Sample records for universal signal conditioning

  1. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  2. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  3. Digital phonocardiographic experiments and signal processing in multidisciplinary fields of university education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Tamás; Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltán

    2017-09-01

    Modern measurement of physical signals is based on the use of sensors, electronic signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing carried out by dedicated software. The same signal chain is used in many devices such as home appliances, automotive electronics, medical instruments, and smartphones. Teaching the theoretical, experimental, and signal processing background must be an essential part of improving the standard of higher education, and it fits well to the increasingly multidisciplinary nature of physics and engineering too. In this paper, we show how digital phonocardiography can be used in university education as a universal, highly scalable, exciting, and inspiring laboratory practice and as a demonstration at various levels and complexity. We have developed open-source software templates in modern programming languages to support immediate use and to serve as a basis of further modifications using personal computers, tablets, and smartphones.

  4. Principles of signal conditioning.

    PubMed

    Finkel, A; Bookman, R

    2001-05-01

    It is rare for biological, physiological, chemical, electrical, or physical signals to be measured in the appropriate format for recording and interpretation. Usually, a signal must be conditioned to optimize it for both of these functions. This overview describes the fundamentals of signal filtering, how to prepare signals for A/D conversion, signal averaging to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, line frequency pickup (hum), peak-to-peak and rms noise measurements, blanking, audio monitoring, testing of electrodes and the common-mode rejection ratio.

  5. Current loop signal conditioning: Practical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of practical application circuits based on the current loop signal conditioning paradigm. Equations defining the circuit response are also provided. The constant current loop is a fundamental signal conditioning circuit concept that can be implemented in a variety of configurations for resistance-based transducers, such as strain gages and resistance temperature detectors. The circuit features signal conditioning outputs which are unaffected by extremely large variations in lead wire resistance, direct current frequency response, and inherent linearity with respect to resistance change. Sensitivity of this circuit is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Electrical output is zero for resistance change equals zero. The same excitation and output sense wires can serve multiple transducers. More application arrangements are possible with constant current loop signal conditioning than with the Wheatstone bridge.

  6. Thermocouple-Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Thermocouple-signal-conditioning circuit acting in conjunction with thermocouple, exhibits electrical behavior of voltage in series with resistance. Combination part of input bridge circuit of controller. Circuit configured for either of two specific applications by selection of alternative resistances and supply voltages. Includes alarm circuit detecting open circuit in thermocouple and provides off-scale output to signal malfunctions.

  7. Practical applications of current loop signal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes a variety of practical application circuits based on the current loop signal conditioning paradigm. Equations defining the circuit response are also provided. The constant current loop is a fundamental signal conditioning circuit concept that can be implemented in a variety of configurations for resistance-based transducers, such as strain gages and resistance temperature devices. The circuit features signal conditioning outputs which are unaffected by extremely large variations in lead wire resistance, direct current frequency response, and inherent linearity with respect to resistance change. Sensitivity of this circuit is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Electrical output is zero for resistance change equals zero. The same excitation and output sense wires can serve multiple transducers. More application arrangements are possible with constant current loop signal conditioning than with the Wheatstone bridge.

  8. a Universal De-Noising Algorithm for Ground-Based LIDAR Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Xiang, Chengzhi; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based lidar, working as an effective remote sensing tool, plays an irreplaceable role in the study of atmosphere, since it has the ability to provide the atmospheric vertical profile. However, the appearance of noise in a lidar signal is unavoidable, which leads to difficulties and complexities when searching for more information. Every de-noising method has its own characteristic but with a certain limitation, since the lidar signal will vary with the atmosphere changes. In this paper, a universal de-noising algorithm is proposed to enhance the SNR of a ground-based lidar signal, which is based on signal segmentation and reconstruction. The signal segmentation serving as the keystone of the algorithm, segments the lidar signal into three different parts, which are processed by different de-noising method according to their own characteristics. The signal reconstruction is a relatively simple procedure that is to splice the signal sections end to end. Finally, a series of simulation signal tests and real dual field-of-view lidar signal shows the feasibility of the universal de-noising algorithm.

  9. Analog Signal Correlating Using an Analog-Based Signal Conditioning Front End

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman; Krasowski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This innovation is capable of correlating two analog signals by using an analog-based signal conditioning front end to hard-limit the analog signals through adaptive thresholding into a binary bit stream, then performing the correlation using a Hamming "similarity" calculator function embedded in a one-bit digital correlator (OBDC). By converting the analog signal into a bit stream, the calculation of the correlation function is simplified, and less hardware resources are needed. This binary representation allows the hardware to move from a DSP where instructions are performed serially, into digital logic where calculations can be performed in parallel, greatly speeding up calculations.

  10. The relationship between signal quality and physical condition: is sexual signalling honest in the three-spined stickleback?

    PubMed

    Candolin

    1999-12-01

    Honest sexual signalling requires that the level of advertisement reveals mate quality. In the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, females base their mate choice mainly on the intensity of the males' red breeding coloration. Different results have, however, been obtained on the relationship between red breeding coloration and physical condition. In this study, the relationship was curvilinear in a natural population, with males in good and poor condition (measured as lipid content) having larger red areas than males of intermediate condition. By manipulating food intake and thus male condition prior to breeding, I further show that poor condition can induce an increase in signalling effort. This effect was further strengthened when the predation cost of signalling was increased by exposing the males to predators. This suggests that the reason for the high signalling effort of males in poor condition is their low probability of future reproduction and thus lower cost of signalling in terms of loss of future reproductive opportunities. Males in poor condition signal as a terminal effort and take larger risks and invest more in current reproduction than males in good condition. Finally, I discuss whether an effect of decreasing residual reproductive value on signalling effort could result in the breakdown of the honesty of the signal. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Marc-Antoine; Landry, René

    2016-05-02

    This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection.

  12. Implementation Strategies for a Universal Acquisition and Tracking Channel Applied to Real GNSS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marc-Antoine; Landry, René

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a universal GNSS receiver channel capable of tracking any civil GNSS signal. This fundamentally differs from dedicated channels, each customized for a given signal. A mobile device could integrate fewer universal channels to harvest all available signals. This would allow securing signal availability, while minimizing power consumption and chip size, thus maximizing battery lifetime. In fact, the universal channel allows sequential acquisition and tracking of any chipping rate, carrier frequency, FDMA channel, modulation, or constellation, and is totally configurable (any integration time, any discriminator, etc.). It can switch from one signal to another in 1.07 ms, making it possible for the receiver to rapidly adapt to its sensed environment. All this would consume 3.5 mW/channel in an ASIC implementation, i.e., with a slight overhead compared to the original GPS L1 C/A dedicated channel from which it was derived. After extensive surveys on GNSS signals and tracking channels, this paper details the implementation strategies that led to the proposed universal channel architecture. Validation is achieved using GNSS signals issued from different constellations, frequency bands, modulations and spreading code schemes. A discussion on acquisition approaches and conclusive remarks follow, which open up a new signal selection challenge, rather than satellite selection. PMID:27144569

  13. Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may be adjusted as necessary.

  14. EEG Oscillatory States: Universality, Uniqueness and Specificity across Healthy-Normal, Altered and Pathological Brain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time the dynamic repertoires and oscillatory types of local EEG states in 13 diverse conditions (examined over 9 studies) that covered healthy-normal, altered and pathological brain states were quantified within the same methodological and conceptual framework. EEG oscillatory states were assessed by the probability-classification analysis of short-term EEG spectral patterns. The results demonstrated that brain activity consists of a limited repertoire of local EEG states in any of the examined conditions. The size of the state repertoires was associated with changes in cognition and vigilance or neuropsychopathologic conditions. Additionally universal, optional and unique EEG states across 13 diverse conditions were observed. It was demonstrated also that EEG oscillations which constituted EEG states were characteristic for different groups of conditions in accordance to oscillations’ functional significance. The results suggested that (a) there is a limit in the number of local states available to the cortex and many ways in which these local states can rearrange themselves and still produce the same global state and (b) EEG individuality is determined by varying proportions of universal, optional and unique oscillatory states. The results enriched our understanding about dynamic microstructure of EEG-signal. PMID:24505292

  15. Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

    2003-01-01

    Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power, a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system

  16. Mesolimbic leptin signaling negatively regulates cocaine-conditioned reward.

    PubMed

    Shen, M; Jiang, C; Liu, P; Wang, F; Ma, L

    2016-12-06

    The regulatory mechanisms underlying the response to addictive drugs are complex, and increasing evidence indicates that there is a role for appetite-regulating pathways in substance abuse. Leptin, an important adipose hormone that regulates energy balance and appetite, exerts its physiological functions via leptin receptors. However, the role of leptin signaling in regulating the response to cocaine remains unclear. Here we examined the potential role of leptin signaling in cocaine reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure. Our results showed that inhibition of leptin signaling by intracerebroventricular infusion of the leptin receptor (LepR) antagonist SMLA during cocaine conditioning increased the cocaine-CPP and upregulated the level of dopamine and its metabolites in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). We then selectively knocked down the LepR in the mesolimbic ventral tegmental area (VTA), NAc core and central amygdala (CeA) by injecting AAV-Cre into Lepr flox/flox mice. LepR deletion in the VTA increased the dopamine levels in the NAc and enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward. LepR deletion in the NAc core enhanced the cocaine-conditioned reward and impaired the effect of the D2-dopamine receptor on cocaine-CPP, whereas LepR deletion in the CeA had no effect on cocaine-CPP but increased the anxiety level of mice. In addition, prior exposure to saccharin increased LepR mRNA and STAT3 phosphorylation in the NAc and VTA and impaired cocaine-CPP. These results indicate that leptin signaling is critically involved in cocaine-conditioned reward and the regulation of drug reward by a natural reward and that these effects are dependent on mesolimbic LepR.

  17. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  18. Signal conditioning units for vibration measurement in HUMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaizhi; Liu, Tingting; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan; Huang, Xinjie

    2018-03-01

    A signal conditioning units for vibration measurement in HUMS is proposed in the paper. Due to the frequency of vibrations caused by components in helicopter are different, two steps amplifier and programmable anti-aliasing filter are designed to meet the measurement of different types of helicopter. Vibration signals are converted into measurable electrical signals combing with ICP driver firstly. Then pre-amplifier and programmable gain amplifier is applied to magnify the weak electrical signals. In addition, programmable anti-aliasing filter is utilized to filter the interference of noise. The units were tested using function signal generator and oscilloscope. The experimental results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in quantitatively and qualitatively. The method presented in this paper can meet the measurement requirement for different types of helicopter.

  19. A basic study on universal design of auditory signals in automobiles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Katsuya; Choi, Jong-dae; Maiguma, Ryo; Takada, Masayuki; Iwamiya, Shin-ichiro

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the impression of various kinds of auditory signals currently used in automobiles and a comprehensive evaluation were measured by a semantic differential method. The desirable acoustic characteristic was examined for each type of auditory signal. Sharp sounds with dominant high-frequency components were not suitable for auditory signals in automobiles. This trend is expedient for the aged whose auditory sensitivity in the high frequency region is lower. When intermittent sounds were used, a longer OFF time was suitable. Generally, "dull (not sharp)" and "calm" sounds were appropriate for auditory signals. Furthermore, the comparison between the frequency spectrum of interior noise in automobiles and that of suitable sounds for various auditory signals indicates that the suitable sounds are not easily masked. The suitable auditory signals for various purposes is a good solution from the viewpoint of universal design.

  20. Interpopulational Variations in Sexual Chemical Signals of Iberian Wall Lizards May Allow Maximizing Signal Efficiency under Different Climatic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Ortega, Jesús; López, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Sexual signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve to maximize efficacy under a given climatic condition. Thus, chemical secretions of lizards might evolve in the evolutionary time to ensure that signals are perfectly tuned to local humidity and temperature conditions affecting their volatility and therefore their persistence and transmission through the environment. We tested experimentally whether interpopulational altitudinal differences in chemical composition of femoral gland secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanicus) have evolved to maximize efficacy of chemical signals in different environmental conditions. Chemical analyses first showed that the characteristics of chemical signals of male lizards differed between two populations inhabiting environments with different climatic conditions in spite of the fact that these two populations are closely related genetically. We also examined experimentally whether the temporal attenuation of the chemical stimuli depended on simulated climatic conditions. Thus, we used tongue-flick essays to test whether female lizards were able to detect male scent marks maintained under different conditions of temperature and humidity by chemosensory cues alone. Chemosensory tests showed that chemical signals of males had a lower efficacy (i.e. detectability and persistence) when temperature and dryness increase, but that these effects were more detrimental for signals of the highest elevation population, which occupies naturally colder and more humid environments. We suggest that the abiotic environment may cause a selective pressure on the form and expression of sexual chemical signals. Therefore, interpopulational differences in chemical profiles of femoral secretions of male P. hispanicus lizards may reflect adaptation to maximize the efficacy of the chemical signal in different climates.

  1. Interpopulational Variations in Sexual Chemical Signals of Iberian Wall Lizards May Allow Maximizing Signal Efficiency under Different Climatic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Sexual signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve to maximize efficacy under a given climatic condition. Thus, chemical secretions of lizards might evolve in the evolutionary time to ensure that signals are perfectly tuned to local humidity and temperature conditions affecting their volatility and therefore their persistence and transmission through the environment. We tested experimentally whether interpopulational altitudinal differences in chemical composition of femoral gland secretions of male Iberian wall lizards (Podarcis hispanicus) have evolved to maximize efficacy of chemical signals in different environmental conditions. Chemical analyses first showed that the characteristics of chemical signals of male lizards differed between two populations inhabiting environments with different climatic conditions in spite of the fact that these two populations are closely related genetically. We also examined experimentally whether the temporal attenuation of the chemical stimuli depended on simulated climatic conditions. Thus, we used tongue-flick essays to test whether female lizards were able to detect male scent marks maintained under different conditions of temperature and humidity by chemosensory cues alone. Chemosensory tests showed that chemical signals of males had a lower efficacy (i.e. detectability and persistence) when temperature and dryness increase, but that these effects were more detrimental for signals of the highest elevation population, which occupies naturally colder and more humid environments. We suggest that the abiotic environment may cause a selective pressure on the form and expression of sexual chemical signals. Therefore, interpopulational differences in chemical profiles of femoral secretions of male P. hispanicus lizards may reflect adaptation to maximize the efficacy of the chemical signal in different climates. PMID:26121693

  2. The constant current loop - A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations.

  3. The constant current loop - A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1993-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations.

  4. Self-Calibrating and Remote Programmable Signal Conditioning Amplifier System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Hallberg, Carl G. (Inventor); Simpson, Howard J., III (Inventor); Thayer, Stephen W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A self-calibrating, remote programmable signal conditioning amplifier system employs information read from a memory attached to a measurement transducer for automatic calibration. The signal conditioning amplifier is self-calibrated on a continuous basis through use of a dual input path arrangement, with each path containing a multiplexer and a programmable amplifier. A digital signal processor controls operation of the system such that a transducer signal is applied to one of the input paths, while one or more calibration signals are applied to the second input path. Once the second path is calibrated, the digital signal processor switches the transducer signal to the second path. and then calibrates the first path. This process is continually repeated so that each path is calibrated on an essentially continuous basis. Dual output paths are also employed which are calibrated in the same manner. The digital signal processor also allows the implementation of a variety of digital filters which are either programmed into the system or downloaded by an operator, and performs up to eighth order linearization.

  5. 57. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM LOCATED OVER CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE. SHOWN WITHIN THE BRICK PARTITIONS ARE SIGNAL VOLTAGE AUTOTRANSFORMERS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. Multisensor signal denoising based on matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform for mechanical fault condition assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Cancan; Lv, Yong; Xiao, Han; Huang, Tao; You, Guanghui

    2018-04-01

    Since it is difficult to obtain the accurate running status of mechanical equipment with only one sensor, multisensor measurement technology has attracted extensive attention. In the field of mechanical fault diagnosis and condition assessment based on vibration signal analysis, multisensor signal denoising has emerged as an important tool to improve the reliability of the measurement result. A reassignment technique termed the synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (SWT) has obvious superiority in slow time-varying signal representation and denoising for fault diagnosis applications. The SWT uses the time-frequency reassignment scheme, which can provide signal properties in 2D domains (time and frequency). However, when the measured signal contains strong noise components and fast varying instantaneous frequency, the performance of SWT-based analysis still depends on the accuracy of instantaneous frequency estimation. In this paper, a matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (MSWT) is investigated as a potential candidate to replace the conventional synchrosqueezing transform for the applications of denoising and fault feature extraction. The improved technology utilizes the comprehensive instantaneous frequency estimation by chirp rate estimation to achieve a highly concentrated time-frequency representation so that the signal resolution can be significantly improved. To exploit inter-channel dependencies, the multisensor denoising strategy is performed by using a modulated multivariate oscillation model to partition the time-frequency domain; then, the common characteristics of the multivariate data can be effectively identified. Furthermore, a modified universal threshold is utilized to remove noise components, while the signal components of interest can be retained. Thus, a novel MSWT-based multisensor signal denoising algorithm is proposed in this paper. The validity of this method is verified by numerical simulation, and experiments including a rolling

  7. Position Sensor with Integrated Signal-Conditioning Electronics on a Printed Wiring Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A position sensor, such as a rotary position sensor, includes the signal-conditioning electronics in the housing. The signal-conditioning electronics are disposed on a printed wiring board, which is assembled with another printed wiring board including the sensor windings to provide a sub-assembly. A mu-metal shield is interposed between the printed wiring boards to prevent magnetic interference. The sub-assembly is disposed in the sensor housing adjacent to an inductor board which turns on a shaft. The inductor board emanates an internally or externally generated excitation signal that induces a signal in the sensor windings. The induced signal represents the rotary position of the inductor board relative to the sensor winding board.

  8. Dynamic shaping of dopamine signals during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hart, Andrew S; Clark, Jeremy J; Phillips, Paul E M

    2015-01-01

    Cue- and reward-evoked phasic dopamine activity during Pavlovian and operant conditioning paradigms is well correlated with reward-prediction errors from formal reinforcement learning models, which feature teaching signals in the form of discrepancies between actual and expected reward outcomes. Additionally, in learning tasks where conditioned cues probabilistically predict rewards, dopamine neurons show sustained cue-evoked responses that are correlated with the variance of reward and are maximal to cues predicting rewards with a probability of 0.5. Therefore, it has been suggested that sustained dopamine activity after cue presentation encodes the uncertainty of impending reward delivery. In the current study we examined the acquisition and maintenance of these neural correlates using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats implanted with carbon fiber electrodes in the nucleus accumbens core during probabilistic Pavlovian conditioning. The advantage of this technique is that we can sample from the same animal and recording location throughout learning with single trial resolution. We report that dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens core contains correlates of both expected value and variance. A quantitative analysis of these signals throughout learning, and during the ongoing updating process after learning in probabilistic conditions, demonstrates that these correlates are dynamically encoded during these phases. Peak CS-evoked responses are correlated with expected value and predominate during early learning while a variance-correlated sustained CS signal develops during the post-asymptotic updating phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of an Intelligent Front-End Signal Conditioning Circuit for IR Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Arcas, G.; Ruiz, M.; Lopez, J. M.; Gutierrez, R.; Villamayor, V.; Gomez, L.; Montojo, Mª. T.

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent front-end signal conditioning system for IR sensors. The system has been developed as an interface between a PbSe IR sensor matrix and a TMS320C67x digital signal processor. The system architecture ensures its scalability so it can be used for sensors with different matrix sizes. It includes an integrator based signal conditioning circuit, a data acquisition converter block, and a FPGA based advanced control block that permits including high level image preprocessing routines such as faulty pixel detection and sensor calibration in the signal conditioning front-end. During the design phase virtual instrumentation technologies proved to be a very valuable tool for prototyping when choosing the best A/D converter type for the application. Development time was significantly reduced due to the use of this technology.

  10. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-06-18

    This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI) material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of -50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts), the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor's output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments.

  11. A High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor with an Integrated Signal-Conditioning Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and fabrication of a high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit, which consists of an encapsulated pressure-sensitive chip, a temperature compensation circuit and a signal-conditioning circuit. A silicon on insulation (SOI) material and a standard MEMS process are used in the pressure-sensitive chip fabrication, and high-temperature electronic components are adopted in the temperature-compensation and signal-conditioning circuits. The entire pressure sensor achieves a hermetic seal and can be operated long-term in the range of −50 °C to 220 °C. Unlike traditional pressure sensor output voltage ranges (in the dozens to hundreds of millivolts), the output voltage of this sensor is from 0 V to 5 V, which can significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio and measurement accuracy in practical applications of long-term transmission based on experimental verification. Furthermore, because this flexible sensor’s output voltage is adjustable, general follow-up pressure transmitter devices for voltage converters need not be used, which greatly reduces the cost of the test system. Thus, the proposed high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensor with an integrated signal-conditioning circuit is expected to be highly applicable to pressure measurements in harsh environments. PMID:27322288

  12. Signal Processing for Determining Water Height in Steam Pipes with Dynamic Surface Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lih, Shyh-Shiuh; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced signal processing method based on the filtered Hilbert envelope of the auto-correlation function of the wave signal has been developed to monitor the height of condensed water through the steel wall of steam pipes with dynamic surface conditions. The developed signal processing algorithm can also be used to estimate the thickness of the pipe to determine the cut-off frequency for the low pass filter frequency of the Hilbert Envelope. Testing and analysis results by using the developed technique for dynamic surface conditions are presented. A multiple array of transducers setup and methodology are proposed for both the pulse-echo and pitch-catch signals to monitor the fluctuation of the water height due to disturbance, water flow, and other anomaly conditions.

  13. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  14. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-02-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature detector are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variation in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  15. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1992-10-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable resistance sensors to remotely located signal conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variations in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  16. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    A practical, single, constant-current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers was synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) the dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variations in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation and sense wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  17. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature detector are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variation in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  18. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1993-01-01

    A practical, single, constant-current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers was synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) the dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variations in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation and sense wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  19. Person identification in irregular cardiac conditions using electrocardiogram signals.

    PubMed

    Sidek, Khairul Azami; Khalil, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a person identification mechanism in irregular cardiac conditions using ECG signals. A total of 30 subjects were used in the study from three different public ECG databases containing various abnormal heart conditions from the Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Predicition Challenge database (AFPDB), MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrthymia database (SVDB) and T-Wave Alternans Challenge database (TWADB). Cross correlation (CC) was used as the biometric matching algorithm with defined threshold values to evaluate the performance. In order to measure the efficiency of this simple yet effective matching algorithm, two biometric performance metrics were used which are false acceptance rate (FAR) and false reject rate (FRR). Our experimentation results suggest that ECG based biometric identification with irregular cardiac condition gives a higher recognition rate of different ECG signals when tested for three different abnormal cardiac databases yielding false acceptance rate (FAR) of 2%, 3% and 2% and false reject rate (FRR) of 1%, 2% and 0% for AFPDB, SVDB and TWADB respectively. These results also indicate the existence of salient biometric characteristics in the ECG morphology within the QRS complex that tends to differentiate individuals.

  20. EEG-based auditory attention decoding using unprocessed binaural signals in reverberant and noisy conditions?

    PubMed

    Aroudi, Ali; Doclo, Simon

    2017-07-01

    To decode auditory attention from single-trial EEG recordings in an acoustic scenario with two competing speakers, a least-squares method has been recently proposed. This method however requires the clean speech signals of both the attended and the unattended speaker to be available as reference signals. Since in practice only the binaural signals consisting of a reverberant mixture of both speakers and background noise are available, in this paper we explore the potential of using these (unprocessed) signals as reference signals for decoding auditory attention in different acoustic conditions (anechoic, reverberant, noisy, and reverberant-noisy). In addition, we investigate whether it is possible to use these signals instead of the clean attended speech signal for filter training. The experimental results show that using the unprocessed binaural signals for filter training and for decoding auditory attention is feasible with a relatively large decoding performance, although for most acoustic conditions the decoding performance is significantly lower than when using the clean speech signals.

  1. Acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression requires IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lebonville, Christina L; Jones, Meghan E; Hutson, Lee W; Cooper, Letty B; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

    2016-08-01

    Opioid users experience increased incidence of infection, which may be partially attributable to both direct opiate-immune interactions and conditioned immune responses. Previous studies have investigated the neural circuitry governing opioid conditioned immune responses, but work remains to elucidate the mechanisms mediating this effect. Our laboratory has previously shown that hippocampal IL-1 signaling, specifically, is required for the expression of heroin conditioned immunosuppression following learning. The current studies were designed to further characterize the role of hippocampal IL-1 in this phenomenon by manipulating IL-1 during learning. Experiment 1 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is also required for the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression, while Experiment 2 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is required for the expression of unconditioned heroin immunosuppression. We found that blocking IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus with IL-1RA during each conditioning session, but not on interspersed non-conditioning days, significantly attenuated the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression. Strikingly, we found that the same IL-1RA treatment did not alter unconditioned immunosuppression to a single dose of heroin. Thus, IL-1 signaling is not a critical component of the response to heroin but rather may play a role in the formation of the association between heroin and the context. Collectively, these studies suggest that IL-1 signaling, in addition to being involved in the expression of a heroin conditioned immune response, is also involved in the acquisition of this effect. Importantly, this effect is likely not due to blocking the response to the unconditioned stimulus since IL-1RA did not affect heroin's immunosuppressive effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acquisition of Heroin Conditioned Immunosuppression Requires IL-1 Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lebonville, Christina L.; Jones, Meghan E.; Hutson, Lee W.; Cooper, Letty B.; Lysle, Donald T.

    2016-01-01

    Opioid users experience increased incidence of infection, which may be partially attributable to both direct opiate-immune interactions and conditioned immune responses. Previous studies have investigated the neural circuitry governing opioid conditioned immune responses, but work remains to elucidate the mechanisms mediating this effect. Our laboratory has previously shown that hippocampal IL-1 signaling, specifically, is required for the expression of heroin conditioned immunosuppression following learning. The current studies were designed to further characterize the role of hippocampal IL-1 in this phenomenon by manipulating IL-1 during learning. Experiment 1 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is also required for the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression, while Experiment 2 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is required for the expression of unconditioned heroin immunosuppression. We found that blocking IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus with IL-1RA during each conditioning session, but not on interspersed non-conditioning days, significantly attenuated the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression. Strikingly, we found that the same IL-1RA treatment did not alter unconditioned immunosuppression to a single dose of heroin. Thus, IL-1 signaling is not a critical component of the response to heroin but rather may play a role in the formation of the association between heroin and the context. Collectively, these studies suggest that IL-1 signaling, in addition to being involved in the expression of a heroin conditioned immune response, is also involved in the acquisition of this effect. Importantly, this effect is likely not due to blocking the response to the unconditioned stimulus since IL-1RA did not affect heroin’s immunosuppressive effects. PMID:27072068

  3. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction.

    PubMed

    Keefer, Sara E; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2016-08-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  4. Orexin/hypocretin receptor 1 signaling mediates Pavlovian cue-food conditioning and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Keefer, Sara E.; Cole, Sindy; Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2016-01-01

    Learned food cues can drive feeding in the absence of hunger, and orexin/hypocretin signaling is necessary for this type of overeating. The current study examined whether orexin also mediates cue-food learning during the acquisition and extinction of these associations. In Experiment 1, rats underwent two sessions of Pavlovian appetitive conditioning, consisting of tone-food presentations. Prior to each session, rats received either the orexin 1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 (SB) or vehicle systemically. SB treatment did not affect conditioned responses during the first conditioning session, measured as food cup behavior during the tone and latency to approach the food cup after the tone onset, compared to the vehicle group. During the second conditioning session, SB treatment attenuated learning. All groups that received SB, prior to either the first or second conditioning session, displayed significantly less food cup behavior and had longer latencies to approach the food cup after tone onset compared to the vehicle group. These findings suggest orexin signaling at the 1 receptor mediates the consolidation and recall of cue-food acquisition. In Experiment 2, another group of rats underwent tone-food conditioning sessions (drug free), followed by two extinction sessions under either SB or vehicle treatment. Similar to Experiment 1, SB did not affect conditioned responses during the first session. During the second extinction session, the group that received SB prior to the first extinction session, but vehicle prior to the second, expressed conditioned food cup responses longer after tone offset, when the pellets were previously delivered during conditioning, and maintained shorter latencies to approach the food cup compared to the other groups. The persistence of these conditioned behaviors indicates impairment in extinction consolidation due to SB treatment during the first extinction session. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for orexin

  5. Signals of two universal extra dimensions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdman, G.; Éboli, O. J. P.; Spehler, D.

    2016-11-01

    Extensions of the standard model with universal extra dimensions are interesting both as phenomenological templates as well as model-building fertile ground. For instance, they are one of the prototypes for theories exhibiting compressed spectra, leading to difficult searches at the LHC since the decay products of new states are soft and immersed in a large standard model background. Here we study the phenomenology at the LHC of theories with two universal extra dimensions. We obtain the current bound by using the production of second level excitations of electroweak gauge bosons decaying to a pair of leptons and study the reach of the LHC Run II in this channel. We also introduce a new channel originating in higher dimensional operators and resulting in the single production of a second level quark excitation. Its subsequent decay into a hard jet and lepton pair resonance would allow the identification of a more model-specific process, unlike the more generic vector resonance signal. We show that the sensitivity of this channel to the compactification scale is very similar to the one obtained using the vector resonance.

  6. Eight-Channel Digital Signal Processor and Universal Trigger Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skulski, Wojtek; Wolfs, Frank

    2003-04-01

    A 10-bit, 8-channel, 40 megasamples per second digital signal processor and waveform digitizer DDC-8 (nicknamed Universal Trigger Module) is presented. The digitizer features 8 analog inputs, 1 analog output for a reconstructed analog waveform, 16 NIM logic inputs, 8 NIM logic outputs, and a pool of 16 TTL logic lines which can be individually configured as either inputs or outputs. The first application of this device is to enhance the present trigger electronics for PHOBOS at RHIC. The status of the development and the first results are presented. Possible applications of the new device are discussed. Supported by the NSF grant PHY-0072204.

  7. Influence of degradation conditions on dentin bonding durability of three universal adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sai, Keiichi; Shimamura, Yutaka; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Imai, Arisa; Endo, Hajime; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine dentin bonding durability of universal adhesives using shear bond strength (SBS) tests under various degradation conditions. G-Premio Bond (GP, GC), Scotchbond Universal (SU, 3M ESPE) and All Bond Universal (AB, Bisco) were compared with conventional two-step self-etch adhesive Clearfil SE Bond (SE, Kuraray Noritake Dental). Bonded specimens were divided into three groups of ten, and SBSs with bovine dentin were determined after the following treatments: 1) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24h followed by 3000, 10,000, 20,000 or 30,000 thermal cycles (TC group), 2) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 3 months, 6 months or 1year (water storage, WS group) and 3) Storage in distilled water at 37°C for 24h (control). SE bonded specimens showed significantly higher SBSs than universal adhesives, regardless of TC or storage periods, although AB specimens showed significantly increased SBSs after 30,000 thermal cycles. In comparisons of universal adhesives under control and degradation conditions, SBS was only reduced in SU after 1year of WS. Following exposure of various adhesive systems to degradation conditions of thermal cycling and long term storage, SBS values of adhesive systems varied primarily with degradation period. Although universal adhesives have lower SBSs than the two-step self-etch adhesive SE, the present data indicate that the dentin bonding durability of universal adhesives in self-etch mode is sufficient for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Signals, resistance to change, and conditioned reinforcement in a multiple schedule.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matthew C; Gomez, Belen E; Kessler, Kira

    2008-06-01

    The effect of signals on resistance to change was evaluated using pigeons responding on a three-component multiple schedule. Each component contained a variable-interval initial link followed by a fixed-time terminal link. One component was an unsignaled-delay schedule, and two were equivalent signaled-delay schedules. After baseline training, resistance to change was assessed through (a) extinction and (b) adding free food to the intercomponent interval. During these tests, the signal stimulus from one of the signaled-delay components (SIG-T) was replaced with the initial-link stimulus from that component, converting it to an unsignaled-delay schedule. That signal stimulus was added to the delay period of the unsignaled-delay component (UNS), converting it to a signaled-delay schedule. The remaining signaled component remained unchanged (SIG-C). Resistance-to-change tests showed removing the signal had a minimal effect on resistance to change in the SIG-T component compared to the unchanged SIG-C component except for one block during free-food testing. Adding the signal to the UNS component significantly increased response rates suggesting that component had low response strength. Interestingly, the direction of the effect was in the opposite direction from what is typically observed. Results are consistent with the conclusion that the signal functioned as a conditioned reinforcer and inconsistent with a generalization-decrement explanation.

  9. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  10. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Totani, Tomonori, E-mail: totani@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√− g ) = to metric variations δ g {sup μν}, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initialmore » conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ g {sup μν} to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.« less

  11. Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori

    2016-06-01

    Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√-g) = to metric variations δ gμν, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initial conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ gμν to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.

  12. Changes in Impact Signals and Muscle Activity in Response to Different Shoe and Landing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Zhang, Shen; Fu, Weijie

    2017-02-01

    Few rigorous scientific studies have investigated how the corresponding neuromuscular activity in the lower extremity occurs during different landing control movements in response to different impact signals. This study aimed to determine the potential shoe effects on impact signals, neuromuscular responses and their possible interactions in different human landing movements. Twelve male basketball players were required to wear high-cushioned basketball shoes (BS) and minimally cushioned control shoes (CC) to perform active drop jump landings (DJL) and passive landings (PL). Ground reaction forces and EMG amplitude (root mean square, EMGRMS) of the leg muscles within 50 ms before and after the landing movements were collected simultaneously. No shoe effect was found on the characteristics of impact signals and neuromuscular activity during the contact phase of DJL. By contrast, for PL, the values of maximal ground reaction force and the peak loading rate were evidently lower in the BS condition than in the CC condition (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the EMGRMS of all muscles demonstrated a significant decrease in the BS condition compared with the CC condition within 50 ms after contact (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that under the condition in which related muscles are activated improperly, a neuromuscular adaptation occurs in response to different impact signals.

  13. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain. The automatic cab signal system shall be arranged so that when a locomotive enters or is...

  14. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance. The...

  15. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive... within a block, wherein any condition described in § 236.205 obtains, the cab signals shall indicate...

  16. A new approach for improving reliability of personal navigation devices under harsh GNSS signal conditions.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Anup; Bancroft, Jared B; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-11-07

    In natural and urban canyon environments, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals suffer from various challenges such as signal multipath, limited or lack of signal availability and poor geometry. Inertial sensors are often employed to improve the solution continuity under poor GNSS signal quality and availability conditions. Various fault detection schemes have been proposed in the literature to detect and remove biased GNSS measurements to obtain a more reliable navigation solution. However, many of these methods are found to be sub-optimal and often lead to unavailability of reliability measures, mostly because of the improper characterization of the measurement errors. A robust filtering architecture is thus proposed which assumes a heavy-tailed distribution for the measurement errors. Moreover, the proposed filter is capable of adapting to the changing GNSS signal conditions such as when moving from open sky conditions to deep canyons. Results obtained by processing data collected in various GNSS challenged environments show that the proposed scheme provides a robust navigation solution without having to excessively reject usable measurements. The tests reported herein show improvements of nearly 15% and 80% for position accuracy and reliability, respectively, when applying the above approach.

  17. A New Approach for Improving Reliability of Personal Navigation Devices under Harsh GNSS Signal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dhital, Anup; Bancroft, Jared B.; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    In natural and urban canyon environments, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals suffer from various challenges such as signal multipath, limited or lack of signal availability and poor geometry. Inertial sensors are often employed to improve the solution continuity under poor GNSS signal quality and availability conditions. Various fault detection schemes have been proposed in the literature to detect and remove biased GNSS measurements to obtain a more reliable navigation solution. However, many of these methods are found to be sub-optimal and often lead to unavailability of reliability measures, mostly because of the improper characterization of the measurement errors. A robust filtering architecture is thus proposed which assumes a heavy-tailed distribution for the measurement errors. Moreover, the proposed filter is capable of adapting to the changing GNSS signal conditions such as when moving from open sky conditions to deep canyons. Results obtained by processing data collected in various GNSS challenged environments show that the proposed scheme provides a robust navigation solution without having to excessively reject usable measurements. The tests reported herein show improvements of nearly 15% and 80% for position accuracy and reliability, respectively, when applying the above approach. PMID:24212120

  18. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  19. Global navigation satellite system receiver for weak signals under all dynamic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziedan, Nesreen Ibrahim

    The ability of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver to work under weak signal and various dynamic conditions is required in some applications. For example, to provide a positioning capability in wireless devices, or orbit determination of Geostationary and high Earth orbit satellites. This dissertation develops Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver algorithms for such applications. Fifteen algorithms are developed for the GPS C/A signal. They cover all the receiver main functions, which include acquisition, fine acquisition, bit synchronization, code and carrier tracking, and navigation message decoding. They are integrated together, and they can be used in any software GPS receiver. They also can be modified to fit any other GPS or GNSS signals. The algorithms have new capabilities. The processing and memory requirements are considered in the design to allow the algorithms to fit the limited resources of some applications; they do not require any assisting information. Weak signals can be acquired in the presence of strong interfering signals and under high dynamic conditions. The fine acquisition, bit synchronization, and tracking algorithms are based on the Viterbi algorithm and Extended Kalman filter approaches. The tracking algorithms capabilities increase the time to lose lock. They have the ability to adaptively change the integration length and the code delay separation. More than one code delay separation can be used in the same time. Large tracking errors can be detected and then corrected by a re-initialization and an acquisition-like algorithms. Detecting the navigation message is needed to increase the coherent integration; decoding it is needed to calculate the navigation solution. The decoding algorithm utilizes the message structure to enable its decoding for signals with high Bit Error Rate. The algorithms are demonstrated using simulated GPS C/A code signals, and TCXO clocks. The results have shown the algorithms ability to

  20. Roles of Octopamine and Dopamine Neurons for Mediating Appetitive and Aversive Signals in Pavlovian Conditioning in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    Revealing neural systems that mediate appetite and aversive signals in associative learning is critical for understanding the brain mechanisms controlling adaptive behavior in animals. In mammals, it has been shown that some classes of dopamine neurons in the midbrain mediate prediction error signals that govern the learning process, whereas other classes of dopamine neurons control execution of learned actions. In this review, based on the results of our studies on Pavlovian conditioning in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and by referring to the findings in honey bees and fruit-flies, we argue that comparable aminergic systems exist in the insect brain. We found that administrations of octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) and dopamine receptor antagonists impair conditioning to associate an olfactory or visual conditioned stimulus (CS) with water or sodium chloride solution (appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, US), respectively, suggesting that specific octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate appetitive and aversive signals, respectively, in conditioning in crickets. These findings differ from findings in fruit-flies. In fruit-flies, appetitive and aversive signals are mediated by different dopamine neuron subsets, suggesting diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive signals in insects. We also found evidences of “blocking” and “auto-blocking” phenomena, which suggested that the prediction error, the discrepancy between actual US and predicted US, governs the conditioning in crickets and that octopamine neurons mediate prediction error signals for appetitive US. Our studies also showed that activations of octopamine and dopamine neurons are needed for the execution of an appetitive conditioned response (CR) and an aversive CR, respectively, and we, thus, proposed that these neurons mediate US prediction signals that drive appetitive and aversive CRs. Our findings suggest that the basic principles of functioning of

  1. Roles of Octopamine and Dopamine Neurons for Mediating Appetitive and Aversive Signals in Pavlovian Conditioning in Crickets.

    PubMed

    Mizunami, Makoto; Matsumoto, Yukihisa

    2017-01-01

    Revealing neural systems that mediate appetite and aversive signals in associative learning is critical for understanding the brain mechanisms controlling adaptive behavior in animals. In mammals, it has been shown that some classes of dopamine neurons in the midbrain mediate prediction error signals that govern the learning process, whereas other classes of dopamine neurons control execution of learned actions. In this review, based on the results of our studies on Pavlovian conditioning in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and by referring to the findings in honey bees and fruit-flies, we argue that comparable aminergic systems exist in the insect brain. We found that administrations of octopamine (the invertebrate counterpart of noradrenaline) and dopamine receptor antagonists impair conditioning to associate an olfactory or visual conditioned stimulus (CS) with water or sodium chloride solution (appetitive or aversive unconditioned stimulus, US), respectively, suggesting that specific octopamine and dopamine neurons mediate appetitive and aversive signals, respectively, in conditioning in crickets. These findings differ from findings in fruit-flies. In fruit-flies, appetitive and aversive signals are mediated by different dopamine neuron subsets, suggesting diversity in neurotransmitters mediating appetitive signals in insects. We also found evidences of "blocking" and "auto-blocking" phenomena, which suggested that the prediction error, the discrepancy between actual US and predicted US, governs the conditioning in crickets and that octopamine neurons mediate prediction error signals for appetitive US. Our studies also showed that activations of octopamine and dopamine neurons are needed for the execution of an appetitive conditioned response (CR) and an aversive CR, respectively, and we, thus, proposed that these neurons mediate US prediction signals that drive appetitive and aversive CRs. Our findings suggest that the basic principles of functioning of

  2. Modulation of opiate-related signaling molecules in morphine-dependent conditioned behavior: conditioned place preference to morphine induces CREB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Morón, José A; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Taylor, Chirisse; Gupta, Achla; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2010-03-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic, relapsing behavioral disorder where learned associations that develop between the abused opiate and the environment in which it is consumed are brought about through Pavlovian (classical) conditioning processes. However, the signaling mechanisms/pathways regulating the mechanisms that underlie the responses to opiate-associated cues or the development of sensitization as a consequence of repeated context-independent administration of opiates are unknown. In this study we examined the phosphorylation levels of various classic signaling molecules in brain regions implicated in addictive behaviors after acute and repeated morphine administration. An unbiased place conditioning protocol was used to examine changes in phosphorylation that are associated with (1) the expression of the rewarding effects of morphine and (2) the sensitization that develops to this effect. We also examined the effects of a delta-receptor antagonist on morphine-induced conditioned behavior and on the phosphorylation of classic signaling molecules in view of data showing that blockade of delta-opioid receptor (deltaOR) prevents the development of sensitization to the rewarding effects of morphine. We find that CREB phosphorylation is specifically induced upon the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-induced conditioned behavior in brain areas related to memory consolidation, such as the hippocampus and cortex. A similar effect is also observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the case of the GluR1 subunit of AMPA glutamate receptor. These increases in the phosphorylation levels of CREB and pGluR1 are significantly blocked by pretreatment with a deltaOR antagonist. These results indicate a critical role for phospho-CREB, AMPA, and deltaOR activities in mediating the expression of a sensitized response to morphine-dependent conditioned behavior.

  3. Monitoring Streambed Scour/Deposition Under Nonideal Temperature Signal and Flood Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWeese, Timothy; Tonina, Daniele; Luce, Charles

    2017-12-01

    Streambed erosion and deposition are fundamental geomorphic processes in riverbeds, and monitoring their evolution is important for ecological system management and in-stream infrastructure stability. Previous research showed proof of concept that analysis of paired temperature signals of stream and pore waters can simultaneously provide monitoring scour and deposition, stream sediment thermal regime, and seepage velocity information. However, it did not address challenges often associated with natural systems, including nonideal temperature variations (low-amplitude, nonsinusoidal signal, and vertical thermal gradients) and natural flooding conditions on monitoring scour and deposition processes over time. Here we addressed this knowledge gap by testing the proposed thermal scour-deposition chain (TSDC) methodology, with laboratory experiments to test the impact of nonideal temperature signals under a range of seepage velocities and with a field application during a pulse flood. Both analyses showed excellent match between surveyed and temperature-derived bed elevation changes even under very low temperature signal amplitudes (less than 1°C), nonideal signal shape (sawtooth shape), and strong and changing vertical thermal gradients (4°C/m). Root-mean-square errors on predicting the change in streambed elevations were comparable with the median grain size of the streambed sediment. Future research should focus on improved techniques for temperature signal phase and amplitude extractions, as well as TSDC applications over long periods spanning entire hydrographs.

  4. Determining Aliasing in Isolated Signal Conditioning Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The basic concept of aliasing is this: Converting analog data into digital data requires sampling the signal at a specific rate, known as the sampling frequency. The result of this conversion process is a new function, which is a sequence of digital samples. This new function has a frequency spectrum, which contains all the frequency components of the original signal. The Fourier transform mathematics of this process show that the frequency spectrum of the sequence of digital samples consists of the original signal s frequency spectrum plus the spectrum shifted by all the harmonics of the sampling frequency. If the original analog signal is sampled in the conversion process at a minimum of twice the highest frequency component contained in the analog signal, and if the reconstruction process is limited to the highest frequency of the original signal, then the reconstructed signal accurately duplicates the original analog signal. It is this process that can give birth to aliasing.

  5. Generation of a mouse with conditionally activated signaling through the BMP receptor, ALK2.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Scott, Gregory; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Araya, Runa; Kawano, Masako; Ray, Manas K; Yamada, Masahisa; Mishina, Yuji

    2006-04-01

    BMP signaling plays pleiotropic roles in various tissues. Transgenic mouse lines that overexpress BMP signaling in a tissue-specific manner would be beneficial; however, production of each tissue-specific transgenic mouse line is labor-intensive. Here, using a Cre-loxP system, we generated a conditionally overexpressing mouse line for BMP signaling through the type I receptor ALK2 (alternatively known as AVCRI, ActRI, or ActRIA). By mating this line with Cre-expression mouse lines, Cre-mediated recombination removes an intervening floxed lacZ expression cassette and thereby permits the expression of a constitutively active form of Alk2 (caAlk2) driven by a ubiquitous promoter, CAG. Tissue specificity of Cre recombination was monitored by a bicistronically expressed EGFP following Alk2 cDNA. Increased BMP signaling was confirmed by ectopic phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in the areas where Cre recombination had occurred. The conditional overexpression system described here provides versatility in investigating gene functions in a tissue-specific manner without having to generate independent tissue-specific transgenic lines. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Results of the Housing Building Condition Evaluation Survey at the University of Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, John M.

    A complete campus building condition evaluation survey was conducted at the University of Georgia in 1989 and results for the housing department were analyzed. The survey design was based on a model developed by Harlan Bareither at the University of Illinois that separates building deficiencies into seven general headings. Data were collected at…

  7. Financial Measures Project: Measuring Financial Conditions of Colleges and Universities, 1978 Working Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Sharon L., Ed.

    Papers are presented from a 1978 working conference on measuring financial conditions of colleges and universities. Contents include the following: "The Federal Government's Interest in the Development of Financial Measures" by M. Chandler; "Improving the Conceptual Framework for Measuring Financial Condition Using Institutional…

  8. Applied Chaos Level Test for Validation of Signal Conditions Underlying Optimal Performance of Voice Classification Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Boquan; Polce, Evan; Sprott, Julien C.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to introduce a chaos level test to evaluate linear and nonlinear voice type classification method performances under varying signal chaos conditions without subjective impression. Study Design: Voice signals were constructed with differing degrees of noise to model signal chaos. Within each noise power, 100…

  9. Polyspectral signal analysis techniques for condition based maintenance of helicopter drive-train system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan Mohammed, Mohammed Ahmed

    For an efficient maintenance of a diverse fleet of air- and rotorcraft, effective condition based maintenance (CBM) must be established based on rotating components monitored vibration signals. In this dissertation, we present theory and applications of polyspectral signal processing techniques for condition monitoring of critical components in the AH-64D helicopter tail rotor drive train system. Currently available vibration-monitoring tools are mostly built around auto- and cross-power spectral analysis which have limited performance in detecting frequency correlations higher than second order. Studying higher order correlations and their Fourier transforms, higher order spectra, provides more information about the vibration signals which helps in building more accurate diagnostic models of the mechanical system. Based on higher order spectral analysis, different signal processing techniques are developed to assess health conditions of different critical rotating-components in the AH-64D helicopter drive-train. Based on cross-bispectrum, quadratic nonlinear transfer function is presented to model second order nonlinearity in a drive-shaft running between the two hanger bearings. Then, quadratic-nonlinearity coupling coefficient between frequency harmonics of the rotating shaft is used as condition metric to study different seeded shaft faults compared to baseline case, namely: shaft misalignment, shaft imbalance, and combination of shaft misalignment and imbalance. The proposed quadratic-nonlinearity metric shows better capabilities in distinguishing the four studied shaft settings than the conventional linear coupling based on cross-power spectrum. We also develop a new concept of Quadratic-Nonlinearity Power-Index spectrum, QNLPI(f), that can be used in signal detection and classification, based on bicoherence spectrum. The proposed QNLPI(f) is derived as a projection of the three-dimensional bicoherence spectrum into two-dimensional spectrum that

  10. Universal poroelastic mechanism for hydraulic signals in biomimetic and natural branches

    PubMed Central

    Louf, J.-F.; Guéna, G.; Badel, E.; Forterre, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Plants constantly undergo external mechanical loads such as wind or touch and respond to these stimuli by acclimating their growth processes. A fascinating feature of this mechanical-induced growth response is that it can occur rapidly and at long distance from the initial site of stimulation, suggesting the existence of a fast signal that propagates across the whole plant. The nature and origin of the signal is still not understood, but it has been recently suggested that it could be purely mechanical and originate from the coupling between the local deformation of the tissues (bending) and the water pressure in the plant vascular system. Here, we address the physical origin of this hydromechanical coupling using a biomimetic strategy. We designed soft artificial branches perforated with longitudinal liquid-filled channels that mimic the basic features of natural stems and branches. In response to bending, a strong overpressure is generated in the channels that varies quadratically with the bending curvature. A model based on a mechanism analogous to the ovalization of hollow tubes enables us to predict quantitatively this nonlinear poroelastic response and identify the key physical parameters that control the generation of the pressure pulse. Further experiments conducted on natural tree branches reveal the same phenomenology. Once rescaled by the model prediction, both the biomimetic and natural branches fall on the same master curve, enlightening the universality of our poroelastic mechanism for the generation of hydraulic signals in plants. PMID:28973910

  11. Analyses of GPR signals for characterization of ground conditions in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Won-Taek; Kang, Seonghun; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2018-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is applied for the characterization of the ground conditions in urban areas. In addition, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests are conducted for the accurate analyses of the GPR images. The GPR images are acquired near a ground excavation site, where a ground subsidence occurred and was repaired. Moreover, the relative permittivity and dynamic cone penetration index (DCPI) are profiled through the TDR and DCP tests, respectively. As the ground in the urban area is kept under a low-moisture condition, the relative permittivity, which is inversely related to the electromagnetic impedance, is mainly affected by the dry density and is inversely proportional to the DCPI value. Because the first strong signal in the GPR image is shifted 180° from the emitted signal, the polarity of the electromagnetic wave reflected at the dense layer, where the reflection coefficient is negative, is identical to that of the first strong signal. The temporal-scaled GPR images can be accurately converted into the spatial-scaled GPR images using the relative permittivity determined by the TDR test. The distribution of the loose layer can be accurately estimated by using the spatial-scaled GPR images and reflection characteristics of the electromagnetic wave. Note that the loose layer distribution estimated in this study matches well with the DCPI profile and is visually verified from the endoscopic images. This study demonstrates that the GPR survey complemented by the TDR and DCP tests, may be an effective method for the characterization of ground conditions in an urban area.

