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Sample records for unknown primary tumor

  1. FDG PET detection of unknown primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Bohuslavizki, K H; Klutmann, S; Kröger, S; Sonnemann, U; Buchert, R; Werner, J A; Mester, J; Clausen, M

    2000-05-01

    The management of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary origin remains a clinical challenge despite a large variety of imaging modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate FDG PET in detecting the sites of primary cancer in these patients. Fifty-three patients with metastatic cervical adenopathy (n = 44) or extracervical metastases (n = 9) of unknown primary origin were included after extensive but inconclusive conventional diagnostic work-up. Patients received 370 MBq FDG (10 mCi) intravenously, and whole-body images were acquired at 60 min after injection. Clinical, surgical, and histopathologic findings and complete correlative imaging were used to assess the results. In 27 of 53 patients FDG PET showed focal tracer accumulations corresponding to potential primary tumor sites located in the lungs (n = 12), the palatine tonsil (n = 5), the salivary glands (n = 2), the nasopharynx (n = 1), the oropharynx (n = 3), the maxillary sinus (n = 1), and the larynx (n = 1). Moreover, in 2 patients FDG PET revealed lesions suspected to be tumors in the breast and the ileocolonic area. In 20 (37.8%) of these 53 patients FDG PET was true-positive, identifying the primary tumor in the lungs (n = 10), the head and neck region (n = 8), the breast (n = 1), and the ileocolonic area (n = 1). In 6 of 27 patients FDG PET was false-positive, predominantly identifying suspicious areas in the palatine tonsil (n = 3). One patient denied further diagnostic work-up after PET; thus, positive PET could not be evaluated. In 26 of 53 patients PET did not reveal lesions suspected to be the primary. However, primary tumors were not found in these patients at clinical follow-up. FDG PET is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with cancer of unknown primary because it imaged unknown primary tumors in about one third of all patients investigated. In addition, FDG PET assists in both guiding biopsies for histologic evaluation and selecting the appropriate treatment protocols

  2. CUP Syndrome-Metastatic Malignancy with Unknown Primary Tumor.

    PubMed

    Zaun, Gregor; Schuler, Martin; Herrmann, Ken; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2018-03-09

    2-4% of newly diagnosed cases of malignant disease involve cancer of unknown primary (CUP). This mixed entity is one of the 6 most common types of malignant disease in Germany. Highly refined treatment strategies can now be offered to patients with CUP. This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed with an emphasis on articles from the past decade. The current guidelines and recommendations of specialty societies were also considered in the evaluation. CUP most commonly manifests itself as metastases to the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, or bones. With the aid of imaging studies, including functional hybrid imaging and further medical examination, a primary tumor can be discovered in up to 40% of patients initially diagnosed with CUP. Immunohistochemistry guided by histomorphology often enables precise characterization of the lesion and can be supplemented, in selected cases, by molecular-genetic diagnostic evaluation. The most commonly detected types of primary tumor are cancers of the lung, pancreas, liver, and biliary system. For patients with local metastases, surgical resection or radiotherapy with curative intent is usually indicated, sometimes in the framework of a multimodal treatment concept. The median 2-year survival of patients with disseminated CUP is only 20%. For such patients, specific types of systemic therapy are recommended on the basis of the diagnostic characterization of the disease. Immune-modulatory antibodies can be effective, particularly in the treatment of CUP that has been characterized with biomarkers, but should still be considered experimental at present. A combination of conventional and innovative diagnostic methods enables the provision of highly refined therapeutic strategies to patients with CUP who are undergoing treatment in interdisciplinary cancer centers.

  3. [The role of whole body 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the management of unknown primary tumors].

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Xue; Wei, Hao; Jia, Qing

    2007-08-28

    To assess the role of 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the management of unknown primary primary (CUP) with metastatic loci. Thirty-four patients of CUP with metastatic loci who had undergone unsuccessful conventional diagnostic work-up underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT. The images thus obtained were analyzed with visual and semi-quantitative methods. Histopathology, cytology, and/or follow-up were used to evaluate the PET/CT results. In 20 of the 34 patients (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed focal tracer accumulations corresponding to potential primary tumor sites located in the lung (n = 9), colon (n = 3), rectum (n = 2), pancreas (n = 1), right aryepiglottic wall (n = 1), esophagus (n = 1), breast (n = 1), and ovary (n = 2). The detection rate of primary tumor by (18)F-FDG PET/CT was 50.0% (17/34), the primary tumors were identified in the lung (n = 8), colon (n = 2), rectum (n = 1), pancreas (n = 1), right aryepiglottic wall (n = 1), esophagus (n = 1), ovary (n = 2), and breast (n = 1). The false positive rate was 8.8% (3/34) with the diagnosis of primary tumor in the lung (n = 1), colon (n = 1), and rectum (n = 1) to be identified as false. In 14 of the 34 patients, (18)F-FDG PET/CT did not reveal lesions suspected to be the primary tumor sites in 13 patients, and it was impossible to identify one lesion as the most likely primary tumor in one patient due to the presence of multiple hot spots in several organs. The (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings affected the medical management in 17 of the 34 (50.0%) patients due to the finding of primary sites and/or additional metastases. (18)F-FDG PET/CT has relevant impact on the therapeutic management of patients with unknown primary tumor. It is recommended that (18)F-FDG PET/CT be performed in the patient with unknown primary tumor after unsuccessful conventional diagnostic workup.

  4. Optimal Treatment Decision for Brain Metastases of Unknown Primary Origin: The Role and Timing of Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyun Jin; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho; Park, Yong Gou

    2016-01-01

    Background Up to 15% of all patients with brain metastases have no clearly detected primary site despite intensive evaluation, and this incidence has decreased with the use of improved imaging technology. Radiosurgery has been evaluated as one of the treatment modality for patients with limited brain metastases. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of radiosurgery for brain metastases from unknown primary tumors. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 540 patients who underwent gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for brain metastases radiologically diagnosed between August 1992 and September 2007 in our institution. First, the brain metastases were grouped into metachronous, synchronous, and precocious presentations according to the timing of diagnosis of the brain metastases. Then, synchronous and precocious brain metastases were further grouped into 1) unknown primary; 2) delayed known primary; and 3) synchronous metastases according to the timing of diagnosis of the primary origin. We analyzed the survival time and time to new brain metastasis in each group. Results Of the 540 patients, 29 (5.4%) presented precocious or synchronous metastases (34 GKRS procedures for 174 lesions). The primary tumor was not found even after intensive and repeated systemic evaluation in 10 patients (unknown primary, 34.5%); found after 8 months in 3 patients (delayed known primary, 1.2%); and diagnosed at the same time as the brain metastases in 16 patients (synchronous metastasis, 55.2%). No statistically significant differences in survival time and time to new brain metastasis were found among the three groups. Conclusion Identification of a primary tumor before GKRS did not affect the patient outcomes. If other possible differential diagnoses were completely excluded, early GKRS can be an effective treatment option for brain metastases from unknown primary tumor. PMID:27867920

  5. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  6. Post-operative therapy following transoral robotic surgery for unknown primary cancers of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sapna A; Parvathaneni, Aarthi; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Houlton, Jeffrey J; Karni, Ron J; Liao, Jay J; Futran, Neal D; Méndez, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    Our primary objective is to describe the post- operative management in patients with an unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) treated with trans-oral robotic surgery (TORS). We conducted a retrospective multi-institutional case series including all patients diagnosed with an unknown primary HNSCC who underwent TORS to identify the primary site from January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2016. We excluded those with recurrent disease, ≤6months of follow up from TORS, previous history of radiation therapy (RT) to the head and neck, or evidence of primary tumor site based on previous biopsies. Our main outcome measure was receipt of post-operative therapy. The tumor was identified in 26/35 (74.3%) subjects. Post-TORS, 2 subjects did not receive adjuvant therapy due to favorable pathology. Volume reduction of RT mucosal site coverage was achieved in 12/26 (46.1%) subjects who had lateralizing tumors, ie. those confined to the palatine tonsil or glossotonsillar sulcus. In addition, for 8/26 (30.1%), the contralateral neck RT was also avoided. In 9 subjects, no primary was identified (pT0); four of these received RT to the involved ipsilateral neck nodal basin only without pharyngeal mucosal irradiation. Surgical management of an unknown primary with TORS can lead to deintensification of adjuvant therapy including avoidance of chemotherapy and reduction in RT doses and volume. There was no increase in short term treatment failures. Treatment after TORS can vary significantly, thus we advocate adherence to NCCN guideline therapy post-TORS to avoid treatment-associated variability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Severe Unresponsive Hypoglycemia Associated with Neuroendocrine Tumor of Unknown Primary Site - 18 Years after Rectal Cancer Surgery. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Octavia Cristina; Costea, Radu Virgil; Popa, Cristian Constantin; Iliesiu, Andreea; Dumitru, Adrian; Becheanu, Gabriel; Neagu, Stefan Ilie

    2015-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are derived from cells that have the unique ability to synthesize, store and secrete a variety of metabolically active substances, peptides and amines, characteristic of the tissue of origin, which can cause distinct clinical syndromes. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient diagnosed and surgically treated in January 1996 for stage III inferior rectal cancer, who was readmitted after 18 years presenting persistent diarrheic syndrome and asthenia. Investigations performed (abdominal CT) showed multiple liver metastases, initially suspected as being related to the rectal cancer. Biopsy of liver metastases and pathological and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the neuroendocrine origin (moderately differentiated neuroendocrine tumor). Seven months after the identification of liver metastases and after initiation of oncological therapy with Interferon and Somatostatin, the patient presented severe hypoglycemia (serum glucose 13-70 mg/dl) proved to be due to insulin-like factors (serum insulin level 64.9 ìU/ml) secreted by metastases. Due to the aggressive evolution of neuroendocrine tumor, with multiple episodes of severe hypoglycemia, resistant to treatment, the patient died approximately one month after the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. Despite comprehensive tests (abdominal CT scan, colonoscopy, bone scintigraphy and PET/CT), the primary site of the neuroendocrine tumors remained unknown.

  8. [Standard of care of carcinomas on cancer of unknown primary site in 2016].

    PubMed

    Benderra, Marc-Antoine; Ilié, Marius; Hofman, Paul; Massard, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Cancer of unknown primary (cup) represent 2-10%, and have disseminated cancers for which we cannot find the primary site despite the clinical, pathological and radiological exams at our disposal. Diagnosis is based on a thorough clinical and histopathologic examination as well as new imaging techniques. Several clinicopathologic entities requiring specific treatment can be identified. Genome sequencing and liquid biopsy (circulating tumor cells and tumor free DNA) could allow further advances in the diagnosis. Therapeutically, in addition to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, precision medicine provides new therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) occurs when cancer cells have spread in the body and formed metastatic tumors but the site of the primary cancer is not known. There are a number of reasons why the primary cancer may not be found. Start here to find treatment information for carcinoma of unknown primary.

  10. Evaluation and management of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey M; Galloway, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    The diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic management of a patient with squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary (SCCUP) has considerably evolved over recent decades and will likely continue to change as a result of the improving ability to identify small primary tumors and better tailor the implementation of multimodality therapy. By application of the general principles of head and neck oncology, physicians and surgeons are often able to achieve satisfactory control of the disease in patients with SCCUP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a rare disease in which malignant cells are found in the body but the site of the primary cancer is not known. Most CUPs are adenocarcinomas, or undifferentiated tumors. Find evidence-based information on the treatment for carcinoma of unknown primary.

