latrotoxins, inhibitor cystine knot toxins, CRISPs, hyaluronidases, chitinase, and proteases, and 59% of VSTs had predicted protein domains. Latrotoxins are venom toxins that cause massive neurotransmitter release from vertebrate or invertebrate neurons. We discovered ≥ 20 divergent latrotoxin paralogs expressed in L. hesperus venom glands, significantly increasing this biomedically important family. Mass spectrometry of L. hesperus venom identified 49 proteins from VSTs, 24 of which BLAST to toxins. Phylogenetic analyses showed venom gland specific gene family expansions and shifts in tissue expression. Quantitative expression analyses comparing multiple tissues are necessary to identify venom gland specific transcripts. We present a black widow venom specific exome that uncovers a trove of diverse toxins and associated proteins, suggesting a dynamic evolutionary history. This justifies a reevaluation of the functional activities of black widow venom in light of its emerging complexity.

  15. Computing the origin and evolution of the ribosome from its structure — Uncovering processes of macromolecular accretion benefiting synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo; Caetano-Anollés, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Accretion occurs pervasively in nature at widely different timeframes. The process also manifests in the evolution of macromolecules. Here we review recent computational and structural biology studies of evolutionary accretion that make use of the ideographic (historical, retrodictive) and nomothetic (universal, predictive) scientific frameworks. Computational studies uncover explicit timelines of accretion of structural parts in molecular repertoires and molecules. Phylogenetic trees of protein structural domains and proteomes and their molecular functions were built from a genomic census of millions of encoded proteins and associated terminal Gene Ontology terms. Trees reveal a ‘metabolic-first’ origin of proteins, the late development of translation, and a patchwork distribution of proteins in biological networks mediated by molecular recruitment. Similarly, the natural history of ancient RNA molecules inferred from trees of molecular substructures built from a census of molecular features shows patchwork-like accretion patterns. Ideographic analyses of ribosomal history uncover the early appearance of structures supporting mRNA decoding and tRNA translocation, the coevolution of ribosomal proteins and RNA, and a first evolutionary transition that brings ribosomal subunits together into a processive protein biosynthetic complex. Nomothetic structural biology studies of tertiary interactions and ancient insertions in rRNA complement these findings, once concentric layering assumptions are removed. Patterns of coaxial helical stacking reveal a frustrated dynamics of outward and inward ribosomal growth possibly mediated by structural grafting. The early rise of the ribosomal ‘turnstile’ suggests an evolutionary transition in natural biological computation. Results make explicit the need to understand processes of molecular growth and information transfer of macromolecules. PMID:27096056

  16. Complexity, self-organisation and variation in behaviour in meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, J. M.

    2007-11-01

    River meanders are natural features on the surface of Earth that present some degree of regularity of form. They range from being highly dynamic to being stable under present conditions. Conventional theory is that meanders develop to an equilibrium form which is related to discharge and sediment load. Other research has demonstrated that many highly active meanders exhibit a continuous evolution over time and a non-linearity in rate of development. Ideas of autogenesis and of self-organised criticality as being an explanation of some meander changes have been proposed. In this paper data from rivers around the world are examined for further evidence of autogenic, self-organised or non-linear behaviour through analysis of change in sinuosity over time for reaches and change in individual bend form, particularly bend curvature and bend elongation. Some examples do exhibit trends of increasing sinuosity over time and a few show limits from which large decreases occur. Several case studies show non-linearity of behaviour and increasing complexity of form. Other case studies, however, do not exhibit such trends. Phase space plots are used to help uncover emergent behaviour but show a variety of patterns. The example of a reach in which multiple cut-offs occurred is analysed for mechanisms of self-organisation of the planform and in the pool-riffle pattern. Riffles are more closely spaced and also more transient in the more rapidly changing and higher sinuosity parts of the channel. Hypothetical trajectories of different meander behaviour, including for bedrock meanders, are plotted but the challenge remains to uncover the conditions for occurrence and for divergence of tendencies to stability and instability. Identification of attractors and phase space of behaviour of different meandering systems offer the potential for application to sustainable channel management.

  17. 76 FR 4290 - Uncovered Innerspring Units From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482-1655. Case History With the issuance of the... material and then glued together in a linear fashion. Uncovered innersprings are classified under...

  18. Uncovering study abroad: foreignness and its relevance to nurse education and cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Greatrex-White, Sheila

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports some of the findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research project designed to uncover the nature of the phenomenon 'study abroad' in the context of Nursing Higher Education in the United Kingdom. The research question asked was 'How is study abroad manifest in the experience of nursing students?' Informed by the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, the analysis of 26 study abroad students' diary accounts uncovered six general structures, or ways for study abroad to be, namely; leaving behind, escape, foreigner, self-discovery, learning and risk. The focus here is on the general structure 'foreigner' and the far-reaching implications this can have in terms of understanding how study abroad comes to be. The relationship between study abroad, positive disturbance and the development of students who are able to recognise diversity across different cultures is discussed. It is suggested that if one of the major aims of nurse higher education is the development of culturally competent practitioners, study abroad is deserving of far greater attention than is currently the case.

  19. Complex-valued time-series correlation increases sensitivity in FMRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Kociuba, Mary C; Rowe, Daniel B

    2016-07-01

    To develop a linear matrix representation of correlation between complex-valued (CV) time-series in the temporal Fourier frequency domain, and demonstrate its increased sensitivity over correlation between magnitude-only (MO) time-series in functional MRI (fMRI) analysis. The standard in fMRI is to discard the phase before the statistical analysis of the data, despite evidence of task related change in the phase time-series. With a real-valued isomorphism representation of Fourier reconstruction, correlation is computed in the temporal frequency domain with CV time-series data, rather than with the standard of MO data. A MATLAB simulation compares the Fisher-z transform of MO and CV correlations for varying degrees of task related magnitude and phase amplitude change in the time-series. The increased sensitivity of the complex-valued Fourier representation of correlation is also demonstrated with experimental human data. Since the correlation description in the temporal frequency domain is represented as a summation of second order temporal frequencies, the correlation is easily divided into experimentally relevant frequency bands for each voxel's temporal frequency spectrum. The MO and CV correlations for the experimental human data are analyzed for four voxels of interest (VOIs) to show the framework with high and low contrast-to-noise ratios in the motor cortex and the supplementary motor cortex. The simulation demonstrates the increased strength of CV correlations over MO correlations for low magnitude contrast-to-noise time-series. In the experimental human data, the MO correlation maps are noisier than the CV maps, and it is more difficult to distinguish the motor cortex in the MO correlation maps after spatial processing. Including both magnitude and phase in the spatial correlation computations more accurately defines the correlated left and right motor cortices. Sensitivity in correlation analysis is important to preserve the signal of interest in f

  20. A prospective randomized study for efficacy of an uncovered double bare metal stent compared to a single bare metal stent in malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jik; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Yup; Park, Seung Woo; Nam, Chung Mo; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2017-08-01

    A biliary self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) is commonly used to relieve malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a conventional uncovered SEMS with that of a newly developed uncovered double bare metal stent in reducing the risk of stent occlusion caused by tumor ingrowth. We performed a prospective, open-labeled, randomized trial in 71 patients at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine from June 2013 to June 2014. Patients with inoperable malignant biliary obstruction were included and randomized to receive an uncovered single bare metal stent (SBSs; S&G Biotech Inc.), an uncovered single bare metal stent (SBSt; Taewoong Medical), or an uncovered double bare metal stent (DBS; S&G Biotech Inc.). The mean age was 66.6 years (range, 35-83), and 42 (59.2%) were male. The mean duration of stent patency was 212 days (±152) in the DBS group (n = 24) compared with 124 days (±98) in the SBSs group (n = 23; P = 0.022 for noninferiority) and 116 days (±79) in the SBSt group (n = 24; P = 0.010 for noninferiority). There were no differences in the incidences of early and delayed complications or migration. The newly developed DBS is noninferior to the conventional uncovered SEMSs on duration of stent patency and tumor ingrowth occurred less frequently in the DBS group. This might decrease the need for reintervention and offer a better quality of life. The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov no: NCT01869894.

  1. Breaking into the epithelial apical-junctional complex--news from pathogen hackers.

    PubMed

    Vogelmann, Roger; Amieva, Manuel R; Falkow, Stanley; Nelson, W James

    2004-02-01

    The epithelial apical-junctional complex is a key regulator of cellular functions. In addition, it is an important target for microbial pathogens that manipulate the cell to survive, proliferate and sometimes persist within a host. Out of a myriad of potential molecular targets, some bacterial and viral pathogens have selected a subset of protein targets at the apical-junctional complex of epithelial cells. Studying how microbes use these targets also teaches us about the inherent physiological properties of host molecules in the context of normal junctional structure and function. Thus, we have learned that three recently uncovered components of the apical-junctional complex of the Ig superfamily--junctional adhesion molecule, Nectin and the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor--are important regulators of junction structure and function and represent critical targets of microbial virulence gene products.

  2. Multipulse spectroscopy on the wild-type and YM210W Bacterial Reaction Centre uncovers a new intermediate state in the special pair excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen Stuart, T. A.; van Grondelle, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Bacterial Reaction Centre (BRC) has a complex electronic excited state, P ∗, that evolves into subsequent charge separated product states P +H - and P +B -. Pump-dump-probe spectroscopy on the wild-type BRC and on YM210W, a mutant with a stabilized, long-lived P ∗ excited state, has uncovered a new charge-separated state in both BRC's. When P ∗ is dumped, a fraction of its population is transferred to this state that has a strong Stark shift in the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B M) region which serves as a signature for P + and a lifetime highly comparable to the slow phase of P ∗ decay. This lead us propose this intermediate to be P +/P -.

  3. Community Mapping in Action: Uncovering Resources and Assets for Young Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Community mapping is a promising practice that can assist early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) professionals uncover the depth and diversity of community needs, resources, and learning opportunities, in the neighborhoods surrounding their schools. Community mapping is an inquiry-based method that situates learning in the…

  4. Repeated Listening Increases the Liking for Music Regardless of Its Complexity: Implications for the Appreciation and Aesthetics of Music

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Guy; Schiölde, Gunilla

    2017-01-01

    Psychological and aesthetic theories predict that music is appreciated at optimal, peak levels of familiarity and complexity, and that appreciation of music exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with familiarity as well as complexity. Because increased familiarity conceivably leads to improved processing and less perceived complexity, we test whether there is an interaction between familiarity and complexity. Specifically, increased familiarity should render the music subjectively less complex, and therefore move the apex of the U curve toward greater complexity. A naturalistic listening experiment was conducted, featuring 40 music examples (ME) divided by experts into 4 levels of complexity prior to the main experiment. The MEs were presented 28 times each across a period of approximately 4 weeks, and individual ratings were assessed throughout the experiment. Ratings of liking increased monotonically with repeated listening at all levels of complexity; both the simplest and the most complex MEs were liked more as a function of listening time, without any indication of a U-shaped relation. Although the MEs were previously unknown to the participants, the strongest predictor of liking was familiarity in terms of having listened to similar music before, i.e., familiarity with musical style. We conclude that familiarity is the single most important variable for explaining differences in liking among music, regardless of the complexity of the music. PMID:28408864

  5. Cycloaddition Reactions of Cobalt-Complexed Macrocyclic Alkynes: The Transannular Pauson-Khand Reaction.

    PubMed

    Karabiyikoglu, Sedef; Boon, Byron A; Merlic, Craig A

    2017-08-04

    The Pauson-Khand reaction is a powerful tool for the synthesis of cyclopentenones through the efficient [2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of dicobalt alkyne complexes with alkenes. While intermolecular and intramolecular variants are widely known, transannular versions of this reaction are unknown and the basis of this study. Macrocyclic enyne and dienyne complexes were readily synthesized by palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative macrocyclizations of bis(vinyl boronate esters) or ring-closing metathesis reactions followed by complexation with dicobalt octacarbonyl. Several reaction modalities of these macrocyclic complexes were uncovered. In addition to the first successful transannular Pauson-Khand reactions, other intermolecular and transannular cycloaddition reactions included intermolecular Pauson-Khand reactions, transannular [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions, intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions, and intermolecular [2 + 2 + 1 + 1] cycloaddition reactions. The structural and reaction requirements for each process are presented.

  6. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students †

    PubMed Central

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice. PMID:27158302

  7. Recurrence networks from multivariate signals for uncovering dynamic transitions of horizontal oil-water stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Zhang, Xin-Wang; Jin, Ning-De; Donner, Reik V.; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2013-09-01

    Characterizing the mechanism of drop formation at the interface of horizontal oil-water stratified flows is a fundamental problem eliciting a great deal of attention from different disciplines. We experimentally and theoretically investigate the formation and transition of horizontal oil-water stratified flows. We design a new multi-sector conductance sensor and measure multivariate signals from two different stratified flow patterns. Using the Adaptive Optimal Kernel Time-Frequency Representation (AOK TFR) we first characterize the flow behavior from an energy and frequency point of view. Then, we infer multivariate recurrence networks from the experimental data and investigate the cross-transitivity for each constructed network. We find that the cross-transitivity allows quantitatively uncovering the flow behavior when the stratified flow evolves from a stable state to an unstable one and recovers deeper insights into the mechanism governing the formation of droplets at the interface of stratified flows, a task that existing methods based on AOK TFR fail to work. These findings present a first step towards an improved understanding of the dynamic mechanism leading to the transition of horizontal oil-water stratified flows from a complex-network perspective.

  8. Nitrosative stress uncovers potent β2-adrenergic receptor-linked vasodilation further enhanced by blockade of clathrin endosome formation.

    PubMed

    Frame, Mary D; Dewar, Anthony M; Calizo, Rhodora C; Qifti, Androniqi; Scarlata, Suzanne F

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) preexposure on vasodilation via the β-adrenergic receptor (BAR) system. SNP was used as a nitrosative/oxidative proinflammatory insult. Small arterioles were visualized by intravital microscopy in the hamster cheek pouch tissue (isoflurane, n = 45). Control dilation to isoproterenol (EC 50 : 10 -7 mol/l) became biphasic as a function of concentration after 2 min of exposure to SNP (10 -4 M), with increased potency at picomolar dilation uncovered and decreased efficacy at the micromolar dilation. Control dilation to curcumin was likewise altered after SNP, but only the increased potency at a low dose was uncovered, whereas micromolar dilation was eliminated. The picomolar dilations were blocked by the potent BAR-2 inverse agonist carazolol (10 -9 mol/l). Dynamin inhibition with dynasore mimicked this effect, suggesting that SNP preexposure prevented BAR agonist internalization. Using HeLa cells transfected with BAR-2 tagged with monomeric red fluorescent protein, exposure to 10 -8 -10 -6 mol/l curcumin resulted in internalization and colocalization of BAR-2 and curcumin (FRET) that was prevented by oxidative stress (10 -3 mol/l CoCl 2 ), supporting that stress prevented internalization of the BAR agonist with the micromolar agonist. This study presents novel data supporting that distinct pools of BARs are differentially available after inflammatory insult. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Preexposure to an oxidative/nitrosative proinflammatory insult provides a "protective preconditioning" against future oxidative damage. We examined immediate vasoactive and molecular consequences of a brief preexposure via β-adrenergic receptor signaling in small arterioles. Blocked receptor internalization with elevated reactive oxygen levels coincides with a significant and unexpected vasodilation to β-adrenergic agonists at picomolar doses.

  9. Bounded rationality and voting decisions over 160 years: voter behavior and increasing complexity in decision-making.

    PubMed

    Stadelmann, David; Torgler, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-natural voting experiment encompassing a 160-year period (1848-2009) in Switzerland, we investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on trusted parliamentary representatives. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations when making their decisions. This finding holds true even when we narrow our focus to referenda with a relatively lower voter turnout on days on which more than one referendum is held. We also demonstrate that when constituents face a higher level of complexity, they follow the parliamentary recommendations rather than those of interest groups. "Viewed as a geometric figure, the ant's path is irregular, complex, hard to describe. But its complexity is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant." ( [1] p. 51).

  10. Parasites Affect Food Web Structure Primarily through Increased Diversity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites “dominate” food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization

  11. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Jennifer A.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Martinez, Neo D.; McLaughlin, John P.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B.; Thieltges, David W.; Williams, Richard J.; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites ‘‘dominate’’ food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites’ roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites’ feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic

  12. Parasites affect food web structure primarily through increased diversity and complexity.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Lafferty, Kevin D; Dobson, Andrew P; Hechinger, Ryan F; Kuris, Armand M; Martinez, Neo D; McLaughlin, John P; Mouritsen, Kim N; Poulin, Robert; Reise, Karsten; Stouffer, Daniel B; Thieltges, David W; Williams, Richard J; Zander, Claus Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Comparative research on food web structure has revealed generalities in trophic organization, produced simple models, and allowed assessment of robustness to species loss. These studies have mostly focused on free-living species. Recent research has suggested that inclusion of parasites alters structure. We assess whether such changes in network structure result from unique roles and traits of parasites or from changes to diversity and complexity. We analyzed seven highly resolved food webs that include metazoan parasite data. Our analyses show that adding parasites usually increases link density and connectance (simple measures of complexity), particularly when including concomitant links (links from predators to parasites of their prey). However, we clarify prior claims that parasites "dominate" food web links. Although parasites can be involved in a majority of links, in most cases classic predation links outnumber classic parasitism links. Regarding network structure, observed changes in degree distributions, 14 commonly studied metrics, and link probabilities are consistent with scale-dependent changes in structure associated with changes in diversity and complexity. Parasite and free-living species thus have similar effects on these aspects of structure. However, two changes point to unique roles of parasites. First, adding parasites and concomitant links strongly alters the frequency of most motifs of interactions among three taxa, reflecting parasites' roles as resources for predators of their hosts, driven by trophic intimacy with their hosts. Second, compared to free-living consumers, many parasites' feeding niches appear broader and less contiguous, which may reflect complex life cycles and small body sizes. This study provides new insights about generic versus unique impacts of parasites on food web structure, extends the generality of food web theory, gives a more rigorous framework for assessing the impact of any species on trophic organization

  13. Hidden Stories: Uncovering the Visual Metaphor for Education and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hube, Amy M.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.; Leigh, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Design solutions have become increasingly complex and based on a rapidly growing body of knowledge. In order to articulate a design solution to a client, the graphic use of the design narrative can effectively communicate complex ideas. Two case study interventions were conducted in an interior design program in which students were introduced to…

  14. The proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen uncovers fertility candidate proteins.

    PubMed

    Chao, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Fang; Wang, Yue-Feng; Li, Zhe; Huang, Xia-He; Wang, Ying-Chun; Mei, Ying-Chang; Zhao, Biligen-Gaowa; Li, Liang; Jiang, Yu-Bo; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Maize is unique since it is both monoecious and diclinous (separate male and female flowers on the same plant). We investigated the proteome and phosphoproteome of maize pollen containing modified proteins and here we provide a comprehensive pollen proteome and phosphoproteome which contain 100,990 peptides from 6750 proteins and 5292 phosphorylated sites corresponding to 2257 maize phosphoproteins, respectively. Interestingly, among the total 27 overrepresented phosphosite motifs we identified here, 11 were novel motifs, which suggested different modification mechanisms in plants compared to those of animals. Enrichment analysis of pollen phosphoproteins showed that pathways including DNA synthesis/chromatin structure, regulation of RNA transcription, protein modification, cell organization, signal transduction, cell cycle, vesicle transport, transport of ions and metabolisms, which were involved in pollen development, the following germination and pollen tube growth, were regulated by phosphorylation. In this study, we also found 430 kinases and 105 phosphatases in the maize pollen phosphoproteome, among which calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), leucine rich repeat kinase, SNF1 related protein kinases and MAPK family proteins were heavily enriched and further analyzed. From our research, we also uncovered hundreds of male sterility-associated proteins and phosphoproteins that might influence maize productivity and serve as targets for hybrid maize seed production. At last, a putative complex signaling pathway involving CDPKs, MAPKs, ubiquitin ligases and multiple fertility proteins was constructed. Overall, our data provides new insight for further investigation of protein phosphorylation status in mature maize pollen and construction of maize male sterile mutants in the future.

  15. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  16. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration.

    PubMed

    Zaytsev, Yury V; Morrison, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique.

  17. Increasing quality and managing complexity in neuroinformatics software development with continuous integration

    PubMed Central

    Zaytsev, Yury V.; Morrison, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    High quality neuroscience research requires accurate, reliable and well maintained neuroinformatics applications. As software projects become larger, offering more functionality and developing a denser web of interdependence between their component parts, we need more sophisticated methods to manage their complexity. If complexity is allowed to get out of hand, either the quality of the software or the speed of development suffer, and in many cases both. To address this issue, here we develop a scalable, low-cost and open source solution for continuous integration (CI), a technique which ensures the quality of changes to the code base during the development procedure, rather than relying on a pre-release integration phase. We demonstrate that a CI-based workflow, due to rapid feedback about code integration problems and tracking of code health measures, enabled substantial increases in productivity for a major neuroinformatics project and additional benefits for three further projects. Beyond the scope of the current study, we identify multiple areas in which CI can be employed to further increase the quality of neuroinformatics projects by improving development practices and incorporating appropriate development tools. Finally, we discuss what measures can be taken to lower the barrier for developers of neuroinformatics applications to adopt this useful technique. PMID:23316158

  18. Bounded Rationality and Voting Decisions over 160 Years: Voter Behavior and Increasing Complexity in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, David; Torgler, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Using a quasi-natural voting experiment encompassing a 160-year period (1848–2009) in Switzerland, we investigate whether a higher level of complexity leads to increased reliance on trusted parliamentary representatives. We find that when more referenda are held on the same day, constituents are more likely to refer to parliamentary recommendations when making their decisions. This finding holds true even when we narrow our focus to referenda with a relatively lower voter turnout on days on which more than one referendum is held. We also demonstrate that when constituents face a higher level of complexity, they follow the parliamentary recommendations rather than those of interest groups. “Viewed as a geometric figure, the ant’s path is irregular, complex, hard to describe. But its complexity is really a complexity in the surface of the beach, not a complexity in the ant.” ( [1] p. 51) PMID:24391888

  19. TFIIA changes the conformation of the DNA in TBP/TATA complexes and increases their kinetic stability.

    PubMed

    Hieb, Aaron R; Halsey, Wayne A; Betterton, Meredith D; Perkins, Thomas T; Kugel, Jennifer F; Goodrich, James A

    2007-09-21

    Eukaryotic mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is a highly regulated complex reaction involving numerous proteins. In order to control tissue and promoter specific gene expression, transcription factors must work in concert with each other and with the promoter DNA to form the proper architecture to activate the gene of interest. The TATA binding protein (TBP) binds to TATA boxes in core promoters and bends the TATA DNA. We have used quantitative solution fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and gel-based FRET (gelFRET) to determine the effect of TFIIA on the conformation of the DNA in TBP/TATA complexes and on the kinetic stability of these complexes. Our results indicate that human TFIIA decreases the angle to which human TBP bends consensus TATA DNA from 104 degrees to 80 degrees when calculated using a two-kink model. The kinetic stability of TBP/TATA complexes was greatly reduced by increasing the KCl concentration from 50 mM to 140 mM, which is more physiologically relevant. TFIIA significantly enhanced the kinetic stability of TBP/TATA complexes, thereby attenuating the effect of higher salt concentrations. We also found that TBP bent non-consensus TATA DNA to a lesser degree than consensus TATA DNA and complexes between TBP and a non-consensus TATA box were kinetically unstable even at 50 mM KCl. Interestingly, TFIIA increased the calculated bend angle and kinetic stability of complexes on a non-consensus TATA box, making them similar to those on a consensus TATA box. Our data show that TFIIA induces a conformational change within the TBP/TATA complex that enhances its stability under both in vitro and physiological salt conditions. Furthermore, we present a refined model for the effect that TFIIA has on DNA conformation that takes into account potential changes in bend angle as well as twist angle.

  20. Ruthenium complexes with phenylterpyridine derivatives target cell membrane and trigger death receptors-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiqin; Gao, Pan; Yu, Lianling; Ma, Bin; You, Yuanyuan; Chan, Leung; Mei, Chaoming; Chen, Tianfeng

    2017-06-01

    Elucidation of the communication between metal complexes and cell membrane may provide useful information for rational design of metal-based anticancer drugs. Herein we synthesized a novel class of ruthenium (Ru) complexes containing phtpy derivatives (phtpy = phenylterpyridine), analyzed their structure-activity relationship and revealed their action mechanisms. The result showed that, the increase in the planarity of hydrophobic Ru complexes significantly enhanced their lipophilicity and cellular uptake. Meanwhile, the introduction of nitro group effectively improved their anticancer efficacy. Further mechanism studies revealed that, complex (2c), firstly accumulated on cell membrane and interacted with death receptors to activate extrinsic apoptosis signaling pathway. The complex was then transported into cell cytoplasm through transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis. Most of the intracellular 2c accumulated in cell plasma, decreasing the level of cellular ROS, inducing the activation of caspase-9 and thus intensifying the apoptosis. At the same time, the residual 2c can translocate into cell nucleus to interact with DNA, induce DNA damage, activate p53 pathway and enhance apoptosis. Comparing with cisplatin, 2c possesses prolonged circulation time in blood, comparable antitumor ability and importantly, much lower toxicity in vivo. Taken together, this study uncovers the role of membrane receptors in the anticancer actions of Ru complexes, and provides fundamental information for rational design of membrane receptor targeting anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phospho-ubiquitin-PARK2 complex as a marker for mitophagy defects.

    PubMed

    Callegari, Sylvie; Oeljeklaus, Silke; Warscheid, Bettina; Dennerlein, Sven; Thumm, Michael; Rehling, Peter; Dudek, Jan

    2017-01-02

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase PARK2 and the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are required for the initiation of mitochondrial damage-induced mitophagy. Together, PARK2 and PINK1 generate a phospho-ubiquitin signal on outer mitochondrial membrane proteins that triggers recruitment of the autophagy machinery. This paper describes the detection of a defined 500-kDa phospho-ubiquitin-rich PARK2 complex that accumulates on mitochondria upon treatment with the membrane uncoupler CCCP. Formation of this complex is dependent on the presence of PINK1 and is absent in mutant forms of PARK2, whereby mitophagy is also arrested. These results signify a functional signaling complex that is essential for the progression of mitophagy. The visualization of the PARK2 signaling complex represents a novel marker for this critical step in mitophagy and can be used to monitor mitophagy progression in PARK2 mutants and to uncover additional upstream factors required for PARK2-mediated mitophagy signaling.

  2. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Stenting with Uncovered Self-Expandable Metallic Stents in Patients with Malignant Biliary Obstruction – Efficacy and Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pranculis, Andrius; Kievišienė, Lina; Vaičius, Artūras; Vanagas, Tomas; Kaupas, Rytis Stasys; Dambrauskas, Žilvinas

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this study was to assess short- and long-term outcomes of malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) treatment by percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) with uncovered selfexpandable metallic stents (SEMS), and to identify predictors of survival. Material/Methods A nine-year, single-centre study from a prospectively collected database included 222 patients with inoperable MBO treated by PTBS with uncovered nitinol SEMS. Results Technical and clinical success rates were 95.9% and 82.4%, respectively. The total rate of postprocedural complications was 14.4%. The mean durations of the primary and secondary stent patency were 114.7±15.1 and 146.4±21.2 days, respectively. The 30-day mortality rate was 15.3% with no procedure-related deaths. The mean estimated length of survival was 143.3±20.6 days. Independent predictors increasing the risk of death included higher than 115 μmol/L serum bilirubin 2–5 days after biliary stenting (HR 3.274, P=0.019), distal (non-hilar) obstruction of the bile ducts (HR 3.711, P=0.008), Bismuth-Corlette type IV stricture (HR 2.082, P=0.008), obstruction due to gallbladder cancer (HR 31.029, P=0.012) and only partial drainage of liver parenchyma (HR 4.158, P=0.040). Conclusions PTBS with uncovered SEMS is an effective and safe method for palliative treatment of MBO. Serum bilirubin higher than 115 μmol/L 2–5 days after the procedure has a significant negative impact on patients’ survival. Lower survival is also determined by distal bile duct obstruction, Bismuth– Corlette type IV stricture, biliary obstruction caused by gallbladder cancer and when only partial liver drainage is applied. PMID:29662569

  3. Uncovering cyanobacteria ecological networks from long-term monitoring data using Granger causality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, N.; Munoz-Carpena, R.; Kaplan, D. A.; Phlips, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    In many aquatic systems, cyanobacteria form harmful blooms capable of producing toxins, prompting hypoxia, and/or introducing internal nitrogen loads via N2-fixation, among other impacts. Traditionally, system-specific cyanobacteria drivers are determined by performing controlled experiments and bioassays, but these approaches may neglect the influences of confounding factors and over assign importance to only those variables considered within experimental designs. For example, a bioassay may conclude that the cyanobacteria in a particular system are limited by phosphorus, but will not explicitly take into account the role of flow as a control on phosphorus delivery. This study aims to address this analytical gap by identifying environmental controls on cyanobacteria while removing the effects of potentially confounding variables. In the present work, we evaluate a unique long-term (17 year) dataset composed of monthly observations of phytoplankton and zooplankton species abundances, water quality constituents, and hydrologic variables from Lake George, a flow-through lake of the St. Johns River (FL) impacted by cyanobacterial blooms. Using conditional Granger causality analysis, a time series approach that infers causality while removing the effects of confounding variables, data were evaluated to identify biological and physicochemical drivers of cyanobacteria. The analysis was performed for three response variable sets: total cyanobacteria, N2-fixers and non-fixers, and cyanobacteria genera. Results depicted increasing levels of ecological complexity as subdivisions of cyanobacteria became more detailed; whereas causal networks produced from analyses of cyanobacteria genera provided novel insights relevant for management (i.e. nutrients, flow), the total cyanobacteria network only included water temperature as a significant driver. Additionally, the more detailed cyanobacteria subdivisions uncovered that N2-fixation was only evident with the earliest season

  4. Mild Airflow Limitation during N2 Sleep Increases K-complex Frequency and Slows Electroencephalographic Activity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chinh D; Wellman, Andrew; Jordan, Amy S; Eckert, Danny J

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effects of mild airflow limitation on K-complex frequency and morphology and electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power. Transient reductions in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during stable N2 sleep were performed to induce mild airflow limitation in 20 patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 10 healthy controls aged 44 ± 13 y. EEG at C3 and airflow were measured in 1-min windows to quantify K-complex properties and EEG spectral power immediately before and during transient reductions in CPAP. The frequency and morphology (amplitude and latency of P200, N550 and N900 components) of K-complexes and EEG spectral power were compared between conditions. During mild airflow limitation (18% reduction in peak inspiratory airflow from baseline, 0.38 ± 0.11 versus 0.31 ± 0.1 L/sec) insufficient to cause American Academy of Sleep Medicine-defined cortical arousal, K-complex frequency (9.5 ± 4.5 versus 13.7 ± 6.4 per min, P < 0.01), N550 amplitude (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μV, P < 0.01) and EEG spectral power (delta: 147 ± 48 versus 230 ± 99 μV(2), P < 0.01 and theta bands: 31 ± 14 versus 34 ± 13 μV(2), P < 0.01) significantly increased whereas beta band power decreased (14 ± 5 versus 11 ± 4 μV(2), P < 0.01) compared to the preceding non flow-limited period on CPAP. K-complex frequency, morphology, and timing did not differ between patients and controls. Mild airflow limitation increases K-complex frequency, N550 amplitude, and spectral power of delta and theta bands. In addition to providing mechanistic insight into the role of mild airflow limitation on K-complex characteristics and EEG activity, these findings may have important implications for respiratory conditions in which airflow limitation during sleep is common (e.g., snoring and OSA). © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology.

    PubMed

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-05-21

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture.

  6. QIL1 is a novel mitochondrial protein required for MICOS complex stability and cristae morphology

    PubMed Central

    Guarani, Virginia; McNeill, Elizabeth M; Paulo, Joao A; Huttlin, Edward L; Fröhlich, Florian; Gygi, Steven P; Van Vactor, David; Harper, J Wade

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae junction (CJ) organizing system (MICOS) dynamically regulate mitochondrial membrane architecture. Through systematic proteomic analysis of human MICOS, we identified QIL1 (C19orf70) as a novel conserved MICOS subunit. QIL1 depletion disrupted CJ structure in cultured human cells and in Drosophila muscle and neuronal cells in vivo. In human cells, mitochondrial disruption correlated with impaired respiration. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fragmentation was observed upon QIL1 depletion in flies. Using quantitative proteomics, we show that loss of QIL1 resulted in MICOS disassembly with the accumulation of a MIC60-MIC19-MIC25 sub-complex and degradation of MIC10, MIC26, and MIC27. Additionally, we demonstrated that in QIL1-depleted cells, overexpressed MIC10 fails to significantly restore its interaction with other MICOS subunits and SAMM50. Collectively, our work uncovers a previously unrecognized subunit of the MICOS complex, necessary for CJ integrity, cristae morphology, and mitochondrial function and provides a resource for further analysis of MICOS architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06265.001 PMID:25997101

  7. Shaping the midwifery profession in Nepal - Uncovering actors' connections using a Complex Adaptive Systems framework.

    PubMed

    Bogren, Malin Upper; Berg, Marie; Edgren, Lars; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wigert, Helena

    2016-12-01

    To explore how actors connect in a system aiming at promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession in Nepal. A qualitative explorative study based on the framework of Complex Adaptive Systems. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 key people representing eight different organisations (actors) promoting the development of the midwifery profession. The actors' connections can be described with a complex set of facilitators for and barriers to promoting the establishment of a midwifery profession. The identified facilitators for this establishment in Nepal are (1) a common goal and (2) a desire to collaborate, whilst the barriers are (1) different political interests and priorities, (2) competing interests of the nursing profession and societal views, (3) divergent academic opinions on a midwifery profession, and (4) insufficient communication. The results also showed that Nepalese society cannot distinguish between nursing and midwifery and that the public support for a midwifery profession was hence minimal. The move of midwifery from an occupation to a profession in Nepal is an on-going, challenging process. The study indicates the importance of understanding the motivations of, and barriers perceived by, actors that can promote or obstruct the establishment of the midwifery profession. It also points to the importance of informing the wider public about the role and responsibility of an autonomous midwifery profession. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    PubMed

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  9. Genre Complexes in Popular Music.

    PubMed

    Silver, Daniel; Lee, Monica; Childress, C Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical "complexes," which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured-i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered.

  10. Redox-dependent substrate-cofactor interactions in the Michaelis-complex of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werther, Tobias; Wahlefeld, Stefan; Salewski, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Zebger, Ingo; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2017-07-01

    How an enzyme activates its substrate for turnover is fundamental for catalysis but incompletely understood on a structural level. With redox enzymes one typically analyses structures of enzyme-substrate complexes in the unreactive oxidation state of the cofactor, assuming that the interaction between enzyme and substrate is independent of the cofactors oxidation state. Here, we investigate the Michaelis complex of the flavoenzyme xenobiotic reductase A with the reactive reduced cofactor bound to its substrates by X-ray crystallography and resonance Raman spectroscopy and compare it to the non-reactive oxidized Michaelis complex mimics. We find that substrates bind in different orientations to the oxidized and reduced flavin, in both cases flattening its structure. But only authentic Michaelis complexes display an unexpected rich vibrational band pattern uncovering a strong donor-acceptor complex between reduced flavin and substrate. This interaction likely activates the catalytic ground state of the reduced flavin, accelerating the reaction within a compressed cofactor-substrate complex.

  11. Redox-dependent substrate-cofactor interactions in the Michaelis-complex of a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Werther, Tobias; Wahlefeld, Stefan; Salewski, Johannes; Kuhlmann, Uwe; Zebger, Ingo; Hildebrandt, Peter; Dobbek, Holger

    2017-01-01

    How an enzyme activates its substrate for turnover is fundamental for catalysis but incompletely understood on a structural level. With redox enzymes one typically analyses structures of enzyme–substrate complexes in the unreactive oxidation state of the cofactor, assuming that the interaction between enzyme and substrate is independent of the cofactors oxidation state. Here, we investigate the Michaelis complex of the flavoenzyme xenobiotic reductase A with the reactive reduced cofactor bound to its substrates by X-ray crystallography and resonance Raman spectroscopy and compare it to the non-reactive oxidized Michaelis complex mimics. We find that substrates bind in different orientations to the oxidized and reduced flavin, in both cases flattening its structure. But only authentic Michaelis complexes display an unexpected rich vibrational band pattern uncovering a strong donor–acceptor complex between reduced flavin and substrate. This interaction likely activates the catalytic ground state of the reduced flavin, accelerating the reaction within a compressed cofactor–substrate complex.

  12. Unraveling the Complex Relationship Triad between Lipids, Obesity, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shahida A.; Khan, Sarah A.; Zahran, Solafa A.; Damanhouri, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity today stands at the intersection between inflammation and metabolic disorders causing an aberration of immune activity, and resulting in increased risk for diabetes, atherosclerosis, fatty liver, and pulmonary inflammation to name a few. Increases in mortality and morbidity in obesity related inflammation have initiated studies to explore different lipid mediated molecular pathways of attempting resolution that uncover newer therapeutic opportunities of anti-inflammatory components. Majorly the thromboxanes, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, lipoxins, and so forth form the group of lipid mediators influencing inflammation. Of special mention are the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids that regulate inflammatory mediators of interest in hepatocytes and adipocytes via the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. They also exhibit profound effects on eicosanoid production. The inflammatory cyclooxygenase pathway arising from arachidonic acid is a critical step in the progression of inflammatory responses. New oxygenated products of omega-3 metabolism, namely, resolvins and protectins, behave as endogenous mediators exhibiting powerful anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory actions via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In this review we attempt to discuss the complex pathways and links between obesity and inflammation particularly in relation to different lipid mediators. PMID:25258478

  13. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  14. Breaking into the epithelial apical–junctional complex — news from pathogen hackers

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Roger; Amieva, Manuel R; Falkow, Stanley; Nelson, W James

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial apical–junctional complex is a key regulator of cellular functions. In addition, it is an important target for microbial pathogens that manipulate the cell to survive, proliferate and sometimes persist within a host. Out of a myriad of potential molecular targets, some bacterial and viral pathogens have selected a subset of protein targets at the apical–junctional complex of epithelial cells. Studying how microbes use these targets also teaches us about the inherent physiological properties of host molecules in the context of normal junctional structure and function. Thus, we have learned that three recently uncovered components of the apical–junctional complex of the Ig superfamily — junctional adhesion molecule, Nectin and the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor — are important regulators of junction structure and function and represent critical targets of microbial virulence gene products. PMID:15037310

  15. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome-wide studies uncover the diversity of modes of mRNA recruitment to eukaryotic ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Shatsky, Ivan N; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Andreev, Dmitri E; Terenin, Ilya M

    2014-01-01

    The conventional paradigm of translation initiation in eukaryotes states that the cap-binding protein complex eIF4F (consisting of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A) plays a central role in the recruitment of capped mRNAs to ribosomes. However, a growing body of evidence indicates that this paradigm should be revised. This review summarizes the data which have been mostly accumulated in a post-genomic era owing to revolutionary techniques of transcriptome-wide analysis. Unexpectedly, these techniques have uncovered remarkable diversity in the recruitment of cellular mRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. These data enable a preliminary classification of mRNAs into several groups based on their requirement for particular components of eIF4F. They challenge the widely accepted concept which relates eIF4E-dependence to the extent of secondary structure in the 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs. Moreover, some mRNA species presumably recruit ribosomes to their 5' ends without the involvement of either the 5' m(7)G-cap or eIF4F but instead utilize eIF4G or eIF4G-like auxiliary factors. The long-standing concept of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-elements in cellular mRNAs is also discussed.

  17. Formation, Detection and the Distribution of Complex Organic Molecules with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony John

    2015-08-01

    The formation and distribution of complex organic material in astronomical environments continues to be a focused research area in astrochemistry. For several decades now, emphasis has been placed on the millimeter/submillimeter regime of the radio spectrum for trying to detect new molecular species and to constrain the chemical formation route of complex molecules by comparing and contrasting their relative distributions towards varying astronomical environments. This effort has been extremely laborious as millimeter/submillimeter facilities have been only able to detect and map the distribution of the strongest transition(s) of the simplest organic molecules. Even then, these single transition "chemical maps" have been very low spatial resolution because early millimeter/submillimeter facilities did not have access to broadband spectral coverage or the imaging capabilities to truly ascertain the morphology of the molecular emission. In the era of ALMA, these limitations have been greatly lifted. Broadband spectral line surveys now hold the key to uncovering the full molecular complexity in astronomical environments. In addition, searches for complex organic material is no longer limited to investigating the strongest lines of the simplest molecules toward the strongest sources of emission in the Galaxy. ALMA is issuing a new era of exploration as the search for complex molecules will now be available to an increased suite of sources in the Galaxy and our understanding of the formation of this complex material will be greatly increased as a result. This presentation will highlight the current and future ALMA capabilities in the search for complex molecules towards astronomical environments, highlight the recent searches that ALMA scientists have conducted from the start of ALMA Early Science and provide the motivation for the next suite of astronomical searches to investigate our pre-biotic origins in the universe.

  18. Genre Complexes in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Childress, C. Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical “complexes,” which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured—i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered. PMID:27203852

  19. Cross-ancestry genome-wide association analysis of corneal thickness strengthens link between complex and Mendelian eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Vitart, Veronique; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Höhn, René; Springelkamp, Henriët; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gharahkhani, Puya; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Willoughby, Colin E; Li, Xiaohui; Yazar, Seyhan; Nag, Abhishek; Khawaja, Anthony P; Polašek, Ozren; Siscovick, David; Mitchell, Paul; Tham, Yih Chung; Haines, Jonathan L; Kearns, Lisa S; Hayward, Caroline; Shi, Yuan; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Taylor, Kent D; Bonnemaijer, Pieter; Rotter, Jerome I; Martin, Nicholas G; Zeller, Tanja; Mills, Richard A; Staffieri, Sandra E; Jonas, Jost B; Schmidtmann, Irene; Boutin, Thibaud; Kang, Jae H; Lucas, Sionne E M; Wong, Tien Yin; Beutel, Manfred E; Wilson, James F; Uitterlinden, André G; Vithana, Eranga N; Foster, Paul J; Hysi, Pirro G; Hewitt, Alex W; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Pasquale, Louis R; Montgomery, Grant W; Klaver, Caroline C W; Aung, Tin; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Craig, Jamie E; Rabinowitz, Yaron S; Wiggs, Janey L; Burdon, Kathryn P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2018-05-14

    Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana. Using index CCT-increasing variants, we find a significant inverse correlation in effect sizes between CCT and keratoconus (r = -0.62, P = 5.30 × 10 -5 ) but not between CCT and primary open-angle glaucoma (r = -0.17, P = 0.2). Our findings provide evidence for shared genetic influences between CCT and keratoconus, and implicate candidate genes acting in collagen and extracellular matrix regulation.

  20. Inclusion complex and nanoclusters of cyclodextrin to increase the solubility and efficacy of albendazole.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, P A; Rodrigues, L N C; Ferreira, J F S; Gomes, A C P; Veríssimo, C J; Louvandini, H; Costa, R L D; Katiki, L M

    2018-03-01

    Albendazole (ABZ), a benzimidazole widely used to control gastrointestinal parasites, is poorly soluble in water, resulting in variable and incomplete bioavailability. This has favored the appearance ABZ-resistant nematodes and, consequently, an increase in its clinical ineffectiveness. Among the pharmaceutical techniques developed to increase drug efficacy, cyclodextrins (CDs) and other polymers have been extensively used with water-insoluble pharmaceutical drugs to increase their solubility and availability. Our objective was to prepare ABZ formulations, including β-cyclodextrin (βCD) or hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), associated or not to the water-soluble polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). These formulations had their solubility and anthelmintic effect both evaluated in vitro. Also, their anthelmintic efficacy was evaluated in lambs naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) through the fecal egg count (FEC) reduction test. In vitro, the complex ABZ/HPβCD had higher solubility than ABZ/βCD. The addition of PVP to the complexes increased solubility and dissolution rates more effectively for ABZ/HPβCD than for ABZ/βCD. In vivo, 48 lambs naturally infected with GIN were divided into six experimental groups: control, ABZ, ABZ/βCD, ABZ/βCD-PVP, ABZ/HPβCD, and ABZ/HPβCD-PVP. Each treated animal received 10 mg/kg of body weight (based on the ABZ dose) for three consecutive days. After 10 days of the last administered dose, treatment efficacy was calculated. The efficacy values were as follows: ABZ (70.33%), ABZ/βCD (85.33%), ABZ/βCD-PVP (82.86%), ABZ/HPβCD (78.37%), and ABZ/HPβCD-PVP (43.79%). In vitro, ABZ/HPβCD and ABZ/HPβCD-PVP had high solubility and dissolution rates. In vivo, although the efficacies of ABZ/βCD, ABZ/βCD-PVP, and ABZ/HPβCD increased slightly when compared to pure ABZ, this increase was not significant (P > 0.05).