  12. Applied Chaos Level Test for Validation of Signal Conditions Underlying Optimal Performance of Voice Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boquan; Polce, Evan; Sprott, Julien C; Jiang, Jack J

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a chaos level test to evaluate linear and nonlinear voice type classification method performances under varying signal chaos conditions without subjective impression. Voice signals were constructed with differing degrees of noise to model signal chaos. Within each noise power, 100 Monte Carlo experiments were applied to analyze the output of jitter, shimmer, correlation dimension, and spectrum convergence ratio. The computational output of the 4 classifiers was then plotted against signal chaos level to investigate the performance of these acoustic analysis methods under varying degrees of signal chaos. A diffusive behavior detection-based chaos level test was used to investigate the performances of different voice classification methods. Voice signals were constructed by varying the signal-to-noise ratio to establish differing signal chaos conditions. Chaos level increased sigmoidally with increasing noise power. Jitter and shimmer performed optimally when the chaos level was less than or equal to 0.01, whereas correlation dimension was capable of analyzing signals with chaos levels of less than or equal to 0.0179. Spectrum convergence ratio demonstrated proficiency in analyzing voice signals with all chaos levels investigated in this study. The results of this study corroborate the performance relationships observed in previous studies and, therefore, demonstrate the validity of the validation test method. The presented chaos level validation test could be broadly utilized to evaluate acoustic analysis methods and establish the most appropriate methodology for objective voice analysis in clinical practice.

  13. Pedagogical Conditions of Ensuring Students' Readiness for Scientific Researches--Example of Technical University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slessarev, Yuri Vassilyevich; Moisseyev, Vassily Borisovich; Vostroknutov, Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    This article describes pedagogical conditions of ensuring students readiness for scientific researches on the basis of scientific literature and experience of Penza State Technological University students. Introduction of suggested conditions favors the process of training of highly skilled expert who is ready for generation of new ideas in fields…

  14. Benchmarking the Algorithms to Detect Seasonal Signals Under Different Noise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, A.; Bogusz, J.; Bos, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) position time series contain seasonal signals. Among the others, annual and semi-annual are the most powerful. Widely, these oscillations are modelled as curves with constant amplitudes, using the Weighted Least-Squares (WLS) algorithm. However, in reality, the seasonal signatures vary over time, as their geophysical causes are not constant. Different algorithms have been already used to cover this time-variability, as Wavelet Decomposition (WD), Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), Chebyshev Polynomial (CP) or Kalman Filter (KF). In this research, we employed 376 globally distributed GPS stations which time series contributed to the newest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2014). We show that for c.a. 20% of stations the amplitudes of seasonal signal varies over time of more than 1.0 mm. Then, we compare the WD, SSA, CP and KF algorithms for a set of synthetic time series to quantify them under different noise conditions. We show that when variations of seasonal signals are ignored, the power-law character is biased towards flicker noise. The most reliable estimates of the variations were found to be given by SSA and KF. These methods also perform the best for other noise levels while WD, and to a lesser extend also CP, have trouble in separating the seasonal signal from the noise which leads to an underestimation in the spectral index of power-law noise of around 0.1. For real ITRF2014 GPS data we discovered, that SSA and KF are capable to model 49-84% and 77-90% of the variance of the true varying seasonal signals, respectively.

  15. Signal Conditioning for Satellite Borne Energetic-Charged-Particle Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, George H.

    1961-01-01

    Many of the spacecraft launched thus far have carried detectors for investigating cosmic rays, solar protons, solar plasmas, and the geomagnetically trapped radiation. These detectors, which will find continued application in the future, include ion chambers; proportional, Geiger-Muller, scintillation, Cerenkov, and solid state detectors; ion collectors; and nuclear emulsions. The instrumentation required to condition the signals from these detectors prior to telemetering is steadily growing more complex in order to permit more meaningful measurements. This report describes a number of instrumentation elements typical of the present state of the art, and a present-generation three-detector system which illustrates the integration of such basic elements into a complex system.

  16. cGMP signalling in pre- and post-conditioning: the role of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alexandre D T; Pierre, Sandrine V; Cohen, Michael V; Downey, James M; Garlid, Keith D

    2008-01-15

    Much of cell death from ischaemia/reperfusion in heart and other tissues is generally thought to arise from mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in the first minutes of reperfusion. In ischaemic pre-conditioning, agonist binding to G(i) protein-coupled receptors prior to ischaemia triggers a signalling cascade that protects the heart from MPT. We believe that the cytosolic component of this trigger pathway terminates in activation of guanylyl cyclase resulting in increased production of cGMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase G (PKG). PKG phosphorylates a protein on the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM), which then causes the mitochondrial K(ATP) channel (mitoK(ATP)) on the mitochondrial inner membrane to open, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the mitochondria. This implies that the protective signal is somehow transmitted from the MOM to its inner membrane. This is accomplished by a series of intermembrane signalling steps that includes protein kinase C (PKCepsilon) activation. The resulting ROS then activate a second PKC pool which, through another signal transduction pathway termed the mediator pathway, causes inhibition of MPT and reduction in cell death.

  17. Oilbirds produce echolocation signals beyond their best hearing range and adjust signal design to natural light conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brinkløv, Signe; Elemans, Coen P. H.

    2017-01-01

    Oilbirds are active at night, foraging for fruits using keen olfaction and extremely light-sensitive eyes, and echolocate as they leave and return to their cavernous roosts. We recorded the echolocation behaviour of wild oilbirds using a multi-microphone array as they entered and exited their roosts under different natural light conditions. During echolocation, the birds produced click bursts (CBs) lasting less than 10 ms and consisting of a variable number (2–8) of clicks at 2–3 ms intervals. The CBs have a bandwidth of 7–23 kHz at −6 dB from signal peak frequency. We report on two unique characteristics of this avian echolocation system. First, oilbirds reduce both the energy and number of clicks in their CBs under conditions of clear, moonlit skies, compared with dark, moonless nights. Second, we document a frequency mismatch between the reported best frequency of oilbird hearing (approx. 2 kHz) and the bandwidth of their echolocation CBs. This unusual signal-to-sensory system mismatch probably reflects avian constraints on high-frequency hearing but may still allow oilbirds fine-scale, close-range detail resolution at the upper extreme (approx. 10 kHz) of their presumed hearing range. Alternatively, oilbirds, by an as-yet unknown mechanism, are able to hear frequencies higher than currently appreciated. PMID:28573036

  18. Structural coloration signals condition, parental investment, and circulating hormone levels in Eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis).

    PubMed

    Grindstaff, Jennifer L; Lovern, Matthew B; Burtka, Jennifer L; Hallmark-Sharber, Alesia

    2012-08-01

    Many of the brilliant plumage coloration displays of birds function as signals to conspecifics. One species in which the function of plumage ornaments has been assessed is the Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis). Studies of a population breeding in Alabama (USA) have established that plumage ornaments signal quality, parental investment, and competitive ability in both sexes. Here we tested the additional hypotheses that (1) Eastern bluebird plumage ornamentation signals nest defense behavior in heterospecific competitive interactions and (2) individual variation in plumage ornamentation reflects underlying differences in circulating hormone levels. We also tested the potential for plumage ornaments to signal individual quality and parental investment in a population breeding in Oklahoma (USA). We found that Eastern bluebirds with more ornamented plumage are in better condition, initiate breeding earlier in the season, produce larger clutches, have higher circulating levels of the stress hormone corticosterone, and more ornamented males have lower circulating androgen levels. Plumage coloration was not related to nest defense behavior. Thus, plumage ornamentation may be used by both sexes to assess the physiological condition and parental investment of prospective mates. Experimental manipulations of circulating hormone levels during molt are needed to define the role of hormones in plumage ornamentation.

  19. Signal timing under saturated conditions.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    This report provides guidance to practitioners on effective strategies to mitigate the effects of congestion at signalized intersections. The scope is limited to single intersections and does not address network-level strategies. The strategies are d...

  20. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Kristin; Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of up to π / 3 between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. With a moderate improvement in cavity finesse, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of p at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. Preprint: arXiv:1512.02166 [quant-ph

  1. Signal timing under saturated conditions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-11-01

    This report provides guidance to practitioners for strategies and tactics that will help mitigate the effects of congestion at traffic signals. The focus was on methods that made use of settings wtihin the local intersection controller rather than on...

  2. General conditions for scale-invariant perturbations in an expanding universe

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Kinney, William H.; Dizgah, Azadeh Moradinezhad, E-mail: ggeshnizjani@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: whkinney@buffalo.edu, E-mail: am248@buffalo.edu

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the general properties of expanding cosmological models which generate scale-invariant curvature perturbations in the presence of a variable speed of sound. We show that in an expanding universe, generation of a super-Hubble, nearly scale-invariant spectrum of perturbations over a range of wavelengths consistent with observation requires at least one of three conditions: (1) accelerating expansion, (2) a speed of sound faster than the speed of light, or (3) super-Planckian energy density.

  3. Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Biagi, P. F.; Al-Haddad, E.; Galopeaud, P. H. M.; Besser, B.; Wolbang, D.; Prattes, G.; Eichelberger, H.; Stangle, G.; Parrot, M.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    2017-12-01

    We analyse the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite, observed from 01st Jan. to 09th Dec. 2010. We select five stations localized around the Mediterranean and the Black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28'E, 36°33'N, Algeria), Roumoules (216 kHz, 06°08'E, 43°47'N, Monte Carlo), Polatli (180 kHz, 32°25'E, 39°45'N, Turkey), Nadour (171 kHz, 02°55'W, 35°02'N, Morocco) and Brasov (153 kHz, 25°36'E, 45°40', Romania). The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterize the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We show that LF signal are regularly recorded, each 12 days, when the satellite is above the broadcasting station. The signal intensity levels are principally significant during the solar activity. Hence we find that the solar and the geomagnetic activities are slightly correlated to the maxima of LF signal as recorded by DEMETER. Also we note a drop of the intensity level several days before the occurrence of earthquakes in/around the Mediterranean and Black seas.

  4. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae

    2016-01-01

    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s. PMID:26950128

  5. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae

    2016-03-02

    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  6. Brain signal variability is parametrically modifiable.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Douglas D; McIntosh, Anthony R; Grady, Cheryl L

    2014-11-01

    Moment-to-moment brain signal variability is a ubiquitous neural characteristic, yet remains poorly understood. Evidence indicates that heightened signal variability can index and aid efficient neural function, but it is not known whether signal variability responds to precise levels of environmental demand, or instead whether variability is relatively static. Using multivariate modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging-based parametric face processing data, we show here that within-person signal variability level responds to incremental adjustments in task difficulty, in a manner entirely distinct from results produced by examining mean brain signals. Using mixed modeling, we also linked parametric modulations in signal variability with modulations in task performance. We found that difficulty-related reductions in signal variability predicted reduced accuracy and longer reaction times within-person; mean signal changes were not predictive. We further probed the various differences between signal variance and signal means by examining all voxels, subjects, and conditions; this analysis of over 2 million data points failed to reveal any notable relations between voxel variances and means. Our results suggest that brain signal variability provides a systematic task-driven signal of interest from which we can understand the dynamic function of the human brain, and in a way that mean signals cannot capture. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A biomimetic microfluidic model to study signalling between endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells under hemodynamic conditions.

    PubMed

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Pollet, Andreas M A O; den Toonder, Jaap M J; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Stassen, Oscar M J A; Sahlgren, Cecilia M

    2018-05-29

    Cell signalling and mechanics influence vascular pathophysiology and there is an increasing demand for in vitro model systems that enable examination of signalling between vascular cells under hemodynamic conditions. Current 3D vessel wall constructs do not recapitulate the mechanical conditions of the native tissue nor do they allow examination of cell-cell interactions under relevant hemodynamic conditions. Here, we describe a 3D microfluidic chip model of arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells where cellular organization, composition and interactions, as well as the mechanical environment of the arterial wall are mimicked. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip consists of two parallel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cell culture channels, separated by a flexible, porous PDMS membrane, mimicking the porosity of the internal elastic lamina. The hemodynamic EC-VSMC-signalling-on-a-chip allows co-culturing of human aortic endothelial cells (ECs) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), separated by a porous membrane, which enables EC-VSMC interaction and signalling, crucial for the development and homeostasis of the vessel wall. The device allows real time cell imaging and control of hemodynamic conditions. The culture channels are surrounded on either side by vacuum channels to induce cyclic strain by applying cyclic suction, resulting in mechanical stretching and relaxation of the membrane in the cell culture channels. The blood flow is mimicked by creating a flow of medium at the EC side. Vascular cells remain viable during prolonged culturing, exhibit physiological morphology and organization and make cell-cell contact. During dynamic culturing of the device with a shear stress of 1-1.5 Pa and strain of 5-8%, VSMCs align perpendicular to the given strain in the direction of the flow and EC adopt a cobblestone morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a microfluidic device, which enables a co-culture of

  8. Intracellular signalling and plasma hormone profiles associated with the expression of unconditioned and conditioned fear and anxiety in female rats.

    PubMed

    Simone, Jonathan J; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2017-02-01

    There is considerable overlap in the neural regions and intracellular signalling pathways implicated in anxiety and fear, although less is known in females. Here, we investigated whether unconditioned and conditioned fear are associated with distinct patterns of expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (Akt), and calcineurin (CaN) (proteins that are key regulators of the expression of and/or memory processes of fear and anxiety) in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and amygdala (important regions in neural fear circuitry) of adult female rats, and used a multivariate approach to find patterns of signalling that might discriminate between the different states of fear. To isolate fear to the conditioned cue from generalized fear to the test context, rats were conditioned to an auditory tone (i.e. tone paired with footshock) and twenty-four hours later exposed to a novel context in the presence or absence of the conditioned cue. A third group that was exposed to the conditioning context without undergoing fear conditioning was included to control for unconditioned responses to the testing procedures, which are anxiogenic. A discriminate function analysis and MANOVA determined that hippocampal signalling best discriminated the three groups from each other. The addition of values for plasma concentrations of corticosterone and progesterone (as indices of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis) to statistical analyses increased the separation of the three groups. There was high degree of association among the three signalling molecules in the four brain regions within each group. There was an absence of the associations between the medial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala in the cued fear recall group that were strong for the non-conditioned group. These results demonstrated unique neuronal and hormonal signalling profiles associated with unconditioned, generalized, and

  9. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, Roger W.; Wang, Poguang

    1996-01-01

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula ##STR1##

  10. Shocks in the Early Universe.

    PubMed

    Pen, Ue-Li; Turok, Neil

    2016-09-23

    We point out a surprising consequence of the usually assumed initial conditions for cosmological perturbations. Namely, a spectrum of Gaussian, linear, adiabatic, scalar, growing mode perturbations not only creates acoustic oscillations of the kind observed on very large scales today, it also leads to the production of shocks in the radiation fluid of the very early Universe. Shocks cause departures from local thermal equilibrium as well as create vorticity and gravitational waves. For a scale-invariant spectrum and standard model physics, shocks form for temperatures 1  GeVsignal detectable by current and planned gravitational wave experiments, allowing them to strongly constrain conditions present in the primordial Universe as early as 10^{-30}  sec after the big bang.

  11. Single step signal group-imidazole labeling of organic phosphate groups under aqueous conditions

    DOEpatents

    Giese, R.W.; Wang, P.

    1996-04-30

    Compounds and methods for single step, covalent labeling of the phosphate group of an organic substance under aqueous conditions are described. The labeling compound includes any kind of detectable signal group covalently bound to an imidazole moiety, which can be imidazole or a substituted imidazole. A preferred labeling compound has the formula shown in the accompanying diagram. 4 figs.

  12. An Investigative Redesign of the ECG and EMG Signal Conditioning Circuits for Two-fault Tolerance and Circuit Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken to make the elctrocardiography (ECG) and the electromyography (EMG) signal conditioning circuits two-fault tolerant and to update the circuitry. The present signal conditioning circuits provide at least one level of subject protection against electrical shock hazard but at a level of 100 micro-A (for voltages of up to 200 V). However, it is necessary to provide catastrophic fault tolerance protection for the astronauts and to provide protection at a current level of less that 100 micro-A. For this study, protection at the 10 micro-A level was sought. This is the generally accepted value below which no possibility of microshock exists. Only the possibility of macroshock exists in the case of the signal conditioners. However, this extra amount of protection is desirable. The initial part deals with current limiter circuits followed by an investigation into the signal conditioner specifications and circuit design.

  13. Large conditional single-photon cross-phase modulation

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Duan, Yiheng; Vuletić, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic optical quantum logic requires a nonlinear quantum process that alters the phase of a quantum optical state by π through interaction with only one photon. Here, we demonstrate a large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal field, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. This approach avoids fundamental limitations associated with multimode effects for traveling optical photons. We measure a conditional cross-phase shift of π/6 (and up to π/3 by postselection on photons that remain in the system longer than average) between the retrieved signal and control photons, and confirm deterministic entanglement between the signal and control modes by extracting a positive concurrence. By upgrading to a state-of-the-art cavity, our system can reach a coherent phase shift of π at low loss, enabling deterministic and universal photonic quantum logic. PMID:27519798

  14. Oceanographic upwelling conditions influence signaling pathways involved in muscle growth of intertidal fish.

    PubMed

    Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Almarza, Oscar; Valdés, Juan A; Molina, Alfredo; Pulgar, José

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have addressed the impact of the upwelling oceanographical conditions on biological processes, such as growth, using a molecular and physiological approach. Upwelling conditions are characterized by low temperature seawater and high nutrient availability, which represents an ideal opportunity to understand how habitat modulates animal performance at different levels of biological complexity. We aimed to assess intraspecific variations in weight, oxygen consumption, protein content, and key signaling pathways involved in muscle-growth (protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)) under experimental trials considering high/low seawater temperatures with full/restricted food rations. For this purpose, we studied Girella laevifrons, one of the most abundant fish species inhabiting rocky intertidal zones along the Eastern South Pacific coasts. Using fish obtained from upwelling (U) and non-upwelling (NU) zones, we reported that U animals displayed higher growth performance during both contrasting trials, with a weight gain (~3 g), lower oxygen consumption (~12%), and higher protein contents (~20%). Only ERK showed significant differences during the trials (~2-fold downregulation between NU and U fish). We also found that U fish increased protein ubiquitination in high water temperature and restricted food ration in contrast to NU fish. Our results help to elucidate how upwelling conditions may influence fish growth at physiological and molecular levels. Still, future analyses are necessary to improve the information regarding the impact of U and NU condition on animals, as well as the possible applications of this data in the aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plastid signalling under multiple conditions is accompanied by a common defect in RNA editing in plastids.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Yazu, Fumiko; Nakayama, Katsuhiro; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde signalling from the plastid to the nucleus, also known as plastid signalling, plays a key role in coordinating nuclear gene expression with the functional state of plastids. Inhibitors that cause plastid dysfunction have been suggested to generate specific plastid signals related to their modes of action. However, the molecules involved in plastid signalling remain to be identified. Genetic studies indicate that the plastid-localized pentatricopeptide repeat protein GUN1 mediates signalling under several plastid signalling-related conditions. To elucidate further the nature of plastid signals, investigations were carried out to determine whether different plastid signal-inducing treatments had similar effects on plastids and on nuclear gene expression. It is demonstrated that norflurazon and lincomycin treatments and the plastid protein import2-2 (ppi2-2) mutation, which causes a defect in plastid protein import, all resulted in similar changes at the gene expression level. Furthermore, it was observed that these three treatments resulted in defective RNA editing in plastids. This defect in RNA editing was not a secondary effect of down-regulation of pentatricopeptide repeat protein gene expression in the nucleus. The results indicate that these three treatments, which are known to induce plastid signals, affect RNA editing in plastids, suggesting an unprecedented link between plastid signalling and RNA editing.

  16. The Antinomic Condition of the University: "Universal Labour" beyond "Academic Capitalism"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlidis, Periklis

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at identifying the characteristics acquired by the university under the regime of academic capitalism. It also attempts to put forward their antinomic relationship to the essential properties of academic activity, perceived in the light of the concept of "universal labour" introduced by Karl Marx. (Contains 1 note.)

  17. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important.

  18. World University Rankings: Ambiguous Signals. Go8 Backgrounder 30

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The current main world university rankings broadly group the leading research universities of nations. Australia's Go8 universities are generally within the top 250 ranked universities, with several institutions in the top 50-100 on some measures. This recognition is commendable, however imperfect the individual rankings may be. Use is made of…

  19. Condition-dependent pheromone signaling by male rock lizards: more oily scents are more attractive.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Pheromones of vertebrates are often a mixture of several chemicals with different properties and messages, and their production seems condition dependent. Thus, pheromones are a good, but little studied, example of multiple sexual signals. Femoral gland secretions of male rock lizards Iberolacerta cyreni contain steroids that may act as pheromones, but there are also many other lipids, such as oleic acid, whose allocation to secretions may be costly because it has to be diverted from body fat reserves. This suggests that oleic acid could also have some function in secretions. Chemical analyses showed that proportions of oleic acid in femoral secretions of males were positively related to body condition of males, suggesting that the oleic acid secreted may reflect the amount of body fat reserves of a male. Tongue-flick bioassays showed that females were able to detect by chemosensory cues alone differences in proportions of oleic acid in secretions of males. Scents of males with more oleic acid elicited stronger chemosensory responses by females. Further tests with chemical standards confirmed that females distinguished oleic acid, and changes in its concentration, from other chemicals that are naturally found in secretions of males. Moreover, choice trials of scent-marked substrates showed that females were more attracted to areas that were experimentally manipulated to increase the proportion of oleic acid in natural scent marks of males. We suggest that oleic acid in femoral secretions might be a reliable advertisement of a male's body condition, which females could use to select high-quality mates in conjunction with information provided by other chemicals. Alternatively, scent marks with more oleic acid might be simply more attractive to females if chemosensory responses of females to scent of males were originated by a preexisting sensory bias for food chemicals such as the oleic acid. Nevertheless, this sensory trap might have evolved into an honest signal

  20. Ultraviolet radiation induces stress in etiolated Landoltia punctata, as evidenced by the presence of alanine, a universal stress signal: a ¹⁵N NMR study.

    PubMed

    Monselise, E B-I; Levkovitz, A; Kost, D

    2015-01-01

    Analysis with (15) N NMR revealed that alanine, a universal cellular stress signal, accumulates in etiolated duckweed plants exposed to 15-min pulsed UV light, but not in the absence of UV irradiation. The addition of 10 mm vitamin C, a radical scavenger, reduced alanine levels to zero, indicating the involvement of free radicals. Free D-alanine was detected in (15) N NMR analysis of the chiral amino acid content, using D-tartaric acid as solvent. The accumulation of D-alanine under stress conditions presents a new perspective on the biochemical processes taking place in prokaryote and eukaryote cells. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Enhanced MET Translation and Signaling Sustains K-Ras-Driven Proliferation under Anchorage-Independent Growth Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-07-15

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers, including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage-independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage-independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage-independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage-independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global downregulation of mRNA translation during anchorage-independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras-mediated Met expression drives "K-Ras addiction" in anchorage-independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage-independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Enhanced MET translation and signaling sustains K-Ras driven proliferation under anchorage-independent growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global down-regulation of mRNA translation during anchorage independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras mediated Met expression drives “K-Ras addiction” in anchorage independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. PMID:25977330

  3. A diagnostic signal selection scheme for planetary gearbox vibration monitoring under non-stationary operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ke; Wang, KeSheng; Zhang, Mian; Ni, Qing; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-03-01

    The planetary gearbox, due to its unique mechanical structures, is an important rotating machine for transmission systems. Its engineering applications are often in non-stationary operational conditions, such as helicopters, wind energy systems, etc. The unique physical structures and working conditions make the vibrations measured from planetary gearboxes exhibit a complex time-varying modulation and therefore yield complicated spectral structures. As a result, traditional signal processing methods, such as Fourier analysis, and the selection of characteristic fault frequencies for diagnosis face serious challenges. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a signal selection scheme for fault-emphasized diagnostics based upon two order tracking techniques. The basic procedures for the proposed scheme are as follows. (1) Computed order tracking is applied to reveal the order contents and identify the order(s) of interest. (2) Vold-Kalman filter order tracking is used to extract the order(s) of interest—these filtered order(s) constitute the so-called selected vibrations. (3) Time domain statistic indicators are applied to the selected vibrations for faulty information-emphasized diagnostics. The proposed scheme is explained and demonstrated in a signal simulation model and experimental studies and the method proves to be effective for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis.

  4. Investigating Conditions for Student Success at an American University in the Middle East

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Karma El

    2014-01-01

    It is of great significance to an institution of higher education to meet its goals and to establish its institutional effectiveness and that it has a framework for discussing its institutional performance results, accordingly this study aims to investigate a) the conditions for student success at the University with respect to the five benchmarks…

  5. Racial Disparities in Access to Care Under Conditions of Universal Coverage.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Arjumand A; Wang, Susan; Quinn, Kelly; Nguyen, Quynh C; Christy, Antony Dennis

    2016-02-01

    Racial disparities in access to regular health care have been reported in the U.S., but little is known about the extent of disparities in societies with universal coverage. To investigate the extent of racial disparities in access to care under conditions of universal coverage by observing the association between race and regular access to a doctor in Canada. Racial disparities in access to a regular doctor were calculated using the largest available source of nationally representative data in Canada--the Canadian Community Health Survey. Surveys from 2000-2010 were analyzed in 2014. Multinomial regression analyses predicted odds of having a regular doctor for each racial group compared to whites. Analyses were stratified by immigrant status--Canadian-born versus shorter-term immigrant versus longer-term immigrants--and controlled for sociodemographics and self-rated health. Racial disparities in Canada, a country with universal coverage, were far more muted than those previously reported in the U.S. Only among longer-term Latin American immigrants (OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.45, 2.08) and Canadian-born Aboriginals (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.22, 1.47) were significant disparities noted. Among shorter-term immigrants, all Asians were more likely than whites, and among longer-term immigrants, South Asians were more like than whites, to have a regular doctor. Universal coverage may have a major impact on reducing racial disparities in access to health care, although among some subgroups, other factors may also play a role above and beyond health insurance. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Conditional knockout of the leptin receptor in the colonic epithelium revealed the local effects of leptin receptor signaling in the progression of colonic tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Higurashi, Takuma; Endo, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Yamada, Eiji; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Sakai, Eiji; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Maeda, Shin; Wada, Koichiro; Natsumeda, Yutaka; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Nakajima, Atsushi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-09-01

    Leptin, secreted by the adipose tissue and known to be related to obesity, is considered to be involved in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. However, the exact role of leptin in colorectal carcinogenesis is still unclear, as several controversial reports have been published on the various systemic effects of leptin. The aim of this study was to clarify the local and precise roles of leptin receptor (LEPR)-mediated signaling in colonic carcinogenesis using intestinal epithelium-specific LEPRb conditional knockout (cKO) mice. We produced and used colonic epithelium-specific LEPRb cKO mice to investigate the carcinogen-induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors in the colon, using their littermates as control. There were no differences in the body weight or systemic condition between the control and cKO mice. The tumor sizes and number of large-sized tumors were significantly lower in the cKO mice as compared with those in the control mice. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the proliferative activity of the normal colonic epithelial cells or ACF formation between the control and cKO mice. In the control mice, marked increase of the LEPRb expression level was observed in the colonic tumors as compared with that in the normal epithelium; furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) was activated in the tumor cells. These findings suggest that STAT3 is one of the important molecules downstream of LEPRb, and LEPRb/STAT3 signaling controls tumor cell proliferation. We demonstrated the importance of local/regional LEPR-mediated signaling in colorectal carcinogenesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Conditioning Factors and Opportunities for Teamwork. A Case Study from a Catalan University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galtés, Ruth; Tomás, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the conditioning factors and opportunities that influence teamwork among teachers at a Catalan university. The creation of new academic identities based on a culture of mutual and continuing learning are essential if teacher teams are to be encouraged. A descriptive methodology was used, based on a case study…

  8. Training School Personnel to Implement a Universal School-Based Prevention of Depression Program under Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnett, P.H.; Dadds, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of a universal prevention of depression program [the Resourceful Adolescent Program (RAP)] when implemented under real-world conditions in a school setting. Prior research has found the RAP program to be beneficial for high-school students when the program was implemented by university staff selected,…

  9. Variations in chemical sexual signals of Psammodromus algirus lizards along an elevation gradient may reflect altitudinal variation in microclimatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; Javier Zamora-Camacho, Francisco; Reguera, Senda; López, Pilar; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2017-04-01

    Chemical signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve or to show phenotipic plasticity to maximize efficacy in the climatic conditions of a given environment. Elevational environmental gradients in mountains provide a good opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining variation in characteristics of signals in species found across different elevations with different climatic conditions. We analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the lipophilic fraction of the femoral gland secretions of male lizards Psammodromus algirus (Fam. Lacertidae) from six localities located along a 2200 m elevational gradient at Sierra Nevada Mountains (SE Spain). There was elevational clinal variation in climatic variables, number of femoral pores and in the relative proportions of some classes of compounds (i.e., ethyl esters of fatty acids, waxy esters, and aldehydes) but not others. We discuss how this variation would result in different physicochemical properties of the entire femoral secretion, which might help optimize the efficacy of chemical signals under the particular microclimatic conditions at each elevation.

  10. Variations in chemical sexual signals of Psammodromus algirus lizards along an elevation gradient may reflect altitudinal variation in microclimatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; Javier Zamora-Camacho, Francisco; Reguera, Senda; López, Pilar; Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2017-04-01

    Chemical signals used in intraspecific communication are expected to evolve or to show phenotipic plasticity to maximize efficacy in the climatic conditions of a given environment. Elevational environmental gradients in mountains provide a good opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining variation in characteristics of signals in species found across different elevations with different climatic conditions. We analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the lipophilic fraction of the femoral gland secretions of male lizards Psammodromus algirus (Fam. Lacertidae) from six localities located along a 2200 m elevational gradient at Sierra Nevada Mountains (SE Spain). There was elevational clinal variation in climatic variables, number of femoral pores and in the relative proportions of some classes of compounds (i.e., ethyl esters of fatty acids, waxy esters, and aldehydes) but not others. We discuss how this variation would result in different physicochemical properties of the entire femoral secretion, which might help optimize the efficacy of chemical signals under the particular microclimatic conditions at each elevation.

  11. Subsequent Oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer after Hysterectomy for Benign Gynecologic Conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Jitkunnatumkul, Aurapin; Tantipalakorn, Charuwan; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy due to ovarian pathology or ovarian cancer in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions at Chiang Mai University Hospital. Medical records of women who underwent hysterectomy for benign gynecologic diseases and pre-cancerous lesions between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2013 at Chiang Mai University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence and indications of oophorectomy following hysterectomy were analyzed. During the study period, 1,035 women had hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions. Of these, 590 women underwent hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and 445 hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian preservation or unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The median age was 47 years (range, 11-75 years). Ten women (2.45 %) had subsequent oophorectomy for benign ovarian cysts. No case of ovarian cancer was found. The mean time interval between hysterectomy and subsequent oophorectomy was 43.1 months (range, 2-97 months) and the mean follow-up time for this patient cohort was 51 months (range, 1.3-124.9 months). According to our hospital-based data, the incidence of subsequent oophorectomy in women with prior hysterectomy for benign gynecologic conditions is low and all present with benign conditions.

  12. Possible signals of vacuum dynamics in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peracaula, Joan Solà; de Cruz Pérez, Javier; Gómez-Valent, Adrià

    2018-05-01

    We study a generic class of time-evolving vacuum models which can provide a better phenomenological account of the overall cosmological observations as compared to the ΛCDM. Among these models, the running vacuum model (RVM) appears to be the most motivated and favored one, at a confidence level of ˜3σ. We further support these results by computing the Akaike and Bayesian information criteria. Our analysis also shows that we can extract fair signals of dynamical dark energy (DDE) by confronting the same set of data to the generic XCDM and CPL parametrizations. In all cases we confirm that the combined triad of modern observations on Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations, Large Scale Structure formation, and the Cosmic Microwave Background, provide the bulk of the signal sustaining a possible vacuum dynamics. In the absence of any of these three crucial data sources, the DDE signal can not be perceived at a significant confidence level. Its possible existence could be a cure for some of the tensions existing in the ΛCDM when confronted to observations.

  13. Cholinergic signaling controls conditioned-fear behaviors and enhances plasticity of cortical-amygdala circuits

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Kundu, Srikanya; Lederman, James D.; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y.; Ballinger, Elizabeth C.; Wang, Shaohua; Talmage, David A.; Role, Lorna W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We examined the contribution of endogenous cholinergic signaling to the acquisition and extinction of fear- related memory by optogenetic regulation of cholinergic input to the basal lateral amygdala (BLA). Stimulation of cholinergic terminal fields within the BLA in awake-behaving mice during training in a cued fear-conditioning paradigm slowed the extinction of learned fear as assayed by multi-day retention of extinction learning. Inhibition of cholinergic activity during training reduced the acquisition of learned fear behaviors. Circuit mechanisms underlying the behavioral effects of cholinergic signaling in the BLA were assessed by in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiological recording. Photo-stimulation of endogenous cholinergic input: (1) enhances firing of putative BLA principal neurons through activation of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs); (2) enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the BLA and (3) induces LTP of cortical-amygdala circuits. These studies support an essential role of cholinergic modulation of BLA circuits in the inscription and retention of fear memories. PMID:27161525

  14. Investigation of a High Voltage, High Frequency Power Conditioning System for Use with Flux Compression Generators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    missouri.edu Abstract The University of Missouri-Columbia is developing a compact pulsed power system to condition the high current signal from a...flux compression generator (FCG) to the high voltage, high frequency signal required for many pulsed power applications. The system consists of a...non-magnetic core, spiral-wound transformer, series exploding wire fuse, and an oscillating mesoband source. The flux compression generator is being

  15. The truthful signalling hypothesis: an explicit general equilibrium model.

    PubMed

    Hausken, Kjell; Hirshleifer, Jack

    2004-06-21

    In mating competition, the truthful signalling hypothesis (TSH), sometimes known as the handicap principle, asserts that higher-quality males signal while lower-quality males do not (or else emit smaller signals). Also, the signals are "believed", that is, females mate preferentially with higher-signalling males. Our analysis employs specific functional forms to generate analytic solutions and numerical simulations that illuminate the conditions needed to validate the TSH. Analytic innovations include: (1) A Mating Success Function indicates how female mating choices respond to higher and lower signalling levels. (2) A congestion function rules out corner solutions in which females would mate exclusively with higher-quality males. (3) A Malthusian condition determines equilibrium population size as related to per-capita resource availability. Equilibria validating the TSH are achieved over a wide range of parameters, though not universally. For TSH equilibria it is not strictly necessary that the high-quality males have an advantage in terms of lower per-unit signalling costs, but a cost difference in favor of the low-quality males cannot be too great if a TSH equilibrium is to persist. And although the literature has paid less attention to these points, TSH equilibria may also fail if: the quality disparity among males is too great, or the proportion of high-quality males in the population is too large, or if the congestion effect is too weak. Signalling being unprofitable in aggregate, it can take off from a no-signalling equilibrium only if the trait used for signalling is not initially a handicap, but instead is functionally useful at low levels. Selection for this trait sets in motion a bandwagon, whereby the initially useful indicator is pushed by male-male competition into the domain where it does indeed become a handicap.

  16. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.

  17. E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule targets β-catenin under conditions of hyperactive Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Khatun, Rahima; Elia, Andrew J.; Thu, Kelsie L.; Ramachandran, Parameswaran; Baniasadi, Shakiba P.; Hao, Zhenyue; Jones, Lisa D.; Haight, Jillian; Sheng, Yi; Mak, Tak W.

    2017-01-01

    Wnt signaling, named after the secreted proteins that bind to cell surface receptors to activate the pathway, plays critical roles both in embryonic development and the maintenance of homeostasis in many adult tissues. Two particularly important cellular programs orchestrated by Wnt signaling are proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway resulting from mutation or improper modulation of pathway components contributes to cancer development in various tissues. Colon cancers frequently bear inactivating mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, whose product is an important component of the destruction complex that regulates β-catenin levels. Stabilization and nuclear localization of β-catenin result in the expression of a panel of Wnt target genes. We previously showed that Mule/Huwe1/Arf-BP1 (Mule) controls murine intestinal stem and progenitor cell proliferation by modulating the Wnt pathway via c-Myc. Here we extend our investigation of Mule’s influence on oncogenesis by showing that Mule interacts directly with β-catenin and targets it for degradation under conditions of hyperactive Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that Mule uses various mechanisms to fine-tune the Wnt pathway and provides multiple safeguards against tumorigenesis. PMID:28137882

  18. E3 ubiquitin ligase Mule targets β-catenin under conditions of hyperactive Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Khatun, Rahima; Elia, Andrew J; Thu, Kelsie L; Ramachandran, Parameswaran; Baniasadi, Shakiba P; Hao, Zhenyue; Jones, Lisa D; Haight, Jillian; Sheng, Yi; Mak, Tak W

    2017-02-14

    Wnt signaling, named after the secreted proteins that bind to cell surface receptors to activate the pathway, plays critical roles both in embryonic development and the maintenance of homeostasis in many adult tissues. Two particularly important cellular programs orchestrated by Wnt signaling are proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Constitutive activation of the Wnt pathway resulting from mutation or improper modulation of pathway components contributes to cancer development in various tissues. Colon cancers frequently bear inactivating mutations of the adenomatous polyposis coli ( APC ) gene, whose product is an important component of the destruction complex that regulates β-catenin levels. Stabilization and nuclear localization of β-catenin result in the expression of a panel of Wnt target genes. We previously showed that Mule/Huwe1/Arf-BP1 (Mule) controls murine intestinal stem and progenitor cell proliferation by modulating the Wnt pathway via c-Myc. Here we extend our investigation of Mule's influence on oncogenesis by showing that Mule interacts directly with β-catenin and targets it for degradation under conditions of hyperactive Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that Mule uses various mechanisms to fine-tune the Wnt pathway and provides multiple safeguards against tumorigenesis.

  19. An ECG Lab Project for Teaching Signal Conditioning Systems in a Master's Degree in Mechatronic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martín, Francisco Javier Ferrero; Martínez, Alberto López; Llopis, Marta Valledor; Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Campo; Viejo, Cecilio Blanco; Vershinin, Yuri A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing technological progress in measurement systems triggered the development of an in­novative, hands-on teaching program to help students toward a fuller understanding of recent changes in the field. This paper presents a lab project that links theoretical principles with the practical issues of signal conditioning systems. This is…

  20. Insulin signaling in various equine tissues under basal conditions and acute stimulation by intravenously injected insulin.

    PubMed

    Warnken, Tobias; Brehm, Ralph; Feige, Karsten; Huber, Korinna

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze key proteins of the equine insulin signaling cascade and their extent of phosphorylation in biopsies from muscle tissue (MT), liver tissue (LT), and nuchal AT, subcutaneous AT, and retroperitoneal adipose tissues. This was investigated under unstimulated (B1) and intravenously insulin stimulated (B2) conditions, which were achieved by injection of insulin (0.1 IU/kg bodyweight) and glucose (150 mg/kg bodyweight). Twelve warmblood horses aged 15 ± 6.8 yr (yr), weighing 559 ± 79 kg, and with a mean body condition score of 4.7 ± 1.5 were included in the study. Key proteins of the insulin signaling cascade were semiquantitatively determined using Western blotting. Furthermore, modulation of the cascade was assessed. The basal expression of the proteins was only slightly influenced during the experimental period. Insulin induced a high extent of phosphorylation of insulin receptor in LT (P < 0.01) but not in MT. Protein kinase B and mechanistic target of rapamycin expressed a higher extent of phosphorylation in all tissues in B2 biopsies. Adenosine monophosphate protein kinase, as a component related to insulin signaling, expressed enhanced phosphorylation in MT (P < 0.05) and adipose tissues (nuchal AT P < 0.05; SCAT P < 0.01; retroperitoneal adipose tissue P < 0.05), but not in LT at B2. Tissue-specific variations in the acute response of insulin signaling to intravenously injected insulin were observed. In conclusion, insulin sensitivity in healthy horses is based on a complex concerted action of different tissues by their variations in the molecular response to insulin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerosol optical depth under "clear" sky conditions derived from sea surface reflection of lidar signals.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Hu, Yongxiang; Huang, Jian Ping; Stamnes, Knut

    2016-12-26

    There are considerable demands for accurate atmospheric correction of satellite observations of the sea surface or subsurface signal. Surface and sub-surface reflection under "clear" atmospheric conditions can be used to study atmospheric correction for the simplest possible situation. Here "clear" sky means a cloud-free atmosphere with sufficiently small aerosol particles. The "clear" aerosol concept is defined according to the spectral dependence of the scattering cross section on particle size. A 5-year combined CALIPSO and AMSR-E data set was used to derive the aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the lidar signal reflected from the sea surface. Compared with the traditional lidar-retrieved AOD, which relies on lidar backscattering measurements and an assumed lidar ratio, the AOD retrieved through the surface reflectance method depends on both scattering and absorption because it is based on two-way attenuation of the lidar signal transmitted to and then reflected from the surface. The results show that the clear sky AOD derived from the surface signal agrees with the clear sky AOD available in the CALIPSO level 2 database in the westerly wind belt located in the southern hemisphere, but yields significantly higher aerosol loadings in the tropics and in the northern hemisphere.

  2. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution. PMID:27000655

  3. Opposing effects of oxidative challenge and carotenoids on antioxidant status and condition-dependent sexual signalling.

    PubMed

    Tomášek, Oldřich; Gabrielová, Barbora; Kačer, Petr; Maršík, Petr; Svobodová, Jana; Syslová, Kamila; Vinkler, Michal; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-03-22

    Several recent hypotheses consider oxidative stress to be a primary constraint ensuring honesty of condition-dependent carotenoid-based signalling. The key testable difference between these hypotheses is the assumed importance of carotenoids for redox homeostasis, with carotenoids being either antioxidant, pro-oxidant or unimportant. We tested the role of carotenoids in redox balance and sexual signalling by exposing adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) to oxidative challenge (diquat dibromide) and manipulating carotenoid intake. As the current controversy over the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants could stem from the hydrophilic basis of commonly-used antioxidant assays, we used the novel measure of in vivo lipophilic antioxidant capacity. Oxidative challenge reduced beak pigmentation but elicited an increase in antioxidant capacity suggesting resource reallocation from signalling to redox homeostasis. Carotenoids counteracted the effect of oxidative challenge on lipophilic (but not hydrophilic) antioxidant capacity, thereby supporting carotenoid antioxidant function in vivo. This is inconsistent with hypotheses proposing that signalling honesty is maintained through either ROS-induced carotenoid degradation or the pro-oxidant effect of high levels of carotenoid-cleavage products acting as a physiological handicap. Our data further suggest that assessment of lipophilic antioxidant capacity is necessary to fully understand the role of redox processes in ecology and evolution.

  4. Inducible and Conditional Deletion of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 5 Disrupts Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Garelick, Michael G.; Abel, Glen; Kuo, Chay T.; Storm, Daniel R.; Xia, Zhengui

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have led to the exciting idea that adult-born neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus may play a role in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. However, signaling mechanisms that regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis are not well defined. Here we report that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family, is selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain. We present evidence that shRNA suppression of ERK5 in adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells (aNPCs) reduces the number of neurons while increasing the number of cells expressing markers for stem/progenitor cells or proliferation. Furthermore, shERK5 attenuates both transcription and neuronal differentiation mediated by Neurogenin 2, a transcription factor expressed in adult hippocampal neural progenitor cells. By contrast, ectopic activation of endogenous ERK5 signaling via expression of constitutive active MEK5, an upstream activating kinase for ERK5, promotes neurogenesis in cultured aNPCs and in the dentate gyrus of the mouse brain. Moreover, neurotrophins including NT3 activate ERK5 and stimulate neuronal differentiation in aNPCs in an ERK5-dependent manner. Finally, inducible and conditional deletion of ERK5 specifically in the neurogenic regions of the adult mouse brain delays the normal progression of neuronal differentiation and attenuates adult neurogenesis in vivo. These data suggest ERK5 signaling as a critical regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:22645146

  5. University Sports Rivalries Provide Insights on Coalitional Psychology : Territorial Context Influences Reactions to Vocal Signals of Allegiance.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J; Falbo, Michael; Blanchard, Sophie; Cole, Ethan; Gazoul, Camille; Nader, Noreen; Murphy, Shannon

    2018-05-11

    Sports are an excellent venue for demonstrating evolutionary principles to audiences not familiar with academic research. Team sports and sports fandom feature dynamics of in-group loyalty and intergroup competition, influenced by our evolved coalitional psychology. We predicted that reactions to expressions signaling mutual team/group allegiance would vary as a function of the territorial context. Reactions should become more prevalent, positive, and enthusiastic as one moves from the home territory to a contested area, and from a contested area to a rival's territory during active rival engagement. We also predicted that men would be more responsive than women based on sex differences in evolved coalitional psychology. The research team visited public places immediately prior to 2016-2017 collegiate football and basketball games. A male research confederate wore a sweatshirt displaying the logo of one of the competing university teams and vocalized the team's most popular slogan when he saw a fan displaying similar logos. Observers followed 5 m behind, recording reactions (N = 597) and response positivity/enthusiasm. Reaction tone was most positive in the rival territory, least positive in the home territory, and intermediate in the periphery and contested territory. Rates of "no reaction" were lowest in the rival territory but were highest in the periphery. Men had higher reaction rates and more positive and enthusiastic reaction tones than women. Reactions generally followed predictions based on expected signal value. This project provides evidence that coalitional psychology influences dynamics related to university sports team rivalries and that context matters for expressions of alliance.

  6. Electric signalling in fruit trees in response to water applications and light-darkness conditions.

    PubMed

    Gurovich, Luis A; Hermosilla, Paulo

    2009-02-15

    A fundamental property of all living organisms is the generation and conduction of electrochemical impulses throughout their different tissues and organs, resulting from abiotic and biotic changes in environmental conditions. In plants and animals, signal transmission can occur over long and short distances, and it can correspond to intra- and inter-cellular communication mechanisms that determine the physiological behaviour of the organism. Rapid plant and animal responses to environmental changes are associated with electrical excitability and signalling. The same molecules and pathways are used to drive physiological responses, which are characterized by movement (physical displacement) in animals and by continuous growth in plants. In the field of environmental plant electrophysiology, automatic and continuous measurements of electrical potential differences (DeltaEP) between plant tissues can be effectively used to study information transport mechanisms and physiological responses that result from external stimuli on plants. A critical mass of data on electrical behaviour in higher plants has accumulated in the last 5 years, establishing plant neurobiology as the most recent discipline of plant science. In this work, electrical potential differences were monitored continuously using Ag/AgCl microelectrodes, which were inserted 15mm deep into sapwood at various positions in the trunks of several fruit-bearing trees. Electrodes were referenced to an unpolarisable Ag/AgCl microelectrode, which was installed 5cm deep in the soil. Systematic patterns of DeltaEP during day-night cycles and at different conditions of soil water availability are discussed as alternative tools to assess early plant stress conditions. This research relates to the adaptive response of trees to soil water availability and light-darkness cycles.

  7. Impact of multiconstellation satellite signal reception on performance of satellite-based navigation under adverse ionospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Ashik; Paul, Krishnendu Sekhar; Das, Aditi

    2017-03-01

    Application of multiconstellation satellites to address the issue of satellite signal outages during periods of equatorial ionospheric scintillations could prove to be an effective tool for maintaining the performance of satellite-based communication and navigation without compromise in accuracy and integrity. A receiver capable of tracking GPS, Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and Galileo satellites is operational at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, Calcutta, India, located near the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly in the Indian longitude sector. The present paper shows increased availability of satellites combining GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo constellations from Calcutta compared to GPS-only scenario and estimates intense scintillation-free (S4 < 0.6) satellite vehicle look angles at different hours of the postsunset period 19:00-01:00 LT during March 2014. A representative case of 1 March 2014 is highlighted in the paper and overall statistics for March 2014 presented to indicate quantitative advantages in terms of scintillation-free satellite vehicle look angles that may be utilized for planning communication and navigation channel spatial distribution under adverse ionospheric conditions. The number of satellites tracked and receiver position deviations has been found to show a good correspondence with the occurrence of intense scintillations and poor user receiver-satellite link geometry. The ground projection of the 350 km subionospheric points corresponding to multiconstellation shows extended spatial coverage during periods of scintillations (0.2 < S4 < 0.6) compared to GPS.

  8. Dopamine D1-like receptor signalling in the hippocampus and amygdala modulates the acquisition of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Heath, Florence C; Jurkus, Regimantas; Bast, Tobias; Pezze, Marie A; Lee, Jonathan L C; Voigt, J Peter; Stevenson, Carl W

    2015-07-01

    Dopamine D1-like receptor signalling is involved in contextual fear conditioning, but the brain regions involved and its role in other contextual fear memory processes remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate (1) the effects of SCH 23390, a dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist, on contextual fear memory encoding, retrieval and reconsolidation, and (2) if the effects of SCH 23390 on conditioning involve the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and/or basolateral amygdala (BLA). Rats were used to examine the effects of systemically administering SCH 23390 on the acquisition, consolidation, retrieval and reconsolidation of contextual fear memory, and on locomotor activity and shock sensitivity. We also determined the effects of MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, on contextual fear memory reconsolidation. The effects of infusing SCH 23390 locally into DH or BLA on contextual fear conditioning and locomotor activity were also examined. Systemic administration of SCH 23390 impaired contextual fear conditioning but had no effects on fear memory consolidation, retrieval or reconsolidation. MK-801 was found to impair reconsolidation, suggesting that the behavioural parameters used allowed for the pharmacological disruption of memory reconsolidation. The effects of SCH 23390 on conditioning were unlikely the result of any lasting drug effects on locomotor activity at memory test or any acute drug effects on shock sensitivity during conditioning. SCH 23390 infused into either DH or BLA impaired contextual fear conditioning and decreased locomotor activity. These findings suggest that dopamine D1-like receptor signalling in DH and BLA contributes to the acquisition of contextual fear memory.

  9. A Conversion of Wheatstone Bridge to Current-Loop Signal Conditioning for Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    Current loop circuitry replaced Wheatstone bridge circuitry to signal-condition strain gage transducers in more than 350 data channels for two different test programs at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The uncorrected test data from current loop circuitry had a lower noise level than data from comparable Wheatstone bridge circuitry, were linear with respect to gage-resistance change, and were uninfluenced by varying lead-wire resistance. The current loop channels were easier for the technicians to set up, verify, and operate than equivalent Wheatstone bridge channels. Design choices and circuit details are presented in this paper in addition to operational experience.

  10. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Glish, G.L.

    1993-04-27

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  11. Universal collisional activation ion trap mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    McLuckey, Scott A.; Goeringer, Douglas E.; Glish, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    A universal collisional activation ion trap comprises an ion trapping means containing a bath gas and having connected thereto a noise signal generator. A method of operating a universal collisional activation ion trap comprises the steps of: providing an ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a bath gas; and, generating a noise signal within the ion trapping means; introducing into the ion trapping means a substance that, when acted upon by the noise signal, undergoes collisional activation to form product ions.

  12. Comparing conditions for macrorealism: Leggett-Garg inequalities versus no-signaling in time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    We consider two different types of conditions which were proposed to test macrorealism in the context of a system described by a single dichotomic variable Q . This is the view that a macroscopic system evolving in time possesses definite properties which can be determined without disturbing the future or past state. The Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities, the most commonly studied test, are only necessary conditions for macrorealism, but, building on earlier work J. J. Halliwell, Phys. Rev. A 93, 022123 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.022123, it is shown that when the four three-time LG inequalities are augmented with a certain set of two-time inequalities also of the LG form, Fine's theorem applies and these augmented conditions are then both necessary and sufficient. A comparison is carried out with a very different set of necessary and sufficient conditions for macrorealism, namely the no-signaling in time (NSIT) conditions proposed by J. Kofler and C. Brukner, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052115 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052115 and L. Clemente and J. Kofler, Phys. Rev. A 91, 062103 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.062103, which ensure that all probabilities for Q at one and two times are independent of whether earlier or intermediate measurements are made in a given run, and do not require (but imply) the LG inequalities. We argue that tests based on the LG inequalities have the form of very weak classicality conditions and can be satisfied in the face of moderate interference effects, but those based on NSIT conditions have the form of much stronger coherence witness conditions, satisfied only for zero interference. The two tests differ in their implementation of noninvasive measurability and so are testing different notions of macrorealism: the augmented LG tests are indirect, entailing a combination of the results of different experiments with only compatible quantities measured in each experimental run, in close analogy with Bell tests, and are primarily tests for macrorealism

  13. An Evaluation of Specialist Mentoring for University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Rebecca; James, Alana I.