  12. Pretreatment costs of care and time to initial treatment for patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark S; Weinstein, Laura; Luo, Roger; Marino, Ingrid

    2018-06-01

    Time to treatment and pretreatment costs may be affected by unknown primary tumor site. This retrospective study used electronic medical record data from patients in ten US community oncology practices. Eligible patients were ≥18 years, diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) or known metastatic solid tumor, and presented between 1 January 2012 and 30 June 2014. Patients with CUP (n = 294) had a longer interval than non-CUP patients (n = 92) from presentation to treatment initiation (1.18 vs 0.49 months, p < 0.0001), and had higher pretreatment costs (US$27,882 vs US$20,449, p = 0.0075). When analyzed as monthly cost, the difference between groups in log-cost per month was nonsignificant. Higher pretreatment costs in CUP patients appeared attributable to significantly longer time to initiation of therapy.

  13. Cytologic evaluation of cervical lymph node metastases from cancers of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Faquin, William C

    2015-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is often the first diagnostic procedure performed in patients with head and neck (HN) masses. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to cervical lymph nodes is by far the most common malignancy aspirated in the HN, but in approximately 3-10% of patients, a primary tumor will not be found even after complete clinico-radiological workup. Several HN cancers are associated with oncogenic viruses, including HPV-associated SCC and EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). While the primary tumor is sometimes small or undetectable, patients often present initially with cervical lymph node metastases. HPV-associated SCC and EBV-associated NPC are typically non-keratinizing carcinomas that can mimic several other poorly differentiated HN cancers by FNAB but have a significantly better prognosis. Therefore, the precise classification of the metastatic disease in the FNAB material is very useful since it can facilitate the subsequent location of the primary tumor, and it can provide prognostic and therapeutic information as well. In this review, we discuss the major entities that can present as a metastatic cancer of unknown primary in cervical lymph node other than supraclavicular, including their cytologic features and the role of ancillary studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  15. Large mass affecting retroperitoneal great vessels: a rare presentation of a cancer of unknown primary with diagnostic dilemma and challenged surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Stakia, Paraskevi; Lagos, Panagiotis; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Tzilalis, Vasilios D; Aloizos, Stavros; Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Cancers of unknown primary site (CUPs) consist of a clinical entity which accounts for 3-5% of all solid tumor patients. They are metastatic solid tumors whose fundamental characteristic is the absence of identifiable site of the primary tumor. We report the case of a completely asymptomatic 34-year-old man with a palpated huge mass found incidentally in the left abdomen. All the investigations were normal. During the operation, a large mass was identified 2 cm below the left renal artery which was displacing and encompassing the great retroperitoneal vessels and the left ureter. A complete resection of the mass was performed while the histological examination revealed a solitary retroperitoneal lymph node categorized as metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site. It is essential to assess the high incidence of patients with cancer who present with CUP. Early surgical excision of the metastatic lesion followed by adjuvant combination chemotherapy should be considered for patients with only a single site of malignancy.

  16. [Clinical diagnosis of primary unknown cancer-the present situation and problems].

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hirofumi

    2009-06-01

    The first step of diagnosis of primary unknown cancer(PUC)the detailed history intake and physical examination including breast, genitourinary system and rectum. Laboratory test, chest X-p and systemic computed tomography are allowed to be performed for all patients with PUC. Other tests should be performed according to the results of clinical and pathological evaluation. Utility of the tumor marker is limited, and this test is not recommended as a routine usage. There is not enough evidence on the utility of FDG-PTT or FDG-PET/CT for patients with PUC. Diagnosis of PUC should be made within one month from a patient's first visit to a hospital.

  17. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  18. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  19. A multicenter study of primary brain tumor incidence in Australia (2000–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Dobes, Martin; Shadbolt, Bruce; Khurana, Vini G.; Jain, Sanjiv; Smith, Sarah F.; Smee, Robert; Dexter, Mark; Cook, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    There are conflicting reports from Europe and North America regarding trends in the incidence of primary brain tumor, whereas the incidence of primary brain tumors in Australia is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence in Australia with age-, sex-, and benign-versus-malignant histology-specific analyses. A multicenter study was performed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which has a combined population of >7 million with >97% rate of population retention for medical care. We retrospectively mined pathology databases servicing neurosurgical centers in NSW and ACT for histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008. Data were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness. Incidence rates were age standardized and trends analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A weighted total of 7651 primary brain tumors were analyzed. The overall US-standardized incidence of primary brain tumors was 11.3 cases 100 000 person-years (±0.13; 95% confidence interval, 9.8–12.3) during the study period with no significant linear increase. A significant increase in primary malignant brain tumors from 2000 to 2008 was observed; this appears to be largely due to an increase in malignant tumor incidence in the ≥65-year age group. This collection represents the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Whether the observed increase in malignant primary brain tumors, particularly in persons aged ≥65 years, is due to improved detection, diagnosis, and care delivery or a true change in incidence remains undetermined. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence that can be independent of multiple interstate cancer registries. PMID:21727214

  20. Second primary cancers after cancer of unknown primary in Sweden and Germany: efficacy of the modern work-up.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Jan; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Emrich, Katharina; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-05-01

    In unsparing efforts to find the hidden primaries, second primary cancers (SPCs) unrelated to cancer of unknown primary (CUP) are found. The detection rates of SPCs after CUP can be considered as measures for the effectiveness of modern diagnostic techniques in finding tumors. We aimed to compare the rates of specific SPCs found after the work-up of CUP and the more sign/symptom-directed diagnostic approaches applied after any other cancer. The number of CUP patients identified in the nationwide Swedish database and nine German cancer registries was 24 641 from 1997 through 2006, and rate ratios (RRs) for SPCs were recorded in two follow-up periods. The detection rate of SPCs immediately after any other cancer was about two times higher in Germany than in Sweden, but the rate immediately after CUP was almost the same for the two datasets. In the joint analyses after CUP, the RRs of liver, lung, breast, and kidney cancers were higher than after any other cancer, whereas the RRs of prostate, urinary bladder, and connective tissue cancers as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were not significantly different; the RR of cancers of upper aerodigestive tract was lower after CUP than after any other cancer. The joint data indicate that the work-up is efficient in detecting tumors in the thoracoabdominal organs that are screened by computed tomography. For some other organ sites, the more sign/symptom-directed diagnostic approaches may be equally efficient. However, none of the applied techniques could detect all tumors immediately after the first diagnosis.

  1. Genetics of Primary Intraocular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti-Gude, Nisha; Wang, Yujuan; Ali, Mohammad Javed; Honavar, Santosh G.; Jager, Martine J.; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Primary intraocular neoplasms are tumors that originate within the eye. The most common malignant primary intraocular tumor in adults is uveal melanoma and the second is primary intraocular lymphoma or vitreoretinal (intraocular) lymphoma. The most common malignant intraocular tumor in children is retinoblastoma. Genetics plays a vital role in the diagnosis and detection of ocular tumors. In uveal melanoma, monosomy 3 is the most common genetic alteration and somatic mutations of BAP1, a tumor suppressor gene, have been reported in nearly 50% of primary uveal melanomas. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 is the prototype tumor suppressor gene—mutations in RB1 alleles lead to inactivated RB protein and the development of retinoblastoma. Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) or T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement is observed in B-cell or T-cell primary vitreoretinal lymphoma, respectively. Other factors related to the genetics of these three common malignancies in the eye are discussed and reviewed. PMID:22834783

  2. Bone tumor

    MedlinePlus

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  3. Prognosis of Mucosal, Uveal, Acral, Nonacral Cutaneous, and Unknown Primary Melanoma From the Time of First Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kuk, Deborah; Shoushtari, Alexander N; Barker, Christopher A; Panageas, Katherine S; Munhoz, Rodrigo R; Momtaz, Parisa; Ariyan, Charlotte E; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel G; Bogatch, Kita; Callahan, Margaret K; Wolchok, Jedd D; Carvajal, Richard D; Postow, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Subtypes of melanoma, such as mucosal, uveal, and acral, are believed to result in worse prognoses than nonacral cutaneous melanoma. After a diagnosis of distant metastatic disease, however, the overall survival of patients with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma has not been directly compared. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 3,454 patients with melanoma diagnosed with distant metastases from 2000 to 2013, identified from a prospectively maintained database. We examined melanoma subtype, date of diagnosis of distant metastases, age at diagnosis of metastasis, gender, and site of melanoma metastases. Of the 3,454 patients (237 with mucosal, 286 with uveal, 2,292 with nonacral cutaneous, 105 with acral cutaneous, and 534 with unknown primary melanoma), 2,594 died. The median follow-up was 46.1 months. The median overall survival for those with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma was 9.1, 13.4, 11.4, 11.7, and 10.4 months, respectively. Patients with uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma (acral and nonacral), and unknown primary melanoma had similar survival, but patients with mucosal melanoma had worse survival. Patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma in 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 had better overall survival than patients diagnosed in 2000-2005. In a multivariate model, patients with mucosal melanoma had inferior overall survival compared with patients with the other four subtypes. Additional research and advocacy are needed for patients with mucosal melanoma because of their shorter overall survival in the metastatic setting. Despite distinct tumor biology, the survival was similar for those with metastatic uveal melanoma, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma. Uveal, acral, and mucosal melanoma are assumed to result in a worse prognosis than nonacral cutaneous melanoma or unknown primary melanoma. No studies, however, have been conducted assessing the

  4. Prognosis of Mucosal, Uveal, Acral, Nonacral Cutaneous, and Unknown Primary Melanoma From the Time of First Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kuk, Deborah; Shoushtari, Alexander N.; Barker, Christopher A.; Panageas, Katherine S.; Munhoz, Rodrigo R.; Momtaz, Parisa; Ariyan, Charlotte E.; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel G.; Bogatch, Kita; Callahan, Margaret K.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Carvajal, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Subtypes of melanoma, such as mucosal, uveal, and acral, are believed to result in worse prognoses than nonacral cutaneous melanoma. After a diagnosis of distant metastatic disease, however, the overall survival of patients with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma has not been directly compared. Materials and Methods. We conducted a single-center, retrospective analysis of 3,454 patients with melanoma diagnosed with distant metastases from 2000 to 2013, identified from a prospectively maintained database. We examined melanoma subtype, date of diagnosis of distant metastases, age at diagnosis of metastasis, gender, and site of melanoma metastases. Results. Of the 3,454 patients (237 with mucosal, 286 with uveal, 2,292 with nonacral cutaneous, 105 with acral cutaneous, and 534 with unknown primary melanoma), 2,594 died. The median follow-up was 46.1 months. The median overall survival for those with mucosal, uveal, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma was 9.1, 13.4, 11.4, 11.7, and 10.4 months, respectively. Patients with uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma (acral and nonacral), and unknown primary melanoma had similar survival, but patients with mucosal melanoma had worse survival. Patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma in 2006–2010 and 2011–2013 had better overall survival than patients diagnosed in 2000–2005. In a multivariate model, patients with mucosal melanoma had inferior overall survival compared with patients with the other four subtypes. Conclusion. Additional research and advocacy are needed for patients with mucosal melanoma because of their shorter overall survival in the metastatic setting. Despite distinct tumor biology, the survival was similar for those with metastatic uveal melanoma, acral, nonacral cutaneous, and unknown primary melanoma. Implications for Practice: Uveal, acral, and mucosal melanoma are assumed to result in a worse prognosis than nonacral cutaneous