  1. Two Tales of Time: Uncovering the Significance of Sequential Patterns among Contribution Types in Knowledge-Building Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bodong; Resendes, Monica; Chai, Ching Sing; Hong, Huang-Yao

    2017-01-01

    As collaborative learning is actualized through evolving dialogues, temporality inevitably matters for the analysis of collaborative learning. This study attempts to uncover sequential patterns that distinguish "productive" threads of knowledge-building discourse. A database of Grade 1-6 knowledge-building discourse was first coded for…

  2. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part...

  3. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part...

  4. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part...

  5. 16 CFR 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric of a...—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a portion of one... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part...

  6. Assessment of students' ability to incorporate a computer into increasingly complex simulated patient encounters.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sarah; Valdovinos, Katie

    Pharmacy students should be exposed to and offered opportunities to practice the skill of incorporating a computer into a patient interview in the didactic setting. Faculty sought to improve retention of student ability to incorporate computers into their patient-pharmacist communication. Students were required to utilize a computer to document clinical information gathered during a simulated patient encounter (SPE). Students utilized electronic worksheets and were evaluated by instructors on their ability to effectively incorporate a computer into a SPE using a rubric. Students received specific instruction on effective computer use during patient encounters. Students were then re-evaluated by an instructor during subsequent SPEs of increasing complexity using standardized rubrics blinded from the students. Pre-instruction, 45% of students effectively incorporated a computer into a SPE. After receiving instruction, 67% of students were effective in their use of a computer during a SPE of performing a pharmaceutical care assessment for a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (p < 0.05 compared to pre-instruction), and 58% of students were effective in their use of a computer during a SPE of retrieving a medication list and social history from a simulated alcohol-impaired patient (p = 0.087 compared to pre-instruction). Instruction can improve pharmacy students' ability to incorporate a computer into SPEs, a critical skill in building and maintaining rapport with patients and improving efficiency of patient visits. Complex encounters may affect students' ability to utilize a computer appropriately. Students may benefit from repeated practice with this skill, especially with SPEs of increasing complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Complex interventions can increase osteoporosis investigations and treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kastner, M; Perrier, L; Munce, S E P; Adhihetty, C C; Lau, A; Hamid, J; Treister, V; Chan, J; Lai, Y; Straus, S E

    2018-01-01

    Osteoporosis is affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Despite available guidelines, care for these patients remains sub-optimal. We developed an osteoporosis tool to address the multiple dimensions of chronic disease management. Findings from its evaluation showed a significant increase from baseline in osteoporosis investigations and treatment, so we are revising this tool to include multiple chronic conditions including an update of evidence about osteoporosis. Our objectives were to conduct a systematic review of osteoporosis interventions in adults at risk for osteoporosis. We searched bibliometric databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any language evaluating osteoporosis disease management interventions in adults at risk for osteoporosis. Reviewer pairs independently screened citations and full-text articles, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Analysis included random effects meta-analysis. Primary outcomes were osteoporosis investigations and treatment, and fragility fractures. Fifty-five RCTs and one companion report were included in the analysis representing 165,703 patients. Our findings from 55 RCTs and 18 sub-group meta-analyses showed that complex implementation interventions with multiple components consisting of at least education + feedback + follow-up significantly increased the initiation of osteoporosis medications, and interventions with at least education + follow-up significantly increased the initiation of osteoporosis investigations. No significant impact was found for any type of intervention to reduce fracture. Complex interventions that include at least education + follow-up or feedback have the most potential for increasing osteoporosis investigations and treatment. Patient education appears to be an important component in osteoporosis disease management.

  8. Uncovering the mechanisms of Caenorhabditis elegans ageing from global quantification of the underlying landscape.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies on Caenorhabditis elegans reveal that gene manipulations can extend its lifespan several fold. However, how the genes work together to determine longevity is still an open question. Here we construct a gene regulatory network for worm ageing and quantify its underlying potential and flux landscape. We found ageing and rejuvenation states can emerge as basins of attraction at certain gene expression levels. The system state can switch from one attractor to another driven by the intrinsic or external perturbations through genetics or the environment. Furthermore, we simulated gene silencing experiments and found that the silencing of longevity-promoting or lifespan-limiting genes leads to ageing or rejuvenation domination, respectively. This indicates that the difference in depths between ageing and the rejuvenation attractor is highly correlated with worm longevity. We further uncovered some key genes and regulations which have a strong influence on landscape basin stability. A dynamic landscape model is proposed to describe the whole process of ageing: the ageing attractor dominates when senescence progresses. We also uncovered the oscillation dynamics, and a similar behaviour was observed in the long-lived creature Turritopsis dohrnii Our landscape theory provides a global and physical approach to explore the underlying mechanisms of ageing. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. The MYO6 interactome reveals adaptor complexes coordinating early endosome and cytoskeletal dynamics.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Thomas; Masters, Thomas A; Buss, Folma

    2018-04-01

    The intracellular functions of myosin motors requires a number of adaptor molecules, which control cargo attachment, but also fine-tune motor activity in time and space. These motor-adaptor-cargo interactions are often weak, transient or highly regulated. To overcome these problems, we use a proximity labelling-based proteomics strategy to map the interactome of the unique minus end-directed actin motor MYO6. Detailed biochemical and functional analysis identified several distinct MYO6-adaptor modules including two complexes containing RhoGEFs: the LIFT (LARG-Induced F-actin for Tethering) complex that controls endosome positioning and motility through RHO-driven actin polymerisation; and the DISP (DOCK7-Induced Septin disPlacement) complex, a novel regulator of the septin cytoskeleton. These complexes emphasise the role of MYO6 in coordinating endosome dynamics and cytoskeletal architecture. This study provides the first in vivo interactome of a myosin motor protein and highlights the power of this approach in uncovering dynamic and functionally diverse myosin motor complexes. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  10. Exploring the Utilization of Complex Algal Communities to Address Algal Pond Crash and Increase Annual Biomass Production for Algal Biofuels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hamilton, Cyd E.

    2014-03-25

    This white paper briefly reviews the research literature exploring complex algal communities as a means of increasing algal biomass production via increased tolerance, resilience, and resistance to a variety of abiotic and biotic perturbations occurring within harvesting timescales. This paper identifies what data are available and whether more research utilizing complex communities is needed to explore the potential of complex algal community stability (CACS) approach as a plausible means to increase biomass yields regardless of ecological context and resulting in decreased algal-based fuel prices by reducing operations costs. By reviewing the literature for what we do and do not know,more » in terms of CACS methodologies, this report will provide guidance for future research addressing pond crash phenomena.« less

  11. Uncovering students' misconceptions by assessment of their written questions.

    PubMed

    Olde Bekkink, Marleen; Donders, A R T Rogier; Kooloos, Jan G; de Waal, Rob M W; Ruiter, Dirk J

    2016-08-24

    Misconceptions are ideas that are inconsistent with current scientific views. They are difficult to detect and refractory to change. Misconceptions can negatively influence how new concepts in science are learned, but are rarely measured in biomedical courses. Early identification of misconceptions is of critical relevance for effective teaching, but presents a difficult task for teachers as they tend to either over- or underestimate students' prior knowledge. A systematic appreciation of the existing misconceptions is desirable. This explorative study was performed to determine whether written questions generated by students can be used to uncover their misconceptions. During a small-group work (SGW) session on Tumour Pathology in a (bio)medical bachelor course on General Pathology, students were asked to write down a question about the topic. This concerned a deepening question on disease mechanisms and not mere factual knowledge. Three independent expert pathologists determined whether the content of the questions was compatible with a misconception. Consensus was reached in all cases. Study outcomes were to determine whether misconceptions can be identified in students' written questions, and if so, to measure the frequency of misconceptions that can be encountered, and finally, to determine if the presence of such misconceptions is negatively associated with the students' course formal examination score. A subgroup analysis was performed according to gender and discipline. A total of 242 students participated in the SGW sessions, of whom 221 (91 %) formulated a question. Thirty-six questions did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the 185 questions rated, 11 % (n = 20) was compatible with a misconception. Misconceptions were only found in medical students' questions, not in biomedical science students' questions. Formal examination score on Tumour Pathology was 5.0 (SD 2.0) in the group with misconceptions and 6.7 (SD 2.4) in the group without

  12. Systems Thinking as a Competency for Community College Leaders in an Era of Increasing Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Anne Powel

    2013-01-01

    The pluralistic and often competing goals of myriad constituents, the changing demographics of students, the uncertainty of funding, and the growing demands for accountability from stakeholders have increased the complexity of systems which community college leaders must manage. Emerging from the recent literature on community colleges is a call…

  13. IgE Immune Complexes Stimulate an Increase in Lung Mast Cell Progenitors in a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Joakim S.; Ivarsson, Martin A.; Heyman, Birgitta; Hallgren, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell numbers and allergen specific IgE are increased in the lungs of patients with allergic asthma and this can be reproduced in mouse models. The increased number of mast cells is likely due to recruitment of mast cell progenitors that mature in situ. We hypothesized that formation of IgE immune complexes in the lungs of sensitized mice increase the migration of mast cell progenitors to this organ. To study this, a model of allergic airway inflammation where mice were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum twice followed by three daily intranasal challenges of either OVA coupled to trinitrophenyl (TNP) alone or as immune complexes with IgE-anti-TNP, was used. Mast cell progenitors were quantified by a limiting dilution assay. IgE immune complex challenge of sensitized mice elicited three times more mast cell progenitors per lung than challenge with the same dose of antigen alone. This dose of antigen challenge alone did not increase the levels of mast cell progenitors compared to unchallenged mice. IgE immune complex challenge of sensitized mice also enhanced the frequency of mast cell progenitors per 106 mononuclear cells by 2.1-fold. The enhancement of lung mast cell progenitors by IgE immune complex challenge was lost in FcRγ deficient mice but not in CD23 deficient mice. Our data show that IgE immune complex challenge enhances the number of mast cell progenitors in the lung through activation of an Fc receptor associated with the FcRγ chain. This most likely takes place via activation of FcεRI, although activation via FcγRIV or a combination of the two receptors cannot be excluded. IgE immune complex-mediated enhancement of lung MCp numbers is a new reason to target IgE in therapies against allergic asthma. PMID:21625525

  14. Loss of Pink1 modulates synaptic mitochondrial bioenergetics in the rat striatum prior to motor symptoms: concomitant complex I respiratory defects and increased complex II-mediated respiration.

    PubMed

    Stauch, Kelly L; Villeneuve, Lance M; Purnell, Phillip R; Ottemann, Brendan M; Emanuel, Katy; Fox, Howard S

    2016-12-01

    Mutations in PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (Pink1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine kinase, cause a recessive inherited form of Parkinson's disease (PD). Pink1 deletion in rats results in a progressive PD-like phenotype, characterized by significant motor deficits starting at 4 months of age. Despite the evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction, the pathogenic mechanism underlying disease due to Pink1-deficiency remains obscure. Striatal synaptic mitochondria from 3-month-old Pink1-deficient rats were characterized using bioenergetic and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based proteomic analyses. Striatal synaptic mitochondria from Pink1-deficient rats exhibit decreased complex I-driven respiration and increased complex II-mediated respiration compared with wild-type rats. MS-based proteomics revealed 69 of the 811 quantified mitochondrial proteins were differentially expressed between Pink1-deficient rats and controls. Down-regulation of several electron carrier proteins, which shuttle electrons to reduce ubiquinone at complex III, in the Pink1-knockouts suggests disruption of the linkage between fatty acid, amino acid, and choline metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory system. These results suggest that complex II activity is increased to compensate for loss of electron transfer mechanisms due to reduced complex I activity and loss of electron carriers within striatal nerve terminals early during disease progression. This may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 16 CFR § 1610.34 - Only uncovered or exposed parts of wearing apparel to be tested.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... applicable procedures set forth in § 1610.6. (b) If the outer layer of plastic film or plastic-coated fabric... part 1611—Standard for the Flammability of Vinyl Plastic Film. If the outer layer adheres to all or a... characteristics of the film or coating, the uncovered or exposed layer shall be tested in accordance with part...

  16. Uncovering hidden variation in polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Krasileva, Ksenia V; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Howell, Tyson; Bailey, Paul; Paraiso, Francine; Clissold, Leah; Simmonds, James; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo H; Wang, Xiaodong; Borrill, Philippa; Fosker, Christine; Ayling, Sarah; Phillips, Andrew L; Uauy, Cristobal; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2017-02-07

    Comprehensive reverse genetic resources, which have been key to understanding gene function in diploid model organisms, are missing in many polyploid crops. Young polyploid species such as wheat, which was domesticated less than 10,000 y ago, have high levels of sequence identity among subgenomes that mask the effects of recessive alleles. Such redundancy reduces the probability of selection of favorable mutations during natural or human selection, but also allows wheat to tolerate high densities of induced mutations. Here we exploited this property to sequence and catalog more than 10 million mutations in the protein-coding regions of 2,735 mutant lines of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. We detected, on average, 2,705 and 5,351 mutations per tetraploid and hexaploid line, respectively, which resulted in 35-40 mutations per kb in each population. With these mutation densities, we identified an average of 23-24 missense and truncation alleles per gene, with at least one truncation or deleterious missense mutation in more than 90% of the captured wheat genes per population. This public collection of mutant seed stocks and sequence data enables rapid identification of mutations in the different copies of the wheat genes, which can be combined to uncover previously hidden variation. Polyploidy is a central phenomenon in plant evolution, and many crop species have undergone recent genome duplication events. Therefore, the general strategy and methods developed herein can benefit other polyploid crops.

  17. Uncovering values-based practice: VBP's implicit commitments to subjectivism and relativism.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Despite assertions to the contrary, KWM Fulford's values-based practice is implicitly committed to subjectivism when it comes to reasoning about values. This renders the approach unworkable. The act of merely uncovering underlying values is not enough to effect change and, therefore, resolve problems if we have no way, even in principle, of determining which values are right and which are wrong. Fulford's only departure from subjectivism about value is his commitment to 'framework values', which seems grounded in a version of ethical relativism. I argue that we need to reject both subjectivism and relativism if progress within ethical discussions about practice is to be meaningful and a real possibility. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Complexing Methylene Blue with Phosphorus Dendrimers to Increase Photodynamic Activity.

    PubMed

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-02-23

    The efficiency of photodynamic therapy is limited mainly due to low selectivity, unfavorable biodistribution of photosensitizers, and long-lasting skin sensitivity to light. However, drug delivery systems based on nanoparticles may overcome the limitations mentioned above. Among others, dendrimers are particularly attractive as carriers, because of their globular architecture and high loading capacity. The goal of the study was to check whether an anionic phosphorus dendrimer is suitable as a carrier of a photosensitizer-methylene blue (MB). As a biological model, basal cell carcinoma cell lines were used. We checked the influence of the MB complexation on its singlet oxygen production ability using a commercial fluorescence probe. Next, cellular uptake, phototoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell death were investigated. The MB-anionic dendrimer complex (MB-1an) was found to generate less singlet oxygen; however, the complex showed higher cellular uptake and phototoxicity against basal cell carcinoma cell lines, which was accompanied with enhanced ROS production. Owing to the obtained results, we conclude that the photodynamic activity of MB complexed with an anionic dendrimer is higher than free MB against basal cell carcinoma cell lines.

  19. Increasing complexity of clinical research in gastroenterology: implications for the training of clinician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Scott, Frank I; McConnell, Ryan A; Lewis, Matthew E; Lewis, James D

    2012-04-01

    Significant advances have been made in clinical and epidemiologic research methods over the past 30 years. We sought to demonstrate the impact of these advances on published gastroenterology research from 1980 to 2010. Twenty original clinical articles were randomly selected from each of three journals from 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Each article was assessed for topic, whether the outcome was clinical or physiologic, study design, sample size, number of authors and centers collaborating, reporting of various statistical methods, and external funding. From 1980 to 2010, there was a significant increase in analytic studies, clinical outcomes, number of authors per article, multicenter collaboration, sample size, and external funding. There was increased reporting of P values, confidence intervals, and power calculations, and increased use of large multicenter databases, multivariate analyses, and bioinformatics. The complexity of clinical gastroenterology and hepatology research has increased dramatically, highlighting the need for advanced training of clinical investigators.

  20. A Computational Network Biology Approach to Uncover Novel Genes Related to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Zanzoni, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the fields of genetics and genomics have enabled the identification of numerous Alzheimer's disease (AD) candidate genes, although for many of them the role in AD pathophysiology has not been uncovered yet. Concomitantly, network biology studies have shown a strong link between protein network connectivity and disease. In this chapter I describe a computational approach that, by combining local and global network analysis strategies, allows the formulation of novel hypotheses on the molecular mechanisms involved in AD and prioritizes candidate genes for further functional studies.

  1. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru

    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltagemore » under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.« less

  2. Uncovering the Geometry of Barrierless Reactions Using Lagrangian Descriptors.

    PubMed

    Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto

    2016-03-03

    Transition-state theories describing barrierless chemical reactions, or more general activated problems, are often hampered by the lack of a saddle around which the dividing surface can be constructed. For example, the time-dependent transition-state trajectory uncovering the nonrecrossing dividing surface in thermal reactions in the framework of the Langevin equation has relied on perturbative approaches in the vicinity of the saddle. We recently obtained an alternative approach using Lagrangian descriptors to construct time-dependent and recrossing-free dividing surfaces. This is a nonperturbative approach making no reference to a putative saddle. Here we show how the Lagrangian descriptor can be used to obtain the transition-state geometry of a dissipated and thermalized reaction across barrierless potentials. We illustrate the method in the case of a 1D Brownian motion for both barrierless and step potentials; however, the method is not restricted and can be directly applied to different kinds of potentials and higher dimensional systems.

  3. The ability to cause infection in a pathogenic fungus uncovers a new biological feature of honey bee viruses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We demonstrated that honey bee viruses, including Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV) and Isreali Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), could infect and replicate in the fungal pathogen Ascosphaera apis, which causes honey bee chalkbrood disease, uncovering a novel biological feature of...

  4. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  5. Read clouds uncover variation in complex regions of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Bishara, Alex; Liu, Yuling; Weng, Ziming; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Newburger, Daniel E.; West, Robert; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    Although an increasing amount of human genetic variation is being identified and recorded, determining variants within repeated sequences of the human genome remains a challenge. Most population and genome-wide association studies have therefore been unable to consider variation in these regions. Core to the problem is the lack of a sequencing technology that produces reads with sufficient length and accuracy to enable unique mapping. Here, we present a novel methodology of using read clouds, obtained by accurate short-read sequencing of DNA derived from long fragment libraries, to confidently align short reads within repeat regions and enable accurate variant discovery. Our novel algorithm, Random Field Aligner (RFA), captures the relationships among the short reads governed by the long read process via a Markov Random Field. We utilized a modified version of the Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-read protocol, which yielded shallow-sequenced read clouds. We test RFA through extensive simulations and apply it to discover variants on the NA12878 human sample, for which shallow TruSeq read cloud sequencing data are available, and on an invasive breast carcinoma genome that we sequenced using the same method. We demonstrate that RFA facilitates accurate recovery of variation in 155 Mb of the human genome, including 94% of 67 Mb of segmental duplication sequence and 96% of 11 Mb of transcribed sequence, that are currently hidden from short-read technologies. PMID:26286554

  6. Read clouds uncover variation in complex regions of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Bishara, Alex; Liu, Yuling; Weng, Ziming; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Newburger, Daniel E; West, Robert; Sidow, Arend; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2015-10-01

    Although an increasing amount of human genetic variation is being identified and recorded, determining variants within repeated sequences of the human genome remains a challenge. Most population and genome-wide association studies have therefore been unable to consider variation in these regions. Core to the problem is the lack of a sequencing technology that produces reads with sufficient length and accuracy to enable unique mapping. Here, we present a novel methodology of using read clouds, obtained by accurate short-read sequencing of DNA derived from long fragment libraries, to confidently align short reads within repeat regions and enable accurate variant discovery. Our novel algorithm, Random Field Aligner (RFA), captures the relationships among the short reads governed by the long read process via a Markov Random Field. We utilized a modified version of the Illumina TruSeq synthetic long-read protocol, which yielded shallow-sequenced read clouds. We test RFA through extensive simulations and apply it to discover variants on the NA12878 human sample, for which shallow TruSeq read cloud sequencing data are available, and on an invasive breast carcinoma genome that we sequenced using the same method. We demonstrate that RFA facilitates accurate recovery of variation in 155 Mb of the human genome, including 94% of 67 Mb of segmental duplication sequence and 96% of 11 Mb of transcribed sequence, that are currently hidden from short-read technologies. © 2015 Bishara et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Radiologic Placement of Uncovered Stents for the Treatment of Malignant Colonic Obstruction Proximal to the Descending Colon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yoon, Jehong; Kwon, Se Hwan, E-mail: Kwon98@khu.ac.kr; Lee, Chang-Kyun

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety, feasibility, and patency rates of radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant colonic obstruction proximal to the descending colon.Materials and MethodsThis was a retrospective, single-center study. From May 2003 to March 2015, 53 image-guided placements of uncovered stents (44 initial placements, 9 secondary placements) were attempted in 44 patients (male:female = 23:21; mean age, 71.8 years). The technical and clinical success, complication rates, and patency rates of the stents were also evaluated. Technical success was defined as the successful deployment of the stent under fluoroscopic guidance alone and clinical success was defined as the relief of obstructivemore » symptoms or signs within 48 h of stent deployment.ResultsIn total, 12 (27.3 %) patients underwent preoperative decompression, while 32 (72.7 %) underwent decompression with palliative intent. The technical success rate was 93.2 % (41/44) for initial placement and 88.9 % (8/9) for secondary placement. Secondary stent placement in the palliative group was required in nine patients after successful initial stent placement due to stent obstruction from tumor ingrowth (n = 7) and stent migration (n = 2). The symptoms of obstruction were relieved in all successful cases (100 %). In the palliative group, the patency rates were 94.4 % at 1 month, 84.0 % at 3 months, 64.8 % at 6 months, and 48.6 % at 12 months.ConclusionsThe radiologic placement of uncovered stents for the treatment of malignant obstruction proximal to the descending colon is feasible and safe, and provides acceptable clinical results.« less

  8. Downregulation of PMCA2 increases the vulnerability of midbrain neurons to mitochondrial complex I inhibition.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Alexander; Renziehausen, Jana; Behl, Christian; Hajieva, Parvana

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is an age-associated disorder characterized by selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The molecular mechanisms underlying the selective vulnerability of this subset of neurons are, however, not fully understood. Employing SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary mesencephalic neurons, we here demonstrate a significant increase in cytosolic calcium after inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by means of MPP(+), which is a well-established environmental toxin-based in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. This increase in calcium is correlated with a downregulation of the neuron-specific plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2). Interestingly, two other important mediators of calcium efflux, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), and Na(+)-Ca(2+)-exchanger (NCX), remained unaltered, indicating a specific role of PMCA2 in maintaining calcium homeostasis in neurons. The observed PMCA2 downregulation was accompanied by reduced levels of phosphorylated CREB protein, an intracellular signaling molecule and transcriptional regulator. In order to investigate the potential influence of PMCA2 on neuronal vulnerability, experimental downregulation of PMCA2 by means of siRNA was performed. The results demonstrate a significant impairment of cell survival under conditions of PMCA2 suppression. Hence, in our cell models increased cytosolic calcium levels as a consequence of insufficient calcium efflux lead to an increased vulnerability of neuronal cells. Moreover, overexpression of PMCA2 rendered the neurons significantly resistant to complex I inhibition. Our findings point toward a dysregulation of calcium homeostasis in Parkinson's disease and suggest a potential molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration via PMCA2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uncovering the mechanism(s) of deep brain stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Li; Chao, Yu; Ling, Lin; C-Y Lu, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Deep brain stimulators, often called `pacemakers for the brain', are implantable devices which continuously deliver impulse stimulation to specific targeted nuclei of deep brain structure, namely deep brain stimulation (DBS). To date, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the most effective clinical technique for the treatment of several medically refractory movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). In addition, new clinical applications of DBS for other neurologic and psychiatric disorders (e.g., epilepsy and obsessive-compulsive disorder) have been put forward. Although DBS has been effective in the treatment of movement disorders and is rapidly being explored for the treatment of other neurologic disorders, the scientific understanding of its mechanisms of action remains unclear and continues to be debated in the scientific community. Optimization of DBS technology for present and future therapeutic applications will depend on identification of the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action. The goal of this review is to address our present knowledge of the effects of high-frequency stimulation within the central nervous system and comment on the functional implications of this knowledge for uncovering the mechanism(s) of DBS.

  10. The Complex Relationship between Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Meredith; Brooks, Benjamin D.; Brooks, Amanda E.

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e.g., quorum sensing or two-component systems), leading to global changes in gene expression, enhancing virulence, and expediting the acquisition of antibiotic resistance. Thus, one must examine a genetic change in virulence and resistance not only in the context of the biofilm but also as inextricably linked pathologies. Observationally, it is clear that increased virulence and the advent of antibiotic resistance often arise almost simultaneously; however, their genetic connection has been relatively ignored. Although the complexities of genetic regulation in a multispecies community may obscure a causative relationship, uncovering key genetic interactions between virulence and resistance in biofilm bacteria is essential to identifying new druggable targets, ultimately providing a drug discovery and development pathway to improve treatment options for chronic and recurring infection. PMID:28106797

  11. Increased Transcript Complexity in Genes Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Lela; McArthur, Evonne; Laederach, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies aim to correlate genotype with phenotype. Many common diseases including Type II diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are complex genetic traits with hundreds of different loci that are associated with varied disease risk. Identifying common features in the genes associated with each disease remains a challenge. Furthermore, the role of post-transcriptional regulation, and in particular alternative splicing, is still poorly understood in most multigenic diseases. We therefore compiled comprehensive lists of genes associated with Type II diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and COPD in an attempt to identify common features of their corresponding mRNA transcripts within each gene set. The SERPINA1 gene is a well-recognized genetic risk factor of COPD and it produces 11 transcript variants, which is exceptional for a human gene. This led us to hypothesize that other genes associated with COPD, and complex disorders in general, are highly transcriptionally diverse. We found that COPD-associated genes have a statistically significant enrichment in transcript complexity stemming from a disproportionately high level of alternative splicing, however, Type II Diabetes, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease genes were not significantly enriched. We also identified a subset of transcriptionally complex COPD-associated genes (~40%) that are differentially expressed between mild, moderate and severe COPD. Although the genes associated with other lung diseases are not extensively documented, we found preliminary data that idiopathic pulmonary disease genes, but not cystic fibrosis modulators, are also more transcriptionally complex. Interestingly, complex COPD transcripts are more often the product of alternative acceptor site usage. To verify the biological importance of these alternative transcripts, we used RNA-sequencing analyses to determine that COPD-associated genes are frequently

  12. Increased complexity of circRNA expression during species evolution.

    PubMed

    Dong, Rui; Ma, Xu-Kai; Chen, Ling-Ling; Yang, Li

    2017-08-03

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are broadly identified from precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) back-splicing across various species. Recent studies have suggested a cell-/tissue- specific manner of circRNA expression. However, the distinct expression pattern of circRNAs among species and its underlying mechanism still remain to be explored. Here, we systematically compared circRNA expression from human and mouse, and found that only a small portion of human circRNAs could be determined in parallel mouse samples. The conserved circRNA expression between human and mouse is correlated with the existence of orientation-opposite complementary sequences in introns that flank back-spliced exons in both species, but not the circRNA sequences themselves. Quantification of RNA pairing capacity of orientation-opposite complementary sequences across circRNA-flanking introns by Complementary Sequence Index (CSI) identifies that among all types of complementary sequences, SINEs, especially Alu elements in human, contribute the most for circRNA formation and that their diverse distribution across species leads to the increased complexity of circRNA expression during species evolution. Together, our integrated and comparative reference catalog of circRNAs in different species reveals a species-specific pattern of circRNA expression and suggests a previously under-appreciated impact of fast-evolved SINEs on the regulation of (circRNA) gene expression.

  13. Computational biology approach to uncover hepatitis C virus helicase operation.

    PubMed

    Flechsig, Holger

    2014-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) helicase is a molecular motor that splits nucleic acid duplex structures during viral replication, therefore representing a promising target for antiviral treatment. Hence, a detailed understanding of the mechanism by which it operates would facilitate the development of efficient drug-assisted therapies aiming to inhibit helicase activity. Despite extensive investigations performed in the past, a thorough understanding of the activity of this important protein was lacking since the underlying internal conformational motions could not be resolved. Here we review investigations that have been previously performed by us for HCV helicase. Using methods of structure-based computational modelling it became possible to follow entire operation cycles of this motor protein in structurally resolved simulations and uncover the mechanism by which it moves along the nucleic acid and accomplishes strand separation. We also discuss observations from that study in the light of recent experimental studies that confirm our findings.

  14. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan; Karpen, Gary

    2018-06-20

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Gary Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.

  15. Health Detectives: Uncovering the Mysteries of Disease (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bissell, Mina; Canaria, Christie; Celnicker, Susan

    In this April 23, 2012 Science at the Theater event, Berkeley Lab scientists discuss how they uncover the mysteries of disease in unlikely places. Speakers and topics include: World-renowned cancer researcher Mina Bissell's pioneering research on the role of the cellular microenvironment in breast cancer has changed the conversation about the disease. How does DNA instability cause disease? To find out, Christie Canaria images neural networks to study disorders such as Huntington's disease. Fruit flies can tell us a lot about ourselves. Susan Celniker explores the fruit fly genome to learn how our genome works. DNA is not destiny. Garymore » Karpen explores how environmental factors shape genome function and disease through epigenetics.« less

  16. Uncovering a reconstructive solid-solid phase transition in a metal-organic framework.

    PubMed

    Longley, L; Li, N; Wei, F; Bennett, T D

    2017-11-01

    A nanoporous three-dimensional metal-organic framework (MOF), ZnPurBr undergoes a transition to a previously unreported high-temperature phase, ZnPurBr-ht. The transition, which proceeds without mass loss, is uncovered through the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The new crystal structure was solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and the mechanical properties of both phases investigated by nanoindentation and density functional theory. The anisotropy of the calculated Young's moduli showed good agreement with the crystallographic alignment of the stiff purinate organic linker. The results provide a prototypical example of the importance of the use of DSC in the MOF field, where its use is not currently standard in characterization.

  17. Treatment of symptomatic coral reef aorta with an uncovered stent graft.

    PubMed

    Bosanquet, D C; Wood, A; Williams, I M

    2015-10-01

    Coral reef aorta is a rare condition characterised by extreme calcific growths affecting the juxta and suprarenal aorta. It can cause symptoms due to visceral ischaemia, lower limb hypoperfusion, and distal embolisation. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with unresponsive hypertension, who was found to have an occluded right renal artery, and an extensive coral reef aorta with a marked pressure gradient across the lesion. Renal hypoperfusion secondary to aortic coral reef aorta was thought to be the cause for his hypertension. Endovascular placement of a balloon expandable uncovered stent resolved his hypertension within one month, with no adverse effects noted at subsequent follow-up. Endovascular treatment of coral reef aorta is technically possible and avoids a major vascular procedure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Changes in amniotic fluid concentration of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in patients with preterm labor: evidence of an increased thrombin generation

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Gotsch, Francesca; Gomez, Ricardo; Maymon, Eli; Pacora, Percy; Edwin, Samuel S.; Kim, Chong Jai; Than, Nandor Gabor; Mittal, Pooja; Yeo, Lami; Dong, Zhong; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S; Mazor, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Objective Preterm labor is associated with excessive maternal thrombin generation as evidenced by increased circulating thrombin–antithrombin (TAT) III complexes concentration. In addition to its hemostatic functions, thrombin has uterotonic properties that may participate in the mechanism leading to preterm birth in cases of intrauterine bleeding. Thrombin also has a proinflammatory role, and inflammation is associated with increased thrombin generation. The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is associated with increased amniotic fluid (AF) thrombin generation in women with preterm and term deliveries. Study design This cross-sectional study included the following groups: 1) mid-trimester (n=74); 2) term not in labor (n=39); 3) term in labor (n=25); 4) term in labor with IAI (n=22); 5) spontaneous preterm labor (PTL) who delivered at term (n=62); 6) PTL without IAI who delivered preterm (n=59); 7) PTL with IAI (n=71). The AF TAT III complexes concentration was measured by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results 1) TAT III complexes were identified in all AF samples; 2) patients with PTL who delivered preterm, with and without IAI, had a significantly higher median AF TAT III complexes concentration than those with an episode of PTL who delivered at term (p<0.001, p=0.03, respectively); 3) among patients with preterm labor without IAI, elevated AF TAT III complexes concentration were independently associated with a shorter amniocentesis-to-delivery interval (hazard ratio- 1.5, 95%CI, 1.07–2.1); 4) among patients at term, those with IAI had a higher median AF TAT III complexes concentration than those without IAI, whether in labor or not in labor (p=0.02); 5) there was no significant difference between the median AF TAT III complexes concentration of patients at term with and without labor; and 6) patients who had a mid-trimester amniocentesis had a lower median AF TAT III complexes

  19. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, Jane; Walters, David; Bellouin, Nicolas; Milton, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing longwave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects has significant impacts on the SW radiation particularly at high latitudes due to lower cloud amounts in high latitude clean air regions. This leads to improved surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site. Verification of temperature and height forecasts is also improved in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. This study highlights the importance of including a more realistic treatment of aerosol-cloud interactions in global NWP models and the potential for improved global environmental prediction systems through the incorporation of more complex

  20. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, J. P.; Walters, D. N.; Bellouin, N.; Milton, S. F.

    2013-11-01

    Inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing longwave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. However, uncertainties in dust optical properties propogate to its direct effect and the subsequent model response. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects improves surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site due to lower cloud amounts in high latitude clean air regions. This leads to improved temperature and height forecasts in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. Regional impacts on the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) are also presented with the large dust loading in the aerosol climatology enhancing of the heat low over West Africa and weakening the AEJ. This study highlights the importance

  1. Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rachana; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Madhulika; Bajguz, Andrzej; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Singh, Vijay P; Prasad, Sheo M

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc.), phytohormones, cyanotoxins, biocides (algaecides, herbicides, and insecticides) etc. Apart from this, the importance of these metabolites as antibiotics, immunosuppressant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory agent has also been discussed. Metabolites obtained from cyanobacteria and algae have several biotechnological, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses which have also been discussed in this review along with the emerging technology of their harvesting for enhancing the production of compounds like bioethanol, biofuel etc. at commercial level. In later sections, we have discussed genetically modified organisms and metabolite production from them. We have also briefly discussed the concept of bioprocessing highlighting the functioning of companies engaged in metabolites production as well as their cost effectiveness and challenges that are being addressed by these companies.

  2. Uncovering Potential Applications of Cyanobacteria and Algal Metabolites in Biology, Agriculture and Medicine: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rachana; Parihar, Parul; Singh, Madhulika; Bajguz, Andrzej; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Samiksha; Singh, Vijay P.; Prasad, Sheo M.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of “white biotechnology” for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc.), phytohormones, cyanotoxins, biocides (algaecides, herbicides, and insecticides) etc. Apart from this, the importance of these metabolites as antibiotics, immunosuppressant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory agent has also been discussed. Metabolites obtained from cyanobacteria and algae have several biotechnological, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses which have also been discussed in this review along with the emerging technology of their harvesting for enhancing the production of compounds like bioethanol, biofuel etc. at commercial level. In later sections, we have discussed genetically modified organisms and metabolite production from them. We have also briefly discussed the concept of bioprocessing highlighting the functioning of companies engaged in metabolites production as well as their cost effectiveness and challenges that are being addressed by these companies. PMID:28487674

  3. Increasing Complexity of Clinical Research in Gastroenterology: Implications for Training Clinician-Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Frank I.; McConnell, Ryan A.; Lewis, Matthew E.; Lewis, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant advances have been made in clinical and epidemiologic research methods over the past 30 years. We sought to demonstrate the impact of these advances on published research in gastroenterology from 1980 to 2010. Methods Three journals (Gastroenterology, Gut, and American Journal of Gastroenterology) were selected for evaluation given their continuous publication during the study period. Twenty original clinical articles were randomly selected from each journal from 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Each article was assessed for topic studied, whether the outcome was clinical or physiologic, study design, sample size, number of authors and centers collaborating, and reporting of statistical methods such as sample size calculations, p-values, confidence intervals, and advanced techniques such as bioinformatics or multivariate modeling. Research support with external funding was also recorded. Results A total of 240 articles were included in the study. From 1980 to 2010, there was a significant increase in analytic studies (p<0.001), clinical outcomes (p=0.003), median number of authors per article (p<0.001), multicenter collaboration (p<0.001), sample size (p<0.001), and external funding (p<0.001)). There was significantly increased reporting of p-values (p=0.01), confidence intervals (p<0.001), and power calculations (p<0.001). There was also increased utilization of large multicenter databases (p=0.001), multivariate analyses (p<0.001), and bioinformatics techniques (p=0.001). Conclusions There has been a dramatic increase in complexity in clinical research related to gastroenterology and hepatology over the last three decades. This increase highlights the need for advanced training of clinical investigators to conduct future research. PMID:22475957

  4. Glucose, fructose and sucrose increase the solubility of protein-tannin complexes and at high concentration, glucose and sucrose interfere with bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments.

    PubMed

    Harbertson, James F; Yuan, Chunlong; Mireles, Maria S; Hanlin, Rachel L; Downey, Mark O

    2013-05-01

    Wines were modified with increasing sugar concentrations and decreasing tannin concentrations and analysed by a combination of protein precipitation and bisulphite bleaching. Increasing sugar concentration decreased the precipitation of tannin and protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (PPP). The use of a hydrogen bond disruptor (urea) to reduce protein-tannin and protein-pigment complex formation showed that the effect of sugar concentration occurred by increasing the solubility of the tannin-protein complex, not by interfering with protein-tannin complex formation. By increasing the solubility of pigment-protein complexes, non-protein-precipitable polymeric pigments (nPPP) appeared to increase. There was also an increase in total polymeric pigments at each tannin concentration with increasing glucose and sucrose concentration, indicating that sugar concentration might also affect bisulphite bleaching of wine pigments. While a significant effect of sugar concentration on tannin-protein complex solubility was observed, these effects were greatest at sugar concentrations far in excess of normal wine making conditions. Under normal wine making conditions, sugar concentration will have a negligible effect on protein-precipitable tannin, PPP and nPPP concentrations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Single-Cell Biochemistry Approach Reveals PAR Complex Dynamics during Cell Polarization.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Daniel J; Schwager, Francoise; Pintard, Lionel; Gotta, Monica; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-08-21

    Regulated protein-protein interactions are critical for cell signaling, differentiation, and development. For the study of dynamic regulation of protein interactions in vivo, there is a need for techniques that can yield time-resolved information and probe multiple protein binding partners simultaneously, using small amounts of starting material. Here we describe a single-cell protein interaction assay. Single-cell lysates are generated at defined time points and analyzed using single-molecule pull-down, yielding information about dynamic protein complex regulation in vivo. We established the utility of this approach by studying PAR polarity proteins, which mediate polarization of many animal cell types. We uncovered striking regulation of PAR complex composition and stoichiometry during Caenorhabditis elegans zygote polarization, which takes place in less than 20 min. PAR complex dynamics are linked to the cell cycle by Polo-like kinase 1 and govern the movement of PAR proteins to establish polarity. Our results demonstrate an approach to study dynamic biochemical events in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexin induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the SNARE complex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ucheor B; Zhao, Minglei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Lai, Ying; Brunger, Axel T

    2016-01-01

    Complexin regulates spontaneous and activates Ca2+-triggered neurotransmitter release, yet the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here we performed single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments and uncovered two conformations of complexin-1 bound to the ternary SNARE complex. In the cis conformation, complexin-1 induces a conformational change at the membrane-proximal C-terminal end of the ternary SNARE complex that specifically depends on the N-terminal, accessory, and central domains of complexin-1. The complexin-1 induced conformation of the ternary SNARE complex may be related to a conformation that is juxtaposing the synaptic vesicle and plasma membranes. In the trans conformation, complexin-1 can simultaneously interact with a ternary SNARE complex via the central domain and a binary SNARE complex consisting of syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25A via the accessory domain. The cis conformation may be involved in activation of synchronous neurotransmitter release, whereas both conformations may be involved in regulating spontaneous release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16886.001 PMID:27253060

  7. Maternal Dead-end 1 promotes translation of nanos1 by binding the eIF3 complex.

    PubMed

    Aguero, Tristan; Jin, Zhigang; Chorghade, Sandip; Kalsotra, Auinash; King, Mary Lou; Yang, Jing

    2017-10-15

    In the developing embryo, primordial germ cells (PGCs) represent the exclusive progenitors of the gametes, and their loss results in adult infertility. During early development, PGCs are exposed to numerous signals that specify somatic cell fates. To prevent somatic differentiation, PGCs must transiently silence their genome, an early developmental process that requires Nanos activity. However, it is unclear how Nanos translation is regulated in developing embryos. We report here that translation of nanos1 after fertilization requires Dead-end 1 (Dnd1), a vertebrate-specific germline RNA-binding protein. We provide evidence that Dnd1 protein, expression of which is low in oocytes, but increases dramatically after fertilization, directly interacts with, and relieves the inhibitory function of eukaryotic initiation factor 3f, a repressive component in the 43S preinitiation complex. This work uncovers a novel translational regulatory mechanism that is fundamentally important for germline development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Transport Properties of Complex Oxides: New Ideas and Insights from Theory and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, Nicole

    Complex oxides are one of the largest and most technologically important materials families. The ABO3 perovskite oxides in particular display an unparalleled variety of physical properties. The microscopic origin of these properties (how they arise from the structure of the material) is often complicated, but in many systems previous research has identified simple guidelines or `rules of thumb' that link structure and chemistry to the physics of interest. For example, the tolerance factor is a simple empirical measure that relates the composition of a perovskite to its tendency to adopt a distorted structure. First-principles calculations have shown that the tendency towards ferroelectricity increases systematically as the tolerance factor of the perovskite decreases. Can we uncover a similar set of simple guidelines to yield new insights into the ionic and thermal transport properties of perovskites? I will discuss recent research from my group on the link between crystal structure and chemistry, soft phonons and ionic transport in a family of layered perovskite oxides, the Ln2NiO4+δ Ruddlesden-Popper phases. In particular, we show how the lattice dynamical properties of these materials (their tendency to undergo certain structural distortions) can be correlated with oxide ion transport properties. Ultimately, we seek new ways to understand the microscopic origins of complex transport processes and to develop first-principles-based design rules for new materials based on our understanding.

  9. Increased RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) Activity Contributes to Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Santhekadur, Prasanna K.; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Emdad, Luni; Bhutia, Sujit; Pannell, Lewis; Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2011-01-01

    There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry we identified Staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating siRNA and miRNA-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ∼74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor mRNAs that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. Conclusion We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC. PMID:21520169

  10. Uncovering the Links between Prospective Teachers' Personal Responsibility, Academic Optimism, Hope, and Emotions about Teaching: A Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Altay

    2014-01-01

    Prospective teachers' sense of personal responsibility has not been examined together with their academic optimism, hope, and emotions about teaching in a single study to date. However, to consider hope, academic optimism, and emotions about teaching together with personal responsibility is important to uncover the factors affecting…

  11. Novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes: synthesis, cell growth inhibition, apoptosis induction and ROS production on HCT116 cells.

    PubMed

    D'Sousa Costa, Cinara O; Araujo Neto, João H; Baliza, Ingrid R S; Dias, Rosane B; Valverde, Ludmila de F; Vidal, Manuela T A; Sales, Caroline B S; Rocha, Clarissa A G; Moreira, Diogo R M; Soares, Milena B P; Batista, Alzir A; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2017-11-28

    Piplartine (piperlongumine) is a plant-derived molecule that has been receiving intense interest due to its anticancer characteristics that target the oxidative stress. In the present paper, two novel piplartine-containing ruthenium complexes [Ru(piplartine)(dppf)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (1) and [Ru(piplartine)(dppb)(bipy)](PF 6 ) 2 (2) were synthesized and investigated for their cellular and molecular responses on cancer cell lines. We found that both complexes are more potent than metal-free piplartine in a panel of cancer cell lines on monolayer cultures, as well in 3D model of cancer multicellular spheroids formed from human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Mechanistic studies uncovered that the complexes reduced the cell growth and caused phosphatidylserine externalization, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential on HCT116 cells. Moreover, the pre-treatment with Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK, a pan-caspase inhibitor, reduced the complexes-induced apoptosis, indicating cell death by apoptosis through caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic pathways. Treatment with the complexes also caused a marked increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide, and decreased reduced glutathione levels. Application of N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant, reduced the ROS levels and apoptosis induced by the complexes, indicating activation of ROS-mediated apoptosis pathway. RNA transcripts of several genes, including gene related to the cell cycle, apoptosis and oxidative stress, were regulated under treatment. However, the complexes failed to induce DNA intercalation. In conclusion, the complexes are more potent than piplartine against different cancer cell lines and are able to induce caspase-dependent and mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis on HCT116 cells by ROS-mediated pathway.