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring is often recommended to universities as a way of supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or mental health conditions (MHC), but there is little literature on optimising this support. We used mixed-methods to evaluate mentees' and mentors' experiences of a specialist mentoring programme. Mentees experienced academic,…

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    PubMed

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/ P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  15. Study of long path VLF signal propagation characteristics as observed from Indian Antarctic station, Maitri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmal, Sudipta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Pal, Sujay

    To examine quality and propagation characteristics of radio waves in a very long propagation path, Indian Centre for Space Physics participated in the 27th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica during 2007-2008. One Stanford University made AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Educational System for Observation and Modeling of Effects) Very Low Frequency (VLF) receiving system was installed at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri and about five weeks of data was recorded successfully from the Indian transmitter VTX and several other transmitting stations worldwide. Signal quality of VTX was found to be very good and signal amplitude was highly stable. The signal showed evidences of round the clock solar radiation in Antarctic region during local summer. We compute elevation angle of the Sun theoretically during this period. We compute the spatial distribution of the signal by using the LWPC model during the all-day and all-night propagation conditions. We compute the attenuation coefficient of the different propagation modes and observe that different modes are dominating in different propagation conditions. We also observe effects of the Antarctic polar ice in the propagation modes.

  16. Karrikin-KAI2 signalling provides Arabidopsis seeds with tolerance to abiotic stress and inhibits germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Waters, Mark T; Smith, Steven M

    2018-07-01

    The control of seed germination in response to environmental conditions is important for plant success. We investigated the role of the karrikin receptor KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) in the response of Arabidopsis seeds to osmotic stress, salinity and high temperature. Germination of the kai2 mutant was examined in response to NaCl, mannitol and elevated temperature. The effect of karrikin on germination of wild-type seeds, hypocotyl elongation and the expression of karrikin-responsive genes was also examined in response to such stresses. The kai2 seeds germinated less readily than wild-type seeds and germination was more sensitive to inhibition by abiotic stress. Karrikin-induced KAI2 signalling stimulated germination of wild-type seeds under favourable conditions, but, surprisingly, inhibited germination in the presence of osmolytes or at elevated temperature. By contrast, GA stimulated germination of wild-type seeds and mutants under all conditions. Karrikin induced expression of DLK2 and KUF1 genes and inhibited hypocotyl elongation independently of osmotic stress. Under mild osmotic stress, karrikin enhanced expression of DREB2A, WRKY33 and ERF5 genes, but not ABA signalling genes. Thus, the karrikin-KAI2 signalling system can protect against abiotic stress, first by providing stress tolerance, and second by inhibiting germination under conditions unfavourable to seedling establishment. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Photoplethysmography Signal Analysis for Optimal Region-of-Interest Determination in Video Imaging on a Built-In Smartphone under Different Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunyoung; Nam, Yun-Cheol

    2017-10-19

    Smartphones and tablets are widely used in medical fields, which can improve healthcare and reduce healthcare costs. Many medical applications for smartphones and tablets have already been developed and widely used by both health professionals and patients. Specifically, video recordings of fingertips made using a smartphone camera contain a pulsatile component caused by the cardiac pulse equivalent to that present in a photoplethysmographic signal. By performing peak detection on the pulsatile signal, it is possible to estimate a continuous heart rate and a respiratory rate. To estimate the heart rate and respiratory rate accurately, which pixel regions of the color bands give the most optimal signal quality should be investigated. In this paper, we investigate signal quality to determine the best signal quality by the largest amplitude values for three different smartphones under different conditions. We conducted several experiments to obtain reliable PPG signals and compared the PPG signal strength in the three color bands when the flashlight was both on and off. We also evaluated the intensity changes of PPG signals obtained from the smartphones with motion artifacts and fingertip pressure force. Furthermore, we have compared the PSNR of PPG signals of the full-size images with that of the region of interests (ROIs).

  18. Regulation of Hippo signalling by p38 signalling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dashun; Li, Xiaojiao; Sun, Li; Huang, Ping; Ying, Hao; Wang, Hui; Wu, Jiarui; Song, Haiyun

    2016-08-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway has a crucial role in growth control during development, and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent studies uncover multiple upstream regulatory inputs into Hippo signalling, which affects phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yki/YAP/TAZ by Wts/Lats. Here we identify the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway as a new upstream branch of the Hippo pathway. In Drosophila, overexpression of MAPKK gene licorne (lic), or MAPKKK gene Mekk1, promotes Yki activity and induces Hippo target gene expression. Loss-of-function studies show that lic regulates Hippo signalling in ovary follicle cells and in the wing disc. Epistasis analysis indicates that Mekk1 and lic affect Hippo signalling via p38b and wts We further demonstrate that the Mekk1-Lic-p38b cascade inhibits Hippo signalling by promoting F-actin accumulation and Jub phosphorylation. In addition, p38 signalling modulates actin filaments and Hippo signalling in parallel to small GTPases Ras, Rac1, and Rho1. Lastly, we show that p38 signalling regulates Hippo signalling in mammalian cell lines. The Lic homologue MKK3 promotes nuclear localization of YAP via the actin cytoskeleton. Upregulation or downregulation of the p38 pathway regulates YAP-mediated transcription. Our work thus reveals a conserved crosstalk between the p38 MAPK pathway and the Hippo pathway in growth regulation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS.

  19. Matching Condition of Direct THz-Signal Detection from On-Chip Resonating Antennas with CMOS Transistors in Non-resonant Plasma Wave Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, S.; Lim, S.; Kim, C.-Y.; Hong, S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents matching condition for detector at THz frequencies, which directly read signals from an integrated antenna. We use direct THz-signal detections with CMOS transistors in non-resonant plasma wave mode, which are embedded in on-chip resonating antennas. The detector detects THz envelope signals directly from the side edges of the on-chip patch antennas. The signal detection mechanism is studied in the view of the impedance conditions of the antenna and the detector. The detectors are implemented with stacked transistors structures to achieve high responsivity. The measured responsivities of the detectors with antenna impedances that were simulated to be 599.7, 912.3, 1565, and 3190.6 Ω agree well with the calculated values. Moreover, the responsivity dependence on the detector impedance is shown with two different input impedances of the detectors. Since CMOS circuit models from foundry are not accurate at frequencies higher than f t , the matching guideline between the antenna and the detector is very useful in designing high responsivity detectors. This study found that a detector has to have a large input impedance conjugately matched to the antenna's impedance to have high responsivity.

  20. Matching Condition of Direct THz-Signal Detection from On-Chip Resonating Antennas with CMOS Transistors in Non-resonant Plasma Wave Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, S.; Lim, S.; Kim, C.-Y.; Hong, S.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents matching condition for detector at THz frequencies, which directly read signals from an integrated antenna. We use direct THz-signal detections with CMOS transistors in non-resonant plasma wave mode, which are embedded in on-chip resonating antennas. The detector detects THz envelope signals directly from the side edges of the on-chip patch antennas. The signal detection mechanism is studied in the view of the impedance conditions of the antenna and the detector. The detectors are implemented with stacked transistors structures to achieve high responsivity. The measured responsivities of the detectors with antenna impedances that were simulated to be 599.7, 912.3, 1565, and 3190.6 Ω agree well with the calculated values. Moreover, the responsivity dependence on the detector impedance is shown with two different input impedances of the detectors. Since CMOS circuit models from foundry are not accurate at frequencies higher than f t , the matching guideline between the antenna and the detector is very useful in designing high responsivity detectors. This study found that a detector has to have a large input impedance conjugately matched to the antenna's impedance to have high responsivity.

  1. Proceedings of USC (University of Southern California) Workshop on VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) & Modern Signal Processing, held at Los Angeles, California on 1-3 November 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-15

    Concurrent Algorithms", A. Cremers , Dortmund University, West Germany, and T. Hibbard, JPL, Pasadena, CA 64 "An Overview of Signal Representations in...n O f\\ n O P- A -> Problem-oriented specification of concurrent algorithms Armin B. Cremers and Thomas N. Hibbard Preliminary version September...1982 s* Armin B. Cremers Computer Science Department University of Dortmund P.O. Box 50 05 00 D-4600 Dortmund 50 Fed. Rep. Germany

  2. Hypoxic Conditioned Medium From Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Promotes Mouse Liver Regeneration Through JAK/STAT3 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Chul; Jeong, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Kuon

    2016-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) mainly exert their function by secreting materials that are collectively termed the secretome. Despite recent attention to the secretome as an alternative to stem cell therapy, the culture conditions for generating optimal secretome contents have not been determined. Therefore, we investigated the role of hypoxic-conditioned media (HCM) from ASCs. Normoxic-conditioned media (NCM) and HCM were obtained after culturing ASCs in 20% O2 or 1% O2 for 24 hours, respectively. Subsequently, partially hepatectomized mice were infused with saline, control medium, NCM, or HCM, and then sera and liver specimens were obtained for analyses. Hypoxia (1% O2) significantly increased mRNA expression of mediators from ASCs, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). HCM infusion significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells in the liver (p < .05). HCM infusion significantly increased phospho-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) expression in the liver (p < .05). To determine the role of IL-6 in liver regeneration, we then performed IL-6 RNA interference study. Conditioned media (CM) obtained from ASCs, which were transfected with either siIL-6 or siControl, were administered to partially hepatectomized mice. The siIL-6 CM groups exhibited lower liver proliferation (Ki67-positive cells) and markers of regeneration (protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, p-STAT3, HGF, and VEGF and liver weights) than the siControl CM groups (p < .05). Taken together, hypoxic preconditioning of ASCs increased expression of mediators promoting anti-inflammatory and regenerative responses. The liver regenerative effects of HCM appear to be mediated by persistent and uninhibited expression of STAT3 in the liver, which results from decreased expression of SOCS3

  3. Ventilatory control in a primitive fish: signal conditioning via non-linear O2 affinity.

    PubMed

    Katz, S L

    1996-02-01

    Gas exchange in the gills of the air-breathing fish Amia calva was modelled to determine how the gills modify fluctuations in venous P O2. These fluctuations form the physiological signal for aerial ventilation in these fish. This study was performed to examine the signal conditioning role that the gills may play in the control system that regulates P O2. The model incorporated a non-linear Hb-O2 affinity relationship. Fluctuations in venous P O2 were modelled as sinusoids, covering a range of frequencies and amplitudes. Mean venous P O2 ranged from normoxic to hypoxic values. Over a broad range of parameters the gills amplify fluctuations in venous P O2 during transit to the arterial side. It was also observed that aquatic hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of the gills in maximizing arterial P O2, while increases in venous P O2 increase the effectiveness of the gills in the face of similar blood-water P O2 gradients. Each of these performance features is a consequence of the sigmoid Hb-O2 affinity relationship.

  4. A methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission signals to identify fracture timing from human cadaver spine impact tests.

    PubMed

    Arun, Mike W J; Yoganandan, Narayan; Stemper, Brian D; Pintar, Frank A

    2014-12-01

    While studies have used acoustic sensors to determine fracture initiation time in biomechanical studies, a systematic procedure is not established to process acoustic signals. The objective of the study was to develop a methodology to condition distorted acoustic emission data using signal processing techniques to identify fracture initiation time. The methodology was developed from testing a human cadaver lumbar spine column. Acoustic sensors were glued to all vertebrae, high-rate impact loading was applied, load-time histories were recorded (load cell), and fracture was documented using CT. Compression fracture occurred to L1 while other vertebrae were intact. FFT of raw voltage-time traces were used to determine an optimum frequency range associated with high decibel levels. Signals were bandpass filtered in this range. Bursting pattern was found in the fractured vertebra while signals from other vertebrae were silent. Bursting time was associated with time of fracture initiation. Force at fracture was determined using this time and force-time data. The methodology is independent of selecting parameters a priori such as fixing a voltage level(s), bandpass frequency and/or using force-time signal, and allows determination of force based on time identified during signal processing. The methodology can be used for different body regions in cadaver experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of signal compounds and incubation conditions on the culturability of freshwater bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Alke; Nübel, Ulrich; Cypionka, Heribert; Overmann, Jörg

    2003-04-01

    The effect of signal compounds and of different incubation conditions on the culturability (i.e., the fraction of all cells capable of growth) of natural bacterioplankton from the eutrophic lake Zwischenahner Meer was investigated over a period of 20 months. Numbers of growing cells were determined by the most-probable-number technique in liquid media containing low concentrations (10 micro M) of the signal compounds N-(oxohexanoyl)-DL-homoserine lactone, N-(butyryl)-DL-homoserine lactone, cyclic AMP (cAMP), or ATP. cAMP was the most effective signal compound, leading to significantly increased cultivation efficiencies of up to 10% of the total bacterial counts. Microautoradiography with [2,8-(3)H]cAMP, combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization, demonstrated that cAMP was taken up by 18% of all cells. The bacterial cAMP uptake systems had a very low K(m) value of

  6. Adaptive signal processing and higher order time- frequency analysis for acoustic and vibration signatures in condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a useful engineering technique to detect and analyse faults in rotating machinery. The methods developed are based on the advanced signal processing such as the adaptive signal processing and higher-order time frequency methods. The two-stage Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE), using adaptive signal processing, has been developed for increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio of impulsive signals. The enhanced signal can then be analysed using time frequency methods to identify fault characteristics. However, if after pre-processing by the two stage ALE, the SNR of the signals is low, the residual noise often hinders clear identification of the fault characteristics in the time-frequency domain. In such cases, higher order time-frequency methods have been proposed and studied. As examples of rotating machinery, the internal combustion engine and an industrial gear box are considered in this thesis. The noise signal from an internal combustion engine and vibration signal measured on a gear box are studied in detail. Typically an impulsive signal manifests itself when the fault occurs in the machinery and is embedded in background noise, such as the fundamental frequency and its harmonic orders of the rotation speed and broadband noise. The two-stage ALE is developed for reducing this background noise. Conditions for the choice of adaptive filter parameters are studied and suitable adaptive algorithms given. The enhanced impulsive signal is analysed in the time- frequency domain using the Wigner higher order moment spectra (WHOMS) and the multi-time WHOMS (which is a dual form of the WHOMS). The WHOMS suffers from unwanted cross-terms, which increase dramatically as the order increases. Novel expressions for the cross-terms in WHOMS have been presented. The number of cross-terms can be reduced by taking the principal slice of the WHOMS. The residual cross-terms are smoothed by using a general class of kernel functions and the

  7. Interleukin-6 trans-signaling in the senescent mouse brain is involved in infection-related deficits in contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Burton, Michael D; Johnson, Rodney W

    2012-07-01

    Excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the senescent brain in response to peripheral immune stimulation is thought to induce behavioral pathology, however, few studies have examined if the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines is accompanied by an increase in cytokine signaling. Here, we focused on IL-6 as a prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokine and used phosphorylated STAT3 as a marker of IL-6 signaling. In an initial study, IL-6 mRNA and the magnitude and duration of STAT3 activation were increased in the hippocampus of senescent mice compared to adults after i.p. injection of LPS. The LPS-induced increase in STAT3 activity was ablated in aged IL-6(-/-) mice, suggesting IL-6 is a key driver of STAT3 activity in the aged brain. To determine if IL-6 activated the classical or trans-signaling pathway, before receiving LPS i.p., aged mice were injected ICV with sgp130, an antagonist of the trans-signaling pathway. Importantly, the LPS-induced increases in both IL-6 and STAT3 activity in the hippocampus were inhibited by sgp130. To assess hippocampal function, aged mice were injected ICV with sgp130 and i.p. with LPS immediately after the acquisition phase of contextual fear conditioning, and immobility was assessed in the retention phase 48h later. LPS reduced immobility in aged mice, indicating immune activation interfered with memory consolidation. However, sgp130 blocked the deficits in contextual fear conditioning caused by LPS. Taken together, the results suggest IL-6 trans-signaling is increased in the senescent brain following peripheral LPS challenge and that sgp130 may protect against infection-related neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in the aged. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of a Readout Circuit on SOI Technology for the Signal Conditioning of a Neutron Detector in Harsh Environment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ben Krit, S.; Coulie-Castellani, K.; Rahajandraibe, W.

    2015-07-01

    A transistor level implementation of the analog block of a readout system on SOI process is presented here. This system is dedicated to the signal conditioning of a neutron detector in harsh environment. The different parts of the readout circuits are defined. The harsh environment constraints (crossing particle effect, high temperatures) are also detailed and modeled in the circuit in order to test and evaluate the characteristics of the designed block when working under these conditions. (authors)

  9. Study of long path VLF signal propagation characteristics as observed from Indian Antarctic station, Maitri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-10-01

    To examine the quality and propagation characteristics of the Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves in a very long propagation path, Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata, participated in the 27th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica during 2007-2008. One Stanford University made AWESOME VLF receiving system was installed at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri and about five weeks of data were recorded successfully from the Indian transmitter VTX and several other transmitting stations worldwide. The quality of the signal from the VTX transmitter was found to be very good, consistent and highly stable in day and night. The signal shows the evidences of the presence of the 24 h solar radiation in the Antarctic region during local summer. Here we report the both narrow band and broadband VLF observations from this site. The diurnal variations of VTX signal (18.2 kHz) are presented systematically for Antarctica path and also compared the same with the variations for a short propagation path (VTX-Kolkata). We compute the spatial distribution of the VTX signal along the VTX-Antarctica path using the most well-known LWPC model for an all-day and all-night propagation conditions. The calculated signal amplitudes corresponding to those conditions relatively corroborate the observations. We also present the attenuation rate of the dominant waveguide modes corresponding to those propagation conditions where the effects of the Antarctic polar ice on the attenuation of different propagating waveguide modes are visible.

  10. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Farrahizadeh, Maryam; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested a key role for the cannabinoid system in the modulation of conditioned fear memory. Likewise, much of the literature has revealed that the serotonergic system affects Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. A high level of functional overlap between the serotonin and cannabinoid systems has also been reported. To clarify the interaction between the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT4) receptor and the cannabinoid CB1 receptor in the acquisition of fear memory, the effects of 5-HT4 agents, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; CB1 receptor agonist), and the combined use of these drugs on fear learning were studied in a fear conditioning task in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of ACPA (0.1 mg/kg) decreased the percentage of freezing time in both context- and tone-dependent fear conditions, suggesting impairment of the acquisition of fear memory. Pre-training, intra-hippocampal (CA1) microinjection of RS67333, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 or 0.2 µg/mouse impaired contextual and tone fear memory, respectively. A subthreshold dose of RS67333 (0.005 µg/mouse) did not alter the ACPA response in either condition. Moreover, intra-CA1 microinjection of RS23597 as a 5-HT4 receptor antagonist did not alter context-dependent fear memory acquisition, but it did impair tone-dependent fear memory acquisition. However, a subthreshold dose of the RS23597 (0.01 µg/mouse) potentiated ACPA-induced fear memory impairment in both conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the blockade of hippocampal 5-HT4 serotonergic system modulates cannabinoid signaling induced by the activation of CB1 receptors in conditioned fear. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Intelligent Signal Processing for Active Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-17

    FUNDING NUMSI Intelligent Signal Processing for Active Control C-NO001489-J-1633 G. AUTHOR(S) P.A. Ramamoorthy 7. P2RFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...unclassified .unclassified unclassified L . I mu-. W UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Intelligent Signal Processing For Rctiue Control...NAURI RESEARCH Conkact No: NO1489-J-1633 P.L: P.A.imoodh Intelligent Signal Processing For Active Control 1 Executive Summary The thrust of this

  12. Enhancing the Bandwidth Utilization in the Millimeter Wave Band and to Modernize the Digital Signal Processing Laboratory at the California State University, Bakersfield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-16

    PIs at Boise State University. . . . 39 3.16 Phase noise measurement results via mm-wave test bed. . . . . . . . 40 iv Chapter 1 Foreword WIRELESS...enabling the PI to acquire various testing 1 and measurement equipment that can be used to enhance instructional, research, and outreach activities at...etc. Although the Digital Signal Processing and Communication Laboratory (DSPCL) at CSUB was equipped with basic testing and measurement equipment and

  13. Condition sensor system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.; Morgan, J. E.; Mandell, A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The condition sensor system comprises a condition detector which produces a pulse when a parameter of the monitored condition exceeds a desired threshold. A resettable condition counter counts each pulse. A resettable timer is preset to produce a particular time frame. The counter produces a condition signal when the accumulated number of pulses within the time frame is equal to or greater than a preset count. Control means responsive to the incoming pulses and to the condition signal produce control signals that control utilization devices. After a suitable delay, the last detected pulse simultaneously resets the pulse counter and the timer, and prepares them for sensing another condition occurrence within the time frame. The invention has particular utility in the process of detecting rocking motions of blind people. A controlled, audible, bio-feedback signal is provided which constitutes a warning to the blind person that he is rocking.

  14. Smelling chemosensory signals of males in anxious versus nonanxious condition increases state anxiety of female subjects.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jessica; Demmel, Maria; Schöpf, Veronika; Kleemann, Anna Maria; Kopietz, Rainer; May, Johanna; Schreder, Tatjana; Zernecke, Rebekka; Brückmann, Hartmut; Wiesmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of this experiment was that humans in an anxious state compared with a nonanxious state are able to increase anxiety levels in other humans via their body odors. Specifically, we hypothesized that male chemosensory anxiety signals compared with neutral chemosignals increase state anxiety of female subjects. Thirteen male subjects participated in 2 different sweat donation sessions: chemosignals were collected during participation in a high rope course (anxiety condition) and in an ergometer workout (neutral condition). State and trait anxiety were evaluated in 20 female odor recipients using Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory in a double-blind design. Comparison of state anxiety of odor donors between control and anxiety condition differed significantly indicating that our model of anxiety induction successfully led to the expected change in emotion. Comparison of state anxiety of odor recipients showed a trend toward higher state anxiety in the anxiety condition compared with the neutral condition after 5 min of odor exposure. After 20 min of odor exposure, state anxiety of female subjects was significantly higher during the perception of sweat collected during the anxiety condition in comparison with the perception of sweat collected during the neutral condition. This experiment gives evidence that male anxiety chemosignals compared with neutral chemosignals are capable of inducing an increased state anxiety in female subjects.

  15. A Universal Role for Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate-Mediated Signaling in Plant Gravitropism1[W

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Imara Y.; Hung, Chiu-Yueh; Brady, Shari; Muday, Gloria K.; Boss, Wendy F.

    2006-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) has been implicated in the early signaling events of plants linking gravity sensing to the initiation of the gravitropic response. However, at present, the contribution of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway in plant gravitropism is not well understood. To delineate the role of InsP3 in plant gravitropism, we generated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes InsP3. The transgenic plants show no significant differences in growth and life cycle compared to wild-type plants, although basal InsP3 levels are reduced by greater than 90% compared to wild-type plants. With gravistimulation, InsP3 levels in inflorescence stems of transgenic plants show no detectable change, whereas in wild-type plant inflorescences, InsP3 levels increase approximately 3-fold within the first 5 to 15 min of gravistimulation, preceding visible bending. Furthermore, gravitropic bending of the roots, hypocotyls, and inflorescence stems of the InsP 5-ptase transgenic plants is reduced by approximately 30% compared with the wild type. Additionally, the cold memory response of the transgenic plants is attenuated, indicating that InsP3 contributes to gravisignaling in the cold. The transgenic roots were shown to have altered calcium sensitivity in controlling gravitropic response, a reduction in basipetal indole-3-acetic acid transport, and a delay in the asymmetric auxin-induced β-glucuronidase expression with gravistimulation as compared to the controls. The compromised gravitropic response in all the major axes of growth in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants reveals a universal role for InsP3 in the gravity signal transduction cascade of plants. PMID:16384898

  16. Experiences of a Multidisciplinary Course on Geo-Signal Processing from a DSP Perspective Offered in Electrical Engineering at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousa, W. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the experience gained in, and the efforts made toward, introducing and implementing a new course in the challenging and important area of geophysical signal processing at the Electrical Engineering (EE) Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The new course,…

  17. Mesd Is a Universal Inhibitor of Wnt Co-receptor LRP5/6 and Blocks Wnt/β-catenin Signaling in Cancer Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wenyan; Liu, Chia-Chen; Thottassery, Jaideep V.; Bu, Guojun; Li, Yonghe

    2010-01-01

    Mesd is a specialized chaperone for the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-5 (LRP5) and LRP6. In our previous studies, we found that Mesd binds to mature LRP6 on the cell surface and blocks the binding of Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1(Dkk1) to LRP6. Herein, we demonstrated that Mesd also binds to LRP5 with a high affinity, and is a universal inhibitor of LRP5/6 ligands. Mesd not only blocks Wnt antagonists Dkk1 and Sclerostin binding to LRP5/6, but also inhibits Wnt3A and Rspondin1-induced Wnt/β-catenin signaling in LRP5/6 expressing cells. We also found that Mesd, Dkk1 and Sclerostin compete with one another for binding to LRP5 and LRP6 at the cell surface. More importantly, we demonstrated that Mesd is able to suppress LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells, and inhibits PC-3 cell proliferation. Our results indicate that recombinant Mesd protein is a useful tool for studying Wnt/β-catenin signaling on the cell surface, and has a potential therapeutic role in Wnt-dependent cancers. PMID:20446724

  18. The spatiotemporal order of signaling events unveils the logic of development signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao; Owen, Markus R; Mao, Yanlan

    2016-08-01

    Animals from worms and insects to birds and mammals show distinct body plans; however, the embryonic development of diverse body plans with tissues and organs within is controlled by a surprisingly few signaling pathways. It is well recognized that combinatorial use of and dynamic interactions among signaling pathways follow specific logic to control complex and accurate developmental signaling and patterning, but it remains elusive what such logic is, or even, what it looks like. We have developed a computational model for Drosophila eye development with innovated methods to reveal how interactions among multiple pathways control the dynamically generated hexagonal array of R8 cells. We obtained two novel findings. First, the coupling between the long-range inductive signals produced by the proneural Hh signaling and the short-range restrictive signals produced by the antineural Notch and EGFR signaling is essential for generating accurately spaced R8s. Second, the spatiotemporal orders of key signaling events reveal a robust pattern of lateral inhibition conducted by Ato-coordinated Notch and EGFR signaling to collectively determine R8 patterning. This pattern, stipulating the orders of signaling and comparable to the protocols of communication, may help decipher the well-appreciated but poorly defined logic of developmental signaling. The model is available upon request. hao.zhu@ymail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. A research of the propagation of LoRa signals at 433 and 868 MHz in difficult urban conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, V.; Borisov, A.

    2018-05-01

    The article examines the issue of investigating the propagation of LoRa signals at 433 MHz and 868 MHz in difficult urban conditions. A theoretical calculation was made, which showed that the signal propagation distance is about 1.8 km for the module with a frequency of 433 MHz and about 915 m for the 868 MHz frequency. Experimental studies show that the transmission distance of the 868 MHz module is approximately 660 m, module 433 MHz – 730 m. The discrepancy is due to the influence of interference, which is always present in the modern city, as well as with complex and diverse buildings, which is not taken into account in the parameter SOM when calculating the transmission range.

  20. Interaction Between ABA Signaling and Copper Homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Àngela; Romero, Paco; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2016-07-01

    ABA is involved in plant responses to non-optimal environmental conditions, including nutrient availability. Since copper (Cu) is a very important micronutrient, unraveling how ABA affects Cu uptake and distribution is relevant to ensure adequate Cu nutrition in plants subjected to stress conditions. Inversely, knowledge about how the plant nutritional status can interfere with ABA biosynthesis and signaling mechanisms is necessary to optimize stress tolerance in horticultural crops. Here the reciprocal influence between ABA and Cu content was addressed by using knockout mutants and overexpressing transgenic plants of high affinity plasma membrane Cu transporters (pmCOPT) with altered Cu uptake. Exogenous ABA inhibited pmCOPT expression and drastically modified COPT2-driven localization in roots. ABA regulated SPL7, the main transcription factor responsive for Cu deficiency responses, and subsequently affected expression of its targets. ABA biosynthesis (aba2) and signaling (hab1-1 abi1-2) mutants differentially responded to ABA according to Cu levels. Alteration of Cu homeostasis in the pmCOPT mutants affected ABA biosynthesis, transport and signaling as genes such as NCED3, WRKY40, HY5 and ABI5 were differentially modulated by Cu status, and also in the pmCOPT and ABA mutants. Altered Cu uptake resulted in modified plant sensitivity to salt-mediated increases in endogenous ABA. The overall results provide evidence for reciprocal cross-talk between Cu status and ABA metabolism and signaling. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. New Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The public-private alliance signals a future in which self-serving agreements could become the coin of the realm. Such a future would be a betrayal of the historical promise of public universities to innovate in ways that expand access to higher education. Given the rise of market-based models in educational policy circles, the threat of the…

  2. On the Signaling of Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors: Collision- and Folding-Based Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yi; Uzawa, Takanori; White, Ryan J.; DeMartini, Daniel; Plaxco, Kevin W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new class of electrochemical sensors predicated on target binding-induced folding of electrode-bound redox-modified aptamers and directed against targets ranging from small molecules to proteins. Previous studies of the relationship between gain and probe-density for these electrochemical, aptamer-based (E-AB) sensors suggest that signal transduction is linked to binding-induced changes in the efficiency with which the attached redox tag strikes the electrode. This, in turn, suggests that even well folded aptamers may support E-AB signaling if target binding sufficiently alters their flexibility. Here we investigate this using a thrombin-binding aptamer that undergoes binding-induced folding at low ionic strength but can be forced to adopt a folded conformation at higher ionic strength even in the absence of its protein target. We find that, under conditions in which the thrombin aptamer is fully folded prior to target binding, we still obtain a ca. 30% change in E-AB signal upon saturated target levels. In contrast, however, under conditions in which the aptamer is unfolded in the absence of target and thus undergoes binding-induced folding the observed signal change is twice as great. The ability of folded aptamers to support E-AB signaling, however, is not universal: a fully folded anti-IgE aptamer, for example, produces only an extremely small, ca. 2.5% signal change in the presence of target despite the larger steric bulk of this protein. Thus, while it appears that binding-induced changes in the dynamics in fully folded aptamers can support E-AB signaling, this signaling mechanism may not be general, and in order to ensure the design of high-gain sensors binding must be linked to a large-scale conformational change. PMID:20436787

  3. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Guidelines for operating traffic signals during low-volume conditions

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-08-01

    The main objective of this research is to investigate the performance of flashing traffic signals as a device to control traffic periods with low traffic volumes, particularly during late night/early morning hours. First, the study identifies the mai...

  5. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    PubMed

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power.

  6. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  7. Fear conditioning is associated with altered integration of PLC and ERK signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Colin T; Caldwell, Kevin K

    2004-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) are proline-directed, serine/threonine kinases that regulate a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and plasticity. In the present report, we provide evidence that ERK2 and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC)-beta and -gamma isozymes interact in the rat hippocampal formation. We found that anti-PLC-beta1a, -beta2, -beta4, -gamma1 and -gamma2, but not -beta3, immune complexes isolated from rat hippocampal formation postnuclear fractions contain anti-ERK2 immunoreactivity. Further, we show that PLC catalytic activity is associated with anti-ERK2 immunoprecipitates isolated from the hippocampal formation, and that the amount of enzyme activity is significantly increased following fear-conditioned learning. The observed interactions may be mediated by consensus sequences conforming to an ERK2 docking site, termed a D-domain, that we identified in PLC-beta1a, -beta2, -beta4 -gamma1 and -gamma2. Based on these results, we propose that PLC-beta and PLC-gamma isozymes form signaling complexes with ERK2 in rat brain, and these complexes play critical roles in learning and memory, as well as a variety of other neuronal functions.

  8. Calcium Signaling enhancement during oocyte maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Ullah, Ghanim; Machaca, Khaled

    2006-03-01

    A Ca2+ signal with a special spatial and temporal characteristic universally removes cell-cycle arrest after fertilization of a mature egg cell. The Ca2+ signal is characterized by a fast rise of intracellular Ca2+ and a slow decay on the time scale of minutes. We use computational modeling of Ca2+ release on the microscale (Ca2+ puffs) and cell-scale in conjunction with experimental knowledge of the changes in the Ca2+ signaling apparatus during oocyte maturation and changing signaling patterns to explore the relationship between organization and sensitivity of IP3 receptors and SERCA pumps and the resulting signaling patterns. We hypothesize that potentiation of the IP3 receptors during oocyte maturation is the main cause for the differentiation in the signaling patterns.

  9. Applying support vector machine on hybrid fNIRS/EEG signal to classify driver's conditions (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thien; Ahn, Sangtae; Jang, Hyojung; Jun, Sung C.; Kim, Jae G.

    2016-03-01

    Driver's condition plays a critical role in driving safety. The fact that about 20 percent of automobile accidents occurred due to driver fatigue leads to a demand for developing a method to monitor driver's status. In this study, we acquired brain signals such as oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin and neuronal electrical activity by a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system. Experiments were conducted with 11 subjects under two conditions: Normal condition, when subjects had enough sleep, and sleep deprivation condition, when subject did not sleep previous night. During experiment, subject performed a driving task with a car simulation system for 30 minutes. After experiment, oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin changes were derived from fNIRS data, while beta and alpha band relative power were calculated from EEG data. Decrement of oxy-hemoglobin, beta band power, and increment of alpha band power were found in sleep deprivation condition compare to normal condition. These features were then applied to classify two conditions by Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA). The ratio of alpha-beta relative power showed classification accuracy with a range between 62% and 99% depending on a subject. However, utilization of both EEG and fNIRS features increased accuracy in the range between 68% and 100%. The highest increase of accuracy is from 63% using EEG to 99% using both EEG and fNIRS features. In conclusion, the enhancement of classification accuracy is shown by adding a feature from fNIRS to the feature from EEG using FLDA which provides the need of developing a hybrid fNIRS/EEG system.

  10. Financial Measures Project. New Developments in Measuring Financial Conditions of Colleges and Universities: Papers Presented at a Working Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Community Trust, NY.

    Papers presented at a working conference on new developments in measuring financial conditions of colleges and universities included the following: "Using Financial Indicators for Public Policy Purposes," by George W. Bonham; "Conceptual Advances in Specifying Financial Indicators: Cash Flows in the Short and Long Run," by Hans…

  11. Signal functions in delayed reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted with pigeons to examine the role of the signal in delay-of-reinforcement procedures. In the first, a blackout accompanying a period of nonreinforcement increased key-peck response rates maintained by immediate reinforcement. The effects of dissociating the blackout from the delay interval were examined in the second experiment. In three conditions, blackouts and unsignaled delays were negatively correlated or occurred randomly with respect to one another. A signaled delay and an unsignaled delay that omitted the blackouts were studied in two other conditions. All delay-of-reinforcement conditions generally produced response rates lower than those produced by immediate reinforcement. Signaled delays maintained higher response rates than did any of the various unsignaled-delay conditions, with or without dissociated blackouts. The effects of these latter conditions did not differ systematically from one another. The final experiment showed that response rates varied as a function of the frequency with which a blackout accompanied delay intervals. By eliminating a number of methodological difficulties present in previous delay-of-reinforcement experiments, these results suggest the importance of the signal in maintaining responding during delay-of-reinforcement procedures and, conversely, the importance of the delay interval in decreasing responding. PMID:16812387

  12. Biochar and microbial signaling: production conditions determine effects on microbial communication.

    PubMed

    Masiello, Caroline A; Chen, Ye; Gao, Xiaodong; Liu, Shirley; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Bennett, Matthew R; Rudgers, Jennifer A; Wagner, Daniel S; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Silberg, Jonathan J

    2013-10-15

    Charcoal has a long soil residence time, which has resulted in its production and use as a carbon sequestration technique (biochar). A range of biological effects can be triggered by soil biochar that can positively and negatively influence carbon storage, such as changing the decomposition rate of organic matter and altering plant biomass production. Sorption of cellular signals has been hypothesized to underlie some of these effects, but it remains unknown whether the binding of biochemical signals occurs, and if so, on time scales relevant to microbial growth and communication. We examined biochar sorption of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) intercellular signaling molecule used by many gram-negative soil microbes to regulate gene expression. We show that wood biochars disrupt communication within a growing multicellular system that is made up of sender cells that synthesize AHL and receiver cells that express green fluorescent protein in response to an AHL signal. However, biochar inhibition of AHL-mediated cell-cell communication varied, with the biochar prepared at 700 °C (surface area of 301 m(2)/g) inhibiting cellular communication 10-fold more than an equivalent mass of biochar prepared at 300 °C (surface area of 3 m(2)/g). These findings provide the first direct evidence that biochars elicit a range of effects on gene expression dependent on intercellular signaling, implicating the method of biochar preparation as a parameter that could be tuned to regulate microbial-dependent soil processes, like nitrogen fixation and pest attack of root crops.

  13. Biochar and microbial signaling: production conditions determine effects on microbial communication

    PubMed Central

    Masiello, Caroline A.; Chen, Ye; Gao, Xiaodong; Liu, Shirley; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Bennett, Matthew R.; Rudgers, Jennifer A.; Wagner, Daniel S.; Zygourakis, Kyriacos; Silberg, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Charcoal has a long soil residence time, which has resulted in its production and use as a carbon sequestration technique (biochar). A range of biological effects can be triggered by soil biochar that can positively and negatively influence carbon storage, such as changing the decomposition rate of organic matter and altering plant biomass production. Sorption of cellular signals has been hypothesized to underlie some of these effects, but it remains unknown whether the binding of biochemical signals occurs, and if so, on time scales relevant to microbial growth and communication. We examined biochar sorption of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) intercellular signaling molecule used by many gram-negative soil microbes to regulate gene expression. We show that wood biochars disrupt communication within a growing multicellular system that is made up of sender cells that synthesize AHL and receiver cells that express green fluorescent protein in response to an AHL signal. However, biochar inhibition of AHL-mediated cell-cell communication varied, with the biochar prepared at 700°C (surface area of 301 m2/g) inhibiting cellular communication 10-fold more than an equivalent mass of biochar prepared at 300°C (surface area of 3 m2/g). These findings provide the first direct evidence that biochars elicit a range of effects on gene expression dependent on intercellular signaling, implicating the method of biochar preparation as a parameter that could be tuned to regulate microbial-dependent soil processes, like nitrogen fixation and pest attack of root crops. PMID:24066613

  14. Wnt Signaling in Cardiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Kevin C M; Blankesteijn, W Matthijs

    2015-07-01

    Wnt signaling encompasses multiple and complex signaling cascades and is involved in many developmental processes such as tissue patterning, cell fate specification, and control of cell division. Consequently, accurate regulation of signaling activities is essential for proper embryonic development. Wnt signaling is mostly silent in the healthy adult organs but a reactivation of Wnt signaling is generally observed under pathological conditions. This has generated increasing interest in this pathway from a therapeutic point of view. In this review article, the involvement of Wnt signaling in cardiovascular development will be outlined, followed by its implication in myocardial infarct healing, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, arrhythmias, and atherosclerosis. The initial experiments not always offer consensus on the effects of activation or inactivation of the pathway, which may be attributed to (i) the type of cardiac disease, (ii) timing of the intervention, and (iii) type of cells that are targeted. Therefore, more research is needed to determine the exact implication of Wnt signaling in the conditions mentioned above to exploit it as a powerful therapeutic target. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  15. Involvement of BDNF signaling transmission from basolateral amygdala to infralimbic prefrontal cortex in conditioned taste aversion extinction.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jian; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Yu, Hui; Wang, Yue; Kong, Liang; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-05-21

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB), play a critical role in memory extinction. However, the detailed role of BDNF in memory extinction on the basis of neural circuit has not been fully understood. Here, we aim to investigate the role of BDNF signaling circuit in mediating conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory extinction of the rats. We found region-specific changes in BDNF gene expression during CTA extinction. CTA extinction led to increased BDNF gene expression in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) but not in the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) and hippocampus (HIP). Moreover, blocking BDNF signaling or exogenous microinjection of BDNF into the BLA or IL could disrupt or enhance CTA extinction, which suggested that BDNF signaling in the BLA and IL is necessary and sufficient for CTA extinction. Interestingly, we found that microinjection of BDNF-neutralizing antibody into the BLA could abolish the extinction training-induced BDNF mRNA level increase in the IL, but not vice versa, demonstrating that BDNF signaling is transmitted from the BLA to IL during extinction. Finally, the accelerated extinction learning by infusion of exogenous BDNF in the BLA could also be blocked by IL infusion of BDNF-neutralizing antibody rather than vice versa, indicating that the IL, but not BLA, is the primary action site of BDNF in CTA extinction. Together, these data suggest that BLA-IL circuit regulates CTA memory extinction by identifying BDNF as a key regulator. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347302-12$15.00/0.

  16. Goal- and signal-directed incentive: conditioned approach, seeking, and consumption established with unsweetened alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Krank, Marvin D; O'Neill, Susan; Squarey, Kyna; Jacob, Jackie

    2008-02-01

    Many theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling drug administration influence the likelihood of drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral impact of cues associated with unsweetened ethanol and their interaction with responding maintained by ethanol self-administration. Our goal was to establish the influence of such cues on ethanol seeking. The experiment used a matching contingency and saccharin-fading procedure to establish equal levels of responding to two spatially distinct levers using unsweetened 10% ethanol solution. After ethanol self-administration was established, a brief cue light located alternately over each lever location was either paired or unpaired (control) with the opportunity to consume the same ethanol solution. Finally, self-administration was re-established, and the effect of the cue was measured in a transfer design. The reaction to lights paired with the opportunity to ingest unsweetened ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (drinker entries), and (3) cue-directed approach and contact behavior (i.e. autoshaping or sign-tracking). Cue-directed behavior to the light interacted with choice behavior in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light, enhancing responding only when the approach response did not interfere with the operant response. These findings replicate and extend the effects of Pavlovian conditioning on ethanol-seeking and support-conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior. Signals for ethanol influence spatial choice behavior and may be relevant to attentional bias shown to alcohol-associated stimuli in humans.

  17. Dual Effects on Choice of Conditioned Reinforcement Frequency and Conditioned Reinforcement Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDevitt, Margaret A.; Williams, Ben A.

    2010-01-01

    Pigeons were presented with a concurrent-chains schedule in which the total time to primary reinforcement was equated for the two alternatives (VI 30 s VI 60 s vs. VI 60 s VI 30 s). In one set of conditions, the terminal links were signaled by the same stimulus, and in another set of conditions they were signaled by different stimuli. Choice was…

  18. The Conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Bosonic Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario

    2018-06-01

    We prove the conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Gaussian quantum systems. This fundamental inequality determines the minimum quantum conditional von Neumann entropy of the output of the beam-splitter or of the squeezing among all the input states where the two inputs are conditionally independent given the memory and have given quantum conditional entropies. We also prove that, for any couple of values of the quantum conditional entropies of the two inputs, the minimum of the quantum conditional entropy of the output given by the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is asymptotically achieved by a suitable sequence of quantum Gaussian input states. Our proof of the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is based on a new Stam inequality for the quantum conditional Fisher information and on the determination of the universal asymptotic behaviour of the quantum conditional entropy under the heat semigroup evolution. The beam-splitter and the squeezing are the central elements of quantum optics, and can model the attenuation, the amplification and the noise of electromagnetic signals. This conditional Entropy Power Inequality will have a strong impact in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Among its many possible applications there is the proof of a new uncertainty relation for the conditional Wehrl entropy.

  19. The Conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Bosonic Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Palma, Giacomo; Trevisan, Dario

    2018-01-01

    We prove the conditional Entropy Power Inequality for Gaussian quantum systems. This fundamental inequality determines the minimum quantum conditional von Neumann entropy of the output of the beam-splitter or of the squeezing among all the input states where the two inputs are conditionally independent given the memory and have given quantum conditional entropies. We also prove that, for any couple of values of the quantum conditional entropies of the two inputs, the minimum of the quantum conditional entropy of the output given by the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is asymptotically achieved by a suitable sequence of quantum Gaussian input states. Our proof of the conditional Entropy Power Inequality is based on a new Stam inequality for the quantum conditional Fisher information and on the determination of the universal asymptotic behaviour of the quantum conditional entropy under the heat semigroup evolution. The beam-splitter and the squeezing are the central elements of quantum optics, and can model the attenuation, the amplification and the noise of electromagnetic signals. This conditional Entropy Power Inequality will have a strong impact in quantum information and quantum cryptography. Among its many possible applications there is the proof of a new uncertainty relation for the conditional Wehrl entropy.

  20. 49 CFR 236.805 - Signal, cab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal, cab. 236.805 Section 236.805..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.805 Signal, cab. A signal located in engineman's compartment or cab, indicating a condition affecting the...

  1. 49 CFR 236.805 - Signal, cab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, cab. 236.805 Section 236.805..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.805 Signal, cab. A signal located in engineman's compartment or cab, indicating a condition affecting the...

  2. 49 CFR 236.805 - Signal, cab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal, cab. 236.805 Section 236.805..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.805 Signal, cab. A signal located in engineman's compartment or cab, indicating a condition affecting the...

  3. 49 CFR 236.805 - Signal, cab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal, cab. 236.805 Section 236.805..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.805 Signal, cab. A signal located in engineman's compartment or cab, indicating a condition affecting the...

  4. 49 CFR 236.805 - Signal, cab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal, cab. 236.805 Section 236.805..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.805 Signal, cab. A signal located in engineman's compartment or cab, indicating a condition affecting the...

  5. Objective models of EMG signals for cyclic processes such as a human gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babska, Luiza; Selegrat, Monika; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2016-09-01

    EMG signals are small potentials appearing at the surface of human skin during muscle work. They arise due to changes in the physiological state of cell membranes in the muscle fibers. They are characterized by a relatively low frequency range (500 Hz) and a low amplitude signal (of the order of μV), making it difficult to record. Raw EMG signal is inherently random shape. However we can distinguish certain features related to the activation of the muscles of a deterministic or quasi-deterministic associated with the movement and its parametric description. Objective models of EMG signals were created on the base of actual data obtained from the VICON system installed at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. The object of research (healthy woman) moved repeatedly after a fixed track. On her body 35 reflective markers to record the gait kinematics and 8 electrodes to record EMG signals were placed. We obtained research data included more than 1,000 EMG signals synchronized with the phases of gait. Test result of the work is an algorithm for obtaining the average EMG signal received from the multiple registration gait cycles carried out in the same reproducible conditions. The method described in the article is essentially a pre-finding measurement data from the two quasi-synchronous signals at different sampling frequencies for further processing. This signal is characterized by a significant reduction of high frequency noise and emphasis on the specific characteristics of individual records found in muscle activity.

  6. mTOR signaling promotes stem cell activation via counterbalancing BMP-mediated suppression during hair regeneration.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhili; Lei, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xudong; Zhang, Huishan; Liu, Shuang; Chen, Qi; Hu, Huimin; Wang, Xinyue; Ning, Lina; Cao, Yujing; Zhao, Tongbiao; Zhou, Jiaxi; Chen, Ting; Duan, Enkui

    2015-02-01

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cycles of degeneration (catagen), rest (telogen), and regeneration (anagen) phases. Anagen begins when the hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) obtain sufficient activation cues to overcome suppressive signals, mainly the BMP pathway, from their niche cells. Here, we unveil that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is activated in HFSCs, which coincides with the HFSC activation at the telogen-to-anagen transition. By using both an inducible conditional gene targeting strategy and a pharmacological inhibition method to ablate or inhibit mTOR signaling in adult skin epithelium before anagen initiation, we demonstrate that HFs that cannot respond to mTOR signaling display significantly delayed HFSC activation and extended telogen. Unexpectedly, BMP signaling activity is dramatically prolonged in mTOR signaling-deficient HFs. Through both gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro, we show that mTORC1 signaling negatively affects BMP signaling, which serves as a main mechanism whereby mTORC1 signaling facilitates HFSC activation. Indeed, in vivo suppression of BMP by its antagonist Noggin rescues the HFSC activation defect in mTORC1-null skin. Our findings reveal a critical role for mTOR signaling in regulating stem cell activation through counterbalancing BMP-mediated repression during hair regeneration. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xing; Geng, Jianpei; Shi, Fazhan; Liu, Ying; Xu, Kebiao; Ma, Wenchao; Kong, Fei; Jiang, Zhen; Wu, Yang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2015-01-01

    Quantum computation provides great speedup over its classical counterpart for certain problems. One of the key challenges for quantum computation is to realize precise control of the quantum system in the presence of noise. Control of the spin-qubits in solids with the accuracy required by fault-tolerant quantum computation under ambient conditions remains elusive. Here, we quantitatively characterize the source of noise during quantum gate operation and demonstrate strategies to suppress the effect of these. A universal set of logic gates in a nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond are reported with an average single-qubit gate fidelity of 0.999952 and two-qubit gate fidelity of 0.992. These high control fidelities have been achieved at room temperature in naturally abundant 13C diamond via composite pulses and an optimized control method. PMID:26602456

  8. Applied digital signal processing systems for vortex flowmeter with digital signal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke-Jun; Zhu, Zhi-Hai; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Fen; Liu, San-Shan; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Chen, Zhi-Yuan

    2009-02-01

    The spectral analysis is combined with digital filter to process the vortex sensor signal for reducing the effect of disturbance at low frequency from pipe vibrations and increasing the turndown ratio. Using digital signal processing chip, two kinds of digital signal processing systems are developed to implement these algorithms. One is an integrative system, and the other is a separated system. A limiting amplifier is designed in the input analog condition circuit to adapt large amplitude variation of sensor signal. Some technique measures are taken to improve the accuracy of the output pulse, speed up the response time of the meter, and reduce the fluctuation of the output signal. The experimental results demonstrate the validity of the digital signal processing systems.

  9. rf conditioning and breakdown analysis of a traveling wave linac with collinear load cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qushan; Hu, Tongning; Qin, Bin; Xiong, Yongqian; Fan, Kuanjun; Pei, Yuanji

    2018-04-01

    Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST) has built a compact linac-based terahertz free electron laser (THz-FEL) prototype. In order to achieve compact structure, the linac uses collinear load cells instead of conventional output coupler to absorb remanent power at the end of linac. The new designed structure is confronted with rf breakdown problem after a long time conditioning process, so we tried to figure out the breakdown site in the linac. Without transmitted signal, we propose two methods to analyze the breakdown site mainly based on the forward and the reflected power signals. One method focuses on the time relationship of the two signals while the other focuses on the amplitude. Both the two methods indicate the breakdown events happened at the end of the linac and more likely in the first or the second load cell.