  5. [Metastasis revealing malignant peritoneum mesothelioma: About the difficulty to identify the primary tumors].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Charles-Henri; Petitjean, Alain; Felix, Sophie; Bedgedjian, Isabelle; Algros, Marie-Paule; Delabrousse, Eric; Valmary-Degano, Séverine

    2016-04-01

    Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma is a rare and extremely aggressive tumor that is sometimes difficult to diagnose. We report two cases of metastatic malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. In one case, malignant metastatic cells were identified in cervical lymph nodes while in the other case, the cells were found in the liver. In both cases, metastases were identified before discovering the primary tumor. This led to the misdiagnosis of carcinoma of unknown origin. Nevertheless, the histological and immuno-histochemical patterns were typical of malignant mesothelioma. Regarding metastasis of unknown origin, a differentiation of epithelioid peritoneal malignant mesothelioma and adenocarcinoma proved to be difficult. Therefore, we discuss the diagnostic usefulness of immuno-histochemical mesothelioma markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Relapsed cervicomediastinal lymph node carcinoma with an unknown primary site treated with TS-1 alone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Toshiki; Onozato, Ryoichi; Shitara, Yoshinori; Mogi, Akira; Tanaka, Shigebumi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-27

    Cervicomediastinal lymph node carcinoma with an unknown primary site is quite rare, and useful treatment of these diseases has not been established. We report here the case of a patient successfully treated with TS-1 alone after the relapse of cervicomediastinal lymph node carcinoma with an unknown primary site. A 62-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of cervicomediastinal lymph node swelling and high serum levels of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen. Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed an accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in the left supraclavicular lymph nodes, mediastinal lymph nodes, and the pelvic cavity. Colonoscopy revealed rectal cancer, which was diagnosed by biopsy as a tubular adenocarcinoma. Because metastases from rectal cancer to the cervicomediastinal lymph nodes are rare, the patient underwent thoracoscopic mediastinal lymphadenectomy. A biopsy specimen from the paraaortic lymph nodes demonstrated papillary adenocarcinoma that was pathologically different from the rectal cancer; therefore, a diagnosis of mediastinal carcinoma with an unknown primary site was established. The patient underwent low anterior resection of the rectum for the rectal cancer, and no abdominal lymph node metastasis (pMP, N0/stage I) was found. Although radiotherapy was performed for the cervicomediastinal lymph nodes, the mediastinal carcinoma relapsed after 6 months. Because the patient desired oral chemotherapy on an outpatient basis, TS-1 was administered at a dosage of 80 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by a 1-week rest. TS-1 treatment resulted in a decrease in the size of the cervicomediastinal lymph nodes, and the serum tumor marker levels decreased to normal after the fourth course. The patient continued TS-1 treatment without adverse events and is currently alive without recurrence or identification of the primary site at the 32nd month after TS-1 treatment. This is the first reported case of

  7. Rare Primary Central Nervous System Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kubicky, Charlotte Dai; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L.; Lo, Simon S.

    2014-01-01

    There are close to 70,000 new cases of primary central nervous system tumors diagnosed annually in the United States. Meningiomas, gliomas, nerve sheath tumors and pituitary tumors account for 85% of them. There is abundant literature on these commonly occurring tumors but data from the literature on infrequently encountered tumors such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, choroid plexus carcinoma, ganglioglioma, hemangiopericytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma are limited. This review provides an overview of the clinicopathologic and therapeutic aspects of these rare primary central nervous system tumors. PMID:25276324

  8. Primary Tumor Thickness is a Prognostic Factor in Stage IV Melanoma: A Retrospective Study of Primary Tumor Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Luen, Stephen; Wong, Siew Wei; Mar, Victoria; Kelly, John W; McLean, Catriona; McArthur, Grant A; Haydon, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Stage IV melanoma exhibits a diverse range of tumor biology from indolent to aggressive disease. Many important prognostic factors have already been identified. Despite this, the behavior of metastatic melanoma remains difficult to predict. We sought to determine if any primary tumor characteristics affect survival following the diagnosis of stage IV melanoma. All patients diagnosed with stage IV melanoma between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from the Victorian Melanoma Service database. Retrospective chart review was performed to collect data on primary tumor characteristics (thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, melanoma subtype, or occult primary). Known and suspected prognostic factors were additionally collected (time to diagnosis of stage IV disease, age, sex, stage, receipt of chemotherapy, and era of recurrence). The effect of primary tumor characteristics on overall survival from the date of diagnosis of stage IV disease was assessed. A total of 227 patients with a median follow-up of 5 years from diagnosis of stage IV disease were identified. Median overall survival of the cohort was 250 days.Of the primary tumor characteristics assessed, only tumor thickness affected survival from diagnosis of stage IV disease, hazard ratio=1.09 (1.02 to 1.16), P=0.008. This remained significant in multivariate analysis, P=0.007. Other primary tumor characteristics did not significantly influence survival. Primary tumor thickness is a significant prognostic factor in stage IV melanoma. Our data suggest that the biology of the primary melanoma may persist to influence the behavior of metastatic disease.

  9. Primary bone tumors of adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Harvey E L; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2004-01-01

    Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of primary bone tumors in adults. Initial radiographic evaluation is indicated in all cases with suspected primary bone tumors. Radiographs are useful for providing the diagnosis, a short list of differential diagnosis or at least indicating the degree of aggressiveness of the lesion. More detailed information about the lesion, such as cortical destruction or local spread, can be obtained using cross-sectional imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This article discusses the characteristic features of the more common primary bone tumors of adulthood, and also the pre-treatment evaluation and staging of these lesions using imaging techniques. PMID:18250012

  10. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) treatment depends on the best determination of the primary site, if possible. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic treatment. Get detailed information about diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this summary for clinicians.

  11. Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP), treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis and treatment of CUP in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Suppression of Metastasis by Primary Tumor and Acceleration of Metastasis Following Primary Tumor Resection: A Natural Law?

    PubMed

    Hanin, Leonid; Rose, Jason

    2018-03-01

    We study metastatic cancer progression through an extremely general individual-patient mathematical model that is rooted in the contemporary understanding of the underlying biomedical processes yet is essentially free of specific biological assumptions of mechanistic nature. The model accounts for primary tumor growth and resection, shedding of metastases off the primary tumor and their selection, dormancy and growth in a given secondary site. However, functional parameters descriptive of these processes are assumed to be essentially arbitrary. In spite of such generality, the model allows for computing the distribution of site-specific sizes of detectable metastases in closed form. Under the assumption of exponential growth of metastases before and after primary tumor resection, we showed that, regardless of other model parameters and for every set of site-specific volumes of detected metastases, the model-based likelihood-maximizing scenario is always the same: complete suppression of metastatic growth before primary tumor resection followed by an abrupt growth acceleration after surgery. This scenario is commonly observed in clinical practice and is supported by a wealth of experimental and clinical studies conducted over the last 110 years. Furthermore, several biological mechanisms have been identified that could bring about suppression of metastasis by the primary tumor and accelerated vascularization and growth of metastases after primary tumor resection. To the best of our knowledge, the methodology for uncovering general biomedical principles developed in this work is new.

  13. Primary borderline parovarian tumor in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of pregnancy complicated by a primary borderline parovarian tumor. A 32-year-old pregnant woman was found to have an ovarian tumor. At 13 weeks of gestation, cystectomy was performed and a diagnosis of primary borderline parovarian tumor was made. At 38 weeks of gestation, she underwent cesarean section combined with a restaging operation. A normal infant was delivered and there were no signs of recurrence. Currently, the patient is being followed for 24 months after the initial treatment and all imaging data show no evidence of recurrence. This report includes a short review of the existing literature on this topic and documents this case in detail. This case demonstrates the appropriate procedure for evaluating and treating a primary borderline parovarian tumor during pregnancy. PMID:26623422

  14. Determination of HER2 status using both serum HER2 levels and circulating tumor cells in patients with recurrent breast cancer whose primary tumor was HER2 negative or of unknown HER2 status

    PubMed Central

    Fehm, Tanja; Becker, Sven; Duerr-Stoerzer, Silke; Sotlar, Karl; Mueller, Volkmar; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Lane, Nancy; Solomayer, Erich; Uhr, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction At the time when metastatic disease is identified, assessment of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2 status might help to optimize treatment decisions if HER2 status was not determined at first diagnosis and if HER2 positivity has been acquired during disease progression. Within this context, determination of serum HER2 or evaluation of HER2 status in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may be of clinical relevance because metastatic tissue may be difficult to obtain for analysis as a result of its localization. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the HER2 status in serum and corresponding CTCs in patients with metastatic breast cancer whose primary tumors were HER2 negative or of unknown HER2 status. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 77 metastatic breast cancer patients with negative (n = 44) or unknown (n = 33) HER2 status. Serum HER2 was determined using a commercial HER2/neu ELISA kit. CTCs were detected by slide-based assay using immunomagnetic enrichment and characterized by phenotyping and genotyping. Alternatively, a commercial kit, based on RT-PCR, was used to detect and characterize CTCs. Results Twenty out of 77 patients with metastatic disease had elevated serum levels of HER2. Blood samples could be analyzed for the presence of CTCs in 67 patients. Eight out of 21 patients with detectable CTCs exhibited HER2 amplification. Twenty-three out of 77 patients were HER2 positive using at least one method. Concordance between HER2 status of CTCs and serum HER2 was observed in 15 of 21 patients (71%). In six patients conflicting results were obtained. Three patients with elevated serum HER2 status had HER2-negative CTCs, whereas three patients with HER2-positive CTCs had normal serum HER2 levels. Conclusion A subgroup of patients with initially negative or unknown HER2 status can have elevated serum HER2 levels and/or HER2-positive CTCs at the time of development of metastatic disease. Although only a small number of

  15. Risk interrelationship among multiple primary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Mohammed; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Lifen; Zhang, Xinwei; Song, Jicheng; Ameen, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Along with advanced management in oncology, great progress has been recently achieved in the studies of multiple primary tumors. Several reports have studied the coexistence between lymphoma and either renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or Warthin tumor. However, the level of coexistence between these cases remains unclear due to the absence of a distinct link between them. Patient concerns: We present a unique case of multiple primary tumors (lymphoma, RCC, and Warthin tumor) in an 80-year-old man and a review of the literature on the coexistence of RCC with lymphoma and lymphoma with Warthin tumor. Diagnosis: With a history of RCC, the patient had a freely movable lump under his left ear, and the pathological report indicated Hodgkin lymphoma and Warthin tumor. Intervention: RCC and Warthin tumor of the patient were surgically treated, followed by 2 cycles (14 days per cycle) of Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Bleomycin 8 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1. The chemotherapy protocol was then changed to Epirubicin 40 mg day 1, Vincristine 2 mg day 1, and Dacarbazine 500 mg day 1 for 7 cycles. Outcomes: After the last day of chemotherapy, the patient showed a complete response. Lessons: To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report a case of multiple primary tumors with a complete response. For their early detection, favorable prognosis, and correlation identification, we suggest a transitive relation between these coexisting tumors. Therefore, similar studies should be conducted. PMID:29642151