  12. Hubble Uncovers a Galaxy Pair Coming in from the Wilderness

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope uncovered two tiny dwarf galaxies that have wandered from a vast cosmic wilderness into a nearby “big city” packed with galaxies. After being idle for billions of years, they are ready to party by starting a firestorm of star birth. Hubble captured the glow of new stars in these small, ancient galaxies, called Pisces A and Pisces B. Observations suggests the galaxies are late bloomers because they have spent most of their existence in the Local Void, a region of the universe sparsely populated with galaxies. The Local Void is roughly 150 million light-years across. Credits: NASA, ESA, and E. Tollerud (STScI) NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  13. Evolutionary Proteomics Uncovers Ancient Associations of Cilia with Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Sigg, Monika Abedin; Menchen, Tabea; Lee, Chanjae; Johnson, Jeffery; Jungnickel, Melissa K; Choksi, Semil P; Garcia, Galo; Busengdal, Henriette; Dougherty, Gerard W; Pennekamp, Petra; Werner, Claudius; Rentzsch, Fabian; Florman, Harvey M; Krogan, Nevan; Wallingford, John B; Omran, Heymut; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2017-12-18

    Cilia are organelles specialized for movement and signaling. To infer when during evolution signaling pathways became associated with cilia, we characterized the proteomes of cilia from sea urchins, sea anemones, and choanoflagellates. We identified 437 high-confidence ciliary candidate proteins conserved in mammals and discovered that Hedgehog and G-protein-coupled receptor pathways were linked to cilia before the origin of bilateria and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels before the origin of animals. We demonstrated that candidates not previously implicated in ciliary biology localized to cilia and further investigated ENKUR, a TRP channel-interacting protein identified in the cilia of all three organisms. ENKUR localizes to motile cilia and is required for patterning the left-right axis in vertebrates. Moreover, mutation of ENKUR causes situs inversus in humans. Thus, proteomic profiling of cilia from diverse eukaryotes defines a conserved ciliary proteome, reveals ancient connections to signaling, and uncovers a ciliary protein that underlies development and human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Identifying protein complex by integrating characteristic of core-attachment into dynamic PPI network.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xianjun; Yi, Li; Jiang, Xingpeng; He, Tingting; Yang, Jincai; Xie, Wei; Hu, Po; Hu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    How to identify protein complex is an important and challenging task in proteomics. It would make great contribution to our knowledge of molecular mechanism in cell life activities. However, the inherent organization and dynamic characteristic of cell system have rarely been incorporated into the existing algorithms for detecting protein complexes because of the limitation of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data produced by high throughput techniques. The availability of time course gene expression profile enables us to uncover the dynamics of molecular networks and improve the detection of protein complexes. In order to achieve this goal, this paper proposes a novel algorithm DCA (Dynamic Core-Attachment). It detects protein-complex core comprising of continually expressed and highly connected proteins in dynamic PPI network, and then the protein complex is formed by including the attachments with high adhesion into the core. The integration of core-attachment feature into the dynamic PPI network is responsible for the superiority of our algorithm. DCA has been applied on two different yeast dynamic PPI networks and the experimental results show that it performs significantly better than the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of prediction accuracy, hF-measure and statistical significance in biology. In addition, the identified complexes with strong biological significance provide potential candidate complexes for biologists to validate.

  15. The multifunctional nuclear pore complex: a platform for controlling gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ptak, Christopher; Aitchison, John D.; Wozniak, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their established roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport, the intimate association of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) with chromatin has long led to speculation that these structures influence peripheral chromatin structure and regulate gene expression. These ideas have their roots in morphological observations, however recent years have seen the identification of physical interactions between NPCs, chromatin, and the transcriptional machinery. Key insights into the molecular functions of specific NPC proteins have uncovered roles for these proteins in transcriptional activation and elongation, mRNA processing, as well as chromatin structure and localization. Here, we review recent studies that provide further molecular detail on the role of specific NPC components as distinct platforms for these chromatin dependent processes. PMID:24657998

  16. mTOR complexes differentially orchestrates eosinophil development in allergy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Xia, Lixia; Li, Fei; Zhou, Lingren; Weng, Qingyu; Li, Zhouyang; Wu, Yinfang; Mao, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Chao; Wu, Yanping; Li, Miao; Ying, Songmin; Chen, Zhihua; Shen, Huahao; Li, Wen

    2018-05-02

    Eosinophil infiltration is considered a hallmark in allergic airway inflammation, and the blockade of eosinophil differentiation may be an effective approach for treating eosinophil-related disorders. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a vital modulator in cell growth control and related diseases, and we have recently demonstrated that rapamycin can suppress eosinophil differentiation in allergic airway inflammation. Considering its critical role in haematopoiesis, we further investigated the role of mTOR in eosinophil differentiation in the context of asthmatic pathogenesis. Intriguingly, the inhibition of mTOR, either by genetic deletion or by another pharmacological inhibitor torin-1, accelerated the eosinophil development in the presence of IL-5. However, this was not observed to have any considerable effect on eosinophil apoptosis. The effect of mTOR in eosinophil differentiation was mediated by Erk signalling. Moreover, myeloid specific knockout of mTOR or Rheb further augmented allergic airway inflammation in mice after allergen exposure. Ablation of mTOR in myeloid cells also resulted in an increased number of eosinophil lineage-committed progenitors (Eops) in allergic mice. Collectively, our data uncovered the differential effects of mTOR in the regulation of eosinophil development, likely due to the distinct functions of mTOR complex 1 or 2, which thus exerts a pivotal implication in eosinophil-associated diseases.

  17. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    PubMed Central

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  18. Differential identity of Filopodia and Tunneling Nanotubes revealed by the opposite functions of actin regulatory complexes.

    PubMed

    Delage, Elise; Cervantes, Diégo Cordero; Pénard, Esthel; Schmitt, Christine; Syan, Sylvie; Disanza, Andrea; Scita, Giorgio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-12-23

    Tunneling Nanotubes (TNTs) are actin enriched filopodia-like protrusions that play a pivotal role in long-range intercellular communication. Different pathogens use TNT-like structures as "freeways" to propagate across cells. TNTs are also implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, making them promising therapeutic targets. Understanding the mechanism of their formation, and their relation with filopodia is of fundamental importance to uncover their physiological function, particularly since filopodia, differently from TNTs, are not able to mediate transfer of cargo between distant cells. Here we studied different regulatory complexes of actin, which play a role in the formation of both these structures. We demonstrate that the filopodia-promoting CDC42/IRSp53/VASP network negatively regulates TNT formation and impairs TNT-mediated intercellular vesicle transfer. Conversely, elevation of Eps8, an actin regulatory protein that inhibits the extension of filopodia in neurons, increases TNT formation. Notably, Eps8-mediated TNT induction requires Eps8 bundling but not its capping activity. Thus, despite their structural similarities, filopodia and TNTs form through distinct molecular mechanisms. Our results further suggest that a switch in the molecular composition in common actin regulatory complexes is critical in driving the formation of either type of membrane protrusion.

  19. Complexity of the Alternative Splicing Landscape in Plants[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anireddy S.N.; Marquez, Yamile; Kalyna, Maria; Barta, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) of precursor mRNAs (pre-mRNAs) from multiexon genes allows organisms to increase their coding potential and regulate gene expression through multiple mechanisms. Recent transcriptome-wide analysis of AS using RNA sequencing has revealed that AS is highly pervasive in plants. Pre-mRNAs from over 60% of intron-containing genes undergo AS to produce a vast repertoire of mRNA isoforms. The functions of most splice variants are unknown. However, emerging evidence indicates that splice variants increase the functional diversity of proteins. Furthermore, AS is coupled to transcript stability and translation through nonsense-mediated decay and microRNA-mediated gene regulation. Widespread changes in AS in response to developmental cues and stresses suggest a role for regulated splicing in plant development and stress responses. Here, we review recent progress in uncovering the extent and complexity of the AS landscape in plants, its regulation, and the roles of AS in gene regulation. The prevalence of AS in plants has raised many new questions that require additional studies. New tools based on recent technological advances are allowing genome-wide analysis of RNA elements in transcripts and of chromatin modifications that regulate AS. Application of these tools in plants will provide significant new insights into AS regulation and crosstalk between AS and other layers of gene regulation. PMID:24179125

  20. Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome: Brothers with a homozygous STAMBP mutation, uncovered by exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Sogaty, Sameera; Rasool, Mahmood; Chaudhary, Adeel G; Abutalib, Yousif Ahmed; Walker, Susan; Marshall, Christian R; Merico, Daniele; Carter, Melissa T; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammad H; Zarrei, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    We describe two brothers from a consanguineous family of Egyptian ancestry, presenting with microcephaly, apparent global developmental delay, seizures, spasticity, congenital blindness, and multiple cutaneous capillary malformations. Through exome sequencing, we uncovered a homozygous missense variant in STAMBP (p.K303R) in the two siblings, inherited from heterozygous carrier parents. Mutations in STAMBP are known to cause microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome (MIC-CAP) and the phenotype in this family is consistent with this diagnosis. We compared the findings in the present brothers with those of earlier reported patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Uncovering the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adornato, Philip

    The following dissertation focuses on a case study that uses critical theory, social learning theory, identity theory, liberal feminine theory, and motivation theory to conduct a narrative describing the lived experience of females and their performance in two highly selective private university, where students can cross-register between school, while majoring in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Through the use of narratives, the research attempts to shed additional light on the informal and formal science learning experiences that motivates young females to major in STEM in order to help increase the number of women entering STEM careers and retaining women in STEM majors. In the addition to the narratives, surveys were performed to encompass a larger audience while looking for themes and phenomena which explore what captivates and motivates young females' interests in science and continues to nurture and facilitate their growth throughout high school and college, and propel them into a major in STEM in college. The purpose of this study was to uncover the lived experiences of junior and senior undergraduate female science majors during their formal and informal education, their science motivation to learn science, their science identities, and any experiences in gender inequity they may have encountered. The findings have implications for young women deciding on future careers and majors through early exposure and guidance, understanding and recognizing what gender discrimination, and the positive effects of mentorships.

  2. RNA Polymerase III promoter screen uncovers a novel noncoding RNA family conserved in Caenorhabditis and other clade V nematodes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Andreas R

    2014-07-10

    RNA Polymerase III is a highly specialized enzyme complex responsible for the transcription of a very distinct set of housekeeping noncoding RNAs including tRNAs, 7SK snRNA, Y RNAs, U6 snRNA, and the RNA components of RNaseP and RNaseMRP. In this work we have utilized the conserved promoter structure of known RNA Polymerase III transcripts consisting of characteristic sequence elements termed proximal sequence elements (PSE) A and B and a TATA-box to uncover a novel RNA Polymerase III-transcribed, noncoding RNA family found to be conserved in Caenorhabditis as well as other clade V nematode species. Homology search in combination with detailed sequence and secondary structure analysis revealed that members of this novel ncRNA family evolve rapidly, and only maintain a potentially functional small stem structure that links the 5' end to the very 3' end of the transcript and a small hairpin structure at the 3' end. This is most likely required for efficient transcription termination. In addition, our study revealed evidence that canonical C/D box snoRNAs are also transcribed from a PSE A-PSE B-TATA-box promoter in Caenorhabditis elegans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Increased RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) activity contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Emdad, Luni; Bhutia, Sujit; Pannell, Lewis; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2011-05-01

    There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ≈74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. MobB protein stimulates nicking at the R1162 origin of transfer by increasing the proportion of complexed plasmid DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Perwez, T; Meyer, R

    1996-01-01

    An essential early step in conjugal mobilization of R1162, nicking of the DNA strand that is subsequently transferred, is carried out in the relaxosome, a complex of two plasmid-encoded proteins and DNA at the origin of transfer (oriT). A third protein, MobB, is also required for efficient mobilization. We show that in the cell this protein increases the proportion of molecules specifically nicked at oriT, resulting in lower yields of covalently closed molecules after alkaline extraction. These nicked molecules largely remain supercoiled, with unwinding presumably constrained by the relaxosome. MobB enhances the sensitivity of the oriT DNA to oxidation by permanganate, indicating that the protein acts by increasing the fraction of complexed molecules. Mutations that significantly reduce the amount of complexed DNA in the cell were isolated. However, plasmids with these mutations were mobilized at nearly the normal frequency, were nicked at a commensurate level, and still required MobB. Our results indicate that the frequency of transfer is determined both by the amount of time each molecule is in the nicked form and by the proportion of complexed molecules in the total population. PMID:8824623

  5. COMMD1 is linked to the WASH complex and regulates endosomal trafficking of the copper transporter ATP7A

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Krawczak, Christine A.; Singla, Amika; Starokadomskyy, Petro; Deng, Zhihui; Osborne, Douglas G.; Li, Haiying; Dick, Christopher J.; Gomez, Timothy S.; Koenecke, Megan; Zhang, Jin-San; Dai, Haiming; Sifuentes-Dominguez, Luis F.; Geng, Linda N.; Kaufmann, Scott H.; Hein, Marco Y.; Wallis, Mathew; McGaughran, Julie; Gecz, Jozef; van de Sluis, Bart; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Burstein, Ezra

    2015-01-01

    COMMD1 deficiency results in defective copper homeostasis, but the mechanism for this has remained elusive. Here we report that COMMD1 is directly linked to early endosomes through its interaction with a protein complex containing CCDC22, CCDC93, and C16orf62. This COMMD/CCDC22/CCDC93 (CCC) complex interacts with the multisubunit WASH complex, an evolutionarily conserved system, which is required for endosomal deposition of F-actin and cargo trafficking in conjunction with the retromer. Interactions between the WASH complex subunit FAM21, and the carboxyl-terminal ends of CCDC22 and CCDC93 are responsible for CCC complex recruitment to endosomes. We show that depletion of CCC complex components leads to lack of copper-dependent movement of the copper transporter ATP7A from endosomes, resulting in intracellular copper accumulation and modest alterations in copper homeostasis in humans with CCDC22 mutations. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for the role of COMMD1 in copper homeostasis and uncovers additional genes involved in the regulation of copper transporter recycling. PMID:25355947

  6. Inhibition of 19S proteasomal regulatory complex subunit PSMD8 increases polyspermy during porcine fertilization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yi, Young-Joo; Manandhar, Gaurishankar; Sutovsky, Miriam; Jonáková, Vera; Park, Chang-Sik; Sutovsky, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The 26S proteoasome is a multi-subunit protease specific to ubiquitinated substrate proteins. It is composed of a 20S proteasomal core with substrate degradation activity, and a 19S regulatory complex that acts in substrate recognition, deubiquitination, priming and transport to the 20S core. Inhibition of proteolytic activities associated with the sperm acrosome-borne 20S core prevents fertilization in mammals, ascidians and echinoderms. Less is known about the function of the proteasomal 19S complex during fertilization. The present study examined the role of PSMD8, an essential non-ATPase subunit of the 19S complex, in sperm-ZP penetration during porcine fertilization in vitro (IVF). Immunofluorescence localized PSMD8 to the outer acrosomal membrane, acrosomal matrix and the inner acrosomal membrane. Colloidal gold transmission electron microscopy detected PSMD8 on the surface of vesicles in the acrosomal shroud, formed as a result of zona pellucida-induced acrosomal exocytosis. Contrary to the inhibition of fertilization by blocking of the 20S core activities, fertilization and polyspermy rates were increased by adding anti-PSMD8 antibody to fertilization medium. This observation is consistent with a possible role of PSMD8 in substrate deubiquitination, a process which when blocked, may actually accelerate substrate proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. Subunit PSMD8 co-immunoprecipitated with acrosomal surface-associated spermadhesin AQN1. This association indicates that the sperm acrosome-borne proteasomes become exposed onto the sperm surface following the acrosomal exocytosis. Since immunological blocking of subunit PSMD8 increases the rate of polyspermy during porcine fertilization, the activity of the 19S complex may be a rate-limiting factor contributing to anti-polyspermy defense during porcine fertilization. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Fetal and neonatal iron deficiency but not copper deficiency increases vascular complexity in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Santarriaga, Stephanie; Nguyen, Thu An; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Anderson, Grant W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Anemia caused by nutritional deficiencies, such as iron and copper deficiencies, is a global health problem. Iron and copper deficiencies have their most profound effect on the developing fetus/infant, leading to brain development deficits and poor cognitive outcomes. Tissue iron depletion or chronic anemia can induce cellular hypoxic signaling. In mice, chronic hypoxia induces a compensatory increase in brain blood vessel outgrowth. We hypothesized that developmental anemia, due to iron or copper deficiencies, induces angiogenesis/vasculogenesis in the neonatal brain. Methods To test our hypothesis, three independent experiments were performed where pregnant rats were fed iron- or copper-deficient diets from gestational day 2 through mid-lactation. Effects on the neonatal brain vasculature were determined using qPCR to assess mRNA levels of angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes and GLUT1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) to assess brain blood vessel density and complexity. Results Iron deficiency, but not copper deficiency, increased mRNA expression of brain endothelial cell- and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis-associated genes (i.e. Glut1, Vwf, Vegfa, Ang2, Cxcl12, and Flk1) in the neonatal brain, suggesting increased cerebrovascular density. Iron deficiency also increased hippocampal and cerebral cortical blood vessel branching by 62% and 78%, respectively. Discussion This study demonstrates increased blood vessel complexity in the neonatal iron-deficient brain, which is likely due to elevated angiogenic/vasculogenic signaling. At least initially, this is probably an adaptive response to maintain metabolic substrate homeostasis in the developing iron-deficient brain. However, this may also contribute to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits. PMID:26177275

  8. Chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complex regulates coenzyme Q6 synthesis and a metabolic shift to respiration in yeast.

    PubMed

    Awad, Agape M; Venkataramanan, Srivats; Nag, Anish; Galivanche, Anoop Raj; Bradley, Michelle C; Neves, Lauren T; Douglass, Stephen; Clarke, Catherine F; Johnson, Tracy L

    2017-09-08

    Despite its relatively streamlined genome, there are many important examples of regulated RNA splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Here, we report a role for the chromatin remodeler SWI/SNF in respiration, partially via the regulation of splicing. We find that a nutrient-dependent decrease in Snf2 leads to an increase in splicing of the PTC7 transcript. The spliced PTC7 transcript encodes a mitochondrial phosphatase regulator of biosynthesis of coenzyme Q 6 (ubiquinone or CoQ 6 ) and a mitochondrial redox-active lipid essential for electron and proton transport in respiration. Increased splicing of PTC7 increases CoQ 6 levels. The increase in PTC7 splicing occurs at least in part due to down-regulation of ribosomal protein gene expression, leading to the redistribution of spliceosomes from this abundant class of intron-containing RNAs to otherwise poorly spliced transcripts. In contrast, a protein encoded by the nonspliced isoform of PTC7 represses CoQ 6 biosynthesis. Taken together, these findings uncover a link between Snf2 expression and the splicing of PTC7 and establish a previously unknown role for the SWI/SNF complex in the transition of yeast cells from fermentative to respiratory modes of metabolism. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Uncovering Wolbachia Diversity upon Artificial Host Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Daniela I.; Riegler, Markus; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Merçot, Hervé; Stauffer, Christian; Miller, Wolfgang J.

    2013-01-01

    The common endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria influence arthropod hosts in multiple ways. They are mostly recognized for their manipulations of host reproduction, yet, more recent studies demonstrate that Wolbachia also impact host behavior, metabolic pathways and immunity. Besides their biological and evolutionary roles, Wolbachia are new potential biological control agents for pest and vector management. Importantly, Wolbachia-based control strategies require controlled symbiont transfer between host species and predictable outcomes of novel Wolbachia-host associations. Theoretically, this artificial horizontal transfer could inflict genetic changes within transferred Wolbachia populations. This could be facilitated through de novo mutations in the novel recipient host or changes of haplotype frequencies of polymorphic Wolbachia populations when transferred from donor to recipient hosts. Here we show that Wolbachia resident in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi, exhibit ancestral and cryptic sequence polymorphism in three symbiont genes, which are exposed upon microinjection into the new hosts Drosophila simulans and Ceratitis capitata. Our analyses of Wolbachia in microinjected D. simulans over 150 generations after microinjection uncovered infections with multiple Wolbachia strains in trans-infected lines that had previously been typed as single infections. This confirms the persistence of low-titer Wolbachia strains in microinjection experiments that had previously escaped standard detection techniques. Our study demonstrates that infections by multiple Wolbachia strains can shift in prevalence after artificial host transfer driven by either stochastic or selective processes. Trans-infection of Wolbachia can claim fitness costs in new hosts and we speculate that these costs may have driven the shifts of Wolbachia strains that we saw in our model system. PMID:24376534

  10. Uncovering Wolbachia diversity upon artificial host transfer.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniela I; Riegler, Markus; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Merçot, Hervé; Stauffer, Christian; Miller, Wolfgang J

    2013-01-01

    The common endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria influence arthropod hosts in multiple ways. They are mostly recognized for their manipulations of host reproduction, yet, more recent studies demonstrate that Wolbachia also impact host behavior, metabolic pathways and immunity. Besides their biological and evolutionary roles, Wolbachia are new potential biological control agents for pest and vector management. Importantly, Wolbachia-based control strategies require controlled symbiont transfer between host species and predictable outcomes of novel Wolbachia-host associations. Theoretically, this artificial horizontal transfer could inflict genetic changes within transferred Wolbachia populations. This could be facilitated through de novo mutations in the novel recipient host or changes of haplotype frequencies of polymorphic Wolbachia populations when transferred from donor to recipient hosts. Here we show that Wolbachia resident in the European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi, exhibit ancestral and cryptic sequence polymorphism in three symbiont genes, which are exposed upon microinjection into the new hosts Drosophila simulans and Ceratitis capitata. Our analyses of Wolbachia in microinjected D. simulans over 150 generations after microinjection uncovered infections with multiple Wolbachia strains in trans-infected lines that had previously been typed as single infections. This confirms the persistence of low-titer Wolbachia strains in microinjection experiments that had previously escaped standard detection techniques. Our study demonstrates that infections by multiple Wolbachia strains can shift in prevalence after artificial host transfer driven by either stochastic or selective processes. Trans-infection of Wolbachia can claim fitness costs in new hosts and we speculate that these costs may have driven the shifts of Wolbachia strains that we saw in our model system.

  11. Aortic Valve Stenosis Increases Helical Flow and Flow Complexity: A Study of Intra-Operative Cardiac Vector Flow Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2017-08-01

    Aortic valve stenosis alters blood flow in the ascending aorta. Using intra-operative vector flow imaging on the ascending aorta, secondary helical flow during peak systole and diastole, as well as flow complexity of primary flow during systole, were investigated in patients with normal, stenotic and replaced aortic valves. Peak systolic helical flow, diastolic helical flow and flow complexity during systole differed between the groups (p < 0.0001), and correlated to peak systolic velocity (R = 0.94, 0.87 and 0.88, respectively). The study indicates that aortic valve stenosis increases helical flow and flow complexity, which are measurable with vector flow imaging. For assessment of aortic stenosis and optimization of valve surgery, vector flow imaging may be useful. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. UnCover on the Web: search hints and applications in library environments.

    PubMed

    Galpern, N F; Albert, K M

    1997-01-01

    Among the huge maze of resources available on the Internet, UnCoverWeb stands out as a valuable tool for medical libraries. This up-to-date, free-access, multidisciplinary database of periodical references is searched through an easy-to-learn graphical user interface that is a welcome improvement over the telnet version. This article reviews the basic and advanced search techniques for UnCoverWeb, as well as providing information on the document delivery functions and table of contents alerting service called Reveal. UnCover's currency is evaluated and compared with other current awareness resources. System deficiencies are discussed, with the conclusion that although UnCoverWeb lacks the sophisticated features of many commercial database search services, it is nonetheless a useful addition to the repertoire of information sources available in a library.

  13. How can knowledge discovery methods uncover spatio-temporal patterns in environmental data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachowicz, Monica

    2000-04-01

    This paper proposes the integration of KDD, GVis and STDB as a long-term strategy, which will allow users to apply knowledge discovery methods for uncovering spatio-temporal patterns in environmental data. The main goal is to combine innovative techniques and associated tools for exploring very large environmental data sets in order to arrive at valid, novel, potentially useful, and ultimately understandable spatio-temporal patterns. The GeoInsight approach is described using the principles and key developments in the research domains of KDD, GVis, and STDB. The GeoInsight approach aims at the integration of these research domains in order to provide tools for performing information retrieval, exploration, analysis, and visualization. The result is a knowledge-based design, which involves visual thinking (perceptual-cognitive process) and automated information processing (computer-analytical process).

  14. `You caught me off guard': Probing the futures of complex engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, Jathan; Guston, David H.

    2016-07-01

    This paper applies principles and methods from the framework of anticipatory governance to the case of what the National Research Council calls "complex engineered nanomaterials" (CENM). This framework does not aim to generate crystal ball visions or definitive answers, but rather provides guidance for uncovering, understanding, and addressing social, ethical, environmental, and policy issues that stem from emerging technologies. Thus, in anticipation of increased CENM research, CENM products, and their different governance challenges, we aim to lay the groundwork for the anticipatory governance of CENMs by mapping out what—according to the engineers and scientists, we interviewed who are working at the research level of these CENMs—will be the main issues and themes that we need to pay attention to in the near future. The structured interviews focused on three groups of questions: (1) potential and/or actual applications and/or products from the participant's research; (2) environmental health and safety issues pertaining to both the participant's research and CENMs generally; and (3) the future of CENMs. Without a foundational understanding to build on, social scientists, policymakers, and regulatory agencies will be at a loss about how to govern CENMs before they are widely implemented in society.

  15. Polarity Proteins as Regulators of Cell Junction Complexes: Implications for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bazzoun, Dana; Lelièvre, Sophie; Talhouk, Rabih

    2013-01-01

    The epithelium of multicellular organisms possesses a well-defined architecture, referred to as polarity that coordinates the regulation of essential cell features. Polarity proteins are intimately linked to the protein complexes that make the tight, adherens and gap junctions; they contribute to the proper localization and assembly of these cell-cell junctions within cells and consequently to functional tissue organization. The establishment of cell-cell junctions and polarity are both implicated in the regulation of epithelial modifications in normal and cancer situations. Uncovering the mechanisms through which cell-cell junctions and epithelial polarization are established and how their interaction with the microenvironment direct cell and tissue organization has opened new venues for the development of cancer therapies. In this review, we focus on the breast epithelium to highlight how polarity and cell-cell junction proteins interact together in normal and cancerous contexts to regulate major cellular mechanisms such as migration. The impact of these proteins on epigenetic mechanisms responsible for resetting cells towards oncogenesis is discussed in light of increasing evidence that tissue polarity modulates chromatin function. Finally, we give an overview of recent breast cancer therapies that target proteins involved in cell-cell junctions. PMID:23458609

  16. Cholesterol-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexed with thulium ions integrated into bicelles to increase their magnetic alignability.

    PubMed

    Liebi, Marianne; Kuster, Simon; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Fischer, Peter; Walde, Peter; Windhab, Erich J

    2013-11-27

    Lanthanides have been used for several decades to increase the magnetic alignability of bicelles. DMPE-DTPA (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate) is commonly applied to anchor the lanthanides into the bicelles. However, because DMPE-DTPA has the tendency to accumulate at the highly curved edge region of the bicelles and if located there does not contribute to the magnetic orientation energy, we have tested cholesterol-DTPA complexed with thulium ions (Tm(3+)) as an alternative chelator to increase the magnetic alignability. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements indicate the successful integration of cholesterol-DTPA into a DMPC (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer. Cryo transmission electron microscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the disklike structure, that is, bicelles, is maintained if cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) is integrated into a mixture of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+). The size of the bicelles is increased compared to the size of the bicelles obtained from mixtures without cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+). Magnetic-field-induced birefringence and SANS measurements in a magnetic field show that with addition of cholesterol-DTPA·Tm(3+) the magnetic alignability of these bicelles is significantly increased compared to bicelles composed of DMPC, cholesterol, and DMPE-DTPA·Tm(3+) only.

  17. Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Practice offers nurses a framework to uncover embodied knowledge of patients living with disabilities or illnesses: A discussion paper.

    PubMed

    Oerther, Sarah; Oerther, Daniel B

    2018-04-01

    To discuss how Bourdieu's theory of practice can be used by nurse researchers to better uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. Bourdieu's theory of practice has been used in social and healthcare researches. This theory emphasizes that an individual's everyday practices are not always explicit and mediated by language, but instead an individual's everyday practices are often are tacit and embodied. Discussion paper. Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS were searched for concepts from Bourdieu's theory that was used to understand embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness. The literature search included articles from 2003 - 2017. Nurse researchers should use Bourdieu's theory of practice to uncover the embodied knowledge of patients living with disability and illness, and nurse researchers should translate these discoveries into policy recommendations and improved evidence-based best practice. The practice of nursing should incorporate an understanding of embodied knowledge to support disabled and ill patients as these patients modify "everyday practices" in the light of their disabilities and illnesses. Bourdieu's theory enriches nursing because the theory allows for consideration of both the objective and the subjective through the conceptualization of capital, habitus and field. Uncovering individuals embodied knowledge is critical to implement best practices that assist patients as they adapt to bodily changes during disability and illness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparing anterior and posterior Hox complex formation reveals guidelines for predicting cis-regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Juli D.; Cook, Tiffany A.; Gebelein, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Hox transcription factors specify numerous cell fates along the anterior-posterior axis by regulating the expression of downstream target genes. While expression analysis has uncovered large numbers of de-regulated genes in cells with altered Hox activity, determining which are direct versus indirect targets has remained a significant challenge. Here, we characterize the DNA binding activity of Hox transcription factor complexes on eight experimentally verified cis-regulatory elements. Hox factors regulate the activity of each element by forming protein complexes with two cofactor proteins, Extradenticle (Exd) and Homothorax (Hth). Using comparative DNA binding assays, we found that a number of flexible arrangements of Hox, Exd, and Hth binding sites mediate cooperative transcription factor complexes. Moreover, analysis of a Distal-less regulatory element (DMXR) that is repressed by abdominal Hox factors revealed that suboptimal binding sites can be combined to form high affinity transcription complexes. Lastly, we determined that the anterior Hox factors are more dependent upon Exd and Hth for complex formation than posterior Hox factors. Based upon these findings, we suggest a general set of guidelines to serve as a basis for designing bioinformatics algorithms aimed at identifying Hox regulatory elements using the wealth of recently sequenced genomes. PMID:20398649

  19. Handling Qualities Evaluations of Low Complexity Model Reference Adaptive Controllers for Reduced Pitch and Roll Damping Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Johnson, Marcus; Nguyen, Nhan

    2011-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers have conducted a series of flight experiments designed to study the effects of varying levels of adaptive controller complexity on the performance and handling qualities of an aircraft under various simulated failure or damage conditions. A baseline, nonlinear dynamic inversion controller was augmented with three variations of a model reference adaptive control design. The simplest design consisted of a single adaptive parameter in each of the pitch and roll axes computed using a basic gradient-based update law. A second design was built upon the first by increasing the complexity of the update law. The third and most complex design added an additional adaptive parameter to each axis. Flight tests were conducted using NASA s Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed, a highly modified F-18 aircraft that contains a research flight control system capable of housing advanced flight controls experiments. Each controller was evaluated against a suite of simulated failures and damage ranging from destabilization of the pitch and roll axes to significant coupling between the axes. Two pilots evaluated the three adaptive controllers as well as the non-adaptive baseline controller in a variety of dynamic maneuvers and precision flying tasks designed to uncover potential deficiencies in the handling qualities of the aircraft, and adverse interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controllers. The work was completed as part of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program.

  20. Complex genetics of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related pediatric retinal detachments

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary vitreoretinal disorder that can cause various types of retinal detachments. The abnormalities in eyes with FEVR are caused by poor vascularization in the peripheral retina. The genetics of FEVR is highly heterogeneous, and mutations in the genes for Wnt signaling and a transcription factor have been reported to be responsible for FEVR. These factors have been shown to be the regulators of the pathophysiological pathways of retinal vascular development. Studies conducted to identify the causative genes of FEVR have uncovered a diverse and complex relationship between FEVR and other diseases; for example, Norrie disease, a Mendelian-inherited disease; retinopathy of prematurity, a multifactorial genetic disease; and Coats disease, a nongenetic disease, associated with pediatric retinal detachments. PMID:29018668

  1. Single Cell Oxygen Mapping (SCOM) by Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Uncovers Heterogeneous Intracellular Oxygen Consumption.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Santana; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Bertotti, Mauro

    2017-09-12

    We developed a highly sensitive oxygen consumption scanning microscopy system using platinized platinum disc microelectrodes. The system is capable of reliably detecting single-cell respiration, responding to classical regulators of mitochondrial oxygen consumption activity as expected. Comparisons with commercial multi-cell oxygen detection systems show that the system has comparable errors (if not smaller), with the advantage of being able to monitor inter and intra-cell heterogeneity in oxygen consumption characteristics. Our results uncover heterogeneous oxygen consumption characteristics between cells and within the same cell´s microenvironments. Single Cell Oxygen Mapping (SCOM) is thus capable of reliably studying mitochondrial oxygen consumption characteristics and heterogeneity at a single-cell level.

  2. Revealing the Hidden Language of Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Davis, Darren; Levnajic, Zoran; Janjic, Vuk; Karapandza, Rasa; Stojmirovic, Aleksandar; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Sophisticated methods for analysing complex networks promise to be of great benefit to almost all scientific disciplines, yet they elude us. In this work, we make fundamental methodological advances to rectify this. We discover that the interaction between a small number of roles, played by nodes in a network, can characterize a network's structure and also provide a clear real-world interpretation. Given this insight, we develop a framework for analysing and comparing networks, which outperforms all existing ones. We demonstrate its strength by uncovering novel relationships between seemingly unrelated networks, such as Facebook, metabolic, and protein structure networks. We also use it to track the dynamics of the world trade network, showing that a country's role of a broker between non-trading countries indicates economic prosperity, whereas peripheral roles are associated with poverty. This result, though intuitive, has escaped all existing frameworks. Finally, our approach translates network topology into everyday language, bringing network analysis closer to domain scientists. PMID:24686408

  3. Revealing the hidden language of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Yaveroğlu, Ömer Nebil; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Davis, Darren; Levnajic, Zoran; Janjic, Vuk; Karapandza, Rasa; Stojmirovic, Aleksandar; Pržulj, Nataša

    2014-04-01

    Sophisticated methods for analysing complex networks promise to be of great benefit to almost all scientific disciplines, yet they elude us. In this work, we make fundamental methodological advances to rectify this. We discover that the interaction between a small number of roles, played by nodes in a network, can characterize a network's structure and also provide a clear real-world interpretation. Given this insight, we develop a framework for analysing and comparing networks, which outperforms all existing ones. We demonstrate its strength by uncovering novel relationships between seemingly unrelated networks, such as Facebook, metabolic, and protein structure networks. We also use it to track the dynamics of the world trade network, showing that a country's role of a broker between non-trading countries indicates economic prosperity, whereas peripheral roles are associated with poverty. This result, though intuitive, has escaped all existing frameworks. Finally, our approach translates network topology into everyday language, bringing network analysis closer to domain scientists.

  4. Control of epidemics on complex networks: Effectiveness of delayed isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tiago; Young, Lai-Sang

    2015-08-01

    We study isolation as a means to control epidemic outbreaks in complex networks, focusing on the consequences of delays in isolating infected nodes. Our analysis uncovers a tipping point: if infected nodes are isolated before a critical day dc, the disease is effectively controlled, whereas for longer delays the number of infected nodes climbs steeply. We show that dc can be estimated explicitly in terms of network properties and disease parameters, connecting lowered values of dc explicitly to heterogeneity in degree distribution. Our results reveal also that initial delays in the implementation of isolation protocols can have catastrophic consequences in heterogeneous networks. As our study is carried out in a general framework, it has the potential to offer insight and suggest proactive strategies for containing outbreaks of a range of serious infectious diseases.

  5. Control of complex networks requires both structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Alexander J.; Rocha, Luis M.

    2016-04-01

    The study of network structure has uncovered signatures of the organization of complex systems. However, there is also a need to understand how to control them; for example, identifying strategies to revert a diseased cell to a healthy state, or a mature cell to a pluripotent state. Two recent methodologies suggest that the controllability of complex systems can be predicted solely from the graph of interactions between variables, without considering their dynamics: structural controllability and minimum dominating sets. We demonstrate that such structure-only methods fail to characterize controllability when dynamics are introduced. We study Boolean network ensembles of network motifs as well as three models of biochemical regulation: the segment polarity network in Drosophila melanogaster, the cell cycle of budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the floral organ arrangement in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that structure-only methods both undershoot and overshoot the number and which sets of critical variables best control the dynamics of these models, highlighting the importance of the actual system dynamics in determining control. Our analysis further shows that the logic of automata transition functions, namely how canalizing they are, plays an important role in the extent to which structure predicts dynamics.

  6. On issue of increasing profitability of automated energy technology complexes for preparation and combustion of water-coal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brylina, O. G.; Osintsev, K. V.; Prikhodko, YU S.; Savosteenko, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the issues of energy technological complexes economy increase on the existing techniques of water-coal suspensions preparation and burning basis due to application of highly effective control systems of electric drives and neurocontrol. The automated control system structure for the main boiler components is given. The electric drive structure is disclosed by the example of pumps (for transfer of coal-water mash and / or suspension). A system for controlling and diagnosing a heat and power complex based on a multi-zone regulator is proposed. The possibility of using neural networks for implementing the control algorithms outlined in the article is considered.

  7. Percutaneous treatment of adult isthmic aortic coarctation: acute and long-term clinical and imaging outcome with a self-expandable uncovered nitinol stent.

    PubMed

    Kische, Stephan; D'Ancona, Giuseppe; Stoeckicht, Yannik; Ortak, Jasmin; Elsässer, Albrecht; Ince, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    To present perioperative and long-term results of percutaneous treatment of adult isthmic coarctation of the aorta by means of a self-expandable closed-web uncovered nitinol stent (Sinus-XL, Optimed, Esslingen, Germany). Preoperative, perioperative, and long-term clinical and computed tomographic angiography data were collected and analyzed prospectively. A total of 52 consecutive patients were treated with the Sinus-XL stent. Mean age was 36.6 (21-67) years, peak invasive trans-coarctation of the aorta gradient was 54.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg, and upper body hypertension unresponsive to medical treatment was present in all patients. Mean stent diameter and length were 24.2 mm (22-28 mm) and 70.4 mm (40-80 mm), respectively. Eight patients (15.4%) required coarctation of the aorta predilatation. All patients underwent poststent dilatation with a noncompliant balloon. Postoperative peak gradient (3.3 ± 2.5 mm Hg) was reduced significantly (P < 0.001) and minimal aortic diameter was increased significantly (4.6 ± 1.9 versus 18.6 ± 2.5 mm; P < 0.001). All patients were discharged home (mean hospitalization, 3.5 days). At follow-up (47.6 months; 12-84), 1 (1.9%) noncardiovascular mortality was reported. Aortic computed tomography confirmed the absence of stent collapse and secondary migration and documented stability in aortic diameter (18.3 ± 2.7 mm). Thirty patients (57.7%) were completely weaned-off antihypertensive medications and their use dropped from 2.6 to 0.9 drugs/patient (P < 0.001). Ankle-brachial pressure index increased from 0.75 to 0.98 (P < 0.001). Adult coarctation of the aorta treatment by means of a self-expandable uncovered stent is safe and durable. The peculiar stent design maintains adequate localized radial strength over time with minimal trauma on the adjacent aortic wall and negligible device-related complications. Blood pressure control optimization is immediate and persistent even at long-term follow-up. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Uncovering New Thermal and Elastic Properties of Nanostructured Materials Using Coherent EUV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez Charpak, Jorge Nicolas

    nanoscale thermal transport (i.e. cooling) of periodic hot nanostructures down to 20nm in characteristic dimension in both 1D (nanolines) and 2D (nanocubes) geometries, I uncovered a new surprising regime of nanoscale thermal transport called the "collectively-diffusive regime". In this regime, nanoscale hot spots cool faster when placed closer together than when farther apart. This is a consequence of the interplay between both the size and spacing of the nanoscale heat sources with the phonon spectrum of a material. This makes our technique one of the only experimental routes to directly probe the dynamics of phonons in complex materials, which is critical to both technological applications and fundamental condensed matter physics. I developed a proof of concept model and used it to extract the first experimental differential conductivity phonon mean free path (MFP) spectra for silicon and sapphire, which compare well with first-principles calculations. However, a complete picture of the physics is still elusive. Thus, I developed a computational solver for the phonon Boltzmann transport equation in realistic experimental geometries. Using this approach, I successfully found confirmation of the influence of the period in thermal transport from periodic heat sources: a smaller periodicity can enhance the heat dissipation efficiency. This result is qualitatively consistent with the results of the "collectively-diffusive regime", but more work is needed for a full theoretical quantitative picture of the experimental results. In other work, I used coherent EUV nanometrology to simultaneously measure, in a non-contact and non-destructive way, Young's modulus and, for the first time, Poisson's ratio of ultra-thin films. I successfully extracted the full elastic tensor of the thinnest films to date (10.9nm). Moreover, by using our technique on a series of low-k dielectric sub-100 nm SiC:H films, I uncovered an unexpected transition from compressible to non-compressible behavior

  9. Pain increases during sympathetic arousal in patients with complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Skipworth, S; Blockey, P

    2001-10-09

    To investigate the effect of sympathetic arousal on pain and vasomotor responses in healthy control subjects and patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and to determine whether pain increases in patients with particular symptoms. In experiments 1 and 2, capsaicin was applied to the forearm of 24 healthy subjects to induce thermal hyperalgesia. Vascular responses were monitored and subjects rated thermal hyperalgesia before and after being startled (experiment 1), and before, during, and after mental arithmetic, breath holding, forehead cooling, the Valsalva maneuver, and a cold pressor test in experiment 2. In a third experiment, sensitivity to heat, cold, and mechanical stimulation was investigated in 61 patients with CRPS. Pain ratings and vascular and electrodermal responses were recorded after patients were startled and during forehead cooling. In experiment 1, thermal hyperalgesia decreased in healthy control subjects after they were startled, and digital blood vessels constricted symmetrically. In experiment 2, thermal hyperalgesia decreased during and after other forms of sympathetic arousal. However, in experiment 3, ratings of clinical pain increased during forehead cooling or after being startled in over 70% of patients with CRPS. Pain increased most consistently during forehead cooling in patients with cold allodynia or punctate allodynia. Digital blood vessels constricted more intensely on the symptomatic than the nonsymptomatic side in patients with CRPS during sympathetic arousal. Normal inhibitory influences on pain during sympathetic arousal are compromised in the majority of patients with CRPS. The augmented vasoconstrictor response in the symptomatic limb during sympathetic arousal is consistent with adrenergic supersensitivity. An adrenergic sensitivity in nociceptive afferents might contribute to pain and hyperalgesia during sympathetic arousal in certain patients with CRPS.