  10. Deep ECGNet: An Optimal Deep Learning Framework for Monitoring Mental Stress Using Ultra Short-Term ECG Signals.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Bosun; You, Jiwoo; Vaessen, Thomas; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Park, Cheolsoo; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2018-02-08

    Stress recognition using electrocardiogram (ECG) signals requires the intractable long-term heart rate variability (HRV) parameter extraction process. This study proposes a novel deep learning framework to recognize the stressful states, the Deep ECGNet, using ultra short-term raw ECG signals without any feature engineering methods. The Deep ECGNet was developed through various experiments and analysis of ECG waveforms. We proposed the optimal recurrent and convolutional neural networks architecture, and also the optimal convolution filter length (related to the P, Q, R, S, and T wave durations of ECG) and pooling length (related to the heart beat period) based on the optimization experiments and analysis on the waveform characteristics of ECG signals. The experiments were also conducted with conventional methods using HRV parameters and frequency features as a benchmark test. The data used in this study were obtained from Kwangwoon University in Korea (13 subjects, Case 1) and KU Leuven University in Belgium (9 subjects, Case 2). Experiments were designed according to various experimental protocols to elicit stressful conditions. The proposed framework to recognize stress conditions, the Deep ECGNet, outperformed the conventional approaches with the highest accuracy of 87.39% for Case 1 and 73.96% for Case 2, respectively, that is, 16.22% and 10.98% improvements compared with those of the conventional HRV method. We proposed an optimal deep learning architecture and its parameters for stress recognition, and the theoretical consideration on how to design the deep learning structure based on the periodic patterns of the raw ECG data. Experimental results in this study have proved that the proposed deep learning model, the Deep ECGNet, is an optimal structure to recognize the stress conditions using ultra short-term ECG data.

  11. Students' Understanding of Conditional Probability on Entering University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reaburn, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of conditional probability is essential for students of inferential statistics as it is used in Null Hypothesis Tests. Conditional probability is also used in Bayes' theorem, in the interpretation of medical screening tests and in quality control procedures. This study examines the understanding of conditional probability of…

  12. [Health and working conditions of high school and university teachers in Mendoza: between commitment and emotional distress].

    PubMed

    Collado, Patricia Alejandra; Soria, Cecilia Beatriz; Canafoglia, Eliana; Collado, Sandra Alicia

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of analyzing aspects related to the perception of working conditions and their impact on health in the teachers and professors who work for the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo (UNCuyo) in Mendoza, Argentina, this work analyzes the results of the Primer Censo de Condiciones y Salud Laboral [First Census on Health and Working Conditions]. The census was conducted in late 2013 in two academic units (one at the high school level and the other at the university level), including 193 educators. The exploration set out to characterize the teaching staff and the conditions affecting their health, primarily with respect to psycho-social health. In order to do, so a self-administered questionnaire was applied, the dimensions of which were discussed in sensitivity workshops with educators who helped to formulate the data collection instrument. Among the primary results emerge the physical and emotional burnout of these highly skilled workers, owing to the combined effect of their committed response to the demands of their work and the deterioration (both material and symbolic) of the conditions in which they carry out that work.

  13. Error-proneness as a handicap signal.

    PubMed

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2003-09-21

    This paper describes two discrete signalling models in which the error-proneness of signals can serve as a handicap signal. In the first model, the direct handicap of sending a high-quality signal is not large enough to assure that a low-quality signaller will not send it. However, if the receiver sometimes mistakes a high-quality signal for a low-quality one, then there is an indirect handicap to sending a high-quality signal. The total handicap of sending such a signal may then still be such that a low-quality signaller would not want to send it. In the second model, there is no direct handicap of sending signals, so that nothing would seem to stop a signaller from always sending a high-quality signal. However, the receiver sometimes fails to detect signals, and this causes an indirect handicap of sending a high-quality signal that still stops the low-quality signaller of sending such a signal. The conditions for honesty are that the probability of an error of detection is higher for a high-quality than for a low-quality signal, and that the signaller who does not detect a signal adopts a response that is bad to the signaller. In both our models, we thus obtain the result that signal accuracy should not lie above a certain level in order for honest signalling to be possible. Moreover, we show that the maximal accuracy that can be achieved is higher the lower the degree of conflict between signaller and receiver. As well, we show that it is the conditions for honest signalling that may be constraining signal accuracy, rather than the signaller trying to make honest signals as effective as possible given receiver psychology, or the signaller adapting the accuracy of honest signals depending on his interests.

  14. Locomotor conditioning by amphetamine requires cyclin-dependent kinase 5 signaling in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Bryan F; Neugebauer, Nichole M; Forneris, Justin; Rodvelt, Kelli R; Li, Dongdong; Bubula, Nancy; Vezina, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent systemic exposure to psychostimulants such as amphetamine leads to several forms of long-lasting behavioral plasticity including nonassociative sensitization and associative conditioning. In the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the protein serine/threonine kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and its phosphorylation target, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor kalirin-7 (Kal7), may contribute to the neuroadaptations underlying each of these forms of plasticity. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 in the NAcc prevents the increases in dendritic spine density in this site and enhances the locomotor sensitization normally observed following repeated cocaine. Mice lacking the Kal7 gene display similar phenotypes suggesting that locomotor sensitization and increased NAcc spine density need not be positively correlated. As increases in spine density may relate to the formation of associative memories and both Cdk5 and Kal7 regulate the generation of spines following repeated drug exposure, we hypothesized that either inhibiting Cdk5 or preventing its phosphorylation of Kal7 in the NAcc may prevent the induction of drug conditioning. In the present experiments, blockade in rats of NAcc Cdk5 activity with roscovitine (40 nmol/0.5μl/side) prior to each of 4 injections of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg; i.p.) prevented the accrual of contextual locomotor conditioning but spared the induction of locomotor sensitization as revealed on tests conducted one week later. Similarly, transient viral expression in the NAcc exclusively during amphetamine exposure of a threoninealanine mutant form of Kal7 [mKal7(T1590A)] that is not phosphorylated by Cdk5 also prevented the accrual of contextual conditioning and spared the induction of sensitization. These results indicate that signaling via Cdk5 and Kal7 in the NAcc is necessary for the formation of context-drug associations, potentially through the modulation of dendritic spine dynamics in this site. PMID:24939858

  15. The Hedgehog Signal Induced Modulation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling: An Essential Signaling Relay for Urinary Tract Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nakagata, Naomi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Suzuki, Kentaro; Kitazawa, Sohei; Yamada, Gen

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital diseases of the urinary tract are frequently observed in infants. Such diseases present a number of developmental anomalies such as hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Although some genetically-modified mouse models of growth factor signaling genes reproduce urinary phenotypes, the pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure. Previous studies suggest that a portion of the cells in the external genitalia and bladder are derived from peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells that receive Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the early developmental stages. We hypothesized that defects in such progenitor cells, which give rise to urinary tract tissues, may be a cause of such diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of upper urinary tract malformations, we analyzed a series of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) deficient mice. Shh−/− displayed hydroureter and hydronephrosis phenotypes and reduced expression of several developmental markers. In addition, we suggested that Shh modulation at an early embryonic stage is responsible for such phenotypes by analyzing the Shh conditional mutants. Tissue contribution assays of Hh-responsive cells revealed that peri-cloacal mesenchymal cells, which received Hh signal secreted from cloacal epithelium, could contribute to the ureteral mesenchyme. Gain- and loss-of-functional mutants for Hh signaling revealed a correlation between Hh signaling and Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling. Finally, a conditional ablation of Bmp receptor type IA (BmprIA) gene was examined in Hh-responsive cell lineages. This system thus made it possible to analyze the primary functions of the growth factor signaling relay. The defective Hh-to-Bmp signaling relay resulted in severe urinary tract phenotypes with a decrease in the number of Hh-responsive cells. Conclusions/Significance This study identified the essential embryonic stages for the pathogenesis of urinary tract phenotypes. These results suggested that Hh

  16. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  17. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  18. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  19. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  20. 49 CFR 230.79 - Train signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Train signal system. 230.79 Section 230.79... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.79 Train signal system. Where utilized, the train signal system... condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used. Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders...

  1. University Policies under Varying Market Conditions: The Training of Electrical Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckstein, Zvi; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes an Israeli university's problem in optimizing the quality and quantity of electrical engineers in response to fluctuating enrollment. An equilibrium model considers the effect of students' occupation choice and the university's decision on the current and future demand and supply of engineers, in order to predict the equilibrium number of…

  2. Oxytocin Signaling in Basolateral and Central Amygdala Nuclei Differentially Regulates the Acquisition, Expression, and Extinction of Context-Conditioned Fear in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the…

  3. Signal Investigation for Low Frequency Active (LFA) Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    Wysocki, B.J. and Wysocki, T.A., “Golay Sequences for DS CDMA Applications”, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia, 2002 24. Alsup, J.M. and Spiciser...the past a Doppler sensitive ( DS ) waveform, such as a long continuous wave (CW) signal was used to resolve target speed and a wide bandwidth...use of a composite signal which can in one pulse have the Doppler resolution of the DS signal while at the same time provide the range resolution of

  4. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-05-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describesmore » the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented.« less

  5. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installationmore » of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)« less

  6. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Leaders in Interdependent Contexts Suppress Nonverbal Assertiveness: A Multilevel Analysis of Japanese University Club Leaders' and Members' Rank Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Atsuki; Gobel, Matthias S; Uchida, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has shown that leadership is signaled through nonverbal assertiveness. However, those studies have been mostly conducted in individualistic cultural contexts, such as in the U.S. Here, we suggest that one important strategy for goal attainment in collectivistic cultures is for leaders to self-regulate their behaviors. Thus, contrary to the previous evidence from individualistic cultural contexts, in collectivistic cultural contexts, leaders might suppress nonverbal assertiveness. To test this possibility, we assessed nonverbal behaviors (NVB) of Japanese leaders and members, and how they were evaluated by observers. We recruited Japanese leaders and members of university clubs and video-recorded them while introducing their club. Then, we coded their nonverbal rank signaling behavior. Finally, we asked a new set of naïve observers to watch these video-clips and to judge targets' suitability for being possible club leaders. Results of a multilevel analysis (level 1: individual participants, level 2: clubs) suggested that the more the club culture focused on tasks (rather than relationships), the more likely were leaders (but not members) of those clubs to suppress their nonverbal assertiveness. Naïve observers judged individuals who restrained from emitting nonverbal assertiveness as being more suitable and worthy club leaders. Thus, our findings demonstrate the cultural fit between contextual effects at the collective level (i.e., cultural orientation of a group) and the signaling and perceiving of social ranks at the individual level (i.e., suppression of nonverbal assertiveness). We discuss the importance of studying the cultural fit between the collective reality that people inhabit and people's psychology for future research in cultural psychology.

  8. CPM Signals for Satellite Navigation in the S and C Bands.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rui; Sun, Yanbo; Zhao, Danfeng

    2015-06-05

    Frequency allocations in the L band suitable for global navigation satellite system (GNSS) services are getting crowded and system providers face an ever tougher job when they try to bring in new signals and services while maintaining radio frequency compatibility. With the successive opening of the S and C bands to GNSS service, the multi-band combined navigation is predicted to become a key technology for future high-precision positioning navigation systems, and a single modulation scheme satisfying the requirements in each band is a promising solution for reducing user terminal complexity. A universal modulation scheme based on the continuous phase modulation (CPM) family suitable for the above bands' demands is proposed. Moreover, this paper has put forward two specific CPM signals for the S and C bands, respectively. Then the proposed modulation schemes, together with existing candidates, are comprehensively evaluated. Simulation results show that the proposed CPM signals can not only satisfy the constraint condition of compatibility in different bands well and reduce user terminal complexity, but also provide superior performance in terms of tracking accuracy, multi-path mitigation and anti-jamming compared to other candidate modulation schemes.

  9. A role for lipid-mediated signaling in plant gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caroline M; Desai, Mintu; Land, Eric S; Perera, Imara Y

    2013-01-01

    Gravitropism is a universal plant response. It is initiated by the sensing of the primary signal (mass or pressure), which is then converted into chemical signals that are transduced and propagated in a precise spatial and temporal fashion, resulting in a differential growth response. Our thesis is that membrane lipids and lipid-mediated signaling pathways play critical roles in the initial signaling and in the establishment of polarity. In this review, we highlight results from recent literature and discuss the major questions that remain unanswered.

  10. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  11. Negative Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Signals During Speech Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity. PMID:25412406

  12. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of motor bearings using undersampled vibration signals from a wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siliang; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Xiaoxian; Liu, Yongbin; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Jiwen

    2018-02-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which consist of miscellaneous sensors are used frequently in monitoring vital equipment. Benefiting from the development of data mining technologies, the massive data generated by sensors facilitate condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, too much data increase storage space, energy consumption, and computing resource, which can be considered fatal weaknesses for a WSN with limited resources. This study investigates a new method for motor bearings condition monitoring and fault diagnosis using the undersampled vibration signals acquired from a WSN. The proposed method, which is a fusion of the kurtogram, analog domain bandpass filtering, bandpass sampling, and demodulated resonance technique, can reduce the sampled data length while retaining the monitoring and diagnosis performance. A WSN prototype was designed, and simulations and experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Experimental results indicated that the sampled data length and transmission time of the proposed method result in a decrease of over 80% in comparison with that of the traditional method. Therefore, the proposed method indicates potential applications on condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of motor bearings installed in remote areas, such as wind farms and offshore platforms.

  13. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signal failure reports. 233.7 Section 233.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.7 Signal failure reports. Each... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,” shall...

  14. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal failure reports. 233.7 Section 233.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.7 Signal failure reports. Each... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,” shall...

  15. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Signal failure reports. 233.7 Section 233.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.7 Signal failure reports. Each... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,” shall...

  16. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Signal failure reports. 233.7 Section 233.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.7 Signal failure reports. Each... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,” shall...

  17. 49 CFR 233.7 - Signal failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Signal failure reports. 233.7 Section 233.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.7 Signal failure reports. Each... other condition hazardous to the movement of a train. Form FRA F6180-14, “Signal Failure Report,” shall...

  18. Transforming Universities: National Conditions of Their Varied Organisational Actorhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Despite major changes in the governance of universities overtly intended to transform them into authoritatively integrated collectivities, the extent of their organisational actorhood remains quite limited and varied between OECD countries. This is because of inherent limitations to the managerial direction and control of research and teaching…

  19. Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Polychroni, Iliana D.

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January-July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people's living quality in urban areas.

  20. Modeling and in situ measurements of biometeorological conditions in microenvironments within the Athens University Campus, Greece.

    PubMed

    Nastos, Panagiotis T; Polychroni, Iliana D

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research is to assess and analyze the biometeorological perception in complex microenvironments in the Athens University Campus (AUC) using urban micromodels, such as RayMan. The human thermal sensation in such a place was considered of great significance due to the great gathering of student body and staff of the University. The quantification of the biometeorological conditions was succeeded by the estimation of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET), which is a biometeorological index based on the human energy balance. We carried out, on one hand, field measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and global solar irradiance for different sites (building atrium, open area, and green atrium) of the examined microurban environment in order to calculate PET during January-July 2013. Additionally, on the other hand, PET modeling was performed using different sky-view factors and was compared to a reference site (meteorological station of Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, University of Athens). The global radiation was transferred to the examined sites with the RayMan model, which considers the sky-view factors for the adaptation of the radiation fluxes to simple and complex environments. The results of this study reveal the crucial importance of the existence of trees and green cover in a complex environment, as a factor that could be the solution to the efforts of stake holders in order to mitigate strong heat stress and improve people's living quality in urban areas.

  1. Signal intensity influences on the atomic Faraday filter.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bin; Yin, Longfei; Xiong, Junyu; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies of the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) mainly focus on the weak signal light filtering, without regard for the influences of the signal light intensity on the filter itself. However, in some applications the signal light is strong enough to change the filter's performance. In this work, the influences of the signal light intensity on the transmittance spectrum is experimentally investigated in a 780 nm Rb85 FADOF in both the line-center and wings operation modes. The results show that the transmittance spectrum varies significantly with the signal light intensity. As the signal light increases, some existing transmittance peaks decline, some new transmittance peaks appear, and the maximum transmittance peak frequency may change. The spectrum in strong signal lights can be quite different from those calculated by programs in the condition of weak signal lights. These results are important for applications of the FADOF in the condition of strong signal lights.

  2. Detection of Subsurface Defects in Levees in Correlation to Weather Conditions Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, I. A.; Eisenmann, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been used for many years in successful subsurface detection of conductive and non-conductive objects in all types of material including different soils and concrete. Typical defect detection is based on subjective examination of processed scans using data collection and analysis software to acquire and analyze the data, often requiring a developed expertise or an awareness of how a GPR works while collecting data. Processing programs, such as GSSI's RADAN analysis software are then used to validate the collected information. Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) has built a test site, resembling a typical levee used near rivers, which contains known sub-surface targets of varying size, depth, and conductivity. Scientist at CNDE have developed software with the enhanced capabilities, to decipher a hyperbola's magnitude and amplitude for GPR signal processing. With this enhanced capability, the signal processing and defect detection capabilities for GPR have the potential to be greatly enhanced. This study will examine the effects of test parameters, antenna frequency (400MHz), data manipulation methods (which include data filters and restricting the range of depth in which the chosen antenna's signal can reach), and real-world conditions using this test site (such as varying weather conditions) , with the goal of improving GPR tests sensitivity for differing soil conditions.

  3. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality among College/University Singing Students Ages 18–24 through Ambulatory Monitoring with a Full Accelerometer Signal

    PubMed Central

    Schloneger, Matthew; Hunter, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18–24 y/o, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal were analyzed traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, LTAS slope, alpha ratio, dB SPL 1–3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between non-singing, solo singing and choral singing. PMID:26897545

  4. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality Among College/University Singing Students Ages 18-24 Through Ambulatory Monitoring With a Full Accelerometer Signal.

    PubMed

    Schloneger, Matthew J; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still-developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hertz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and the estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18-24 years old, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal, traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose were analyzed. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, long-term average spectrum slope, alpha ratio, dB sound pressure level 1-3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between nonsinging, solo singing, and choral singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Human-biometeorological conditions in the southern Baltic coast based on the universal thermal climate index (UTCI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolendowicz, Leszek; Półrolniczak, Marek; Szyga-Pluta, Katarzyna; Bednorz, Ewa

    2017-10-01

    The paper focuses on bioclimatic conditions in the southern part of the Baltic coast based on universal thermal climate index values. Taking into consideration the observational data from coastline stations as well as reanalysis data from the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (sea level pressure and the 500 hPa geopotential height), the authors attempt to explain which of the synoptic situations are responsible for the occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold or heat stress. The obtained results confirm that the extreme thermal heat and cold stress conditions are for the most part associated with high-pressure systems. The researched area is usually situated in the western or southern periphery of the anticyclones. The cold stress also occurs during the advection from west or northwest, caused by the direct influence of a low-pressure system whose center is situated over the North Sea, southern Scandinavia, or the southern Baltic Sea.

  6. Sensitive SERS detection of DNA methyltransferase by target triggering primer generation-based multiple signal amplification strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Yu, Chuanfeng; Han, Huixia; Zhao, Caisheng; Zhang, Xiaoru

    2016-07-15

    A novel and sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method is proposed for the assay of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity and evaluation of inhibitors by developing a target triggering primer generation-based multiple signal amplification strategy. By using of a duplex substrate for Dam MTase, two hairpin templates and a Raman probe, multiple signal amplification mode is achieved. Once recognized by Dam MTase, the duplex substrate can be cleaved by Dpn I endonuclease and two primers are released for triggering the multiple signal amplification reaction. Consequently, a wide dynamic range and remarkably high sensitivity are obtained under isothermal conditions. The detection limit is 2.57×10(-4)UmL(-1). This assay exhibits an excellent selectivity and is successfully applied in the screening of inhibitors for Dam MTase. In addition, this novel sensing system is potentially universal as the recognition element can be conveniently designed for other target analytes by changing the substrate of DNA MTase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Targeting the Hippo signalling pathway for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Keisuke; Maehama, Tomohiko; Nishio, Miki; Goto, Hiroki; Kato, Wakako; Omori, Hirofumi; Miyachi, Yosuke; Togashi, Hideru; Shimono, Yohei; Suzuki, Akira

    2017-03-01

    The Hippo signalling pathway monitors cell-cell contact and external factors that shape tissue structure. In mice, tumourigenesis and developmental abnormalities are common consequences of dysregulated Hippo signalling. Expression of Hippo pathway components is also frequently altered in human tumours and correlates with poor prognosis and reduced patient survival. Thus, the Hippo pathway is an attractive anti-cancer target. Here, we provide an overview of the function and regulation of Hippo signalling components and summarize progress to date on the development of agents able to regulate Hippo signalling for cancer therapy. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway

    PubMed Central

    Haustein, Martin D.; Kracun, Sebastian; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Shih, Tiffany; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Tong, Xiaoping; Xu, Ji; Yang, X. William; O'Dell, Thomas J.; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Bushong, Eric A.; Looger, Loren L.; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The spatiotemporal activities of astrocyte Ca2+ signaling in mature neuronal circuits remain unclear. We used genetically encoded Ca2+ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Our data revealed numerous localised spontaneous Ca2+ signals in astrocyte branches and territories, but these were not driven by neuronal activity or glutamate. Moreover, evoked astrocyte Ca2+ signaling changed linearly with the number of mossy fiber action potentials. Under these settings astrocyte responses were global, suppressed by neurotransmitter clearance and mediated by glutamate and GABA. Thus, astrocyte engagement in the fully developed mossy fiber pathway was slow and territorial, contrary to that frequently proposed for astrocytes within microcircuits. We show that astrocyte Ca2+ signaling functionally segregates large volumes of neuropil and that these transients are not suited for responding to, or regulating, single synapses in the mossy fiber pathway. PMID:24742463

  9. Robust control of dielectric elastomer diaphragm actuator for human pulse signal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhihang; Chen, Zheng; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Chan, Hoyin

    2017-08-01

    Human pulse signal tracking is an emerging technology that is needed in traditional Chinese medicine. However, soft actuation with multi-frequency tracking capability is needed for tracking human pulse signal. Dielectric elastomer (DE) is one type of soft actuating that has great potential in human pulse signal tracking. In this paper, a DE diaphragm actuator was designed and fabricated to track human pulse pressure signal. A physics-based and control-oriented model has been developed to capture the dynamic behavior of DE diaphragm actuator. Using the physical model, an H-infinity robust control was designed for the actuator to reject high-frequency sensing noises and disturbances. The robust control was then implemented in real-time to track a multi-frequency signal, which verified the tracking capability and robustness of the control system. In the human pulse signal tracking test, a human pulse signal was measured at the City University of Hong Kong and then was tracked using DE actuator at Wichita State University in the US. Experimental results have verified that the DE actuator with its robust control is capable of tracking human pulse signal.

  10. Recognition and Accountability: Sole Parent Postgraduates in University Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Genine A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine some of ways sole parents sought recognition as postgraduate students in Australian universities. Judith Butler's theory of recognition notes that recognition is always partial and any account we give of ourselves must be given to another. Participants articulated that supervisors were critical in the process of…

  11. Vital physical signals measurements using a webcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jianfei; Yan, Yonggang; Yao, Lifeng

    2013-10-01

    Non-contact and remote measurements of vital physical signals are important for reliable and comfortable physiological self-assessment. In this paper, we provide a new video-based methodology for remote and fast measurements of vital physical signals such as cardiac pulse and breathing rate. A webcam is used to track color video of a human face or wrist, and a Photoplethysmography (PPG) technique is applied to perform the measurements of the vital signals. A novel sequential blind signal extraction methodology is applied to the color video under normal lighting conditions, based on correlation analysis between the green trace and the source signals. The approach is successfully applied in the measurement of vital signals under the condition of different illuminating in which the target signal can also be found out accurately. To assess the advantages, the measuring time of a large number of cases is recorded correctly. The experimental results show that it only takes less than 30 seconds to measure the vital physical signals using presented technique. The study indicates the proposed approach is feasible for PPG technique, which provides a way to study the relationship of the signal for different ROI in future research.

  12. The University and Morality: A Revised Approach to University Autonomy and Its Limits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The "critical" and "established" positions on university morality leave important questions unanswered. A revised position distinguishing between the corporate and intellectual bodies of the university is offered. Three social conditions for maintaining a value-rational debate are proposed. (Author/MLW)

  13. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power.

  14. Online Distance Teaching of Undergraduate Finance: A Case for Musashi University and Konan University, Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Keiichi; Fujikawa, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    We implemented a synchronous distance course entitled: Introductory Finance designed for undergraduate students. This course was held between two Japanese universities. Stable Internet connections allowing minimum delay and minimum interruptions of the audio-video streaming signals were used. Students were equipped with their own PCs with…

  15. The role of safety signals in fear extinction: An analogue study.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Castro, Juan C; Castro-Camacho, Leonidas; Javier Labrador, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Safety signals are conditioned inhibitory stimuli that indicate the absence of unconditioned stimuli. It is not clear whether the presence of safety signals is detrimental or beneficial in extinction-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of safety signals on autonomic and expectancy fear-related responses. Following the conditional discrimination paradigm (AX +, BX-), undergraduate students (N = 48) underwent an aversive conditioning procedure, while safety signals were experimentally created. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions during extinction: presence or absence of safety signals. Significant reductions of fear-related responses were found in both groups. Expectancy measures showed that the presence of safety signals did not interfere with reduction of fear related responses at follow-up. The analogue nature of the study affects its ecological validity. There are some methodological issues. Safety signals did not interfere with extinction learning. Attention may be a mechanism associated with the maintenance of fear responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Universal versus conditional day 3 follow-up for children with non-severe unclassified fever at the community level in Ethiopia: A cluster-randomised non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Källander, Karin; Alfvén, Tobias; Funk, Tjede; Abebe, Ayalkibet; Hailemariam, Abreham; Getachew, Dawit; Petzold, Max; Steinhardt, Laura C; Gutman, Julie R

    2018-04-01

    With declining malaria prevalence and improved use of malaria diagnostic tests, an increasing proportion of children seen by community health workers (CHWs) have unclassified fever. Current community management guidelines by WHO advise that children seen with non-severe unclassified fever (on day 1) should return to CHWs on day 3 for reassessment. We compared the safety of conditional follow-up reassessment only in cases where symptoms do not resolve with universal follow-up on day 3. We undertook a 2-arm cluster-randomised controlled non-inferiority trial among children aged 2-59 months presenting with fever and without malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, or danger signs to 284 CHWs affiliated with 25 health centres (clusters) in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, Ethiopia. The primary outcome was treatment failure (persistent fever, development of danger signs, hospital admission, death, malaria, pneumonia, or diarrhoea) at 1 week (day 8) of follow-up. Non-inferiority was defined as a 4% or smaller difference in the proportion of treatment failures with conditional follow-up compared to universal follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of children brought for reassessment, antimicrobial prescription, and severe adverse events (hospitalisations and deaths) after 4 weeks (day 29). From December 1, 2015, to November 30, 2016, we enrolled 4,595 children, of whom 3,946 (1,953 universal follow-up arm; 1,993 conditional follow-up arm) adhered to the CHW's follow-up advice and also completed a day 8 study visit within ±1 days. Overall, 2.7% had treatment failure on day 8: 0.8% (16/1,993) in the conditional follow-up arm and 4.6% (90/1,953) in the universal follow-up arm (risk difference of treatment failure -3.81%, 95% CI -∞, 0.65%), meeting the prespecified criterion for non-inferiority. There were no deaths recorded by day 29. In the universal follow-up arm, 94.6% of caregivers reported returning for reassessment on day 3, in contrast to

  17. Conditional loss of hepatocellular Hedgehog signaling in female mice leads to the persistence of hepatic steroidogenesis, androgenization and infertility.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Christiane; Eplinius, Franziska; Hofmann, Ute; Johänning, Janina; Rolfs, Franziska; Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang; Guthke, Reinhardt; Gebhardt, Rolf; Ricken, Albert M; Matz-Soja, Madlen

    2017-11-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is known to be involved in embryogenesis, tissue remodeling, and carcinogenesis. Because of its involvement in carcinogenesis, it seems an interesting target for cancer therapy. Indeed, Sonidegib, an approved inhibitor of the Hedgehog receptor Smoothened (Smo), is highly active against diverse carcinomas, but its use is also reported to be associated with several systemic side effects. Our former work in adult mice demonstrated hepatic Hedgehog signaling to play a key role in the insulin-like growth factor axis and lipid metabolism. The current work using mice with an embryonic and hepatocyte-specific Smo deletion describes an adverse impact of the hepatic Hedgehog pathway on female fertility. In female SAC-KO mice, we detected androgenization characterized by a 3.3-fold increase in testosterone at 12 weeks of age based on an impressive induction of steroidogenic gene expression in hepatocytes, but not in the classic steroidogenic organs (ovary and adrenal gland). Along with the elevated level of testosterone, the female SAC-KO mice showed infertility characterized by juvenile reproductive organs and acyclicity. The endocrine and reproductive alterations resembled polycystic ovarian syndrome and could be confirmed in a second mouse model with conditional deletion of Smo at 8 weeks of age after an extended period of 8 months. We conclude that the down-regulation of hepatic Hedgehog signaling leads to an impaired hormonal balance by the induction of steroidogenesis in the liver. These effects of Hedgehog signaling inhibition should be considered when using Hedgehog inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Subcellular Redox Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liping; Lu, Yankai; Zhang, Jiwei; Hu, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative and antioxidative system of cells and tissues maintains a balanced state under physiological conditions. A disruption in this balance of redox status has been associated with numerous pathological processes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a major redox signaling generates in a spatiotemporally dependent manner. Subcellular organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, plasma membrane and nuclei contribute to the production of ROS. In addition to downstream effects of ROS signaling regulated by average ROS changes in cytoplasm, whether subcelluar ROS mediate biological effect(s) has drawn greater attentions. With the advance in redox-sensitive probes targeted to different subcellular compartments, the investigation of subcellular ROS signaling and its associated cellular function has become feasible. In this review, we discuss the subcellular ROS signaling, with particular focus on mechanisms of subcellular ROS production and its downstream effects.

  19. Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Martin D; Kracun, Sebastian; Lu, Xiao-Hong; Shih, Tiffany; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Tong, Xiaoping; Xu, Ji; Yang, X William; O'Dell, Thomas J; Marvin, Jonathan S; Ellisman, Mark H; Bushong, Eric A; Looger, Loren L; Khakh, Baljit S

    2014-04-16

    The spatiotemporal activities of astrocyte Ca²⁺ signaling in mature neuronal circuits remain unclear. We used genetically encoded Ca²⁺ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Our data revealed numerous localized, spontaneous Ca²⁺ signals in astrocyte branches and territories, but these were not driven by neuronal activity or glutamate. Moreover, evoked astrocyte Ca²⁺ signaling changed linearly with the number of mossy fiber action potentials. Under these settings, astrocyte responses were global, suppressed by neurotransmitter clearance, and mediated by glutamate and GABA. Thus, astrocyte engagement in the fully developed mossy fiber pathway was slow and territorial, contrary to that frequently proposed for astrocytes within microcircuits. We show that astrocyte Ca²⁺ signaling functionally segregates large volumes of neuropil and that these transients are not suited for responding to, or regulating, single synapses in the mossy fiber pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Man-Machine Interface System for Neuromuscular Training and Evaluation Based on EMG and MMG Signals

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals. PMID:22163515

  1. Man-machine interface system for neuromuscular training and evaluation based on EMG and MMG signals.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Ramon; Alonso, Alonso; Carrera, Albano; Durán, Ramon; Fernández, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the UVa-NTS (University of Valladolid Neuromuscular Training System), a multifunction and portable Neuromuscular Training System. The UVa-NTS is designed to analyze the voluntary control of severe neuromotor handicapped patients, their interactive response, and their adaptation to neuromuscular interface systems, such as neural prostheses or domotic applications. Thus, it is an excellent tool to evaluate the residual muscle capabilities in the handicapped. The UVa-NTS is composed of a custom signal conditioning front-end and a computer. The front-end electronics is described thoroughly as well as the overall features of the custom software implementation. The software system is composed of a set of graphical training tools and a processing core. The UVa-NTS works with two classes of neuromuscular signals: the classic myoelectric signals (MES) and, as a novelty, the myomechanic signals (MMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the processing core, a complete analysis has been done to classify its efficiency and to check that it fulfils with the real-time constraints. Tests were performed both with healthy and selected impaired subjects. The adaptation was achieved rapidly, applying a predefined protocol for the UVa-NTS set of training tools. Fine voluntary control was demonstrated to be reached with the myoelectric signals. And the UVa-NTS demonstrated to provide a satisfactory voluntary control when applying the myomechanic signals.

  2. Quantitative measures for redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Ché S; Eagling, Beatrice D; Driscoll, Scott R E; Rohwer, Johann M

    2016-07-01

    Redox signaling is now recognized as an important regulatory mechanism for a number of cellular processes including the antioxidant response, phosphokinase signal transduction and redox metabolism. While there has been considerable progress in identifying the cellular machinery involved in redox signaling, quantitative measures of redox signals have been lacking, limiting efforts aimed at understanding and comparing redox signaling under normoxic and pathogenic conditions. Here we have outlined some of the accepted principles for redox signaling, including the description of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule and the role of kinetics in conferring specificity to these signaling events. Based on these principles, we then develop a working definition for redox signaling and review a number of quantitative methods that have been employed to describe signaling in other systems. Using computational modeling and published data, we show how time- and concentration- dependent analyses, in particular, could be used to quantitatively describe redox signaling and therefore provide important insights into the functional organization of redox networks. Finally, we consider some of the key challenges with implementing these methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Is the Universe a white-hole?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Marcelo Samuel

    2007-10-01

    Pathria (1972) has shown, for a pressureless closed Universe, that it is inside a black (or white) hole. We show now, that the Universe with a cosmic pressure obeying Einstein’s field equations, can be inside a white-hole. In the closed case, a positive cosmological constant does the job; for the flat and open cases, the condition we find is not verified for the very early Universe, but with the growth of the scale-factor, the condition will be certainly fulfilled for a positive cosmological constant, after some time. We associate the absolute temperature of the Universe, with the temperature of the corresponding white-hole.

  4. Carotenoid-based bill and eye ring coloration as honest signals of condition: an experimental test in the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Viñuela, Javier

    2008-09-01

    Carotenoid pigments cannot be synthesized by vertebrates but must be ingested through the diet. As they seem to be a limited resource, carotenoid-based ornaments are particularly interesting as possible honest signals of individual quality, in particular of foraging efficiency and nutritional status. Some studies have demonstrated the condition dependence of carotenoid-based plumage in birds. However, many other carotenoid-pigmented bare parts (i.e. skin, caruncles, bills, cere, and tarsi) are present in birds but, in comparison with plumage, little is known about these traits as indicators of individual quality. Here, we show that the eye ring pigmentation and bill redness of the red-legged partridge ( Alectoris rufa) are positively associated to body condition and recent changes in body mass. Also, we found a negative relationship between these two traits and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, an indicator of physiological stress (the relationship with bill redness being significant only for males). In an experiment, we found that after a period of reduction in food intake (with the consequent loss of body mass), food-restricted birds showed lower eye ring pigmentation than ad-libitum-fed birds. Therefore, different ornaments seem to reflect changes in body condition but at different speeds or intensities (eye ring, a fleshy ornament, appears to respond more rapidly to changes in the nutritional status than a keratinized structure as the bill). These results indicate that carotenoid-based ornaments are condition-dependent traits in the red-legged partridge, being therefore susceptible to be employed as honest signals of quality in sexual selection.

  5. The Use of Grafting to Study Systemic Signaling in Plants.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Hiroki; Notaguchi, Michitaka

    2017-08-01

    Grafting has long been an important technique in agriculture. Nowadays, grafting is a widely used technique also to study systemic long-distance signaling in plants. Plants respond to their surrounding environment, and at that time many aspects of their physiology are regulated systemically; these start from local input signals and are followed by the transmission of information to the rest of the plant. For example, soil nutrient conditions, light/photoperiod, and biotic and abiotic stresses affect plants heterogeneously, and plants perceive such information in specific plant tissues or organs. Such environmental cues are crucial determinants of plant growth and development, and plants drastically change their morphology and physiology to adapt to various events in their life. Hitherto, intensive studies have been conducted to understand systemic signaling in plants, and grafting techniques have permitted advances in this field. The breakthrough technique of micrografting in Arabidopsis thaliana was established in 2002 and led to the development of molecular genetic tools in this field. Thereafter, various phenomena of systemic signaling have been identified at the molecular level, including nutrient fixation, flowering, circadian clock and defense against pathogens. The significance of grafting is that it can clarify the transmission of the stimulus and molecules. At present, many micro- and macromolecules have been identified as mobile signals, which are transported through plant vascular tissues to co-ordinate their physiology and development. In this review, we introduce the various grafting techniques that have been developed, we report on the recent advances in the field of plant systemic signaling where grafting techniques have been applied and provide insights for the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Pavlovian conditioning with ethanol: sign-tracking (autoshaping), conditioned incentive, and ethanol self-administration.

    PubMed

    Krank, Marvin D

    2003-10-01

    Conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling a drug's reinforcing effects activate a central motivational state. Incentive motivation enhances drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral response to cues associated with ethanol and their interaction with operant self-administration of ethanol. In two experiments, rats received operant training to press a lever for a sweetened ethanol solution. After operant training, the animals were given Pavlovian pairings of a brief and localized cue light with the sweetened ethanol solution (no lever present). Lever pressing for ethanol was then re-established, and the behavioral effects of the cue light were tested during an ethanol self-administration session. The conditioned responses resulting from pairing cue lights with the opportunity to ingest ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (magazine entries), and (3) signal-directed behavior (i.e., autoshaping, or sign-tracking). Signal-directed behavior interacted with the other two effects in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light. These conditioned responses interact with operant responding for ethanol reinforcement. These findings demonstrate the importance of Pavlovian conditioning effects on ethanol self-administration and are consistent with conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior.

  7. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards... automatic cab signal system shall be arranged so that cab signals will be continuously controlled in...

  8. Oxidative Stress and NO Signalling in the Root Apex as an Early Response to Changes in Gravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mugnai, Sergio; Monetti, Emanuela; Voigt, Boris; Volkmann, Dieter; Mancuso, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen influx showed an asymmetry in the transition zone of the root apex when roots were placed horizontally on ground. The influx increased only in the upper side, while no changes were detected in the division and in the elongation zone. Nitric oxide (NO) was also monitored after gravistimulation, revealing a sudden burst only in the transition zone. In order to confirm these results in real microgravity conditions, experiments have been set up by using parabolic flights and drop tower. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also monitored. Oxygen, NO, and ROS were continuously monitored during normal and hyper- and microgravity conditions in roots of maize seedlings. A distinct signal in oxygen and NO fluxes was clearly detected only in the apex zone during microgravity, with no significant changes in normal and in hypergravity conditions. The same results were obtained by ROS measurement. The detrimental effect of D'orenone, disrupting the polarised auxin transport, on the onset of the oxygen peaks during the microgravity period was also evaluated. Results indicates an active role of NO and ROS as messengers during the gravitropic response, with probable implications in the auxin redistribution. PMID:25197662

  9. Manual on performance of traffic signal systems: assessment of operations and maintenance : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-05-01

    In this project, Florida Atlantic University researchers developed a methodology and software tools that allow objective, quantitative analysis of the performance of signal systems. : The researchers surveyed the state of practice for traffic signal ...

  10. Working condition of nurses in Japan: awareness of work-life balance among nursing personnel at a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sachiko; Maruyama, Yukie; Ooshima, Satoko; Ito, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the awareness of work-life balance (WLB) among the nursing personnel at a university hospital in Japan. Survey. A questionnaire was sent to 1236 nursing personnel working at a university hospital and 1081 (87·5%) responses received. The questions concerned the following: (1) respondent demographical characteristics, (2) living background, (3) wishes for working environments and (4) motivation to work and health condition. The data were analysed by simple and cross-tabulations. The results can be summarised as follows: (1) the concept and significance of WLB has not yet been established among nurses in Japan, (2) three factors were found, which nurses need as working environment, 1st quality-of-life benefits, 2nd flexible working style, 3rd lifelong learning and (3) nurses who reported good WLB also reported higher job satisfaction and job motivation. The concept and significance of WLB has not yet been established among nurses. Thus, it is needed to enlighten nurses on the concept and significance of WLB as well as how they should practise WLB. Approximately half of the nurses gave their jobs first priority in reality, although they had various needs for their private lives and household affairs, as well as jobs. WLB cannot be achieved only by individual attitudes; thus, organisational efforts are necessary. In the correlation between WLB and 'job satisfaction' and 'job motivation,' nurses who were satisfied with their job and those who were highly motivated showed higher WLB. There was a significant correlation between satisfaction and motivation. It is necessary that nurses understand and have any information about working policy to improve working conditions to get better conditions which they need. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Dysregulation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathways in endometriosis: from oxidative stress to fibrosis.

    PubMed

    González-Foruria, Iñaki; Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Carmona, Francisco; Chapron, Charles; Batteux, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    Is oxidative stress associated with the A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17)/Notch signalling pathway and fibrosis in the development of endometriosis? Oxidative stress is correlated with hyperactivation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathway and a consequent increase in fibrosis in patients with endometriosis. It is nowadays accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of endometriosis. Oxidative stress is able to induce the synthesis of some members of the 'ADAM' family, such as ADAM17. ADAM17/Notch signalling is dysregulated in other profibrotic and inflammatory diseases. This was a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n = 202) during surgery for a benign gynaecological condition. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free control women were enrolled. Peritoneal fluid (PF) samples were obtained from all the study participants during surgery in order to detect advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and metalloproteinase activity of ADAM17. Stromal cells from endometrial specimens (n = 8) were obtained from endometrium of control patients (Cs), and from eutopic (Es) and ectopic (Ps) endometrium of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (n = 8). ADAM17, Notch and the fibrosis markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type-I collagen were assessed using immunoblotting in all the endometrial samples obtained. Additionally, fibrosis was assessed after using Notch cleavage inhibitors (DAPT and FLI-06). Notch and fibrosis were also evaluated after stimulation of stromal endometrial cells with ADAM17 purified protein, increasing concentrations of H2O2 and primary cell culture supernatants. Patients with DIE presented higher PF AOPP

  12. Spider: Probing the Early Universe with a Large-Scale CMB Polarization Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, William

    The standard dark-matter and dark-energy dominated cosmological model (LCDM) has proven to be remarkably successful in describing the current state and past evolution of the Universe. However, there remain significant uncertainties regarding the physical mechanisms that established the initial conditions upon which the LCDM predictions rely. Theories of cosmic genesis - the extremely high energy mechanisms that established these conditions - should be expected to provide a natural description of the nearly flat geometry of the Universe, the existence of super-horizon density correlations, and the adiabatic, Gaussian and nearly scale-invariant nature of the observed primordial density perturbations. The primary objective of Spider is to subject models of the early Universe to observational test, probing fundamental physics at energy scales far beyond the reach of terrestrial particle accelerators. The main scientific result will be to characterize, or place stringent upper limits on the level of the odd-parity polarization of the CMB. In the context of the inflationary paradigm, Spider will confirm or exclude the predictions of the simplest single-field inflationary models near the Lyth bound, characterized by tensor to scalar ratios r 0.03. While viable alternatives to the inflationary paradigm are an active and important area of investigation, including string cosmologies and cyclic models, early Universe models described by inflationary periods are now widely accepted as the underlying cause behind much of what we observe in cosmology today. Nevertheless, we know very little about the mechanism that would drive inflation or the energy scale at which it occurred, and the paradigm faces significant questions about the viability of the framework as a scientific theory. Fortunately, inflationary paradigms and alternative theories offer distinct predictions regarding the statistical properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. Spider will use measurements

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor signaling in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kadmiel, Mahita; Cidlowski, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones regulated in a circadian and stres-associated manner to maintain various metabolic and homeostatic functions that are necessary for life. Synthetic glucocorticoids are widely prescribed drugs for many conditions including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and inflammatory disorders of the eye. Research in the last few years has begun to unravel the profound complexity of glucocorticoid signaling and has contributed remarkably to improved therapeutic strategies. Glucocorticoids signal through the glucocorticoid receptor, a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, in both genomic and non-genomic ways in almost every tissue in the human body. In this review, we will provide an update on glucocorticoid receptor signaling and highlight the role of GR signaling in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in the major organ systems in the human body. PMID:23953592

  14. A computer-based physics laboratory apparatus: Signal generator software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanakittiviroon, Tharest; Liangrocapart, Sompong

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a computer-based physics laboratory apparatus to replace expensive instruments such as high-precision signal generators. This apparatus uses a sound card in a common personal computer to give sinusoidal signals with an accurate frequency that can be programmed to give different frequency signals repeatedly. An experiment on standing waves on an oscillating string uses this apparatus. In conjunction with interactive lab manuals, which have been developed using personal computers in our university, we achieve a complete set of low-cost, accurate, and easy-to-use equipment for teaching a physics laboratory.

  15. Wnt signaling regulates pancreatic β cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Rulifson, Ingrid C.; Karnik, Satyajit K.; Heiser, Patrick W.; ten Berge, Derk; Chen, Hainan; Gu, Xueying; Taketo, Makoto M.; Nusse, Roel; Hebrok, Matthias; Kim, Seung K.

    2007-01-01

    There is widespread interest in defining factors and mechanisms that stimulate proliferation of pancreatic islet cells. Wnt signaling is an important regulator of organ growth and cell fates, and genes encoding Wnt-signaling factors are expressed in the pancreas. However, it is unclear whether Wnt signaling regulates pancreatic islet proliferation and differentiation. Here we provide evidence that Wnt signaling stimulates islet β cell proliferation. The addition of purified Wnt3a protein to cultured β cells or islets promoted expression of Pitx2, a direct target of Wnt signaling, and Cyclin D2, an essential regulator of β cell cycle progression, and led to increased β cell proliferation in vitro. Conditional pancreatic β cell expression of activated β-catenin, a crucial Wnt signal transduction protein, produced similar phenotypes in vivo, leading to β cell expansion, increased insulin production and serum levels, and enhanced glucose handling. Conditional β cell expression of Axin, a potent negative regulator of Wnt signaling, led to reduced Pitx2 and Cyclin D2 expression by β cells, resulting in reduced neonatal β cell expansion and mass and impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, Wnt signaling is both necessary and sufficient for islet β cell proliferation, and our study provides previously unrecognized evidence of a mechanism governing endocrine pancreas growth and function. PMID:17404238

  16. Laterality of facial expressions of emotion: Universal and culture-specific influences.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Manas K; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  17. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  18. System for monitoring non-coincident, nonstationary process signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    2005-01-04

    An improved system for monitoring non-coincident, non-stationary, process signals. The mean, variance, and length of a reference signal is defined by an automated system, followed by the identification of the leading and falling edges of a monitored signal and the length of the monitored signal. The monitored signal is compared to the reference signal, and the monitored signal is resampled in accordance with the reference signal. The reference signal is then correlated with the resampled monitored signal such that the reference signal and the resampled monitored signal are coincident in time with each other. The resampled monitored signal is then compared to the reference signal to determine whether the resampled monitored signal is within a set of predesignated operating conditions.

  19. The Signaller's Dilemma: A Cost–Benefit Analysis of Public and Private Communication

    PubMed Central

    Römer, Heiner; Lang, Alexander; Hartbauer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the diversity of animal signals requires knowledge of factors which may influence the different stages of communication, from the production of a signal by the sender up to the detection, identification and final decision-making in the receiver. Yet, many studies on signalling systems focus exclusively on the sender, and often ignore the receiver side and the ecological conditions under which signals evolve. Methodology/Principal Findings We study a neotropical katydid which uses airborne sound for long distance communication, but also an alternative form of private signalling through substrate vibration. We quantified the strength of predation by bats which eavesdrop on the airborne sound signal, by analysing insect remains at roosts of a bat family. Males do not arbitrarily use one or the other channel for communication, but spend more time with private signalling under full moon conditions, when the nocturnal rainforest favours predation by visually hunting predators. Measurements of metabolic CO2-production rate indicate that the energy necessary for signalling increases 3-fold in full moon nights when private signalling is favoured. The background noise level for the airborne sound channel can amount to 70 dB SPL, whereas it is low in the vibration channel in the low frequency range of the vibration signal. The active space of the airborne sound signal varies between 22 and 35 meters, contrasting with about 4 meters with the vibration signal transmitted on the insect's favourite roost plant. Signal perception was studied using neurophysiological methods under outdoor conditions, which is more reliable for the private mode of communication. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate the complex effects of ecological conditions, such as predation, nocturnal ambient light levels, and masking noise levels on the performance of receivers in detecting mating signals, and that the net advantage or disadvantage of a mode of communication

  20. Universal block diagram based modeling and simulation schemes for fractional-order control systems.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lu; Xue, Dingyü

    2017-05-08

    Universal block diagram based schemes are proposed for modeling and simulating the fractional-order control systems in this paper. A fractional operator block in Simulink is designed to evaluate the fractional-order derivative and integral. Based on the block, the fractional-order control systems with zero initial conditions can be modeled conveniently. For modeling the system with nonzero initial conditions, the auxiliary signal is constructed in the compensation scheme. Since the compensation scheme is very complicated, therefore the integrator chain scheme is further proposed to simplify the modeling procedures. The accuracy and effectiveness of the schemes are assessed in the examples, the computation results testify the block diagram scheme is efficient for all Caputo fractional-order ordinary differential equations (FODEs) of any complexity, including the implicit Caputo FODEs. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-06-15

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  2. Stability of X-band EPR signals from fingernails under vacuum storage.

    PubMed

    Sholom, Sergey; McKeever, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    EPR signals of different origin have been tested in human finger- and toe-nails with an X-band EPR technique for different conditions of nail storage. Three different signals were identified, namely a singlet at g=2.005, a doublet at g=2.004 with a splitting constant A=1.8 mT, and an anisotropic signal at g1=2.057, g2=2.029 and g3=2.003 (positions of local extrema). All EPR spectra from nails, whether irradiated or mechanically stressed, can be described as a superposition of these three signals. The singlet is responsible for the background signal (BG), is the main component of radiation-induced signals (RIS) for low doses (100 Gy or lower) and also contributes to mechanically-induced signals (MIS). This signal is quite stable under vacuum storage, but can be reduced almost to zero by soaking in water. The behavior of this signal under ambient conditions depends on many factors, such as absorbed dose, air humidity, and ambient illumination intensity at the place of storage. The doublet arises after exposure of nails to high (few hundreds Gy and higher) doses or after mechanical stress of samples. Depending on how this signal was obtained, it may have bulk or surface locations with quite different stability properties. The surface-located doublet (generated on the nail edges during cutting or clipping) is quite unstable and decays over about two hours for samples stored at ambient conditions and within several seconds for samples immersed in water. The volume-distributed doublet decays within a few minutes in water, several hours at ambient conditions and several days in vacuum. The anisotropic signal may also be generated by both ionizing radiation and mechanical stress; this signal is quite stable in vacuum and decays over several days at ambient conditions or a few tens of minutes in water. The reference lines for the above-described three EPR signals were obtained and a procedure of spectra deconvolution was developed and tested on samples exposed to both

  3. Signal focusing through active transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of molecular signaling in biological cells and novel diagnostic devices is ultimately limited by the counting noise floor imposed by the thermal diffusion. Motivated by the fact that messenger RNA and vesicle-engulfed signaling molecules transiently bind to molecular motors and are actively transported in biological cells, we show here that the random active delivery of signaling particles to within a typical diffusion distance to the receptor generically reduces the correlation time of the counting noise. Considering a variety of signaling particle sizes from mRNA to vesicles and cell sizes from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells, we show that the conditions for active focusing—faster and more precise signaling—are indeed compatible with observations in living cells. Our results improve the understanding of molecular cellular signaling and novel diagnostic devices.