  16. Primary tracheobronchial tumors in children.

    PubMed

    Varela, Patricio; Pio, Luca; Torre, Michele

    2016-06-01

    Primary tracheobronchial tumors are rare lesions that can be benign or malignant, with different location along the airway tree. Symptoms may include wheezing, chronic pneumonia, asthma, chest pain, recurrent cough, atelectasis, haemoptysis, and weight loss. Due to the heterogeneity of symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and the airway involvement can lead progressively to a bronchial or tracheal obstruction. Due to the rarity of primary tracheobronchial tumors in children, there are not any oncological guidelines on pre-operative work-up, treatment, and follow-up. Only few reports and multicentric studies are reported. In most cases, surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. Brachytherapy, endoscopic treatment, and chemotherapy are rarely described. In this article we present an overview on these rare tumors, including pathological aspects, clinical presentation, imaging assessment, and endoscopic or open surgical treatments. We discuss different surgical approaches, according with tumor location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patellar metastasis from primary tumor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Shan, Changxing; Sun, Ran; Liu, Song; Chen, Song; Song, Mingzhi; Lu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Although bone tumors are frequently located in the knee area, primary tumors of the patella are rare and patellar metastases are even rarer. Knee pain is the most common complaint of patients with patellar metastases. Owing to the low incidence of patellar metastases, misdiagnosis is not unusual. The present review analyzes ~44 cases of patellar metastases originating from distinct primary sites. Reports of malignant tumors of the lung and kidney metastasizing to the patella were more common than those of other patellar metastases. Relative incidence, symptomatology, imaging features, histopathology and treatment options for these patellar metastatic lesions are described respectively along with a review of the literature. Despite numerous experiments demonstrating the reasons for implantation of tumor in patella, the answer to this question has not yet been revealed. In the light of the increasing attention on the diagnosis and the treatment of these lesions, the availability of the integrated information regarding metastases in the patella becomes more relevant. PMID:29434829

  18. MIB-1 Index-Stratified Assessment of Dual-Tracer PET/CT with 68Ga-DOTATATE and 18F-FDG and Multimodality Anatomic Imaging in Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors of Unknown Primary in a PRRT Workup Setting.

    PubMed

    Sampathirao, Nikita; Basu, Sandip

    2017-03-01

    Our aim was to comparatively assess dual-tracer PET/CT ( 68 Ga-DOTATATE and 18 F-FDG) and multimodality anatomic imaging in studying metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of unknown primary (CUP-NETs) scheduled for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for divergence of tracer uptake on dual-tracer PET/CT, detection of primary, and overall lesion detection vis-a-vis tumor proliferation index (MIB-1/Ki-67). Methods: Fifty-one patients with CUP-NETs (25 men, 26 women; age, 22-74 y), histopathologically proven and thoroughly investigated with conventional imaging modalities (ultrasonography, CT/contrast-enhanced CT, MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound, wherever applicable), were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were primarily referred for deciding on feasibility of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (except 2 patients), and all had undergone 68 Ga-DOTATATE and 18 F-FDG PET/CT as part of pretreatment workup. The sites of metastases included liver, lung/mediastinum, skeleton, abdominal nodes, and other soft-tissue sites. Patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of MIB-1/Ki-67 index on a 5-point scale: group I (1%-5%) ( n = 35), group II (6%-10%) ( n = 8), group III (11%-15%) ( n = 4), group IV (16%-20%) ( n = 2), and group V (>20%) ( n = 2). Semiquantitative analysis of tracer uptake was undertaken by SUV max of metastatic lesions and the primary (when detected). The SUV max values were studied over increasing MIB-1/Ki-67 index. The detection sensitivity of 68 Ga-DOTATATE for primary and metastatic lesions was assessed and compared with other imaging modalities including 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Results: Unknown primary was detected on 68 Ga-DOTATATE in 31 of 51 patients, resulting in sensitivity of 60.78% whereas overall lesion detection sensitivity was 96.87%. The overall lesion detection sensitivities (individual groupwise from group I to group V) were 97.75%, 87.5%, 100%, 100%, and 66.67%, respectively. As MIB-1/Ki-67 index increased, 68 Ga-DOTATATE uptake

  19. Patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models for cancer of unknown primary precisely distinguish chemotherapy, and tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R is superior to first-line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kentaro; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Miyake, Masuyo; Kawaguchi, Kei; Yoon, Sang Nam; Zhang, Zhiying; Igarashi, Kentaro; Razmjooei, Sahar; Wangsiricharoen, Sintawat; Murakami, Takashi; Li, Yunfeng; Nelson, Scott D; Russell, Tara A; Singh, Arun S; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Momiyama, Masashi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Singh, Shree Ram; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a recalcitrant disease with poor prognosis because it lacks standard first-line therapy. CUP consists of diverse malignancy groups, making personalized precision therapy essential. The present study aimed to identify an effective therapy for a CUP patient using a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. This paper reports the usefulness of the PDOX model to precisely identify effective and ineffective chemotherapy and to compare the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R with first-line chemotherapy using the CUP PDOX model. The present study is the first to use a CUP PDOX model, which was able to precisely distinguish the chemotherapeutic course. We found that a carboplatinum (CAR)-based regimen was effective for this CUP patient. We also demonstrated that S. typhimurium A1-R was more effective against the CUP tumor than first-line chemotherapy. Our results indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R has clinical potential for CUP, a resistant disease that requires effective therapy.

  20. [Clinical significance of four quadrant localization in the diagnosis and treatment of metastatic carcinoma of the neck with unknown primary].

    PubMed

    Gao, Y Y; Chen, X H

    2017-06-05

    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of four quadrant localization in the diagnosis and treatment of unknown primary cervical metastases. Method: The clinical data with unknown primary cervical metastases, were analyzed retrospectively. All the patients have not been found the original site in the initial treatment. There are four quadrants in the neck, the neck line as the longitudinal axis, and edge of cricoid cartilage as the horizontal axis. When cervical metastasis occurred in the left and right upper quadrant, the primary tumor site and radiotherapy from the skull base to the root of the neck; when appear in left and right lower quadrant, the primary investigation site and radiotherapy from neck to thoracic mediastinum, left lower abdomen also includes following primary search. At the same time, bilateral cervical metastasis cancers, focusing on the central line near the primary focus. Specific treatment strategies include ipsilateral total neck dissection and radical radiotherapy of the above radiotherapy site. Result: Left upper neck in 4 cases, right upper neck in 5 cases, left lower neck in 7 cases, lower right neck in 8 cases and mixed area in 6 cases. Only 10 of 30 patients (33.3%) with primary sites were found in the follow up period. In accordance with the four quadrant localization, the median time was 6 months. Conclusion: Four quadrant localization to locate the primary site is accurate, and individualized comprehensive treatment is the key to improve the curative effect. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of using a gene expression profiling test to aid in identifying the primary tumour in patients with cancer of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Hannouf, M B; Winquist, E; Mahmud, S M; Brackstone, M; Sarma, S; Rodrigues, G; Rogan, P; Hoch, J S; Zaric, G S

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of a 2000-gene-expression profiling (GEP) test to help identify the primary tumor site when clinicopathological diagnostic evaluation was inconclusive in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). We built a decision-analytic-model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of different clinical management strategies for CUP. The model was parameterized using follow-up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba Health administrative databases and secondary sources. The 2000-GEP-based strategy compared to current clinical practice resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $44,151 per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. The total annual-budget impact was $36.2 million per year. A value-of-information analysis revealed that the expected value of perfect information about the test's clinical impact was $4.2 million per year. The 2000-GEP test should be considered for adoption in CUP. Field evaluations of the test are associated with a large societal benefit.

  2. Sudden suffocation with cancer of unknown primary: a case report and review of diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Omid S; Ahmad, Omar; Vypritskaya, Ekaterina; Chen, Emily; Hasan, Saba

    2012-10-01

    A case of a 31-year-old woman with sudden respiratory distress is presented. Preliminary evaluations and imaging studies did not reveal the underlying cause. Workup during hospital stay showed advanced metastatic cancer of unknown primary origin. This is an unusual presentation of cancer of an unknown primary involving the thyroid with sudden suffocation. It suggests that malignancies involving the thyroid gland should be considered in patients with abrupt onset of respiratory distress. Also, this case shows the application of fine needle aspiration in diffuse thyroid enlargements mimicking thyroiditis without nodules. Diagnostic approach to cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is reviewed in further detail.

  3. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from unknown head-and-neck primary site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center outcomes and patterns of failure.

    PubMed

    Frank, Steven J; Rosenthal, David I; Petsuksiri, Janjira; Ang, K Kian; Morrison, William H; Weber, Randal S; Glisson, Bonnie S; Chao, K S Clifford; Schwartz, David L; Chronowski, Gregory M; El-Naggar, Adel K; Garden, Adam S

    2010-11-15

    Conventional therapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown primary can cause considerable toxicity owing to the volume of tissues to be irradiated. In the present study, hypothesizing that using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would provide effective treatment with minimal toxicity, we reviewed the outcomes and patterns of failure for head-and-neck unknown primary cancer at a single tertiary cancer center. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 52 patients who had undergone IMRT for an unknown primary at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1998 and 2005. The patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and the survival rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of the 52 patients, 5 presented with Stage N1, 11 with Stage N2a, 23 with Stage N2b, 6 with Stage N2c, 4 with Stage N3, and 3 with Stage Nx disease. A total of 26 patients had undergone neck dissection, 13 before and 13 after IMRT; 14 patients had undergone excisional biopsy and presented for IMRT without evidence of disease. Finally, 14 patients had received systemic chemotherapy. All patients underwent IMRT to targets on both sides of the neck and pharyngeal axis. The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 3.7 years. The 5-year actuarial rate of primary mucosal tumor control and regional control was 98% and 94%, respectively. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis with locoregional control. The 5-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively. The most severe toxicity was Grade 3 dysphagia/esophageal stricture, experienced by 2 patients. The results of our study have shown that IMRT can produce excellent outcomes for patients who present with cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown head-and-neck primary tumor. Severe late complications were uncommon. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Node Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastases From Unknown Head-and-Neck Primary Site: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Outcomes and Patterns of Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J., E-mail: sjfrank@mdanderson.or; Rosenthal, David I.; Petsuksiri, Janjira

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional therapy for cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown primary can cause considerable toxicity owing to the volume of tissues to be irradiated. In the present study, hypothesizing that using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) would provide effective treatment with minimal toxicity, we reviewed the outcomes and patterns of failure for head-and-neck unknown primary cancer at a single tertiary cancer center. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 52 patients who had undergone IMRT for an unknown primary at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1998 and 2005. The patient and treatment characteristics were extracted and themore » survival rates calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Of the 52 patients, 5 presented with Stage N1, 11 with Stage N2a, 23 with Stage N2b, 6 with Stage N2c, 4 with Stage N3, and 3 with Stage Nx disease. A total of 26 patients had undergone neck dissection, 13 before and 13 after IMRT; 14 patients had undergone excisional biopsy and presented for IMRT without evidence of disease. Finally, 14 patients had received systemic chemotherapy. All patients underwent IMRT to targets on both sides of the neck and pharyngeal axis. The median follow-up time for the surviving patients was 3.7 years. The 5-year actuarial rate of primary mucosal tumor control and regional control was 98% and 94%, respectively. Only 3 patients developed distant metastasis with locoregional control. The 5-year actuarial disease-free and overall survival rate was 88% and 89%, respectively. The most severe toxicity was Grade 3 dysphagia/esophageal stricture, experienced by 2 patients. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that IMRT can produce excellent outcomes for patients who present with cervical node squamous cell carcinoma metastases from an unknown head-and-neck primary tumor. Severe late complications were uncommon.« less