  10. Nanospray FAIMS Fractionation Provides Significant Increases in Proteome Coverage of Unfractionated Complex Protein Digests*

    PubMed Central

    Swearingen, Kristian E.; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Johnson, Richard S.; Saleem, Ramsey A.; Aitchison, John D.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is an atmospheric pressure ion mobility technique that can be used to reduce sample complexity and increase dynamic range in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. FAIMS fractionates ions in the gas-phase according to characteristic differences in mobilities in electric fields of different strengths. Undesired ion species such as solvated clusters and singly charged chemical background ions can be prevented from reaching the mass analyzer, thus decreasing chemical noise. To date, there has been limited success using the commercially available Thermo Fisher FAIMS device with both standard ESI and nanoLC-MS. We have modified a Thermo Fisher electrospray source to accommodate a fused silica pulled tip capillary column for nanospray ionization, which will enable standard laboratories access to FAIMS technology. Our modified source allows easily obtainable stable spray at flow rates of 300 nL/min when coupled with FAIMS. The modified electrospray source allows the use of sheath gas, which provides a fivefold increase in signal obtained when nanoLC is coupled to FAIMS. In this work, nanoLC-FAIMS-MS and nanoLC-MS were compared by analyzing a tryptic digest of a 1:1 mixture of SILAC-labeled haploid and diploid yeast to demonstrate the performance of nanoLC-FAIMS-MS, at different compensation voltages, for post-column fractionation of complex protein digests. The effective dynamic range more than doubled when FAIMS was used. In total, 10,377 unique stripped peptides and 1649 unique proteins with SILAC ratios were identified from the combined nanoLC-FAIMS-MS experiments, compared with 6908 unique stripped peptides and 1003 unique proteins with SILAC ratios identified from the combined nanoLC-MS experiments. This work demonstrates how a commercially available FAIMS device can be combined with nanoLC to improve proteome coverage in shotgun and targeted type proteomics experiments. PMID:22186714

  11. Uncovering neurodevelopmental windows of susceptibility to manganese exposure using dentine microspatial analyses.

    PubMed

    Claus Henn, Birgit; Austin, Christine; Coull, Brent A; Schnaas, Lourdes; Gennings, Chris; Horton, Megan K; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2018-02-01

    Associations between manganese (Mn) and neurodevelopment may depend on dose and exposure timing, but most studies cannot measure exposure variability over time well. We apply temporally informative tooth-matrix biomarkers to uncover windows of susceptibility in early life when Mn is associated with visual motor ability in childhood. We also explore effect modification by lead (Pb) and child sex. Participants were drawn from the ELEMENT (Early Life Exposures in MExico and NeuroToxicology) longitudinal birth cohort studies. We reconstructed dose and timing of prenatal and early postnatal Mn and Pb exposures for 138 children by analyzing deciduous teeth using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Neurodevelopment was assessed between 6 and 16 years of age using the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). Mn associations with total WRAVMA scores and subscales were estimated with multivariable generalized additive mixed models. We examined Mn interactions with Pb and child sex in stratified models. Levels of dentine Mn were highest in the second trimester and declined steeply over the prenatal period, with a slower rate of decline after birth. Mn was positively associated with visual spatial and total WRAVMA scores in the second trimester, among children with lower (< median) tooth Pb levels: one standard deviation (SD) increase in ln-transformed dentine Mn at 150 days before birth was associated with a 0.15 [95% CI: 0.04, 0.26] SD increase in total score. This positive association was not observed at high Pb levels. In contrast to the prenatal period, significant negative associations were found in the postnatal period from ~ 6 to 12 months of age, among boys only: one SD increase in ln-transformed dentine Mn was associated with a 0.11 [95% CI: - 0.001, - 0.22] to 0.16 [95% CI: - 0.04, - 0.28] SD decrease in visual spatial score. Using tooth-matrix biomarkers with fine scale temporal profiles of exposure, we found discrete

  12. Transient increase in the levels of gamma-tubulin complex in reorientation of cortical microtubules by gravity in azuki bean epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, Kouichi; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    Azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) seedlings were exposed to centrifugal hypergravity, and the changes in the orientation of cortical microtubules and the expression of genes cording γ-tubulin complex (VaTUBG and VaSpc98p) were examined. By 300 g treatment, the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased in epicotyls. Hypergravity increased the expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p transiently. Also, the expression of both genes was increased transiently by removal of hypergravity stimulus. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified reorientation of microtubules as well as up-regulation of expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p by hypergravity. These results suggest that mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane may perceive the gravity signal, which leads to reorientation of cortical microtubules by transiently stimulating the formation of γ-tubulin complex.

  13. A data-mining approach to rank candidate protein-binding partners-The case of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, I A; Dell'Angelica, E C

    2009-04-01

    The study of protein-protein interactions is a powerful approach to uncovering the molecular function of gene products associated with human disease. Protein-protein interaction data are accumulating at an unprecedented pace owing to interactomics projects, although it has been recognized that a significant fraction of these data likely represents false positives. During our studies of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), a protein complex involved in protein trafficking and containing the products of genes mutated in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, we faced the problem of having too many candidate binding partners to pursue experimentally. In this work, we have explored ways of efficiently gathering high-quality information about candidate binding partners and presenting the information in a visually friendly manner. We applied the approach to rank 70 candidate binding partners of human BLOC-1 and 102 candidates of its counterpart from Drosophila melanogaster. The top candidate for human BLOC-1 was the small GTPase encoded by the RAB11A gene, which is a paralogue of the Rab38 and Rab32 proteins in mammals and the lightoid gene product in flies. Interestingly, genetic analyses in D. melanogaster uncovered a synthetic sick/lethal interaction between Rab11 and lightoid. The data-mining approach described herein can be customized to study candidate binding partners for other proteins or possibly candidates derived from other types of 'omics' data.

  14. Contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H.; Ardisson Korat, Andres V.; Sun, Qi; Tobias, Deirdre K.; Zhang, Cuilin; Qi, Lu; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the NHS II to addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Methods. We carried out a narrative review of 1976 to 2016 NHS and NHS II publications. Results. The NHS and NHS II have uncovered important roles in type 2 diabetes for individual nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, and physical activity independent of excess body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are potentially preventable if individuals follow a healthy diet and lifestyle. The NHS investigations have also identified novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, nutrition metabolites, and environmental pollutants, offering new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Global collaborative efforts have uncovered many common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and improved our understanding of gene–environment interactions. Continued efforts to identify epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomic risk factors for type 2 diabetes have the potential to reveal new pathways and improve prediction and prevention. Conclusions. Over the past several decades, the NHS and NHS II have made major contributions to public health recommendations and strategies designed to reduce the global burden of diabetes. PMID:27459454

  15. Contribution of the Nurses' Health Studies to Uncovering Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: Diet, Lifestyle, Biomarkers, and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Ardisson Korat, Andres V; Sun, Qi; Tobias, Deirdre K; Zhang, Cuilin; Qi, Lu; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Hu, Frank B

    2016-09-01

    To review the contribution of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHS II to addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for type 2 diabetes. We carried out a narrative review of 1976 to 2016 NHS and NHS II publications. The NHS and NHS II have uncovered important roles in type 2 diabetes for individual nutrients, foods, dietary patterns, and physical activity independent of excess body weight. Up to 90% of type 2 diabetes cases are potentially preventable if individuals follow a healthy diet and lifestyle. The NHS investigations have also identified novel biomarkers for diabetes, including adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, nutrition metabolites, and environmental pollutants, offering new insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Global collaborative efforts have uncovered many common genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes and improved our understanding of gene-environment interactions. Continued efforts to identify epigenetic, metagenomic, and metabolomic risk factors for type 2 diabetes have the potential to reveal new pathways and improve prediction and prevention. Over the past several decades, the NHS and NHS II have made major contributions to public health recommendations and strategies designed to reduce the global burden of diabetes.

  16. On the Importance of Polar Interactions for Complexes Containing Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Eric T. C.; Na, Dokyun; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition for the importance of proteins with large intrinsically disordered (ID) segments in cell signaling and regulation. ID segments in these proteins often harbor regions that mediate molecular recognition. Coupled folding and binding of the recognition regions has been proposed to confer high specificity to interactions involving ID segments. However, researchers recently questioned the origin of the interaction specificity of ID proteins because of the overrepresentation of hydrophobic residues in their interaction interfaces. Here, we focused on the role of polar and charged residues in interactions mediated by ID segments. Making use of the extended nature of most ID segments when in complex with globular proteins, we first identified large numbers of complexes between globular proteins and ID segments by using radius-of-gyration-based selection criteria. Consistent with previous studies, we found the interfaces of these complexes to be enriched in hydrophobic residues, and that these residues contribute significantly to the stability of the interaction interface. However, our analyses also show that polar interactions play a larger role in these complexes than in structured protein complexes. Computational alanine scanning and salt-bridge analysis indicate that interfaces in ID complexes are highly complementary with respect to electrostatics, more so than interfaces of globular proteins. Follow-up calculations of the electrostatic contributions to the free energy of binding uncovered significantly stronger Coulombic interactions in complexes harbouring ID segments than in structured protein complexes. However, they are counter-balanced by even higher polar-desolvation penalties. We propose that polar interactions are a key contributing factor to the observed high specificity of ID segment-mediated interactions. PMID:23990768

  17. Uncovering Barriers to Financial Capability: Underrepresented Students' Access to Financial Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichelberger, Brenda; Mattioli, Heather; Foxhoven, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Financial aid is designed to increase access to postsecondary education at all socioeconomic levels; however, college students are not always knowledgeable about personal finances or capable of making sound decisions regarding complex college and program choices, debt options, and long-term spending. This article reviews previous research on the…

  18. Evolution in students' understanding of thermal physics with increasing complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Livne, Shelly; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the development in students’ understanding of fundamental principles in the context of learning a current interdisciplinary research topic—soft matter—that was adapted to the level of high school students. The topic was introduced in a program for interested 11th grade high school students majoring in chemistry and/or physics, in an off-school setting. Soft matter was presented in a gradual increase in the degree of complexity of the phenomena as well as in the level of the quantitative analysis. We describe the evolution in students’ use of fundamental thermodynamics principles to reason about phase separation—a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in soft matter. In particular, we examine the impact of the use of free energy analysis, a common approach in soft matter, on the understanding of the fundamental principles of thermodynamics. The study used diagnostic questions and classroom observations to gauge the student’s learning. In order to gain insight on the aspects that shape the understanding of the basic principles, we focus on the responses and explanations of two case-study students who represent two trends of evolution in conceptual understanding in the group. We analyze changes in the two case studies’ management of conceptual resources used in their analysis of phase separation, and suggest how their prior knowledge and epistemological framing (a combination of their personal tendencies and their prior exposure to different learning styles) affect their conceptual evolution. Finally, we propose strategies to improve the instruction of these concepts.

  19. Interaction surface and topology of Get3-Get4-Get5 protein complex, involved in targeting tail-anchored proteins to endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wei; Lin, Tai-Wen; Li, Yi-Chuan; Huang, Yu-Shan; Sun, Yuh-Ju; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    2012-02-10

    Recent work has uncovered the "GET system," which is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum targeting of tail-anchored proteins. Although structural information and the individual roles of most components of this system have been defined, the interactions and interplay between them remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the interactions between Get3 and the Get4-Get5 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that Get3 interacts with Get4-Get5 via an interface dominated by electrostatic forces. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and small-angle x-ray scattering, we further demonstrate that the Get3 homodimer interacts with two copies of the Get4-Get5 complex to form an extended conformation in solution.

  20. Strong topographic sheltering effects lead to spatially complex treeline advance and increased forest density in a subtropical mountain region.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sarah; Chen, Jan-Chang; Chen, Chaur-Tzuhn; Jump, Alistair S

    2014-12-01

    Altitudinal treelines are typically temperature limited such that increasing temperatures linked to global climate change are causing upslope shifts of treelines worldwide. While such elevational increases are readily predicted based on shifting isotherms, at the regional level the realized response is often much more complex, with topography and local environmental conditions playing an important modifying role. Here, we used repeated aerial photographs in combination with forest inventory data to investigate changes in treeline position in the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan over the last 60 years. A highly spatially variable upslope advance of treeline was identified in which topography is a major driver of both treeline form and advance. The changes in treeline position that we observed occurred alongside substantial increases in forest density, and lead to a large increase in overall forest area. These changes will have a significant impact on carbon stocking in the high altitude zone, while the concomitant decrease in alpine grassland area is likely to have negative implications for alpine species. The complex and spatially variable changes that we report highlight the necessity for considering local factors such as topography when attempting to predict species distributional responses to warming climate. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Increasing Model Complexity: Unit Testing and Validation of a Coupled Electrical Resistive Heating and Macroscopic Invasion Percolation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, I. L.; Krol, M.; Mumford, K. G.

    2016-12-01

    Geoenvironmental models are becoming increasingly sophisticated as they incorporate rising numbers of mechanisms and process couplings to describe environmental scenarios. When combined with advances in computing and numerical techniques, these already complicated models are experiencing large increases in code complexity and simulation time. Although, this complexity has enabled breakthroughs in the ability to describe environmental problems, it is difficult to ensure that complex models are sufficiently robust and behave as intended. Many development tools used for testing software robustness have not seen widespread use in geoenvironmental sciences despite an increasing reliance on complex numerical models, leaving many models at risk of undiscovered errors and potentially improper validations. This study explores the use of unit testing, which independently examines small code elements to ensure each unit is working as intended as well as their integrated behaviour, to test the functionality and robustness of a coupled Electrical Resistive Heating (ERH) - Macroscopic Invasion Percolation (MIP) model. ERH is a thermal remediation technique where the soil is heated until boiling and volatile contaminants are stripped from the soil. There is significant interest in improving the efficiency of ERH, including taking advantage of low-temperature co-boiling behaviour which may reduce energy consumption. However, at lower co-boiling temperatures gas bubbles can form, mobilize and collapse in cooler areas, potentially contaminating previously clean zones. The ERH-MIP model was created to simulate the behaviour of gas bubbles in the subsurface and to evaluate ERH during co-boiling1. This study demonstrates how unit testing ensures that the model behaves in an expected manner and examines the robustness of every component within the ERH-MIP model. Once unit testing is established, the MIP module (a discrete gas transport algorithm for gas expansion, mobilization and

  2. Remodeling of the pioneer translation initiation complex involves translation and the karyopherin importin β

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hanae; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian mRNAs lose and acquire proteins throughout their life span while undergoing processing, transport, translation, and decay. How translation affects messenger RNA (mRNA)–protein interactions is largely unknown. The pioneer round of translation uses newly synthesized mRNA that is bound by cap-binding protein 80 (CBP80)–CBP20 (also known as the cap-binding complex [CBC]) at the cap, poly(A)-binding protein N1 (PABPN1) and PABPC1 at the poly(A) tail, and, provided biogenesis involves pre-mRNA splicing, exon junction complexes (EJCs) at exon–exon junctions. Subsequent rounds of translation engage mRNA that is bound by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) at the cap and PABPC1 at the poly(A) tail, but that lacks detectable EJCs and PABPN1. Using the level of intracellular iron to regulate the translation of specific mRNAs, we show that translation promotes not only removal of EJC constituents, including the eIF4AIII anchor, but also replacement of PABPN1 by PABPC1. Remarkably, translation does not affect replacement of CBC by eIF4E. Instead, replacement of CBC by eIF4E is promoted by importin β (IMPβ): Inhibiting the binding of IMPβ to the complex of CBC–IMPα at an mRNA cap using the IMPα IBB (IMPβ-binding) domain or a RAN variant increases the amount of CBC-bound mRNA and decreases the amount of eIF4E-bound mRNA. Our studies uncover a previously unappreciated role for IMPβ and a novel paradigm for how newly synthesized messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) are matured. PMID:19884259

  3. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex triggers RNAi-induced mRNA degradation by association with target mRNA in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Ying; Vallandingham, Jim; Li, Hau; Florens, Laurence; Mak, Ho Yi

    2012-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms for target mRNA degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans undergoing RNAi are not fully understood. Using a combination of genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches, we report a divergent RDE-10/RDE-11 complex that is required for RNAi in C. elegans. Genetic analysis indicates that the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex acts in parallel to nuclear RNAi. Association of the complex with target mRNA is dependent on RDE-1 but not RRF-1, suggesting that target mRNA recognition depends on primary but not secondary siRNA. Furthermore, RDE-11 is required for mRNA degradation subsequent to target engagement. Deep sequencing reveals a fivefold decrease in secondary siRNA abundance in rde-10 and rde-11 mutant animals, while primary siRNA and microRNA biogenesis is normal. Therefore, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex is critical for amplifying the exogenous RNAi response. Our work uncovers an essential output of the RNAi pathway in C. elegans. PMID:22508728

  4. The RDE-10/RDE-11 complex triggers RNAi-induced mRNA degradation by association with target mRNA in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Ying; Vallandingham, Jim; Li, Hua; Li, Hau; Florens, Laurence; Mak, Ho Yi

    2012-04-15

    The molecular mechanisms for target mRNA degradation in Caenorhabditis elegans undergoing RNAi are not fully understood. Using a combination of genetic, proteomic, and biochemical approaches, we report a divergent RDE-10/RDE-11 complex that is required for RNAi in C. elegans. Genetic analysis indicates that the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex acts in parallel to nuclear RNAi. Association of the complex with target mRNA is dependent on RDE-1 but not RRF-1, suggesting that target mRNA recognition depends on primary but not secondary siRNA. Furthermore, RDE-11 is required for mRNA degradation subsequent to target engagement. Deep sequencing reveals a fivefold decrease in secondary siRNA abundance in rde-10 and rde-11 mutant animals, while primary siRNA and microRNA biogenesis is normal. Therefore, the RDE-10/RDE-11 complex is critical for amplifying the exogenous RNAi response. Our work uncovers an essential output of the RNAi pathway in C. elegans.

  5. Trend Motif: A Graph Mining Approach for Analysis of Dynamic Complex Networks

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jin, R; McCallen, S; Almaas, E

    2007-05-28

    Complex networks have been used successfully in scientific disciplines ranging from sociology to microbiology to describe systems of interacting units. Until recently, studies of complex networks have mainly focused on their network topology. However, in many real world applications, the edges and vertices have associated attributes that are frequently represented as vertex or edge weights. Furthermore, these weights are often not static, instead changing with time and forming a time series. Hence, to fully understand the dynamics of the complex network, we have to consider both network topology and related time series data. In this work, we propose a motifmore » mining approach to identify trend motifs for such purposes. Simply stated, a trend motif describes a recurring subgraph where each of its vertices or edges displays similar dynamics over a userdefined period. Given this, each trend motif occurrence can help reveal significant events in a complex system; frequent trend motifs may aid in uncovering dynamic rules of change for the system, and the distribution of trend motifs may characterize the global dynamics of the system. Here, we have developed efficient mining algorithms to extract trend motifs. Our experimental validation using three disparate empirical datasets, ranging from the stock market, world trade, to a protein interaction network, has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach.« less

  6. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-04-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  7. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; Nattress, J.; Jovanovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications. PMID:27087555

  8. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging.

    PubMed

    Rose, P B; Erickson, A S; Mayer, M; Nattress, J; Jovanovic, I

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as "searching for a needle in a haystack" because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method from being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material's areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.

  9. Extracting Communities from Complex Networks by the k-Dense Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Kazama, Kazuhiro

    To understand the structural and functional properties of large-scale complex networks, it is crucial to efficiently extract a set of cohesive subnetworks as communities. There have been proposed several such community extraction methods in the literature, including the classical k-core decomposition method and, more recently, the k-clique based community extraction method. The k-core method, although computationally efficient, is often not powerful enough for uncovering a detailed community structure and it produces only coarse-grained and loosely connected communities. The k-clique method, on the other hand, can extract fine-grained and tightly connected communities but requires a substantial amount of computational load for large-scale complex networks. In this paper, we present a new notion of a subnetwork called k-dense, and propose an efficient algorithm for extracting k-dense communities. We applied our method to the three different types of networks assembled from real data, namely, from blog trackbacks, word associations and Wikipedia references, and demonstrated that the k-dense method could extract communities almost as efficiently as the k-core method, while the qualities of the extracted communities are comparable to those obtained by the k-clique method.

  10. Modeling Increased Complexity and the Reliance on Automation: FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the development of a model that is focused on the safety issue of increasing complexity and reliance on automation systems in transport category aircraft. Recent statistics show an increase in mishaps related to manual handling and automation errors due to pilot complacency and over-reliance on automation, loss of situational awareness, automation system failures and/or pilot deficiencies. Consequently, the aircraft can enter a state outside the flight envelope and/or air traffic safety margins which potentially can lead to loss-of-control (LOC), controlled-flight-into-terrain (CFIT), or runway excursion/confusion accidents, etc. The goal of this modeling effort is to provide NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) with a platform capable of assessing the impacts of AvSP technologies and products towards reducing the relative risk of automation related accidents and incidents. In order to do so, a generic framework, capable of mapping both latent and active causal factors leading to automation errors, is developed. Next, the framework is converted into a Bayesian Belief Network model and populated with data gathered from Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). With the insertion of technologies and products, the model provides individual and collective risk reduction acquired by technologies and methodologies developed within AvSP.

  11. Endosidin2 targets conserved exocyst complex subunit EXO70 to inhibit exocytosis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Chunhua; Brown, Michelle Q.; van de Ven, Wilhelmina; ...

    2015-11-25

    The exocyst complex regulates the last steps of exocytosis, which is essential to organisms across kingdoms. In humans, its dysfunction is correlated with several significant diseases, such as diabetes and cancer progression. Investigation of the dynamic regulation of the evolutionarily conserved exocyst-related processes using mutants in genetically tractable organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana is limited by the lethality or the severity of phenotypes. We discovered that the small molecule Endosidin2 (ES2) binds to the EXO70 (exocyst component of 70 kDa) subunit of the exocyst complex, resulting in inhibition of exocytosis and endosomal recycling in both plant and human cells andmore » enhancement of plant vacuolar trafficking. An EXO70 protein with a C-terminal truncation results in dominant ES2 resistance, uncovering possible distinct regulatory roles for the N terminus of the protein. Ultimately, this study not only provides a valuable tool in studying exocytosis regulation but also offers a potentially new target for drugs aimed at addressing human disease.« less

  12. Endosidin2 targets conserved exocyst complex subunit EXO70 to inhibit exocytosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Brown, Michelle Q.; van de Ven, Wilhelmina

    The exocyst complex regulates the last steps of exocytosis, which is essential to organisms across kingdoms. In humans, its dysfunction is correlated with several significant diseases, such as diabetes and cancer progression. Investigation of the dynamic regulation of the evolutionarily conserved exocyst-related processes using mutants in genetically tractable organisms such as Arabidopsis thaliana is limited by the lethality or the severity of phenotypes. We discovered that the small molecule Endosidin2 (ES2) binds to the EXO70 (exocyst component of 70 kDa) subunit of the exocyst complex, resulting in inhibition of exocytosis and endosomal recycling in both plant and human cells andmore » enhancement of plant vacuolar trafficking. An EXO70 protein with a C-terminal truncation results in dominant ES2 resistance, uncovering possible distinct regulatory roles for the N terminus of the protein. Ultimately, this study not only provides a valuable tool in studying exocytosis regulation but also offers a potentially new target for drugs aimed at addressing human disease.« less

  13. Deciphering Front-Side Complex Formation in SN2 Reactions via Dynamics Mapping.

    PubMed

    Szabó, István; Olasz, Balázs; Czakó, Gábor

    2017-07-06

    Due to their importance in organic chemistry, the atomistic understanding of bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (S N 2) reactions shows exponentially growing interest. In this publication, the effect of front-side complex (FSC) formation is uncovered via quasi-classical trajectory computations combined with a novel analysis method called trajectory orthogonal projection (TOP). For both F - + CH 3 Y [Y = Cl,I] reactions, the lifetime distributions of the F - ···YCH 3 front-side complex revealed weakly trapped nucleophiles (F - ). However, only the F - + CH 3 I reaction features strongly trapped nucleophiles in the front-side region of the prereaction well. Interestingly, both back-side and front-side attack show propensity to long-lived FSC formation. Spatial distributions of the nucleophile demonstrate more prominent FSC formation in case of the F - + CH 3 I reaction compared to F - + CH 3 Cl. The presence of front-side intermediates and the broad spatial distribution in the back-side region may explain the indirect nature of the F - + CH 3 I reaction.

  14. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1994-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of HIV infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The AIDS patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. We proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis.

  15. Impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the Met Office global numerical weather prediction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, J. P.; Walters, D. N.; Bellouin, N.; Milton, S. F.

    2014-05-01

    The inclusion of the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols in high-resolution global numerical weather prediction (NWP) models is being increasingly recognised as important for the improved accuracy of short-range weather forecasts. In this study the impacts of increasing the aerosol complexity in the global NWP configuration of the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are investigated. A hierarchy of aerosol representations are evaluated including three-dimensional monthly mean speciated aerosol climatologies, fully prognostic aerosols modelled using the CLASSIC aerosol scheme and finally, initialised aerosols using assimilated aerosol fields from the GEMS project. The prognostic aerosol schemes are better able to predict the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol optical depth, which is particularly important in cases of large sporadic aerosol events such as large dust storms or forest fires. Including the direct effect of aerosols improves model biases in outgoing long-wave radiation over West Africa due to a better representation of dust. However, uncertainties in dust optical properties propagate to its direct effect and the subsequent model response. Inclusion of the indirect aerosol effects improves surface radiation biases at the North Slope of Alaska ARM site due to lower cloud amounts in high-latitude clean-air regions. This leads to improved temperature and height forecasts in this region. Impacts on the global mean model precipitation and large-scale circulation fields were found to be generally small in the short-range forecasts. However, the indirect aerosol effect leads to a strengthening of the low-level monsoon flow over the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and an increase in precipitation over Southeast Asia. Regional impacts on the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) are also presented with the large dust loading in the aerosol climatology enhancing of the heat low over West Africa and weakening the AEJ. This study highlights the

  16. Increased water resistance of paper treated with amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Amylose inclusion complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and the HCl salts of hexadecylamine and octadecylamine. Solutions of the complexes were applied to paper at concentrations of 2-4%. After the treated papers were dried, sodium hydroxide solution was applied to convert the adsorb...

  17. Caenorhabditis elegans chronically exposed to a Mn/Zn ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide show mitochondrial Complex I inhibition and increased reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Denise C; Todt, Callie E; Orfield, Sarah E; Denney, Rachel D; Snapp, Isaac B; Negga, Rekek; Montgomery, Kara M; Bailey, Andrew C; Pressley, Aireal S; Traynor, Wendy L; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-09-01

    Reports have linked human exposure to Mn/Zn ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (Mn/Zn-EBDC) fungicides with multiple pathologies, from dermatitis to central nervous system dysfunction. Although members of this family of agrochemicals have been available for over 50 years, their mechanism of toxicity in humans is still unclear. Since mitochondrial inhibition and oxidative stress are implicated in a wide variety of diseases, we hypothesized that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) exposed to a commercially-available formulation of an Mn/Zn-EBDC-containing fungicide (Manzate; MZ) would also show these endpoints. Thus, worms were treated chronically (24h) with various MZ concentrations and assayed for reduced mitochondrial function and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxygen consumption studies suggested Complex I inhibition in all treatment groups compared to controls ( ** p<0.01). In order to verify these findings, assays specific for Complex II or Complex IV activity were also completed. Data analysis from these studies indicated that neither complex was adversely affected by MZ treatment. Additional data from ATP assays indicated a statistically significant decrease ( *** p<0.001) in ATP levels in all treatment groups when compared to control worms. Further studies were completed to determine if exposure of C. elegans to MZ also resulted in increased ROS concentrations. Studies demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide, but not superoxide or hydroxyl radical, levels were statistically significantly increased (*p<0.05). Since hydrogen peroxide is known to up-regulate glutathione-S-transferase (GST), we used a GST:green fluorescent protein transgenic worm strain to test this hypothesis. Results from these studies indicated a statistically significant increase ( *** p<0.001) in green pixel number following MZ exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that C. elegans treated with MZ concentrations to which humans are exposed show mitochondrial Complex I

  18. The increased flexibility of CDR loops generated in antibodies by Congo red complexation favors antigen binding.

    PubMed

    Krol, Marcin; Roterman, Irena; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Piekarska, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Spolnik, Paweł; Stopa, Barbara

    2006-02-01

    The dye Congo red and related self-assembling compounds were found to stabilize immune complexes by binding to antibodies currently engaged in complexation to antigen. In our simulations, it was shown that the site that becomes accessible for binding the supramolecular dye ligand is located in the V domain, and is normally occupied by the N-terminal polypeptide chain fragment. The binding of the ligand disrupts the beta-structure in the domain, increasing the plasticity of the antigen-binding site. The higher fluctuation of CDR-bearing loops enhances antigen binding, and allows even low-affinity antibodies to be engaged in immune complexes. Experimental observations of the enhancement effect were supported by theoretical studies using L lambda chain (4BJL-PDB identification) and the L chain from the complex of IgM-rheumatoid factor bound to the CH3 domain of the Fc fragment (1ADQ-PDB identification) as the initial structures for theoretical studies of dye-induced changes. Commercial IgM-type rheumatoid factor (human) and sheep red blood cells with coupled IgG (human) were used for experimental tests aimed to reveal the dye-enhancement effect in this system. The specificity of antigen-antibody interaction enhanced by dye binding was studied using rabbit anti-sheep red cell antibodies to agglutinate red cells of different species. Red blood cells of hoofed mammals (horse, goat) showed weak enhancement of agglutination in the presence of Congo red. Neither agglutination nor enhancement were observed in the case of human red cells. The dye-enhancement capability in the SRBC-antiSRBC system was lost after pepsin-digestion of antibodies producing (Fab)2 fragments still agglutinating red cells. Monoclonal (myeloma) IgG, L lambda chain and ovoalbumin failed to agglutinate red cells, as expected, and showed no enhancement effect. This indicates that the enhancement effect is specific.

  19. Complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder to veteran suicide: facing an increasing challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Elizabeth A D

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this case study is to present the complex contribution of combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to suicide and international standards of treatment among veterans deployed to the Middle East. PTSD carries increased physical and psychological health risk in combat soldiers. Internationally, guidelines for PTSD promote cognitive behavior therapies, specifically exposure therapy, as first line treatment; however, implementation varies among countries. Evidence supports the benefit of exposure-based psychotherapy for combat-related PTSD. Commonly prescribed antidepressants and other psychotherapy treatments may not be as beneficial. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Phosphorylation of the IDP KID Modulates Affinity for KIX by Increasing the Lifetime of the Complex.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Liza; Shammas, Sarah L; Clarke, Jane

    2017-12-19

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are known to undergo a range of posttranslational modifications, but by what mechanism do such modifications affect the binding of an IDP to its partner protein? We investigate this question using one such IDP, the kinase inducible domain (KID) of the transcription factor CREB, which interacts with the KIX domain of CREB-binding protein upon phosphorylation. As with many other IDPs, KID undergoes coupled folding and binding to form α-helical structure upon interacting with KIX. This single site phosphorylation plays an important role in the control of transcriptional activation in vivo. Here we show that, contrary to expectation, phosphorylation has no effect on association rates-unphosphorylated KID binds just as rapidly as pKID, the phosphorylated form-but rather, acts by increasing the lifetime of the complex. We propose that by controlling the lifetime of the bound complex of pKID:KIX via altering the dissociation rate, phosphorylation can facilitate effective control of transcription regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deletion of Cytoplasmic Double-Stranded RNA Sensors Does Not Uncover Viral Small Interfering RNA Production in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Susan; Tholen, Lotte E; Overheul, Gijs J; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; van Rij, Ronald P

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed viral small RNA production in differentiated cells deficient in the cytoplasmic RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. We did not detect 22-nucleotide (nt) viral siRNAs upon infection with three different positive-sense RNA viruses. Our data suggest that the depletion of cytoplasmic RIG-I-like sensors is not sufficient to uncover viral siRNAs in differentiated cells. IMPORTANCE The contribution of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in antiviral immunity in vertebrates has been widely debated. It has been proposed that RNAi possesses antiviral activity in mammalian systems but that its antiviral effect is masked by the potent antiviral interferon response in differentiated mammalian cells. In this study, we show that inactivation of the interferon response is not sufficient to uncover antiviral activity of RNAi in human epithelial cells infected with three wild-type positive-sense RNA viruses.

  2. Intermittent fasting uncovers and rescues cognitive phenotypes in PTEN neuronal haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cabral-Costa, J V; Andreotti, D Z; Mello, N P; Scavone, C; Camandola, S; Kawamoto, E M

    2018-06-05

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is an important protein with key modulatory functions in cell growth and survival. PTEN is crucial during embryogenesis and plays a key role in the central nervous system (CNS), where it directly modulates neuronal development and synaptic plasticity. Loss of PTEN signaling function is associated with cognitive deficits and synaptic plasticity impairment. Accordingly, Pten mutations have a strong link with autism spectrum disorder. In this study, neuronal Pten haploinsufficient male mice were subjected to a long-term environmental intervention - intermittent fasting (IF) - and then evaluated for alterations in exploratory, anxiety and learning and memory behaviors. Although no significant effects on spatial memory were observed, mutant mice showed impaired contextual fear memory in the passive avoidance test - an outcome that was effectively rescued by IF. In this study, we demonstrated that IF modulation, in addition to its rescue of the memory deficit, was also required to uncover behavioral phenotypes otherwise hidden in this neuronal Pten haploinsufficiency model.

  3. Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Jennifer C; Froböse, Monja I; Cook, Jennifer L; Geurts, Dirk EM; Frank, Michael J; Cools, Roshan; den Ouden, Hanneke EM

    2017-01-01

    Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, ‘Pavlovian’ effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions. These cue- and outcome-based biases were altered independently by the catecholamine enhancer melthylphenidate. Methylphenidate’s effect varied across individuals with a putative proxy of baseline dopamine synthesis capacity, working memory span. Our study uncovers two distinct mechanisms by which motivation impacts behaviour, and helps refine current models of catecholaminergic modulation of motivated action. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22169.001 PMID:28504638

  4. Uncovering the effective interval of resolution parameter across multiple community optimization measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Cheng, Qing; Mao, He-Jin; Wang, Huanian; Chen, Junhua

    2017-03-01

    The study of community structure is a primary focus of network analysis, which has attracted a large amount of attention. In this paper, we focus on two famous functions, i.e., the Hamiltonian function H and the modularity density measure D, and intend to uncover the effective thresholds of their corresponding resolution parameter γ without resolution limit problem. Two widely used example networks are employed, including the ring network of lumps as well as the ad hoc network. In these two networks, we use discrete convex analysis to study the interval of resolution parameter of H and D that will not cause the misidentification. By comparison, we find that in both examples, for Hamiltonian function H, the larger the value of resolution parameter γ, the less resolution limit the network suffers; while for modularity density D, the less resolution limit the network suffers when we decrease the value of γ. Our framework is mathematically strict and efficient and can be applied in a lot of scientific fields.

  5. Catecholaminergic challenge uncovers distinct Pavlovian and instrumental mechanisms of motivated (in)action.

    PubMed

    Swart, Jennifer C; Froböse, Monja I; Cook, Jennifer L; Geurts, Dirk Em; Frank, Michael J; Cools, Roshan; den Ouden, Hanneke Em

    2017-05-15

    Catecholamines modulate the impact of motivational cues on action. Such motivational biases have been proposed to reflect cue-based, 'Pavlovian' effects. Here, we assess whether motivational biases may also arise from asymmetrical instrumental learning of active and passive responses following reward and punishment outcomes. We present a novel paradigm, allowing us to disentangle the impact of reward and punishment on instrumental learning from Pavlovian response biasing. Computational analyses showed that motivational biases reflect both Pavlovian and instrumental effects: reward and punishment cues promoted generalized (in)action in a Pavlovian manner, whereas outcomes enhanced instrumental (un)learning of chosen actions. These cue- and outcome-based biases were altered independently by the catecholamine enhancer melthylphenidate. Methylphenidate's effect varied across individuals with a putative proxy of baseline dopamine synthesis capacity, working memory span. Our study uncovers two distinct mechanisms by which motivation impacts behaviour, and helps refine current models of catecholaminergic modulation of motivated action.

  6. Strategies and approaches in plasmidome studies-uncovering plasmid diversity disregarding of linear elements?

    PubMed

    Dib, Julián R; Wagenknecht, Martin; Farías, María E; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    The term plasmid was originally coined for circular, extrachromosomal genetic elements. Today, plasmids are widely recognized not only as important factors facilitating genome restructuring but also as vehicles for the dissemination of beneficial characters within bacterial communities. Plasmid diversity has been uncovered by means of culture-dependent or -independent approaches, such as endogenous or exogenous plasmid isolation as well as PCR-based detection or transposon-aided capture, respectively. High-throughput-sequencing made possible to cover total plasmid populations in a given environment, i.e., the plasmidome, and allowed to address the quality and significance of self-replicating genetic elements. Since such efforts were and still are rather restricted to circular molecules, here we put equal emphasis on the linear plasmids which-despite their frequent occurrence in a large number of bacteria-are largely neglected in prevalent plasmidome conceptions.

  7. Evolution of biological complexity

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    To make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexity. We show that, because natural selection forces genomes to behave as a natural “Maxwell Demon,” within a fixed environment, genomic complexity is forced to increase. PMID:10781045

  8. The Evolution and Increasing Complexity of the Resident Assistant Role in the United States from Colonial to Modern Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Katherine B.; Davidson, Denise L.; Bauman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the resident assistant position and its history are important to understanding its increasing complexities. In this article we examine how court cases and federal legislation, along with changes in popular culture, have altered and shaped the role of the resident assistant. Our premise is that this role, originally relatively…

  9. Measuring the intangibles: a metrics for the economic complexity of countries and products.

    PubMed

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Gabrielli, Andrea; Tacchella, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido; Pietronero, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a recent methodology we have proposed to extract valuable information on the competitiveness of countries and complexity of products from trade data. Standard economic theories predict a high level of specialization of countries in specific industrial sectors. However, a direct analysis of the official databases of exported products by all countries shows that the actual situation is very different. Countries commonly considered as developed ones are extremely diversified, exporting a large variety of products from very simple to very complex. At the same time countries generally considered as less developed export only the products also exported by the majority of countries. This situation calls for the introduction of a non-monetary and non-income-based measure for country economy complexity which uncovers the hidden potential for development and growth. The statistical approach we present here consists of coupled non-linear maps relating the competitiveness/fitness of countries to the complexity of their products. The fixed point of this transformation defines a metrics for the fitness of countries and the complexity of products. We argue that the key point to properly extract the economic information is the non-linearity of the map which is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We present a detailed comparison of the results of this approach directly with those of the Method of Reflections by Hidalgo and Hausmann, showing the better performance of our method and a more solid economic, scientific and consistent foundation.

  10. Measuring the Intangibles: A Metrics for the Economic Complexity of Countries and Products

    PubMed Central

    Cristelli, Matthieu; Gabrielli, Andrea; Tacchella, Andrea; Caldarelli, Guido; Pietronero, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a recent methodology we have proposed to extract valuable information on the competitiveness of countries and complexity of products from trade data. Standard economic theories predict a high level of specialization of countries in specific industrial sectors. However, a direct analysis of the official databases of exported products by all countries shows that the actual situation is very different. Countries commonly considered as developed ones are extremely diversified, exporting a large variety of products from very simple to very complex. At the same time countries generally considered as less developed export only the products also exported by the majority of countries. This situation calls for the introduction of a non-monetary and non-income-based measure for country economy complexity which uncovers the hidden potential for development and growth. The statistical approach we present here consists of coupled non-linear maps relating the competitiveness/fitness of countries to the complexity of their products. The fixed point of this transformation defines a metrics for the fitness of countries and the complexity of products. We argue that the key point to properly extract the economic information is the non-linearity of the map which is necessary to bound the complexity of products by the fitness of the less competitive countries exporting them. We present a detailed comparison of the results of this approach directly with those of the Method of Reflections by Hidalgo and Hausmann, showing the better performance of our method and a more solid economic, scientific and consistent foundation. PMID:23940633

  11. γ-Tubulin complex in Trypanosoma brucei: molecular composition, subunit interdependence and requirement for axonemal central pair protein assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-11-01

    γ-Tubulin complex constitutes a key component of the microtubule-organizing center and nucleates microtubule assembly. This complex differs in complexity in different organisms: the budding yeast contains the γ-tubulin small complex (γTuSC) composed of γ-tubulin, gamma-tubulin complex protein (GCP)2 and GCP3, whereas animals contain the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) composed of γTuSC and three additional proteins, GCP4, GCP5 and GCP6. In Trypanosoma brucei, the composition of the γ-tubulin complex remains elusive, and it is not known whether it also regulates assembly of the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Here we report that the γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei is composed of γ-tubulin and three GCP proteins, GCP2-GCP4, and is primarily localized in the basal body throughout the cell cycle. Depletion of GCP2 and GCP3, but not GCP4, disrupted the axonemal central pair microtubules, but not the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Furthermore, we showed that the γTuSC is required for assembly of two central pair proteins and that γTuSC subunits are mutually required for stability. Together, these results identified an unusual γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei, uncovered an essential role of γTuSC in central pair protein assembly, and demonstrated the interdependence of individual γTuSC components for maintaining a stable complex. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of mTOR complexes protects cancer cells from glutamine starvation induced cell death by restoring Akt stability.

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Wasim; Layden, Brian T; Chakrabarti, Partha

    2018-06-01

    Glutamine, a well-established oncometabolite, anaplerotically fuels mitochondrial energy metabolism and modulates activity of mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complexes (mTOR). Currently, mTOR inhibitors are in clinical use for certain types of cancer but with limited success. Since glutamine is essential for growth of many cancers, we reasoned that glutamine deprivation under conditions of mTOR inhibition should be more detrimental to cancer cell survival. However, our results show that when cells are deprived of glutamine concomitant with mTOR inhibition, hepatocarcinoma cells elicit an adaptive response which aids in their survival due to enhanced autophagic flux. Moreover, inhibition of mTOR promotes Akt ubiquitination and its proteasomal degradation however we show that Akt degradation is abrogated by increased autophagy following glutamine withdrawal. Under conditions of glutamine deficiency and mTOR inhibition, the enhanced stability of Akt protein may provide survival cues to cancer cells. Thus, our data uncovers a novel molecular link between glutamine metabolism, autophagy and stability of Akt with cancer cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Soft and hard tissues healing at immediate transmucosal implants placed into molar extraction sites with collagen membrane uncovered: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cafiero, Carlo; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Siciliano, Vincenzo Iorio; Nicolò, Michele; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2013-10-01

    To assess soft and hard tissues healing at immediate transmucosal implants placed into maxillary molar region with collagen membranes uncovered. Twenty subjects received 20 immediate transmucosal implants placed in maxillary molar extraction sockets. Periimplant marginal defects were treated according to the principles of guided bone regeneration by means of deproteinized bovine bone mineral particles in conjunction with collagen membrane. Flaps were repositioned and sutured, allowing nonsubmerged, transmucosal soft tissues healing. The collagen membranes adapted around implant neck were uncovered. No implants were lost during the 1-year observation period yielding a survival rate of 100%. No postsurgical wound healing complications were observed. No degranulation of grafting material was reported. The results of this 12-month prospective study showed that the exposure of collagen membrane at time of the flap suturing does not represent a limitation for the soft and hard tissues healing at immediate transmucosal implants placed into maxillary molar extraction sites.

  14. Microbial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Microfiltration Membranes: A Detailed Characterization Using Model Organisms with Increasing Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Vanysacker, L.; Denis, C.; Declerck, P.; Piasecka, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since many years, membrane biofouling has been described as the Achilles heel of membrane fouling. In the present study, an ecological assay was performed using model systems with increasing complexity: a monospecies assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli separately, a duospecies assay using both microorganisms, and a multispecies assay using activated sludge with or without spiked P. aeruginosa. The microbial adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated in terms of bacterial cell densities, species richness, and bacterial community composition on polyvinyldifluoride, polyethylene, and polysulfone membranes. The data show that biofouling formation was strongly influenced by the kind of microorganism, the interactions between the organisms, and the changes in environmental conditions whereas the membrane effect was less important. The findings obtained in this study suggest that more knowledge in species composition and microbial interactions is needed in order to understand the complex biofouling process. This is the first report describing the microbial interactions with a membrane during the biofouling development. PMID:23986906

  15. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rose, Jr., P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, Michael F.

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  16. Uncovering Special Nuclear Materials by Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Rose, P. B.; Erickson, A. S.; Mayer, M.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Weapons-grade uranium and plutonium could be used as nuclear explosives with extreme destructive potential. The problem of their detection, especially in standard cargo containers during transit, has been described as “searching for a needle in a haystack” because of the inherently low rate of spontaneous emission of characteristic penetrating radiation and the ease of its shielding. Currently, the only practical approach for uncovering well-shielded special nuclear materials is by use of active interrogation using an external radiation source. However, the similarity of these materials to shielding and the required radiation doses that may exceed regulatory limits prevent this method frommore » being widely used in practice. We introduce a low-dose active detection technique, referred to as low-energy nuclear reaction imaging, which exploits the physics of interactions of multi-MeV monoenergetic photons and neutrons to simultaneously measure the material’s areal density and effective atomic number, while confirming the presence of fissionable materials by observing the beta-delayed neutron emission. For the first time, we demonstrate identification and imaging of uranium with this novel technique using a simple yet robust source, setting the stage for its wide adoption in security applications.« less

  17. The Impact of Population Demography and Selection on the Genetic Architecture of Complex Traits

    PubMed Central

    Lohmueller, Kirk E.

    2014-01-01

    Population genetic studies have found evidence for dramatic population growth in recent human history. It is unclear how this recent population growth, combined with the effects of negative natural selection, has affected patterns of deleterious variation, as well as the number, frequency, and effect sizes of mutations that contribute risk to complex traits. Because researchers are performing exome sequencing studies aimed at uncovering the role of low-frequency variants in the risk of complex traits, this topic is of critical importance. Here I use simulations under population genetic models where a proportion of the heritability of the trait is accounted for by mutations in a subset of the exome. I show that recent population growth increases the proportion of nonsynonymous variants segregating in the population, but does not affect the genetic load relative to a population that did not expand. Under a model where a mutation's effect on a trait is correlated with its effect on fitness, rare variants explain a greater portion of the additive genetic variance of the trait in a population that has recently expanded than in a population that did not recently expand. Further, when using a single-marker test, for a given false-positive rate and sample size, recent population growth decreases the expected number of significant associations with the trait relative to the number detected in a population that did not expand. However, in a model where there is no correlation between a mutation's effect on fitness and the effect on the trait, common variants account for much of the additive genetic variance, regardless of demography. Moreover, here demography does not affect the number of significant associations detected. These findings suggest recent population history may be an important factor influencing the power of association tests and in accounting for the missing heritability of certain complex traits. PMID:24875776

  18. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  19. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.