  4. Meeting Report: Teaching Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, IJsbrand; Thomas, Geraint

    2006-01-01

    In July, 2005, the European Institute of Chemistry and Biology at the campus of the University of Bordeaux, France, hosted a focused week of seminars, workshops, and discussions around the theme of “teaching signal transduction.” The purpose of the summer school was to offer both junior and senior university instructors a chance to reflect on the development and delivery of their teaching activities in this area. This was achieved by combining open seminars with restricted access workshops and discussion events. The results suggest ways in which systems biology, information and communication technology, Web-based investigations, and high standard illustrations might be more effectively and efficiently incorporated into modern cell biology courses. PMID:17012185

  5. Conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibits vascular calcification through blockade of the BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuangshuang; Hu, Siwang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yahui; Zhao, Ruochi; Tong, Maoqing; Cui, Hanbin; Wu, Nan; Chen, Xiaomin

    2018-06-13

    Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of advanced atherosclerosis and is a significant contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays an important role in arterial calcification and is characterized by cellular necrosis, inflammation, and lipoprotein and phospholipid complexes, especially in atherosclerotic calcification. The conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) is well known as a rich source of autologous cytokines and is universally used for tissue regeneration in current clinical medicine. Here, we demonstrate that MSC-CM inhibits beta-glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced vascular calcification through blockade of the bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2)-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. VSMC calcification was induced by β-GP followed by treatment with MSC-CM. Mineral deposition was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining. Intracellular calcium content was determined colorimetrically by the o-cresolphthalein complexone method and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by the para-nitrophenyl phosphate method. Expression of BMP2, BMPR1A, BMPR1B, BMPR2, msh homeobox 2 (Msx2), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OC), representative osteoblastic markers, was assessed using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis while the protein expression of BMP2, Runx2, and phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was detected by western blot analysis. Our data demonstrated that MSC-CM inhibits osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of VSMCs as evidenced by decreased calcium content, ALP activity, and decreased expression of BMP-2, Runx2, Msx2, and OC. MSC-CM suppressed the expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 and the β-GP-induced translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Further study demonstrated that human recombinant BMP-2 overcame the suppression of VSMC calcification by MSC

  6. Method of recording bioelectrical signals using a capacitive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. A.; Kostrin, D. K.; Selivanov, L. M.; Uhov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this article a technique for the bioelectrical signals acquisition by means of the capacitive sensors is described. A feedback loop for the ultra-high impedance biasing of the input instrumentation amplifier, which provides receiving of the electrical cardiac signal (ECS) through a capacitive coupling, is proposed. The mains 50/60 Hz noise is suppressed by a narrow-band stop filter with an independent notch frequency and quality factor tuning. Filter output is attached to a ΣΔ analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which acquires the filtered signal with a 24-bit resolution. Signal processing board is connected through universal serial bus interface to a personal computer, where ECS in a digital form is recorded and processed.

  7. A nano universal joint made from curved double-walled carbon nanotubes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cai, Kun; Cai, Haifang; Shi, Jiao

    2015-06-15

    A nano universal joint is constructed from curved double-wall carbon nanotubes with a short outer tube as stator and a long inner tube as a rotor. When one end of the rotor is driven (by a rotary motor) to rotate, the same rotational speed but with different rotational direction will be induced at the other end of the rotor. This mechanism makes the joint useful for designing a flexible nanodevice with an adjustable output rotational signal. The motion transmission effect of the universal joint is analyzed using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. In particular, the effects of three factors aremore » investigated. The first factor is the curvature of the stator, which produces a different rotational direction of the rotor at the output end. The second is the bonding conditions of carbon atoms on the adjacent tube ends of the motor and the rotor, sp{sup 1} or sp{sup 2} atoms, which create different attraction between the motor and the rotor. The third is the rotational speed of the motor, which can be considered as the input signal of the universal joint. It is noted that the rotor's rotational speed is usually the same as that of the motor when the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends of the motor and the rotor are sp{sup 1} carbon atoms. When they become the new sp{sup 2} atoms, the rotor experiences a jump in rotational speed from a lower value to that of the motor. The mechanism of drops in potential of the motor is revealed. If the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are sp{sup 2} atoms, the rotor rotates more slowly than the motor, whereas the rotational speed is stable when driven by a higher speed motor.« less

  8. A nano universal joint made from curved double-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kun; Cai, Haifang; Shi, Jiao; Qin, Qing H.

    2015-06-01

    A nano universal joint is constructed from curved double-wall carbon nanotubes with a short outer tube as stator and a long inner tube as a rotor. When one end of the rotor is driven (by a rotary motor) to rotate, the same rotational speed but with different rotational direction will be induced at the other end of the rotor. This mechanism makes the joint useful for designing a flexible nanodevice with an adjustable output rotational signal. The motion transmission effect of the universal joint is analyzed using a molecular dynamics simulation approach. In particular, the effects of three factors are investigated. The first factor is the curvature of the stator, which produces a different rotational direction of the rotor at the output end. The second is the bonding conditions of carbon atoms on the adjacent tube ends of the motor and the rotor, sp1 or sp2 atoms, which create different attraction between the motor and the rotor. The third is the rotational speed of the motor, which can be considered as the input signal of the universal joint. It is noted that the rotor's rotational speed is usually the same as that of the motor when the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends of the motor and the rotor are sp1 carbon atoms. When they become the new sp2 atoms, the rotor experiences a jump in rotational speed from a lower value to that of the motor. The mechanism of drops in potential of the motor is revealed. If the carbon atoms on the adjacent ends are sp2 atoms, the rotor rotates more slowly than the motor, whereas the rotational speed is stable when driven by a higher speed motor.

  9. Regulation of HIF-1α signaling and chemoresistance in acute lymphocytic leukemia under hypoxic conditions of the bone marrow microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Frolova, Olga; Samudio, Ismael; Benito, Juliana Maria; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Kornblau, Steven M.; Markovic, Ana; Schober, Wendy; Lu, Hongbo; Qiu, Yi Hua; Buglio, Daniela; McQueen, Teresa; Pierce, Sherry; Shpall, Elizabeth; Konoplev, Sergej; Thomas, Deborah; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lock, Richard; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming resistance to chemotherapy is the main therapeutic challenge in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Interactions between leukemia cells and the microenvironment promote leukemia cell survival and confer resistance to chemotherapy. Hypoxia is an integral component of bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1), a key regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia, regulates cell growth and metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1α expression, analyzed by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays in 92 specimens from newly diagnosed patients with pre-B-ALL, had a negative prognostic impact on survival (p = 0.0025). Inhibition of HIF-1α expression by locked mRNA antagonist (LNA) promoted chemosensitivity under hypoxic conditions, while pharmacological or genetic stabilization of HIF-1α under normoxia inhibited cell growth and reduced apoptosis induction by chemotherapeutic agents. Co-culture of pre-B ALL or REH cells with BM-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) under hypoxia resulted in further induction of HIF-1α protein and acquisition of the glycolytic phenotype, in part via stroma-induced AKT/mTOR signaling. mTOR blockade with everolimus reduced HIF-1α expression, diminished glucose uptake and glycolytic rate and partially restored the chemosensitivity of ALL cells under hypoxia/stroma co-cultures. Hence, mTOR inhibition or blockade of HIF-1α-mediated signaling may play an important role in chemosensitization of ALL cells under hypoxic conditions of the BM microenvironment. PMID:22785211

  10. Change in physiological signals during mindfulness meditation

    PubMed Central

    Ahani, Asieh; Wahbeh, Helane; Miller, Meghan; Nezamfar, Hooman; Erdogmus, Deniz; Oken, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation (MM) is an inward mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. MM intervention was performed for a population of older people with high stress levels. This study assessed signal processing methodologies of electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals during meditation and control condition to aid in quantification of the meditative state. EEG and respiration data were collected and analyzed on 34 novice meditators after a 6-week meditation intervention. Collected data were analyzed with spectral analysis and support vector machine classification to evaluate an objective marker for meditation. We observed meditation and control condition differences in the alpha, beta and theta frequency bands. Furthermore, we established a classifier using EEG and respiration signals with a higher accuracy at discriminating between meditation and control conditions than one using the EEG signal only. EEG and respiration based classifier is a viable objective marker for meditation ability. Future studies should quantify different levels of meditation depth and meditation experience using this classifier. Development of an objective physiological meditation marker will allow the mind-body medicine field to advance by strengthening rigor of methods. PMID:24748422

  11. Tonic inhibition by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 of Akt/endothelial nitric-oxide synthase signaling in human vascular endothelial cells under conditions of hyperglycemia with high insulin levels.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Kumiko; Sakata, Kimimasa; Ohashi, Wakana; Imaizumi, Takahiro; Imura, Joji; Hattori, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) participates together with β-arrestins in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling, but emerging evidence suggests that GRK2 can interact with a growing number of proteins involved in signaling mediated by other membrane receptor families under various pathologic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that GRK2 may be an important contributor to vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose and high insulin (HG/HI) to mimic insulin-resistant diabetic conditions. GRK2 expression and membrane translocation were up-regulated under HG/HI conditions. HG/HI did not modify activation of Akt or endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), but GRK2 inhibitor or small interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in an increase in Akt and eNOS activation in HUVECs exposed to HG/HI. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation was increased after exposure to HG/HI, which was prevented by GRK2 inhibitor or siRNA. ERK1/2-mediated GRK2 phosphorylation at Ser-670 confirmed that ERK1/2 participated in a negative feedback regulatory loop. In human embryonic kidney 293T cells that overexpressed GRK2, Akt activity was unchanged, whereas ERK1/2 activity was raised. The effect of GRK inhibitor treatment on Akt/eNOS signaling was associated with membrane translocation of β-arrestin 2. The experiments with β-arrestin 2 siRNA showed that β-arrestin 2 may act as a positive modulator of Akt/eNOS signaling. Our studies reveal that GRK2, which is up-regulated by HG/HI, leads to a tonic inhibition of the insulin Akt/eNOS pathway in endothelial cells. We provide new insights into the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction.

  12. The Dilemmas of the "Efficiency University" Policy and the Everyday Life of University Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Global, neo-liberalistic social and education policy has changed the working conditions and the working culture in universities. Enrolments have grown and the demands for efficiency have increased. This article analyses the manifestation of these changes in the everyday life of university teachers, particularly in their teaching. The data used for…

  13. Assessment of Staff Retention in Private Universities in Ghana: A Study of the Perez University College, Winneba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwegyir-Aggrey, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Staff turnover especially among lecturers in private universities is high due to poor and disappointing conditions of service. This negatively affects effective teaching, learning and research. The purpose of the study was to examine the causes of staff turnover in private universities, using the Perez University College in Winneba as a case…

  14. Oxytocin signaling in basolateral and central amygdala nuclei differentially regulates the acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear in rats

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Emma J.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Lingawi, Nura W.; Panayi, Marios C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how oxytocin (OT) signaling in the central (CeA) and basolateral (BLA) amygdala affects acquisition, expression, and extinction of context-conditioned fear (freezing) in rats. In the first set of experiments, acquisition of fear to a shocked context was impaired by a preconditioning infusion of synthetic OT into the CeA (Experiment 1) or BLA (Experiment 2). In the second set of experiments, expression of context fear was enhanced by a pre- or post-extinction CeA infusion of synthetic OT (Experiments 3–6) or a selective OT receptor agonist, TGOT (Experiment 4). This enhancement of fear was blocked by coadministration of an OT receptor antagonist, OTA (Experiment 5) and context fear was suppressed by administration of the antagonist alone (Experiment 6). In the third set of experiments, expression of context fear was suppressed, not enhanced, by a preextinction BLA infusion of synthetic OT or a selective OT receptor agonist, TGOT (Experiments 7 and 8). This suppression of fear was blocked by coadministration of the OT receptor antagonist, OTA (Experiment 8). Taken together, these findings show that the involvement of the CeA and BLA in expression and extinction of context-conditioned fear is dissociable, and imply a critical role for oxytocin signaling in amygdala-based regulation of aversive learning. PMID:25878137

  15. Terms and Conditions of Employment in the California State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flachmann, Kim

    In the California State University system, some very unexpected hiring practices and faculty decisions have become clear through close scrutiny. For example, the numbers of English courses sections being taught by part-time non-tenure-track faculty has grown significantly over the past several years. Almost half of all English teachers are…

  16. University management nurse: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Kamylla Santos da; Andrade, Selma Regina de; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2018-03-08

    to understand the meaning of the university management performed by nurses managers of the nursing undergraduate course of a public university. this is a qualitative research, based on the grounded theory. Data collection took place between May and September 2016, with open interviews, in the scenario of a federal public university. The technique of constant comparative analysis of the data was followed, obtaining a theoretical sample with 19 nurses, in two sample groups. there were three categories emerged that shaped the phenomenon: Articulating complex collectives through university management for the qualified training of new nurses. The categories included: a) conditions, defined by perceiving the commitment to the collective, previous experiences, and training for health management, as motivations to be a teacher manager; b) actions/interactions, delimited by Knowing and recognizing, in practice, the university management process, limits and possibilities in the coordination of complex collective subjects; and, c) consequences, such as Improving teaching work and taking responsibility for university education. the nurses teaching managers to explain university management as a set of individual and collective actions that, articulated in a complex social environment, promote conditions for the training of critical and reflexive nurses with the demands of society.

  17. Parallel optimization of signal detection in active magnetospheric signal injection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowanlock, Michael; Li, Justin D.; Rude, Cody M.; Pankratius, Victor

    2018-05-01

    Signal detection and extraction requires substantial manual parameter tuning at different stages in the processing pipeline. Time-series data depends on domain-specific signal properties, necessitating unique parameter selection for a given problem. The large potential search space makes this parameter selection process time-consuming and subject to variability. We introduce a technique to search and prune such parameter search spaces in parallel and select parameters for time series filters using breadth- and depth-first search strategies to increase the likelihood of detecting signals of interest in the field of magnetospheric physics. We focus on studying geomagnetic activity in the extremely and very low frequency ranges (ELF/VLF) using ELF/VLF transmissions from Siple Station, Antarctica, received at Québec, Canada. Our technique successfully detects amplified transmissions and achieves substantial speedup performance gains as compared to an exhaustive parameter search. We present examples where our algorithmic approach reduces the search from hundreds of seconds down to less than 1 s, with a ranked signal detection in the top 99th percentile, thus making it valuable for real-time monitoring. We also present empirical performance models quantifying the trade-off between the quality of signal recovered and the algorithm response time required for signal extraction. In the future, improved signal extraction in scenarios like the Siple experiment will enable better real-time diagnostics of conditions of the Earth's magnetosphere for monitoring space weather activity.

  18. Modulation of 7 T fMRI Signal in the Cerebellar Cortex and Nuclei During Acquisition, Extinction, and Reacquisition of Conditioned Eyeblink Responses.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Thomas M; Thürling, Markus; Müller, Sarah; Kahl, Fabian; Maderwald, Stefan; Schlamann, Marc; Boele, Henk-Jan; Koekkoek, Sebastiaan K E; Diedrichsen, Jörn; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2017-08-01

    Classical delay eyeblink conditioning is likely the most commonly used paradigm to study cerebellar learning. As yet, few studies have focused on extinction and savings of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs). Saving effects, which are reflected in a reacquisition after extinction that is faster than the initial acquisition, suggest that learned associations are at least partly preserved during extinction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acquisition-related plasticity is nihilated during extinction in the cerebellar cortex, but retained in the cerebellar nuclei, allowing for faster reacquisition. Changes of 7 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals were investigated in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei of young and healthy human subjects. Main effects of acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition against rest were calculated in conditioned stimulus-only trials. First-level β values were determined for a spherical region of interest (ROI) around the acquisition peak voxel in lobule VI, and dentate and interposed nuclei ipsilateral to the unconditioned stimulus. In the cerebellar cortex and nuclei, fMRI signals were significantly lower in extinction compared to acquisition and reacquisition, but not significantly different between acquisition and reacquisition. These findings are consistent with the theory of bidirectional learning in both the cerebellar cortex and nuclei. It cannot explain, however, why conditioned responses reappear almost immediately in reacquisition following extinction. Although the present data do not exclude that part of the initial memory remains in the cerebellum in extinction, future studies should also explore changes in extracerebellar regions as a potential substrate of saving effects. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3957-3974, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Implant dentistry in postgraduate university education. Present conditions, potential, limitations and future trends.

    PubMed

    Mattheos, N; Wismeijer, D; Shapira, L

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, opportunities for postgraduate university education in implant dentistry have increased significantly, with an increase in both the number but also the complexity of available postgraduate programmes. However, there appears to be a lack of standards directing the learning outcomes of such programmes. A scientific literature search was conducted for publications reporting on university programmes within implant dentistry, including description of programmes and evaluation of learning outcomes. A separate Internet search was conducted to collect information on existing university programmes as presented on university websites. Implant dentistry has reached a critical mass of an independent, multidisciplinary and vibrant domain of science, which combines knowledge and discovery from many clinical and basic sciences. Many university programmes conclude with a master's or equivalent degree, but there appears to be a great diversity with regard to duration and learning objectives, as well as targeted skills and competences. The importance of implant dentistry has also increased within established specialist training programmes. There was little indication, however, that the comprehensive aspects of implant dentistry are present in all specialist training programmes where implants are being covered. Although universities should maintain the options of designing academic programmes as they best see fit, it is imperative for them to introduce some form of transparent and comparable criteria, which will allow the profession and the public to relate the degree and academic credentials to the actual skills and competences of the degree holder. With regard to established specialist training programmes, the interdisciplinary and comprehensive nature of implant dentistry needs to be emphasised, covering both surgical and restorative aspects. Finally, implant dentistry is not, at present, a dental specialty. The profession has not reached a consensus as to whether

  20. The Ceramide Transporter CERT is Involved in Muscle Insulin Signaling Defects Under Lipotoxic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bandet, Cécile L; Mahfouz, Rana; Véret, Julien; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Poirier, Maxime; Giussani, Paola; Campana, Mélanie; Philippe, Erwann; Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Ballaire, Raphaëlle; Le Liepvre, Xavier; Bourron, Olivier; Berkeš, Dušan; Górski, Jan; Ferré, Pascal; Le Stunff, Hervé; Foufelle, Fabienne; Hajduch, Eric

    2018-05-14

    One main mechanism of insulin resistance (IR), a key feature of type-2 diabetes, is the accumulation of saturated fatty acids (FA) in muscles of obese and type-2 diabetic patients. Understanding the mechanism underlying lipid-induced IR is therefore a crucial challenge. Saturated FA are metabolized into lipid-derivatives called ceramides and their accumulation plays a central role in the development of muscle IR. Ceramides are produced in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transported to the Golgi through a transporter called CERT, where they are converted into different sphingolipid species. We show here that CERT protein expression is reduced in all insulin resistance models studied due to a caspase-dependent cleavage. Inhibiting CERT activity in vitro potentiates the deleterious action of lipotoxicity on insulin signaling whereas overexpression of CERT in vitro or in vivo increases muscle ceramide content and improves insulin signaling. In addition, inhibition of caspase activity prevents ceramide-induced insulin signaling defects in C2C12 muscle cells. Altogether, these results demonstrate the importance of a physiological ER to Golgi ceramide traffic to preserve muscle cell insulin signaling and identifies CERT as a major actor in this process. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Financial Measures Conference: Progress in Measuring Financial Conditions of Colleges and Universities. Proceedings of the 1979 Working Conference (Annapolis, Maryland, September 27-28, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Judith, Ed.

    Proceedings of the 1979 Financial Measures Conference which assess "Progress in Measuring Financial Conditions of Colleges and Universities" are presented. Focus is the prospective uses of financial indicators and the results of attempts to employ indicators at the institutional, state, regional, and federal levels for management, and…

  2. PBL and the Postmodern Condition--Knowledge Production in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravn, Ole; Jensen, Annie Aarup

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the contemporary conditions for running the Aalborg Problem Based Learning-model (PBL). We try to pinpoint key characteristics of these conditions emphasising Lyotard's conception of knowledge production referred to as the move towards a postmodern condition for knowledge. Through discussions of this alleged condition…

  3. Adiposity signals predict vocal effort in Alston's singing mice.

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Tracy T; Westwick, Rebecca R; Phelps, Steven M

    2018-04-25

    Advertisement displays often seem extravagant and expensive, and are thought to depend on the body condition of a signaller. Nevertheless, we know little about how signallers adjust effort based on condition, and few studies find a strong relationship between natural variation in condition and display. To examine the relationship between body condition and signal elaboration more fully, we characterized physiological condition and acoustic displays in a wild rodent with elaborate vocalizations, Alston's singing mouse, Scotinomys teguina We found two major axes of variation in condition-one defined by short-term fluctuations in caloric nutrients, and a second by longer-term variation in adiposity. Among acoustic parameters, song effort was characterized by high rates of display and longer songs. Song effort was highly correlated with measures of adiposity. We found that leptin was a particularly strong predictor of display effort. Leptin is known to influence investment in other costly traits, such as immune function and reproduction. Plasma hormone levels convey somatic state to a variety of tissues, and may govern trait investment across vertebrates. Such measures offer new insights into how animals translate body condition into behavioural and life-history decisions. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Apparatus for detecting at least one predetermined condition and providing an informational signal in response thereto in a medication infusion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, Robert E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A medication infusion system provides redundant safety and includes condition detecting and informational alarm signal generating apparatus for indicating if (1) a fluid leak occurs in different portions of the system; (2) a programmable input from a patient or physician would result in exceeding a safe dosage limit; (3) the reservoir containing medication has been filled; (4) the intended medication pumping does not correlate with the pumping actually effected; (5) battery voltage is low; (6) the medication reserve is low; and (7) the system has been switched off. The apparatus may provide subcutaneous electrical, thermal, or audible stimulation to the patient and also provides a signal which a physician may monitor. The stimulation may be coded to separately identify each above-listed deviation in nominal system performance. In addition, the number of medication requests are correlated with actual medication dispensing to assure proper operation. An identification scheme is provided which matches the patient with his or her corresponding medication.

  5. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway: input and output integration.

    PubMed

    Murray, Peter J

    2007-03-01

    Universal and essential to cytokine receptor signaling, the JAK-STAT pathway is one of the best understood signal transduction cascades. Almost 40 cytokine receptors signal through combinations of four JAK and seven STAT family members, suggesting commonality across the JAK-STAT signaling system. Despite intense study, there remain substantial gaps in understanding how the cascades are activated and regulated. Using the examples of the IL-6 and IL-10 receptors, I will discuss how diverse outcomes in gene expression result from regulatory events that effect the JAK1-STAT3 pathway, common to both receptors. I also consider receptor preferences by different STATs and interpretive problems in the use of STAT-deficient cells and mice. Finally, I consider how the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins regulate the quality and quantity of STAT signals from cytokine receptors. New data suggests that SOCS proteins introduce additional diversity into the JAK-STAT pathway by adjusting the output of activated STATs that alters downstream gene activation.

  6. Plant TOR signaling components

    PubMed Central

    John, Florian; Roffler, Stefan; Wicker, Thomas; Ringli, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Cell growth is a process that needs to be tightly regulated. Cells must be able to sense environmental factors like nutrient abundance, the energy level or stress signals and coordinate growth accordingly. The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major controller of growth-related processes in all eukaryotes. If environmental conditions are favorable, the TOR pathway promotes cell and organ growth and restrains catabolic processes like autophagy. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of the TOR kinase and acts as a potent inhibitor of TOR signaling. As a consequence, interfering with TOR signaling has a strong impact on plant development. This review summarizes the progress in the understanding of the biological significance and the functional analysis of the TOR pathway in plants. PMID:22057328

  7. Detecting lane departures from steering wheel signal.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Max; Lampsijärvi, Eetu; Holmström, Axi; Maconi, Göran; Ahmadzai, Shabana; Meriläinen, Antti; Hæggström, Edward; Forsman, Pia

    2017-02-01

    Current lane departure warning systems are video-based and lose data when road- and weather conditions are bad. This study sought to develop a lane departure warning algorithm based on the signal drawn from the steering wheel. The rationale is that a car-based lane departure warning system should be robust regardless of road- and weather conditions. N=34 professional driver students drove in a high-fidelity driving simulator at 80km/h for 55min every third hour during 36h of sustained wakefulness. During each driving session we logged the steering wheel- and lane position signals at 60Hz. To derive the lane position signal, we quantified the transfer function of the simulated vehicle and used it to derive the absolute lane position signal from the steering wheel signal. The Pearson correlation between the derived- and actual lane position signals was r=0.48 (based on 12,000km). Next we designed an algorithm that alerted, up to three seconds before they occurred, about upcoming lane deviations that exceeded 0.2m. The sensitivity of the algorithm was 47% and the specificity was 71%. To our knowledge this exceeds the performance of the current video-based systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain Signal Variability is Parametrically Modifiable

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Douglas D.; McIntosh, Anthony R.; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Moment-to-moment brain signal variability is a ubiquitous neural characteristic, yet remains poorly understood. Evidence indicates that heightened signal variability can index and aid efficient neural function, but it is not known whether signal variability responds to precise levels of environmental demand, or instead whether variability is relatively static. Using multivariate modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging-based parametric face processing data, we show here that within-person signal variability level responds to incremental adjustments in task difficulty, in a manner entirely distinct from results produced by examining mean brain signals. Using mixed modeling, we also linked parametric modulations in signal variability with modulations in task performance. We found that difficulty-related reductions in signal variability predicted reduced accuracy and longer reaction times within-person; mean signal changes were not predictive. We further probed the various differences between signal variance and signal means by examining all voxels, subjects, and conditions; this analysis of over 2 million data points failed to reveal any notable relations between voxel variances and means. Our results suggest that brain signal variability provides a systematic task-driven signal of interest from which we can understand the dynamic function of the human brain, and in a way that mean signals cannot capture. PMID:23749875

  9. Discursive Battles about the Meaning of University: The Case of Danish University Reform and Its Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John

    2006-01-01

    The meaning of university and, subsequently, academics' working conditions are rapidly changing as knowledge economy and globalisation discourses continue to deepen across the Western world. Higher education and research agendas are increasingly staged in the discursive universe of knowledge economy language: common strategies and harmonisation…

  10. Towards a Cosmopolitan African University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghid, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I offer a defence of cosmopolitanism as an enabling condition for university education in Africa. Recent xenophobic outbursts in South Africa suggests that the enactment of defensible virtues in societies remain distant from the practices of many people. My contention is that university education ought to take seriously the…

  11. Cysteine residues 244 and 458-459 within the catalytic subunit of Na,K-ATPase control the enzyme's hydrolytic and signaling function under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Petrushanko, Irina Yu; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Lakunina, Valentina A; Anashkina, Anastasia A; Spirin, Pavel V; Rubtsov, Peter M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Bogdanov, Nikolay B; Hänggi, Pascal; Fuller, William; Makarov, Alexander A; Bogdanova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Our previous findings suggested that reversible thiol modifications of cysteine residues within the actuator (AD) and nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of the Na,K-ATPase may represent a powerful regulatory mechanism conveying redox- and oxygen-sensitivity of this multifunctional enzyme. S-glutathionylation of Cys244 in the AD and Cys 454-458-459 in the NBD inhibited the enzyme and protected cysteines' thiol groups from irreversible oxidation under hypoxic conditions. In this study mutagenesis approach was used to assess the role these cysteines play in regulation of the Na,K-ATPase hydrolytic and signaling functions. Several constructs of mouse α1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase were produced in which Cys244, Cys 454-458-459 or Cys 244-454-458-459 were replaced by alanine. These constructs were expressed in human HEK293 cells. Non-transfected cells and those expressing murine α1 subunit were exposed to hypoxia or treated with oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Both conditions induced inhibition of the wild type Na,K-ATPase. Enzymes containing mutated mouse α1 lacking Cys244 or all four cysteines (Cys 244-454-458-459) were insensitive to hypoxia. Inhibitory effect of GSSG was observed for wild type murine Na,K-ATPase, but was less pronounced in Cys454-458-459Ala mutant and completely absent in the Cys244Ala and Cys 244-454-458-459Ala mutants. In cells, expressing wild type enzyme, ouabain induced activation of Src and Erk kinases under normoxic conditions, whereas under hypoxic conditions this effect was inversed. Cys454-458-459Ala substitution abolished Src kinase activation in response to ouabain treatment, uncoupled Src from Erk signaling, and interfered with O 2 -sensitivity of Na,K-ATPase signaling function. Moreover, modeling predicted that S-glutathionylation of Cys 458 and 459 should prevent inhibitory binding of Src to NBD. Our data indicate for the first time that cysteine residues within the AD and NBD influence hydrolytic as well as receptor function of the Na

  12. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers.

    PubMed

    Licitra, G; Palazzuoli, D; Ricci, A S; Silvi, A M

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed.

  13. Conditions for Distance Education at the University Level in Sweden and the Other Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willen, Birgitta

    This report discusses the highly decentralized Nordic model of distance education at the university level, which involves giving responsibility for carrying out distance education to the individual university departments. Meeting at the university and using the telephone are primary contact methods. The report includes a discussion of higher…

  14. A Wavelet-Based Methodology for Grinding Wheel Condition Monitoring

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liao, T. W.; Ting, C.F.; Qu, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Grinding wheel surface condition changes as more material is removed. This paper presents a wavelet-based methodology for grinding wheel condition monitoring based on acoustic emission (AE) signals. Grinding experiments in creep feed mode were conducted to grind alumina specimens with a resinoid-bonded diamond wheel using two different conditions. During the experiments, AE signals were collected when the wheel was 'sharp' and when the wheel was 'dull'. Discriminant features were then extracted from each raw AE signal segment using the discrete wavelet decomposition procedure. An adaptive genetic clustering algorithm was finally applied to the extracted features in order to distinguish differentmore » states of grinding wheel condition. The test results indicate that the proposed methodology can achieve 97% clustering accuracy for the high material removal rate condition, 86.7% for the low material removal rate condition, and 76.7% for the combined grinding conditions if the base wavelet, the decomposition level, and the GA parameters are properly selected.« less

  15. [Effectiveness of the maintenance operations on the air conditioning systems of a university building in relation to the microbiological quality of the air indoor].

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Patrizia; Spinaci, Anna; Coia, Maura; Maggi, Oriana; Panà, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the air indoor is influenced from various factors and one of the most important is represented from the maintenance of the conditioning systems. In this study it has been estimated the effectiveness of an intervention of cleaning and maintenance on the systems of conditioning of an university building executing sampling before and after such intervention. The two results were confronted and it is observed as the maintenance of the air conditioners has influenced on the quality of the air indoor.

  16. Versatile current-mode universal biquadratic filter using DO-CCIIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-Pin

    2013-07-01

    In this article, a new three-input and three-output versatile current-mode universal biquadratic filter is proposed. The circuit employs three dual-output current conveyors (DO-CCIIs) as active elements together with three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration exhibits low-input impedance and high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. It can be used as either a single-input and three-output or three-input and two-output circuit. In the operation of single-input and three-output circuit, the lowpass, bandpass and bandreject can be realised simultaneously, while the highpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using addition stages. In the operation of three-input and two-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realised by selecting different three input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no component matching conditions or inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. HSPICE simulation results based on using TSMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process technology and supply voltages ±0.9 V to verify the theoretical analysis.

  17. Metabolites in vertebrate Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Strand, Martin Frank; Krauss, Stefan; Wilson, Steven Ray

    2014-04-11

    The Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology, tissue homeostasis, chemoattraction and synapse formation. Irregular HH signaling is associated with a number of disease conditions including congenital disorders and cancer. In particular, deregulation of HH signaling has been linked to skin, brain, lung, colon and pancreatic cancers. Key mediators of the HH signaling pathway are the 12-pass membrane protein Patched (PTC), the 7-pass membrane protein Smoothened (SMO) and the GLI transcription factors. PTC shares homology with the RND family of small-molecule transporters and it has been proposed that it interferes with SMO through metabolites. Although a conclusive picture is lacking, substantial efforts are made to identify and understand natural metabolites/sterols, including cholesterol, vitamin D3, oxysterols and glucocorticoides, that may be affected by, or influence the HH signaling cascade at the level of PTC and SMO. In this review we will elaborate the role of metabolites in HH signaling with a focus on oxysterols, and discuss advancements in modern analytical approaches in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E. Dale

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin resistant states such as type 2 diabetes and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead (FOXO) transcriptional signaling or glucose transport which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed. PMID:27034277

  19. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees.

    PubMed

    Kaewanuchit, Chonticha; Muntaner, Carles; Isha, Nizam

    2015-07-01

    Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees. This cross sectional research was conducted in 2014 among 2,000 academic university employees at Thai government universities using stratified random sampling. Independent variables were wage, family support, periods of duty, and job & environmental condition. Dependent variable was stress. Job & environmental condition, as social and environmental factor, and periods of duty as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P< 0.05). Family support, as family factor, and wage, as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P < 0.05). Both family support and wage were the causal endogenous variables. Job & environmental condition and periods of duty were increased so that it associated with occupational stress among academic university employees at moderate level.

  20. A Causal Relationship of Occupational Stress among University Employees

    PubMed Central

    KAEWANUCHIT, Chonticha; MUNTANER, Carles; ISHA, Nizam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational stress is a psychosocial dimension of occupational health concept on social determinants of health, especially, job & environmental condition. Recently, staff network of different government universities of Thailand have called higher education commission, and Ministry of Education, Thailand to resolve the issue of government education policy (e.g. wage inequity, poor welfare, law, and job & environment condition) that leads to their job insecurity, physical and mental health problems from occupational stress. The aim of this study was to investigate a causal relationship of occupational stress among the academic university employees. Methods: This cross sectional research was conducted in 2014 among 2,000 academic university employees at Thai government universities using stratified random sampling. Independent variables were wage, family support, periods of duty, and job & environmental condition. Dependent variable was stress. Results: Job & environmental condition, as social and environmental factor, and periods of duty as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P< 0.05). Family support, as family factor, and wage, as individual factor had direct effect to stress (P < 0.05). Both family support and wage were the causal endogenous variables. Conclusion: Job & environmental condition and periods of duty were increased so that it associated with occupational stress among academic university employees at moderate level. PMID:26576371

  1. Quantitative change of EEG and respiration signals during mindfulness meditation.

    PubMed

    Ahani, Asieh; Wahbeh, Helane; Nezamfar, Hooman; Miller, Meghan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Oken, Barry

    2014-05-14

    This study investigates measures of mindfulness meditation (MM) as a mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. A population of older people with high stress level participated in this study, while electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals were recorded during a MM intervention. The physiological signals during meditation and control conditions were analyzed with signal processing. EEG and respiration data were collected and analyzed on 34 novice meditators after a 6-week meditation intervention. Collected data were analyzed with spectral analysis, phase analysis and classification to evaluate an objective marker for meditation. Different frequency bands showed differences in meditation and control conditions. Furthermore, we established a classifier using EEG and respiration signals with a higher accuracy (85%) at discriminating between meditation and control conditions than a classifier using the EEG signal only (78%). Support vector machine (SVM) classifier with EEG and respiration feature vector is a viable objective marker for meditation ability. This classifier should be able to quantify different levels of meditation depth and meditation experience in future studies.

  2. Quantitative change of EEG and respiration signals during mindfulness meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigates measures of mindfulness meditation (MM) as a mental practice, in which a resting but alert state of mind is maintained. A population of older people with high stress level participated in this study, while electroencephalographic (EEG) and respiration signals were recorded during a MM intervention. The physiological signals during meditation and control conditions were analyzed with signal processing. Methods EEG and respiration data were collected and analyzed on 34 novice meditators after a 6-week meditation intervention. Collected data were analyzed with spectral analysis, phase analysis and classification to evaluate an objective marker for meditation. Results Different frequency bands showed differences in meditation and control conditions. Furthermore, we established a classifier using EEG and respiration signals with a higher accuracy (85%) at discriminating between meditation and control conditions than a classifier using the EEG signal only (78%). Conclusion Support vector machine (SVM) classifier with EEG and respiration feature vector is a viable objective marker for meditation ability. This classifier should be able to quantify different levels of meditation depth and meditation experience in future studies. PMID:24939519

  3. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  4. A note on the problem of choosing a model of the universe. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalsky, Vladimir

    1989-05-01

    The value of the mean mass density (rho) of the universe is examined. It is shown that there is a difference between the present terrestrial conditions and the initial conditions of the universe expansion and that, for the sphere of the physical boundary conditions represented by Planck's values (when the present evolution phase of the universe was probably decided), there are serious limitations for the value of rho. It is postulated on the basis of these limiting conditions that some cause may exist for which the condition corresponding to the critical mass density of the universe was realized.

  5. Viewing oxidative stress through the lens of oxidative signalling rather than damage

    PubMed Central

    Ruban, Alexander V.; Noctor, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Concepts of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and animals have shifted in recent years from focusing on oxidative damage effects to the current view of ROS as universal signalling metabolites. Rather than having two opposing activities, i.e. damage and signalling, the emerging concept is that all types of oxidative modification/damage are involved in signalling, not least in the induction of repair processes. Examining the multifaceted roles of ROS as crucial cellular signals, we highlight as an example the loss of photosystem II function called photoinhibition, where photoprotection has classically been conflated with oxidative damage. PMID:28270560

  6. Realistic Clocks for a Universe Without Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, K. L. H.; Medved, A. J. M.

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of problematic features within the current treatment of time in physical theories, including the "timelessness" of the Universe as encapsulated by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This paper considers one particular investigation into resolving this issue; a conditional probability interpretation that was first proposed by Page and Wooters. Those authors addressed the apparent timelessness by subdividing a faux Universe into two entangled parts, "the clock" and "the remainder of the Universe", and then synchronizing the effective dynamics of the two subsystems by way of conditional probabilities. The current treatment focuses on the possibility of using a (somewhat) realistic clock system; namely, a coherent-state description of a damped harmonic oscillator. This clock proves to be consistent with the conditional probability interpretation; in particular, a standard evolution operator is identified with the position of the clock playing the role of time for the rest of the Universe. Restrictions on the damping factor are determined and, perhaps contrary to expectations, the optimal choice of clock is not necessarily one of minimal damping.

  7. Abiotic stress signaling and responses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Summary As sessile organisms, plants must cope with abiotic stress such as soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Core stress signaling pathways involve protein kinases related to the yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK, suggesting that stress signaling in plants evolved from energy sensing. Stress signaling regulates proteins critical for ion and water transport and for metabolic and gene-expression reprogramming to bring about ionic and water homeostasis and cellular stability under stress conditions. Understanding stress signaling and responses will increase our ability to improve stress resistance in crops to achieve agricultural sustainability and food security for a growing world population. PMID:27716505

  8. Understanding and exploiting autophagy signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Batoko, Henri; Dagdas, Yasin; Baluska, Frantisek; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential catabolic pathway and is activated by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. In particular, autophagy is required to allow sessile organisms such as plants to cope with biotic or abiotic stress conditions. It is thought that these various environmental signaling pathways are somehow integrated with autophagy signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of plant autophagy signaling are not well understood, leaving a big gap of knowledge as a barrier to being able to manipulate this important pathway to improve plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss possible regulatory mechanisms at the core of plant autophagy signaling. PMID:29233877

  9. Acoustical conditions of typical classrooms in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai Ming; Lam, Coriolanus C. L.

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of the acoustical environments of local schools in Hong Kong. In the measurements, several acoustical aspects that affect verbal communication in classrooms have been studied. These conditions include outdoor and indoor ambient noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios, reverberation time and the speech transmission index. Typical classrooms in many different schools and other higher-education institutions have been selected in the present study. Experimental results are compared with such national standards as USA (ANSI S 12.60 V 2002), Australian/New Zealand (AS/NZS 2107:2000), China (GB/T 15508 V 1995) and other national and industrial standards. This study will form the basis of devising acceptable standards for use in Hong Kong. [Work supported by the Research Grants Council of the SAR Government, the Research Committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and Architectural Services Department of the Hong Kong SAR Government.

  10. A numerical model characterizing the experimental performance of the Howard University Raman Lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Rasheen M.

    At the Howard University Atmospheric Observatory in Beltsville, MD, a Raman Lidar System was developed to provide both daytime and nighttime measurements of water vapor, aerosols, and cirrus clouds with 60 s temporal and 7.5 m spatial resolution in the lower and upper troposphere. This system analyzes signals at three wavelengths associated with Rayleigh/Mie scattering for aerosols and cirrus clouds at 354.7 nm, Raman scattering for nitrogen at 386.7 nm, and water vapor at 407.5 nm. The transmitter is a triple harmonic Nd: YAG solid state laser. The receiver is a 40 cm Cassegrain telescope. The detector system consists of a multi-channel wavelength separator unit and data acquisition system. This thesis develops a numerical model to provide a realistic representation of the system behavior. The variants of the lidar equation in the model use system parameters to solve and determine the return signals for the lidar system. This dissertation describes four case studies being investigated: clear sky, polluted, wet, and cirrus cloud atmospheric conditions. The first simulations are based on a standard atmosphere, which assumes an unpolluted (aerosol-free) dry-air atmosphere. The second and third sets of simulations are based on polluted and cirrus cloud atmospheric conditions, where aerosols and cirrus clouds are added to Case Study I. The last set of simulations is based on a wet atmosphere, where the troposphere is comprised of the same mixture of gases in Case Study II, with the addition of atmospheric water vapor. Lidar signals are simulated over the altitude range covered by our measurements (up to 14 km). Results of our simulations show that the measured and modeled signals agree within 10% over an extended period of time when the system (i.e., such as alignment, filter tuning, etc.) has not changed.

  11. Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topography adjacent to Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5, showing conditions before construction, May 28, 1943, this drawing shows the Bonita Ridge access road retaining wall and general conditions at Bonita Ridge before the construction of Signal Corps Radar (S.C.R.) 296 Station 5 - Fort Barry, Signal Corps Radar 296, Station 5, Transmitter Building Foundation, Point Bonita, Marin Headlands, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  12. Exploration of robust operating conditions in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, John W.; Pomares, Mario; Alvarez-Prieto, Manuel; Cole, Amanda; Ying, Hai; Salin, Eric D.

    2003-11-01

    'Robust' conditions, as defined by Mermet and co-workers for inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry, minimize matrix effects on analyte signals, and are obtained by increasing power and reducing nebulizer gas flow. In ICP-mass spectrometry (MS), it is known that reduced nebulizer gas flow usually leads to more robust conditions such that matrix effects are reduced. In this work, robust conditions for ICP-MS have been determined by optimizing for accuracy in the determination of analytes in a multi-element solution with various interferents (Al, Ba, Cs, K, Na), by varying power, nebulizer gas flow, sample introduction rate and ion lens voltage. The goal of the work was to determine which operating parameters were the most important in reducing matrix effects, and whether different interferents yielded the same robust conditions. Reduction in nebulizer gas flow and in sample input rate led to a significantly decreased interference, while an increase in power seemed to have a lesser effect. Once the other parameters had been adjusted to their robust values, there was no additional improvement in accuracy attainable by adjusting the ion lens voltage. The robust conditions were universal, since, for all the interferents and analytes studied, the optimum was found at the same operating conditions. One drawback to the use of robust conditions was the slightly reduced sensitivity; however, in the context of 'intelligent' instruments, the concept of 'robust conditions' is useful in many cases.

  13. Improving Signal Detection using Allan and Theo Variances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Andrew; Broering, Mark; Korsch, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    Precision measurements often deal with small signals buried within electronic noise. Extracting these signals can be enhanced through digital signal processing. Improving these techniques provide signal to noise ratios. Studies presently performed at the University of Kentucky are utilizing the electro-optic Kerr effect to understand cell charging effects within ultra-cold neutron storage cells. This work is relevant for the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These investigations, and future investigations in general, will benefit from the illustrated improved analysis techniques. This project will showcase various methods for determining the optimum duration that data should be gathered for. Typically, extending the measuring time of an experimental run reduces the averaged noise. However, experiments also encounter drift due to fluctuations which mitigate the benefits of extended data gathering. Through comparing FFT averaging techniques, along with Allan and Theo variance measurements, quantifiable differences in signal detection will be presented. This research is supported by DOE Grants: DE-FG02-99ER411001, DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  14. Conditional Stat1 Ablation Reveals the Importance of Interferon Signaling for Immunity to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maier, Verena; Stoiber, Dagmar; Strobl, Birgit; Schneckenleithner, Christine; Sexl, Veronika; Reichart, Ursula; Reizis, Boris; Kalinke, Ulrich; Jamieson, Amanda; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) is a key player in responses to interferons (IFN). Mutations of Stat1 cause severe immune deficiencies in humans and mice. Here we investigate the importance of Stat1 signaling for the innate and secondary immune response to the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (Lm). Cell type-restricted ablation of the Stat1 gene in naïve animals revealed unique roles in three cell types: macrophage Stat1 signaling protected against lethal Lm infection, whereas Stat1 ablation in dendritic cells (DC) did not affect survival. T lymphocyte Stat1 reduced survival. Type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in T lymphocytes reportedly weakens innate resistance to Lm. Surprisingly, the effect of Stat1 signaling was much more pronounced, indicating a contribution of Stat1 to pathways other than the IFN-I pathway. In stark contrast, Stat1 activity in both DC and T cells contributed positively to secondary immune responses against Lm in immunized animals, while macrophage Stat1 was dispensable. Our findings provide the first genetic evidence that Stat1 signaling in different cell types produces antagonistic effects on innate protection against Lm that are obscured in mice with complete Stat1 deficiency. They further demonstrate a drastic change in the cell type-dependent Stat1 requirement for memory responses to Lm infection. PMID:22719255

  15. Developing Adult Education in Universities: A Political View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Etienne; Lienard, Georges

    1992-01-01

    Difficulties in the development of adult education programs in research-oriented, elite universities are discussed, focusing on the differences in traditional values and objectives of adult and university education. Organizational conditions at the University of Louvain (Belgium) that have proven conducive to a successful adult education program…

  16. ABA signaling in stress-response and seed development.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2013-07-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We review the recent progress on ABA signaling, especially ABA signaling for ABA-dependent gene expression, including the AREB/ABF regulon, SnRK2 protein kinase, 2C-type protein phosphatases and ABA receptors. Drought negatively impacts plant growth and the productivity of crops. Drought causes osmotic stress to organisms, and the osmotic stress causes dehydration in plant cells. Abscisic acid (ABA) is produced under osmotic stress conditions, and it plays an important role in the stress response and tolerance of plants. ABA regulates many genes under osmotic stress conditions. It also regulates gene expression during seed development and germination. The ABA-responsive element (ABRE) is the major cis-element for ABA-responsive gene expression. ABRE-binding protein (AREB)/ABRE-binding factor (ABF) transcription factors (TFs) regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression. Other TFs are also involved in ABA-responsive gene expression. SNF1-related protein kinases 2 are the key regulators of ABA signaling including the AREB/ABF regulon. Recently, ABA receptors and group A 2C-type protein phosphatases were shown to govern the ABA signaling pathway. Moreover, recent studies have suggested that there are interactions between the major ABA signaling pathway and other signaling factors in stress-response and seed development. The control of the expression of ABA signaling factors may improve tolerance to environmental stresses.

  17. Dependence of auditory spatial updating on vestibular, proprioceptive, and efference copy signals

    PubMed Central

    Genzel, Daria; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Humans localize sounds by comparing inputs across the two ears, resulting in a head-centered representation of sound-source position. When the head moves, information about head movement must be combined with the head-centered estimate to correctly update the world-centered sound-source position. Spatial updating has been extensively studied in the visual system, but less is known about how head movement signals interact with binaural information during auditory spatial updating. In the current experiments, listeners compared the world-centered azimuthal position of two sound sources presented before and after a head rotation that depended on condition. In the active condition, subjects rotated their head by ∼35° to the left or right, following a pretrained trajectory. In the passive condition, subjects were rotated along the same trajectory in a rotating chair. In the cancellation condition, subjects rotated their head as in the active condition, but the chair was counter-rotated on the basis of head-tracking data such that the head effectively remained fixed in space while the body rotated beneath it. Subjects updated most accurately in the passive condition but erred in the active and cancellation conditions. Performance is interpreted as reflecting the accuracy of perceived head rotation across conditions, which is modeled as a linear combination of proprioceptive/efference copy signals and vestibular signals. Resulting weights suggest that auditory updating is dominated by vestibular signals but with significant contributions from proprioception/efference copy. Overall, results shed light on the interplay of sensory and motor signals that determine the accuracy of auditory spatial updating. PMID:27169504

  18. CD73 regulates anti-inflammatory signaling between apoptotic cells and endotoxin-conditioned tissue macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick S; Wang, Jing; Bhagwat, Samir P; Munger, Joshua C; Janssen, William J; Wright, Terry W; Elliott, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) shifts macrophages to an anti-inflammatory state through a set of still poorly understood soluble and cell-bound signals. Apoptosis is a common feature of inflamed tissues, and efferocytosis by tissue macrophages is thought to promote the resolution of inflammation. However, it is not clear how the exposure of tissue macrophages to inflammatory cues (e.g., PAMPs, DAMPs) in the early stages of inflammation affects immune outcomes of macrophage-apoptotic cell interactions occurring at later stages of inflammation. To address this, we used low-dose endotoxin conditioning (LEC, 1 ng/ml LPS 18 h) of mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (RPMФ) to model the effects of suboptimal (i.e., non-tolerizing), antecedent TLR activation on macrophage inflammatory responses to apoptotic cells. Compared with unconditioned macrophages (MФ), LEC-MФ showed a significant enhancement of apoptotic cell-driven suppression of many inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF, MIP-1β, MCP-1). We then found that enzymatic depletion of adenosine or inhibition of the adenosine receptor A2a on LEC-MФ abrogated apoptotic cell suppression of TNF, and this suppression was entirely dependent on the ecto-enzyme CD73 (AMP→adenosine) but not CD39 (ATP→AMP), both of which are highly expressed on RPMФ. In addition to a requirement for CD73, we also show that Adora2a levels in macrophages are a critical determinant of TNF suppression by apoptotic cells. LEC treatment of RPMФ led to a ~3-fold increase in Adora2a and a ~28-fold increase in adenosine sensitivity. Moreover, in RAW264.7 cells, ectopic expression of both A2a and CD73 was required for TNF suppression by apoptotic cells. In mice, mild, TLR4-dependent inflammation in the lungs and peritoneum caused a rapid increase in macrophage Adora2a and Adora2b levels, and CD73 was required to limit neutrophil influx in this peritonitis model. Thus immune signaling via the CD73–A2a axis in macrophages

  19. The ellipsoidal universe in the Planck satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Recent Planck data confirm that the cosmic microwave background displays the quadrupole power suppression together with large-scale anomalies. Progressing from previous results, that focused on the quadrupole anomaly, we strengthen the proposal that the slightly anisotropic ellipsoidal universe may account for these anomalies. We solved at large scales the Boltzmann equation for the photon distribution functions by taking into account both the effects of the inflation produced primordial scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the geometry in the ellipsoidal universe. We showed that the low quadrupole temperature correlations allowed us to fix the eccentricity at decoupling, edec = (0.86 ± 0.14) 10-2, and to constraint the direction of the symmetry axis. We found that the anisotropy of the geometry of the universe contributes only to the large-scale temperature anisotropies without affecting the higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum. Moreover, we showed that the ellipsoidal geometry of the universe induces sizeable polarization signal at large scales without invoking the reionization scenario. We explicitly evaluated the quadrupole TE and EE correlations. We found an average large-scale polarization ΔTpol = (1.20 ± 0.38) μK. We point out that great care is needed in the experimental determination of the large-scale polarization correlations since the average temperature polarization could be misinterpreted as foreground emission leading, thereby, to a considerable underestimate of the cosmic microwave background polarization signal.

  20. Understanding and exploiting autophagy signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Batoko, Henri; Dagdas, Yasin; Baluska, Frantisek; Sirko, Agnieszka

    2017-12-12

    Autophagy is an essential catabolic pathway and is activated by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli. In particular, autophagy is required to allow sessile organisms such as plants to cope with biotic or abiotic stress conditions. It is thought that these various environmental signaling pathways are somehow integrated with autophagy signaling. However, the molecular mechanisms of plant autophagy signaling are not well understood, leaving a big gap of knowledge as a barrier to being able to manipulate this important pathway to improve plant growth and development. In this review, we discuss possible regulatory mechanisms at the core of plant autophagy signaling. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R.; Gritter, David J.