  5. Metastatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Unknown Origin Arising in the Femoral Nerve Sheath.

    PubMed

    Candy, Nicholas; Young, Adam; Allinson, Kieren; Carr, Oliver; McMillen, Jason; Trivedi, Rikin

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin is a rare condition, usually presenting with lesions in the liver and/or lung. We present the first reported case of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin arising in the femoral nerve sheath. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated what was thought to be a schwannoma in the left femoral nerve sheath in the proximal femoral triangle, immediately inferior to the anterior inferior iliac spine. At the time of operation, the tumor capsule was invading surrounding tissue, as well as three trunks of the femoral nerve. The patient underwent a subtotal resection, preserving the integrity of the residual functioning femoral nerve trunks. Histologic evaluation determined that the tumor had features consistent with a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown primary origin. The patient recovered well postoperatively, and subsequent radiologic evaluation failed to demonstrate a potential primary site. Unfortunately, the patient re-presented with disease progression and was subsequently referred to palliative care. We recommend that there is a definite role for surgery in the management of solitary neuroendocrine carcinoma of unknown origin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Local tumor control probability modeling of primary and secondary lung tumors in stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Klement, Rainer J; Allgäuer, Michael; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Blanck, Oliver; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Dieckmann, Karin; Duma, Marciana; Ernst, Iris; Ganswindt, Ute; Hass, Peter; Henkenberens, Christoph; Holy, Richard; Imhoff, Detlef; Kahl, Henning K; Krempien, Robert; Lohaus, Fabian; Nestle, Ursula; Nevinny-Stickel, Meinhard; Petersen, Cordula; Semrau, Sabine; Streblow, Jan; Wendt, Thomas G; Wittig, Andrea; Flentje, Michael; Sterzing, Florian

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate whether local tumor control probability (TCP) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) varies between lung metastases of different primary cancer sites and between primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and secondary lung tumors. A retrospective multi-institutional (n=22) database of 399 patients with stage I NSCLC and 397 patients with 525 lung metastases was analyzed. Irradiation doses were converted to biologically effective doses (BED). Logistic regression was used for local tumor control probability (TCP) modeling and the second-order bias corrected Akaike Information Criterion was used for model comparison. After median follow-up of 19 months and 16 months (n.s.), local tumor control was observed in 87.7% and 86.7% of the primary and secondary lung tumors (n.s.), respectively. A strong dose-response relationship was observed in the primary NSCLC and metastatic cohort but dose-response relationships were not significantly different: the TCD90 (dose to achieve 90% TCP; BED of maximum planning target volume dose) estimates were 176 Gy (151-223) and 160 Gy (123-237) (n.s.), respectively. The dose-response relationship was not influenced by the primary cancer site within the metastatic cohort. Dose-response relationships for local tumor control in SBRT were not different between lung metastases of various primary cancer sites and between primary NSCLC and lung metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known, DOL...

  8. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known, DOL...

  9. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known, DOL...

  10. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known, DOL...

  11. 42 CFR 81.23 - Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is... Estimate Probability of Causation § 81.23 Guidelines for cancers for which primary site is unknown. (a) In claims for which the primary cancer site cannot be determined, but a site of metastasis is known, DOL...

  12. Metastatic brain tumor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brain, the type of tissue involved, the original location of the tumor, and other factors. In rare cases, doctors do not know the original location. This is called cancer of unknown primary ( ...

  13. Bone metastases of unknown origin: epidemiology and principles of management.

    PubMed

    Piccioli, Andrea; Maccauro, Giulio; Spinelli, Maria Silvia; Biagini, Roberto; Rossi, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Metastases are the most common malignancies involving bone; breast, prostate, lung and thyroid are the main sites of primary cancer. However, up to 30 % of patients present with bone metastases of unknown origin, where the site of the primary neoplasm cannot be identified at the time of diagnosis despite a thorough history, physical examination, appropriate laboratory testing and modern imaging technology (CT, MRI, PET). Sometimes only extensive histopathological investigations on bone specimens from biopsy can suggest the primary malignancy. At other times, a bone lesion can have such a highly undifferentiated histological appearance that a precise pathological classification on routine hematoxylin-eosin-stained section is not possible. The authors reviewed the relevant literature in an attempt to investigate the epidemiology of the histological primaries finally identified in patients with bone metastases from occult cancer, and a strategy of management and treatment of bone metastases from occult carcinomas is suggested. Lung, liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract are common sites for primary occult tumors. Adenocarcinoma is the main histological type, accounting for 70 % of all cases, while undifferentiated cancer accounts for 20 %. Over the past 30 years, lung cancer is the main causative occult primary for bone metastases and has a poor prognosis with an average survival of 4-8 months. Most relevant literature focuses on the need for standardized diagnostic workup, as surgery for bone lesions should be aggressive only when they are solitary and/or the occult primaries have a good prognosis; in these cases, identification of the primary tumor may be important and warrants special diagnostic efforts. However, in most cases, the primary site remains unknown, even after autopsy. Thus, orthopedic surgery has a mainly palliative role in preventing or stabilizing pathological fractures, relieving pain and facilitating the care of the patient in an attempt

  14. Metastatic thyroid carcinoma without identifiable primary tumor within the thyroid gland: a retrospective study of a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Cohen, Perry R; Prasad, Manju L; Hasanovic, Adnan; Tuttle, Robert Michael; Katabi, Nora; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2017-07-01

    Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) without an identifiable primary tumor despite extensive microscopic examination of the thyroid gland is a rare but true phenomenon.We retrieved 7 of such cases and described in detail the clinical and pathologic features of these tumors. BRAF V600E immunohistochemistry and Sequenom molecular profile were conducted in selected cases. All patients harbored metastatic disease in the central (n=3), lateral (n=3), or both neck compartments (n=1). The histotype of the metastatic disease was PTC (n=5), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC columnar variant (n=1), and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in association with a PTC tall cell variant (n=1). Fibrosis was present in the thyroid of 5 patients. All patients with PTC were alive without evidence of recurrence. The 76-year-old patient with poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma did not recur and died of unknown causes. Finally, the patient with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma was alive with distant metastasis at last follow-up. The median follow-up for this cohort was 2.2years (range, 0.8-17). BRAF V600E was detected in 4 of 6 cases by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, metastatic nodal disease without identifiable thyroid primary is a rare but real phenomenon of unknown mechanisms. Although most tumors are low grade and well differentiated, aggressive behavior due to poorly differentiated or anaplastic carcinoma can happen. Most cases are BRAF V600E -positive thyroid tumors. A papillary carcinoma phenotype is found in all reported cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Switching benchmarks in cancer of unknown primary: from autopsy to microarray.

    PubMed

    Pentheroudakis, George; Golfinopoulos, Vassilios; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2007-09-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is associated with unknown biology and dismal prognosis. Information on the primary site of origin is scant and has never been analysed. We systematically reviewed all published evidence on the CUP primary site identified by two different approaches, either autopsy or microarray gene expression profiling. Published reports on identification of CUP primary site by autopsy or microarray-based multigene expression platforms were retrieved and analysed for year of publication, primary site, patient age, gender, histology, rate of primary identification, manifestations and metastatic deposits, microarray chip technology, training and validation sets, mathematical modelling, classification accuracy and number of classifying genes. From 1944 to 2000, a total of 884 CUP patients (66% males) underwent autopsy in 12 studies after presenting with metastatic or systemic symptoms and succumbing to their disease. A primary was identified in 644 (73%) of them, mostly in the lung (27%), pancreas (24%), hepatobiliary tree (8%), kidneys (8%), bowel, genital system and stomach, as a small focus of adenocarcinoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma. An unpredictable systemic dissemination was evident with high frequency of lung (46%), nodal (35%), bone (17%), brain (16%) and uncommon (18%) deposits. Between the 1944-1980 and the 1980-2000 series, female representation increased, 'undetermined neoplasm' diagnosis became rarer, pancreatic primaries were found less often while colonic ones were identified more frequently. Four studies using microarray technology profiled more than 500 CUP cases using classifier set of genes (ranging from 10 to 495) and reported strikingly dissimilar frequencies of assigned primary sites (lung 11.5%, pancreas 12.5%, bowel 12%, breast 15%, hepatobiliary tree 8%, kidneys 6%, genital system 9%, bladder 5%) in 75-90% of the cases. Evolution in medical imaging technology, diet and lifestyle habits probably account for changing

  16. Neuroendocrine Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site: management and outcomes of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Kotteas, E A; Pavlidis, N

    2015-04-01

    Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary (MCCUP) is a rare neuroendocrine tumour with distinct clinical and biological behaviour. We conducted a review of retrospective data extracted from 90 patients focusing on the management and outcome of this disease. We also compared life expectancy of these patients with the outcome of patients with known Merkel primaries and with neuroendocrine cancers of unidentifiable primary. There is a limited body of data for this type of malignancy, however, patients with Merkel cell nodal carcinoma of unknown primary site, seem to have better survival when treated aggressively than patients with cutaneous Merkel tumours of the same stage and equal survival with patients with low-grade neuroendocrine tumour of unknown origin. The lack of prospective trials, and the inadequate data, hamper the management of these tumours. Establishment of treatment guidelines is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in Primary Hepatic Neuroendocrine Tumor.

    PubMed

    Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Basher, Rajender Kumar; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bal, Amanjit; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2017-02-01

    Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the liver are a diagnostic challenge. We present a rare case of primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor in which Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging played an important role in the diagnosis and follow-up.

  18. Episodic Memory Impairments in Primary Brain Tumor Patients.

    PubMed

    Durand, Thomas; Berzero, Giulia; Bompaire, Flavie; Hoffmann, Sabine; Léger, Isabelle; Jego, Virginie; Baruteau, Marie; Delgadillo, Daniel; Taillia, Hervé; Psimaras, Dimitri; Ricard, Damien

    2018-01-04

    Cognitive investigations in brain tumor patients have mostly explored episodic memory without differentiating between encoding, storage, and retrieval deficits. The aim of this study is to offer insight into the memory sub-processes affected in primary brain tumor patients and propose an appropriate assessment method. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and memory assessments of 158 patients with primary brain tumors who had presented to our departments with cognitive complaints and were investigated using the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test. Retrieval was the process of episodic memory most frequently affected, with deficits in this domain detected in 92% of patients with episodic memory impairments. Storage and encoding deficits were less prevalent, with impairments, respectively, detected in 41% and 23% of memory-impaired patients. The pattern of episodic memory impairment was similar across different tumor histologies and treatment modalities. Although all processes of episodic memory were found to be impaired, retrieval was by far the most widely affected function. A thorough assessment of all three components of episodic memory should be part of the regular neuropsychological evaluation in patients with primary brain tumors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Primary benign brachial plexus tumors: an experience of 115 operated cases.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ketan I

    2012-01-01

    Primary benign brachial plexus tumors are rare. They pose a great challenge to the neurosurgeon, because the majority of patients present with minimal or no neurological deficits. Radical to complete excision of the tumor with preservation of neurological function of the involved nerve is an ideal surgical treatment option with benign primary brachial plexus tumor surgery. We present a review article of our 10-year experience with primary benign brachial plexus tumors surgically treated at King Edward Memorial Hospital and P.D. Hinduja National Hospital from 2000 to 2009. The clinical presentations, radiological features, surgical strategies, and the eventual outcome following surgery are analyzed, discussed, and compared with available series in the world literature. Various difficulties and problems faced in the management of primary benign brachial plexus tumors are analyzed. Irrespective of the tumor size, the indications for surgical intervention are also discussed. The goal of our study was to optimize the treatment of patients with benign brachial plexus tumors with minimal neurological deficits. It is of paramount importance that brachial plexus tumors be managed by a peripheral nerve surgeon with expertise and experience in this field to minimize the neurological insult following surgery.