  20. A protein coevolution method uncovers critical features of the Hepatitis C Virus fusion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Douam, Florian; Mancip, Jimmy; Mailly, Laurent; Montserret, Roland; Ding, Qiang; Verhoeyen, Els; Baumert, Thomas F.; Ploss, Alexander; Carbone, Alessandra

    2018-01-01

    Amino-acid coevolution can be referred to mutational compensatory patterns preserving the function of a protein. Viral envelope glycoproteins, which mediate entry of enveloped viruses into their host cells, are shaped by coevolution signals that confer to viruses the plasticity to evade neutralizing antibodies without altering viral entry mechanisms. The functions and structures of the two envelope glycoproteins of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), E1 and E2, are poorly described. Especially, how these two proteins mediate the HCV fusion process between the viral and the cell membrane remains elusive. Here, as a proof of concept, we aimed to take advantage of an original coevolution method recently developed to shed light on the HCV fusion mechanism. When first applied to the well-characterized Dengue Virus (DENV) envelope glycoproteins, coevolution analysis was able to predict important structural features and rearrangements of these viral protein complexes. When applied to HCV E1E2, computational coevolution analysis predicted that E1 and E2 refold interdependently during fusion through rearrangements of the E2 Back Layer (BL). Consistently, a soluble BL-derived polypeptide inhibited HCV infection of hepatoma cell lines, primary human hepatocytes and humanized liver mice. We showed that this polypeptide specifically inhibited HCV fusogenic rearrangements, hence supporting the critical role of this domain during HCV fusion. By combining coevolution analysis and in vitro assays, we also uncovered functionally-significant coevolving signals between E1 and E2 BL/Stem regions that govern HCV fusion, demonstrating the accuracy of our coevolution predictions. Altogether, our work shed light on important structural features of the HCV fusion mechanism and contributes to advance our functional understanding of this process. This study also provides an important proof of concept that coevolution can be employed to explore viral protein mediated-processes, and can guide the

  1. The Kto-Skd complex can regulate ptc expression by interacting with Cubitus interruptus (Ci) in the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Feifei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Fu, Lin; Lv, Xiangdong; Zhang, Zhao; Wu, Wenqing; Yang, Siqi; Zhou, Zhaocai; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2014-08-08

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays a very important role in metazoan development by controlling pattern formation. Drosophila imaginal discs are subdivided into anterior and posterior compartments that derive from adjacent cell populations. The anterior/posterior (A/P) boundaries, which are critical to maintaining the position of organizers, are established by a complex mechanism involving Hh signaling. Here, we uncover the regulation of ptc in the Hh signaling pathway by two subunits of mediator complex, Kto and Skd, which can also regulate boundary location. Collectively, we provide further evidence that Kto-Skd affects the A/P-axial development of the whole wing disc. Kto can interact with Cubitus interruptus (Ci), bind to the Ci-binding region on ptc promoter, which are both regulated by Hh signals to down-regulate ptc expression. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Uncovering the stoichiometry of Pyrococcus furiosus RNase P, a multi-subunit catalytic ribonucleoprotein complex, by surface-induced dissociation and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Lai, Lien B; Lai, Stella M; Tanimoto, Akiko; Foster, Mark P; Wysocki, Vicki H; Gopalan, Venkat

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate that surface-induced dissociation (SID) coupled with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a powerful tool for determining the stoichiometry of a multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex assembled in a solution containing Mg(2+). We investigated Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) RNase P, an archaeal RNP that catalyzes tRNA 5' maturation. Previous step-wise, Mg(2+)-dependent reconstitutions of Pfu RNase P with its catalytic RNA subunit and two interacting protein cofactor pairs (RPP21⋅RPP29 and POP5⋅RPP30) revealed functional RNP intermediates en route to the RNase P enzyme, but provided no information on subunit stoichiometry. Our native MS studies with the proteins showed RPP21⋅RPP29 and (POP5⋅RPP30)2 complexes, but indicated a 1:1 composition for all subunits when either one or both protein complexes bind the cognate RNA. These results highlight the utility of SID and IM-MS in resolving conformational heterogeneity and yielding insights on RNP assembly. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Uncovering the hidden iceberg structure of the Galactic halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Vanessa A.; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix; Pisano, D. J.; Price, Daniel; Rees, Glen

    2018-01-01

    How the Milky Way gets its gas and keeps its measured star formation rate going are both long-standing mysteries in Galactic studies, with important implications for galaxy evolution across the Universe. I will present our recent discovery of two populations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the halo of the Milky Way: 1) a narrow line-width dense population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud (HVC) components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width diffuse population that aligns well with the population found in very sensitive pointings such as in Lockman et al. (2002). From our existing data, we concluded that the diffuse population likely outweighs the dense HI by a factor of 3. This discovery of diffuse HI, which appears to be prevalent throughout the halo, takes us closer to solving the Galactic mystery of accretion and reveals a gaseous neutral halo hidden from the view of most large-scale surveys. We are currently carrying out deep Parkes observations to investigate these results further, in order to truly uncover the nature of the diffuse HI and determine whether our 3:1 ratio (based on the limited existing data) is consistent with what is seen when Parkes and the 140 ft Green Bank telescope are employed at comparable sensitivity. With these data, through a combination of both known and new sightline measurements, we aim to reveal the structure of the Galactic halo in more detail than ever before.

  4. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    A technician carefully removes the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  5. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians begin to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  6. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians prepare to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  7. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians have removed most of the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  8. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Technicians remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  9. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Most of the protective covering has been removed from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, inside Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  10. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    Preparations are underway to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  11. MMS Uncovering of Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-30

    A technician prepares to remove the protective covering from the lower stack, mini-stack number 1, two of the observatories for NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Observatory, or MMS, in Building 1 D high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville, Florida, near Kennedy Space Center. The MMS upper stack, mini-stack number 2, is scheduled to arrive in about two weeks. MMS is a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising four identically instrumented spacecraft that will use Earth’s magnetosphere as a laboratory to study the microphysics of three fundamental plasma processes: magnetic reconnection, energetic particle acceleration and turbulence. Launch aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex 41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is targeted for March 12, 2015.

  12. Nuclear pore complex-mediated modulation of TCR signaling is required for naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Borlido, Joana; Sakuma, Stephen; Raices, Marcela; Carrette, Florent; Tinoco, Roberto; Bradley, Linda M; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-06-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. We report that loss of the tissue-specific NPC component Nup210 causes a severe deficit of naïve CD4 + T cells. Nup210-deficient CD4 + T lymphocytes develop normally but fail to survive in the periphery. The decreased survival results from both an impaired ability to transmit tonic T cell receptor (TCR) signals and increased levels of Fas, which sensitize Nup210 -/- naïve CD4 + T cells to Fas-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, Nup210 regulates these processes by modulating the expression of Cav2 (encoding Caveolin-2) and Jun at the nuclear periphery. Whereas the TCR-dependent and CD4 + T cell-specific upregulation of Cav2 is critical for proximal TCR signaling, cJun expression is required for STAT3-dependent repression of Fas. Our results uncover an unexpected role for Nup210 as a cell-intrinsic regulator of TCR signaling and T cell homeostasis and expose NPCs as key players in the adaptive immune system.

  13. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organization.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E; Whitehouse, Harvey; François, Pieter; Feeney, Kevin; Mullins, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel; Collins, Christina; Grohmann, Stephanie; Savage, Patrick; Mendel-Gleason, Gavin; Turner, Edward; Dupeyron, Agathe; Cioni, Enrico; Reddish, Jenny; Levine, Jill; Jordan, Greine; Brandl, Eva; Williams, Alice; Cesaretti, Rudolf; Krueger, Marta; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe; Tuan, Po-Ju; Peregrine, Peter; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Kradin, Nikolay; Korotayev, Andrey; Palmisano, Alessio; Baker, David; Bidmead, Julye; Bol, Peter; Christian, David; Cook, Connie; Covey, Alan; Feinman, Gary; Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Kristinsson, Axel; Miksic, John; Mostern, Ruth; Petrie, Cameron; Rudiak-Gould, Peter; Ter Haar, Barend; Wallace, Vesna; Mair, Victor; Xie, Liye; Baines, John; Bridges, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph; Lockhart, Bruce; Bogaard, Amy; Spencer, Charles

    2018-01-09

    Do human societies from around the world exhibit similarities in the way that they are structured, and show commonalities in the ways that they have evolved? These are long-standing questions that have proven difficult to answer. To test between competing hypotheses, we constructed a massive repository of historical and archaeological information known as "Seshat: Global History Databank." We systematically coded data on 414 societies from 30 regions around the world spanning the last 10,000 years. We were able to capture information on 51 variables reflecting nine characteristics of human societies, such as social scale, economy, features of governance, and information systems. Our analyses revealed that these different characteristics show strong relationships with each other and that a single principal component captures around three-quarters of the observed variation. Furthermore, we found that different characteristics of social complexity are highly predictable across different world regions. These results suggest that key aspects of social organization are functionally related and do indeed coevolve in predictable ways. Our findings highlight the power of the sciences and humanities working together to rigorously test hypotheses about general rules that may have shaped human history. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Quantitative historical analysis uncovers a single dimension of complexity that structures global variation in human social organization

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Peter; Currie, Thomas E.; Whitehouse, Harvey; François, Pieter; Feeney, Kevin; Mullins, Daniel; Hoyer, Daniel; Collins, Christina; Grohmann, Stephanie; Mendel-Gleason, Gavin; Turner, Edward; Dupeyron, Agathe; Cioni, Enrico; Reddish, Jenny; Levine, Jill; Jordan, Greine; Brandl, Eva; Williams, Alice; Cesaretti, Rudolf; Krueger, Marta; Ceccarelli, Alessandro; Figliulo-Rosswurm, Joe; Tuan, Po-Ju; Peregrine, Peter; Marciniak, Arkadiusz; Preiser-Kapeller, Johannes; Kradin, Nikolay; Korotayev, Andrey; Palmisano, Alessio; Baker, David; Bidmead, Julye; Bol, Peter; Christian, David; Cook, Connie; Covey, Alan; Feinman, Gary; Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Kristinsson, Axel; Miksic, John; Mostern, Ruth; Petrie, Cameron; Rudiak-Gould, Peter; ter Haar, Barend; Wallace, Vesna; Mair, Victor; Xie, Liye; Baines, John; Bridges, Elizabeth; Manning, Joseph; Lockhart, Bruce; Bogaard, Amy; Spencer, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Do human societies from around the world exhibit similarities in the way that they are structured, and show commonalities in the ways that they have evolved? These are long-standing questions that have proven difficult to answer. To test between competing hypotheses, we constructed a massive repository of historical and archaeological information known as “Seshat: Global History Databank.” We systematically coded data on 414 societies from 30 regions around the world spanning the last 10,000 years. We were able to capture information on 51 variables reflecting nine characteristics of human societies, such as social scale, economy, features of governance, and information systems. Our analyses revealed that these different characteristics show strong relationships with each other and that a single principal component captures around three-quarters of the observed variation. Furthermore, we found that different characteristics of social complexity are highly predictable across different world regions. These results suggest that key aspects of social organization are functionally related and do indeed coevolve in predictable ways. Our findings highlight the power of the sciences and humanities working together to rigorously test hypotheses about general rules that may have shaped human history. PMID:29269395

  15. The CCR4-NOT complex mediates deadenylation and degradation of stem cell mRNAs and promotes planarian stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Solana, Jordi; Gamberi, Chiara; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Grosswendt, Stefanie; Chen, Chen; Lasko, Paul; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are of fundamental importance to form robust genetic networks, but their roles in stem cell pluripotency remain poorly understood. Here, we use freshwater planarians as a model system to investigate this and uncover a role for CCR4-NOT mediated deadenylation of mRNAs in stem cell differentiation. Planarian adult stem cells, the so-called neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regenerative capabilities of planarians and allow their ongoing homeostatic tissue turnover. While many genes have been demonstrated to be required for these processes, currently almost no mechanistic insight is available into their regulation. We show that knockdown of planarian Not1, the CCR4-NOT deadenylating complex scaffolding subunit, abrogates regeneration and normal homeostasis. This abrogation is primarily due to severe impairment of their differentiation potential. We describe a stem cell specific increase in the mRNA levels of key neoblast genes after Smed-not1 knock down, consistent with a role of the CCR4-NOT complex in degradation of neoblast mRNAs upon the onset of differentiation. We also observe a stem cell specific increase in the frequency of longer poly(A) tails in these same mRNAs, showing that stem cells after Smed-not1 knock down fail to differentiate as they accumulate populations of transcripts with longer poly(A) tails. As other transcripts are unaffected our data hint at a targeted regulation of these key stem cell mRNAs by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs. Together, our results show that the CCR4-NOT complex is crucial for stem cell differentiation and controls stem cell-specific degradation of mRNAs, thus providing clear mechanistic insight into this aspect of neoblast biology.

  16. The CCR4-NOT Complex Mediates Deadenylation and Degradation of Stem Cell mRNAs and Promotes Planarian Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Solana, Jordi; Gamberi, Chiara; Mihaylova, Yuliana; Grosswendt, Stefanie; Chen, Chen; Lasko, Paul; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Aboobaker, A. Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are of fundamental importance to form robust genetic networks, but their roles in stem cell pluripotency remain poorly understood. Here, we use freshwater planarians as a model system to investigate this and uncover a role for CCR4-NOT mediated deadenylation of mRNAs in stem cell differentiation. Planarian adult stem cells, the so-called neoblasts, drive the almost unlimited regenerative capabilities of planarians and allow their ongoing homeostatic tissue turnover. While many genes have been demonstrated to be required for these processes, currently almost no mechanistic insight is available into their regulation. We show that knockdown of planarian Not1, the CCR4-NOT deadenylating complex scaffolding subunit, abrogates regeneration and normal homeostasis. This abrogation is primarily due to severe impairment of their differentiation potential. We describe a stem cell specific increase in the mRNA levels of key neoblast genes after Smed-not1 knock down, consistent with a role of the CCR4-NOT complex in degradation of neoblast mRNAs upon the onset of differentiation. We also observe a stem cell specific increase in the frequency of longer poly(A) tails in these same mRNAs, showing that stem cells after Smed-not1 knock down fail to differentiate as they accumulate populations of transcripts with longer poly(A) tails. As other transcripts are unaffected our data hint at a targeted regulation of these key stem cell mRNAs by post-transcriptional regulators such as RNA-binding proteins or microRNAs. Together, our results show that the CCR4-NOT complex is crucial for stem cell differentiation and controls stem cell-specific degradation of mRNAs, thus providing clear mechanistic insight into this aspect of neoblast biology. PMID:24367277

  17. Lesson from the stoichiometry determination of the cohesin complex: a short protease mediated elution increases the recovery from cross-linked antibody-conjugated beads.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Johann; Fuchs, Johannes; Pichler, Peter; Peters, Jan-Michael; Mechtler, Karl

    2011-02-04

    Affinity purification of proteins using antibodies coupled to beads and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis has become a standard technique for the identification of protein complexes. With the recent transfer of the isotope dilution mass spectrometry principle (IDMS) to the field of proteomics, quantitative analyses-such as the stoichiometry determination of protein complexes-have become achievable. Traditionally proteins were eluted from antibody-conjugated beads using glycine at low pH or using diluted acids such as HCl, TFA, or FA, but elution was often found to be incomplete. Using the cohesin complex and the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) as examples, we show that a short 15-60 min predigestion with a protease such as LysC (modified on-bead digest termed protease elution) increases the elution efficiency 2- to 3-fold compared to standard acid elution protocols. While longer incubation periods-as performed in standard on-bead digestion-led to partial proteolysis of the cross-linked antibodies, no or only insignificant cleavage was observed after 15-60 min protease mediated elution. Using the protease elution method, we successfully determined the stoichiometry of the cohesin complex by absolute quantification of the four core subunits using LC-SRM analysis and 19 reference peptides generated with the EtEP strategy. Protease elution was 3-fold more efficient compared to HCl elution, but measurements using both elution techniques are in agreement with a 1:1:1:1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, using isoform specific reference peptides, we determined the exact STAG1:STAG2 stoichiometry within the population of cohesin complexes. In summary, we show that the protease elution protocol increases the recovery from affinity beads and is compatible with quantitative measurements such as the stoichiometry determination of protein complexes.

  18. Uncovering the hidden: complexity and strategies for diagnosing latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Flores-Valdez, Mario Alberto

    2017-10-24

    Tuberculosis produces two clinical manifestations: active and latent (non-apparent) disease. The latter is estimated to affect one-third of the world population and constitutes a source of continued transmission should the disease emerge from its hidden state (reactivation). Methods to diagnose latent TB have been evolving and aim to detect the disease in people who are truly infected with M. tuberculosis , versus those where other mycobacteria, or even other pathologies not related to TB, are present. The current use of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches may lead to improved detection methods in the coming years.

  19. Modeling the complex pathology of Alzheimer’s disease in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Funez, Pedro; de Mena, Lorena; Rincon-Limas, Diego E.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia and the most common neurodegenerative disorder. AD is mostly a sporadic disorder and its main risk factor is age, but mutations in three genes that promote the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ42) peptide revealed the critical role of Amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in AD. Neurofibrillary tangles enriched in tau are the other pathological hallmark of AD, but the lack of causative tau mutations still puzzles researchers. Here, we describe the contribution of a powerful invertebrate model, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, to uncovering the function and pathogenesis of human APP, Aβ42, and tau. APP and tau participate in many complex cellular processes, although their main function is microtubule stabilization and the to-and-fro transport of axonal vesicles. Additionally, expression of secreted Aβ42 induces prominent neuronal death in Drosophila, a critical feature of AD, making this model a popular choice for identifying intrinsic and extrinsic factors mediating Aβ42 neurotoxicity. Overall, Drosophila has made significant contributions to better understand the complex pathology of AD, although additional insight can be expected from combining multiple transgenes, performing genome-wide loss-of-function screens, and testing anti-tau therapies alone or in combination with Aβ42. PMID:26024860

  20. Climate policy: Uncovering ocean-related priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkemeyer, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Given the complexity and multi-faceted nature of policy processes, national-level policy preferences are notoriously difficult to capture. Now, research applying an automated text mining approach helps to shed light on country-level differences and priorities in the context of marine climate issues.

  1. Possible origin and significance of extension-parallel drainages in Arizona's metamophic core complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    The corrugated form of the Harcuvar, South Mountains, and Catalina metamorphic core complexes in Arizona reflects the shape of the middle Tertiary extensional detachment fault that projects over each complex. Corrugation axes are approximately parallel to the fault-displacement direction and to the footwall mylonitic lineation. The core complexes are locally incised by enigmatic, linear drainages that parallel corrugation axes and the inferred extension direction and are especially conspicuous on the crests of antiformal corrugations. These drainages have been attributed to erosional incision on a freshly denuded, planar, inclined fault ramp followed by folding that elevated and preserved some drainages on the crests of rising antiforms. According to this hypothesis, corrugations were produced by folding after subacrial exposure of detachment-fault foot-walls. An alternative hypothesis, proposed here, is as follows. In a setting where preexisting drainages cross an active normal fault, each fault-slip event will cut each drainage into two segments separated by a freshly denuded fault ramp. The upper and lower drainage segments will remain hydraulically linked after each fault-slip event if the drainage in the hanging-wall block is incised, even if the stream is on the flank of an antiformal corrugation and there is a large component of strike-slip fault movement. Maintenance of hydraulic linkage during sequential fault-slip events will guide the lengthening stream down the fault ramp as the ramp is uncovered, and stream incision will form a progressively lengthening, extension-parallel, linear drainage segment. This mechanism for linear drainage genesis is compatible with corrugations as original irregularities of the detachment fault, and does not require folding after early to middle Miocene footwall exhumations. This is desirable because many drainages are incised into nonmylonitic crystalline footwall rocks that were probably not folded under low

  2. Consequences of increased longevity for wealth, fertility, and population growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogojević, A.; Balaž, A.; Karapandža, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present, solve and numerically simulate a simple model that describes the consequences of increased longevity for fertility rates, population growth and the distribution of wealth in developed societies. We look at the consequences of the repeated use of life extension techniques and show that they represent a novel commodity whose introduction will profoundly influence key aspects of the economy and society in general. In particular, we uncover two phases within our simplified model, labeled as ‘mortal’ and ‘immortal’. Within the life extension scenario it is possible to have sustainable economic growth in a population of stable size, as a result of dynamical equilibrium between the two phases.

  3. The Compatibility Between Biomphalaria glabrata Snails and Schistosoma mansoni: An Increasingly Complex Puzzle.

    PubMed

    Mitta, G; Gourbal, B; Grunau, C; Knight, M; Bridger, J M; Théron, A

    2017-01-01

    This review reexamines the results obtained in recent decades regarding the compatibility polymorphism between the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni, which is one of the agents responsible for human schistosomiasis. Some results point to the snail's resistance as explaining the incompatibility, while others support a "matching hypothesis" between the snail's immune receptors and the schistosome's antigens. We propose here that the two hypotheses are not exclusive, and that the compatible/incompatible status of a particular host/parasite couple probably reflects the balance of multiple molecular determinants that support one hypothesis or the other. Because these genes are involved in a coevolutionary arms race, we also propose that the underlying mechanisms can vary. Finally, some recent results show that environmental factors could influence compatibility. Together, these results make the compatibility between B. glabrata and S. mansoni an increasingly complex puzzle. We need to develop more integrative approaches in order to find targets that could potentially be manipulated to control the transmission of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Parasitic resistive switching uncovered from complementary resistive switching in single active-layer oxide memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lisha; Hu, Wei; Gao, Chao; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports the reversible transition processes between the bipolar and complementary resistive switching (CRS) characteristics on the binary metal-oxide resistive memory devices of Pt/HfO x /TiN and Pt/TaO x /TiN by applying the appropriate bias voltages. More interestingly, by controlling the amplitude of the negative bias, the parasitic resistive switching effect exhibiting repeatable switching behavior is uncovered from the CRS behavior. The electrical observation of the parasitic resistive switching effect can be explained by the controlled size of the conductive filament. This work confirms the transformation and interrelationship among the bipolar, parasitic, and CRS effects, and thus provides new insight into the understanding of the physical mechanism of the binary metal-oxide resistive switching memory devices.

  5. The γ-tubulin complex in Trypanosoma brucei: molecular composition, subunit interdependence and requirement for axonemal central pair protein assembly

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-01-01

    The γ-tubulin complex constitutes a key component of the microtubule-organizing center and nucleates microtubule assembly. This complex differs in complexity in different organisms: the budding yeast contains the γ-tubulin small complex (γTuSC) composed of γ-tubulin, GCP2 and GCP3, whereas animals contain the γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC) composed of γTuSC and three additional proteins, GCP4, GCP5 and GCP6. In Trypanosoma brucei, the composition of the γ-tubulin complex remains elusive, and it is not known whether it also regulates assembly of the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Here we report that the γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei is composed of γ-tubulin and three GCP proteins, GCP2-GCP4, and is primarily localized in the basal body throughout the cell cycle. Depletion of GCP2 and GCP3, but not GCP4, disrupted the axonemal central pair microtubules, but not the subpellicular microtubules and the spindle microtubules. Furthermore, we showed that the γTuSC is required for assembly of two central pair proteins and that γTuSC subunits are mutually required for stability. Together, these results identified an unusual γ-tubulin complex in T. brucei, uncovered an essential role of γTuSC in central pair protein assembly, and demonstrated the interdependence of individual γTuSC components for maintaining a stable complex. PMID:26224545

  6. Joint estimation of preferential attachment and node fitness in growing complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thong; Sheridan, Paul; Shimodaira, Hidetoshi

    2016-09-01

    Complex network growth across diverse fields of science is hypothesized to be driven in the main by a combination of preferential attachment and node fitness processes. For measuring the respective influences of these processes, previous approaches make strong and untested assumptions on the functional forms of either the preferential attachment function or fitness function or both. We introduce a Bayesian statistical method called PAFit to estimate preferential attachment and node fitness without imposing such functional constraints that works by maximizing a log-likelihood function with suitably added regularization terms. We use PAFit to investigate the interplay between preferential attachment and node fitness processes in a Facebook wall-post network. While we uncover evidence for both preferential attachment and node fitness, thus validating the hypothesis that these processes together drive complex network evolution, we also find that node fitness plays the bigger role in determining the degree of a node. This is the first validation of its kind on real-world network data. But surprisingly the rate of preferential attachment is found to deviate from the conventional log-linear form when node fitness is taken into account. The proposed method is implemented in the R package PAFit.

  7. Joint estimation of preferential attachment and node fitness in growing complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thong; Sheridan, Paul; Shimodaira, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    Complex network growth across diverse fields of science is hypothesized to be driven in the main by a combination of preferential attachment and node fitness processes. For measuring the respective influences of these processes, previous approaches make strong and untested assumptions on the functional forms of either the preferential attachment function or fitness function or both. We introduce a Bayesian statistical method called PAFit to estimate preferential attachment and node fitness without imposing such functional constraints that works by maximizing a log-likelihood function with suitably added regularization terms. We use PAFit to investigate the interplay between preferential attachment and node fitness processes in a Facebook wall-post network. While we uncover evidence for both preferential attachment and node fitness, thus validating the hypothesis that these processes together drive complex network evolution, we also find that node fitness plays the bigger role in determining the degree of a node. This is the first validation of its kind on real-world network data. But surprisingly the rate of preferential attachment is found to deviate from the conventional log-linear form when node fitness is taken into account. The proposed method is implemented in the R package PAFit. PMID:27601314

  8. Quantum Chemistry Meets Spectroscopy for Astrochemistry: Increasing Complexity toward Prebiotic Molecules.

    PubMed

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2015-05-19

    For many years, scientists suspected that the interstellar medium was too hostile for organic species and that only a few simple molecules could be formed under such extreme conditions. However, the detection of approximately 180 molecules in interstellar or circumstellar environments in recent decades has changed this view dramatically. A rich chemistry has emerged, and relatively complex molecules such as C60 and C70 are formed. Recently, researchers have also detected complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules, such as amino acids, in meteorites and in other space environments. Those discoveries have further stimulated the debate on the origin of the building blocks of life in the universe. Many efforts continue to focus on the physical, chemical, and astrophysical processes by which prebiotic molecules can be formed in the interstellar dust and dispersed to Earth or to other planets.Spectroscopic techniques, which are widely used to infer information about molecular structure and dynamics, play a crucial role in the investigation of planetary atmosphere and the interstellar medium. Increasingly these astrochemical investigations are assisted by quantum-mechanical calculations of structures as well as spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties, such as transition frequencies and reaction enthalpies, to guide and support observations, line assignments, and data analysis in these new and chemically complicated situations. However, it has proved challenging to extend accurate quantum-chemical computational approaches to larger systems because of the unfavorable scaling with the number of degrees of freedom (both electronic and nuclear).In this Account, we show that it is now possible to compute physicochemical properties of building blocks of biomolecules with an accuracy rivaling that of the most sophisticated experimental techniques, and we summarize specific contributions from our groups. As a test case, we present the underlying computational machinery

  9. Uncovering the inertia of dislocation motion and negative mechanical response in crystals.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yizhe

    2018-01-09

    Dislocations are linear defects in crystals and their motion controls crystals' mechanical behavior. The dissipative nature of dislocation propagation is generally accepted although the specific mechanisms are still not fully understood. The inertia, which is undoubtedly the nature of motion for particles with mass, seems much less convincing for configuration propagation. We utilize atomistic simulations in conditions that minimize dissipative effects to enable uncovering of the hidden nature of dislocation motion, in three typical model metals Mg, Cu and Ta. We find that, with less/no dissipation, dislocation motion is under-damped and explicitly inertial at both low and high velocities. The inertia of dislocation motion is intrinsic, and more fundamental than the dissipative nature. The inertia originates from the kinetic energy imparted from strain energy and stored in the moving core. Peculiar negative mechanical response associated with the inertia is also discovered. These findings shed light on the fundamental nature of dislocation motion, reveal the underlying physics, and provide a new physical explanation for phenomena relevant to high-velocity dislocations.

  10. What Studying Problems Are Faced by the Adolescent Grade Repeaters in Macao: Uncovering Underlying Mechanisms Based on Evidences from the PISA 2012 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sit, Pou-seong; Cheung, Kwok-cheung; Cheong, Wai-cheong; Mak, Soi-kei; Soh, Kay-cheng; Ieong, Man-kai

    2015-01-01

    Most schools in Macao are private schools, and there is a variety of grade repetition policy practiced in the 45 secondary schools. The policies are translated into school-based accountability of some kind of minimum competency standards. The objective of this study is to uncover the mediation mechanisms accounting for the influences of grade…

  11. Patterns of precipitation and soil moisture extremes in Texas, US: A complex network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Alexander Y.; Xia, Youlong; Caldwell, Todd G.; Hao, Zengchao

    2018-02-01

    Understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of extreme precipitation not only improves prediction skills, but also helps to prioritize hazard mitigation efforts. This study seeks to enhance the understanding of spatiotemporal covariation patterns embedded in precipitation (P) and soil moisture (SM) by using an event-based, complex-network-theoretic approach. Events concurrences are quantified using a nonparametric event synchronization measure, and spatial patterns of hydroclimate variables are analyzed by using several network measures and a community detection algorithm. SM-P coupling is examined using a directional event coincidence analysis measure that takes the order of event occurrences into account. The complex network approach is demonstrated for Texas, US, a region possessing a rich set of hydroclimate features and is frequented by catastrophic flooding. Gridded daily observed P data and simulated SM data are used to create complex networks of P and SM extremes. The uncovered high degree centrality regions and community structures are qualitatively in agreement with the overall existing knowledge of hydroclimate extremes in the study region. Our analyses provide new visual insights on the propagation, connectivity, and synchronicity of P extremes, as well as the SM-P coupling, in this flood-prone region, and can be readily used as a basis for event-driven predictive analytics for other regions.

  12. Understanding the Data Complexity continuum to reduce data management costs and increase data usability through partnerships with the National Centers for Environmental Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesick, S.; Weathers, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    Data complexity can be seen as a continuum from complex to simple. The term data complexity refers to data collections that are disorganized, poorly documented, and generally do not follow best data management practices. Complex data collections are challenging and expensive to manage. Simplified collections readily support automated archival processes, enhanced discovery and data access, as well as production of services that make data easier to reuse. In this session, NOAA NCEI scientific data stewards will discuss the data complexity continuum. This talk will explore data simplification concepts, methods, and tools that data managers can employ which may offer more control over data management costs and processes, while achieving policy goals for open data access and ready reuse. Topics will include guidance for data managers on best allocation of limited data management resources; models for partnering with NCEI to accomplish shared data management goals; and will demonstrate through case studies the benefits of investing in documentation, accessibility, and services to increase data value and return on investment.

  13. Complexity in pH-Dependent Ribozyme Kinetics: Dark pKa Shifts and Wavy Rate-pH Profiles.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Erica A; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2018-02-06

    Charged bases occur in RNA enzymes, or ribozymes, where they play key roles in catalysis. Cationic bases donate protons and perform electrostatic catalysis, while anionic bases accept protons. We previously published simulations of rate-pH profiles for ribozymes in terms of species plots for the general acid and general base that have been useful for understanding how ribozymes respond to pH. In that study, we did not consider interaction between the general acid and general base or interaction with other species on the RNA. Since that report, diverse small ribozyme classes have been discovered, many of which have charged nucleobases or metal ions in the active site that can either directly interact and participate in catalysis or indirectly interact as "influencers". Herein, we simulate experimental rate-pH profiles in terms of species plots in which reverse protonated charged nucleobases interact. These analyses uncover two surprising features of pH-dependent enzyme kinetics. (1) Cooperativity between the general acid and general base enhances population of the functional forms of a ribozyme and manifests itself as hidden or "dark" pK a shifts, real pK a shifts that accelerate the reaction but are not readily observed by standard experimental approaches, and (2) influencers favorably shift the pK a s of proton-transferring nucleobases and manifest themselves as "wavy" rate-pH profiles. We identify parallels with the protein enzyme literature, including reverse protonation and wavelike behavior, while pointing out that RNA is more prone to reverse protonation. The complexities uncovered, which arise from simple pairwise interactions, should aid deconvolution of complex rate-pH profiles for RNA and protein enzymes and suggest veiled catalytic devices for promoting catalysis that can be tested by experiment and calculation.

  14. Coherent wavepackets in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex are robust to excitonic-structure perturbations caused by mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiuri, Margherita; Ostroumov, Evgeny E.; Saer, Rafael G.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2018-02-01

    Femtosecond pulsed excitation of light-harvesting complexes creates oscillatory features in their response. This phenomenon has inspired a large body of work aimed at uncovering the origin of the coherent beatings and possible implications for function. Here we exploit site-directed mutagenesis to change the excitonic level structure in Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complexes and compare the coherences using broadband pump-probe spectroscopy. Our experiments detect two oscillation frequencies with dephasing on a picosecond timescale—both at 77 K and at room temperature. By studying these coherences with selective excitation pump-probe experiments, where pump excitation is in resonance only with the lowest excitonic state, we show that the key contributions to these oscillations stem from ground-state vibrational wavepackets. These experiments explicitly show that the coherences—although in the ground electronic state—can be probed at the absorption resonances of other bacteriochlorophyll molecules because of delocalization of the electronic excitation over several chromophores.

  15. Neocortical dendritic complexity is controlled during development by NOMA-GAP-dependent inhibition of Cdc42 and activation of cofilin.

    PubMed

    Rosário, Marta; Schuster, Steffen; Jüttner, René; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Tarabykin, Victor; Birchmeier, Walter

    2012-08-01

    Neocortical neurons have highly branched dendritic trees that are essential for their function. Indeed, defects in dendritic arborization are associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders. The molecular mechanisms regulating dendritic arbor complexity, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we uncover the molecular basis for the regulation of dendritic branching during cortical development. We show that during development, dendritic branching requires post-mitotic suppression of the RhoGTPase Cdc42. By generating genetically modified mice, we demonstrate that this is catalyzed in vivo by the novel Cdc42-GAP NOMA-GAP. Loss of NOMA-GAP leads to decreased neocortical volume, associated specifically with profound oversimplification of cortical dendritic arborization and hyperactivation of Cdc42. Remarkably, dendritic complexity and cortical thickness can be partially restored by genetic reduction of post-mitotic Cdc42 levels. Furthermore, we identify the actin regulator cofilin as a key regulator of dendritic complexity in vivo. Cofilin activation during late cortical development depends on NOMA-GAP expression and subsequent inhibition of Cdc42. Strikingly, in utero expression of active cofilin is sufficient to restore postnatal dendritic complexity in NOMA-GAP-deficient animals. Our findings define a novel cell-intrinsic mechanism to regulate dendritic branching and thus neuronal complexity in the cerebral cortex.

  16. Position Paper: Designing Complex Systems to Support Interdisciplinary Cognitive Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Melissa T.; Papalambros, Panos Y.; Mcgowan, Anna-Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    The paper argues that the field we can call cognitive science of interdisciplinary collaboration is an important area of study for improving design of Large-Scale Complex Systems (LaCES) and supporting cognitive work. The paper mostly raised questions that have been documented in earlier qualitative analysis studies, and provided possible avenues of exploration for addressing them. There are likely further contributions from additional disciplines beyond those mentioned in this paper that should be considered and integrated into such a cognitive science framework. Knowledge and awareness of various perspectives will help to inform the types of interventions available for improving LaCES design and functionality. For example, a cognitive interpretation of interdisciplinary collaborations in LaCES elucidated the need for a "translator" or "mediator" in helping subject matter experts to transcend language boundaries, mitigate single discipline bias, support integrative activities, and correct misaligned objectives. Additional research in this direction is likely to uncover similar gaps and opportunities for improvements in practice.

  17. An oxygen-insensitive Hif-3α isoform inhibits Wnt signaling by destabilizing the nuclear β-catenin complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Bai, Yan; Lu, Ling; Li, Yun; Duan, Cunming

    2016-01-14

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), while best known for their roles in the hypoxic response, have oxygen-independent roles in early development with poorly defined mechanisms. Here, we report a novel Hif-3α variant, Hif-3α2, in zebrafish. Hif-3α2 lacks the bHLH, PAS, PAC, and ODD domains, and is expressed in embryonic and adult tissues independently of oxygen availability. Hif-3α2 is a nuclear protein with significant hypoxia response element (HRE)-dependent transcriptional activity. Hif-3α2 overexpression not only decreases embryonic growth and developmental timing but also causes left-right asymmetry defects. Genetic deletion of Hif-3α2 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing increases, while Hif-3α2 overexpression decreases, Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This action is independent of its HRE-dependent transcriptional activity. Mechanistically, Hif-3α2 binds to β-catenin and destabilizes the nuclear β-catenin complex. This mechanism is distinct from GSK3β-mediated β-catenin degradation and is conserved in humans. These findings provide new insights into the oxygen-independent actions of HIFs and uncover a novel mechanism regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  18. Capturing complexity in work disability research: application of system dynamics modeling methodology.

    PubMed

    Jetha, Arif; Pransky, Glenn; Hettinger, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    Work disability (WD) is characterized by variable and occasionally undesirable outcomes. The underlying determinants of WD outcomes include patterns of dynamic relationships among health, personal, organizational and regulatory factors that have been challenging to characterize, and inadequately represented by contemporary WD models. System dynamics modeling (SDM) methodology applies a sociotechnical systems thinking lens to view WD systems as comprising a range of influential factors linked by feedback relationships. SDM can potentially overcome limitations in contemporary WD models by uncovering causal feedback relationships, and conceptualizing dynamic system behaviors. It employs a collaborative and stakeholder-based model building methodology to create a visual depiction of the system as a whole. SDM can also enable researchers to run dynamic simulations to provide evidence of anticipated or unanticipated outcomes that could result from policy and programmatic intervention. SDM may advance rehabilitation research by providing greater insights into the structure and dynamics of WD systems while helping to understand inherent complexity. Challenges related to data availability, determining validity, and the extensive time and technical skill requirements for model building may limit SDM's use in the field and should be considered. Contemporary work disability (WD) models provide limited insight into complexity associated with WD processes. System dynamics modeling (SDM) has the potential to capture complexity through a stakeholder-based approach that generates a simulation model consisting of multiple feedback loops. SDM may enable WD researchers and practitioners to understand the structure and behavior of the WD system as a whole, and inform development of improved strategies to manage straightforward and complex WD cases.

  19. Detection of time delays and directional interactions based on time series from complex dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Huanfei; Leng, Siyang; Tao, Chenyang; Ying, Xiong; Kurths, Jürgen; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lin, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Data-based and model-free accurate identification of intrinsic time delays and directional interactions is an extremely challenging problem in complex dynamical systems and their networks reconstruction. A model-free method with new scores is proposed to be generally capable of detecting single, multiple, and distributed time delays. The method is applicable not only to mutually interacting dynamical variables but also to self-interacting variables in a time-delayed feedback loop. Validation of the method is carried out using physical, biological, and ecological models and real data sets. Especially, applying the method to air pollution data and hospital admission records of cardiovascular diseases in Hong Kong reveals the major air pollutants as a cause of the diseases and, more importantly, it uncovers a hidden time delay (about 30-40 days) in the causal influence that previous studies failed to detect. The proposed method is expected to be universally applicable to ascertaining and quantifying subtle interactions (e.g., causation) in complex systems arising from a broad range of disciplines.

  20. Complexity and the Arrow of Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lineweaver, Charles H.; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ruse, Michael

    2013-08-01

    1. What is complexity? Is it increasing? Charles H. Lineweaver, Paul C. W. Davies and Michael Ruse; 2. Directionality principles from cancer to cosmology Paul C. W. Davies; 3. A simple treatment of complexity: cosmological entropic boundary conditions on increasing complexity Charles H. Lineweaver; 4. Using complexity science to search for unity in the natural sciences Eric J. Chaisson; 5. On the spontaneous generation of complexity in the universe Seth Lloyd; 6. Emergent spatiotemporal complexity in field theory Marcelo Gleiser; 7. Life: the final frontier for complexity? Simon Conway Morris; 8. Evolution beyond Newton, Darwin, and entailing law: the origin of complexity in the evolving biosphere Stuart A. Kauffman; 9. Emergent order in processes: the interplay of complexity, robustness, correlation, and hierarchy in the biosphere D. Eric Smith; 10. The inferential evolution of biological complexity: forgetting nature by learning to nurture David C. Krakauer; 11. Information width: a way for the second law to increase complexity David Wolpert; 12. Wrestling with biological complexity: from Darwin to Dawkins Michael Ruse; 13. The role of generative entrenchment and robustness in the evolution of complexity William C. Wimsatt; 14. On the plurality of complexity-producing mechanisms Philip Clayton; Index.

  1. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Stephen J.; Busa, Michael A.; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A.; Bollt, Erik M.

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  2. Dietary Tocotrienol/γ-Cyclodextrin Complex Increases Mitochondrial Membrane Potential and ATP Concentrations in the Brains of Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Dose, Janina; Ikuta, Naoko; Okamoto, Hinako; Ishida, Yoshiyuki; Terao, Keiji; Matsugo, Seiichi; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Brain aging is accompanied by a decrease in mitochondrial function. In vitro studies suggest that tocotrienols, including γ- and δ-tocotrienol (T3), may exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the effect of dietary T3 on mitochondrial function in vivo. In this study, we monitored the effect of a dietary T3/γ-cyclodextrin complex (T3CD) on mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in the brain of 21-month-old mice. Mice were fed either a control diet or a diet enriched with T3CD providing 100 mg T3 per kg diet for 6 months. Dietary T3CD significantly increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels compared to those of controls. The increase in MMP and ATP due to dietary T3CD was accompanied by an increase in the protein levels of the mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Furthermore, dietary T3CD slightly increased the mRNA levels of superoxide dismutase, γ-glutamyl cysteinyl synthetase, and heme oxygenase 1 in the brain. Overall, the present data suggest that T3CD increases TFAM, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP synthesis in the brains of aged mice. PMID:26301044

  3. Integrated analysis of RNA-binding protein complexes using in vitro selection and high-throughput sequencing and sequence specificity landscapes (SEQRS).

    PubMed

    Lou, Tzu-Fang; Weidmann, Chase A; Killingsworth, Jordan; Tanaka Hall, Traci M; Goldstrohm, Aaron C; Campbell, Zachary T

    2017-04-15

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) collaborate to control virtually every aspect of RNA function. Tremendous progress has been made in the area of global assessment of RBP specificity using next-generation sequencing approaches both in vivo and in vitro. Understanding how protein-protein interactions enable precise combinatorial regulation of RNA remains a significant problem. Addressing this challenge requires tools that can quantitatively determine the specificities of both individual proteins and multimeric complexes in an unbiased and comprehensive way. One approach utilizes in vitro selection, high-throughput sequencing, and sequence-specificity landscapes (SEQRS). We outline a SEQRS experiment focused on obtaining the specificity of a multi-protein complex between Drosophila RBPs Pumilio (Pum) and Nanos (Nos). We discuss the necessary controls in this type of experiment and examine how the resulting data can be complemented with structural and cell-based reporter assays. Additionally, SEQRS data can be integrated with functional genomics data to uncover biological function. Finally, we propose extensions of the technique that will enhance our understanding of multi-protein regulatory complexes assembled onto RNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome-wide meta-analysis uncovers novel loci influencing circulating leptin levels.