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  2. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  3. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOEpatents

    Kallenbach, Gene A [Bosque Farms, NM; Noda, Frank T [Albuquerque, NM; Mitchell, Dean J [Tijeras, NM; Etzkin, Joshua L [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  4. Characterizing Cyclostationary Features of Digital Modulated Signals with Empirical Measurements using Spectral Correlation Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    USING SPECTRAL CORRELATION FUNCTION THESIS Mujun Song, Captain, ROKA AFIT/GCE/ENG/11-09 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR...Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the...generator, Agilent E4438C, ESG Vector Signal Generator. Universal Software Radio Peripheral 2 (USRP2), which is a Software Defined Radio (SDR), is used

  5. Error signals as powerful stimuli for the operant conditioning-like process of the fictive respiratory output in a brainstem-spinal cord preparation from rats.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Alessandro; Zocchi, Luciano

    2014-10-01

    Respiratory neuromuscular activity needs to adapt to physiologic and pathologic conditions. We studied the conditioning effects of sensory fiber (putative Ia and II type from neuromuscular spindles) stimulation on the fictive respiratory output to the diaphragm, recorded from C4 phrenic ventral root, of in-vitro brainstem-spinal cord preparations from rats. The respiratory burst frequency in these preparations decreased gradually (from 0.26±0.02 to 0.09±0.003 bursts(-1)±SEM) as the age of the donor rats increased from zero to 4 days. The frequency greatly increased when the pH of the bath was lowered, and was significantly reduced by amiloride. C4 low threshold, sensory fiber stimulation, mimicking a stretched muscle, induced a short-term facilitation of the phrenic output increasing burst amplitude and frequency. When the same stimulus was applied contingently on the motor bursts, in an operant conditioning paradigm (a 500ms pulse train with a delay of 700ms from the beginning of the burst) a strong and persistent (>1h) increase in burst frequency was observed (from 0.10±0.007 to 0.20±0.018 bursts(-1)). Conversely, with random stimulation burst frequency increased only slightly and declined again within minutes to control levels after stopping stimulation. A forward model is assumed to interpret the data, and the notion of error signal, i.e. the sensory fiber activation indicating an unexpected stretched muscle, is re-considered in terms of the reward/punishment value. The signal, gaining hedonic value, is reviewed as a powerful unconditioned stimulus suitable in establishing a long-term operant conditioning-like process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. NLSdb-major update for database of nuclear localization signals and nuclear export signals.

    PubMed

    Bernhofer, Michael; Goldberg, Tatyana; Wolf, Silvana; Ahmed, Mohamed; Zaugg, Julian; Boden, Mikael; Rost, Burkhard

    2018-01-04

    NLSdb is a database collecting nuclear export signals (NES) and nuclear localization signals (NLS) along with experimentally annotated nuclear and non-nuclear proteins. NES and NLS are short sequence motifs related to protein transport out of and into the nucleus. The updated NLSdb now contains 2253 NLS and introduces 398 NES. The potential sets of novel NES and NLS have been generated by a simple 'in silico mutagenesis' protocol. We started with motifs annotated by experiments. In step 1, we increased specificity such that no known non-nuclear protein matched the refined motif. In step 2, we increased the sensitivity trying to match several different families with a motif. We then iterated over steps 1 and 2. The final set of 2253 NLS motifs matched 35% of 8421 experimentally verified nuclear proteins (up from 21% for the previous version) and none of 18 278 non-nuclear proteins. We updated the web interface providing multiple options to search protein sequences for NES and NLS motifs, and to evaluate your own signal sequences. NLSdb can be accessed via Rostlab services at: https://rostlab.org/services/nlsdb/. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Developing Signal-Pattern-Recognition Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Hammen, David

    2006-01-01

    Pattern Interpretation and Recognition Application Toolkit Environment (PIRATE) is a block-oriented software system that aids the development of application programs that analyze signals in real time in order to recognize signal patterns that are indicative of conditions or events of interest. PIRATE was originally intended for use in writing application programs to recognize patterns in space-shuttle telemetry signals received at Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center: application programs were sought to (1) monitor electric currents on shuttle ac power busses to recognize activations of specific power-consuming devices, (2) monitor various pressures and infer the states of affected systems by applying a Kalman filter to the pressure signals, (3) determine fuel-leak rates from sensor data, (4) detect faults in gyroscopes through analysis of system measurements in the frequency domain, and (5) determine drift rates in inertial measurement units by regressing measurements against time. PIRATE can also be used to develop signal-pattern-recognition software for different purposes -- for example, to monitor and control manufacturing processes.

  8. Signal conditioner for potentiometer type transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armentrout, E. C.; Gross, E.

    1973-01-01

    Low cost method is described for signal conditioning of pot-type transducers utilizing printed circuitry. Conditioner fits into standard rack, accommodates 56 channels, and can be operated by one attendant.

  9. Development of an ultra low noise, miniature signal conditioning device for vestibular evoked response recordings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Inner ear evoked potentials are small amplitude (<1 μVpk) signals that require a low noise signal acquisition protocol for successful extraction; an existing such technique is Electrocochleography (ECOG). A novel variant of ECOG called Electrovestibulography (EVestG) is currently investigated by our group, which captures vestibular responses to a whole body tilt. The objective is to design and implement a bio-signal amplifier optimized for ECOG and EVestG, which will be superior in noise performance compared to low noise, general purpose devices available commercially. Method A high gain configuration is required (>85 dB) for such small signal recordings; thus, background power line interference (PLI) can have adverse effects. Active electrode shielding and driven-right-leg circuitry optimized for EVestG/ECOG recordings were investigated for PLI suppression. A parallel pre-amplifier design approach was investigated to realize low voltage, and current noise figures for the bio-signal amplifier. Results In comparison to the currently used device, PLI is significantly suppressed by the designed prototype (by >20 dB in specific test scenarios), and the prototype amplifier generated noise was measured to be 4.8 nV/Hz @ 1 kHz (0.45 μVRMS with bandwidth 10 Hz-10 kHz), which is lower than the currently used device generated noise of 7.8 nV/Hz @ 1 kHz (0.76 μVRMS). A low noise (<1 nV/Hz) radio frequency interference filter was realized to minimize noise contribution from the pre-amplifier, while maintaining the required bandwidth in high impedance measurements. Validation of the prototype device was conducted for actual ECOG recordings on humans that showed an increase (p < 0.05) of ~5 dB in Signal-to-Noise ratio (SNR), and for EVestG recordings using a synthetic ear model that showed a ~4% improvement (p < 0.01) over the currently used amplifier. Conclusion This paper presents the design and evaluation of an ultra-low noise and miniaturized bio-signal

  10. Aided Electrophysiology Using Direct Audio Input: Effects of Amplification and Absolute Signal Level

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Curtis J.; Miller, Christi W.; Tremblay, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated (a) the effect of amplification on cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) at different signal levels when signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were equated between unaided and aided conditions, and (b) the effect of absolute signal level on aided CAEPs when SNR was held constant. Method CAEPs were recorded from 13 young adults with normal hearing. A 1000-Hz pure tone was presented in unaided and aided conditions with a linear analog hearing aid. Direct audio input was used, allowing recorded hearing aid noise floor to be added to unaided conditions to equate SNRs between conditions. An additional stimulus was created through scaling the noise floor to study the effect of signal level. Results Amplification resulted in delayed N1 and P2 peak latencies relative to the unaided condition. An effect of absolute signal level (when SNR was constant) was present for aided CAEP area measures, such that larger area measures were found at higher levels. Conclusion Results of this study further demonstrate that factors in addition to SNR must also be considered before CAEPs can be used to clinically to measure aided thresholds. PMID:26953543

  11. An algorithm for the estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio in surface myoelectric signals generated during cyclic movements.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In many applications requiring the study of the surface myoelectric signal (SMES) acquired in dynamic conditions, it is essential to have a quantitative evaluation of the quality of the collected signals. When the activation pattern of a muscle has to be obtained by means of single- or double-threshold statistical detectors, the background noise level e (noise) of the signal is a necessary input parameter. Moreover, the detection strategy of double-threshold detectors may be properly tuned when the SNR and the duty cycle (DC) of the signal are known. The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm for the estimation of e (noise), SNR, and DC of an SMES collected during cyclic movements. The algorithm is validated on synthetic signals with statistical properties similar to those of SMES, as well as on more than 100 real signals. © 2011 IEEE

  12. The Challenge of Managing a Large University in Conditions of Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Ann

    2012-01-01

    This paper is written in the context of practice at Nottingham Trent University, using elements of its management as example or counterbalance to the literature. The challenge at the heart of the paper is that of practically balancing a managerial and business-focused culture and processes to support the aspirations and motivations of the…

  13. Older males signal more reliably.

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Stephen R; Day, Troy; Rowe, Locke

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that females prefer older males because they have higher mean fitness than younger males has been the centre of recent controversy. These discussions have focused on the success of a female who prefers males of a particular age class when age cues, but not quality cues, are available. Thus, if the distribution of male quality changes with age, such that older males have on average genotypes with higher fitness than younger males, then a female who mates with older males has fitter offspring, which allows the female preference to spread through a genetic correlation. We develop a general model for male display in a species with multiple reproductive bouts that allows us to identify the conditions that promote reliable signalling within an age class. Because males have opportunities for future reproduction, they will reduce their levels of advertising compared with a semelparous species. In addition, because higher-quality males have more future reproduction, they will reduce their advertising more than low-quality males. Thus, the conditions for reliable signalling in a semelparous organism are generally not sufficient to produce reliable signalling in species with multiple reproductive bouts. This result is due to the possibility of future reproduction so that, as individuals age and the opportunities for future reproduction fade, signalling becomes more reliable. This provides a novel rationale for female preference for older mates; older males reveal more information in their sexual displays. PMID:12495495

  14. Development of Conductivity Sensors for Multi-Phase Flow Local Measurements at the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) and University Jaume I of Castellon (UJI).

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Cobo, José Luis; Chiva, Sergio; Méndez, Santos; Monrós, Guillem; Escrivá, Alberto; Cuadros, José Luis

    2017-05-10

    This paper describes all the procedures and methods currently used at UPV (Universitat Politécnica de Valencia) and UJI (University Jaume I) for the development and use of sensors for multi-phase flow analysis in vertical pipes. This paper also describes the methods that we use to obtain the values of the two-phase flow magnitudes from the sensor signals and the validation and cross-verification methods developed to check the consistency of the results obtained for these magnitudes with the sensors. First, we provide information about the procedures used to build the multi-sensor conductivity probes and some of the tests performed with different materials to avoid sensor degradation issues. In addition, we provide information about the characteristics of the electric circuits that feed the sensors. Then the data acquisition of the conductivity probe, the signal conditioning and the data processing including the device that have been designed to automatize all the measurement process of moving the sensors inside the channels by means of stepper electric motors controlled by computer are shown in operation. Then, we explain the methods used for bubble identification and categorization. Finally, we describe the methodology used to obtain the two-phase flow information from the sensor signals. This includes the following items: void fraction, gas velocity, Sauter mean diameter and interfacial area concentration. The last part of this paper is devoted to the conductance probes developed for the annular flow analysis, which includes the analysis of the interfacial waves produced in annular flow and that requires a different type of sensor.

  15. Development of Conductivity Sensors for Multi-Phase Flow Local Measurements at the Polytechnic University of Valencia (UPV) and University Jaume I of Castellon (UJI)

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Cobo, José Luis; Chiva, Sergio; Méndez, Santos; Monrós, Guillem; Escrivá, Alberto; Cuadros, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes all the procedures and methods currently used at UPV (Universitat Politécnica de Valencia) and UJI (University Jaume I) for the development and use of sensors for multi-phase flow analysis in vertical pipes. This paper also describes the methods that we use to obtain the values of the two-phase flow magnitudes from the sensor signals and the validation and cross-verification methods developed to check the consistency of the results obtained for these magnitudes with the sensors. First, we provide information about the procedures used to build the multi-sensor conductivity probes and some of the tests performed with different materials to avoid sensor degradation issues. In addition, we provide information about the characteristics of the electric circuits that feed the sensors. Then the data acquisition of the conductivity probe, the signal conditioning and the data processing including the device that have been designed to automatize all the measurement process of moving the sensors inside the channels by means of stepper electric motors controlled by computer are shown in operation. Then, we explain the methods used for bubble identification and categorization. Finally, we describe the methodology used to obtain the two-phase flow information from the sensor signals. This includes the following items: void fraction, gas velocity, Sauter mean diameter and interfacial area concentration. The last part of this paper is devoted to the conductance probes developed for the annular flow analysis, which includes the analysis of the interfacial waves produced in annular flow and that requires a different type of sensor. PMID:28489035

  16. Endocannabinoid Signaling in Autism.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Persico, Antonio; Battista, Natalia; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral condition with onset during early childhood and a lifelong course in the vast majority of cases. To date, no behavioral, genetic, brain imaging, or electrophysiological test can specifically validate a clinical diagnosis of ASD. However, these medical procedures are often implemented in order to screen for syndromic forms of the disorder (i.e., autism comorbid with known medical conditions). In the last 25 years a good deal of information has been accumulated on the main components of the "endocannabinoid (eCB) system", a rather complex ensemble of lipid signals ("endocannabinoids"), their target receptors, purported transporters, and metabolic enzymes. It has been clearly documented that eCB signaling plays a key role in many human health and disease conditions of the central nervous system, thus opening the avenue to the therapeutic exploitation of eCB-oriented drugs for the treatment of psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory disorders. Here we present a modern view of the eCB system, and alterations of its main components in human patients and animal models relevant to ASD. This review will thus provide a critical perspective necessary to explore the potential exploitation of distinct elements of eCB system as targets of innovative therapeutics against ASD.

  17. Does Government Subsidy Guide Private Universities towards Favorable Directions?: A Preliminary Analysis on Financial Data of Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianmin

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing college-aged population and the transforming policy environment in Japan, private universities are confronted with management crises, such as bankruptcy, mergers, etc. As the second largest source of funding, government subsidies for private universities is considered to have contributed to enhancing educational conditions and…

  18. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  19. Infrared Avionics Signal Distribution Using WDM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Supporting analog RF signal transmission over optical fibers, this project demonstrates a successful application of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) to the avionics environment. We characterize the simultaneous transmission of four RF signals (channels) over a single optical fiber. At different points along a fiber optic backbone, these four analog channels are sequentially multiplexed and demultiplexed to more closely emulate the conditions in existing onboard aircraft. We present data from measurements of optical power, transmission response (loss and gain), reflection response, group delay that defines phase distortion, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and dynamic range that defines nonlinear distortion. The data indicate that WDM is very suitable for avionics applications.

  20. Synaptic Plasticity and NO-cGMP-PKG Signaling Coordinately Regulate ERK-Driven Gene Expression in the Lateral Amygdala and in the Auditory Thalamus Following Pavlovian Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ota, Kristie T.; Monsey, Melissa S.; Wu, Melissa S.; Young, Grace J.; Schafe, Glenn E.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently hypothesized that NO-cGMP-PKG signaling in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) during auditory fear conditioning coordinately regulates ERK-driven transcriptional changes in both auditory thalamic (MGm/PIN) and LA neurons that serve to promote pre- and postsynaptic alterations at thalamo-LA synapses, respectively. In the…

  1. Dependence of auditory spatial updating on vestibular, proprioceptive, and efference copy signals.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz; MacNeilage, Paul R

    2016-08-01

    Humans localize sounds by comparing inputs across the two ears, resulting in a head-centered representation of sound-source position. When the head moves, information about head movement must be combined with the head-centered estimate to correctly update the world-centered sound-source position. Spatial updating has been extensively studied in the visual system, but less is known about how head movement signals interact with binaural information during auditory spatial updating. In the current experiments, listeners compared the world-centered azimuthal position of two sound sources presented before and after a head rotation that depended on condition. In the active condition, subjects rotated their head by ∼35° to the left or right, following a pretrained trajectory. In the passive condition, subjects were rotated along the same trajectory in a rotating chair. In the cancellation condition, subjects rotated their head as in the active condition, but the chair was counter-rotated on the basis of head-tracking data such that the head effectively remained fixed in space while the body rotated beneath it. Subjects updated most accurately in the passive condition but erred in the active and cancellation conditions. Performance is interpreted as reflecting the accuracy of perceived head rotation across conditions, which is modeled as a linear combination of proprioceptive/efference copy signals and vestibular signals. Resulting weights suggest that auditory updating is dominated by vestibular signals but with significant contributions from proprioception/efference copy. Overall, results shed light on the interplay of sensory and motor signals that determine the accuracy of auditory spatial updating. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Purpose and Function of the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, V. R.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The authors believe that the primary function of the university is to examine and preserve the value judgments that can elevate the condition of society. It can serve this function by a future-oriented search for truth. University scholars have a major responsibility for survival and qualiity of life in the future. Bibliography. (LC)

  3. Universal florigenic signals triggered by FT homologues regulate growth and flowering cycles in perennial day-neutral tomato.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Eshed, Yuval

    2006-01-01

    The transition from vegetative to floral meristems in higher plants is programmed by the coincidence of internal and environmental signals. Classic grafting experiments have shown that leaves, in response to changing photoperiods, emit systemic signals, dubbed 'florigen', which induce flowering at the shoot apex. The florigen paradigm was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants: nevertheless it implies that although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, the signal is common to all plants. Tomato is a day-neutral, perennial plant, with sympodial and modular organization of its shoots and thus with reiterative regular vegetative/reproductive transitions. SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS a regulator of flowering-time and shoot architecture encodes the tomato orthologue of FT, a major flowering integrator gene in Arabidopsis. SFT generates graft-transmissible signals which complement the morphogenetic defects in sft plants, substitute for light dose stimulus in tomato and for contrasting day-length requirements in Arabidopsis and MARYLAND MAMMOTH tobacco. It is discussed how systemic signals initiated by SFT interact with the SELF PRUNING gene to regulate vegetative to reproductive (V/R) transitions in the context of two flowering systems, one for primary apices and the other for sympodial shoots.

  4. Influence of Conditioning Time of Universal Adhesives on Adhesive Properties and Enamel-Etching Pattern.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, A M; Siqueira, F; Rocha, J; Szesz, A L; Anwar, M; El-Askary, F; Reis, A; Loguercio, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of application protocol in resin-enamel microshear bond strength (μSBS), in situ degree of conversion, and etching pattern of three universal adhesive systems. Sixty-three extracted third molars were sectioned in four parts (buccal, lingual, and proximals) and divided into nine groups, according to the combination of the main factors-Adhesive (Clearfil Universal, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan; Futurabond U, VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany; and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA)-and enamel treatment/application time (etch-and-rinse mode [ER], self-etch [SE] application for 20 seconds [SE20], and SE application for 40 seconds [SE40]). Specimens were stored in water (37°C/24 h) and tested at 1.0 mm/min (μSBS). The degree of conversion of the adhesives at the resin-enamel interfaces was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). In general, the application of the universal adhesives in the SE40 produced μSBS and degree of conversion that were higher than in the SE20 (p<0.01) and similar to the ER mode. The deepest enamel-etching pattern was obtained in the ER mode, followed by the SE40. The active and prolonged application of universal adhesives in the SE mode may be a viable alternative to increase the degree of conversion, etching pattern, and resin-enamel bond strength.

  5. Altered Global Signal Topography in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Glasser, Matthew; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Krystal, John H; Schleifer, Charlie; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2017-11-01

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a disabling neuropsychiatric disease associated with disruptions across distributed neural systems. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has identified extensive abnormalities in the blood-oxygen level-dependent signal in SCZ patients, including alterations in the average signal over the brain-i.e. the "global" signal (GS). It remains unknown, however, if these "global" alterations occur pervasively or follow a spatially preferential pattern. This study presents the first network-by-network quantification of GS topography in healthy subjects and SCZ patients. We observed a nonuniform GS contribution in healthy comparison subjects, whereby sensory areas exhibited the largest GS component. In SCZ patients, we identified preferential GS representation increases across association regions, while sensory regions showed preferential reductions. GS representation in sensory versus association cortices was strongly anti-correlated in healthy subjects. This anti-correlated relationship was markedly reduced in SCZ. Such shifts in GS topography may underlie profound alterations in neural information flow in SCZ, informing development of pharmacotherapies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu; Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophicmore » inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.« less

  7. Muscle activation during push-ups performed under stable and unstable conditions.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Sebastien; Calatayud, Joaquin; Colado, Juan Carlos; Moya-Nájera, Diego; Triplett, N Travis; Martin, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze muscle activation when performing push-ups under different stability conditions. Physically fit young male university students ( N  = 30) performed five push-ups under stable conditions (on the floor) and using four unstable devices (wobble board, stability disc, fitness dome, and the TRX Suspension Trainer). The push-up speed was controlled using a metronome, and the testing order was randomized. The average amplitudes of the electromyographic (EMG) root mean square of the anterior deltoid (DELT), serratus anterior (SERRA), lumbar multifidus (LUMB), and rectus femoris (FEM) were recorded. The electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). No significant differences were found for the DELT [ F (4,112) = 1.978; p  = 0.130] among the conditions. However, statistically significant differences were found among the different conditions for the SERRA [ F (4,60) = 17.649; p  < 0.001], LUMB [ F (4,76) = 12.334; p  < 0.001], and FEM [ F (4,104) = 24.676; p  < 0.001] muscle activation. The suspended device was the only condition that elicited higher LUMB and FEM activation compared to the other conditions. Push-ups performed on the floor showed lower SERRA activation than those performed with all unstable devices. Not all unstable devices enhance muscle activation compared to traditional push-ups.

  8. Audio signal analysis for tool wear monitoring in sheet metal stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubhayaratne, Indivarie; Pereira, Michael P.; Xiang, Yong; Rolfe, Bernard F.

    2017-02-01

    Stamping tool wear can significantly degrade product quality, and hence, online tool condition monitoring is a timely need in many manufacturing industries. Even though a large amount of research has been conducted employing different sensor signals, there is still an unmet demand for a low-cost easy to set up condition monitoring system. Audio signal analysis is a simple method that has the potential to meet this demand, but has not been previously used for stamping process monitoring. Hence, this paper studies the existence and the significance of the correlation between emitted sound signals and the wear state of sheet metal stamping tools. The corrupting sources generated by the tooling of the stamping press and surrounding machinery have higher amplitudes compared to that of the sound emitted by the stamping operation itself. Therefore, a newly developed semi-blind signal extraction technique was employed as a pre-processing technique to mitigate the contribution of these corrupting sources. The spectral analysis results of the raw and extracted signals demonstrate a significant qualitative relationship between wear progression and the emitted sound signature. This study lays the basis for employing low-cost audio signal analysis in the development of a real-time industrial tool condition monitoring system.

  9. Signaling emotion and reason in cooperation.

    PubMed

    Levine, Emma E; Barasch, Alixandra; Rand, David; Berman, Jonathan Z; Small, Deborah A

    2018-05-01

    We explore the signal value of emotion and reason in human cooperation. Across four experiments utilizing dyadic prisoner dilemma games, we establish three central results. First, individuals infer prosocial feelings and motivations from signals of emotion. As a result, individuals believe that a reliance on emotion signals that one will cooperate more so than a reliance on reason. Second, these beliefs are generally accurate-those who act based on emotion are more likely to cooperate than those who act based on reason. Third, individuals' behavioral responses towards signals of emotion and reason depend on their own decision mode: those who rely on emotion tend to conditionally cooperate (that is, cooperate only when they believe that their partner has cooperated), whereas those who rely on reason tend to defect regardless of their partner's signal. These findings shed light on how different decision processes, and lay theories about decision processes, facilitate and impede cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Feedback regulation of TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaohua; Xiong, Xiangyang; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity. The precise control gives rise to versatile and context-dependent pathophysiological functions. In this review, we firstly give an overview of TGF-β signaling, and then discuss how each step of TGF-β signaling is finely controlled by distinct modes of feedback mechanisms, involving both protein regulators and miRNAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Physical condition for elimination of ambiguity in conditionally convergent lattice sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.

    1987-02-01

    The conditional convergence of the lattice sum defining the Madelung constant gives rise to an ambiguity in its value. It is shown that this ambiguity is related, through a simple and universal integral, to the average charge density on the crystal surface. The physically correct value is obtained by setting the charge density to zero. A simple and universally applicable formula for the Madelung constant is derived as a consequence. It consists of adding up dipole-dipole energies together with a nontrivial correction term.

  12. Simulation of the Australian Mobilesat signalling scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Mushfiqur

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Australian Mobilesat system will provide a range of circuit switched voice/data services using the B-series satellites. The reliability of the signalling scheme between the Network Management Station (NMS) and the mobile terminal (MT) is of critical importance to the performance of the overall system. Simulation results of the performance of the signalling scheme under various channel conditions and coding schemes are presented.

  13. A reprogrammable receiver architecture for wireless signal interception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Timothy S.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, a re-programmable receiver architecture, based on software-defined-radio concept, for wireless signal interception is presented. The radio-frequency (RF) signal that the receiver would like to intercept may come from a terrestrial cellular network or communication satellites, which their carrier frequency are in the range from 800 MHz (civilian mobile) to 15 GHz (Ku band). To intercept signals from such a wide range of frequency in these variant communication systems, the traditional way is to deploy multiple receivers to scan and detect the desired signal. This traditional approach is obviously unattractive due to the cost, efficiency, and accuracy. Instead, we propose a universal receiver, which is software-driven and re-configurable, to intercept signals of interest. The software-defined-radio based receiver first intercepts RF energy of wide spectrum (25MHz) through antenna, performs zero-IF down conversion (homodyne architecture) to baseband, and digital channelizes the baseband signal. The channelization module is a bank of high performance digital filters. The bandwidth of the filter bank is programmable according to the wireless communication protocol under watch. In the baseband processing, high-performance digital signal processors carry out the detection process and microprocessors handle the communication protocols. The baseband processing is also re-configurable for different wireless standards and protocol. The advantages of the software-defined-radio architecture over traditional RF receiver make it a favorable technology for the communication signal interception and surveillance.

  14. A signal detection theory analysis of an unconscious perception effect.

    PubMed

    Haase, S J; Theios, J; Jenison, R

    1999-07-01

    The independent observation model (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) is fitted to detection-identification data collected under conditions of heavy masking. The model accurately predicts a quantitative relationship between stimulus detection and stimulus identification over a wide range of detection performance. This model can also be used to offer a signal detection interpretation of the common finding of above-chance identification following a missed signal. While our finding is not a new one, the stimuli used in this experiment (redundant three-letter strings) differ slightly from those used in traditional signal detection work. Also, the stimuli were presented very briefly and heavily masked, conditions typical in the study of unconscious perception effects.

  15. [SOS response of DNA repair and genetic cell instability under hypoxic conditions].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, S V; Strel'tsova, D A

    2011-01-01

    The SOS DNA repair pathway is induced in E. coli as a multifunctional cell response to a wide variety of signals: UV, X or gamma-irradiation, mitomycin C or nalidixic acid treatment, thymine starvation, etc. Triggering of the system can be used as a general and early sign of DNA damage. Additionally, the SOS-response is known to be an "error-prone" DNA repair pathway and one of the sources of genetic instability. Hypoxic conditions are established to be the major factor of genetic instability as well. In this paper we for the first time studied the SOS DNA repair response under hypoxic conditions induced by the well known aerobic SOS-inducers. The SOS DNA repair response was examined as a reaction of E. coli PQ37 [sfiA::lacZ] cells to UVC, NO-donating agents and 4NQO. Here we provide evidence that those agents were able to induce the SOS DNA repair response in E. coli at anaerobic growth conditions. The process does not depend on the transcriptional activity of the universal protein of E. col anaerobic growth Fnr [4Fe-4S]2+ or can not be referred to as an indicator of genetic instability in hypoxic conditions.

  16. Multi-Band Received Signal Strength Fingerprinting Based Indoor Location System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertthin, Chinnapat; Fujii, Takeo; Ohtsuki, Tomoaki; Nakagawa, Masao

    This paper proposes a new multi-band received signal strength (MRSS) fingerprinting based indoor location system, which employs the frequency diversity on the conventional single-band received signal strength (RSS) fingerprinting based indoor location system. In the proposed system, the impacts of frequency diversity on the enhancements of positioning accuracy are analyzed. Effectiveness of the proposed system is proved by experimental approach, which was conducted in non line-of-sight (NLOS) environment under the area of 103m2 at Yagami Campus, Keio University. WLAN access points, which simultaneously transmit dual-band signal of 2.4 and 5.2GHz, are utilized as transmitters. Likewise, a dual-band WLAN receiver is utilized as a receiver. Signal distances calculated by both Manhattan and Euclidean were classified by K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) classifier to illustrate the performance of the proposed system. The results confirmed that Frequency diversity attributions of multi-band signal provide accuracy improvement over 50% of the conventional single-band.

  17. Information flow in a network of dispersed signalers-receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halupka, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    I consider a stochastic model of multi-agent communication in regular network. The model describes how dispersed animals exchange information. Each agent can initiate and transfer the signal to its nearest neighbors, who may pass it farther. For an external observer of busy networks, signaling activity may appear random, even though information flow actually thrives. Only when signal initiation and transfer are at low levels do spatiotemporal autocorrelations emerge as clumping signaling activity in space and pink noise time series. Under such conditions, the costs of signaling are moderate, but the signaler can reach a large audience. I propose that real-world networks of dispersed signalers-receivers may self-organize into this state and the flow of information maintains their integrity.

  18. The Universe Under A Magnifying Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Christopher; Scranton, R.; Ménard, B.; Schmidt, S.; Tyson, J. A.; Ryan, R. E.; Choi, A.; Wittman, D. M.; Deep Lens Survey Team

    2013-01-01

    Gravitational lensing was one of the fundamental predictions of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and now serves as one of astronomers' most powerful tools for understanding the universe. Because it ties our observations of galaxies in the sky directly to their mass, lensing offers a unique insight into the distribution of dark matter in the universe as well as the growth of that structure over time. I will be presenting recently published results obtained from the Deep Lens survey where we have used the magnification aspect of gravitational lensing to make one of the first detections of tomographic lensing: simultaneously measuring lensing for multiple slices of the universe to understand how the signal evolves over time. This technique is central to the next generation of large astronomical surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. I will also present early results measuring the dust content of 1 galaxies using correlations of galaxy magnitudes and colors.

  19. Brain-state dependent astrocytic Ca2+ signals are coupled to both positive and negative BOLD-fMRI signals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Maosen; He, Yi; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Yu, Xin

    2018-02-13

    Astrocytic Ca 2+ -mediated gliovascular interactions regulate the neurovascular network in situ and in vivo. However, it is difficult to measure directly both the astrocytic activity and fMRI to relate the various forms of blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signaling to brain states under normal and pathological conditions. In this study, fMRI and GCaMP-mediated Ca 2+ optical fiber recordings revealed distinct evoked astrocytic Ca 2+ signals that were coupled with positive BOLD signals and intrinsic astrocytic Ca 2+ signals that were coupled with negative BOLD signals. Both evoked and intrinsic astrocytic calcium signal could occur concurrently or respectively during stimulation. The intrinsic astrocytic calcium signal can be detected globally in multiple cortical sites in contrast to the evoked astrocytic calcium signal only detected at the activated cortical region. Unlike propagating Ca 2+ waves in spreading depolarization/depression, the intrinsic Ca 2+ spikes occurred simultaneously in both hemispheres and were initiated upon the activation of the central thalamus and midbrain reticular formation. The occurrence of the intrinsic astrocytic calcium signal is strongly coincident with an increased EEG power level of the brain resting-state fluctuation. These results demonstrate highly correlated astrocytic Ca 2+ spikes with bidirectional fMRI signals based on the thalamic regulation of cortical states, depicting a brain-state dependency of both astrocytic Ca 2+ and BOLD fMRI signals.

  20. Norepinephrine and Dopamine as Learning Signals

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Carolyn W.

    2004-01-01

    The present review focuses on the hypothesis that norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) act as learning signals. Both NE and DA are broadly distributed in areas concerned with the representation of the world and with the conjunction of sensory inputs and motor outputs. Both are released at times of novelty and uncertainty, providing plausible signal events for updating representations and associations. These catecholamines activate intracellular machinery postulated to serve as a memory-formation cascade. Yet, despite the plausibility of an NE and DA role in vertebrate learning and memory, most evidence that they provide a learning signal is circumstantial. The major weakness of the data available is the lack of a specific description of how the neural circuit modulated by NE or DA participates in the learning being analyzed. Identifying a conditioned stimuli (CS) representation would facilitate the identification of a learning signal role for NE or DA. Describing how the CS representation comes to relate to learned behavior, either through sensory-sensory associations, in which the CS acquires the motivational significance of reward or punishment, thus driving appropriate behavior, or through direct sensory-motor associations is necessary to identify how NE and DA participate in memory creation. As described here, evidence consistent with a direct learning signal role for NE and DA is seen in the changing of sensory circuits in odor preference learning (NE), defensive conditioning (NE), and auditory cortex remodeling in adult rats (DA). Evidence that NE and DA contribute to normal learning through unspecified mechanisms is extensive, but the details of that support role are lacking. PMID:15656268

  1. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Principal Investigator B. K. Jenkins Signal and Image Processing Institute University of Southern California Mail Code 0272 Los Angeles, California...ADDRESS (09% SteW. Mnd ZIP Code ) 10. SOURC OF FUNONG NUMBERS Bldg. 410, Bolling AFB PROGAM CT TASK WORK UNIT Washington, D.C. 20332 EEETP.aso o 11...TAB Unmnnncced Justification By Distribution/ I O’ Availablility Codes I - ’_ ji and/or 2 I Summary During the period 1 July 1987 - 30 June 1988, the

  2. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  3. A universal computer control system for motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system for a multi-motor system such as a space telerobot, having a remote computational node and a local computational node interconnected with one another by a high speed data link is described. A Universal Computer Control System (UCCS) for the telerobot is located at each node. Each node is provided with a multibus computer system which is characterized by a plurality of processors with all processors being connected to a common bus, and including at least one command processor. The command processor communicates over the bus with a plurality of joint controller cards. A plurality of direct current torque motors, of the type used in telerobot joints and telerobot hand-held controllers, are connected to the controller cards and responds to digital control signals from the command processor. Essential motor operating parameters are sensed by analog sensing circuits and the sensed analog signals are converted to digital signals for storage at the controller cards where such signals can be read during an address read/write cycle of the command processing processor.

  4. Emory University: High-Throughput Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis for Hippo Pathway Profiling | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The CTD2 Center at Emory University used high-throughput protein-protein interaction (PPI) mapping for Hippo signaling pathway profiling to rapidly unveil promising PPIs as potential therapeutic targets and advance functional understanding of signaling circuitry in cells. Read the abstract.

  5. Spontaneous creation of the Universe Ex Nihilo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Maya; Wasser, Avi

    2013-12-01

    Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and ‘what was there’ before it came to existence have been of great interest to mankind at all times. Several suggestions have been presented during the ages - mostly assuming a preliminary state prior to creation. Nevertheless, theories that require initial conditions are not considered complete, since they lack an explanation of what created such conditions. We therefore propose the ‘Creatio Ex Nihilo’ (CEN) theory, aimed at describing the origin of the Universe from ‘nothing’ in information terms. The suggested framework does not require amendments to the laws of physics: but rather provides a new scenario to the Universe initiation process, and from that point merges with state-of-the-art cosmological models. The paper is aimed at providing a first step towards a more complete model of the Universe creation - proving that creation Ex Nihilo is feasible. Further adjustments, elaborations, formalisms and experiments are required to formulate and support the theory.

  6. Design and FPGA Implementation of a Universal Chaotic Signal Generator Based on the Verilog HDL Fixed-Point Algorithm and State Machine Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Mo; Yu, Simin; Wen, Yuqiong; Lü, Jinhu; He, Jianbin; Lin, Zhuosheng

    In this paper, a novel design methodology and its FPGA hardware implementation for a universal chaotic signal generator is proposed via the Verilog HDL fixed-point algorithm and state machine control. According to continuous-time or discrete-time chaotic equations, a Verilog HDL fixed-point algorithm and its corresponding digital system are first designed. In the FPGA hardware platform, each operation step of Verilog HDL fixed-point algorithm is then controlled by a state machine. The generality of this method is that, for any given chaotic equation, it can be decomposed into four basic operation procedures, i.e. nonlinear function calculation, iterative sequence operation, iterative values right shifting and ceiling, and chaotic iterative sequences output, each of which corresponds to only a state via state machine control. Compared with the Verilog HDL floating-point algorithm, the Verilog HDL fixed-point algorithm can save the FPGA hardware resources and improve the operation efficiency. FPGA-based hardware experimental results validate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed approach.

  7. Charting the parameter space of the global 21-cm signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Aviad; Fialkov, Anastasia; Barkana, Rennan; Lotem, Matan

    2017-12-01

    The early star-forming Universe is still poorly constrained, with the properties of high-redshift stars, the first heating sources and reionization highly uncertain. This leaves observers planning 21-cm experiments with little theoretical guidance. In this work, we explore the possible range of high-redshift parameters including the star formation efficiency and the minimal mass of star-forming haloes; the efficiency, spectral energy distribution and redshift evolution of the first X-ray sources; and the history of reionization. These parameters are only weakly constrained by available observations, mainly the optical depth to the cosmic microwave background. We use realistic semi-numerical simulations to produce the global 21-cm signal over the redshift range z = 6-40 for each of 193 different combinations of the astrophysical parameters spanning the allowed range. We show that the expected signal fills a large parameter space, but with a fixed general shape for the global 21-cm curve. Even with our wide selection of models, we still find clear correlations between the key features of the global 21-cm signal and underlying astrophysical properties of the high-redshift Universe, namely the Ly α intensity, the X-ray heating rate and the production rate of ionizing photons. These correlations can be used to directly link future measurements of the global 21-cm signal to astrophysical quantities in a mostly model-independent way. We identify additional correlations that can be used as consistency checks.

  8. Distributed traffic signal control using fuzzy logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    We present a distributed approach to traffic signal control, where the signal timing parameters at a given intersection are adjusted as functions of the local traffic condition and of the signal timing parameters at adjacent intersections. Thus, the signal timing parameters evolve dynamically using only local information to improve traffic flow. This distributed approach provides for a fault-tolerant, highly responsive traffic management system. The signal timing at an intersection is defined by three parameters: cycle time, phase split, and offset. We use fuzzy decision rules to adjust these three parameters based only on local information. The amount of change in the timing parameters during each cycle is limited to a small fraction of the current parameters to ensure smooth transition. We show the effectiveness of this method through simulation of the traffic flow in a network of controlled intersections.

  9. Conditional Tests for Localizing Trait Genes

    PubMed Central

    Di, Yanming; Thompson, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims With pedigree data, genetic linkage can be detected using inheritance vector tests, which explore the discrepancy between the posterior distribution of the inheritance vectors given observed trait values and the prior distribution of the inheritance vectors. In this paper, we propose conditional inheritance vector tests for linkage localization. These conditional tests can also be used to detect additional linkage signals in the presence of previously detected causal genes. Methods For linkage localization, we propose to perform inheritance vector tests conditioning on the inheritance vectors at two positions bounding a test region. We can detect additional linkage signals by conducting a further conditional test in a region with no previously detected genes. We use randomized p values to extend the marginal and conditional tests when the inheritance vectors cannot be completely determined from genetic marker data. Results We conduct simulation studies to compare and contrast the marginal and the conditional tests and to demonstrate that randomized p values can capture both the significance and the uncertainty in the test results. Conclusions The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed conditional tests provide useful localization information, and with informative marker data, the uncertainty in randomized marginal and conditional test results is small. PMID:19439976

  10. Ceilometer signal performance with height in high aerosol loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachour, D.; Perez-Astudillo, D.

    2016-02-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of the Vaisala CL51 ceilometer backscatter signals during a one-year period, in particular the study of the noise embedded in the signals measured by the ceilometer, under cloudless conditions. The noise analysis is done to provide indication about the maximum atmospheric height up to which the ceilometer signal is still reliable enough in clear-sky conditions, for the detection of changing aerosol contents. The experiment was carried out in Doha, Qatar, for a period of 12 months, from December 2012 to November 2013. 214 clear days were selected during this year. Several tests were performed in order to assess the variability of the backscatter signals from day to day and between different heights in the atmosphere. To the authors' knowledge, it is the first time that the signal performance of a ceilometer is studied in a highly aerosol-loaded region, and for a relatively extended period of time. Considering the whole year, it is found that a height of 5 or 6 km represents a good compromise between including the signals arising from the dynamicity of the atmosphere and removing as much as possible the signal dominated by noise at higher heights. In winter months, however, this limit can be extended up to a height of 7 km.

  11. Signal Acquisition Using AXIe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narciso, Steven J.

    2011-08-01

    An emerging test and measurement standard called AXIe, AdvancedTCA extensions for Instrumentation, is expected to find wide acceptance within the Physics community as it offers many benefits to applications including shock, plasma, particle and nuclear physics. It is expected that many COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) signal conditioning, acquisition and processing modules will become available from a range of different suppliers. AXIe uses AdvancedTCA® as its basis, but then levers test and measurement industry standards such as PXI, IVI, and LXI to facilitate cooperation and plug-and-play interoperability between COTS instrument suppliers. AXIe's large board footprint and power allows high density in a 19" rack, enabling the development of high-performance signal conditioning, analog-to-digital conversion, and data processing, while offering channel count scalability inherent in modular systems. Synchronization between modules is flexible and provided by two triggering structures: a parallel trigger bus, and radially-distributed, time-matched point-to-point trigger lines. Inter-module communication is also provided with an adjacent module local bus allowing data transfer to 600 Gbits/s in each direction, for example between a front-end digitizer and DSP. AXIe allows embedding high performance computing and a range of COTS AdvancedTCA® computer blades are currently available that provide low cost alternatives to the development of custom signal processing modules. The availability of both LAN and PCI Express allow interconnection between modules, as well as industry-standard high-performance data paths to external host computer systems. AXIe delivers a powerful environment for custom module devel opment. As in the case of VXIbus and PXI before it, commercial development kits are expected to be available. This paper will give an overview of the architectural elements of AXIe 1.0, the compatibility model with AdvancedTCA, and signal acquisition performance of many

  12. Marine Environmental Awareness among University Students in Taiwan: A Potential Signal for Sustainability of the Oceans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chung-Ling; Tsai, Chen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    University students are regarded as future decision-makers in society and have a high likelihood of becoming opinion-shapers in terms of the environment. Their awareness of the marine environment will therefore have a significant effect upon sustainable marine development. This study examines Taiwanese university students' marine environmental…

  13. Wireless photoplethysmographic device for heart rate variability signal acquisition and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Ivan; Nazeran, Homer; Franco, Mario; Haltiwanger, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) signal: a non-invasive quantitative marker of the autonomic nervous system that could be used to assess cardiac health and other physiologic conditions. A low-power wireless PPG device was custom-developed to monitor, acquire and analyze the arterial pulse in the finger. The system consisted of an optical sensor to detect arterial pulse as variations in reflected light intensity, signal conditioning circuitry to process the reflected light signal, a microcontroller to control PPG signal acquisition, digitization and wireless transmission, a receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and convert them back to their analog representations. A personal computer was used to further process the captured PPG signals and display them. A MATLAB program was then developed to capture the PPG data, detect the RR peaks, perform spectral analysis of the PPG data, and extract the HRV signal. A user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) was developed in LabView to display the PPG data and their spectra. The performance of each module (sensing unit, signal conditioning, wireless transmission/reception units, and graphical user interface) was assessed individually and the device was then tested as a whole. Consequently, PPG data were obtained from five healthy individuals to test the utility of the wireless system. The device was able to reliably acquire the PPG signals from the volunteers. To validate the accuracy of the MATLAB codes, RR peak information from each subject was fed into Kubios software as a text file. Kubios was able to generate a report sheet with the time domain and frequency domain parameters of the acquired data. These features were then compared against those calculated by MATLAB. The preliminary results demonstrate that the prototype wireless device could be used to perform HRV signal acquisition and analysis.

  14. Calcium dynamics and signaling in vascular regulation: computational models

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukias, Nikolaos Michael

    2013-01-01

    Calcium is a universal signaling molecule with a central role in a number of vascular functions including in the regulation of tone and blood flow. Experimentation has provided insights into signaling pathways that lead to or affected by Ca2+ mobilization in the vasculature. Mathematical modeling offers a systematic approach to the analysis of these mechanisms and can serve as a tool for data interpretation and for guiding new experimental studies. Comprehensive models of calcium dynamics are well advanced for some systems such as the heart. This review summarizes the progress that has been made in modeling Ca2+ dynamics and signaling in vascular cells. Model simulations show how Ca2+ signaling emerges as a result of complex, nonlinear interactions that cannot be properly analyzed using only a reductionist's approach. A strategy of integrative modeling in the vasculature is outlined that will allow linking macroscale pathophysiological responses to the underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:21061306

  15. The Faculty Handbook of Columbia University 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY.

    Columbia University's faculty handbook is designed as a general guide to the organization and operation of the university. The chief administrative units and their duties are detailed as are the conditions of appointment and general personnel policy including salaries, promotions, tenure, termination, and fringe benefits. Faculty obligations and…

  16. A Collaborative University Model for Employee Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Melondie R.; Kelly, Rebecca C.; Alexander, Chelley K.; Holmes, Lauren M.

    2011-01-01

    Universities are taking a more active approach in understanding and monitoring employees' modifiable health risk factors and chronic care conditions by developing strategies to encourage employees to start and sustain healthy behaviors. WellBama, the University of Alabama's signature health and wellness program, utilizes a collaborative model in…

  17. Synchrosqueezing an effective method for analyzing Doppler radar physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Rahman, Ashikur; Jia Xu; Mandic, Danilo P; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Doppler radar can monitor vital sign wirelessly. Respiratory and heart rate have time-varying behavior. Capturing the rate variability provides crucial physiological information. However, the common time-frequency methods fail to detect key information. We investigate Synchrosqueezing method to extract oscillatory components of the signal with time varying spectrum. Simulation and experimental result shows the potential of the proposed method for analyzing signals with complex time-frequency behavior like physiological signals. Respiration and heart signals and their components are extracted with higher resolution and without any pre-filtering and signal conditioning.

  18. University building safety index measurement using risk and implementation matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, A.; Arumsari, F.; Maryani, A.

    2018-04-01

    Many high rise building constructed in several universities in Indonesia. The high-rise building management must provide the safety planning and proper safety equipment in each part of the building. Unfortunately, most of the university in Indonesia have not been applying safety policy yet and less awareness on treating safety facilities. Several fire accidents in university showed that some significant risk should be managed by the building management. This research developed a framework for measuring the high rise building safety index in university The framework is not only assessed the risk magnitude but also designed modular building safety checklist for measuring the safety implementation level. The safety checklist has been developed for 8 types of the university rooms, i.e.: office, classroom, 4 type of laboratories, canteen, and library. University building safety index determined using risk-implementation matrix by measuring the risk magnitude and assessing the safety implementation level. Building Safety Index measurement has been applied in 4 high rise buildings in ITS Campus. The building assessment showed that the rectorate building in secure condition and chemical department building in beware condition. While the library and administration center building was in less secure condition.

  19. Integrated circuits for accurate linear analogue electric signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijsing, J. H.

    1981-11-01

    The main lines in the design of integrated circuits for accurate analog linear electric signal processing in a frequency range including DC are investigated. A categorization of universal active electronic devices is presented on the basis of the connections of one of the terminals of the input and output ports to the common ground potential. The means for quantifying the attributes of four types of universal active electronic devices are included. The design of integrated operational voltage amplifiers (OVA) is discussed. Several important applications in the field of general instrumentation are numerically evaluated, and the design of operatinal floating amplifiers is presented.

  20. Effects of stop-signal probability in the stop-signal paradigm: the N2/P3 complex further validated.

    PubMed

    Ramautar, J R; Kok, A; Ridderinkhof, K R

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of frequency of occurrence of stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Presenting stop signals less frequently resulted in faster reaction times to the go stimulus and a lower probability of inhibition. Also, go stimuli elicited larger and somewhat earlier P3 responses when stop signals occurred less frequently. Since the amplitude effect was more pronounced on trials when go signals were followed by fast than slow reactions, it probably reflected a stronger set to produce fast responses. N2 and P3 components to stop signals were observed to be larger and of longer latency when stop signals occurred less frequently. The amplitude enhancement of these N2 and P3 components were more pronounced for unsuccessful than for successful stop-signal trials. Moreover, the successfully inhibited stop trials elicited a frontocentral P3 whereas unsuccessfully inhibited stop trials elicited a more posterior P3 that resembled the classical P3b. P3 amplitude in the unsuccessfully inhibited condition also differed between waveforms synchronized with the stop signal and waveforms synchronized with response onset whereas N2 amplitude did not. Taken together these findings suggest that N2 reflected a greater significance of failed inhibitions after low probability stop signals while P3 reflected continued processing of the erroneous response after response execution.

  1. Instability of signaling resolution models of parent–offspring conflict

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A.; Enquist, Magnus; Cotton, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Recent signaling resolution models of parent–offspring conflict have provided an important framework for theoretical and empirical studies of communication and parental care. According to these models, signaling of need is stabilized by its cost. However, our computer simulations of the evolutionary dynamics of chick begging and parental investment show that in Godfray’s model the signaling equilibrium is evolutionarily unstable: populations that start at the signaling equilibrium quickly depart from it. Furthermore, the signaling and nonsignaling equilibria are linked by a continuum of equilibria where chicks above a certain condition do not signal and we show that, contrary to intuition, fitness increases monotonically as the proportion of young that signal decreases. This result forces us to reconsider much of the current literature on signaling of need and highlights the need to investigate the evolutionary stability of signaling equilibria based on the handicap principle. PMID:9539758

  2. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

  3. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

  4. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

  5. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

  6. 49 CFR 233.5 - Accidents resulting from signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accidents resulting from signal failure. 233.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.5 Accidents resulting... required by part 236 of this title that results in a more favorable aspect than intended or other condition...

  7. Hearing the signal of dark sectors with gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by advanced LIGO (aLIGO)'s recent discovery of gravitational waves, we discuss signatures of new physics that could be seen at ground- and space-based interferometers. We show that a first-order phase transition in a dark sector would lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal at future experiments, if the phase transition has occurred at temperatures few orders of magnitude higher than the electroweak scale. The source of gravitational waves in this case is associated with the dynamics of expanding and colliding bubbles in the early universe. At the same time we point out that topological defects, such as dark sector domain walls, may generate a detectable signal already at aLIGO. Both bubble and domain-wall scenarios are sourced by semiclassical configurations of a dark new physics sector. In the first case, the gravitational wave signal originates from bubble wall collisions and subsequent turbulence in hot plasma in the early universe, while the second case corresponds to domain walls passing through the interferometer at present and is not related to gravitational waves. We find that aLIGO at its current sensitivity can detect smoking-gun signatures from domain-wall interactions, while future proposed experiments including the fifth phase of aLIGO at design sensitivity can probe dark sector phase transitions.