  20. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  1. Promotion of Tumor-Initiating Cells in Primary and Recurrent Breast Tumors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    confer stemness . We hypothesize that inhibition of IKK/NF-κB will reduce or eliminate breast camcer TICs, blocking tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we...Korkaya H, Liu S, Wicha MS. Breast cancer stem cells, cytokine networks, and the tumor microenvironment. J Clin Invest. 2011 Oct;121(10):3804-9. Review...cells and sub- population of cells termed cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells (TICs).1 The primary characteristic of TICs is their ability to

  2. Primary malignant small bowel tumors: an atypical abdominal emergency.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, K. J.; Williams, E. S.; Leffall, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon in the United States. They comprise less than 1% of all gastrointestinal malignancies, with an incidence of 2200 cases per year. The clinical presentation of small bowel tumors is frequently insidious and often overlooked by physicians. The low incidence and lack of pathognomonic symptoms are the reasons that the early diagnosis of malignant small bowel tumor is uncommon. To better understand the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management, and outcome, a review of Howard University patients with primary malignant small bowel tumors between 1970 and 1990 was conducted. Our experience concurs with the reported literature and supports the conclusion that a high index of suspicion is necessary. The diagnosis of a malignant small bowel tumor should be considered in patients with vague chronic abdominal complaints. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7752280

  3. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy of patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Newton, H B; Turowski, R C; Stroup, T J; McCoy, L K

    1999-01-01

    To briefly review the clinical presentation and diagnosis of patients with primary brain tumors, followed by an in-depth survey of the pertinent pharmacotherapy. A detailed search of the neurologic, neurosurgical, and oncologic literature for basic science research, clinical studies, and review articles related to chemotherapy and pharmacotherapy of primary brain tumors. Relevant studies on tissue culture systems, animals, and humans examining the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical pharmacology, and treatment results of chemotherapeutic agents for primary brain tumors. In addition, studies of pharmacologic agents administered for supportive care and symptom control are reviewed. Primary brain tumors derive from cells within the intracranial cavity and generally present with headache, seizure activity, cognitive changes, and weakness. They are diagnosed most efficiently with magnetic resonance imaging. After diagnosis, the most common supportive medications include corticosteroids, gastric acid inhibitors, and anticonvulsants. Chemotherapy is adjunctive treatment for patients with malignant tumors and selected recurrent or progressive benign neoplasms. In general, the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs are alkylating agents such as the nitrosoureas, procarbazine, cisplatin, and carboplatin. Other agents used include cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, vincristine, and etoposide. Angiogenesis inhibitors and gene therapy comprise some of the novel therapeutic strategies under investigation. The efficacy of chemotherapy for primary brain tumors remains modest. Novel agents must be discovered that are more specific and attack tumor cells at the molecular level of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, strategies must be developed to counteract the pervasive problem of brain tumor chemoresistance.

  4. Putative lung adenocarcinoma with epidermal growth factor receptor mutation presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary site

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Masahiro; Funaishi, Kunihiko; Saito, Naomi; Sakano, Ayaka; Fujihara, Megumu; Daido, Wakako; Ishiyama, Sayaka; Deguchi, Naoko; Taniwaki, Masaya; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Noboru

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Only a few cases of putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation have been reported, and the efficacy of EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for these cases is unclear. Patient concerns and diagnoses: A 67-year-old man complained of paresis of the right lower extremity, dysarthria, and memory disturbance. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple brain tumors with brain edema and swelling of the left supraclavicular, mediastinal, and upper abdominal lymph nodes. Moreover, a metastatic duodenal tumor was detected via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination. The biopsy specimen of the lesion was examined and was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma with CK7 and TTF-1 positivity. Finally, the case was diagnosed as EGFR mutation-positive putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as CUP. Interventions and outcomes: Oral erlotinib, an EGFR-TKI, was administered at 150 mg daily. Five weeks later, the brain lesions and several swollen lymph nodes showed marked improvement, and the symptoms of the patient also improved. Three months later, the duodenal lesion was undetected on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. After an 8-month follow-up, the patient was well with no disease progression. Lessons: Putative lung adenocarcinoma presenting as CUP may have EGFR mutation, and EGFR-TKI therapy may be effective for such malignancy. PMID:29443782

  5. Prognostic factors for head and neck cancer of unknown primary including the impact of human papilloma virus infection.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Lars; Nyman, Jan; Haugen-Cange, Hedda; Bove, Mogens; Johansson, Leif; De Lara, Shahin; Kovács, Anikó; Hammerlid, Eva

    2017-06-10

    Head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) is rare and prospective studies are lacking. The impact of different prognostic factors such as age and N stage is not completely known, the optimal treatment is not yet established, and the reported survival rates vary. In the last decade, human papilloma virus (HPV) has been identified as a common cause of and important prognostic factor in oropharyngeal cancer, and there is now growing interest in the importance of HPV for HNCUP. The aim of the present study on curatively treated HNCUP was to investigate the prognostic importance of different factors, including HPV status, treatment, and overall survival. A search for HNCUP was performed in the Swedish Cancer Registry, Western health district, between the years 1992-2009. The medical records were reviewed, and only patients with squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma treated with curative intent were included. The tumor specimens were retrospectively analyzed for HPV with p16 immunostaining. Sixty-eight patients were included. The mean age was 59 years. The majority were males, and had N2 tumors. Sixty-nine percent of the tumors were HPV positive using p16 staining. Patients who were older than 70 years, patients with N3-stage tumors, and patients with tumors that were p16 negative had a significantly worse prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with p16-positive tumors was 88% vs 61% for p16-negative tumors. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or (chemo) radiation had 81 and 88% 5-year survival rates, respectively. The overall and disease-free 5-year survival rates for all patients in the study were 82 and 74%. Curatively treated HNCUP had good survival. HPV infection was common. Independent prognostic factors for survival were age over 70 years, HPV status and N3 stage. We recommend that HPV analysis should be performed routinely for HNCUP. Treatment with neck dissection and postoperative radiation or

  6. [The study of gene mutations in unknown refractory viral infection and primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Tong, Chun-Rong; Liu, Hong-Xing; Xie, Jian-Jun; Wang, Fang; Cai, Peng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Juan; Teng, Wen; Zhang, Xian; Yang, Jun-Fang; Zhang, Ya-Li; Fei, Xin-Hong; Zhao, Jie; Yin, Yu-Ming; Wu, Tong; Wang, Jing-Bo; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Rong; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Lu, Dao-Pei

    2011-04-01

    To study the type and corresponding clinical characteristics of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) associated immune gene mutations in the refractory virus infection or HLH of unknown causes. From December 2009 to July 2010, the patients with refractory virus infection or HLH of unknown causes were screened for the primary HLH associated immune genes mutations by DNA sequence analysis, including PRF1, UNC13D, STX11, STXBP2, SH2D1A and XIAP. The clinical characteristics and outcomes were followed up. Totally 25 patients with refractory virus infection or HLH of unknown causes were investigated for the 6 genes and 13 cases were found carrying gene mutations, composing of 6 of PRF1 mutation, 3 of UNC13D, and each one of STX11, XIAP, SH2D1A and STXBP2, respectively. Among the 13 cases with gene mutations, 5 suffered from Epstein-Barr virus associated HLH (EBV-HLH), 1 human herpes virus 7 associated HLH (HHV7-HLH), 1 HLH without causes, 4 chronic activated EB virus infection (CAEBV) with 1 progressing to Hodgkin's lymphoma carrying abnormal chromosome of t(15;17) (q22;q25) and hyperdiploid, 2 EBV associated lymphoma. Among the other 12 patients without gene mutation, 4 suffered from EBV-HLH with 1 progressing to peripheral T lymphoma, 8 suffered from CAEBV. Primary HLH associated immune gene mutations are critical causes of refractory virus infection of unknown causes, most patients manifest as HLH, some cases appear in CAEBV and EBV associated lymphoma. DNA sequence analysis is helpful to early diagnosis and correct decision-making for treatment.

  7. Systemic treatment and primary tumor location in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Efstathios; Andreatos, Nikolaos; Margonis, Georgios A; Papalois, Apostolos; Wang, Jaeyun; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Buettner, Stefan; Deshwar, Amar; Pappas, Vasilios; Weiss, Matthew J; Pawlik, Timothy M; Pikoulis, Emmanouel

    2017-01-01

    Tumor location (right-sided vs. left-sided) is known to exert a significant influence on the prognosis of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). Given the genetic continuity between primary and metastatic lesions, we aimed to summarize the existing literature on the prognostic implications of primary tumor site as well as to examine the response to chemotherapy by primary tumor location in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). A structured review of the literature was performed between 6/1/2016-7/1/2016 using the Pubmed database. Original research articles published between 1/1/2000- 07/01/2016 were considered eligible. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS)/ progression free survival (PFS) and response to systemic treatment in patients with mCRC. Eleven studies were included. Tumor site was a strong independent predictor of worse OS/PFS in 9 studies, with right-sided tumors having worse prognosis in all cases. Furthermore, 6 studies demonstrated an inferior response to systemic treatment or worse prognosis following the administration of specific regimens among patients with right-sided cancers. As such, there is significant evidence that right-sided lesions are associated with poor outcomes and resistance to systemic treatment. Consequently, primary tumor location should be a consideration, when the administration of systemic therapy is contemplated in mCRC.

  8. Shared liver-like transcriptional characteristics in liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jun; Song, Xuekun; Ao, Lu; Chen, Rou; Chi, Meirong; Guo, You; Zhang, Jiahui; Li, Hongdong; Zhao, Wenyuan; Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xianlong

    2018-01-01

    Background & Aims : Primary tumors of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with liver metastasis might gain some liver-specific characteristics to adapt the liver micro-environment. This study aims to reveal potential liver-like transcriptional characteristics associated with the liver metastasis in primary colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Among the genes up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified "liver-specific" genes whose expression levels ranked among the bottom 10% ("unexpressed") of all measured genes in both normal colorectal tissues and primary colorectal tumors without metastasis. These liver-specific genes were investigated for their expressions in both the primary tumors and the corresponding liver metastases of seven primary CRC patients with liver metastasis using microdissected samples. Results: Among the 3958 genes detected to be up-regulated in normal liver tissues versus normal colorectal tissues, we identified 12 liver-specific genes and found two of them, ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 , were unexpressed in microdissected primary colorectal tumors without metastasis but expressed in both microdissected liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05). Genes co-expressed with ANGPTL3 and CFHR5 were significantly enriched in metabolism pathways characterizing liver tissues, including "starch and sucrose metabolism" and "drug metabolism-cytochrome P450". Conclusions: For primary CRC with liver metastasis, both the liver metastases and corresponding primary colorectal tumors may express some liver-specific genes which may help the tumor cells adapt the liver micro-environment.