    PubMed

    Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Carli, Jayne F Martin; Skowronski, Alicja A; Sun, Qi; Kriebel, Jennifer; Feitosa, Mary F; Hedman, Åsa K; Drong, Alexander W; Hayes, James E; Zhao, Jinghua; Pers, Tune H; Schick, Ursula; Grarup, Niels; Kutalik, Zoltán; Trompet, Stella; Mangino, Massimo; Kristiansson, Kati; Beekman, Marian; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Eriksson, Joel; Henneman, Peter; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Luan, Jian'an; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Pasko, Dorota; Renström, Frida; Willems, Sara M; Mahajan, Anubha; Rose, Lynda M; Guo, Xiuqing; Liu, Yongmei; Kleber, Marcus E; Pérusse, Louis; Gaunt, Tom; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Ju Sung, Yun; Ramos, Yolande F; Amin, Najaf; Amuzu, Antoinette; Barroso, Inês; Bellis, Claire; Blangero, John; Buckley, Brendan M; Böhringer, Stefan; I Chen, Yii-Der; de Craen, Anton J N; Crosslin, David R; Dale, Caroline E; Dastani, Zari; Day, Felix R; Deelen, Joris; Delgado, Graciela E; Demirkan, Ayse; Finucane, Francis M; Ford, Ian; Garcia, Melissa E; Gieger, Christian; Gustafsson, Stefan; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E; Havulinna, Aki S; Herder, Christian; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Hunter, David J; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Jansson, John-Olov; Jenny, Nancy S; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Karlsson, Magnus; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kraft, Peter; Kwekkeboom, Joanneke; Laatikainen, Tiina; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; LeDuc, Charles A; Lowe, Gordon; Lu, Yingchang; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meisinger, Christa; Menni, Cristina; Morris, Andrew P; Myers, Richard H; Männistö, Satu; Nalls, Mike A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Peters, Annette; Pradhan, Aruna D; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Rice, Treva K; Brent Richards, J; Ridker, Paul M; Sattar, Naveed; Savage, David B; Söderberg, Stefan; Timpson, Nicholas J; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Heemst, Diana; Uh, Hae-Won; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Walker, Mark; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Widén, Elisabeth; Wood, Andrew R; Yao, Jie; Zeller, Tanja; Zhang, Yiying; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Sarzynski, Mark A; Rao, D C; Jousilahti, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Palotie, Aarno; Eriksson, Johan G; Heliövaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Huupponen, Risto K; Viikari, Jorma S; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Casas, Juan P; Bandinelli, Stefanie; März, Winfried; Isaacs, Aaron; van Dijk, Ko W; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Harris, Tamara B; Bouchard, Claude; Allison, Matthew A; Chasman, Daniel I; Ohlsson, Claes; Lind, Lars; Scott, Robert A; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M; Pramstaller, Peter P; Borecki, Ingrid B; Waterworth, Dawn M; Bergmann, Sven; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Hu, Frank B; Eline Slagboom, P; Grallert, Harald; Spector, Tim D; Jukema, J W; Klein, Robert J; Schadt, Erik E; Franks, Paul W; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Leibel, Rudolph L; Loos, Ruth J F

    2016-02-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone, the circulating levels of which correlate closely with overall adiposity. Although rare mutations in the leptin (LEP) gene are well known to cause leptin deficiency and severe obesity, no common loci regulating circulating leptin levels have been uncovered. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating leptin levels from 32,161 individuals and followed up loci reaching P<10(-6) in 19,979 additional individuals. We identify five loci robustly associated (P<5 × 10(-8)) with leptin levels in/near LEP, SLC32A1, GCKR, CCNL1 and FTO. Although the association of the FTO obesity locus with leptin levels is abolished by adjustment for BMI, associations of the four other loci are independent of adiposity. The GCKR locus was found associated with multiple metabolic traits in previous GWAS and the CCNL1 locus with birth weight. Knockdown experiments in mouse adipose tissue explants show convincing evidence for adipogenin, a regulator of adipocyte differentiation, as the novel causal gene in the SLC32A1 locus influencing leptin levels. Our findings provide novel insights into the regulation of leptin production by adipose tissue and open new avenues for examining the influence of variation in leptin levels on adiposity and metabolic health.

  5. Cryptic diversity in Australian stick insects (Insecta; Phasmida) uncovered by the DNA barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Velonà, A; Brock, P D; Hasenpusch, J; Mantovani, B

    2015-05-18

    The barcoding approach was applied to analyze 16 Australian morphospecies of the order Phasmida, with the aim to test if it could be suitable as a tool for phasmid species identification and if its discrimination power would allow uncovering of cryptic diversity. Both goals were reached. Eighty-two specimens representing twelve morphospecies (Sipyloidea sp. A, Candovia annulata, Candovia sp. A, Candovia sp. B, Candovia sp. C, Denhama austrocarinata, Xeroderus kirbii, Parapodacanthus hasenpuschorum, Tropidoderus childrenii, Cigarrophasma tessellatum, Acrophylla wuelfingi, Eurycantha calcarata) were correctly recovered as clades through the molecular approach, their sequences forming monophyletic and well-supported clusters. In four instances, Neighbor-Joining tree and barcoding gap analyses supported either a specific (Austrocarausius mercurius, Anchiale briareus) or a subspecific (Anchiale austrotessulata, Extatosoma tiaratum) level of divergence within the analyzed morphospecies. The lack of an appropriate database of homologous coxI sequences prevented more detailed identification of undescribed taxa.

  6. Software Transition Project Retrospectives and the Application of SEL Effort Estimation Model and Boehm's COCOMO to Complex Software Transition Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeill, Justin

    1995-01-01

    The Multimission Image Processing Subsystem (MIPS) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has managed transitions of application software sets from one operating system and hardware platform to multiple operating systems and hardware platforms. As a part of these transitions, cost estimates were generated from the personal experience of in-house developers and managers to calculate the total effort required for such projects. Productivity measures have been collected for two such transitions, one very large and the other relatively small in terms of source lines of code. These estimates used a cost estimation model similar to the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) Effort Estimation Model. Experience in transitioning software within JPL MIPS have uncovered a high incidence of interface complexity. Interfaces, both internal and external to individual software applications, have contributed to software transition project complexity, and thus to scheduling difficulties and larger than anticipated design work on software to be ported.

  7. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.

    PubMed

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M

    2010-06-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.

  8. Food restriction increase the expression of mTORC1 complex genes in the skeletal muscle of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus)

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Tassiana Gutierrez; Zanella, Bruna Tereza Thomazini; Fantinatti, Bruno Evaristo de Almeida; de Moraes, Leonardo Nazário; Duran, Bruno Oliveira da Silva; de Oliveira, Caroline Bredariol; Salomão, Rondinelle Artur Simões; da Silva, Rafaela Nunes; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; dos Santos, Vander Bruno; Mareco, Edson Assunção; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is capable of phenotypic adaptation to environmental factors, such as nutrient availability, by altering the balance between muscle catabolism and anabolism that in turn coordinates muscle growth. Small noncoding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), repress the expression of target mRNAs, and many studies have demonstrated that miRNAs regulate the mRNAs of catabolic and anabolic genes. We evaluated muscle morphology, gene expression of components involved in catabolism, anabolism and energetic metabolism and miRNAs expression in both the fast and slow muscle of juvenile pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) during food restriction and refeeding. Our analysis revealed that short periods of food restriction followed by refeeding predominantly affected fast muscle, with changes in muscle fiber diameter and miRNAs expression. There was an increase in the mRNA levels of catabolic pathways components (FBXO25, ATG12, BCL2) and energetic metabolism-related genes (PGC1α and SDHA), together with a decrease in PPARβ/δ mRNA levels. Interestingly, an increase in mRNA levels of anabolic genes (PI3K and mTORC1 complex: mTOR, mLST8 and RAPTOR) was also observed during food restriction. After refeeding, muscle morphology showed similar patterns of the control group; the majority of genes were slightly up- or down-regulated in fast and slow muscle, respectively; the levels of all miRNAs increased in fast muscle and some of them decreased in slow muscle. Our findings demonstrated that a short period of food restriction in juvenile pacu had a considerable impact on fast muscle, increasing the expression of anabolic (PI3K and mTORC1 complex: mTOR, mLST8 and RAPTOR) and energetic metabolism genes. The miRNAs (miR-1, miR-206, miR-199 and miR-23a) were more expressed during refeeding and while their target genes (IGF-1, mTOR, PGC1α and MAFbx), presented a decreased expression. The alterations in mTORC1 complex observed during fasting may have influenced the rates of protein

  9. Understanding pathways for scaling up health services through the lens of complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Paina, Ligia; Peters, David H

    2012-08-01

    Despite increased prominence and funding of global health initiatives, efforts to scale up health services in developing countries are falling short of the expectations of the Millennium Development Goals. Arguing that the dominant assumptions for scaling up are inadequate, we propose that interpreting change in health systems through the lens of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides better models of pathways for scaling up. Based on an understanding of CAS behaviours, we describe how phenomena such as path dependence, feedback loops, scale-free networks, emergent behaviour and phase transitions can uncover relevant lessons for the design and implementation of health policy and programmes in the context of scaling up health services. The implications include paying more attention to local context, incentives and institutions, as well as anticipating certain types of unintended consequences that can undermine scaling up efforts, and developing and implementing programmes that engage key actors through transparent use of data for ongoing problem-solving and adaptation. We propose that future efforts to scale up should adapt and apply the models and methodologies which have been used in other fields that study CAS, yet are underused in public health. This can help policy makers, planners, implementers and researchers to explore different and innovative approaches for reaching populations in need with effective, equitable and efficient health services. The old assumptions have led to disappointed expectations about how to scale up health services, and offer little insight on how to scale up effective interventions in the future. The alternative perspectives offered by CAS may better reflect the complex and changing nature of health systems, and create new opportunities for understanding and scaling up health services.

  10. AMPKα2 deficiency uncovers time dependency in the regulation of contraction-induced palmitate and glucose uptake in mouse muscle.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Marcia J; Bogachus, Lindsey D; Turcotte, Lorraine P

    2011-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a fuel sensor in skeletal muscle with multiple downstream signaling targets that may be triggered by increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]). The purpose of this study was to determine whether increases in intracellular [Ca(2+)] induced by caffeine act solely via AMPKα(2) and whether AMPKα(2) is essential to increase glucose uptake, fatty acid (FA) uptake, and FA oxidation in contracting skeletal muscle. Hindlimbs from wild-type (WT) or AMPKα(2) dominant-negative (DN) transgene mice were perfused during rest (n = 11), treatment with 3 mM caffeine (n = 10), or muscle contraction (n = 11). Time-dependent effects on glucose and FA uptake were uncovered throughout the 20-min muscle contraction perfusion period (P < 0.05). Glucose uptake rates did not increase in DN mice during muscle contraction until the last 5 min of the protocol (P < 0.05). FA uptake rates were elevated at the onset of muscle contraction and diminished by the end of the protocol in DN mice (P < 0.05). FA oxidation rates were abolished in the DN mice during muscle contraction (P < 0.05). The DN transgene had no effect on caffeine-induced FA uptake and oxidation (P > 0.05). Glucose uptake rates were blunted in caffeine-treated DN mice (P < 0.05). The DN transgene resulted in a greater use of intramuscular triglycerides as a fuel source during muscle contraction. The DN transgene did not alter caffeine- or contraction-mediated changes in the phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I or ERK1/2 (P > 0.05). These data suggest that AMPKα(2) is involved in the regulation of substrate uptake in a time-dependent manner in contracting muscle but is not necessary for regulation of FA uptake and oxidation during caffeine treatment.

  11. Newly Uncovered Large-Scale Component of the Northern Jet in R Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montez, Rodolfo; Karovska, Margarita; Nichols, Joy S.; Kashyap, Vinay

    2017-06-01

    R Aqr is a symbiotic system comprised a compact white dwarf and Mira giant star. The interaction of these stars is responsible for the presence of a two-sided jet structure that is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. X-ray emission from the jet was first discovered in 2000 with an observation by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since then follow-up observations have traced the evolution of the X-ray emission from the jet and a central compact source. In X-rays, the NE jet is brighter than the SW jet, but the full extent of the SW jet was larger - before it began fading below the detection threshold. However, we have uncovered evidence for large-scale emission associated with the NE jet that matches the extent of the SW jet. The emission has escaped previous identification because it is near the detection threshold, but it has been present since the first 2000 observation and clearly evolves in subsequent observations. We present our study of the emission from this component of the NE jet, its relationship to multiwavelength observations, and how it impacts our interpretation of the jet-phenomenon in R Aqr.

  12. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we “wordify” the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases. PMID:26957018

  13. Laser-induced periodic surface structures of thin, complex multi-component films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, Juergen; Varlamova, Olga; Ratzke, Markus; Uhlig, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced regular nanostructures are generated on a complex multilayer target, namely a piece of a commercial, used hard disk memory. It is shown that after single-shot 800-nm irradiation at 0.26 J/cm2 only the polymer cover layer and—in the center—a portion of the magnetic multilayer are ablated. A regular array of linearly aligned spherical 450-nm features at the uncovered interface between cover and magnetic layers appears not to be produced by the irradiation. Only after about 10 pulses on one spot, classical ripples perpendicular to the laser polarization with a period of ≈700 nm are observed, with a modulation between 40 nm above and 40 nm below the pristine surface and an ablation depth only slightly larger than the thickness of the multilayer magnetic film. Further increase of the pulse number does not result in deeper ablation. However, 770-nm ripples become parallel to the polarization and are swelling to more than 120 nm above zero, much more than the full multilayer film thickness. In the spot periphery, much shallower 300-nm ripples are perpendicular to the strong modulation and the laser polarization. Irradiation with 0.49-J/cm2 pulses from an ultrafast white-light continuum results—in the spot periphery—in the formation of 200-nm ripples, only swelling above zero after removal of the polymer cover, without digging into the magnetic film.

  14. Soft tissue augmentation around osseointegrated and uncovered dental implants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Renzo G; Stähli, Alexandra; Bassetti, Mario A; Sculean, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compile the current knowledge about the efficacy of different soft tissue correction methods around osseointegrated, already uncovered and/or loaded (OU/L) implants with insufficient soft tissue conditions. Procedures to increase peri-implant keratinized mucosa (KM) width and/or soft tissue volume were considered. Screening of two databases: MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE (OVID), and manual search of articles were performed. Human studies reporting on soft tissue augmentation/correction methods around OU/L implants up to June 30, 2016, were considered. Quality assessment of selected full-text articles to weight risk of bias was performed using the Cochrane collaboration's tool. Overall, four randomized controlled trials (risk of bias = high/low) and five prospective studies (risk of bias = high) were included. Depending on the surgical techniques and graft materials, the enlargement of keratinized tissue (KT) ranged between 1.15 ± 0.81 and 2.57 ± 0.50 mm. The apically positioned partial thickness flap (APPTF), in combination with a free gingival graft (FGG), a subepithelial connective tissue graft (SCTG), or a xenogeneic graft material (XCM) were most effective. A coronally advanced flap (CAF) combined with SCTG in three, combined with allogenic graft materials (AMDA) in one, and a split thickness flap (STF) combined with SCTG in another study showed mean soft tissue recession coverage rates from 28 to 96.3 %. STF combined with XCM failed to improve peri-implant soft tissue coverage. The three APPTF-techniques combined with FGG, SCTG, or XCM achieved comparable enlargements of peri-implant KT. Further, both STF and CAF, both in combination with SCTG, are equivalent regarding recession coverage rates. STF + XCM and CAF + AMDA did not reach significant coverage. In case of soft tissue deficiency around OU/L dental implants, the selection of both an appropriate surgical technique and a suitable soft tissue graft material is of utmost clinical

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction of highly complex microscopic samples using scanning electron microscopy and optical flow estimation.

    PubMed

    Baghaie, Ahmadreza; Pahlavan Tafti, Ahmad; Owen, Heather A; D'Souza, Roshan M; Yu, Zeyun

    2017-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as one of the major research and industrial equipment for imaging of micro-scale samples and surfaces has gained extensive attention from its emerge. However, the acquired micrographs still remain two-dimensional (2D). In the current work a novel and highly accurate approach is proposed to recover the hidden third-dimension by use of multi-view image acquisition of the microscopic samples combined with pre/post-processing steps including sparse feature-based stereo rectification, nonlocal-based optical flow estimation for dense matching and finally depth estimation. Employing the proposed approach, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of highly complex microscopic samples were achieved to facilitate the interpretation of topology and geometry of surface/shape attributes of the samples. As a byproduct of the proposed approach, high-definition 3D printed models of the samples can be generated as a tangible means of physical understanding. Extensive comparisons with the state-of-the-art reveal the strength and superiority of the proposed method in uncovering the details of the highly complex microscopic samples.

  16. Online tools for uncovering data quality issues in satellite-based global precipitation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Heo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and timely available global precipitation products are important to many applications such as flood forecasting, hydrological modeling, vector-borne disease research, crop yield estimates, etc. However, data quality issues such as biases and uncertainties are common in satellite-based precipitation products and it is important to understand these issues in applications. In recent years, algorithms using multi-satellites and multi-sensors for satellite-based precipitation estimates have become popular, such as the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and the latest Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG). Studies show that data quality issues for multi-satellite and multi-sensor products can vary with space and time and can be difficult to summarize. Online tools can provide customized results for a given area of interest, allowing customized investigation or comparison on several precipitation products. Because downloading data and software is not required, online tools can facilitate precipitation product evaluation and comparison. In this presentation, we will present online tools to uncover data quality issues in satellite-based global precipitation products. Examples will be presented as well.

  17. Antisocial behaviour and psychopathy: Uncovering the externalizing link in the P3 modulation.

    PubMed

    Pasion, Rita; Fernandes, Carina; Pereira, Mariana R; Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-03-22

    In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models. Distinct etiological pathways of psychopathy were evidenced in cognitive tasks: impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits mainly predicted blunted P3 amplitude, while interpersonal-affective psychopathic traits explained enhanced P3 amplitude. Supporting the low fear hypothesis, the interpersonal-affective traits were associated with reduced P3 amplitude in emotional-affective learning tasks. From the accumulated knowledge we propose a framework of P3 amplitude modulation that uncovers the externalizing link between psychopathy and antisocial behaviour. However, the main hypotheses are exploratory and call for more data before stablishing robust conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural insight to mutation effects uncover a common allosteric site in class C GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Harpsøe, Kasper; Boesgaard, Michael W; Munk, Christian; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Gloriam, David E

    2017-04-15

    Class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate important physiological functions and allosteric modulators binding to the transmembrane domain constitute an attractive and, due to a lack of structural insight, a virtually unexplored potential for therapeutics and the food industry. Combining pharmacological site-directed mutagenesis data with the recent class C GPCR experimental structures will provide a foundation for rational design of new therapeutics. We uncover one common site for both positive and negative modulators with different amino acid layouts that can be utilized to obtain selectivity. Additionally, we show a large potential for structure-based modulator design, especially for four orphan receptors with high similarity to the crystal structures. All collated mutagenesis data is available in the GPCRdb mutation browser at http://gpcrdb.org/mutations/ and can be analyzed online or downloaded in excel format. david.gloriam@sund.ku.dk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention.

  20. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  1. Structure of Shigella IpgB2 in Complex with Human RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Klink, Björn U.; Barden, Stephan; Heidler, Thomas V.; Borchers, Christina; Ladwein, Markus; Stradal, Theresia E. B.; Rottner, Klemens; Heinz, Dirk W.

    2010-01-01

    A common theme in bacterial pathogenesis is the manipulation of eukaryotic cells by targeting the cytoskeleton. This is in most cases achieved either by modifying actin, or indirectly via activation of key regulators controlling actin dynamics such as Rho-GTPases. A novel group of bacterial virulence factors termed the WXXXE family has emerged as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for these GTPases. The precise mechanism of nucleotide exchange, however, has remained unclear. Here we report the structure of the WXXXE-protein IpgB2 from Shigella flexneri and its complex with human RhoA. We unambiguously identify IpgB2 as a bacterial RhoA-GEF and dissect the molecular mechanism of GDP release, an essential prerequisite for GTP binding. Our observations uncover that IpgB2 induces conformational changes on RhoA mimicking DbI- but not DOCK family GEFs. We also show that dissociation of the GDP·Mg2+ complex is preceded by the displacement of the metal ion to the α-phosphate of the nucleotide, diminishing its affinity to the GTPase. These data refine our understanding of the mode of action not only of WXXXE GEFs but also of mammalian GEFs of the DH/PH family. PMID:20363740

  2. Mechanisms of nuclear pore complex assembly - two different ways of building one molecular machine.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Ellenberg, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) mediates all macromolecular transport across the nuclear envelope. In higher eukaryotes that have an open mitosis, NPCs assemble at two points in the cell cycle: during nuclear assembly in late mitosis and during nuclear growth in interphase. How the NPC, the largest nonpolymeric protein complex in eukaryotic cells, self-assembles inside cells remained unclear. Recent studies have started to uncover the assembly process, and evidence has been accumulating that postmitotic and interphase NPC assembly use fundamentally different mechanisms; the duration, structural intermediates, and regulation by molecular players are different and different types of membrane deformation are involved. In this Review, we summarize the current understanding of these two modes of NPC assembly and discuss the structural and regulatory steps that might drive the assembly processes. We furthermore integrate understanding of NPC assembly with the mechanisms for rapid nuclear growth in embryos and, finally, speculate on the evolutionary origin of the NPC implied by the presence of two distinct assembly mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. FEBS Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. Global gene expression analysis using RNA-seq uncovered a new role for SR1/CAMTA3 transcription factor in salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Kasavajhala V. S. K.; Abdel-Hameed, Amira A. E.; Xing, Denghui; Reddy, Anireddy S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses cause significant yield losses in all crops. Acquisition of stress tolerance in plants requires rapid reprogramming of gene expression. SR1/CAMTA3, a member of signal responsive transcription factors (TFs), functions both as a positive and a negative regulator of biotic stress responses and as a positive regulator of cold stress-induced gene expression. Using high throughput RNA-seq, we identified ~3000 SR1-regulated genes. Promoters of about 60% of the differentially expressed genes have a known DNA binding site for SR1, suggesting that they are likely direct targets. Gene ontology analysis of SR1-regulated genes confirmed previously known functions of SR1 and uncovered a potential role for this TF in salt stress. Our results showed that SR1 mutant is more tolerant to salt stress than the wild type and complemented line. Improved tolerance of sr1 seedlings to salt is accompanied with the induction of salt-responsive genes. Furthermore, ChIP-PCR results showed that SR1 binds to promoters of several salt-responsive genes. These results suggest that SR1 acts as a negative regulator of salt tolerance by directly repressing the expression of salt-responsive genes. Overall, this study identified SR1-regulated genes globally and uncovered a previously uncharacterized role for SR1 in salt stress response. PMID:27251464

  4. Opportunities and Challenges of Implementing Instructional Games in Mathematics Classrooms: Examining the Quality of Teacher-Student Interactions during the Cover-Up and Un-Cover Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heshmati, Saeideh; Kersting, Nicole; Sutton, Taliesin

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the design and implementation of the Cover-up and Un-cover games, two manipulative-based fraction games, in 14 fifth-grade classrooms. We examined how the fraction concepts were integrated into the game design and explored the nature of teacher-student interactions during games using lesson videos. Our examination showed that…

  5. Evolution of the social network of scientific collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Jeong, Hawoong; Neda, Zoltan; Ravasz, Erzsebet; Schubert, Andras; Vicsek, Tamas

    2002-03-01

    The co-authorship network of scientists represents a prototype of complex evolving networks. By mapping the electronic database containing all relevant journals in mathematics and neuro-science for an eight-year period (1991-98), we infer the dynamic and the structural mechanisms that govern the evolution and topology of this complex system. First, empirical measurements allow us to uncover the topological measures that characterize the network at a given moment, as well as the time evolution of these quantities. The results indicate that the network is scale-free, and that the network evolution is governed by preferential attachment, affecting both internal and external links. However, in contrast with most model predictions the average degree increases in time, and the node separation decreases. Second, we propose a simple model that captures the network's time evolution. Third, numerical simulations are used to uncover the behavior of quantities that could not be predicted analytically.

  6. Conservation and Divergence in the Candida Species Biofilm Matrix Mannan-Glucan Complex Structure, Function, and Genetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Eddie; Zarnowski, Robert; Sanchez, Hiram; Covelli, Antonio S.; Westler, William M.; Azadi, Parastoo; Nett, Jeniel

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida biofilms resist the effects of available antifungal therapies. Prior studies with Candida albicans biofilms show that an extracellular matrix mannan-glucan complex (MGCx) contributes to antifungal sequestration, leading to drug resistance. Here we implement biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches to explore a similar mechanism of resistance for the three most common clinically encountered non-albicans Candida species (NAC). Our findings reveal that each Candida species biofilm synthesizes a mannan-glucan complex and that the antifungal-protective function of this complex is conserved. Structural similarities extended primarily to the polysaccharide backbone (α-1,6-mannan and β-1,6-glucan). Surprisingly, biochemical analysis uncovered stark differences in the branching side chains of the MGCx among the species. Consistent with the structural analysis, similarities in the genetic control of MGCx production for each Candida species also appeared limited to the synthesis of the polysaccharide backbone. Each species appears to employ a unique subset of modification enzymes for MGCx synthesis, likely accounting for the observed side chain diversity. Our results argue for the conservation of matrix function among Candida spp. While biogenesis is preserved at the level of the mannan-glucan complex backbone, divergence emerges for construction of branching side chains. Thus, the MGCx backbone represents an ideal drug target for effective pan-Candida species biofilm therapy. PMID:29615504

  7. An index of floodplain surface complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scown, Murray W.; Thoms, Martin C.; DeJager, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain surface topography is an important component of floodplain ecosystems. It is the primary physical template upon which ecosystem processes are acted out, and complexity in this template can contribute to the high biodiversity and productivity of floodplain ecosystems. There has been a limited appreciation of floodplain surface complexity because of the traditional focus on temporal variability in floodplains as well as limitations to quantifying spatial complexity. An index of floodplain surface complexity (FSC) is developed in this paper and applied to eight floodplains from different geographic settings. The index is based on two key indicators of complexity, variability in surface geometry (VSG) and the spatial organisation of surface conditions (SPO), and was determined at three sampling scales. FSC, VSG, and SPO varied between the eight floodplains and these differences depended upon sampling scale. Relationships between these measures of spatial complexity and seven geomorphological and hydrological drivers were investigated. There was a significant decline in all complexity measures with increasing floodplain width, which was explained by either a power, logarithmic, or exponential function. There was an initial rapid decline in surface complexity as floodplain width increased from 1.5 to 5 km, followed by little change in floodplains wider than 10 km. VSG also increased significantly with increasing sediment yield. No significant relationships were determined between any of the four hydrological variables and floodplain surface complexity.

  8. Uncovering production of specialized metabolites by Streptomyces argillaceus: Activation of cryptic biosynthesis gene clusters using nutritional and genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Becerril, Adriana; Álvarez, Susana; Braña, Alfredo F; Rico, Sergio; Díaz, Margarita; Santamaría, Ramón I; Salas, José A; Méndez, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Sequencing of Streptomyces genomes has revealed they harbor a high number of biosynthesis gene cluster (BGC), which uncovered their enormous potentiality to encode specialized metabolites. However, these metabolites are not usually produced under standard laboratory conditions. In this manuscript we report the activation of BGCs for antimycins, carotenoids, germicidins and desferrioxamine compounds in Streptomyces argillaceus, and the identification of the encoded compounds. This was achieved by following different strategies, including changing the growth conditions, heterologous expression of the cluster and inactivating the adpAa or overexpressing the abrC3 global regulatory genes. In addition, three new carotenoid compounds have been identified.

  9. Representation control increases task efficiency in complex graphical representations.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Julia; Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Meyer-Dernbecher, Claudia; Schwan, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    In complex graphical representations, the relevant information for a specific task is often distributed across multiple spatial locations. In such situations, understanding the representation requires internal transformation processes in order to extract the relevant information. However, digital technology enables observers to alter the spatial arrangement of depicted information and therefore to offload the transformation processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of such a representation control (i.e. the users' option to decide how information should be displayed) in order to accomplish an information extraction task in terms of solution time and accuracy. In the representation control condition, the participants were allowed to reorganize the graphical representation and reduce information density. In the control condition, no interactive features were offered. We observed that participants in the representation control condition solved tasks that required reorganization of the maps faster and more accurate than participants without representation control. The present findings demonstrate how processes of cognitive offloading, spatial contiguity, and information coherence interact in knowledge media intended for broad and diverse groups of recipients.

  10. Representation control increases task efficiency in complex graphical representations

    PubMed Central

    Meyerhoff, Hauke S.; Meyer-Dernbecher, Claudia; Schwan, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    In complex graphical representations, the relevant information for a specific task is often distributed across multiple spatial locations. In such situations, understanding the representation requires internal transformation processes in order to extract the relevant information. However, digital technology enables observers to alter the spatial arrangement of depicted information and therefore to offload the transformation processes. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of such a representation control (i.e. the users' option to decide how information should be displayed) in order to accomplish an information extraction task in terms of solution time and accuracy. In the representation control condition, the participants were allowed to reorganize the graphical representation and reduce information density. In the control condition, no interactive features were offered. We observed that participants in the representation control condition solved tasks that required reorganization of the maps faster and more accurate than participants without representation control. The present findings demonstrate how processes of cognitive offloading, spatial contiguity, and information coherence interact in knowledge media intended for broad and diverse groups of recipients. PMID:29698443

  11. The Wildland-Urban Interface: Increasing Significance, Complexity and Contribution

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2002-01-01

    During the past two decades, presentations at International Symposia on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM) have covered an increasingly broad scope of topics on natural resource issues. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) was a key topic of discussion at the ninth ISSRM in 2002: a reflection of the response by social scientists to increasing residential development...

  12. Developing Leadership for Increasing Complexity: A Review of Online Graduate Leadership Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Steven L.; Palmer, Sarah; Hughes, Patrick J.

    2018-01-01

    Leadership education must evolve to keep pace with the growing recognition that effective leadership happens in a complex environment and is as much a systemic variable as a personal one. As part of a program review process, a graduate leadership program at a private Midwestern university conducted a qualitative review of 18 online graduate…

  13. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S.; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E.; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant proΔGRAS, all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not proΔGRAS, elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in proΔGRAS and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in proΔGRAS but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated proΔGRAS leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent. PMID:26036254

  14. A Dialogue between Partnership and Feminism: Deconstructing Power and Exclusion in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Mercer, Gina

    2018-01-01

    Students as partners (SaP) has seen an increase in focus as an area of active student engagement in higher education. Many complexities and challenges have been shared in this evolving field regarding inclusivity and power. We discuss, in this dialogue, insights that can be uncovered by exploring SaP through a feminist lens--illuminating the fact…

  15. Characterisation of major histocompatibility complex class I transcripts in an Australian dragon lizard.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Jessica; Bertozzi, Terry; Moussalli, Adnan; Bradford, Tessa; Gardner, Michael

    2018-07-01

    Characterisation of squamate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes has lagged behind other taxonomic groups. MHC genes encode cell-surface glycoproteins that present self- and pathogen-derived peptides to T cells and play a critical role in pathogen recognition. Here we characterise MHC class I transcripts for an agamid lizard (Ctenophorus decresii) and investigate the evolution of MHC class I in Iguanian lizards. An iterative assembly strategy was used to identify six full-length C. decresii MHC class I transcripts, which were validated as likely to encode classical class I MHC molecules. Evidence for exon shuffling recombination was uncovered for C. decresii transcripts and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Iguanian MHC class I sequences revealed a pattern expected under a birth-and-death mode of evolution. This work provides a stepping stone towards further research on the agamid MHC class I region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary nitrate increases arginine availability and protects mitochondrial complex I and energetics in the hypoxic rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Ashmore, Tom; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Branco-Price, Cristina; West, James A; Cowburn, Andrew S; Heather, Lisa C; Griffin, Julian L; Johnson, Randall S; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure is associated with impaired cardiac energetics in humans and altered mitochondrial function, with suppressed complex I-supported respiration, in rat heart. This response might limit reactive oxygen species generation, but at the cost of impaired electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves mitochondrial efficiency and can promote tissue oxygenation by enhancing blood flow. We therefore hypothesised that ETC dysfunction, impaired energetics and oxidative damage in the hearts of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia could be alleviated by sustained administration of a moderate dose of dietary nitrate. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) were given water supplemented with 0.7 mmol l−1 NaCl (as control) or 0.7 mmol l−1 NaNO3, elevating plasma nitrate levels by 80%, and were exposed to 13% O2 (hypoxia) or normoxia (n = 10 per group) for 14 days. Respiration rates, ETC protein levels, mitochondrial density, ATP content and protein carbonylation were measured in cardiac muscle. Complex I respiration rates and protein levels were 33% lower in hypoxic/NaCl rats compared with normoxic/NaCl controls. Protein carbonylation was 65% higher in hearts of hypoxic rats compared with controls, indicating increased oxidative stress, whilst ATP levels were 62% lower. Respiration rates, complex I protein and activity, protein carbonylation and ATP levels were all fully protected in the hearts of nitrate-supplemented hypoxic rats. Both in normoxia and hypoxia, dietary nitrate suppressed cardiac arginase expression and activity and markedly elevated cardiac l-arginine concentrations, unmasking a novel mechanism of action by which nitrate enhances tissue NO bioavailability. Dietary nitrate therefore alleviates metabolic abnormalities in the hypoxic heart, improving myocardial energetics. PMID:25172947

  17. Towards a comprehensive understanding of emerging dynamics and function of pancreatic islets: A complex network approach. Comment on "Network science of biological systems at different scales: A review" by Gosak et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loppini, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    Complex network theory represents a comprehensive mathematical framework to investigate biological systems, ranging from sub-cellular and cellular scales up to large-scale networks describing species interactions and ecological systems. In their exhaustive and comprehensive work [1], Gosak et al. discuss several scenarios in which the network approach was able to uncover general properties and underlying mechanisms of cells organization and regulation, tissue functions and cell/tissue failure in pathology, by the study of chemical reaction networks, structural networks and functional connectivities.

  18. Regulatory functions of limbic Y1 receptors in body weight and anxiety uncovered by conditional knockout and maternal care

    PubMed Central

    Bertocchi, Ilaria; Oberto, Alessandra; Longo, Angela; Mele, Paolo; Sabetta, Marianna; Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Palanza, Paola; Sprengel, Rolf; Eva, Carola

    2011-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in stress, anxiety, obesity, and energy homeostasis via activation of NPY-Y1 receptors (Y1Rs) in the brain. However, global knockout of the Npy1r gene has low or no impact on anxiety and body weight. To uncover the role of limbic Y1Rs, we generated conditional knockout mice in which the inactivation of the Npy1r gene was restricted to excitatory neurons of the forebrain, starting from juvenile stages (Npy1rrfb). Npy1rrfb mice exhibited increased anxiety and reduced body weight, less adipose tissue, and lower serum leptin levels. Npy1rrfb mutants also had a hyperactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis, as indicated by higher peripheral corticosterone and higher density of NPY immunoreactive fibers and corticotropin releasing hormone immunoreactive cell bodies in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Importantly, through fostering experiments, we determined that differences in phenotype between Npy1rrfb and Npy1r2lox mice became apparent when both genotypes were raised by FVB/J but not by C57BL/6J dams, suggesting that limbic Y1Rs are key targets of maternal care-induced programming of anxiety and energy homeostasis. PMID:22084082

  19. High-throughput, pooled sequencing identifies mutations in NUBPL and FOXRED1 in human complex I deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Sarah E; Tucker, Elena J; Compton, Alison G; Kirby, Denise M; Crawford, Gabriel; Burtt, Noel P; Rivas, Manuel A; Guiducci, Candace; Bruno, Damien L; Goldberger, Olga A; Redman, Michelle C; Wiltshire, Esko; Wilson, Callum J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey B; Daly, Mark J; Thorburn, David R; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2010-01-01

    Discovering the molecular basis of mitochondrial respiratory chain disease is challenging given the large number of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes involved. We report a strategy of focused candidate gene prediction, high-throughput sequencing, and experimental validation to uncover the molecular basis of mitochondrial complex I (CI) disorders. We created five pools of DNA from a cohort of 103 patients and then performed deep sequencing of 103 candidate genes to spotlight 151 rare variants predicted to impact protein function. We used confirmatory experiments to establish genetic diagnoses in 22% of previously unsolved cases, and discovered that defects in NUBPL and FOXRED1 can cause CI deficiency. Our study illustrates how large-scale sequencing, coupled with functional prediction and experimental validation, can reveal novel disease-causing mutations in individual patients. PMID:20818383

  20. Metal Complexation in Xylem Fluid 1

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael C.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Decker, A. Morris

    1981-01-01

    The capacity of ligands in xylem fluid to form metal complexes was tested with a series of in vitro experiments using paper electrophoresis and radiographs. The xylem fluid was collected hourly for 8 hours from soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants grown in normal and Zn-phytotoxic nutrient solutions. Metal complexation was assayed by anodic or reduced cathodic movement of radionuclides (63Ni, 65Zn, 109Cd, 54Mn) that were presumed to have formed negatively charged complexes. Electrophoretic migration of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Mn added to xylem exudate and spotted on KCl- or KNO3-wetted paper showed that stable Ni, Zn, and Cd metal complexes were formed by exudate ligands. No anodic Mn complexes were observed in this test system. Solution pH, plant species, exudate collection time, and Zn phytotoxicity all affected the amount of metal complex formed in exudate. As the pH increased, there was increased anodic metal movement. Soybean exudate generally bound more of each metal than did tomato exudate. Metal binding usually decreased with increasing exudate collection time, and less metal was bound by the high-Zn exudate. Ni, Zn, Cd, and Mn in exudate added to exudate-wetted paper demonstrated the effect of ligand concentration on stable metal complex formation. Complexes for each metal were demonstratable with this method. Cathodic metal movement increased with time of exudate collection, and it was greater in the high-Zn exudate than in the normal-Zn exudate. A model study illustrated the effect of ligand concentration on metal complex stability in the electrophoretic field. Higher ligand (citric acid) concentrations increased the stability for all metals tested. Images PMID:16661666

  1. Evaluation of a complex healthcare intervention to increase smoking cessation in pregnant women: interrupted time series analysis with economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Ruth; Glinianaia, Svetlana V; Waal, Zelda van der; Close, Andrew; Moloney, Eoin; Jones, Susan; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Hamilton, Sharon; Milne, Eugene Mg; Shucksmith, Janet; Vale, Luke; Willmore, Martyn; White, Martin; Rushton, Steven

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention to improve referral and treatment of pregnant smokers in routine practice, and to assess the incremental costs to the National Health Service (NHS) per additional woman quitting smoking. Interrupted time series analysis of routine data before and after introducing the intervention, within-study economic evaluation. Eight acute NHS hospital trusts and 12 local authority areas in North East England. 37 726 records of singleton delivery including 10 594 to mothers classified as smoking during pregnancy. A package of measures implemented in trusts and smoking cessation services, aimed at increasing the proportion of pregnant smokers quitting during pregnancy, comprising skills training for healthcare and smoking cessation staff; universal carbon monoxide monitoring with routine opt-out referral for smoking cessation support; provision of carbon monoxide monitors and supporting materials; and an explicit referral pathway and follow-up protocol. Referrals to smoking cessation services; probability of quitting smoking during pregnancy; additional costs to health services; incremental cost per additional woman quitting. After introduction of the intervention, the referral rate increased more than twofold (incidence rate ratio=2.47, 95% CI 2.16 to 2.81) and the probability of quitting by delivery increased (adjusted OR=1.81, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.12). The additional cost per delivery was £31 and the incremental cost per additional quit was £952; 31 pregnant women needed to be treated for each additional quitter. The implementation of a system-wide complex healthcare intervention was associated with significant increase in rates of quitting by delivery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide increases mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II activity and protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation in neurons.

    PubMed

    Sha, Dujuan; Wang, Luna; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Lai; Li, Qiming; Li, Jin; Qian, Jian; Gu, Shuangshuang; Han, Ling; Xu, Peng; Xu, Yun

    2014-09-25

    The mechanisms of ischemic stroke, a main cause of disability and death, are complicated. Ischemic stroke results from the interaction of various factors including oxidative stress, a key pathological mechanism that plays an important role during the acute stage of ischemic brain injury. This study demonstrated that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide, specifically CART55-102, increased the survival rate, but decreased the mortality of neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), in a dose-dependent manner. The above-mentioned effects of CART55-102 were most significant at 0.4nM. These results indicated that CART55-102 suppressed neurotoxicity and enhanced neuronal survival after oxygen-glucose deprivation. CART55-102 (0.4nM) significantly diminished reactive oxygen species levels and markedly increased the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons. In summary, CART55-102 suppressed oxidative stress in oxygen-glucose deprived neurons, possibly through elevating the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II. This result provides evidence for the development of CART55-102 as an antioxidant drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncovering the Detailed Structure and Dynamics of Andromeda's Complex Stellar Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Claire; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Seth, Anil; Dalcanton, Julianne; Widrow, Larry; Splash Team, Phat Team

    2015-01-01

    Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) cosmology predicts that the disks of Milky Way-mass galaxies should have undergone at least one merger with a large (mass ratio 1:10) satellite in the last several Gyr. However, the stellar disk in the solar neighborhood of the Milky Way is too thin and dynamically cold to have experienced such an impact. The dynamics of the nearby Andromeda galaxy can serve as a second data point, and help us understand whether the Milky Way may simply have had an unusually quiescent merger history, or whether LCDM theory needs to be revisited. Over the last few years, we have carried out a detailed study of the resolved stellar populations in the disk of the Andromeda galaxy using data from two surveys: six-filter Hubble Space Telescope photometry from the recently-completed Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey, and radial velocities derived from Keck/DEIMOS optical spectra obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) program. These detailed, multidimensional data sets allow us to decouple the structural subcomponents and characterize them individually. We find that an old, dynamically hot (velocity dispersion ~150 km/s) RGB population extends out to 20 kpc (the edge of the visible disk) but has a disk-like surface brightness profile and luminosity function. This population may have originated in the disk but been kicked out subsequently in impacts with satellite galaxies. We also study the kinematics of the disk as a function of the age of stellar tracers, and find a direct correlation between age and velocity dispersion, indicating that Andromeda has undergone a continuous heating or disk settling process throughout its lifetime. Overall, both the velocity dispersion of Andromeda's disk and the slope of the velocity dispersion vs. stellar age curve are several times those of the Milky Way's, suggesting a more active merger history more in line with LCDM cosmological predictions.This research was funded by grants from the NSF and NASA/STScI.

  4. Computational Thinking in the Wild: Uncovering Complex Collaborative Thinking through Gameplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Matthew; Duncan, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Surprisingly few empirical studies address how computational thinking works "in the wild" or how games and simulations can support developing computational thinking skills. In this article, the authors report results from a study of computational thinking (CT) as evinced through player discussions around the collaborative board game…

  5. Children with Dis/abilities in Namibia, Africa: Uncovering Complexities of Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Children with dis/abilities the world over are widely required to sacrifice their human rights to education, equity, community, and inclusion. Fewer than 10% of children with dis/abilities in developing countries attend school. Namibia, Africa, where this study took place, is no different. Despite Namibia's adoption of international covenants and…

  6. Uncovering the overlapping community structure of complex networks by maximal cliques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junqiu; Wang, Xingyuan; Cui, Yaozu

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a unique algorithm is proposed to detect overlapping communities in the un-weighted and weighted networks with considerable accuracy. The maximal cliques, overlapping vertex, bridge vertex and isolated vertex are introduced. First, all the maximal cliques are extracted by the algorithm based on the deep and bread searching. Then two maximal cliques can be merged into a larger sub-graph by some given rules. In addition, the proposed algorithm successfully finds overlapping vertices and bridge vertices between communities. Experimental results using some real-world networks data show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is satisfactory.

  7. Phylogenomics and species delimitation of a complex radiation of Neotropical suboscine birds (Pachyramphus).

    PubMed

    Musher, Lukas J; Cracraft, Joel

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies within the Neotropics continue to uncover hidden diversity, the extent of which remains poorly known. In birds, molecular studies are producing evidence that species-level diversity is substantially underestimated. Many avian taxa comprise large complexes of subspecies that often represent species-level taxa by various criteria. One such group of Neotropical suboscine birds, the becards (Pachyramphus), ranges from Argentina through northern Mexico. Their taxonomic limits have been complex and controversial as the genus has bounced around a number of suboscine families. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationships within Pachyramphus are unresolved due to insufficient sampling of taxa and populations across species' ranges. We used target capture of ultraconserved elements for 62 individuals representing 42 taxa, and sequenced two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns covering 265 individuals of 51 taxa, including all recognized species, resulting in the most densely and completely sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for Pachyramphus to date. We delimited species using a traditional taxonomic approach and then tested them under a Bayesian multi-species coalescent framework. In doing so, we provide evidence for multiple young, previously undetected evolutionary lineages within Pachyramphus. Deep, well-supported branches and a high number of intraspecific lineages across the tree suggest that at least 50% of species diversity may be unrecognized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Roles of the Checkpoint Sensor Clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-Complex and the Clamp Loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe Telomere Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M.