  8. High Quality Acquisition of Surface Electromyography - Conditioning Circuit Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Malik, Noreha Abdul; Khan, Sheroz; Nurashikin, Anis; Haider, Samnan; Larbani, Sofiane; Arshad, Atika; Tasnim, Rumana

    2013-12-01

    The acquisition of Surface Electromyography (SEMG) signals is used for many applications including the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases, and prosthesis control. The diagnostic quality of the SEMG signal is highly dependent on the conditioning circuit of the SEMG acquisition system. This paper presents the design of an SEMG conditioning circuit that can guarantee to collect high quality signal with high SNR such that it is immune to environmental noise. The conditioning circuit consists of four stages; consisting of an instrumentation amplifier that is used with a gain of around 250; 4th order band pass filter in the 20-500Hz frequency range as the two initial stages. The third stage is an amplifier with adjustable gain using a variable resistance; the gain could be changed from 1000 to 50000. In the final stage the signal is translated to meet the input requirements of data acquisition device or the ADC. Acquisition of accurate signals allows it to be analyzed for extracting the required characteristic features for medical and clinical applications. According to the experimental results, the value of SNR for collected signal is 52.4 dB which is higher than the commercial system, the power spectrum density (PSD) graph is also presented and it shows that the filter has eliminated the noise below 20 Hz.

  9. Black-hole universe: time evolution.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2013-10-18

    Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.

  10. Signal transduction during wheat grain development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingan; Guo, Honghai; Sun, Mingze

    2015-04-01

    This review examines the signaling pathways from the developmental and environmental point of view and the interactions among external conditions, hormonal regulations, and sugarsensing in wheat. Grain development is the key phase of reproductive growth that is closely associated with vegetative organ senescence, initiation of grain filling, pre-stored assimilates remobilization, and maturation. Senescence is characterized by loss of chlorophyll and the degradation of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids as well as nutrient exports to the sink. The initiation and progression of vegetative organ senescence are under the control of an array of environmental signals (such as biotic and abiotic stresses, darkness, and nutrient availability) and endogenous factors (including aging, multiple hormones, and sugar availability). This review will discuss the major breakthroughs in signal transduction for the wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain development achieved in the past several years, with focuses on the regulation of senescence, reserves remobilization and biosynthesis of main components of the grain. Different mechanisms of diverse signals in controlling different phrases of wheat grain development, and cross talks between different signaling pathways will also be discussed. For perspectives, key signaling networks for grain development remain to be elucidated, including cross talks and the interactions between various environmental factors and internal signals.

  11. Procedures for using signals from one sensor as substitutes for signals of another

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G.; Malila, W.; Weller, T.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of surface conditions may require a transfer from using data from one satellite sensor to data from a different sensor having different spectral characteristics. Two general procedures for spectral signal substitution are described in this paper, a principal-components procedure and a complete multivariate regression procedure. They are evaluated through a simulation study of five satellite sensors (MSS, TM, AVHRR, CZCS, and HRV). For illustration, they are compared to another recently described procedure for relating AVHRR and MSS signals. The multivariate regression procedure is shown to be best. TM can accurately emulate the other sensors, but they, on the other hand, have difficulty in accurately emulating its shortwave infrared bands (TM5 and TM7).

  12. Detecting weak position fluctuations from encoder signal using singular spectrum analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoqiang; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Mechanical fault or defect will cause some weak fluctuations to the position signal. Detection of such fluctuations via encoders can help determine the health condition and performance of the machine, and offer a promising alternative to the vibration-based monitoring scheme. However, besides the interested fluctuations, encoder signal also contains a large trend and some measurement noise. In applications, the trend is normally several orders larger than the concerned fluctuations in magnitude, which makes it difficult to detect the weak fluctuations without signal distortion. In addition, the fluctuations can be complicated and amplitude modulated under non-stationary working condition. To overcome this issue, singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is proposed for detecting weak position fluctuations from encoder signal in this paper. It enables complicated encode signal to be reduced into several interpretable components including a trend, a set of periodic fluctuations and noise. A numerical simulation is given to demonstrate the performance of the method, it shows that SSA outperforms empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in terms of capability and accuracy. Moreover, linear encoder signals from a CNC machine tool are analyzed to determine the magnitudes and sources of fluctuations during feed motion. The proposed method is proven to be feasible and reliable for machinery condition monitoring. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Volatile-Mediated within-Plant Signaling in Hybrid Aspen: Required for Systemic Responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2017-04-01

    Plant volatiles play crucial roles in signaling between plants and their associated community members, but their role in within-plant signaling remains largely unexplored, particularly under field conditions. Using a system comprising the hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) and the specialized herbivorous leaf beetle (Phratora laticollis) and, combining field, greenhouse and laboratory experiments, we examined whether local damage triggered systemic responses in undamaged branches that lack vascular connection to the damaged branches, and to what extent this was caused by airborne volatile signals versus internal signals. An experiment tracing dye through the vasculature of saplings revealed no downward movement of the dye from upper to lower branches, suggesting a lack of vascular connectivity among branches. However, we found under both field and laboratory conditions that herbivore feeding on upper branches elicited volatile emissions by undamaged lower branches. Greenhouse experiments manipulating air contact between damaged and undamaged branches showed that systemic induction of volatiles was almost eliminated when air contact was interrupted. Our findings clearly demonstrate that herbivore-induced volatiles overcome vascular constraints and mediate within-plant signaling. Further, we found that volatile signaling led to induction of different classes of volatiles under field and environment controlled conditions, with a weaker response observed in the field. This difference not only reflects the dose- and time-dependent nature of volatile signaling, but also points out that future studies should focus more on field observations to better understand the ecological role of volatile-mediated within-plant signaling.

  14. Conditional uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  15. Nonlinear Real-Time Optical Signal Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    I 1.8 IIII III1 1 / U , 0 7 USCIPI Report 1130 E ~C~,OUTfitA N Ivj) UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA - I FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT April 15, 1981 - June...30, 1984 N NONLINEAR REAL-TIME OPTICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING i E ~ A.A. Sawchuk, Principal Investigator T.C. Strand and A.R. Tanguay. Jr. October 1, 1984...Erter.d) logic system. A computer generated hologram fabricated on an e -beam system serves as a beamsteering interconnection element. A completely

  16. MADS-box transcription factor AGL21 regulates lateral root development and responds to multiple external and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Miao, Zi-Qing; Qi, Guo-Feng; Wu, Jie; Cai, Xiao-Teng; Mao, Jie-Li; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2014-11-01

    Plant root system morphology is dramatically influenced by various environmental cues. The adaptation of root system architecture to environmental constraints, which mostly depends on the formation and growth of lateral roots, is an important agronomic trait. Lateral root development is regulated by the external signals coordinating closely with intrinsic signaling pathways. MADS-box transcription factors are known key regulators of the transition to flowering and flower development. However, their functions in root development are still poorly understood. Here we report that AGL21, an AGL17-clade MADS-box gene, plays a crucial role in lateral root development. AGL21 was highly expressed in root, particularly in the root central cylinder and lateral root primordia. AGL21 overexpression plants produced more and longer lateral roots while agl21 mutants showed impaired lateral root development, especially under nitrogen-deficient conditions. AGL21 was induced by many plant hormones and environmental stresses, suggesting a function of this gene in root system plasticity in response to various signals. Furthermore, AGL21 was found positively regulating auxin accumulation in lateral root primordia and lateral roots by enhancing local auxin biosynthesis, thus stimulating lateral root initiation and growth. We propose that AGL21 may be involved in various environmental and physiological signals-mediated lateral root development and growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  17. Nucleotide homeostasis and purinergic nociceptive signaling in rat meninges in migraine-like conditions.

    PubMed

    Yegutkin, Gennady G; Guerrero-Toro, Cindy; Kilinc, Erkan; Koroleva, Kseniya; Ishchenko, Yevheniia; Abushik, Polina; Giniatullina, Raisa; Fayuk, Dmitriy; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2016-09-01

    Extracellular ATP is suspected to contribute to migraine pain but regulatory mechanisms controlling pro-nociceptive purinergic mechanisms in the meninges remain unknown. We studied the peculiarities of metabolic and signaling pathways of ATP and its downstream metabolites in rat meninges and in cultured trigeminal cells exposed to the migraine mediator calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Under resting conditions, meningeal ATP and ADP remained at low nanomolar levels, whereas extracellular AMP and adenosine concentrations were one-two orders higher. CGRP increased ATP and ADP levels in meninges and trigeminal cultures and reduced adenosine concentration in trigeminal cells. Degradation rates for exogenous nucleotides remained similar in control and CGRP-treated meninges, indicating that CGRP triggers nucleotide release without affecting nucleotide-inactivating pathways. Lead nitrate-based enzyme histochemistry of whole mount meninges revealed the presence of high ATPase, ADPase, and AMPase activities, primarily localized in the medial meningeal artery. ATP and ADP induced large intracellular Ca(2+) transients both in neurons and in glial cells whereas AMP and adenosine were ineffective. In trigeminal glia, ATP partially operated via P2X7 receptors. ATP, but not other nucleotides, activated nociceptive spikes in meningeal trigeminal nerve fibers providing a rationale for high degradation rate of pro-nociceptive ATP. Pro-nociceptive effect of ATP in meningeal nerves was reproduced by α,β-meATP operating via P2X3 receptors. Collectively, extracellular ATP, which level is controlled by CGRP, can persistently activate trigeminal nerves in meninges which considered as the origin site of migraine headache. These data are consistent with the purinergic hypothesis of migraine pain and suggest new targets against trigeminal pain.

  18. CYTOTOXICITY AND CELL SIGNALING IN MH-S CELLS: RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL AND COAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxicity and Cell Signaling in MH-S Cells: Relative Potency of Diesel and Coal Combustion Particles P. Singh1, Y. Kostetski2, M. Daniels1, T. Stevens3 and MI Gilmour 1USEPA, RTP, NC, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC<...

  19. Context matters: sexual signaling loss in digital organisms

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Emily G; Testa, Nicholas D; Peer, Alex; Garnett, Sara C

    2015-01-01

    Sexual signals are important in attracting and choosing mates; however, these signals and their associated preferences are often costly and frequently lost. Despite the prevalence of signaling system loss in many taxa, the factors leading to signal loss remain poorly understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that complexity in signal loss scenarios is due to the context-dependent nature of the many factors affecting signal loss itself. Using the Avida digital life platform, we evolved 50 replicates of ∼250 lineages, each with a unique combination of parameters, including whether signaling is obligate or facultative; genetic linkage between signaling and receiving genes; population size; and strength of preference for signals. Each of these factors ostensibly plays a crucial role in signal loss, but was found to do so only under specific conditions. Under obligate signaling, genetic linkage, but not population size, influenced signal loss; under facultative signaling, genetic linkage does not have significant influence. Somewhat surprisingly, only a total loss of preference in the obligate signaling populations led to total signal loss, indicating that even a modest amount of preference is enough to maintain signaling systems. Strength of preference proved to be the strongest single force preventing signal loss, as it consistently overcame the potential effects of drift within our study. Our findings suggest that signaling loss is often dependent on not just preference for signals, population size, and genetic linkage, but also whether signals are required to initiate mating. These data provide an understanding of the factors (and their interactions) that may facilitate the maintenance of sexual signals. PMID:26380700

  20. Agreement Between Fairleigh Dickinson University and Fairleigh Dickenson University Council of American Association of University Professors Chapter, September 1, 1977-August 31, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    The negotiation agreement covers nondiscrimination, salary, fringe benefits, leave of absence, faculty workload, working conditions, calendars and schedules, department governance, college and campus governance, the university senate, grievance and arbitration procedures, research and travel, financial exigency, employment security, association…

  1. Current Conditions of Bilingual Teacher Preparation Programs in Public Universities in USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, B. Gloria Guzman; Thorsos, Nilsa; Dickinson, Gail

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses public universities' policies and practices in the USA (United States of America) with a focus on public bilingual teacher preparation in Spanish-English programs (initial credential licensure and Masters of Education programs with, or without, endorsements). We questioned: "What do bilingual programs look like in public…

  2. Taking the Measure of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is the oldest light in the universe - it is literally the remnant heat left over from the Big Bang. This fossil relic has survived largely intact and it provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any stars or galaxies had formed. NASA has now flown two satellites devoted to studying the CMB: 'COBE' and 'WMAP'. In this lecture I will describe what we have learned from these missions including: evidence for the Big Bang itself; new measurements of the age, shape, and content of the universe; and new evidence that all structure in the universe emerged from microscopic quantum fluctuations in the primordial soup.

  3. An adaptive Kalman filter approach for cardiorespiratory signal extraction and fusion of non-contacting sensors.

    PubMed

    Foussier, Jerome; Teichmann, Daniel; Jia, Jing; Misgeld, Berno; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2014-05-09

    Extracting cardiorespiratory signals from non-invasive and non-contacting sensor arrangements, i.e. magnetic induction sensors, is a challenging task. The respiratory and cardiac signals are mixed on top of a large and time-varying offset and are likely to be disturbed by measurement noise. Basic filtering techniques fail to extract relevant information for monitoring purposes. We present a real-time filtering system based on an adaptive Kalman filter approach that separates signal offsets, respiratory and heart signals from three different sensor channels. It continuously estimates respiration and heart rates, which are fed back into the system model to enhance performance. Sensor and system noise covariance matrices are automatically adapted to the aimed application, thus improving the signal separation capabilities. We apply the filtering to two different subjects with different heart rates and sensor properties and compare the results to the non-adaptive version of the same Kalman filter. Also, the performance, depending on the initialization of the filters, is analyzed using three different configurations ranging from best to worst case. Extracted data are compared with reference heart rates derived from a standard pulse-photoplethysmographic sensor and respiration rates from a flowmeter. In the worst case for one of the subjects the adaptive filter obtains mean errors (standard deviations) of -0.2 min(-1) (0.3 min(-1)) and -0.7 bpm (1.7 bpm) (compared to -0.2 min(-1) (0.4 min(-1)) and 42.0 bpm (6.1 bpm) for the non-adaptive filter) for respiration and heart rate, respectively. In bad conditions the heart rate is only correctly measurable when the Kalman matrices are adapted to the target sensor signals. Also, the reduced mean error between the extracted offset and the raw sensor signal shows that adapting the Kalman filter continuously improves the ability to separate the desired signals from the raw sensor data. The average total computational time needed

  4. Beneficial and detrimental role of adenosine signaling in diseases and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major signaling nucleoside that orchestrates cellular and tissue adaptation under energy depletion and ischemic/hypoxic conditions by activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The regulation and generation of extracellular adenosine in response to stress are critical in tissue protection. Both mouse and human studies reported that extracellular adenosine signaling plays a beneficial role during acute states. However, prolonged excess extracellular adenosine is detrimental and contributes to the development and progression of various chronic diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made to understand the role of adenosine signaling in different conditions and to clarify its significance during the course of disease progression in various organs. These efforts have and will identify potential therapeutic possibilities for protection of tissue injury at acute stage by upregulation of adenosine signaling or attenuation of chronic disease progression by downregulation of adenosine signaling. This review is to summarize current progress and the importance of adenosine signaling in different disease stages and its potential therapeutic effects. PMID:26316513

  5. Ultra low signals in ballistic electron emission microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Eric

    accurate determination of the SB-type kink energy than before and the first experimental evidence that it increases with tensile strain on the Si(001) surface. Modifications to an Omicron Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscope (VT-STM) will be presented. The VT-STM will be moved to the Electrical Engineering Department cleanroom of The Ohio State University and will allow in-situ studies of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) grown samples. Modifications, repairs, and operating procedures will be discussed for the VT-STM and supporting hardware. Last, work on Low Temperature Grown Gallium Arsenide (LTG-GaAs) will be presented. The ultimate goal of detecting mm-scale arsenic precipitates that form with annealing using BEEM was not successful. Precipitates were imaged with atomic force microscopy, but these same precipitates are not seen with BEEM under some conditions.

  6. Infrared Avionics Signal Distribution using Wavelength Division Multiplexing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atiquzzaman, Mohammed; Sluss, Jim; Nguyen, Hung; Ngo, Duc

    2003-01-01

    Pilots in the cockpits of aircrafts currently communicate with ground stations using Radio Frequency (RF) signals. Antennas mounted outside the aircraft receive and transmit RF signals from and to the ground stations. The RF signals received at the antennas are sent to the cockpit using coaxial cables. As the number of antennas needed to provide more than one frequency band in aircrafts increases, RF distribution media (such as coaxial cable) adds to the complexity and weight of the cockpit wiring. Concomitantly, the safety and signal to noise ratio also decreases due to the use of RF signals. The University of Oklahoma is collaborating with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop optical fiber based schemes to replace the coaxial cable used for RF signal distribution within an aircraft. The project aims at exploiting emerging Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) techniques to reduce the weight of cabling, and increase the signal to noise ratio and reliability. This will be achieved by wavelength division multiplexing the signals from the various antennas and then demultiplexing the signals to recover the original signals at the cockpit. This paper will show that (i) RF signals can not only be wavelength multiplexed at the end of a fiber, but additional signals can be inserted into the middle of the fiber using WDM technology, and (ii) the signals can also be successfully extracted by tapping into the middle of the fiber. We are currently extending our previous laboratory prototype (which could multiplex signals only at the end of the fiber) to include additional multiplexing and demultiplexing of RF signals from the middle of the optical backbone with a view to validating the proof of concept, and carrying out measurements to determine the effectiveness of Wavelength Division Multiplexing for avionics applications. A test bed to perform measurements of several relevant parameters for various modulation schemes and frequencies (such as VHF

  7. On Adaptive Cell-Averaging CFAR (Constant False-Alarm Rate) Radar Signal Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    SIICILE COPY 4 F FInI Tedwill Rlmrt to October 197 00 C\\JT ON ADAPTIVE CELL-AVERA81NG CFAR I RADAR SIGNAL DETECTION Syracuse University Mourud krket...NY 13441-5700 ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) 61102F 2’ 05 J8 PD - ON ADAPTIVE CELL-AVERAGING CFAR RADAR... CFAR ). One approach to adaptive detection in nonstationary noise and clutter background is to compare the processed target signal to an adaptive

  8. Inseparable tandem: evolution chooses ATP and Ca2+ to control life, death and cellular signalling

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    From the very dawn of biological evolution, ATP was selected as a multipurpose energy-storing molecule. Metabolism of ATP required intracellular free Ca2+ to be set at exceedingly low concentrations, which in turn provided the background for the role of Ca2+ as a universal signalling molecule. The early-eukaryote life forms also evolved functional compartmentalization and vesicle trafficking, which used Ca2+ as a universal signalling ion; similarly, Ca2+ is needed for regulation of ciliary and flagellar beat, amoeboid movement, intracellular transport, as well as of numerous metabolic processes. Thus, during evolution, exploitation of atmospheric oxygen and increasingly efficient ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation by bacterial endosymbionts were a first step for the emergence of complex eukaryotic cells. Simultaneously, Ca2+ started to be exploited for short-range signalling, despite restrictions by the preset phosphate-based energy metabolism, when both phosphates and Ca2+ interfere with each other because of the low solubility of calcium phosphates. The need to keep cytosolic Ca2+ low forced cells to restrict Ca2+ signals in space and time and to develop energetically favourable Ca2+ signalling and Ca2+ microdomains. These steps in tandem dominated further evolution. The ATP molecule (often released by Ca2+-regulated exocytosis) rapidly grew to be the universal chemical messenger for intercellular communication; ATP effects are mediated by an extended family of purinoceptors often linked to Ca2+ signalling. Similar to atmospheric oxygen, Ca2+ must have been reverted from a deleterious agent to a most useful (intra- and extracellular) signalling molecule. Invention of intracellular trafficking further increased the role for Ca2+ homeostasis that became critical for regulation of cell survival and cell death. Several mutually interdependent effects of Ca2+ and ATP have been exploited in evolution, thus turning an originally unholy alliance into a

  9. Multistage estimation of received carrier signal parameters under very high dynamic conditions of the receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Rajendra (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A multistage estimator is provided for the parameters of a received carrier signal possibly phase-modulated by unknown data and experiencing very high Doppler, Doppler rate, etc., as may arise, for example, in the case of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the signal parameters are directly related to the position, velocity and jerk of the GPS ground-based receiver. In a two-stage embodiment of the more general multistage scheme, the first stage, selected to be a modified least squares algorithm referred to as differential least squares (DLS), operates as a coarse estimator resulting in higher rms estimation errors but with a relatively small probability of the frequency estimation error exceeding one-half of the sampling frequency, provides relatively coarse estimates of the frequency and its derivatives. The second stage of the estimator, an extended Kalman filter (EKF), operates on the error signal available from the first stage refining the overall estimates of the phase along with a more refined estimate of frequency as well and in the process also reduces the number of cycle slips.

  10. Multistage estimation of received carrier signal parameters under very high dynamic conditions of the receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Rajendra (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multistage estimator is provided for the parameters of a received carrier signal possibly phase-modulated by unknown data and experiencing very high Doppler, Doppler rate, etc., as may arise, for example, in the case of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) where the signal parameters are directly related to the position, velocity and jerk of the GPS ground-based receiver. In a two-stage embodiment of the more general multistage scheme, the first stage, selected to be a modified least squares algorithm referred to as differential least squares (DLS), operates as a coarse estimator resulting in higher rms estimation errors but with a relatively small probability of the frequency estimation error exceeding one-half of the sampling frequency, provides relatively coarse estimates of the frequency and its derivatives. The second stage of the estimator, an extended Kalman filter (EKF), operates on the error signal available from the first stage refining the overall estimates of the phase along with a more refined estimate of frequency as well and in the process also reduces the number of cycle slips.

  11. Investigation of signal models and methods for evaluating structures of processing telecommunication information exchange systems under acoustic noise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotov, Y. A.; Belov, A. A.; Proskuryakov, A. Y.; Kolpakov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper considers models and methods for estimating signals during the transmission of information messages in telecommunication systems of audio exchange. One-dimensional probability distribution functions that can be used to isolate useful signals, and acoustic noise interference are presented. An approach to the estimation of the correlation and spectral functions of the parameters of acoustic signals is proposed, based on the parametric representation of acoustic signals and the components of the noise components. The paper suggests an approach to improving the efficiency of interference cancellation and highlighting the necessary information when processing signals from telecommunications systems. In this case, the suppression of acoustic noise is based on the methods of adaptive filtering and adaptive compensation. The work also describes the models of echo signals and the structure of subscriber devices in operational command telecommunications systems.

  12. Transcriptome Wide Annotation of Eukaryotic RNase III Reactivity and Degradation Signals

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Jules; Lavoie, Mathieu; Catala, Mathieu; Malenfant, Francis; Elela, Sherif Abou

    2015-01-01

    Detection and validation of the RNA degradation signals controlling transcriptome stability are essential steps for understanding how cells regulate gene expression. Here we present complete genomic and biochemical annotations of the signals required for RNA degradation by the dsRNA specific ribonuclease III (Rnt1p) and examine its impact on transcriptome expression. Rnt1p cleavage signals are randomly distributed in the yeast genome, and encompass a wide variety of sequences, indicating that transcriptome stability is not determined by the recurrence of a fixed cleavage motif. Instead, RNA reactivity is defined by the sequence and structural context in which the cleavage sites are located. Reactive signals are often associated with transiently expressed genes, and their impact on RNA expression is linked to growth conditions. Together, the data suggest that Rnt1p reactivity is triggered by malleable RNA degradation signals that permit dynamic response to changes in growth conditions. PMID:25680180

  13. Losing the Warning Signal: Drought Compromises the Cross-Talk of Signaling Molecules in Quercus ilex Exposed to Ozone.

    PubMed

    Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Pellegrini, Elisa; Guidi, Lucia; Landi, Marco; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Massai, Rossano; Remorini, Damiano; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Trivellini, Alice; Vernieri, Paolo; Nali, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between drought and acute ozone (O 3 ) stress in terms of signaling molecules and cell death would improve the predictions of plant responses to climate change. The aim was to investigate whether drought stress influences the responses of plants to acute episodes of O 3 exposure. In this study, the behavior of 84 Mediterranean evergreen Quercus ilex plants was evaluated in terms of cross-talk responses among signaling molecules. Half of the sample was subjected to drought (20% of the effective daily evapotranspiration, for 15 days) and was later exposed to an acute O 3 exposure (200 nL L -1 for 5 h). First, our results indicate that in well-water conditions, O 3 induced a signaling pathway specific to O 3 -sensitive behavior. Second, different trends and consequently different roles of phytohormones and signaling molecules (ethylene, ET; abscisic acid, ABA; salycilic acid, SA and jasmonic acid, JA) were observed in relation to water stress and O 3 . A spatial and functional correlation between these signaling molecules was observed in modulating O 3 -induced responses in well-watered plants. In contrast, in drought-stressed plants, these compounds were not involved either in O 3 -induced signaling mechanisms or in leaf senescence (a response observed in water-stressed plants before the O 3 -exposure). Third, these differences were ascribable to the fact that in drought conditions, most defense processes induced by O 3 were compromised and/or altered. Our results highlight how Q. ilex plants suffering from water deprivation respond differently to an acute O 3 episode compared to well-watered plants, and suggest new effect to be considered in plant responses to environmental changes. This poses the serious question as to whether or not multiple high-magnitude O 3 events (as predicted) can change these cross-talk responses, thus opening it up possible further investigations.

  14. Extracellular Adenosine: A Safety Signal That Dampens Hypoxia-Induced Inflammation During Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Grenz, Almut; Homann, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, the single most unique feature of the immune system has been attributed to its capability to discriminate between self (e.g., host proteins) and nonself (e.g., pathogens). More recently, an emerging immunologic concept involves the notion that the immune system responds via a complex system for sensing signals of danger, such as pathogens or host-derived signals of cellular distress (e.g., ischemia), while remaining unresponsive to nondangerous motifs. Experimental studies have provided strong evidence that the production and signaling effects of extracellular adenosine are dramatically enhanced during conditions of limited oxygen availability as occurs during ischemia. As such, adenosine would fit the bill of signaling molecules that are enhanced during situations of cellular distress. In contrast to a danger signal, we propose here that extracellular adenosine operates as a countermeasure, in fact as a safety signal, to both restrain potentially harmful immune responses and to maintain and promote general tissue integrity during conditions of limited oxygen availability. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2221–2234. PMID:21126189

  15. Photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fiber with weak signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan-Nan, Liu; Yu-Hong, Liu; Jia-Min, Li; Xiao-Ying, Li

    2016-07-01

    We study the photon statistics of pulse-pumped four-wave mixing in fibers with weak coherent signal injection by measuring the intensity correlation functions of individual signal and idler fields. The experimental results show that the intensity correlation function of individual signal (idler) field decreases with the intensity of signal injection. After applying narrow band filter in signal (idler) band, the value of decreases from 1.9 ± 0.02 (1.9 ± 0.02) to 1.03 ± 0.02 (1.05 ± 0.02) when the intensity of signal injection varies from 0 to 120 photons/pulse. The results indicate that the photon statistics changes from Bose-Einstein distribution to Poisson distribution. We calculate the intensity correlation functions by using the multi-mode theory of four-wave mixing in fibers. The theoretical curves well fit the experimental results. Our investigation will be useful for mitigating the crosstalk between quantum and classical channels in a dense wavelength division multiplexing network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11527808), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (Grant No. 2014CB340103), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120032110055), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 14JCQNJC02300), the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China, and the Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B07014).

  16. Acute alcohol impairs conditioning of a behavioural reward-seeking response and inhibitory control processes--implications for addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Loeber, Sabine; Duka, Theodora

    2009-12-01

    To investigate whether acute alcohol would affect performance of a conditioned behavioural response to obtain a reward outcome and impair performance in a task measuring inhibitory control to provide new knowledge of how the acute effects of alcohol might contribute to the transition from alcohol use to dependence. A randomized controlled between-subjects design was employed. The laboratory of experimental psychology at the University of Sussex. Thirty-two light to moderate social drinkers recruited from the undergraduate and postgraduate population. After the administration of alcohol (0.8 g/kg) or placebo participants underwent an instrumental reward-seeking procedure, with abstract stimuli serving as S+ (always predicting a win of 10 pence) and S- (always predicting a loss of 10 pence). In addition, a Stop Signal task was administered before and after the administration of alcohol. Participants of the alcohol group performed the behavioural response to obtain the reward outcome more often than placebo subjects in trials associated with loss of money. This finding was observed, although alcohol was not affecting explicit knowledge of stimulus-response outcome contingencies and acquisition of conditioned attentional and emotional responses. In addition, alcohol increased Stop Signal reaction time indicating disinhibiting effects of alcohol, and this was associated positively with response probability to the S-. These results demonstrate that alcohol is affecting inhibitory control of behavioural responses to external signals even when associated with punishment, contributing in this way to the transition from alcohol use to dependence.

  17. Signal modulation as a mechanism for handicap disposal

    PubMed Central

    Gavassa, Sat; Silva, Ana C.; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    Signal honesty may be compromised when heightened competition provides incentive for signal exaggeration. Some degree of honesty might be maintained by intrinsic handicap costs on signalling or through imposition of extrinsic costs, such as social punishment of low quality cheaters. Thus, theory predicts a delicate balance between signal enhancement and signal reliability that varies with degree of social competition, handicap cost, and social cost. We investigated whether male sexual signals of the electric fish Brachyhypopomus gauderio would become less reliable predictors of body length when competition provides incentives for males to boost electric signal amplitude. As expected, social competition under natural field conditions and in controlled lab experiments drove males to enhance their signals. However, signal enhancement improved the reliability of the information conveyed by the signal, as revealed in the tightening of the relationship between signal amplitude and body length. Signal augmentation in male B. gauderio was independent of body length, and thus appeared not to be curtailed through punishment of low quality (small) individuals. Rather, all individuals boosted their signals under high competition, but those whose signals were farthest from the predicted value under low competition boosted signal amplitude the most. By elimination, intrinsic handicap cost of signal production, rather than extrinsic social cost, appears to be the basis for the unexpected reinforcement of electric signal honesty under social competition. Signal modulation may provide its greatest advantage to the signaller as a mechanism for handicap disposal under low competition rather than as a mechanism for exaggeration of quality under high competition. PMID:22665940

  18. Evaluation of adaptive signal control technology--volume 1 : before-conditions data collection and analysis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-04-01

    Field evaluation of adaptive signal control technologies (ASCT) is very important in understanding the systems contribution to safety : and operational efficiency. Data were collected at six intersections along the Neil Street corridor in Champaig...

  19. A Bioassay System Using Bioelectric Signals from Small Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terawaki, Mitsuru; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio

    Although the quality of tap water is generally examined using chemical assay, this method cannot be used for examination in real time. Against such a background, the technique of fish bioassay has attracted attention as an approach that enables constant monitoring of aquatic contamination. The respiratory rhythms of fish are considered an efficient indicator for the ongoing assessment of water quality, since they are sensitive to chemicals and can be indirectly measured from bioelectric signals generated by breathing. In order to judge aquatic contamination accurately, it is necessary to measure bioelectric signals from fish swimming freely as well as to stably discriminate measured signals, which vary between individuals. However, no bioassay system meeting the above requirements has yet been established. This paper proposes a bioassay system using bioelectric signals generated from small fish in free-swimming conditions. The system records signals using multiple electrodes to cover the extensive measurement range required in a free-swimming environment, and automatically discriminates changes in water quality from signal frequency components. This discrimination is achieved through an ensemble classification method using probability neural networks to solve the problem of differences between individual fish. The paper also reports on the results of related validation experiments, which showed that the proposed system was able to stably discriminate between water conditions before and after bleach exposure.

  20. Dopamine dependency for acquisition and performance of Pavlovian conditioned response

    PubMed Central

    Darvas, Martin; Wunsch, Amanda M.; Gibbs, Jeffrey T.; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    During Pavlovian conditioning, pairing of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) with a reward leads to conditioned reward-approach responses (CRs) that are elicited by presentation of the CS. CR behaviors can be sign tracking, in which animals engage the CS, or goal tracking, in which animals go to the reward location. We investigated CR behaviors in mice with only ∼5% of normal dopamine in the striatum using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm. These mice had severely impaired acquisition of the CR, which was ameliorated by pharmacological restoration of dopamine synthesis with l-dopa. Surprisingly, after they had learned the CR, its expression decayed only gradually in following sessions that were conducted without l-dopa treatment. To assess specific contributions of dopamine signaling in the dorsal or ventral striatum, we performed virus-mediated restoration of dopamine synthesis in completely dopamine-deficient (DD) mice. Mice with dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum did not acquire a CR, whereas mice with dopamine signaling only in in the ventral striatum acquired a CR. The CR in mice with dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum was restored by subjecting the mice to instrumental training in which they had to interact with the CS to obtain rewards. We conclude that dopamine is essential for learning and performance of CR behavior that is predominantly goal tracking. Furthermore, although dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum is sufficient to support a CR, dopamine signaling only in the dorsal striatum can also support a CR under certain circumstances. PMID:24550305

  1. Wind- and Rain-Induced Vibrations Impose Different Selection Pressures on Multimodal Signaling.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Ryan, Michael J; Wilson, Preston S

    2016-09-01

    The world is a noisy place, and animals have evolved a myriad of strategies to communicate in it. Animal communication signals are, however, often multimodal; their components can be processed by multiple sensory systems, and noise can thus affect signal components across different modalities. We studied the effect of environmental noise on multimodal communication in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males communicate with rivals using airborne sounds combined with call-induced water ripples. We tested males under control as well as noisy conditions in which we mimicked rain- and wind-induced vibrations on the water surface. Males responded more strongly to a multimodal playback in which sound and ripples were combined, compared to a unimodal sound-only playback, but only in the absence of rain and wind. Under windy conditions, males decreased their response to the multimodal playback, suggesting that wind noise interferes with the detection of rival ripples. Under rainy conditions, males increased their response, irrespective of signal playback, suggesting that different noise sources can have different impacts on communication. Our findings show that noise in an additional sensory channel can affect multimodal signal perception and thereby drive signal evolution, but not always in the expected direction.

  2. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  3. Working conditions, burnout and stress symptoms in university professors: validating a structural model of the mediating effect of perceived personal competence.

    PubMed

    Avargues Navarro, María Luisa; Borda Mas, Mercedes; López Jiménez, Ana María

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study has been to test, with a sample of 193 Professors of the University of Seville, a structural model on the mediating role of personal perceived competence in the appearance of burnout syndrome and stress symptoms under potentially stressful work conditions. The instruments used to evaluate were a socio-demographic and work-related data questionnaire, The Maslach Burnout Inventory (M.B.I.), The Labour Scale of Stress and the Magallanes Stress Scale. The model of strategy implementation and LISREL 8.71 were used. The estimated model was adjusted satisfactorily, ascertaining the mediating effect of perceived competence in the effect exerted by the work conditions studied on the depersonalization and personal fulfillment, as well as in the appearance of stress symptoms. The effect on the emotional exhaustion dimension was not confirmed. The latter also acted on the estimated model as a mediating variable, facilitating the negative impact of stressors on emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment.

  4. Low-Complexity Noncoherent Signal Detection for Nanoscale Molecular Communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Sun, Mengwei; Wang, Siyi; Guo, Weisi; Zhao, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale molecular communication is a viable way of exchanging information between nanomachines. In this investigation, a low-complexity and noncoherent signal detection technique is proposed to mitigate the inter-symbol-interference (ISI) and additive noise. In contrast to existing coherent detection methods of high complexity, the proposed noncoherent signal detector is more practical when the channel conditions are hard to acquire accurately or hidden from the receiver. The proposed scheme employs the molecular concentration difference to detect the ISI corrupted signals and we demonstrate that it can suppress the ISI effectively. The difference in molecular concentration is a stable characteristic, irrespective of the diffusion channel conditions. In terms of complexity, by excluding matrix operations or likelihood calculations, the new detection scheme is particularly suitable for nanoscale molecular communication systems with a small energy budget or limited computation resource.

  5. Design principles of paradoxical signaling in the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Yuval

    A widespread feature of cell-cell signaling systems is paradoxical pleiotropy: the same secreted signaling molecule can induce opposite effects in the responding cells. For example, the cytokine IL-2 can promote proliferation and death of T-cells. The role of such paradoxical signaling remains unclear. We suggest that this mechanism provides homeostatic concentration of cells, independent of initial conditions. The crux of the paradoxical mechanism is the combination of a positive and a negative feedback loops creating two stable states - an OFF state and an ON state. Experimentally, we found that CD4 + cells grown in culture with a 30-fold difference in initial concentrations reached a homeostatic concentration nearly independent of initial cell levels (ON-state). Below an initial threshold, cell density decayed to extinction (OFF-state). Mathematical modeling explained the observed cell and cytokine dynamics and predicted conditions that shifted cell fate from homeostasis to the OFF-state. We suggest that paradoxical signaling provides cell circuits with specific dynamical features that are robust to environmental perturbations.

  6. A new traffic control design method for large networks with signalized intersections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.; Colony, D. C.; Seldner, K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents a traffic control design technique for application to large traffic networks with signalized intersections. It is shown that the design method adopts a macroscopic viewpoint to establish a new traffic modelling procedure in which vehicle platoons are subdivided into main stream queues and turning queues. Optimization of the signal splits minimizes queue lengths in the steady state condition and improves traffic flow conditions, from the viewpoint of the traveling public. Finally, an application of the design method to a traffic network with thirty-three signalized intersections is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  7. Programmed Lab Experiments for Biochemical Investigation of Quorum-Sensing Signal Molecules in Rhizospheric Soil Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nievas, Fiorela L; Bogino, Pablo C; Giordano, Walter

    2016-05-06

    Biochemistry courses in the Department of Molecular Biology at the National University of Río Cuarto, Argentina, are designed for undergraduate students in biology, microbiology, chemistry, agronomy, and veterinary medicine. Microbiology students typically have previous coursework in general, analytical, and organic chemistry. Programmed sequences of lab experiments allow these students to investigate biochemical problems whose solution is feasible within the context of their knowledge and experience. We previously designed and reported a programmed lab experiment that familiarizes microbiology students with techniques for detection and characterization of quorum-sensing (QS) and quorum-quenching (QQ) signal molecules. Here, we describe a sequence of experiments designed to expand the understanding and capabilities of biochemistry students using techniques for extraction and identification of QS and QQ signal molecules from peanut rhizospheric soil bacteria, including culturing and manipulation of bacteria under sterile conditions. The program provides students with an opportunity to perform useful assays, draw conclusions from their results, and discuss possible extensions of the study. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:256-262, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  9. OAE2 and the Platycopid Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2010-05-01

    More than 20 years ago the first detailed multi-proxy investigation of the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE) in SE England revealed a distinctive pattern of changes in ostracod assemblages. Coincident with a major global positive carbon stable-isotope excursion during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2), a marked reduction in floral and faunal diversity was attributed to decreasing levels of dissolved oxygen, consequent on an intensification and expansion of the oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zone into shelf seas. As podocopid ostracod taxa became locally extinct, platycopid ostracods became dominant; from this observation was developed the "Platycopid Signal" hypothesis which claimed that dominance of platycopids in ostracod assemblages signalled dysaerobic conditions on the sea floor. Subsequently this interpretation was widely accepted and applied to the recognition of other dysaerobic intervals in the geological record. However, the modern biological and ecological support claimed for the Platycopid Signal has been challenged and found wanting. In the case of the much-studied CTBE sections in SE England this effectively removes the only remaining pillar of support for the notion of bottom-water dysaerobia in the Anglo-Paris Basin during OAE2, which has already been contradicted by macrofossil, trace fossil and geochemical evidence. A new interpretation of the Platycopid Signal as indicative of oligotrophy is supported by other palaeontological proxy evidence in the CTBE and by observations that living platycopids appear to be adapted to filter-feed on nano- and picoplankton phytodetritus which predominates in oligotrophic conditions. Brandão, S.N. & Horne, D.J., 2009. The Platycopid Signal of oxygen depletion in the ocean: a critical evaluation of the evidence from modern ostracod biology, ecology and depth distribution. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 286, 126-133. Horne, D.J., Brandão, S.N. & Slipper, I.J. The Platycopid Signal deciphered

  10. Caged Naloxone Reveals Opioid Signaling Deactivation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Banghart, Matthew R.; Shah, Ruchir C.; Lavis, Luke D.

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of opioid signaling in the brain remain poorly defined. Photoactivatable opioid ligands provide a means to quantitatively measure these dynamics and their underlying mechanisms in brain tissue. Although activation kinetics can be assessed using caged agonists, deactivation kinetics are obscured by slow clearance of agonist in tissue. To reveal deactivation kinetics of opioid signaling we developed a caged competitive antagonist that can be quickly photoreleased in sufficient concentrations to render agonist dissociation effectively irreversible. Carboxynitroveratryl-naloxone (CNV-NLX), a caged analog of the competitive opioid antagonist NLX, was readily synthesized from commercially available NLX in good yield and found to be devoid of antagonist activity at heterologously expressed opioid receptors. Photolysis in slices of rat locus coeruleus produced a rapid inhibition of the ionic currents evoked by multiple agonists of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), but not of α-adrenergic receptors, which activate the same pool of ion channels. Using the high-affinity peptide agonist dermorphin, we established conditions under which light-driven deactivation rates are independent of agonist concentration and thus intrinsic to the agonist-receptor complex. Under these conditions, some MOR agonists yielded deactivation rates that are limited by G protein signaling, whereas others appeared limited by agonist dissociation. Therefore, the choice of agonist determines which feature of receptor signaling is unmasked by CNV-NLX photolysis. PMID:23960100

  11. Phase synchronization of instrumental music signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Banerjee, Santo; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Bhattacharya, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Signal analysis is one of the finest scientific techniques in communication theory. Some quantitative and qualitative measures describe the pattern of a music signal, vary from one to another. Same musical recital, when played by different instrumentalists, generates different types of music patterns. The reason behind various patterns is the psycho-acoustic measures - Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm, varies in each time. However, the psycho-acoustic study of the music signals does not reveal any idea about the similarity between the signals. For such cases, study of synchronization of long-term nonlinear dynamics may provide effective results. In this context, phase synchronization (PS) is one of the measures to show synchronization between two non-identical signals. In fact, it is very critical to investigate any other kind of synchronization for experimental condition, because those are completely non identical signals. Also, there exists equivalence between the phases and the distances of the diagonal line in Recurrence plot (RP) of the signals, which is quantifiable by the recurrence quantification measure τ-recurrence rate. This paper considers two nonlinear music signals based on same raga played by two eminent sitar instrumentalists as two non-identical sources. The psycho-acoustic study shows how the Dynamics, Timber, Tonality and Rhythm vary for the two music signals. Then, long term analysis in the form of phase space reconstruction is performed, which reveals the chaotic phase spaces for both the signals. From the RP of both the phase spaces, τ-recurrence rate is calculated. Finally by the correlation of normalized tau-recurrence rate of their 3D phase spaces and the PS of the two music signals has been established. The numerical results well support the analysis.

  12. Trends in Financial Indicators of Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomberg, Irene L.; Atelsek, Frank J.

    A survey conducted by the Higher Education Panel sought trends in various items of information about the financial condition of colleges and universities. A stratified sample of 760 insitutions was used, excluding major research universities. Information was requested on basic finance data, dormitory occupancy rates, occurrence of institutional…

  13. Targeted drug discovery and development, from molecular signaling to the global market: an educational program at New York University, 5-year metrics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gloria; Plaksin, Joseph; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle

    2018-01-01

    Drug discovery and development (DDD) is a collaborative, dynamic process of great interest to researchers, but an area where there is a lack of formal training. The Drug Development Educational Program (DDEP) at New York University was created in 2012 to stimulate an improved, multidisciplinary DDD workforce by educating early stage scientists as well as a variety of other like-minded students. The first course of the program emphasizes post-compounding aspects of DDD; the second course focuses on molecular signaling pathways. In five years, 196 students (candidates for PhD, MD, Master’s degree, and post-doctoral MD/PhD) from different schools (Medicine, Biomedical Sciences, Dentistry, Engineering, Business, and Education) completed the course(s). Pre/post surveys demonstrate knowledge gain across all course topics. 26 students were granted career development awards (73% women, 23% underrepresented minorities). Some graduates of their respective degree-granting/post-doctoral programs embarked on DDD related careers. This program serves as a framework for other academic institutions to develop compatible programs designed to train a more informed DDD workforce. PMID:29657854

  14. Didactic discussion of stochastic resonance effects and weak signals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Adair, R.K.

    1996-12-01

    A simple, paradigmatic, model is used to illustrate some general properties of effects subsumed under the label stochastic resonance. In particular, analyses of the transparent model show that (1) a small amount of noise added to a much larger signal can greatly increase the response to the signal, but (2) a weak signal added to much larger noise will not generate a substantial added response. The conclusions drawn from the model illustrate the general result that stochastic resonance effects do not provide an avenue for signals that are much smaller than noise to affect biology. A further analysis demonstrates themore » effects of small signals in the shifting of biologically important chemical equilibria under conditions where stochastic resonance effects are significant.« less

  15. Fault Diagnosis for Rolling Bearings under Variable Conditions Based on Visual Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yujie; Zhou, Bo; Lu, Chen; Yang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Fault diagnosis for rolling bearings has attracted increasing attention in recent years. However, few studies have focused on fault diagnosis for rolling bearings under variable conditions. This paper introduces a fault diagnosis method for rolling bearings under variable conditions based on visual cognition. The proposed method includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal data are transformed into a recurrence plot (RP), which is a two-dimensional image. Then, inspired by the visual invariance characteristic of the human visual system (HVS), we utilize speed up robust feature to extract fault features from the two-dimensional RP and generate a 64-dimensional feature vector, which is invariant to image translation, rotation, scaling variation, etc. Third, based on the manifold perception characteristic of HVS, isometric mapping, a manifold learning method that can reflect the intrinsic manifold embedded in the high-dimensional space, is employed to obtain a low-dimensional feature vector. Finally, a classical classification method, support vector machine, is utilized to realize fault diagnosis. Verification data were collected from Case Western Reserve University Bearing Data Center, and the experimental result indicates that the proposed fault diagnosis method based on visual cognition is highly effective for rolling bearings under variable conditions, thus providing a promising approach from the cognitive computing field. PMID:28772943

  16. Blocking of conditioning to a cocaine-paired stimulus: testing the hypothesis that cocaine perpetually produces a signal of larger-than-expected reward.

    PubMed

    Panlilio, Leigh V; Thorndike, Eric B; Schindler, Charles W

    2007-04-01

    According to a recent account of addiction, dopaminergic effects of drugs like cocaine mimic the neuronal signal that occurs when a natural reward has a larger value than expected. Consequently, the drug's expected reward value increases with each administration, leading to an over-selection of drug-seeking behavior. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the blocking effect, a cornerstone of contemporary learning theory, should not occur with drug reinforcers. To test this prediction, two groups of rats were trained to self-administer cocaine with a nose-poking response. For 5 sessions, a tone was paired with each self-administered injection (blocking group), or no stimulus was paired with injection (non-blocking group). Then, in both groups, the tone and a light were both paired with each injection for 5 sessions. In subsequent testing, the light functioned as a conditioned reinforcer for a new response (lever-pressing) in the non-blocking group, but not the blocking group. Thus, contrary to prediction, pre-training with the tone blocked conditioning to the light. Although these results fail to support a potentially powerful explanation of addiction, they are consistent with the fact that most conditioning and learning phenomena that occur with non-drug reinforcers can also be demonstrated with drug reinforcers.

  17. SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SIGNALING MECHANISMS IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES
    Y.M. Kim, A.G. Lenz, R. Silbajoris, I. Jaspers and J.M. Samet. Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering and Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North Carolina, ...

  18. Condition-dependent trade-offs between sexual traits, body condition and immunity: the effect of novel habitats.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Carrasco, Maider; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D; Cabido, Carlos

    2016-06-21

    The optimal allocation of resources to sexual signals and other life history traits is usually dependent on an individual's condition, while variation in the expression of sexual traits across environments depends on the combined effects of local adaptation, mean condition, and phenotypic responses to environment-specific cues that affect resource allocation. A clear contrast can often be drawn between natural habitats and novel habitats, such as forest plantations and urban areas. In some species, males seem to change their sexual signals in these novel environments, but why this occurs and how it affects signal reliability is still poorly understood. The relative size of sexual traits and level of immune responses were significantly lower for male palmate newts Lissotriton helveticus caught in pine and eucalyptus plantations compared to those caught in native forests, but there was no habitat-dependent difference in body condition (n = 18 sites, 382 males). The reliability with which sexual traits signalled body condition and immune responses was the same in all three habitats. Finally, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in which males were maintained in pine, eucalypt or oak infused water for 21 days. Males in plantation-like water (pine or eucalypt) showed significantly lower immune responses but no change in body condition. This matches the pattern seen for field-caught males. Unlike field-caught males, however, there was no relationship between water type and relative sexual trait size. Pine and eucalyptus plantations are likely to be detrimental to male palmate newt because they are associated with reduced immune function and smaller sexual traits. This could be because ecological aspects of these novel habitats, such as high water turbidity or changes in male-male competition, drive selection for reduced investment into sexual traits. However, it is more probable that there are differences in the ease of acquisition, hence optimal allocation, of

  19. Gravitational wave signals from short-lived topological defects in the MSSM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kamada, Ayuki; Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Riverside, CA, 92507; Yamada, Masaki

    2015-10-09

    Supersymmetric theories, including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, usually contain many scalar fields whose potentials are absent in the exact supersymmetric limit and within the renormalizable level. Since their potentials are vulnerable to the finite energy density of the Universe through supergravity effects, these flat directions have nontrivial dynamics in the early Universe. Recently, we have pointed out that a flat direction may have a positive Hubble induced mass term during inflation whereas a negative one after inflation. In this case, the flat direction stays at the origin of the potential during inflation and then obtain a large vacuum expectationmore » value after inflation. After that, when the Hubble parameter decreases down to the mass of the flat direction, it starts to oscillate around the origin of the potential. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the flat direction with and without higher dimensional superpotentials and show that topological defects, such as cosmic strings and domain walls, form at the end of inflation and disappear at the beginning of oscillation of the flat direction. We numerically calculate their gravitational signals and find that the observation of gravitational signals would give us information of supersymmetric scale, the reheating temperature of the Universe, and higher dimensional operators.« less

  20. Gravitational wave signals from short-lived topological defects in the MSSM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kamada, Ayuki; Yamada, Masaki, E-mail: ayuki.kamada@ucr.edu, E-mail: yamadam@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2015-10-01

    Supersymmetric theories, including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, usually contain many scalar fields whose potentials are absent in the exact supersymmetric limit and within the renormalizable level. Since their potentials are vulnerable to the finite energy density of the Universe through supergravity effects, these flat directions have nontrivial dynamics in the early Universe. Recently, we have pointed out that a flat direction may have a positive Hubble induced mass term during inflation whereas a negative one after inflation. In this case, the flat direction stays at the origin of the potential during inflation and then obtain a large vacuum expectationmore » value after inflation. After that, when the Hubble parameter decreases down to the mass of the flat direction, it starts to oscillate around the origin of the potential. In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of the flat direction with and without higher dimensional superpotentials and show that topological defects, such as cosmic strings and domain walls, form at the end of inflation and disappear at the beginning of oscillation of the flat direction. We numerically calculate their gravitational signals and find that the observation of gravitational signals would give us information of supersymmetric scale, the reheating temperature of the Universe, and higher dimensional operators.« less

  1. Influence of the measuring condition on vibrocardiographic signals acquired on the thorax with a laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignanelli, L.; Bauer, G.; Klarmann, M.; Wang, H.; Rembe, C.

    2017-07-01

    Velocity signals acquired with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer on the thorax (Optical Vibrocardiography) contain important information, which have a relation to cardiovascular parameters and cardiovascular diseases. The acquired signal results in a superimposition of vibrations originated from different sources of the human body. Since we study the vibration generated by the heart to reliably detect a characteristic time interval corresponding to the PR interval in the ECG, these disturbance have to be removed by filtering. Moreover, the Laser Doppler Vibrometer measures only in the direction of the laser beam and, thus, the velocity signal is only a projection of the tridimensional movement of the thorax. This work presents an analysis of the influences of the filters and of the measurement direction on the characteristic time interval in Vibrocardiographic signals. Our analysis results in recommended settings for filters and we demonstrate that reliable detection of vibrocardiographic parameters is possible within an angle deviation of 30° in respect to the perpendicular irradiation on the front side of the subject.