  9. ESR1 methylation in primary tumors and paired circulating tumor DNA of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastoraki, Sophia; Buderath, Paul; Strati, Areti; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2018-05-25

    Estrogen receptor, coded by the ESR1 gene, is highly expressed in epithelial ovarian cancer. ESR1 gene is frequently methylated in many types of gynecological malignancies. However, only a few studies attempted to investigate the role of ESR1 methylation and its clinical significance in ovarian cancer so far. The aim of our study was to examine ESR1 methylation status in primary tumors and corresponding circulating tumor DNA of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). ESR1 methylation was detected by a highly specific and sensitive real-time methylation-specific PCR assay. Two groups of HGSC samples were analyzed: group A (n = 66 primary tumors) and group B (n = 53 primary tumors and 50 corresponding plasma samples). ESR1 was found methylated in both groups of primary tumors: in 32/66 (48.5%) of group A and in 15/53 (28.3%) of group B. 19/50 (38.0%) corresponding plasma samples of group B were also methylated for ESR1. A significant agreement for ESR1 methylation was observed between primary tumors and paired plasma ctDNA samples (P = 0.004). Interestingly, the presence of ESR1 methylation in primary tumor samples of group B was significantly correlated with a better overall survival (P = 0.027) and progression-free survival (P = 0.041). We report for the first time the presence of ESR1 methylation in plasma ctDNA of patients with HGSC. The agreement between ESR1 methylation in primary tumors and paired ctDNA is statistically significant. Our results indicate a correlation between the presence of ESR1 methylation and a better clinical outcome in HGSC patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcomes After Surgical Resection of Primary Non-Myxoma Cardiac Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Boyacıoğlu, Kamil; Ak, Adnan; Dönmez, Arzu Antal; Çayhan, Burçin; Aksüt, Mehmet; Tunçer, Mehmet Altuğ

    2018-01-01

    Objective Primary cardiac tumors are rare lesions with different histological type. We reviewed our 17 years of experience in the surgical treatment and clinical results of primary non-myxoma cardiac tumors. Methods Between July 2000 and February 2017, 21 patients with primary cardiac tumor were surgically treated in our institution. The tumors were categorized as benign non-myxomas and malignants. Data including the demographic characteristics, details of the tumor histology and grading, cardiac medical and surgical history, surgical procedure of the patients were obtained from the hospital database. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with benign non-myxoma tumor (male/female:7/4), ranging in age from 10 days to 74 years (mean age 30.9±26.5 years). Papillary fibroelastoma was the most frequent type (63.6%). There were two early deaths in benign group (all were rhabdomyoma), and mortality rate was 18%. The mean follow-up period was 69.3±58.7 months (range, 3 to 178 months). All survivals in benign group were free of tumor-related symptoms and tumor relapses. Ten patients were diagnosed with malignant tumor (sarcoma/lymphoma:8/2, male/female:3/7), ranging in age from 14 years to 73 years (mean age 44.7±18.9 years). Total resection could be done in only three (30%) patients. The mean follow-up period was 18.7±24.8 months (range, 0-78 months). Six patients died in the first 10 months. Conclusion Complete resection of the cardiac tumors, whenever possible, is the main goal of surgery. Surgical resection of benign cardiac tumors is safe, usually curative and provides excellent long-term prognosis. On the contrary, malignant cardiac tumors still remain highly lethal. PMID:29898146

  11. [Gastrointestinal stromal tumor with primary hepatic unique location--clinical case].

    PubMed

    Alecu, L; Tulin, A; Ursut, Beatrice; Ursut, B; Oproiu, Al; Obrocea, F; Ionescu, M

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors whose primary extradigestive location is very rare (less than 10% primary liver localization). We present a clinical case of primary hepatic location of GIST in a 28 year-old patient. The discovery of this tumor is a chance, the patient presenting for non-specific dyspeptic syndrome and epigastralgia. During the presentation an abdominal ultrasound is performed which identifies an whell-delineated hepatic mass - 5/4 cm. Clinical and paraclinical investigations (CT, EDS, EDI, examination of the intestinal lumen with the videocapsula), confirm the diagnosis of unique hepatic mass of segments III-IV. The diagnosis is confirmed intraoperatory and we perform an atypical liver resection of segments III-IV (with 1 cm safety-margin). The histopatologic exam: GIST.

  12. A case of metastatic lobular breast carcinoma with detection of the primary tumor after ten years.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Adachi, Shiro; Matsuda, Yasuki; Tominaga, Syusei

    2007-01-01

    Lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to metastasize to unusual sites such as the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, and gynecologic organs. We report a patient with intraperitoneal metastases from lobular carcinoma who was originally treated for an unknown primary cancer. Ten years later, a tumor was found in her left breast and the diagnosis was changed to peritoneal metastases from invasive lobular carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the metastases were high molecular weight cytokeratin (CK34betaE12) and estrogen receptor-positive, but were E-cadherin-negative. These results assisted in diagnosis. Surgeons should be aware of the characteristics of metastasis lobular carcinoma.

  13. Strategy in the Surgical Treatment of Primary Spinal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Foote, Matthew; Deverall, Hamish

    2012-01-01

    Primary spine tumors are rare, accounting for only 4% of all tumors of the spine. A minority of the more common primary benign lesions will require surgical treatment, and most amenable malignant lesions will proceed to attempted resection. The rarity of malignant primary lesions has resulted in a paucity of historical data regarding optimal surgical and adjuvant treatment and, although we now derive benefit from standardized guidelines of overall care, management of each neoplasm often proceeds on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the individual characteristics of patient operability, tumor resectability, and biological potential. This article aims to provide an overview of diagnostic techniques, staging algorithms and the authors' experience of surgical treatment alternatives that have been employed in the care of selected benign and malignant lesions. Although broadly a review of contemporary management, it is hoped that the case illustrations given will serve as additional “arrows in the quiver” of the treating surgeon. PMID:24353976

  14. Transferrin receptor 1 upregulation in primary tumor and downregulation in benign kidney is associated with progression and mortality in renal cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Christopher J.; Attwood, Kristopher; Sharma, Nitika J.; Gross, Kenneth W.; Smith, Gary J.; Xu, Bo; Kauffman, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    The central dysregulated pathway of clear cell (cc) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the von Hippel Lindau/hypoxia inducible factor-α axis, is a key regulator of intracellular iron levels, however the role of iron uptake in human RCC tumorigenesis and progression remains unknown. We conducted a thorough, large-scale investigation of the expression and prognostic significance of the primary iron uptake protein, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1/CD71/TFRC), in RCC patients. TfR1 immunohistochemistry was performed in over 1500 cores from 574 renal cell tumor patient tissues (primary tumors, matched benign kidneys, metastases) and non-neoplastic tissues from 36 different body sites. TfR1 levels in RCC tumors, particularly ccRCC, were significantly associated with adverse clinical prognostic features (anemia, lower body mass index, smoking), worse tumor pathology (size, stage, grade, multifocality, sarcomatoid dedifferentiation) and worse survival outcomes, including after adjustments for tumor pathology. Highest TfR1 tissue levels in the non-gravid body were detected in benign renal tubule epithelium. Opposite to TfR1 changes in the primary tumor, TfR1 levels in benign kidney dropped during tumor progression and were inversely associated with worse survival outcomes, independent of tumor pathology. Quantitative measurement of TfR1 subcellular localization in cell lines demonstrated mixed cytoplasmic and membranous expression with increased TfR1 in clusters in ccRCC versus benign renal cell lines. Results of this study support an important role for TfR1 in RCC progression and identify TfR1 as a novel RCC biomarker and therapeutic target. PMID:29291011

  15. Pancreatic islet cell tumor metastasis in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: correlation with primary tumor size.

    PubMed

    Lowney, J K; Frisella, M M; Lairmore, T C; Doherty, G M

    1998-12-01

    Islet cell tumor (ICT) metastasis is one of the potentially lethal outcomes of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Management of ICT in patients with MEN 1 is controversial; some advocate resection based on biochemical evidence of progression, whereas others use tumor size to predict the risk of metastasis and the need for resection. This study correlates the size of primary ICT with the presence of metastases. Forty-eight patients with MEN 1 with ICT, from 34 kindreds followed up in our multiple endocrine neoplasia program, were evaluated; 43 of the 48 have been explored for ICT. Metastases to the lymph nodes and liver were documented. Thirty-three percent of patients with pancreatic tumors less than 1 cm in greatest diameter had metastatic disease at surgery and in follow-up, whereas 34.8% of patients with tumors greater than 2 cm in diameter had metastases to lymph nodes or liver. The 2 patients with liver metastases each had primary tumors greater than 2 cm. Follow-up revealed subsequent metastasis in 1 patient. The size of primary tumors in MEN 1 does not correlate with metastatic potential. This is not a good criterion for exploration. Continued follow-up of these patients will be necessary to define the effect of operation on the course of ICT in MEN 1.

  16. Expression Profiling of Primary and Metastatic Ovarian Tumors Reveals Differences Indicative of Aggressive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Alexander S.; Fischer, Andrew; Miller, Daniel H.; Vang, Souriya; MacLaughlan, Shannon; Wu, Hsin-Ta; Yu, Jovian; Steinhoff, Margaret; Collins, Colin; Smith, Peter J. S.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Brard, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and genetics of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) metastasis, the form of the disease lethal to patients, is poorly understood. The unique properties of metastases are critical to understand to improve treatments of the disease that remains in patients after debulking surgery. We sought to identify the genetic and phenotypic landscape of metastatic progression of EOC to understand how metastases compare to primary tumors. DNA copy number and mRNA expression differences between matched primary human tumors and omental metastases, collected at the same time during debulking surgery before chemotherapy, were measured using microarrays. qPCR and immunohistochemistry validated findings. Pathway analysis of mRNA expression revealed metastatic cancer cells are more proliferative and less apoptotic than primary tumors, perhaps explaining the aggressive nature of these lesions. Most cases had copy number aberrations (CNAs) that differed between primary and metastatic tumors, but we did not detect CNAs that are recurrent across cases. A six gene expression signature distinguishes primary from metastatic tumors and predicts overall survival in independent datasets. The genetic differences between primary and metastatic tumors, yet common expression changes, suggest that the major clone in metastases is not the same as in primary tumors, but the cancer cells adapt to the omentum similarly. Together, these data highlight how ovarian tumors develop into a distinct, more aggressive metastatic state that should be considered for therapy development. PMID:24732363

  17. Clinical significance of tumor cavitation in surgically resected early-stage primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Shigeki; Ohara, Shuta; Fujino, Toshio; Nishino, Masaya; Sesumi, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Katsuaki; Chiba, Masato; Shimoji, Masaki; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2017-10-01