    2011-01-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1Δ cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1Δ cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes. PMID:20505337

  9. Spatiotemporal imaging of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Stephen E.; Mandell, Arnold J.; Coppola, Richard

    2013-01-01

    What are the functional neuroimaging measurements required for more fully characterizing the events and locations of neocortical activity? A prime assumption has been that modulation of cortical activity will inevitably be reflected in changes in energy utilization (for the most part) changes of glucose and oxygen consumption. Are such a measures complete and sufficient? More direct measures of cortical electrophysiological activity show event or task-related modulation of amplitude or band-limited oscillatory power. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), these measures have been shown to correlate well with energy utilization sensitive BOLD fMRI. In this paper, we explore the existence of state changes in electrophysiological cortical activity that can occur independently of changes in averaged amplitude, source power or indices of metabolic rates. In addition, we demonstrate that such state changes can be described by applying a new measure of complexity, rank vector entropy (RVE), to source waveform estimates from beamformer-processed MEG. RVE is a non-parametric symbolic dynamic informational entropy measure that accommodates the wide dynamic range of measured brain signals while resolving its temporal variations. By representing the measurements by their rank values, RVE overcomes the problem of defining embedding space partitions without resorting to signal compression. This renders RVE-independent of absolute signal amplitude. In addition, this approach is robust, being relatively free of tunable parameters. We present examples of task-free and task-dependent MEG demonstrating that RVE provides new information by uncovering hidden dynamical structure in the apparent turbulent (or chaotic) dynamics of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23355820

  10. The TIC complex uncovered: The alternative view on the molecular mechanism of protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Masato

    2015-09-01

    Chloroplasts must import thousands of nuclear-encoded preproteins synthesized in the cytosol through two successive protein translocons at the outer and inner envelope membranes, termed TOC and TIC, respectively, to fulfill their complex physiological roles. The molecular identity of the TIC translocon had long remained controversial; two proteins, namely Tic20 and Tic110, had been proposed to be central to protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane. Tic40 also had long been considered to be another central player in this process. However, recently, a novel 1-megadalton complex consisting of Tic20, Tic56, Tic100, and Tic214 was identified at the chloroplast inner membrane of Arabidopsis and was demonstrated to constitute a general TIC translocon which functions in concert with the well-characterized TOC translocon. On the other hand, direct interaction between this novel TIC transport system and Tic110 or Tic40 was hardly observed. Consequently, the molecular model for protein translocation across the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts might need to be extensively revised. In this review article, I intend to propose such alternative view regarding the TIC transport system in contradistinction to the classical view. I also would emphasize importance of reevaluation of previous works in terms of with what methods these classical Tic proteins such as Tic110 or Tic40 were picked up as TIC constituents at the very beginning as well as what actual evidence there were to support their direct and specific involvement in chloroplast protein import. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chloroplast Biogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemic modeling in complex realities.

    PubMed

    Colizza, Vittoria; Barthélemy, Marc; Barrat, Alain; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2007-04-01

    In our global world, the increasing complexity of social relations and transport infrastructures are key factors in the spread of epidemics. In recent years, the increasing availability of computer power has enabled both to obtain reliable data allowing one to quantify the complexity of the networks on which epidemics may propagate and to envision computational tools able to tackle the analysis of such propagation phenomena. These advances have put in evidence the limits of homogeneous assumptions and simple spatial diffusion approaches, and stimulated the inclusion of complex features and heterogeneities relevant in the description of epidemic diffusion. In this paper, we review recent progresses that integrate complex systems and networks analysis with epidemic modelling and focus on the impact of the various complex features of real systems on the dynamics of epidemic spreading.

  12. Protein surface roughness accounts for binding free energy of Plasmepsin II-ligand complexes.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Tresanco, Mario E; Valdés-Tresanco, Mario S; Valiente, Pedro A; Cocho, Germinal; Mansilla, Ricardo; Nieto-Villar, J M

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of absolute binding affinities for protein-inhibitor complexes remains as one of the main challenges in computational structure-based ligand design. The present work explored the calculations of surface fractal dimension (as a measure of surface roughness) and the relationship with experimental binding free energies of Plasmepsin II complexes. Plasmepsin II is an attractive target for novel therapeutic compounds to treat malaria. However, the structural flexibility of this enzyme is a drawback when searching for specific inhibitors. Concerning that, we performed separate explicitly solvated molecular dynamics simulations using the available high-resolution crystal structures of different Plasmepsin II complexes. Molecular dynamics simulations allowed a better approximation to systems dynamics and, therefore, a more reliable estimation of surface roughness. This constitutes a novel approximation in order to obtain more realistic values of fractal dimension, because previous works considered only x-ray structures. Binding site fractal dimension was calculated considering the ensemble of structures generated at different simulation times. A linear relationship between binding site fractal dimension and experimental binding free energies of the complexes was observed within 20 ns. Previous studies of the subject did not uncover this relationship. Regression model, coined FD model, was built to estimate binding free energies from binding site fractal dimension values. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed that our model reproduced accurately the absolute binding free energies for our training set (R 2  = 0.76; <|error|> =0.55 kcal/mol; SD error  = 0.19 kcal/mol). The fact that such a simple model may be applied raises some questions that are addressed in the article. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Characterization of the Arabidopsis Augmin Complex Uncovers Its Critical Function in the Assembly of the Acentrosomal Spindle and Phragmoplast Microtubule Arrays[W

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Takashi; Kong, Zhaosheng; Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Zeng, Cui Jing Tracy; Horio, Tetsuya; Fong, Sophia; Vuong, Trang; Lee, Yuh-Ru Julie; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Plant cells assemble the bipolar spindle and phragmoplast microtubule (MT) arrays in the absence of the centrosome structure. Our recent findings in Arabidopsis thaliana indicated that AUGMIN subunit3 (AUG3), a homolog of animal dim γ-tubulin 3, plays a critical role in γ-tubulin–dependent MT nucleation and amplification during mitosis. Here, we report the isolation of the entire plant augmin complex that contains eight subunits. Among them, AUG1 to AUG6 share low sequence similarity with their animal counterparts, but AUG7 and AUG8 share homology only with proteins of plant origin. Genetic analyses indicate that the AUG1, AUG2, AUG4, and AUG5 genes are essential, as stable mutations in these genes could only be transmitted to heterozygous plants. The sterile aug7-1 homozygous mutant in which AUG7 expression is significantly reduced exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes of seriously retarded vegetative and reproductive growth. The aug7-1 mutation caused delocalization of γ-tubulin in the mitotic spindle and phragmoplast. Consequently, spindles were abnormally elongated, and their poles failed to converge, as MTs were splayed to discrete positions rendering deformed arrays. In addition, the mutant phragmoplasts often had disorganized MT bundles with uneven edges. We conclude that assembly of MT arrays during plant mitosis depends on the augmin complex, which includes two plant-specific subunits. PMID:22505726

  14. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) complexes probed by complementary differential scanning fluorimetry and ion mobility–mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Dominic P.; Vonderach, Matthias; Ferries, Samantha; Brownridge, Philip J.; Eyers, Claire E.; Eyers, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is an archetypal biological signaling module and a model for understanding the regulation of protein kinases. In the present study, we combine biochemistry with differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and ion mobility–mass spectrometry (IM–MS) to evaluate effects of phosphorylation and structure on the ligand binding, dynamics and stability of components of heteromeric PKA protein complexes in vitro. We uncover dynamic, conformationally distinct populations of the PKA catalytic subunit with distinct structural stability and susceptibility to the physiological protein inhibitor PKI. Native MS of reconstituted PKA R2C2 holoenzymes reveals variable subunit stoichiometry and holoenzyme ablation by PKI binding. Finally, we find that although a ‘kinase-dead’ PKA catalytic domain cannot bind to ATP in solution, it interacts with several prominent chemical kinase inhibitors. These data demonstrate the combined power of IM–MS and DSF to probe PKA dynamics and regulation, techniques that can be employed to evaluate other protein-ligand complexes, with broad implications for cellular signaling. PMID:27444646

  15. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization.

  16. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Damian H.; Fletcher, Roland J.; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization. PMID:23847206

  17. MRI uncovers disrupted hippocampal microstructure that underlies memory impairments after early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Molet, Jenny; Maras, Pamela M; Kinney-Lang, Eli; Harris, Neil G; Rashid, Faisal; Ivy, Autumn S; Solodkin, Ana; Obenaus, Andre; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-12-01

    Memory and related cognitive functions are progressively impaired in a subgroup of individuals experiencing childhood adversity and stress. However, it is not possible to identify vulnerable individuals early, a crucial step for intervention. In this study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intra-hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were employed to examine for structural signatures of cognitive adolescent vulnerabilities in a rodent model of early-life adversity. These methods were complemented by neuroanatomical and functional assessments of hippocampal network integrity during adolescence, adulthood and middle-age. The high-resolution MRI identified selective loss of dorsal hippocampal volume, and intra-hippocampal DTI uncovered disruption of dendritic structure, consistent with disrupted local connectivity, already during late adolescence in adversity-experiencing rats. Memory deteriorated over time, and stunting of hippocampal dendritic trees was apparent on neuroanatomical analyses. Thus, disrupted hippocampal neuronal structure and connectivity, associated with cognitive impairments, are detectable via non-invasive imaging modalities in rats experiencing early-life adversity. These high-resolution imaging approaches may constitute promising tools for prediction and assessment of at-risk individuals in the clinic. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ketu mutant mice uncover an essential meiotic function for the ancient RNA helicase YTHDC2

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Devanshi; Puno, M Rhyan; Meydan, Cem; Lailler, Nathalie; Mason, Christopher E; Lima, Christopher D; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2018-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating mammalian meiotic progression are poorly understood. Here we identify mouse YTHDC2 as a critical component. A screen yielded a sterile mutant, ‘ketu’, caused by a Ythdc2 missense mutation. Mutant germ cells enter meiosis but proceed prematurely to aberrant metaphase and apoptosis, and display defects in transitioning from spermatogonial to meiotic gene expression programs. ketu phenocopies mutants lacking MEIOC, a YTHDC2 partner. Consistent with roles in post-transcriptional regulation, YTHDC2 is cytoplasmic, has 3′→5′ RNA helicase activity in vitro, and has similarity within its YTH domain to an N6-methyladenosine recognition pocket. Orthologs are present throughout metazoans, but are diverged in nematodes and, more dramatically, Drosophilidae, where Bgcn is descended from a Ythdc2 gene duplication. We also uncover similarity between MEIOC and Bam, a Bgcn partner unique to schizophoran flies. We propose that regulation of gene expression by YTHDC2-MEIOC is an evolutionarily ancient strategy for controlling the germline transition into meiosis. PMID:29360036

  19. Uncovering stem-cell heterogeneity in the microniche with label-free microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Lydia L.

    2013-03-01

    Better suited for large number of cells from bulk tissue, traditional cell-screening techniques, such as fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), cannot easily screen stem or progenitor cells from minute populations found in their physiological niches. Furthermore, they rely upon irreversible antibody binding, potentially altering cell properties, including gene expression and regenerative capacity. We have developed a label-free, single-cell analysis microfluidic platform capable of quantifying cell-surface marker expression of functional organ stem cells directly isolated from their micro-anatomical niche. With this platform, we have screened single quiescent muscle stem (satellite) cells derived from single myofibers, and we have uncovered an important heterogeneity in the surface-marker expression of these cells. By sorting the screened cells with our microfluidic device, we have determined what this heterogeneity means in terms of muscle stem-cell functionality. For instance, we show that the levels of beta1-integrin can predict the differentiation capacity of quiescent satellite cells, and in contrast to recent literature, that some CXCR4 + cells are not myogenic. Our results provide the first direct demonstration of a microniche-specific variation in gene expression in stem cells of the same lineage. Overall, our label-free, single-cell analysis and cell-sorting platform could be extended to other systems involving rare-cell subsets. This work was funded by the W. M. Keck Foundation, NIH, and California Institute of Regenerative Medicine

  20. High mobility group box protein 1 in complex with lipopolysaccharide or IL-1 promotes an increased inflammatory phenotype in synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In addition to its direct proinflammatory activity, extracellular high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) can strongly enhance the cytokine response evoked by other proinflammatory molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG-DNA and IL-1β, through the formation of complexes. Extracellular HMGB1 is abundant in arthritic joint tissue where it is suggested to promote inflammation as intra-articular injections of HMGB1 induce synovitis in mice and HMGB1 neutralizing therapy suppresses development of experimental arthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether HMGB1 in complex with LPS, interleukin (IL)-1α or IL-1β has enhancing effects on the production of proinflammatory mediators by rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF) and osteoarthritis synovial fibroblasts (OASF). Furthermore, we examined the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and IL-1RI requirement for the cytokine-enhancing effects of the investigated HMGB1-ligand complexes. Methods Synovial fibroblasts obtained from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) patients were stimulated with HMGB1 alone or in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production was determined by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) assessment. Levels of IL-10, IL-1-β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured using Cytokine Bead Array and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 3 production was determined by ELISA. Results Stimulation with HMGB1 in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β enhanced production of TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. HMGB1 in complex with IL-1β increased MMP production from both RASF and OASF. The cytokine production was inhibited by specific receptor blockade using detoxified LPS or IL-1 receptor antagonist, indicating that the synergistic effects were mediated through the partner ligand-reciprocal receptors TLR4 and IL-1RI, respectively. Conclusions HMGB1 in complex with LPS, IL-1α or IL-1β boosted proinflammatory cytokine- and MMP production in synovial fibroblasts from

  1. Hierarchical complexity and the size limits of life.

    PubMed

    Heim, Noel A; Payne, Jonathan L; Finnegan, Seth; Knope, Matthew L; Kowalewski, Michał; Lyons, S Kathleen; McShea, Daniel W; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M; Smith, Felisa A; Wang, Steve C

    2017-06-28

    Over the past 3.8 billion years, the maximum size of life has increased by approximately 18 orders of magnitude. Much of this increase is associated with two major evolutionary innovations: the evolution of eukaryotes from prokaryotic cells approximately 1.9 billion years ago (Ga), and multicellular life diversifying from unicellular ancestors approximately 0.6 Ga. However, the quantitative relationship between organismal size and structural complexity remains poorly documented. We assessed this relationship using a comprehensive dataset that includes organismal size and level of biological complexity for 11 172 extant genera. We find that the distributions of sizes within complexity levels are unimodal, whereas the aggregate distribution is multimodal. Moreover, both the mean size and the range of size occupied increases with each additional level of complexity. Increases in size range are non-symmetric: the maximum organismal size increases more than the minimum. The majority of the observed increase in organismal size over the history of life on the Earth is accounted for by two discrete jumps in complexity rather than evolutionary trends within levels of complexity. Our results provide quantitative support for an evolutionary expansion away from a minimal size constraint and suggest a fundamental rescaling of the constraints on minimal and maximal size as biological complexity increases. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Noise-induced hearing loss increases the temporal precision of complex envelope coding by auditory-nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kenneth S.; Kale, Sushrut; Heinz, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    While changes in cochlear frequency tuning are thought to play an important role in the perceptual difficulties of people with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), the possible role of temporal processing deficits remains less clear. Our knowledge of temporal envelope coding in the impaired cochlea is limited to two studies that examined auditory-nerve fiber responses to narrowband amplitude modulated stimuli. In the present study, we used Wiener-kernel analyses of auditory-nerve fiber responses to broadband Gaussian noise in anesthetized chinchillas to quantify changes in temporal envelope coding with noise-induced SNHL. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) and temporal windows of sensitivity to acoustic stimulation were computed from 2nd-order Wiener kernels and analyzed to estimate the temporal precision, amplitude, and latency of envelope coding. Noise overexposure was associated with slower (less negative) TMTF roll-off with increasing modulation frequency and reduced temporal window duration. The results show that at equal stimulus sensation level, SNHL increases the temporal precision of envelope coding by 20–30%. Furthermore, SNHL increased the amplitude of envelope coding by 50% in fibers with CFs from 1–2 kHz and decreased mean response latency by 0.4 ms. While a previous study of envelope coding demonstrated a similar increase in response amplitude, the present study is the first to show enhanced temporal precision. This new finding may relate to the use of a more complex stimulus with broad frequency bandwidth and a dynamic temporal envelope. Exaggerated neural coding of fast envelope modulations may contribute to perceptual difficulties in people with SNHL by acting as a distraction from more relevant acoustic cues, especially in fluctuating background noise. Finally, the results underscore the value of studying sensory systems with more natural, real-world stimuli. PMID:24596545

  3. Predicting overlapping protein complexes from weighted protein interaction graphs by gradually expanding dense neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Pegkas, Andreas; Likothanassis, Spiros; Mavroudi, Seferina

    2016-07-01

    Proteins are vital biological molecules driving many fundamental cellular processes. They rarely act alone, but form interacting groups called protein complexes. The study of protein complexes is a key goal in systems biology. Recently, large protein-protein interaction (PPI) datasets have been published and a plethora of computational methods that provide new ideas for the prediction of protein complexes have been implemented. However, most of the methods suffer from two major limitations: First, they do not account for proteins participating in multiple functions and second, they are unable to handle weighted PPI graphs. Moreover, the problem remains open as existing algorithms and tools are insufficient in terms of predictive metrics. In the present paper, we propose gradually expanding neighborhoods with adjustment (GENA), a new algorithm that gradually expands neighborhoods in a graph starting from highly informative "seed" nodes. GENA considers proteins as multifunctional molecules allowing them to participate in more than one protein complex. In addition, GENA accepts weighted PPI graphs by using a weighted evaluation function for each cluster. In experiments with datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human, GENA outperformed Markov clustering, restricted neighborhood search and clustering with overlapping neighborhood expansion, three state-of-the-art methods for computationally predicting protein complexes. Seven PPI networks and seven evaluation datasets were used in total. GENA outperformed existing methods in 16 out of 18 experiments achieving an average improvement of 5.5% when the maximum matching ratio metric was used. Our method was able to discover functionally homogeneous protein clusters and uncover important network modules in a Parkinson expression dataset. When used on the human networks, around 47% of the detected clusters were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms with depth higher than five in the GO hierarchy. In the present manuscript

  4. Accurate detection of hierarchical communities in complex networks based on nonlinear dynamical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Zhao; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    One of the most challenging problems in network science is to accurately detect communities at distinct hierarchical scales. Most existing methods are based on structural analysis and manipulation, which are NP-hard. We articulate an alternative, dynamical evolution-based approach to the problem. The basic principle is to computationally implement a nonlinear dynamical process on all nodes in the network with a general coupling scheme, creating a networked dynamical system. Under a proper system setting and with an adjustable control parameter, the community structure of the network would "come out" or emerge naturally from the dynamical evolution of the system. As the control parameter is systematically varied, the community hierarchies at different scales can be revealed. As a concrete example of this general principle, we exploit clustered synchronization as a dynamical mechanism through which the hierarchical community structure can be uncovered. In particular, for quite arbitrary choices of the nonlinear nodal dynamics and coupling scheme, decreasing the coupling parameter from the global synchronization regime, in which the dynamical states of all nodes are perfectly synchronized, can lead to a weaker type of synchronization organized as clusters. We demonstrate the existence of optimal choices of the coupling parameter for which the synchronization clusters encode accurate information about the hierarchical community structure of the network. We test and validate our method using a standard class of benchmark modular networks with two distinct hierarchies of communities and a number of empirical networks arising from the real world. Our method is computationally extremely efficient, eliminating completely the NP-hard difficulty associated with previous methods. The basic principle of exploiting dynamical evolution to uncover hidden community organizations at different scales represents a "game-change" type of approach to addressing the problem of community

  5. Complex adaptive systems: concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Holden, Lela M

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to explicate the concept of complex adaptive systems through an analysis that provides a description, antecedents, consequences, and a model case from the nursing and health care literature. Life is more than atoms and molecules--it is patterns of organization. Complexity science is the latest generation of systems thinking that investigates patterns and has emerged from the exploration of the subatomic world and quantum physics. A key component of complexity science is the concept of complex adaptive systems, and active research is found in many disciplines--from biology to economics to health care. However, the research and literature related to these appealing topics have generated confusion. A thorough explication of complex adaptive systems is needed. A modified application of the methods recommended by Walker and Avant for concept analysis was used. A complex adaptive system is a collection of individual agents with freedom to act in ways that are not always totally predictable and whose actions are interconnected. Examples include a colony of termites, the financial market, and a surgical team. It is often referred to as chaos theory, but the two are not the same. Chaos theory is actually a subset of complexity science. Complexity science offers a powerful new approach--beyond merely looking at clinical processes and the skills of healthcare professionals. The use of complex adaptive systems as a framework is increasing for a wide range of scientific applications, including nursing and healthcare management research. When nursing and other healthcare managers focus on increasing connections, diversity, and interactions they increase information flow and promote creative adaptation referred to as self-organization. Complexity science builds on the rich tradition in nursing that views patients and nursing care from a systems perspective.

  6. Islands increase genetic subdivision and disrupt patterns of connectivity of intertidal snails in a complex archipelago.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael S; Black, Robert

    2006-12-01

    The view that marine species with planktonic dispersal have highly connected, demographically open populations is giving way to recognition that populations may often be largely self-recruiting, or demographically closed. This raises the question of what local conditions might favor isolation of populations. To test the importance of islands for local isolation in species with planktonic larvae, we examined allozyme variation among 35 populations of the intertidal snail Austrocochlea constricta in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, spanning 60 km. Heterogeneity of allozyme frequencies among populations was high, with average F(ST) of 0.237, indicating highly localized populations. Increased subdivision was associated with islands at different scales: between island groups, separated by deep water gaps, and between disconnected sets of islands within groups. At short distances, up to two km, subdivision increased fivefold between islands compared with that between populations on the same island. Along 11 km of continuous, sheltered shore, there was isolation by distance but among a linear series of islands over similar distance, there was greater subdivision at short distances but no association with distance. These patterns had been seen previously in the direct-developing snail Bembicium vittatum, but its finding in A. constricta confirms for a planktonic disperser the importance of this complex archipelago for both retention of locally produced larvae and disruption of patterns of connectivity. Taken together, these results indicate that islands can increase both the "open" and the "closed" components of recruitment and that applicable models of genetic connectivity depend substantially on local conditions.

  7. Increased Treatment Complexity for Major Depressive Disorder for Inpatients With Comorbid Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Hauke F; Godemann, Frank

    2017-05-01

    The study examined inpatient treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) when it is complicated by comorbid personality disorder. In this descriptive analysis of a large data sample from 2013 (German VIPP data set) of 58,913 cases from 75 hospitals, three groups were compared: patients with MDD, patients with MDD and a comorbid personality disorder, and patients with a main diagnosis of personality disorder. Compared with MDD patients, those with comorbid personality disorder had higher rates of recurrent depression and nearly twice as many readmissions within one year, despite longer mean length of stay. Records of patients with comorbidities more often indicated accounting codes for "complex diagnostic procedures," "crisis intervention," and "constant observation." Patients with comorbid disorders differed from patients with a main diagnosis of personality disorder in treatment indicator characteristics and distribution of personality disorder diagnoses. Personality disorder comorbidity made MDD treatment more complex, and recurrence of MDD episodes and hospital readmission occurred more often than if patients had a sole MDD diagnosis.

  8. Interactome Analyses of Mature γ-Secretase Complexes Reveal Distinct Molecular Environments of Presenilin (PS) Paralogs and Preferential Binding of Signal Peptide Peptidase to PS2*

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Amy Hye Won; Böhm, Christopher; Chen, Fusheng; Huo, Hairu; Ruan, Xueying; Ren, Carl He; Ho, Keith; Qamar, Seema; Mathews, Paul M.; Fraser, Paul E.; Mount, Howard T. J.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    γ-Secretase plays a pivotal role in the production of neurotoxic amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) in Alzheimer disease (AD) and consists of a heterotetrameric core complex that includes the aspartyl intramembrane protease presenilin (PS). The human genome codes for two presenilin paralogs. To understand the causes for distinct phenotypes of PS paralog-deficient mice and elucidate whether PS mutations associated with early-onset AD affect the molecular environment of mature γ-secretase complexes, quantitative interactome comparisons were undertaken. Brains of mice engineered to express wild-type or mutant PS1, or HEK293 cells stably expressing PS paralogs with N-terminal tandem-affinity purification tags served as biological source materials. The analyses revealed novel interactions of the γ-secretase core complex with a molecular machinery that targets and fuses synaptic vesicles to cellular membranes and with the H+-transporting lysosomal ATPase macrocomplex but uncovered no differences in the interactomes of wild-type and mutant PS1. The catenin/cadherin network was almost exclusively found associated with PS1. Another intramembrane protease, signal peptide peptidase, predominantly co-purified with PS2-containing γ-secretase complexes and was observed to influence Aβ production. PMID:23589300

  9. Complexity of the AdS soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures in the context of the AdS soliton, which is the holographic dual of the ground state of a field theory on a torus with antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions on one cycle. The complexity is a non-trivial function of the size of the circle with antiperiodic boundary conditions, which sets an IR scale in the dual geometry. We find qualitative differences between the calculations of complexity from spatial volume and action (CV and CA). In the CV calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is smaller than for periodic, and decreases monotonically with increasing IR scale. In the CA calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic, and initially increases with increasing IR scale, eventually decreasing to zero as the IR scale becomes of order the UV cutoff. We compare these results to a simple calculation for free fermions on a lattice, where we find the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic.

  10. Pressure increases, the formation of chromite seams, and the development of the ultramafic series in the Stillwater Complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipin, B.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that chromate seams in the Stillwater Complex formed in response to periodic increases in total pressure in the chamber. Total pressure increased because of the positive ??V of nucleation of CO2 bubbles in the melt and their subsequent rise through the magma chamber, during which the bubbles increased in volume by a factor of 4-6. By analogy with the pressure changes in the summit chambers of Kilauea and Krafla volcanoes, the maximum variation was 0.2-0.25 kbar, or 5-10% of the total pressure in the Stillwater chamber. An evaluation of the likelihood of fountaining and mixing of a new, primitive liquid that entered the chamber with the somewhat more evolved liquid already in the chamber is based upon calculations using observed and inferred velocities and flow rates of basaltic magmas moving through volcanic fissures. The calculations indicate that hot, dense magma would have oozed, rather than fountained into the chamber, and early mixing of the new and residual magmas that could have resulted in chromite crystallizing alone did not take place. -from Author

  11. Glucose adsorption to chitosan membranes increases proliferation of human chondrocyte via mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shun-Fu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Cheng, Chin-Chang; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Hsin-I

    2017-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is currently still an irreversible degenerative disease of the articular cartilage. Recent, dextrose (d-glucose) intraarticular injection prolotherapy for OA patients has been reported to benefit the chondrogenic stimulation of damaged cartilage. However, the detailed mechanism of glucose's effect on cartilage repair remains unclear. Chitosan, a naturally derived polysaccharide, has recently been investigated as a surgical or dental dressing to control breeding. Therefore, in this study, glucose was adsorbed to chitosan membranes (CTS-Glc), and the study aimed to investigate whether CTS-Glc complex membranes could regulate the proliferation of human OA chondrocytes and to explore the underlying mechanism. Human OA and SW1353 chondrocytes were used in this study. The experiments involving the transfection of cells used SW1353 chondrocytes. A specific inhibitor and siRNAs were used to investigate the mechanism underlying the CTS-Glc-regulated proliferation of human chondrocytes. We found that CTS-Glc significantly increased the proliferation of both human OA and SW1353 chondrocytes comparable to glucose- or chitosan-only stimulation. The role of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, including mTOR, raptor, and S6k proteins, has been demonstrated in the regulation of CTS-Glc-increased human chondrocyte proliferation. mTORC1 signaling increased the expression levels of maturated SREBP-1 and FASN and then induced the expressions of cell cycle regulators, that is, cyclin D, cyclin-dependent kinase-4 and -6 in human chondrocytes. This study elucidates the detailed mechanism behind the effect of CTS-Glc complex membranes in promoting chondrocyte proliferation and proposes a possible clinical application of the CTS-Glc complex in the dextrose intraarticular injection of OA prolotherapy in the future to attenuate the pain and discomfort of OA patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The KCNE2 K+ channel regulatory subunit: ubiquitous influence, complex pathobiology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Geoffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    The KCNE single-span transmembrane subunits are encoded by five-member gene families in the human and mouse genomes. Primarily recognized for co-assembling with and functionally regulating the voltage-gated potassium channels, the broad influence of KCNE subunits in mammalian physiology belies their small size. KCNE2 has been widely studied since we first discovered one of its roles in the heart and its association with inherited and acquired human Long QT syndrome. Since then, physiological analyses together with human and mouse genetics studies have uncovered a startling array of functions for KCNE2, in the heart, stomach, thyroid and choroid plexus. The other side of this coin is the variety of interconnected disease manifestations caused by KCNE2 disruption, involving both excitable cells such as cardiomyocytes, and non-excitable, polarized epithelia. Kcne2 deletion in mice has been particularly instrumental in illustrating the potential ramifications within a monogenic arrhythmia syndrome, with removal of one piece revealing the unexpected complexity of the puzzle. Here, we review current knowledge of the function and pathobiology of KCNE2. PMID:26123744

  13. Growing complex network of citations of scientific papers: Modeling and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golosovsky, Michael; Solomon, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We consider the network of citations of scientific papers and use a combination of the theoretical and experimental tools to uncover microscopic details of this network growth. Namely, we develop a stochastic model of citation dynamics based on the copying-redirection-triadic closure mechanism. In a complementary and coherent way, the model accounts both for statistics of references of scientific papers and for their citation dynamics. Originating in empirical measurements, the model is cast in such a way that it can be verified quantitatively in every aspect. Such validation is performed by measuring citation dynamics of physics papers. The measurements revealed nonlinear citation dynamics, the nonlinearity being intricately related to network topology. The nonlinearity has far-reaching consequences including nonstationary citation distributions, diverging citation trajectories of similar papers, runaways or "immortal papers" with infinite citation lifetime, etc. Thus nonlinearity in complex network growth is our most important finding. In a more specific context, our results can be a basis for quantitative probabilistic prediction of citation dynamics of individual papers and of the journal impact factor.

  14. Complex neural architecture in the diploblastic larva of Clava multicornis (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria).

    PubMed

    Piraino, Stefano; Zega, Giuliana; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Leone, Antonella; Dell'Anna, Alessandro; Pennati, Roberta; Carnevali, Daniela Candia; Schmid, Volker; Reichert, Heinrich

    2011-07-01

    The organization of the cnidarian nervous system has been widely documented in polyps and medusae, but little is known about the nervous system of planula larvae, which give rise to adult forms after settling and metamorphosis. We describe histological and cytological features of the nervous system in planulae of the hydrozoan Clava multicornis. These planulae do not swim freely in the water column but rather crawl on the substrate by means of directional, coordinated ciliary movement coupled to lateral muscular bending movements associated with positive phototaxis. Histological analysis shows pronounced anteroposterior regionalization of the planula's nervous system, with different neural cell types highly concentrated at the anterior pole. Transmission electron microscopy of planulae shows the nervous system to be unusually complex, with a large, orderly array of sensory cells at the anterior pole. In the anterior half of the planula, the basiectodermal plexus of neurites forms an extensive orthogonal network, whereas more posteriorly neurites extend longitudinally along the body axis. Additional levels of nervous system complexity are uncovered by neuropeptide-specific immunocytochemistry, which reveals distinct neural subsets having specific molecular phenotypes. Together these observations imply that the nervous system of the planula of Clava multicornis manifests a remarkable level of histological, cytological, and functional organization, the features of which may be reminiscent of those present in early bilaterian animals. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Managing Complex Problems in Rangeland Ecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Management of rangelands, and natural resources in general, has become increasingly complex. There is an atmosphere of increasing expectations for conservation efforts associated with a variety of issues from water quality to endangered species. We argue that many current issues are complex by their...

  16. Identification of Ccr4-Not Complex Components as Regulators of Transition from Partial to Genuine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamon, Masayoshi; Katano, Miyuki; Hiraki-Kamon, Keiko; Hishida, Tomoaki; Nakachi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Ueda, Atsushi; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Kato, Hidemasa

    2014-01-01

    Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors. However, substantial cell numbers subjected to iPSC induction stray from the main reprogramming route and are immortalized as partial iPSCs. These partial iPSCs can become genuine iPSCs by exposure to the ground state condition. However, such conversion is only possible for mouse partial iPSCs, and it is not applicable to human cells. Moreover, the molecular basis of this conversion is completely unknown. Therefore, we performed genome-wide screening with a piggyBac vector to identify genes involved in conversion from partial to genuine iPSCs. This screening led to identification of Cnot2, one of the core components of the Ccr4-Not complex. Subsequent analyses revealed that other core components, Cnot1 and Cnot3, also contributed to the conversion. Thus, our data have uncovered a novel role of core components of the Ccr4-Not complex as regulators of transition from partial to genuine iPSCs. PMID:24200330

  17. L(3)mbt and the LINT complex safeguard cellular identity in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Coux, Rémi-Xavier; Teixeira, Felipe Karam; Lehmann, Ruth

    2018-04-04

    Maintenance of cellular identity is essential for tissue development and homeostasis. At the molecular level, cell identity is determined by the coordinated activation and repression of defined sets of genes. The tumor suppressor L(3)mbt has been shown to secure cellular identity in Drosophila larval brains by repressing germline-specific genes. Here, we interrogate the temporal and spatial requirements for L(3)mbt in the Drosophila ovary, and show that it safeguards the integrity of both somatic and germline tissues. l(3)mbt mutant ovaries exhibit multiple developmental defects, which we find to be largely caused by the inappropriate expression of a single gene, nanos , a key regulator of germline fate, in the somatic ovarian cells. In the female germline, we find that L(3)mbt represses testis-specific and neuronal genes. At the molecular level, we show that L(3)mbt function in the ovary is mediated through its co-factor Lint-1 but independently of the dREAM complex. Together, our work uncovers a more complex role for L(3)mbt than previously understood and demonstrates that L(3)mbt secures tissue identity by preventing the simultaneous expression of original identity markers and tissue-specific misexpression signatures. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. The dark side of going abroad: How broad foreign experiences increase immoral behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jackson G; Quoidbach, Jordi; Gino, Francesca; Chakroff, Alek; Maddux, William W; Galinsky, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    Because of the unprecedented pace of globalization, foreign experiences are increasingly common and valued. Past research has focused on the benefits of foreign experiences, including enhanced creativity and reduced intergroup bias. In contrast, the present work uncovers a potential dark side of foreign experiences: increased immoral behavior. We propose that broad foreign experiences (i.e., experiences in multiple foreign countries) foster not only cognitive flexibility but also moral flexibility. Using multiple methods (longitudinal, correlational, and experimental), 8 studies (N > 2,200) establish that broad foreign experiences can lead to immoral behavior by increasing moral relativism-the belief that morality is relative rather than absolute. The relationship between broad foreign experiences and immoral behavior was robust across a variety of cultural populations (anglophone, francophone), life stages (high school students, university students, MBA students, middle-aged adults), and 7 different measures of immorality. As individuals are exposed to diverse cultures, their moral compass may lose some of its precision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex.

    PubMed

    Hale, M W; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Poulsen, B; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2008-08-26

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to the open-field arena activates an anxiety-related neuronal system with convergent input to the

  20. Uncovering Ultrastructural Defences in Daphnia magna – An Interdisciplinary Approach to Assess the Predator-Induced Fortification of the Carapace

    PubMed Central

    Rabus, Max; Söllradl, Thomas; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Laforsch, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The development of structural defences, such as the fortification of shells or exoskeletons, is a widespread strategy to reduce predator attack efficiency. In unpredictable environments these defences may be more pronounced in the presence of a predator. The cladoceran Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera) has been shown to develop a bulky morphotype as an effective inducible morphological defence against the predatory tadpole shrimp Triopscancriformis (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Notostraca). Mediated by kairomones, the daphnids express an increased body length, width and an elongated tail spine. Here we examined whether these large scale morphological defences are accompanied by additional ultrastructural defences, i.e. a fortification of the exoskeleton. We employed atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanoindentation experiments to assess the cuticle hardness along with tapping mode AFM imaging to visualise the surface morphology for predator exposed and non-predator exposed daphnids. We used semi-thin sections of the carapace to measure the cuticle thickness, and finally, we used fluorescence microscopy to analyse the diameter of the pillars connecting the two carapace layers. We found that D . magna indeed expresses ultrastructural defences against Triops predation. The cuticle in predator exposed individuals is approximately five times harder and two times thicker than in control daphnids. Moreover, the pillar diameter is significantly increased in predator exposed daphnids. These predator-cue induced changes in the carapace architecture should provide effective protection against being crushed by the predator’s mouthparts and may add to the protective effect of bulkiness. This study highlights the potential of interdisciplinary studies to uncover new and relevant aspects even in extensively studied fields of research. PMID:23776711

  1. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  2. Cryptic Speciation Patterns in Iranian Rock Lizards Uncovered by Integrative Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Flecks, Morris; Carretero, Miguel A.; Mozaffari, Omid; Böhme, Wolfgang; Harris, D. James; Freitas, Susana; Rödder, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    While traditionally species recognition has been based solely on morphological differences either typological or quantitative, several newly developed methods can be used for a more objective and integrative approach on species delimitation. This may be especially relevant when dealing with cryptic species or species complexes, where high overall resemblance between species is coupled with comparatively high morphological variation within populations. Rock lizards, genus Darevskia, are such an example, as many of its members offer few diagnostic morphological features. Herein, we use a combination of genetic, morphological and ecological criteria to delimit cryptic species within two species complexes, D. chlorogaster and D. defilippii, both distributed in northern Iran. Our analyses are based on molecular information from two nuclear and two mitochondrial genes, morphological data (15 morphometric, 16 meristic and four categorical characters) and eleven newly calculated spatial environmental predictors. The phylogeny inferred for Darevskia confirmed monophyly of each species complex, with each of them comprising several highly divergent clades, especially when compared to other congeners. We identified seven candidate species within each complex, of which three and four species were supported by Bayesian species delimitation within D. chlorogaster and D. defilippii, respectively. Trained with genetically determined clades, Ecological Niche Modeling provided additional support for these cryptic species. Especially those within the D. defilippii-complex exhibit well-differentiated niches. Due to overall morphological resemblance, in a first approach PCA with mixed variables only showed the separation between the two complexes. However, MANCOVA and subsequent Discriminant Analysis performed separately for both complexes allowed for distinction of the species when sample size was large enough, namely within the D. chlorogaster-complex. In conclusion, the results

  3. A developmental approach to complex PTSD: childhood and adult cumulative trauma as predictors of symptom complexity.

    PubMed

    Cloitre, Marylene; Stolbach, Bradley C; Herman, Judith L; van der Kolk, Bessel; Pynoos, Robert; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva

    2009-10-01

    Exposure to multiple traumas, particularly in childhood, has been proposed to result in a complex of symptoms that includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as a constrained, but variable group of symptoms that highlight self-regulatory disturbances. The relationship between accumulated exposure to different types of traumatic events and total number of different types of symptoms (symptom complexity) was assessed in an adult clinical sample (N = 582) and a child clinical sample (N = 152). Childhood cumulative trauma but not adulthood trauma predicted increasing symptom complexity in adults. Cumulative trauma predicted increasing symptom complexity in the child sample. Results suggest that Complex PTSD symptoms occur in both adult and child samples in a principled, rule-governed way and that childhood experiences significantly influenced adult symptoms. Copyright © 2009 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  4. Endoglucanase Peripheral Loops Facilitate Complexation of Glucan Chains on Cellulose via Adaptive Coupling to the Emergent Substrate Structures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lin, Yuchun; Beckham, Gregg T.; Himmel, Michael E.

    We examine how the catalytic domain of a glycoside hydrolase family 7 endoglucanase catalytic domain (Cel7B CD) facilitates complexation of cellulose chains from a crystal surface. With direct relevance to the science of biofuel production, this problem also represents a model system of biopolymer processing by proteins in Nature. Interactions of Cel7B CD with a cellulose microfibril along different paths of complexation are characterized by mapping the atomistic fluctuations recorded in free-energy simulations onto the parameters of a coarse-grain model. The resulting patterns of protein-biopolymer couplings also uncover the sequence signatures of the enzyme in peeling off glucan chains frommore » the microfibril substrate. We show that the semiopen active site of Cel7B CD exhibits similar barriers and free energies of complexation over two distinct routes; namely, scooping of a chain into the active-site cleft and threading from the chain end into the channel. On the other hand, the complexation energetics strongly depends on the surface packing of the targeted chain and the resulting interaction sites with the enzyme. A revealed principle is that Cel7B CD facilitates cellulose deconstruction via adaptive coupling to the emergent substrate. The flexible, peripheral segments of the protein outside of the active-site cleft are able to accommodate the varying features of cellulose along the simulated paths of complexation. The general strategy of linking physics-based molecular interactions to protein sequence could also be helpful in elucidating how other protein machines process biopolymers.« less

  5. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon – Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning. PMID:26396042

  6. Complex interactions between climate change and toxicants: evidence that temperature variability increases sensitivity to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects that global climate change will have significant impacts on environmental conditions including potential effects on sensitivity of organisms to environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to test the climate-induced toxicant sensitivity (CITS) hypothesis in which acclimation to altered climate parameters increases toxicant sensitivity. Adult Physa pomilia snails were acclimated to a near optimal 22 °C or a high-normal 28 °C for 28 days. After 28 days, snails from each temperature group were challenged with either low (150 μg/L) or high (300 μg/L) cadmium at each temperature (28 or 22 °C). In contrast to the CITS hypothesis, we found that acclimation temperature did not have a strong influence on cadmium sensitivity except at the high cadmium test concentration where snails acclimated to 28 °C were more cadmium tolerant. However, snails that experienced a switch in temperature for the cadmium challenge, regardless of the switch direction, were the most sensitive to cadmium. Within the snails that were switched between temperatures, snails acclimated at 28 °C and then exposed to high cadmium at 22 °C exhibited significantly greater mortality than those snails acclimated to 22 °C and then exposed to cadmium at 28 °C. Our results point to the importance of temperature variability in increasing toxicant sensitivity but also suggest a potentially complex cost of temperature acclimation. Broadly, the type of temporal stressor exposures we simulated may reduce overall plasticity in responses to stress ultimately rendering populations more vulnerable to adverse effects.

  7. Physical Complexity and Cognitive Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlicka, Peter

    Our intuition tells us that there is a general trend in the evolution of nature, a trend towards greater complexity. However, there are several definitions of complexity and hence it is difficult to argue for or against the validity of this intuition. Christoph Adami has recently introduced a novel measure called physical complexity that assigns low complexity to both ordered and random systems and high complexity to those in between. Physical complexity measures the amount of information that an organism stores in its genome about the environment in which it evolves. The theory of physical complexity predicts that evolution increases the amount of `knowledge' an organism accumulates about its niche. It might be fruitful to generalize Adami's concept of complexity to the entire evolution (including the evolution of man). Physical complexity fits nicely into the philosophical framework of cognitive biology which considers biological evolution as a progressing process of accumulation of knowledge (as a gradual increase of epistemic complexity). According to this paradigm, evolution is a cognitive `ratchet' that pushes the organisms unidirectionally towards higher complexity. Dynamic environment continually creates problems to be solved. To survive in the environment means to solve the problem, and the solution is an embodied knowledge. Cognitive biology (as well as the theory of physical complexity) uses the concepts of information and entropy and views the evolution from both the information-theoretical and thermodynamical perspective. Concerning humans as conscious beings, it seems necessary to postulate an emergence of a new kind of knowledge - a self-aware and self-referential knowledge. Appearence of selfreflection in evolution indicates that the human brain reached a new qualitative level in the epistemic complexity.

  8. Patient safety and technology-driven medication - A qualitative study on how graduate nursing students navigate through complex medication administration.