  2. Novel multiplex qualitative detection using universal primer-multiplex-PCR combined with pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Shang, Ying; Xu, Wentao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-12-15

    This study described a novel multiplex qualitative detection method using pyrosequencing. Based on the principle of the universal primer-multiplex-PCR, only one sequencing primer was employed to realize the detection of the multiple targets. Samples containing three genetically modified (GM) crops in different proportions were used to validate the method. The dNTP dispensing order was designed based on the product sequences. Only 12 rounds (ATCTGATCGACT) of dNTPs addition and, often, as few as three rounds (CAT) under ideal conditions, were required to detect the GM events qualitatively, and sensitivity was as low as 1% of a mixture. However, when considering a mixture, calculating signal values allowed the proportion of each GM to be estimated. Based on these results, we concluded that our novel method not only realized detection but also allowed semi-quantitative detection of individual events. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Notch Signaling in Postnatal Pituitary Expansion: Proliferation, Progenitors, and Cell Specification

    PubMed Central

    Nantie, Leah B.; Himes, Ashley D.; Getz, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PROP1 account for up to half of the cases of combined pituitary hormone deficiency that result from known causes. Despite this, few signaling molecules and pathways that influence PROP1 expression have been identified. Notch signaling has been linked to Prop1 expression, but the developmental periods during which Notch signaling influences Prop1 and overall pituitary development remain unclear. To test the requirement for Notch signaling in establishing the normal pituitary hormone milieu, we generated mice with early embryonic conditional loss of Notch2 (conditional knockout) and examined the consequences of chemical Notch inhibition during early postnatal pituitary maturation. We show that loss of Notch2 has little influence on early embryonic pituitary proliferation but is crucial for postnatal progenitor maintenance and proliferation. In addition, we show that Notch signaling is necessary embryonically and postnatally for Prop1 expression and robust Pit1 lineage hormone cell expansion, as well as repression of the corticotrope lineage. Taken together, our studies identify temporal and cell type–specific roles for Notch signaling and highlight the importance of this pathway throughout pituitary development. PMID:24673559

  4. [Issues related to national university medical schools: focusing on the low wages of university hospital physicians].

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    University hospitals, bringing together the three divisions of education, research, and clinical medicine, could be said to represent the pinnacle of medicine. However, when compared with physicians working at public and private hospitals, physicians working at university hospitals and medical schools face extremely poor conditions. This is because physicians at national university hospitals are considered to be "educators." Meanwhile, even after the privatization of national hospitals, physicians working for these institutions continue to be perceived as "medical practitioners." A situation may arise in which physicians working at university hospitals-performing top-level medical work while also being involved with university and postgraduate education, as well as research-might leave their posts because they are unable to live on their current salaries, especially in comparison with physicians working at national hospitals, who focus solely on medical care. This situation would be a great loss for Japan. This potential loss can be prevented by amending the classification of physicians at national university hospitals from "educators" to "medical practitioners." In order to accomplish this, the Japan Medical Association, upon increasing its membership and achieving growth, should act as a mediator in negotiations between national university hospitals, medical schools, and the government.

  5. Structural definition of the BIL and DL: a new universal methodology to rationalize non-linear χ(2)(ω) SFG signals at charged interfaces, including χ(3)(ω) contributions.

    PubMed

    Pezzotti, Simone; Galimberti, Daria Ruth; Shen, Y Ron; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2018-02-14

    This work provides unambiguous definitions from theoretical simulations of the two interfacial regions named the BIL (binding interfacial layer) and DL (diffuse layer) at charged solid/water and air/water interfaces. The BIL and DL nomenclature follows the pioneering work of Wen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2016, 116, 016101]. Our definitions are based on the intrinsic structural properties of water only. Knowing the BIL and DL interfacial regions, one is then able to deconvolve the χ (2) (ω) non-linear SFG (sum frequency generation) response into χ(ω) and χ(ω) contributions, thus providing a detailed molecular interpretation of these signals and of the measured total SFG. We furthermore show that the χ(ω) spectrum arises from the χ (3) (ω) non-linear third order contribution of bulk liquid water, here calculated for several charged interfaces and shown to be universal. The χ(ω) contribution therefore has the same origin in terms of molecular normal modes at any charged interface. The molecular interpretation of χ(ω) is hence at the heart of the unambiguous molecular comprehension and interpretation of the measured total SFG signal at any charged interface.

  6. Performance measures for arterial traffic signal systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-05-01

    This project was conducted to investigate new concepts, new tools and emerging technologies directed at enhancing traffic operations and safety on signalized urban arterials that operate under saturated conditions. McFarland Boulevard, a six-lane urb...

  7. Signaling Games and the Evolution of Structure in Language and Music: A Reply to Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) ‡.

    PubMed

    Lumaca, Massimo; Baggio, Giosuè

    2018-01-01

    In their commentary on our work, Ravignani and Verhoef (2018) raise concerns about two methodological aspects of our experimental paradigm (the signaling game): (1) the use of melodic signals of fixed length and duration, and (2) the fact that signals are endowed with meaning. They argue that music is hardly a semantic system and that our methodological choices may limit the capacity of our paradigm to shed light on the emergence and evolution of a number of putative musical universals. We reply that musical systems are semantic systems and that the aim of our research is not to study musical universals as such, but to compare more closely the kinds of principles that organize meaning and structure in linguistic and musical systems.

  8. Lipid Supplement in the Cultural Condition Facilitates the Porcine iPSC Derivation through cAMP/PKA/CREB Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hanning; Zhang, Shaopeng; Zhong, Liang; Wang, Yanliang; Pei, Yangli; Cao, Suying

    2018-01-01

    Large numbers of lipids exist in the porcine oocytes and early embryos and have the positive effects on their development, suggesting that the lipids may play an important role in pluripotency establishment and maintenance in pigs. However, the effects of lipids and their metabolites, such as fatty acids on reprogramming and the pluripotency gene expression of porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are unclear. Here, we generated the porcine iPSCs that resemble the mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) under lipid and fatty-acid-enriched cultural conditions (supplement of AlbuMAX). These porcine iPSCs show positive for the ESCs pluripotency markers and have the differentiation abilities to all three germ layers, and importantly, have the capability of aggregation into the inner cell mass (ICM) of porcine blastocysts. We further confirmed that lipid and fatty acid enriched condition can promote the cell proliferation and improve reprogramming efficiency by elevating cAMP levels. Interestingly, this lipids supplement promotes mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET) through the cAMP/PKA/CREB signal pathway and upregulates the E-cadherin expression during porcine somatic cell reprogramming. The lipids supplement also makes a contribution to lipid droplets accumulation in the porcine iPSCs that resemble porcine preimplantation embryos. These findings may facilitate understanding of the lipid metabolism in porcine iPSCs and lay the foundation of bona fide porcine embryonic stem cell derivation. PMID:29419748

  9. A Partnership across the Ocean between the University of the Western Cape and the University of Missouri-St. Louis: Facilitating a Global Research Programme for Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Patricia G.; Holtman, Lorna; Murphy, Carole H.; Thaver, Beverley

    2014-01-01

    The downturn of the global economy requires universities worldwide to do more with fewer resources. These conditions have presented an opportunity for two universities, the University of the Western Cape and the University of Missouri-St. Louis, to collaborate on a research course offered to postgraduate students. The purpose of this article is to…

  10. Skills Mismatch among University Graduates in the Nigeria Labor Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitan, Oluyomi S.; Adedeji, S. O.

    2012-01-01

    University graduates in Nigeria have been reported to be poorly prepared for work in recent years. This has implications on the relevance of university education, the employability and productivity of university graduates. One of the reasons suggested for this condition by previous studies was skill mismatch--a situation where there is a disparity…

  11. Working Together within the University: An Interdisciplinary Project in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrándiz-Vindel, Isabel-María

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the professional and environmental conditions is forcing the university education to a change in the teaching-learning process. This implies a new definition in the roles and functions of university teachers from whom new ways of educational training should arise. These days, university teachers are called upon to encourage and…

  12. Core signalling motif displaying multistability through multi-state enzymes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Song; Sáez, Meritxell; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda; Soyer, Orkun S

    2016-10-01

    Bistability, and more generally multistability, is a key system dynamics feature enabling decision-making and memory in cells. Deciphering the molecular determinants of multistability is thus crucial for a better understanding of cellular pathways and their (re)engineering in synthetic biology. Here, we show that a key motif found predominantly in eukaryotic signalling systems, namely a futile signalling cycle, can display bistability when featuring a two-state kinase. We provide necessary and sufficient mathematical conditions on the kinetic parameters of this motif that guarantee the existence of multiple steady states. These conditions foster the intuition that bistability arises as a consequence of competition between the two states of the kinase. Extending from this result, we find that increasing the number of kinase states linearly translates into an increase in the number of steady states in the system. These findings reveal, to our knowledge, a new mechanism for the generation of bistability and multistability in cellular signalling systems. Further the futile cycle featuring a two-state kinase is among the smallest bistable signalling motifs. We show that multi-state kinases and the described competition-based motif are part of several natural signalling systems and thereby could enable them to implement complex information processing through multistability. These results indicate that multi-state kinases in signalling systems are readily exploited by natural evolution and could equally be used by synthetic approaches for the generation of multistable information processing systems at the cellular level. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Strain Gage Signal Interpretation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    blades and vanes in many engines have been collected, played back and examined. The engine types encompass GE’s stable of turbine engines from the small...aeromechanical engineer . 1.3 SUMMARY OF RESULTS Strain gage signals from vibrating rotor blades and vanes were collected, examined, classified, and generalized...turboprops, to turbojets and to the large high bypass turbofan engines . Test conditions include all the phases that are investigated

  14. Discovery of nitrate-CPK-NLP signalling in central nutrient-growth networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun-hsiang; Niu, Yajie; Konishi, Mineko; Wu, Yue; Du, Hao; Sun Chung, Hoo; Li, Lei; Boudsocq, Marie; McCormack, Matthew; Maekawa, Shugo; Ishida, Tetsuya; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Sheen, Jen

    2018-01-01

    Nutrient signalling integrates and coordinates gene expression, metabolism and growth. However, its primary molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood in plants and animals. Here we report novel Ca2+ signalling triggered by nitrate with live imaging of an ultrasensitive biosensor in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. A nitrate-sensitized and targeted functional genomic screen identifies subgroup III Ca2+-sensor protein kinases (CPKs) as master regulators orchestrating primary nitrate responses. A chemical switch with the engineered CPK10(M141G) kinase enables conditional analyses of cpk10,30,32 to define comprehensive nitrate-associated regulatory and developmental programs, circumventing embryo lethality. Nitrate-CPK signalling phosphorylates conserved NIN-LIKE PROTEIN (NLP) transcription factors (TFs) to specify reprogramming of gene sets for downstream TFs, transporters, N-assimilation, C/N-metabolism, redox, signalling, hormones, and proliferation. Conditional cpk10,30,32 and nlp7 similarly impair nitrate-stimulated system-wide shoot growth and root establishment. The nutrient-coupled Ca2+ signalling network integrates transcriptome and cellular metabolism with shoot-root coordination and developmental plasticity in shaping organ biomass and architecture. PMID:28489820

  15. The roles of Eph receptors in contextual fear conditioning memory formation.

    PubMed

    Dines, Monica; Grinberg, Svetlana; Vassiliev, Maria; Ram, Alon; Tamir, Tal; Lamprecht, Raphael

    2015-10-01

    Eph receptors regulate glutamate receptors functions, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity, cellular events believed to be involved in memory formation. In this study we aim to explore the roles of Eph receptors in learning and memory. Toward that end, we examined the roles of EphB2 and EphA4 receptors, key regulators of synaptic functions, in fear conditioning memory formation. We show that mice lacking EphB2 (EphB2(-/-)) are impaired in short- and long-term contextual fear conditioning memory. Mice that express a carboxy-terminally truncated form of EphB2 that lacks forward signaling, instead of the full EphB2, are impaired in long-term, but not short-term, contextual fear conditioning memory. Long-term contextual fear conditioning memory is attenuated in CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice where EphA4 is removed from all pyramidal neurons of the forebrain. Mutant mice with targeted kinase-dead EphA4 (EphA4(KD)) exhibit intact long-term contextual fear conditioning memory showing that EphA4 kinase-mediated forward signaling is not needed for contextual fear memory formation. The ability to form long-term conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory is not impaired in the EphB2(-/-) and CaMKII-cre;EphA4(lx/-) mice. We conclude that EphB2 forward signaling is required for long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation. In contrast, EphB2 mediates short-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a forward signaling-independent manner. EphA4 mediates long-term contextual fear conditioning memory formation in a kinase-independent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Higher Education: Reputation Effects, Signal Distortions, and Propitious Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savitskaya, E. V.; Altunina, N. S.

    2017-01-01

    We attempt to prove the hypothesis that, under certain conditions, a phenomenon of propitious selection may arise on the higher education market: When talented university entrants favor applying to branded universities, the latter are able to automatically build up a positive reputation without having to actually improve the quality of their…

  17. Dynamic tracking down-conversion signal processing method based on reference signal for grating heterodyne interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guochao; Yan, Shuhua; Zhou, Weihong; Gu, Chenhui

    2012-08-01

    Traditional displacement measurement systems by grating, which purely make use of fringe intensity to implement fringe count and subdivision, have rigid demands for signal quality and measurement condition, so they are not easy to realize measurement with nanometer precision. Displacement measurement with the dual-wavelength and single-grating design takes advantage of the single grating diffraction theory and the heterodyne interference theory, solving quite well the contradiction between large range and high precision in grating displacement measurement. To obtain nanometer resolution and nanometer precision, high-power subdivision of interference fringes must be realized accurately. A dynamic tracking down-conversion signal processing method based on the reference signal is proposed. Accordingly, a digital phase measurement module to realize high-power subdivision on field programmable gate array (FPGA) was designed, as well as a dynamic tracking down-conversion module using phase-locked loop (PLL). Experiments validated that a carrier signal after down-conversion can constantly maintain close to 100 kHz, and the phase-measurement resolution and phase precision are more than 0.05 and 0.2 deg, respectively. The displacement resolution and the displacement precision, corresponding to the phase results, are 0.139 and 0.556 nm, respectively.

  18. Differential Involvement of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Reconsolidation and Consolidation of Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Xin, Jian; Li, Ting; Yu, Hui; Li, Na; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Consolidated memory can re-enter states of transient instability following reactivation, which is referred to as reconsolidation, and the exact molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unexplored. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity and memory processes. We have recently observed that BDNF signaling in the central nuclei of the amygdala (CeA) and insular cortex (IC) was involved in the consolidation of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. However, whether BDNF in the CeA or IC is required for memory reconsolidation is still unclear. In the present study, using a CTA memory paradigm, we observed increased BDNF expression in the IC but not in the CeA during CTA reconsolidation. We further determined that BDNF synthesis and signaling in the IC but not in the CeA was required for memory reconsolidation. The differential, spatial-specific roles of BDNF in memory consolidation and reconsolidation suggest that dissociative molecular mechanisms underlie reconsolidation and consolidation, which might provide novel targets for manipulating newly encoded and reactivated memories without causing universal amnesia. PMID:23185492

  19. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-11-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation.

  20. Dynamic Redox Regulation of IL-4 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Gaurav; Gran, Margaret A.; Bagchi, Pritha; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the magnitude and dynamics of protein oxidation during cell signaling is technically challenging. Computational modeling provides tractable, quantitative methods to test hypotheses of redox mechanisms that may be simultaneously operative during signal transduction. The interleukin-4 (IL-4) pathway, which has previously been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidation of PTP1B, may be controlled by several other putative mechanisms of redox regulation; widespread proteomic thiol oxidation observed via 2D redox differential gel electrophoresis upon IL-4 treatment suggests more than one redox-sensitive protein implicated in this pathway. Through computational modeling and a model selection strategy that relied on characteristic STAT6 phosphorylation dynamics of IL-4 signaling, we identified reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) oxidation as the primary redox regulatory mechanism in the pathway. A systems-level model of IL-4 signaling was developed that integrates synchronous pan-PTP oxidation with ROS-independent mechanisms. The model quantitatively predicts the dynamics of IL-4 signaling over a broad range of new redox conditions, offers novel hypotheses about regulation of JAK/STAT signaling, and provides a framework for interrogating putative mechanisms involving receptor-initiated oxidation. PMID:26562652

  1. Federal Grants and Contracts to Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Raymond J.

    The ways and means, types of relationships involved, and the conditions attached to the provision of funds accompanying the huge growth in federal sponsorship of college and university activities is examined. A historical review and analysis of the various factors that have entered into the relationship between colleges and universities and the…

  2. University Exceptional Admission during the Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Li

    2014-01-01

    The stories of many universities' exceptive admission during the republic period of China were widely circulated. The typical example of these universities' exceptional admission was the very product of special historical condition, which had its own characteristics, but also conforms to the general rule, so it can be cited. To select special…

  3. plasticity of TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The family of TGF-β ligands is large and its members are involved in many different signaling processes. These signaling processes strongly differ in type with TGF-β ligands eliciting both sustained or transient responses. Members of the TGF-β family can also act as morphogen and cellular responses would then be expected to provide a direct read-out of the extracellular ligand concentration. A number of different models have been proposed to reconcile these different behaviours. We were interested to define the set of minimal modifications that are required to change the type of signal processing in the TGF-β signaling network. Results To define the key aspects for signaling plasticity we focused on the core of the TGF-β signaling network. With the help of a parameter screen we identified ranges of kinetic parameters and protein concentrations that give rise to transient, sustained, or oscillatory responses to constant stimuli, as well as those parameter ranges that enable a proportional response to time-varying ligand concentrations (as expected in the read-out of morphogens). A combination of a strong negative feedback and fast shuttling to the nucleus biases signaling to a transient rather than a sustained response, while oscillations were obtained if ligand binding to the receptor is weak and the turn-over of the I-Smad is fast. A proportional read-out required inefficient receptor activation in addition to a low affinity of receptor-ligand binding. We find that targeted modification of single parameters suffices to alter the response type. The intensity of a constant signal (i.e. the ligand concentration), on the other hand, affected only the strength but not the type of the response. Conclusions The architecture of the TGF-β pathway enables the observed signaling plasticity. The observed range of signaling outputs to TGF-β ligand in different cell types and under different conditions can be explained with differences in cellular protein

  4. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  5. BMP signaling inhibits intestinal stem cell self-renewal through suppression of Wnt-beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    He, Xi C; Zhang, Jiwang; Tong, Wei-Gang; Tawfik, Ossama; Ross, Jason; Scoville, David H; Tian, Qiang; Zeng, Xin; He, Xi; Wiedemann, Leanne M; Mishina, Yuji; Li, Linheng

    2004-10-01

    In humans, mutations in BMPR1A, SMAD4 and PTEN are responsible for juvenile polyposis syndrome, juvenile intestinal polyposis and Cowden disease, respectively. The development of polyposis is a common feature of these diseases, suggesting that there is an association between BMP and PTEN pathways. The mechanistic link between BMP and PTEN pathways and the related etiology of juvenile polyposis is unresolved. Here we show that conditional inactivation of Bmpr1a in mice disturbs homeostasis of intestinal epithelial regeneration with an expansion of the stem and progenitor cell populations, eventually leading to intestinal polyposis resembling human juvenile polyposis syndrome. We show that BMP signaling suppresses Wnt signaling to ensure a balanced control of stem cell self-renewal. Mechanistically, PTEN, through phosphatidylinosital-3 kinase-Akt, mediates the convergence of the BMP and Wnt pathways on control of beta-catenin. Thus, BMP signaling may control the duplication of intestinal stem cells, thereby preventing crypt fission and the subsequent increase in crypt number.

  6. Setting the standards for signal transduction research.

    PubMed

    Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2011-02-15

    Major advances in high-throughput technology platforms, coupled with increasingly sophisticated computational methods for systematic data analysis, have provided scientists with tools to better understand the complexity of signaling networks. In this era of massive and diverse data collection, standardization efforts that streamline data gathering, analysis, storage, and sharing are becoming a necessity. Here, we give an overview of current technologies to study signal transduction. We argue that along with the opportunities the new technologies open, their heterogeneous nature poses critical challenges for data handling that are further increased when data are to be integrated in mathematical models. Efficient standardization through markup languages and data annotation is a sine qua non condition for a systems-level analysis of signaling processes. It remains to be seen the extent to which and the speed at which the emerging standardization efforts will be embraced by the signaling community.

  7. Galaxy Transformation Under Extreme Conditions: The Evolution of Galaxies in the Largest Structures in the High Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaux, Brian Clark

    This dissertation describes research performed in the field of observational astrophysics as part of the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large Scale Environment (ORELSE) survey. The general motivation of the research presented in this dissertation is to investigate the processes responsible for the evolution of galaxies in a wide range of physical conditions over cosmic time. Throughout this dissertation, galaxy populations will be considered in the very nearby universe (i.e., within one billion light years from Earth), the middle-aged universe (i.e., eight billion years ago), and in the very early universe (i.e., just one billion years after the beginning of the universe). In each chapter I present unique data from observations taken and analyzed specifically for the ORELSE survey. In the first part of this dissertation I describe the context, aims, and current state of the ORELSE survey. The studies presented in this dissertation span a large range of galaxy samples and investigate a variety of different astrophysical phenomena. As all of these studies fall under the context of galaxy evolution, these initial sections will set the framework for the variety of studies presented in this thesis. In the second part of this dissertation I present four studies undertaken to investigate various aspects of galaxy evolution. The first of these studies is an investigation of a large population of very distant galaxies detected in one of the ORELSE fields. The survey in this field represents the deepest survey of a particular kind of very distant galaxy population known as Lymanalpha Emitter (LAEs). The number of LAEs found in this survey far exceeded expectations for such galaxies and are shown to be in excess of every other survey of similar galaxies at similar distances. This result has important consequences for galaxy evolution studies, as it suggests that faint LAEs may be much more numerous than previously thought. This work also has important consequences for

  8. Mission of the University in Science and Technology Discoveries and Applications of the Universal Knowledge within the Various Socio-economics Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Gustavo

    The mission of the university is fundamentally to interpret, create, and transmit culture and science. The historical development and the needs of the community condition and orientate the university in its task. A rational application of science and technology will contribute to the resolution of many of today's serious problems. A direct…

  9. Optically Controlled Signal Amplification for DNA Computation.

    PubMed

    Prokup, Alexander; Hemphill, James; Liu, Qingyang; Deiters, Alexander

    2015-10-16

    The hybridization chain reaction (HCR) and fuel-catalyst cycles have been applied to address the problem of signal amplification in DNA-based computation circuits. While they function efficiently, these signal amplifiers cannot be switched ON or OFF quickly and noninvasively. To overcome these limitations, a light-activated initiator strand for the HCR, which enabled fast optical OFF → ON switching, was developed. Similarly, when a light-activated version of the catalyst strand or the inhibitor strand of a fuel-catalyst cycle was applied, the cycle could be optically switched from OFF → ON or ON → OFF, respectively. To move the capabilities of these devices beyond solution-based operations, the components were embedded in agarose gels. Irradiation with customizable light patterns and at different time points demonstrated both spatial and temporal control. The addition of a translator gate enabled a spatially activated signal to travel along a predefined path, akin to a chemical wire. Overall, the addition of small light-cleavable photocaging groups to DNA signal amplification circuits enabled conditional control as well as fast photocontrol of signal amplification.

  10. Signal verification can promote reliable signalling.

    PubMed

    Broom, Mark; Ruxton, Graeme D; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-11-22

    The central question in communication theory is whether communication is reliable, and if so, which mechanisms select for reliability. The primary approach in the past has been to attribute reliability to strategic costs associated with signalling as predicted by the handicap principle. Yet, reliability can arise through other mechanisms, such as signal verification; but the theoretical understanding of such mechanisms has received relatively little attention. Here, we model whether verification can lead to reliability in repeated interactions that typically characterize mutualisms. Specifically, we model whether fruit consumers that discriminate among poor- and good-quality fruits within a population can select for reliable fruit signals. In our model, plants either signal or they do not; costs associated with signalling are fixed and independent of plant quality. We find parameter combinations where discriminating fruit consumers can select for signal reliability by abandoning unprofitable plants more quickly. This self-serving behaviour imposes costs upon plants as a by-product, rendering it unprofitable for unrewarding plants to signal. Thus, strategic costs to signalling are not a prerequisite for reliable communication. We expect verification to more generally explain signal reliability in repeated consumer-resource interactions that typify mutualisms but also in antagonistic interactions such as mimicry and aposematism.

  11. Mangiferin ameliorates insulin resistance by inhibiting inflammation and regulatiing adipokine expression in adipocytes under hypoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao-Qiang; Xu, Jing-Hua; Yan, Dan-Dan; Liu, Bao-Lin; Liu, Kang; Huang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Adipose tissue hypoxia has been recognized as the initiation of insulin resistance syndromes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of mangiferin on the insulin signaling pathway and explore whether mangiferin could ameliorate insulin resistance caused by hypoxia in adipose tissue. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated under normal and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Protein expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. Inflammatory cytokines and HIF-1-dependent genes were tested by ELISA and q-PCR, respectively. The glucose uptake was detected by fluorescence microscopy. HIF-1α was abundantly expressed during 8 h of hypoxic incubation. Inflammatory reaction was activated by up-regulated NF-κB phosphorylation and released cytokines like IL-6 and TNF-α. Glucose uptake was inhibited and insulin signaling pathway was damaged as well. Mangiferin substantially inhibited the expression of HIF-1α. Lactate acid and lipolysis, products released by glycometabolism and lipolysis, were also inhibited. The expression of inflammatory cytokines was significantly reduced and the damaged insulin signaling pathway was restored to proper functional level. The glucose uptake of hypoxic adipocytes was promoted and the dysfunction of adipocytes was relieved. These results showed that mangiferin could not only improve the damaged insulin signaling pathway in hypoxic adipocytes, but also ameliorate inflammatory reaction and insulin resistance caused by hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Result-Oriented Management: The Experience of Kazakhstani Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askarkyzy, Samal; Toibayev, Adlet; Algozhaeva, Nursulu; Rimantas, Zelvys; Iskakova, Guldariya; Arynova, Aigul

    2016-01-01

    The present article outlines the main principles and peculiarities of the result-oriented university management on the basis of the Development strategy of the Kazakh State Women's Pedagogical University for 2013-2020. The relevance of the investigated issue is conditioned by the fact that in the context of a highly competitive market of research…

  13. The Essence of Nonclassicality: Non-Vanishing Signal Deficit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nonclassical properties of correlations- like unpredictability, no-cloning and uncertainty- are known to follow from two assumptions: nonlocality and no-signaling. For two-input-two-output correlations, we derive these properties from a single, unified assumption: namely, the excess of the communication cost over the signaling in the correlation. This is relevant to quantum temporal correlations, resources to simulate quantum correlations and extensions of quantum mechanics. We generalize in the context of such correlations the nonclassicality result for nonlocal-nonsignaling correlations (Masanes et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 012112 (2006)) and the uncertainty bound on nonlocality (Oppenheim and Wehner, Science 330(6007), 1072 (2010)), when the no-signaling condition is relaxed.

  14. Filipinos at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa: Condition and Opportunities to Foster College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libarios, Niki; Bachini, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In Hawai'i's public higher education system, Filipinos are well represented at the University of Hawai'i (UH) community colleges while they are underrepresented at the flagship campus of the UH system--the University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UH Manoa). Two recent studies examined this phenomenon and the related experiences facing Filipino students as…

  15. A conditioned reinforcer did not help to maintain an operant conditioning in the absence of a primary reinforcer in horses.

    PubMed

    Lansade, Léa; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    The use of conditioned reinforcers is increasingly promoted in animal training. Surprisingly, the efficiency of their use remains to be demonstrated in horses. This study aimed to determine whether an auditory signal which had previously been associated with a food reward 288 times could be used as a conditioned reinforcer to replace the primary reinforcer in an unrelated operant conditioning procedure. Fourteen horses were divided into two groups of 7: No Reinforcement (NR) and Conditioned Reinforcement (CR). All horses underwent nine sessions of Pavlovian conditioning during which the word "good" was associated with food (32 associations/session). The horses then followed five sessions of operant conditioning (30 trials/session) during which they had to touch a cone signaled by an experimenter to receive a food reward. The last day, horses underwent one test session of the operant response: no reward was given, but the word "good" was said each time a CR horse touched the cone. Nothing was said in the NR group. CR horses did not achieve more correct trials than NR horses during the test. These findings again show that the conditioned reinforcement was ineffective when used instead of the primary reinforcement to maintain conditioning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reinforcement: Food Signals the Time and Location of Future Food

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    It has long been understood that food deliveries may act as signals of future food location, and not only as strengtheners of prefood responding as the law of effect suggests. Recent research has taken this idea further—the main effect of food deliveries, or other “reinforcers”, may be signaling rather than strengthening. The present experiment investigated the ability of food deliveries to signal food contingencies across time after food. In Phase 1, the next food delivery was always equally likely to be arranged for a left- or a right-key response. Conditions were arranged such that the next food delivery was likely to occur either sooner on the left (or right) key, or sooner on the just-productive (or not-just-productive) key. In Phase 2, similar contingencies were arranged, but the last-food location was signaled by a red keylight. Preference, measured in 2-s bins across interfood intervals, was jointly controlled by the likely time and location of the next food delivery. In Phase 1, when any food delivery signaled a likely sooner next food delivery on a particular key, postfood preference was strongly toward that key, and moved toward the other key across the interreinforcer interval. In other conditions in which food delivery on the two keys signaled different subsequent contingencies, postfood preference was less extreme, and quickly moved toward indifference. In Phase 2, in all three conditions, initial preference was strongly toward the likely-sooner food key, and moved to the other key across the interfood interval. In both phases, at a more extended level of analysis, sequences of same-key food deliveries caused a small increase in preference for the just-productive key, suggesting the presence of a “reinforcement effect”, albeit one that was very small. PMID:21765546

  17. Investigations of the ionospheric using radio signals from artificial satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titheridge, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of ionospheric irregularities in medium latitudes and in polar regions were measured using radio signals from artificial satellites. Ionospheric changes during quiet and disturbed conditions were also measured. Electron density, elevation angle, and amplitude and frequency of these high frequency signals were determined as well as the direction of their arrival.

  18. Peru and its new challenge in higher education: Towards a research university.

    PubMed

    Lavalle, Carlos; de Nicolas, Victor Luis

    2017-01-01

    The paradigm of research universities linked to the emergence of university rankings has unified and universalized the criteria relating to the quality of higher education. This situation has led to multiple responses across global society, which has started rating the quality of higher education systems through these rankings, supported by a series of indicators aligned to the characteristics of research universities. Given that the quality of a country's higher education is one of the fundamental pillars of its development, many countries have started to take government action in this respect. In the case of Peru this has not taken long, with the approval of Law 30220 in 2014. This aims to regulate the quality of higher education through a series of specific conditions governed by a newly created body known as SUNEDU. This article uses a Delphi panel to analyze the existing relationship between the conditions imposed by SUNEDU and the research universities' intrinsic characteristics. During the Delphi panel a consensus was reached through an acceptable and stable level of responses, resulting in confirmation that there is alignment between the conditions imposed by SUNEDU and the intrinsic characteristics of research universities.

  19. Improved deconvolution of very weak confocal signals.

    PubMed

    Day, Kasey J; La Rivière, Patrick J; Chandler, Talon; Bindokas, Vytas P; Ferrier, Nicola J; Glick, Benjamin S

    2017-01-01

    Deconvolution is typically used to sharpen fluorescence images, but when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the primary benefit is reduced noise and a smoother appearance of the fluorescent structures. 3D time-lapse (4D) confocal image sets can be improved by deconvolution. However, when the confocal signals are very weak, the popular Huygens deconvolution software erases fluorescent structures that are clearly visible in the raw data. We find that this problem can be avoided by prefiltering the optical sections with a Gaussian blur. Analysis of real and simulated data indicates that the Gaussian blur prefilter preserves meaningful signals while enabling removal of background noise. This approach is very simple, and it allows Huygens to be used with 4D imaging conditions that minimize photodamage.

  20. An overview of mechanisms of redox signaling.

    PubMed

    Forman, Henry Jay; Ursini, Fulvio; Maiorino, Matilde

    2014-08-01

    A principal characteristic of redox signaling is that it involves an oxidation-reduction reaction or covalent adduct formation between the sensor signaling protein and second messenger. Non-redox signaling may involve alteration of the second messenger as in hydrolysis of GTP by G proteins, modification of the signaling protein as in farnesylation, or simple non-covalent binding of an agonist or second messenger. The chemistry of redox signaling is reviewed here. Specifically we have described how among the so-called reactive oxygen species, only hydroperoxides clearly fit the role of a second messenger. Consideration of reaction kinetics and cellular location strongly suggests that for hydroperoxides, particular protein cysteines are the targets and that the requirements for redox signaling is that these cysteines are in microenvironments in which the cysteine is ionized to the thiolate, and a proton can be donated to form a leaving group. The chemistry described here is the same as occurs in the cysteine and selenocysteine peroxidases that are generally considered the primary defense against oxidative stress. But, these same enzymes can also act as the sensors and transducer for signaling. Conditions that would allow specific signaling by peroxynitrite and superoxide are also defined. Signaling by other electrophiles, which includes lipid peroxidation products, quinones formed from polyphenols and other metabolites also involves reaction with specific protein thiolates. Again, kinetics and location are the primary determinants that provide specificity required for physiological signaling although enzymatic catalysis is not likely involved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carlton M

    2011-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) consist of four signaling family members and one nonsignaling "decoy" receptor, Fgfr-like 1 (Fgfrl1), all of which are expressed in the developing kidney. Several studies have shown that exogenous fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) affect growth and maturation of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and ureteric bud (UB) in cultured tissues. Transgenic and conditional knockout approaches in whole animals have shown that Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 (predominantly the IIIc isoform) in kidney mesenchyme are critical for early MM and UB formation. Conditional deletion of the ligand, Fgf8, in nephron precursors or global deletion of Fgfrl1 interrupts nephron formation. Fgfr2 (likely the IIIb isoform signaling downstream of Fgf7 and Fgf10) is critical for ureteric morphogenesis. Moreover, Fgfr2 appears to act independently of Frs2α (the major signaling adapter for Fgfrs) in regulating UB branching. Loss of Fgfr2 in the MM leads to many kidney and urinary tract anomalies, including vesicoureteral reflux. Thus Fgfr signaling is critical for patterning of virtually all renal lineages at early and later stages of development.

  2. Inter-organismal signaling and management of the phytomicrobiome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Donald L.; Praslickova, Dana; Ilangumaran, Gayathri

    2015-01-01

    The organisms of the phytomicrobiome use signal compounds to regulate aspects of each other’s behavior. Legumes use signals (flavonoids) to regulate rhizobial nod gene expression during establishment of the legume-rhizobia N2-fixation symbiosis. Lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) produced by rhizobia act as return signals to the host plant and are recognized by specific lysine motif receptor like kinases, which triggers a signal cascade leading to nodulation of legume roots. LCOs also enhance plant growth, particularly when plants are stressed. Chitooligosaccharides activate plant immune responses, providing enhanced resistance against diseases. Co-inoculation of rhizobia with other plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can improve nodulation and crop growth. PGPR also alleviate plant stress by secreting signal compounds including phytohormones and antibiotics. Thuricin 17, a small bacteriocin produced by a phytomicrobiome member promotes plant growth. Lumichrome synthesized by soil rhizobacteria function as stress-sensing cues. Inter-organismal signaling can be used to manage/engineer the phytomicrobiome to enhance crop productivity, particularly in the face of stress. Stressful conditions are likely to become more frequent and more severe because of climate change. PMID:26442036

  3. Induction of an adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields: influence of the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) signal and the specific absorption rate.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Olga; Sannino, Anna; Romeo, Stefania; Massa, Rita; Sarti, Maurizio; Reddy, Abishek B; Prihoda, Thomas J; Vijayalaxmi; Scarfì, Maria Rosaria

    2012-08-30

    The induction of an adaptive response (AR) was examined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF). Cells from nine healthy human volunteers were stimulated for 24h with phytohaemagglutinin and then exposed for 20h to an adaptive dose (AD) of a 1950MHz RF UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) signal used for mobile communications, at different specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.25, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.15W/kg. This was followed by treatment of the cells at 48h with a challenge dose (CD) of 100ng/ml mitomycin C (MMC). Lymphocytes were collected at the end of the 72h total culture period. The cytokinesis-block method was used to record the frequency of micronuclei (MN) as genotoxicity end-point. When lymphocytes from six donors were pre-exposed to RF at 0.3W/kg SAR and then treated with MMC, these cells showed a significant reduction in the frequency of MN, compared with the cells treated with MMC alone; this result is indicative of induction of AR. The results from our earlier study indicated that lymphocytes that were stimulated for 24h, exposed for 20h to a 900MHz RF GSM (global system for mobile communication) signal at 1.25W/kg SAR and then treated with 100ng/ml MMC, also exhibited AR. These overall data suggest that the induction of AR depends on RF frequency, type of the signal and SAR. Further characterization of RF-induced AR is in progress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An adaptive Kalman filter approach for cardiorespiratory signal extraction and fusion of non-contacting sensors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracting cardiorespiratory signals from non-invasive and non-contacting sensor arrangements, i.e. magnetic induction sensors, is a challenging task. The respiratory and cardiac signals are mixed on top of a large and time-varying offset and are likely to be disturbed by measurement noise. Basic filtering techniques fail to extract relevant information for monitoring purposes. Methods We present a real-time filtering system based on an adaptive Kalman filter approach that separates signal offsets, respiratory and heart signals from three different sensor channels. It continuously estimates respiration and heart rates, which are fed back into the system model to enhance performance. Sensor and system noise covariance matrices are automatically adapted to the aimed application, thus improving the signal separation capabilities. We apply the filtering to two different subjects with different heart rates and sensor properties and compare the results to the non-adaptive version of the same Kalman filter. Also, the performance, depending on the initialization of the filters, is analyzed using three different configurations ranging from best to worst case. Results Extracted data are compared with reference heart rates derived from a standard pulse-photoplethysmographic sensor and respiration rates from a flowmeter. In the worst case for one of the subjects the adaptive filter obtains mean errors (standard deviations) of -0.2 min −1 (0.3 min −1) and -0.7 bpm (1.7 bpm) (compared to -0.2 min −1 (0.4 min −1) and 42.0 bpm (6.1 bpm) for the non-adaptive filter) for respiration and heart rate, respectively. In bad conditions the heart rate is only correctly measurable when the Kalman matrices are adapted to the target sensor signals. Also, the reduced mean error between the extracted offset and the raw sensor signal shows that adapting the Kalman filter continuously improves the ability to separate the desired signals from the raw sensor data. The average

  5. Outsourced probe data effectiveness on signalized arterials

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sharifi, Elham; Young, Stanley Ernest; Eshragh, Sepideh

    This paper presents results of an I-95 Corridor Coalition sponsored project to assess the ability of outsourced vehicle probe data to provide accurate travel time on signalized roadways for the purposes of real-time operations as well as performance measures. The quality of outsourced probe data on freeways has led many departments of transportation to consider such data for arterial performance monitoring. From April 2013 through June of 2014, the University of Maryland Center for Advanced Transportation Technology gathered travel times from several arterial corridors within the mid-Atlantic region using Bluetooth traffic monitoring (BTM) equipment, and compared these travel times withmore » the data reported to the I95 Vehicle Probe Project (VPP) from an outsourced probe data vendor. The analysis consisted of several methodologies: (1) a traditional analysis that used precision and bias speed metrics; (2) a slowdown analysis that quantified the percentage of significant traffic disruptions accurately captured in the VPP data; (3) a sampled distribution method that uses overlay methods to enhance and analyze recurring congestion patterns. (4) Last, the BTM and VPP data from each 24-hour period of data collection were reviewed by the research team to assess the extent to which VPP captured the nature of the traffic flow. Based on the analysis, probe data is recommended only on arterial roadways with signal densities (measured in signals per mile) up to one, and it should be tested and used with caution for signal densities between one and two, and is not recommended when signal density exceeds two.« less

  6. Unconstrained and Noninvasive Measurement of Swimming Behavior of Small Fish Based on Ventilatory Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitayama, Shigehisa; Soh, Zu; Hirano, Akira; Tsuji, Toshio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao

    Ventilatory signal is a kind of bioelectric signals reflecting the ventilatory conditions of fish, and has received recent attention as an indicator for assessment of water quality, since breathing is adjusted by the respiratory center according to changes in the underwater environment surrounding the fish. The signals are thus beginning to be used in bioassay systems for water examination. Other than ventilatory conditions, swimming behavior also contains important information for water examination. The conventional bioassay systems, however, only measure either ventilatory signals or swimming behavior. This paper proposes a new unconstrained and noninvasive measurement method that is capable of conducting ventilatory signal measurement and behavioral analysis of fish at the same time. The proposed method estimates the position and the velocity of a fish in free-swimming conditions using power spectrum distribution of measured ventilatory signals from multiple electrodes. This allowed the system to avoid using a camera system which requires light sources. In order to validate estimation accuracy, the position and the velocity estimated by the proposed method were compared to those obtained from video analysis. The results confirmed that the estimated error of the fish positions was within the size of fish, and the correlation coefficient between the velocities was 0.906. The proposed method thus not only can measure the ventilatory signals, but also performs behavioral analysis as accurate as using a video camera.

  7. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church.

  8. Functional imaging of conditioned aversive emotional responses in antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Schneider, F; Habel, U; Kessler, C; Posse, S; Grodd, W; Müller-Gärtner, H W

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with antisocial personality disorder (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12) were examined for cerebral regional activation involved in the processing of negative affect. A differential aversive classical conditioning paradigm was applied with odors as unconditioned stimuli and faces as conditioned stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on echo-planar imaging was used while cerebral activity was studied during habituation, acquisition, and extinction. Individually defined cerebral regions were analyzed. Both groups indicated behavioral conditioning following subjective ratings of emotional valence to conditioned stimuli. Differential effects were found during acquisition in the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Controls showed signal decreases, patients signal increases. These preliminary results revealed unexpected signal increases in cortical/subcortical areas of patients. The increases may result from an additional effort put in by these individuals to form negative emotional associations, a pattern of processing that may correspond to their characteristic deviant emotional behavior. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Quantum interactions with closed timelike curves and superluminal signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, Jeffrey; Stairs, Allen

    2014-02-01

    There is now a significant body of results on quantum interactions with closed timelike curves (CTCs) in the quantum information literature, for both the Deutsch model of CTC interactions (D-CTCs) and the projective model (P-CTCs). As a consequence, there is a prima facie argument exploiting entanglement that CTC interactions would enable superluminal and, indeed, effectively instantaneous signaling. In cases of spacelike separation between the sender of a signal and the receiver, whether a receiver measures the local part of an entangled state or a disentangled state to access the signal can depend on the reference frame. We propose a consistency condition that gives priority to either an entangled perspective or a disentangled perspective in spacelike-separated scenarios. For D-CTC interactions, the consistency condition gives priority to frames of reference in which the state is disentangled, while for P-CTC interactions the condition selects the entangled state. Using the consistency condition, we show that there is a procedure that allows Alice to signal to Bob in the past via relayed superluminal communications between spacelike-separated Alice and Clio, and spacelike-separated Clio and Bob. This opens the door to time travel paradoxes in the classical domain. Ralph [T. C. Ralph, arXiv:1107.4675 [quant-ph].] first pointed this out for P-CTCs, but we show that Ralph's procedure for a "radio to the past" is flawed. Since both D-CTCs and P-CTCs allow classical information to be sent around a spacetime loop, it follows from a result by Aaronson and Watrous [S. Aaronson and J. Watrous, Proc. R. Soc. A 465, 631 (2009), 10.1098/rspa.2008.0350] for CTC-enhanced classical computation that a quantum computer with access to P-CTCs would have the power of PSPACE, equivalent to a D-CTC-enhanced quantum computer.

  10. Concrete Condition Assessment Using Impact-Echo Method and Extreme Learning Machines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Kui; Yan, Weizhong; Cui, De-Mi

    2016-01-01

    The impact-echo (IE) method is a popular non-destructive testing (NDT) technique widely used for measuring the thickness of plate-like structures and for detecting certain defects inside concrete elements or structures. However, the IE method is not effective for full condition assessment (i.e., defect detection, defect diagnosis, defect sizing and location), because the simple frequency spectrum analysis involved in the existing IE method is not sufficient to capture the IE signal patterns associated with different conditions. In this paper, we attempt to enhance the IE technique and enable it for full condition assessment of concrete elements by introducing advanced machine learning techniques for performing comprehensive analysis and pattern recognition of IE signals. Specifically, we use wavelet decomposition for extracting signatures or features out of the raw IE signals and apply extreme learning machine, one of the recently developed machine learning techniques, as classification models for full condition assessment. To validate the capabilities of the proposed method, we build a number of specimens with various types, sizes, and locations of defects and perform IE testing on these specimens in a lab environment. Based on analysis of the collected IE signals using the proposed machine learning based IE method, we demonstrate that the proposed method is effective in performing full condition assessment of concrete elements or structures. PMID:27023563

  11. Pavlovian Incubation of US Signal Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Murray J.

    2013-01-01

    Four experiments with rats examined Pavlovian incubation, in which responding increases when Pavlovian conditioning is followed by a testing delay. In a within-subjects design, Experiment 1 first showed that when a single food pellet unconditioned stimulus (US) signaled the delivery of three additional pellets, responding after the single US was…

  12. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  13. The Wnt signaling pathway in familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and Norrie disease.

    PubMed

    Warden, Scott M; Andreoli, Christopher M; Mukai, Shizuo

    2007-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is highly conserved among species and has an important role in many cell biological processes throughout the body. This signaling cascade is involved in regulating ocular growth and development, and recent findings indicate that this is particularly true in the retina. Mutations involving different aspects of the Wnt signaling pathway are being linked to several diseases of retinal development. The aim of this article is to first review the Wnt signaling pathway. We will then describe two conditions, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) and Norrie disease (ND), which have been shown to be caused in part by defects in the Wnt signaling cascade.

  14. Effects of the Financial Crisis on University Choice by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cattaneo, Mattia; Horta, Hugo; Malighetti, Paolo; Meoli, Michele; Paleari, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the university choices of male and female students in Italy over the 2003-2012 period and for two sub-periods before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2012) the 2008 financial crisis. The analysis is guided by human capital, signalling and preference theories and implemented through a competing destinations model that controls for…

  15. The "Negotiated Space" of University Researchers' Pursuit of a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukkonen, Terttu; Thomas, Duncan A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces a concept of a "negotiated space" to describe university researchers' attempts to balance pragmatically, continually and dynamically over time, their own agency and autonomy in the selection of research topics and pursuit of scientific research to filter out the explicit steering and tacit signals of external…

  16. Establishing a Conditional Signal for Assistance in Teenagers with Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Muriel D.; Sella, Ana Carolina; Attri, Dua; Saunders, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Five teenagers with severe intellectual impairments and no discernible communication skills were enrolled in training to teach a conditional request for assistance using a speech-generating device (SGD). All were either blind or severely visually impaired since birth. All learned to operate an adaptive switch to control sensory outcomes, next…

  17. Signal voter

    DOEpatents

    Goodwin, Roy L.

    1981-01-01

    A voter for providing a single accurate output signal that is derived from the closest two signal levels of three input signals, each of which signals represents a measurement of the same phenomena. By means of the voting circuit, the signals are first sorted by level of amplitude and then ranked as highest, middle or lowest. The highest or lowest signal that is furthest from the middle signal is rejected, while the other highest or lowest signal is selected for processing. The selected high or low signal is then averaged with the middle signal to provide the output signal.

  18. Constraints to universal coverage: inequities in health service use and expenditures for different health conditions and providers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is need for new information about the socio-economic and geographic differences in health seeking and expenditures on many health conditions, so to help to design interventions that will reduce inequity in utilisation of healthcare services and ensure universal coverage. Objectives The paper contributes additional knowledge about health seeking and economic burden of different health conditions. It also shows the level of healthcare payments in public and private sector and their distribution across socioeconomic and geographic population groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected householders from 4,873 households (2,483 urban and 2,390 rural) in southeast Nigeria. Data was collected on: health problems that people had and sought care for; type of care sought, outpatient department (OPD) visits and inpatient department (IPD) stays; providers visited; expenditures; and preferences for improving access to care. Data was disaggregated by socio-economic status (SES) and geographic location (urban versus rural) of the households. Results Malaria and hypertension were the major communicable and non-communicable diseases respectively that required OPD and IPD. Patent medicine dealers (PMDs) were the most commonly used providers (41.1%), followed by private hospitals (19.7%) and pharmacies (16.4%). The rural dwellers and poorer SES groups mostly used low-level and informal providers. The average monthly treatment expenditure in urban area was 2444 Naira (US$20.4) and 2267 Naira (US$18.9) in the rural area. Higher SES groups and urbanites incurred higher health expenditures. People that needed healthcare services did not seek care mostly because the health condition was not serious enough or they could not afford the cost of services. Conclusion There were inequities in use of the different providers, and also in expenditures on treatment. Reforms should aim to decrease barriers to access to public and formal health

  19. Universality classes of fluctuation dynamics in hierarchical complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macêdo, A. M. S.; González, Iván R. Roa; Salazar, D. S. P.; Vasconcelos, G. L.

    2017-03-01

    A unified approach is proposed to describe the statistics of the short-time dynamics of multiscale complex systems. The probability density function of the relevant time series (signal) is represented as a statistical superposition of a large time-scale distribution weighted by the distribution of certain internal variables that characterize the slowly changing background. The dynamics of the background is formulated as a hierarchical stochastic model whose form is derived from simple physical constraints, which in turn restrict the dynamics to only two possible classes. The probability distributions of both the signal and the background have simple representations in terms of Meijer G functions. The two universality classes for the background dynamics manifest themselves in the signal distribution as two types of tails: power law and stretched exponential, respectively. A detailed analysis of empirical data from classical turbulence and financial markets shows excellent agreement with the theory.

  20. Magazine approach during a signal for food depends on Pavlovian, not instrumental, conditioning.

    PubMed

    Harris, Justin A; Andrew, Benjamin J; Kwok, Dorothy W S

    2013-04-01

    In the conditioned magazine approach paradigm, rats are exposed to a contingent relationship between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and the delivery of food (the unconditioned stimulus, US). As the rats learn the CS-US association, they make frequent anticipatory head entries into the food magazine (the conditioned response, CR) during the CS. Conventionally, this is considered to be a Pavlovian paradigm because food is contingent on the CS and not on the performance of CRs during the CS. However, because magazine entries during the CS are reliably followed by food, the increase in frequency of those responses may involve adventitious ("superstitious") instrumental conditioning. The existing evidence, from experiments using an omission schedule to eliminate the possibility of instrumental conditioning (B. J. Farwell & J. J. Ayres, 1979, Stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations in the control of conditioned appetitive headpoking (goal tracking) in rats. Learning and Motivation, 10, 295-312; P. C. Holland, 1979, Differential effects of omission contingencies on various components of Pavlovian appetitive conditioned responding in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes, 5, 178-193), is ambiguous: rats acquire magazine CRs despite the omission schedule, demonstrating that the response does not depend on instrumental conditioning, but the response rate is greatly depressed compared with that of rats trained on a yoked schedule, consistent with a contribution from instrumental conditioning under normal (nonomission) schedules. Here we describe experiments in which rats were trained on feature-positive or feature-negative type discriminations between trials that were reinforced on an omission schedule versus trials reinforced on a yoked schedule. The experiments show that the difference in responding between omission and yoked schedules is due to suppression of responding under the omission schedule rather than an elevation of