    PubMed

    Orbæk, Janne; Gaard, Mette; Fabricius, Pia; Lefevre, Rikke S; Møller, Tom

    2015-05-01

    The technology-driven medication process is complex, involving advanced technologies, patient participation and increased safety measures. Medication administration errors are frequently reported, with nurses implicated in 26-38% of in-hospital cases. This points to the need for new ways of educating nursing students in today's medication administration. To explore nursing students' experiences and competences with the technology-driven medication administration process. 16 pre-graduate nursing students were included in two focus group interviews which were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the systematic horizontal phenomenological-hermeneutic template methodology. The interviews uncovered that understanding the technologies; professionalism and patient safety are three crucial elements in the medication process. The students expressed positivity and confidence in using technology, but were fearful of committing serious medication errors. From the nursing students' perspective, experienced nurses deviate from existing guidelines, leaving them feeling isolated in practical learning situations. Having an unclear nursing role model for the technology-driven medication process, nursing students face difficulties in identifying and adopting best practices. The impact of using technology on the frequency, type and severity of medication errors; the technologies implications on nursing professionalism and the nurses ability to secure patient adherence to the medication process, still remains to be studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low Frequency Variants, Collapsed Based on Biological Knowledge, Uncover Complexity of Population Stratification in 1000 Genomes Project Data

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Carrie B.; Wallace, John R.; Wolfe, Daniel J.; Frase, Alex T.; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Weiss, Kenneth M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses investigating low frequency variants have the potential for explaining additional genetic heritability of many complex human traits. However, the natural frequencies of rare variation between human populations strongly confound genetic analyses. We have applied a novel collapsing method to identify biological features with low frequency variant burden differences in thirteen populations sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. Our flexible collapsing tool utilizes expert biological knowledge from multiple publicly available database sources to direct feature selection. Variants were collapsed according to genetically driven features, such as evolutionary conserved regions, regulatory regions genes, and pathways. We have conducted an extensive comparison of low frequency variant burden differences (MAF<0.03) between populations from 1000 Genomes Project Phase I data. We found that on average 26.87% of gene bins, 35.47% of intergenic bins, 42.85% of pathway bins, 14.86% of ORegAnno regulatory bins, and 5.97% of evolutionary conserved regions show statistically significant differences in low frequency variant burden across populations from the 1000 Genomes Project. The proportion of bins with significant differences in low frequency burden depends on the ancestral similarity of the two populations compared and types of features tested. Even closely related populations had notable differences in low frequency burden, but fewer differences than populations from different continents. Furthermore, conserved or functionally relevant regions had fewer significant differences in low frequency burden than regions under less evolutionary constraint. This degree of low frequency variant differentiation across diverse populations and feature elements highlights the critical importance of considering population stratification in the new era of DNA sequencing and low frequency variant genomic analyses. PMID:24385916

  10. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira

    2004-11-01

    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Hénon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  11. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

    Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

  12. Cryptic no more: soil macrofossils uncover Pleistocene forest microrefugia within a periglacial desert.

    PubMed

    de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Amasifuen Guerra, Carlos Alberto; Ducousso, Alexis; Petit, Rémy J

    2014-11-01

    Despite their critical importance for understanding the local effects of global climate change on biodiversity, glacial microrefugia are not well studied because they are difficult to detect by using classical palaeoecological or population genetics approaches. We used soil macrofossil charcoal analysis to uncover the presence of cryptic glacial refugia for European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and other tree species in the Landes de Gascogne (southwestern France). Using botanical identification and direct radiocarbon dating (140 (14) C-dates) of macrofossil charcoal extracted from mineral soils, we reconstructed the glacial and postglacial history of all extant beech stands in the region (n = 11). Soil charcoal macrofossils were found in all sites, allowing the identification of up to at least 14 distinct fire events per site. There was direct evidence of the presence of beech during the last glacial period at three sites. Beech was detected during Heinrich stadial-1, one of the coldest and driest intervals of the last glacial period in Western Europe. Together with previous results on the genetic structure of the species in the region, these findings suggest that beech persisted in situ in several microrefugia through full glacial and interglacial periods up to the present day. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Cytokeratin Isoforms Uncovers Association with Survival in Lung Adenocarcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Tarek G.; Chen, Guoan; Wang, Hong; Huang, Chiang-Ching; Prescott, Michael S.; Shedden, Kerby; Misek, David E.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Kardia, Sharon; Yee, John; Orringer, Mark B.; Hanash, Samir; Beer, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Cytokeratins (CK) are intermediate filaments whose expression is often altered in epithelial cancer. Systematic identification of lung adenocarcinoma proteins using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry has uncovered numerous CK isoforms. In this study, 93 lung adenocarcinomas (64 stage I and 29 stage III) and 10 uninvolved lung samples were quantitatively examined for protein expression. Fourteen of 21 isoforms of CK 7, 8, 18, and 19 occurred at significantly higher levels (P<.05) in tumors compared to uninvolved adjacent tissue. Specific isoforms of the four types of CK identified correlated with either clinical outcome or individual clinical-pathological parameters. All five of the CK7 isoforms associated with patient survival represented cleavage products. Two of five CK7 isoforms (nos. 2165 and 2091), one of eight CK8 isoforms (no. 439), and one of three CK19 isoforms (no. 1955) were associated with survival and significantly correlated to their mRNA levels, suggesting that transcription underlies overexpression of these CK isoforms. Our data indicate substantial heterogeneity among CK in lung adenocarcinomas resulting from posttranslational modifications, some of which correlated with patient survival and other clinical parameters. Therefore, specific isoforms of individual CK may have utility as diagnostic or predictive markers in lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:12192603

  14. Ethnomathematics study: uncovering units of length, area, and volume in Kampung Naga Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septianawati, T.; Turmudi; Puspita, E.

    2017-02-01

    During this time, mathematics is considered as something neutral and not associated with culture. It can be seen from mathematics learning in the school which adopt many of foreign mathematics learning are considered more advanced (western). In fact, Indonesia is a rich country in cultural diversity. In the cultural activities, there are mathematical ideas that were considered a important thing in the mathematics learning. A study that examines the idea or mathematical practices in a variety of cultural activities are known as ethnomathematics. In Indonesia, there are some ethnic maintain their ancestral traditions, one of them is Kampung Naga. Therefore, this study was conducted in Kampung Naga. This study aims to uncover units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society. This study used a qualitative approach and ethnography methods. In this research, data collection is done through the principles of ethnography such as observation, interviews, documentation, and field notes. The results of this study are units of length, area, and volume used by Kampung Naga society and its conversion into standard units. This research is expected to give information to the public that mathematics has a relationship with culture and become recommendation to mathematics curriculum in Indonesia.

  15. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; de Pous, Philip; Els, Johannes; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Wilms, Thomas; Al-Saadi, Saleh

    2017-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once again the importance of

  16. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Metallinou, Margarita; de Pous, Philip; Els, Johannes; Jayasinghe, Sithum; Péntek-Zakar, Erika; Wilms, Thomas; Al-Saadi, Saleh; Carranza, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once again the importance of

  17. A Low Protein Diet Increases the Hypoxic Tolerance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Vigne, Paul; Frelin, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Dietary restriction is well known to increase the life span of a variety of organisms from yeast to mammals, but the relationships between nutrition and the hypoxic tolerance have not yet been considered. Hypoxia is a major cause of cell death in myocardial infarction and stroke. Here we forced hypoxia-related death by exposing one-day-old male Drosophila to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) and analysed their survival. Chronic hypoxia reduced the average life span from 33.6 days to 6.3 days when flies were fed on a rich diet. A demographic analysis indicated that chronic hypoxia increased the slope of the mortality trajectory and not the short-term risk of death. Dietary restriction produced by food dilution, by yeast restriction, or by amino acid restriction partially reversed the deleterious action of hypoxia. It increased the life span of hypoxic flies up to seven days, which represented about 25% of the life time of an hypoxic fly. Maximum survival of hypoxic flies required only dietary sucrose, and it was insensitive to drugs such as rapamycin and resveratrol, which increase longevity of normoxic animals. The results thus uncover a new link between protein nutrition, nutrient signalling, and resistance to hypoxic stresses. PMID:17183686

  18. Adsorption and self-assembly of bio-organic molecules at model surfaces: A route towards increased complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Dominique; Pradier, Claire-Marie; Tielens, Frederik; Savio, Letizia

    2015-12-01

    attention will be drawn to the added value provided by the combination of several experimental surface science techniques and to the precious contribution of advanced complementary computational methods to resolve the details of systems of increased complexity. Finally, some hints on experiments performed in presence of water and then characterized in UHV and on the related theoretical work will be presented. This is a further step towards a better approximation of real biological systems. However, since the methods employed are often not typical of surface science, this topic is not developed in detail.

  19. Reduced ultraviolet light transmission increases insecticide longevity in protected culture raspberry production.

    PubMed

    Leach, Heather; Wise, John C; Isaacs, Rufus

    2017-12-01

    High tunnels are large protective structures used for season extension of many crops, including raspberries. These structures are often covered in plastic films to reduce and diffuse ultraviolet light transmission for pest and disease control, but this may also affect the photodegradation and efficacy of pesticides applied under these tunnels. We compared the residue levels of ten insecticides under three tunnel plastics with varying levels of UV transmission and open field conditions. Raspberry plants placed in research-scale tunnels were treated with insecticides and residues on fruit and foliage were monitored for one or two weeks in early 2015 and early and late 2016. Plastics that reduce UV transmission resulted in 50% greater residues of some insecticides compared to transparent plastics, and 60% compared to uncovered tunnels. This increased persistence of residues was evident within 1 day and remained consistently higher for up to 14 days. This pattern was demonstrated for multiple insecticides, including bifenthrin, esfenvalerate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and spinosad. In contrast, the insecticide malathion degraded rapidly regardless of the plastic treatment, indicating less sensitivity to photodegradation. Bioassays using insecticide-treated leaves that were under UV-blocking plastic revealed higher mortality of the invasive fruit pest, Drosophila suzukii, compared to leaves that were uncovered. This indicates that the activity of pesticides under high tunnels covered in UV-reducing plastics may be prolonged, allowing for fewer insecticide applications and longer intervals between sprays. This information can be used to help optimize pest control in protected culture berry production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J.; Rocha, Luis M.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  1. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J; Rocha, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  2. Non-FG mediated transport of the large pre-ribosomal subunit through the nuclear pore complex by the mRNA export factor Gle2

    PubMed Central

    Occhipinti, Laura; Chang, Yiming; Altvater, Martin; Menet, Anna M.; Kemmler, Stefan; Panse, Vikram G.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple export receptors passage bound pre-ribosomes through nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) by transiently interacting with the Phe-Gly (FG) meshwork of their transport channels. Here, we reveal how the non-FG interacting yeast mRNA export factor Gly-Leu-FG lethal 2 (Gle2) functions in the export of the large pre-ribosomal subunit (pre-60S). Structure-guided studies uncovered conserved platforms used by Gle2 to export pre-60S: an uncharacterized basic patch required to bind pre-60S, and a second surface that makes non-FG contacts with the nucleoporin Nup116. A basic patch mutant of Gle2 is able to function in mRNA export, but not pre-60S export. Thus, Gle2 provides a distinct interaction platform to transport pre-60S to the cytoplasm. Notably, Gle2’s interaction platforms become crucial for pre-60S export when FG-interacting receptors are either not recruited to pre-60S or are impaired. We propose that large complex cargos rely on non-FG as well as FG-interactions for their efficient translocation through the nuclear pore complex channel. PMID:23907389

  3. Evolution and the complexity of bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Serwer, Philip

    2007-03-13

    The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb) bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly biochemical complexity. Understanding their significance requires a definition of complexity that is more biochemically oriented than past empirically based definitions. Initially, I propose two biochemistry-oriented definitions of complexity: either decreased randomness or increased encoded information that does not serve immediate needs. Then, I make the assumption that these two definitions are equivalent. This assumption and recent data lead to the following four-part hypothesis that explains the presence of cellular gene homologs in long bacteriophage genomes and also provides a pathway for complexity increases in prokaryotic cells: (1) Prokaryotes underwent evolutionary increases in biochemical complexity after the eukaryote/prokaryote splits. (2) Some of the complexity increases occurred via multi-step, weak selection that was both protected from strong selection and accelerated by embedding evolving cellular genes in the genomes of bacteriophages and, presumably, also archaeal viruses (first tier selection). (3) The mechanisms for retaining cellular genes in viral genomes evolved under additional, longer-term selection that was stronger (second tier selection). (4) The second tier selection was based on increased access by prokaryotic cells to improved biochemical systems. This access was achieved when DNA transfer moved to prokaryotic cells both the more evolved genes and their more competitive and complex biochemical systems. I propose testing this hypothesis by controlled evolution in microbial communities to (1) determine the effects of deleting individual cellular gene homologs on the growth and evolution of long genome bacteriophages and hosts, (2) find the environmental conditions that select for the presence of cellular gene homologs, (3) determine

  4. Whey Peptide-Iron Complexes Increase the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions in Comparison to Iron Salts.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Silva, Maria Elisa; Barros Mariutti, Lilian Regina; Bragagnolo, Neura; Bertoldo-Pacheco, Maria Teresa; Netto, Flavia Maria

    2018-02-28

    Food fortification with iron may favor lipid oxidation in both food matrices and the human body. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of peptide-iron complexation on lipid oxidation catalyzed by iron, using oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions as a model system. The extent of lipid oxidation of emulsions containing iron salts (FeSO 4 or FeCl 2 ) or iron complexes (peptide-iron complexes or ferrous bisglycinate) was evaluated during 7 days, measured as primary (peroxide value) and secondary products (TBARS and volatile compounds). Both salts catalyzed lipid oxidation, leading to peroxide values 2.6- to 4.6-fold higher than the values found for the peptide-iron complexes. The addition of the peptide-iron complexes resulted in the formation of lower amounts of secondary volatiles of lipid oxidation (up to 78-fold) than those of iron salts, possibly due to the antioxidant activity of the peptides and their capacity to keep iron apart from the lipid phase, since the iron atom is coordinated and takes part in a stable structure. The peptide-iron complexes showed potential to reduce the undesirable sensory changes in food products and to decrease the side effects related to free iron and the lipid damage of cell membranes in the organism, due to the lower reactivity of iron in the complexed form.

  5. Increased gene dosage for β- and κ-casein in transgenic cattle improves milk composition through complex effects

    PubMed Central

    Laible, Götz; Smolenski, Grant; Wheeler, Thomas; Brophy, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    We have previously generated transgenic cattle with additional copies of bovine β- and κ casein genes. An initial characterisation of milk produced with a hormonally induced lactation from these transgenic cows showed an altered milk composition with elevated β-casein levels and twofold increased κ-casein content. Here we report the first in-depth characterisation of the composition of the enriched casein milk that was produced through a natural lactation. We have analyzed milk from the high expressing transgenic line TG3 for milk composition at early, peak, mid and late lactation. The introduction of additional β- and κ-casein genes resulted in the expected expression of the transgene derived proteins and an associated reduction in the size of the casein micelles. Expression of the transgenes was associated with complex changes in the expression levels of other milk proteins. Two other major milk components were affected, namely fat and micronutrients. In addition, the sialic acid content of the milk was increased. In contrast, the level of lactose remained unchanged. This novel milk with its substantially altered composition will provide insights into the regulatory processes synchronizing the synthesis and assembly of milk components, as well as production of potentially healthier milk with improved dairy processing characteristics. PMID:27876865

  6. Mathematics and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Foote, Richard

    2007-10-19

    Contemporary researchers strive to understand complex physical phenomena that involve many constituents, may be influenced by numerous forces, and may exhibit unexpected or emergent behavior. Often such "complex systems" are macroscopic manifestations of other systems that exhibit their own complex behavior and obey more elemental laws. This article proposes that areas of mathematics, even ones based on simple axiomatic foundations, have discernible layers, entirely unexpected "macroscopic" outcomes, and both mathematical and physical ramifications profoundly beyond their historical beginnings. In a larger sense, the study of mathematics itself, which is increasingly surpassing the capacity of researchers to verify "by hand," may be the ultimate complex system.

  7. Uncovering patterns of consumers' interest for beer: A case study with craft beers.

    PubMed

    Donadini, Gianluca; Porretta, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    To uncover patterns of consumer interest in craft beers, the authors explored the quality perception of craft beers in a panel of industrial mass-marketed beer drinkers (n=150) and examined the differences in interest for this beer segment between men and women. The authors adopted a conjoint rating experiment in which the respondents were given forty-nine beer profiles to evaluate and were asked to score the degree of interest in each profile on a 9-point scale. Each profile was described on eight attributes (type of brewery, brewing technology, characterizing raw materials, brewhouse equipment, location of the brewery, type of container, retail price, where to buy) varied at different levels. Results showed that Italian consumers placed greatest importance on type of container (30.49%) and on brewing technology (17.64%). Characterizing raw materials (13.44%) and type of brewery (12.64) rank 3 and 4 and were placed in the same band some way below brewing technology. Retail price (9.87%) and where to buy (8.73%) were of far less importance. The least importance of all was attached to brewhouse equipment (4.44%) and to location of the brewery (2.75%). As far as utility values are concerned, the factor level glass bottle+crown cap and the factor level microfiltration are the utilities that most increased the interest of consumers. They were followed by the factor level local grains, stainless steel keg and monastery. In contrast, the factor level PET Keg, aluminum can and large scale corporate brewery showed the greatest negative impact on interest. Men and women shared similar patterns of interest. However, men placed more importance than women on retail price, location of the brewery and where to buy. Women attached more importance than men on type of container, brewing technology and type of brewer. These findings are relevant to understanding consumers'behavior in the beer market and to translating consumer needs, wants and expectations into manufacturing

  8. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E.; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S.; Mortimer, Jenny C.; Brown, Steven P.; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-01-01

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. PMID:27277162

  9. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Nikolovski, Nino; Sorieul, Mathias; Vellosillo, Tamara; McFarlane, Heather E; Dupree, Ray; Kesten, Christopher; Schneider, René; Driemeier, Carlos; Lathe, Rahul; Lampugnani, Edwin; Yu, Xiaolan; Ivakov, Alexander; Doblin, Monika S; Mortimer, Jenny C; Brown, Steven P; Persson, Staffan; Dupree, Paul

    2016-06-09

    As the most abundant biopolymer on Earth, cellulose is a key structural component of the plant cell wall. Cellulose is produced at the plasma membrane by cellulose synthase (CesA) complexes (CSCs), which are assembled in the endomembrane system and trafficked to the plasma membrane. While several proteins that affect CesA activity have been identified, components that regulate CSC assembly and trafficking remain unknown. Here we show that STELLO1 and 2 are Golgi-localized proteins that can interact with CesAs and control cellulose quantity. In the absence of STELLO function, the spatial distribution within the Golgi, secretion and activity of the CSCs are impaired indicating a central role of the STELLO proteins in CSC assembly. Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus.

  10. Uncovering mass segregation with galaxy analogues in dark-matter simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Gandhali D.; Parker, Laura C.; Wadsley, James

    2016-10-01

    We investigate mass segregation in group and cluster environments by identifying galaxy analogues in high-resolution dark-matter simulations. Subhaloes identified by the Amiga's Halo Finder (AHF) and ROCKSTAR halo finders have similar mass functions, independent of resolution, but different radial distributions due to significantly different subhalo hierarchies. We propose a simple way to classify subhaloes as galaxy analogues. The radial distributions of galaxy analogues agree well at large halocentric radii for both AHF and ROCKSTAR but disagree near parent halo centres where the phase-space information used by ROCKSTAR is essential. We see clear mass segregation at small radii (within 0.5 rvir) with average galaxy analogue mass decreasing with radius. Beyond the virial radius, we find a mild trend where the average galaxy analogue mass increases with radius. These mass segregation trends are strongest in small groups and dominated by the segregation of low-mass analogues. The lack of mass segregation in massive galaxy analogues suggests that the observed trends are driven by the complex accretion histories of the parent haloes rather than dynamical friction.

  11. Clinical challenges of chronic wounds: searching for an optimal animal model to recapitulate their complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, Robert; Harding, Keith G.; Martin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The efficient healing of a skin wound is something that most of us take for granted but is essential for surviving day-to-day knocks and cuts, and is absolutely relied on clinically whenever a patient receives surgical intervention. However, the management of a chronic wound – defined as a barrier defect that has not healed in 3 months – has become a major therapeutic challenge throughout the Western world, and it is a problem that will only escalate with the increasing incidence of conditions that impede wound healing, such as diabetes, obesity and vascular disorders. Despite being clinically and molecularly heterogeneous, all chronic wounds are generally assigned to one of three major clinical categories: leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcers or pressure ulcers. Although we have gleaned much knowledge about the fundamental cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin healthy, acute wound healing from various animal models, we have learned much less about chronic wound repair pathology from these models. This might largely be because the animal models being used in this field of research have failed to recapitulate the clinical features of chronic wounds. In this Clinical Puzzle article, we discuss the clinical complexity of chronic wounds and describe the best currently available models for investigating chronic wound pathology. We also assess how such models could be optimised to become more useful tools for uncovering pathological mechanisms and potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:25359790

  12. Switch I-dependent allosteric signaling in a G-protein chaperone-B12 enzyme complex.

    PubMed

    Campanello, Gregory C; Lofgren, Michael; Yokom, Adam L; Southworth, Daniel R; Banerjee, Ruma

    2017-10-27

    G-proteins regulate various processes ranging from DNA replication and protein synthesis to cytoskeletal dynamics and cofactor assimilation and serve as models for uncovering strategies deployed for allosteric signal transduction. MeaB is a multifunctional G-protein chaperone, which gates loading of the active 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin cofactor onto methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM) and precludes loading of inactive cofactor forms. MeaB also safeguards MCM, which uses radical chemistry, against inactivation and rescues MCM inactivated during catalytic turnover by using the GTP-binding energy to offload inactive cofactor. The conserved switch I and II signaling motifs used by G-proteins are predicted to mediate allosteric regulation in response to nucleotide binding and hydrolysis in MeaB. Herein, we targeted conserved residues in the MeaB switch I motif to interrogate the function of this loop. Unexpectedly, the switch I mutations had only modest effects on GTP binding and on GTPase activity and did not perturb stability of the MCM-MeaB complex. However, these mutations disrupted multiple MeaB chaperone functions, including cofactor editing, loading, and offloading. Hence, although residues in the switch I motif are not essential for catalysis, they are important for allosteric regulation. Furthermore, single-particle EM analysis revealed, for the first time, the overall architecture of the MCM-MeaB complex, which exhibits a 2:1 stoichiometry. These EM studies also demonstrate that the complex exhibits considerable conformational flexibility. In conclusion, the switch I element does not significantly stabilize the MCM-MeaB complex or influence the affinity of MeaB for GTP but is required for transducing signals between MeaB and MCM. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. TDP-43 regulates the microprocessor complex activity during in vitro neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Valerio; Grossi, Elena; Laneve, Pietro; Morlando, Mariangela; Dini Modigliani, Stefano; Ballarino, Monica; Bozzoni, Irene; Caffarelli, Elisa

    2013-12-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43) is an RNA-binding protein implicated in RNA metabolism at several levels. Even if ubiquitously expressed, it is considered as a neuronal activity-responsive factor and a major signature for neurological pathologies, making the comprehension of its activity in the nervous system a very challenging issue. TDP-43 has also been described as an accessory component of the Drosha-DGCR8 (DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8) microprocessor complex, which is crucially involved in basal and tissue-specific RNA processing events. In the present study, we exploited in vitro neuronal differentiation systems to investigate the TDP-43 demand for the microprocessor function, focusing on both its canonical microRNA biosynthetic activity and its alternative role as a post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Our findings reveal a novel role for TDP-43 as an essential factor that controls the stability of Drosha protein during neuronal differentiation, thus globally affecting the production of microRNAs. We also demonstrate that TDP-43 is required for the Drosha-mediated regulation of Neurogenin 2, a master gene orchestrating neurogenesis, whereas post-transcriptional control of Dgcr8, another Drosha target, resulted to be TDP-43-independent. These results implicate a previously uncovered contribution of TDP-43 in regulating the abundance and the substrate specificity of the microprocessor complex and provide new insights into TDP-43 as a key player in neuronal differentiation.

  14. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Uncovering the Roles of Oxygen in Cr(III) Photoredox Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Robert F; Fatur, Steven M; Shepard, Samuel G; Stevenson, Susan M; Boston, David J; Ferreira, Eric M; Damrauer, Niels H; Rappé, Anthony K; Shores, Matthew P

    2016-04-27

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation aims to elucidate the necessary roles of oxygen in photoredox catalysis of radical cation based Diels-Alder cycloadditions mediated by the first-row transition metal complex [Cr(Ph2phen)3](3+), where Ph2phen = bathophenanthroline. We employ a diverse array of techniques, including catalysis screening, electrochemistry, time-resolved spectroscopy, and computational analyses of reaction thermodynamics. Our key finding is that oxygen acts as a renewable energy and electron shuttle following photoexcitation of the Cr(III) catalyst. First, oxygen quenches the excited Cr(3+)* complex; this energy transfer process protects the catalyst from decomposition while preserving a synthetically useful 13 μs excited state and produces singlet oxygen. Second, singlet oxygen returns the reduced catalyst to the Cr(III) ground state, forming superoxide. Third, the superoxide species reduces the Diels-Alder cycloadduct radical cation to the final product and reforms oxygen. We compare the results of these studies with those from cycloadditions mediated by related Ru(II)-containing complexes and find that the distinct reaction pathways are likely part of a unified mechanistic framework where the photophysical and photochemical properties of the catalyst species lead to oxygen-mediated photocatalysis for the Cr-containing complex but radical chain initiation for the Ru congener. These results provide insight into how oxygen can participate as a sustainable reagent in photocatalysis.

  16. Can Vocabulary Lessons Increase the Amount of Complex Syntax Produced by Head Start Teachers? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horne, Amanda Owen; Curran, Maura; Hall, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    In this pilot study, we examine the suitability of materials for a vocabulary intervention designed to influence the amount of complex syntax teachers use in at-risk preschool classrooms. Six Head Start classrooms were assigned to one of two vocabulary interventions: a condition using cognitive verbs, which are biased toward complex syntax (e.g.…

  17. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA)

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xinyi (Lisa); Yarnal, Careen M.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA’s contribution to coping research. PMID:24659826

  18. Does Leisure Time as a Stress Coping Resource Increase Affective Complexity? Applying the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA).

    PubMed

    Qian, Xinyi Lisa; Yarnal, Careen M; Almeida, David M

    2013-01-01

    Affective complexity, a manifestation of psychological well-being, refers to the relative independence between positive and negative affect (PA, NA). According to the Dynamic Model of Affect (DMA), stressful situations lead to highly inverse PA-NA relationship, reducing affective complexity. Meanwhile, positive events can sustain affective complexity by restoring PA-NA independence. Leisure, a type of positive events, has been identified as a coping resource. This study used the DMA to assess whether leisure time helps restore affective complexity on stressful days. We found that on days with more leisure time than usual, an individual experienced less negative PA-NA relationship after daily stressful events. The finding demonstrates the value of leisure time as a coping resource and the DMA's contribution to coping research.

  19. Ecological community integration increases with added trophic complexity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of functional biological organization at the level of multi-species communities has long been contested in ecology and evolutionary biology. I found that adding a trophic level to simulated ecological communities enhanced their ability to compete at the community level, increasing the likelihood of one community forcing all or most species in a second community to extinction. Community-level identity emerged within systems of interacting ecological networks, while competitive ability at the community level was enhanced by intense within-community selection pressure. These results suggest a reassessment of the nature of biological organization above the level of species, indicating that the drive toward biological integration, so prominent throughout the history of life, might extend to multi-species communities.

  20. The way to uncover community structure with core and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. F.; Han, S. K.; Wang, X. D.

    2018-07-01

    Communities are ubiquitous in nature and society. Individuals that share common properties often self-organize to form communities. Avoiding the shortages of computation complexity, pre-given information and unstable results in different run, in this paper, we propose a simple and efficient method to deepen our understanding of the emergence and diversity of communities in complex systems. By introducing the rational random selection, our method reveals the hidden deterministic and normal diverse community states of community structure. To demonstrate this method, we test it with real-world systems. The results show that our method could not only detect community structure with high sensitivity and reliability, but also provide instructional information about the hidden deterministic community world and the real normal diverse community world by giving out the core-community, the real-community, the tide and the diversity. Thizs is of paramount importance in understanding, predicting, and controlling a variety of collective behaviors in complex systems.

  1. Uncovering low dimensional macroscopic chaotic dynamics of large finite size complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward

    2017-08-01

    In the last decade, it has been shown that a large class of phase oscillator models admit low dimensional descriptions for the macroscopic system dynamics in the limit of an infinite number N of oscillators. The question of whether the macroscopic dynamics of other similar systems also have a low dimensional description in the infinite N limit has, however, remained elusive. In this paper, we show how techniques originally designed to analyze noisy experimental chaotic time series can be used to identify effective low dimensional macroscopic descriptions from simulations with a finite number of elements. We illustrate and verify the effectiveness of our approach by applying it to the dynamics of an ensemble of globally coupled Landau-Stuart oscillators for which we demonstrate low dimensional macroscopic chaotic behavior with an effective 4-dimensional description. By using this description, we show that one can calculate dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimensions. One could also use the reconstruction to generate short-term predictions of the macroscopic dynamics.

  2. Genetic lineage labeling in zebrafish uncovers novel neural crest contributions to the head, including gill pillar cells.

    PubMed

    Mongera, Alessandro; Singh, Ajeet P; Levesque, Mitchell P; Chen, Yi-Yen; Konstantinidis, Peter; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2013-02-01

    At the protochordate-vertebrate transition, a new predatory lifestyle and increased body size coincided with the appearance of a true head. Characteristic innovations of this head are a skull protecting and accommodating a centralized nervous system, a jaw for prey capture and gills as respiratory organs. The neural crest (NC) is a major ontogenetic source for the 'new head' of vertebrates and its contribution to the cranial skeleton has been intensively studied in different model organisms. However, the role of NC in the expansion of the respiratory surface of the gills has been neglected. Here, we use genetic lineage labeling to address the contribution of NC to specific head structures, in particular to the gills of adult zebrafish. We generated a sox10:ER(T2)-Cre line and labeled NC cells by inducing Cre/loxP recombination with tamoxifen at embryonic stages. In juvenile and adult fish, we identified numerous established NC derivatives and, in the cranium, we precisely defined the crest/mesoderm interface of the skull roof. We show the NC origin of the opercular bones and of multiple cell types contributing to the barbels, chemosensory organs located in the mouth region. In the gills, we observed labeled primary and secondary lamellae. Clonal analysis reveals that pillar cells, a craniate innovation that mechanically supports the filaments and forms gill-specific capillaries, have a NC origin. Our data point to a crucial role for the NC in enabling more efficient gas exchange, thus uncovering a novel, direct involvement of this embryonic tissue in the evolution of respiratory systems at the protochordate-vertebrate transition.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Mapping Uncovers Fw1, a Dominant Gene Conferring Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Strawberry.

    PubMed

    Pincot, Dominique D A; Poorten, Thomas J; Hardigan, Michael A; Harshman, Julia M; Acharya, Charlotte B; Cole, Glenn S; Gordon, Thomas R; Stueven, Michelle; Edger, Patrick P; Knapp, Steven J

    2018-05-04

    Fusarium wilt, a soil-borne disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae , threatens strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) production worldwide. The spread of the pathogen, coupled with disruptive changes in soil fumigation practices, have greatly increased disease pressure and the importance of developing resistant cultivars. While resistant and susceptible cultivars have been reported, a limited number of germplasm accessions have been analyzed, and contradictory conclusions have been reached in earlier studies to elucidate the underlying genetic basis of resistance. Here, we report the discovery of Fw1 , a dominant gene conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in strawberry. The Fw1 locus was uncovered in a genome-wide association study of 565 historically and commercially important strawberry accessions genotyped with 14,408 SNP markers. Fourteen SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with Fw1 physically mapped to a 2.3 Mb segment on chromosome 2 in a diploid F. vesca reference genome. Fw1 and 11 tightly linked GWAS-significant SNPs mapped to linkage group 2C in octoploid segregating populations. The most significant SNP explained 85% of the phenotypic variability and predicted resistance in 97% of the accessions tested-broad-sense heritability was 0.96. Several disease resistance and defense-related gene homologs, including a small cluster of genes encoding nucleotide-binding leucine-rich-repeat proteins, were identified in the 0.7 Mb genomic segment predicted to harbor Fw1 DNA variants and candidate genes identified in the present study should facilitate the development of high-throughput genotyping assays for accurately predicting Fusarium wilt phenotypes and applying marker-assisted selection. Copyright © 2018 Pincot et al.

  4. Mutants of the Paf1 Complex Alter Phenotypic Expression of the Yeast Prion [PSI+

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Lisa A.; Lin, Changyi A.; Tank, Elizabeth M.H.; Osman, Morwan M.; Simpson, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    The yeast [PSI+] prion is an epigenetic modifier of translation termination fidelity that causes nonsense suppression. The prion [PSI+] forms when the translation termination factor Sup35p adopts a self-propagating conformation. The presence of the [PSI+] prion modulates survivability in a variety of growth conditions. Nonsense suppression is essential for many [PSI+]-mediated phenotypes, but many do not appear to be due to read-through of a single stop codon, but instead are multigenic traits. We hypothesized that other global mechanisms act in concert with [PSI+] to influence [PSI+]-mediated phenotypes. We have identified one such global regulator, the Paf1 complex (Paf1C). Paf1C is conserved in eukaryotes and has been implicated in several aspects of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. Mutations in Ctr9p and other Paf1C components reduced [PSI+]-mediated nonsense suppression. The CTR9 deletion also alters nonsense suppression afforded by other genetic mutations but not always to the same extent as the effects on [PSI+]-mediated read-through. Our data suggest that the Paf1 complex influences mRNA translatability but not solely through changes in transcript stability or abundance. Finally, we demonstrate that the CTR9 deletion alters several [PSI+]-dependent phenotypes. This provides one example of how [PSI+] and genetic modifiers can interact to uncover and regulate phenotypic variability. PMID:19225160

  5. Predicting perceived visual complexity of abstract patterns using computational measures: The influence of mirror symmetry on complexity perception

    PubMed Central

    Leder, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Visual complexity is relevant for many areas ranging from improving usability of technical displays or websites up to understanding aesthetic experiences. Therefore, many attempts have been made to relate objective properties of images to perceived complexity in artworks and other images. It has been argued that visual complexity is a multidimensional construct mainly consisting of two dimensions: A quantitative dimension that increases complexity through number of elements, and a structural dimension representing order negatively related to complexity. The objective of this work is to study human perception of visual complexity utilizing two large independent sets of abstract patterns. A wide range of computational measures of complexity was calculated, further combined using linear models as well as machine learning (random forests), and compared with data from human evaluations. Our results confirm the adequacy of existing two-factor models of perceived visual complexity consisting of a quantitative and a structural factor (in our case mirror symmetry) for both of our stimulus sets. In addition, a non-linear transformation of mirror symmetry giving more influence to small deviations from symmetry greatly increased explained variance. Thus, we again demonstrate the multidimensional nature of human complexity perception and present comprehensive quantitative models of the visual complexity of abstract patterns, which might be useful for future experiments and applications. PMID:29099832

  6. Simplicity and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, James; Wiesner, Karoline

    2010-02-01

    Is anything ever simple? When confronted with a complicated system, scientists typically strive to identify underlying simplicity, which we articulate as natural laws and fundamental principles. This simplicity is what makes nature appear so organized. Atomic physics, for example, approached a solid theoretical foundation when Niels Bohr uncovered the organization of electronic energy levels, which only later were redescribed as quantum wavefunctions. Charles Darwin's revolutionary idea about the "origin" of species emerged by mapping how species are organized and discovering why they came to be that way. And James Watson and Francis Crick's interpretation of DNA diffraction spectra was a discovery of the structural organization of genetic information - it was neither about the molecule's disorder (thermodynamic entropy) nor about the statistical randomness of its base-pair sequences.

  7. The building blocks of economic complexity

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, César A.; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    For Adam Smith, wealth was related to the division of labor. As people and firms specialize in different activities, economic efficiency increases, suggesting that development is associated with an increase in the number of individual activities and with the complexity that emerges from the interactions between them. Here we develop a view of economic growth and development that gives a central role to the complexity of a country's economy by interpreting trade data as a bipartite network in which countries are connected to the products they export, and show that it is possible to quantify the complexity of a country's economy by characterizing the structure of this network. Furthermore, we show that the measures of complexity we derive are correlated with a country's level of income, and that deviations from this relationship are predictive of future growth. This suggests that countries tend to converge to the level of income dictated by the complexity of their productive structures, indicating that development efforts should focus on generating the conditions that would allow complexity to emerge to generate sustained growth and prosperity. PMID:19549871

  8. Understanding Activist Leadership Effort in the Movement Opposing Drinking and Driving

    PubMed Central

    Dorius, Cassandra R.; McCarthy, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Why do some social movement leaders work harder than others? And, how does gender affect the patterns we uncover? Utilizing historical case study evidence of local chapters in the emerging movement opposing drinking and driving we are able to develop and test theoretical expectations about predictors of weekly effort among MADD and RID leaders. Taken together, our model explains 45 percent of the variation in leadership effort. We find bureaucratic complexity and victim support activities are more powerful predictors of effort than are individual leader characteristics, although all are important. Further analysis reveals that gender almost wholly conditions the strong effect of bureaucratic complexity on leadership effort so that increasingly complex chapter structures are associated with substantial increases in work hours for women but not men. PMID:22993454

  9. The QTL GNP1 Encodes GA20ox1, Which Increases Grain Number and Yield by Increasing Cytokinin Activity in Rice Panicle Meristems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuan; Wang, Yun; Mi, Xue-Fei; Shan, Jun-Xiang; Li, Xin-Min; Xu, Jian-Long; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-10-01

    Cytokinins and gibberellins (GAs) play antagonistic roles in regulating reproductive meristem activity. Cytokinins have positive effects on meristem activity and maintenance. During inflorescence meristem development, cytokinin biosynthesis is activated via a KNOX-mediated pathway. Increased cytokinin activity leads to higher grain number, whereas GAs negatively affect meristem activity. The GA biosynthesis genes GA20oxs are negatively regulated by KNOX proteins. KNOX proteins function as modulators, balancing cytokinin and GA activity in the meristem. However, little is known about the crosstalk among cytokinin and GA regulators together with KNOX proteins and how KNOX-mediated dynamic balancing of hormonal activity functions. Through map-based cloning of QTLs, we cloned a GA biosynthesis gene, Grain Number per Panicle1 (GNP1), which encodes rice GA20ox1. The grain number and yield of NIL-GNP1TQ were significantly higher than those of isogenic control (Lemont). Sequence variations in its promoter region increased the levels of GNP1 transcripts, which were enriched in the apical regions of inflorescence meristems in NIL-GNP1TQ. We propose that cytokinin activity increased due to a KNOX-mediated transcriptional feedback loop resulting from the higher GNP1 transcript levels, in turn leading to increased expression of the GA catabolism genes GA2oxs and reduced GA1 and GA3 accumulation. This rebalancing process increased cytokinin activity, thereby increasing grain number and grain yield in rice. These findings uncover important, novel roles of GAs in rice florescence meristem development and provide new insights into the crosstalk between cytokinin and GA underlying development process.

  10. Emergency department utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia and diabetes: The consequences of increasing medical complexity

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Ruth S.; Druss, Benjamin G.; Zhang, Shun; Kim, Giyeon; Oderinde, Adesoji; Shoyinka, Sosunmolu; Rust, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective Individuals with both physical and mental health problems may have elevated levels of emergency department (ED) service utilization either for index conditions or for associated comorbidities. This study examines the use of ED services by Medicaid beneficiaries with comorbid diabetes and schizophrenia, a dyad with particularly high levels of clinical complexity. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis of claims data for Medicaid beneficiaries with both schizophrenia and diabetes from fourteen Southern states was compared with patients with diabetes only, schizophrenia only, and patients with any diagnosis other than schizophrenia and diabetes. Key outcome variables for individuals with comorbid schizophrenia and diabetes were ED visits for diabetes, mental health-related conditions, and other causes. Results Medicaid patients with comorbid diabetes and schizophrenia had an average number of 7.5 ED visits per year, compared to the sample Medicaid population with neither diabetes nor schizophrenia (1.9 ED visits per year), diabetes only (4.7 ED visits per year), and schizophrenia only (5.3 ED visits per year). Greater numbers of comorbidities (over and above diabetes and schizophrenia) were associated with substantial increases in diabetes-related, mental health-related and all-cause ED visits. Most ED visits in all patients, but especially in patients with more comorbidities, were for causes other than diabetes or mental health-related conditions. Conclusion Most ED utilization by individuals with diabetes and schizophrenia is for increasing numbers of comorbidities rather than the index conditions. Improving care in this population will require management of both index conditions as well as comorbid ones. PMID:24380780

  11. Between-year variation in population sex ratio increases with complexity of the breeding system in Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Kümmerli, Rolf; Keller, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    While adaptive adjustment of sex ratio in the function of colony kin structure and food availability commonly occurs in social Hymenoptera, long-term studies have revealed substantial unexplained between-year variation in sex ratio at the population level. In order to identify factors that contribute to increased between-year variation in population sex ratio, we conducted a comparative analysis across 47 Hymenoptera species differing in their breeding system. We found that between-year variation in population sex ratio steadily increased as one moved from solitary species, to primitively eusocial species, to single-queen eusocial species, to multiple-queen eusocial species. Specifically, between-year variation in population sex ratio was low (6.6% of total possible variation) in solitary species, which is consistent with the view that in solitary species, sex ratio can vary only in response to fluctuations in ecological factors such as food availability. In contrast, we found significantly higher (19.5%) between-year variation in population sex ratio in multiple-queen eusocial species, which supports the view that in these species, sex ratio can also fluctuate in response to temporal changes in social factors such as queen number and queen-worker control over sex ratio, as well as factors influencing caste determination. The simultaneous adjustment of sex ratio in response to temporal fluctuations in ecological and social factors seems to preclude the existence of a single sex ratio optimum. The absence of such an optimum may reflect an additional cost associated with the evolution of complex breeding systems in Hymenoptera societies.

  12. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today’s diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria. PMID:27776154

  13. Non-Conventional Yeast Strains Increase the Aroma Complexity of Bread.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Steensels, Jan; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is routinely used yeast in food fermentations because it combines several key traits, including fermentation efficiency and production of desirable flavors. However, the dominance of S. cerevisiae in industrial fermentations limits the diversity in the aroma profiles of the end products. Hence, there is a growing interest in non-conventional yeast strains that can help generate the diversity and complexity desired in today's diversified and consumer-driven markets. Here, we selected a set of non-conventional yeast strains to examine their potential for bread fermentation. Here, we tested ten non-conventional yeasts for bread fermentation, including two Saccharomyces species that are not currently used in bread making and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains. The results show that Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces bayanus combine satisfactory dough fermentation with an interesting flavor profile. Sensory analysis and HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis confirmed that these strains produce aroma profiles that are very different from that produced by a commercial bakery strain. Moreover, bread produced with these yeasts was preferred by a majority of a trained sensory panel. These results demonstrate the potential of T. delbrueckii and S. bayanus as alternative yeasts for bread dough leavening, and provide a general experimental framework for the evaluation of more yeasts and bacteria.

  14. Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-08-01

    The whole frame of interconnections in complex networks hinges on a specific set of structural nodes, much smaller than the total size, which, if activated, would cause the spread of information to the whole network, or, if immunized, would prevent the diffusion of a large scale epidemic. Localizing this optimal, that is, minimal, set of structural nodes, called influencers, is one of the most important problems in network science. Despite the vast use of heuristic strategies to identify influential spreaders, the problem remains unsolved. Here we map the problem onto optimal percolation in random networks to identify the minimal set of influencers, which arises by minimizing the energy of a many-body system, where the form of the interactions is fixed by the non-backtracking matrix of the network. Big data analyses reveal that the set of optimal influencers is much smaller than the one predicted by previous heuristic centralities. Remarkably, a large number of previously neglected weakly connected nodes emerges among the optimal influencers. These are topologically tagged as low-degree nodes surrounded by hierarchical coronas of hubs, and are uncovered only through the optimal collective interplay of all the influencers in the network. The present theoretical framework may hold a larger degree of universality, being applicable to other hard optimization problems exhibiting a continuous transition from a known phase.

  15. Influence maximization in complex networks through optimal percolation.

    PubMed

    Morone, Flaviano; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-08-06

    The whole frame of interconnections in complex networks hinges on a specific set of structural nodes, much smaller than the total size, which, if activated, would cause the spread of information to the whole network, or, if immunized, would prevent the diffusion of a large scale epidemic. Localizing this optimal, that is, minimal, set of structural nodes, called influencers, is one of the most important problems in network science. Despite the vast use of heuristic strategies to identify influential spreaders, the problem remains unsolved. Here we map the problem onto optimal percolation in random networks to identify the minimal set of influencers, which arises by minimizing the energy of a many-body system, where the form of the interactions is fixed by the non-backtracking matrix of the network. Big data analyses reveal that the set of optimal influencers is much smaller than the one predicted by previous heuristic centralities. Remarkably, a large number of previously neglected weakly connected nodes emerges among the optimal influencers. These are topologically tagged as low-degree nodes surrounded by hierarchical coronas of hubs, and are uncovered only through the optimal collective interplay of all the influencers in the network. The present theoretical framework may hold a larger degree of universality, being applicable to other hard optimization problems exhibiting a continuous transition from a known phase.

  16. Organizational Influences on Interdisciplinary Interactions during Research and Design of Large-Scale Complex Engineered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Seifert, Colleen M.; Papalambros, Panos Y.

    2012-01-01

    The design of large-scale complex engineered systems (LaCES) such as an aircraft is inherently interdisciplinary. Multiple engineering disciplines, drawing from a team of hundreds to thousands of engineers and scientists, are woven together throughout the research, development, and systems engineering processes to realize one system. Though research and development (R&D) is typically focused in single disciplines, the interdependencies involved in LaCES require interdisciplinary R&D efforts. This study investigates the interdisciplinary interactions that take place during the R&D and early conceptual design phases in the design of LaCES. Our theoretical framework is informed by both engineering practices and social science research on complex organizations. This paper provides preliminary perspective on some of the organizational influences on interdisciplinary interactions based on organization theory (specifically sensemaking), data from a survey of LaCES experts, and the authors experience in the research and design. The analysis reveals couplings between the engineered system and the organization that creates it. Survey respondents noted the importance of interdisciplinary interactions and their significant benefit to the engineered system, such as innovation and problem mitigation. Substantial obstacles to interdisciplinarity are uncovered beyond engineering that include communication and organizational challenges. Addressing these challenges may ultimately foster greater efficiencies in the design and development of LaCES and improved system performance by assisting with the collective integration of interdependent knowledge bases early in the R&D effort. This research suggests that organiza