    The prognostic impact of tumor cavitation is unclear in patients with early-stage primary lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to examine the clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients with pathological stage I-IIA (p-stage I-IIA) primary lung cancers harboring tumor cavitation. This study was conducted according to the eighth edition of the TNM classification for lung cancer. We examined 602 patients with p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer out of 890 patients who underwent pulmonary resection from January 2007 through March 2014 and searched for the presence of tumor cavitation, which is defined as the presence of air space within the primary tumor. A total of 59 out of the 602 patients had tumor cavitation (10%). Compared with patients without tumor cavitation, those with tumor cavitation had a significantly higher frequency of the following characteristics: high serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level (≥5ng/ml, p=0.027), interstitial pneumonia (p=0.0001), high SUVmax value on FDG-PET scan (≥4.2, p=0.023), tumors located in the lower lobe (p=0.024), large tumor size (>3cm, p=0.002), vascular invasion (66% vs 17%, p<0.0001) and non-adenocarcinoma histology (p=0.025). The overall survival period of patients with tumor cavitation was significantly shorter than that of patients without tumor cavitation (log-rank test: p<0.0001, 5-year OS rate: 56% vs 81%). Tumor cavitation was found to be an independent and significant factor associated with poor prognosis in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio: 1.76, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-3.10, p=0.042). Tumor cavitation is an independent factor for poor prognosis in patients with resected p-stage I-IIA primary lung cancer. Based on our analyses, patients with tumor cavitation should be regarded as a separate cohort that requires more intensive follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors with Liver Metastases in Korea: A Clinicopathological Analysis of 72 Cases in a Single Institute

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yooju; Ha, Sang Yun; Hyeon, Jiyeon; Lee, Boram; Lee, Jeeyun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Young Suk; Park, Cheol-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Management of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors with liver metastases (NETLM) presents many clinical challenges. Assessment of the extent of disease and primary tumor site is crucial for management. In this study, we investigated the primary tumor sites and prognostic factors in GEP NETLM among Korean patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of 72 Korean patients diagnosed with GEP NETLM between January 1999 and May 2013, focusing on their clinical and pathologic characteristics. Results The most frequently encountered primary tumor sites were the pancreas (n=25, 35%), stomach (n=8, 11%), gall bladder (n=4, 6%) and rectum (n=3, 4%). Twenty-five patients (35%) had occult primary tumor. Twelve patients (17%) had histological grade G1 tumors, 30 patients (42%) had G2 tumors, and 30 patients (42%) had G3 tumors. The mean follow-up period after histological confirmation of hepatic metastases was 11.30±2.44 months for G3 tumors, 19.67±4.09 months for G2 tumors, and 30.67±6.51 months for G1 tumors. Multivariate analyses revealed that an unknown primary tumor site (p=0.001) and higher histological grade (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic indicators for shorter overall survival (OS). Most long-term survivors (OS > 24 months) had received antitumor treatment. Conclusion The primary tumor site most frequently associated with GEP NETLM was the pancreas. Unknown primary tumor and higher histological grade were independent prognostic indicators for shorter OS. Patients identified as being at a risk of shorter OS should be followed up closely. PMID:25687852

  19. Top 50 most cited articles on primary tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Alan, Nima; Cohen, Jonathan; Ozpinar, Alp; Agarwal, Nitin; Kanter, Adam S; Okonkwo, David O; Hamilton, D Kojo

    2017-08-01

    Citation analysis was performed in order to identify the top 50 most cited articles pertaining to the field of primary spinal tumors. This collection of articles highlights important trends in the neurosurgical literature. We searched the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge in order to identify articles pertaining to primary tumors of the spine. Impertinent articles were removed. The top 50 most cited articles were identified. Thereafter, article characteristics were determined including article type, article topic, level of evidence, and citation rate. The selected articles were published between 1951 and 2008. The most productive year was 1997 with 6 publications. The top 50 articles were published in twenty-two different journals, most commonly in Neurosurgery (12), Journal of Neurosurgery (8), and Spine (6). The most frequently cited article was by Tomita et al. written in 1997 which described total en bloc spondylectomy as a novel surgical technique in management of primary tumors of the vertebral column. We identified the 50 most-cited articles in the field of primary spinal tumors. This collection of articles serves as a reference for recognizing impactful studies in the field. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Primary yolk sac tumor of the urachus.

    PubMed

    Romero-Rojas, Alfredo Ernesto; Messa-Botero, Oscar Alberto; Melo-Uribe, Mario Alexander; Díaz-Pérez, Julio Alexander; Chinchilla-Olaya, Sandra Isabel

    2011-10-01

    Neoplasms originating from the urachus are rare. The most common urachal malignancy is adenocarcinoma, whereas extragonadal germ cell tumors, primarily of the urachus, are an extremely rare finding. To describe a primary yolk sac tumor (YST) of the urachus in an adult. A 44-year-old woman presented with 6 months of pelvic pain associated with a sensation of progressive mass growth. At the time of tumor resection, the tumor was found to be attached by a pedicle to the dome of the bladder, with no injury to the adjacent organs. Pathological study showed a neoplasm with epithelioid cells, pseudocysts, a myxomatous background, and Schiller-Duval body formations. Immunohistochemistry stains showed positivity to AE1/AE3, α-1-fetoprotein, and α-1-antitrypsin and negativity to other markers. An unusual case of a YST in the urachus is presented. This is the first reported adult case based on the authors' bibliographic search.

  1. The degree of intratumor mutational heterogeneity varies by primary tumor sub-site

    PubMed Central

    Eterovic, Agda Karina; Wick, Jo; Chen, Ken; Zhao, Hao; Tazi, Loubna; Manna, Pradip; Kerley, Spencer; Joshi, Radhika; Wang, Lin; Chiosea, Simion I.; Garnett, James David; Tsue, Terance Ted; Chien, Jeremy; Mills, Gordon B.; Grandis, Jennifer Rubin; Thomas, Sufi Mary

    2016-01-01

    In an era where mutational profiles inform treatment options, it is critical to know the extent to which tumor biopsies represent the molecular profile of the primary and metastatic tumor. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arise primarily in the mucosal lining of oral cavity and oropharynx. Despite aggressive therapy the 5-year survival rate is at 50%. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the degree of intratumor mutational heterogeneity in HNSCC. We used multi-region sequencing of paired primary and metastatic tumor DNA of 24 spatially distinct samples from seven patients with HNSCC of larynx, floor of the mouth (FOM) or oral tongue. Full length, in-depth sequencing of 202 genes implicated in cancer was carried out. Larynx and FOM tumors had more than 69.2% unique SNVs between the paired primary and metastatic lesions. In contrast, the oral tongue HNSCC had only 33.3% unique SNVs across multiple sites. In addition, HNSCC of the oral tongue had fewer mutations than larynx and FOM tumors. These findings were validated on the Affymetrix whole genome 6.0 array platform and were consistent with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This is the first report demonstrating differences in mutational heterogeneity varying by subsite in HNSCC. The heterogeneity within laryngeal tumor specimens may lead to an underestimation of the genetic abnormalities within tumors and may foster resistance to standard treatment protocols. These findings are relevant to investigators and clinicians developing personalized cancer treatments based on identification of specific mutations in tumor biopsies. PMID:27034009

  2. The degree of intratumor mutational heterogeneity varies by primary tumor sub-site.

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, Levi G; Kumar, Dhruv; Eterovic, Agda Karina; Wick, Jo; Chen, Ken; Zhao, Hao; Tazi, Loubna; Manna, Pradip; Kerley, Spencer; Joshi, Radhika; Wang, Lin; Chiosea, Simion I; Garnett, James David; Tsue, Terance Ted; Chien, Jeremy; Mills, Gordon B; Grandis, Jennifer Rubin; Thomas, Sufi Mary

    2016-05-10

    In an era where mutational profiles inform treatment options, it is critical to know the extent to which tumor biopsies represent the molecular profile of the primary and metastatic tumor. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arise primarily in the mucosal lining of oral cavity and oropharynx. Despite aggressive therapy the 5-year survival rate is at 50%. The primary objective of this study is to characterize the degree of intratumor mutational heterogeneity in HNSCC. We used multi-region sequencing of paired primary and metastatic tumor DNA of 24 spatially distinct samples from seven patients with HNSCC of larynx, floor of the mouth (FOM) or oral tongue. Full length, in-depth sequencing of 202 genes implicated in cancer was carried out. Larynx and FOM tumors had more than 69.2% unique SNVs between the paired primary and metastatic lesions. In contrast, the oral tongue HNSCC had only 33.3% unique SNVs across multiple sites. In addition, HNSCC of the oral tongue had fewer mutations than larynx and FOM tumors. These findings were validated on the Affymetrix whole genome 6.0 array platform and were consistent with data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This is the first report demonstrating differences in mutational heterogeneity varying by subsite in HNSCC. The heterogeneity within laryngeal tumor specimens may lead to an underestimation of the genetic abnormalities within tumors and may foster resistance to standard treatment protocols. These findings are relevant to investigators and clinicians developing personalized cancer treatments based on identification of specific mutations in tumor biopsies.

  3. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as a Mediastinal Malignant Melanoma Presenting as a Mediastinal Unknown Primary Origin?

    PubMed

    Pujani, Mukta; Hassan, Mohd Jaseem; Jetley, Sujata; Raina, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Mukesh

    2017-01-01

    The most common site of primary malignant melanoma is the skin, however, virtually any organ system may be involved. Metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin accounts for approximately 2-6% of all melanoma cases. The mediastinum as the site for malignant melanoma is extremely rare, both as a primary or metastatic lesion. Primary malignant melanoma of mediastinum is very rare with only a handful of reports in the literature. We hereby report a rare case of malignant melanoma of mediastinum in a 31 year old male who was initially misdiagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology as adenocarcinoma for which he received chemotherapy with clinical deterioration. Even on extensive meticulous search, no primary was discovered.

  4. KRAS and BRAF mutation status in circulating colorectal tumor cells and their correlation with primary and metastatic tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Mostert, Bianca; Jiang, Yuqiu; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Wang, Haiying; Bolt-de Vries, Joan; Biermann, Katharina; Kraan, Jaco; Lalmahomed, Zarina; van Galen, Anne; de Weerd, Vanja; van der Spoel, Petra; Ramírez-Moreno, Raquel; Verhoef, Cornelis; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Wang, Yixin; Gratama, Jan-Willem; Foekens, John A; Sleijfer, Stefan; Martens, John W M

    2013-07-01

    Although anti-EGFR therapy has established efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer, only 10-20% of unselected patients respond. This is partly due to KRAS and BRAF mutations, which are currently assessed in the primary tumor. To improve patient selection, assessing mutation status in circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which possibly better represent metastases than the primary tumor, could be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of KRAS and BRAF mutation detection in colorectal CTCs by comparing three sensitive methods and compared mutation status in matching primary tumor, liver metastasis and CTCs. CTCs were isolated from blood drawn from 49 patients before liver resection using CellSearch™. DNA and RNA was isolated from primary tumors, metastases and CTCs. Mutations were assessed by co-amplification at lower denaturation temperature-PCR (Transgenomic™), real-time PCR (EntroGen™) and nested Allele-Specific Blocker (ASB-)PCR and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In 43 of the 49 patients, tissue RNA and DNA was of sufficient quantity and quality. In these 43 patients, discordance between primary and metastatic tumor was 23% for KRAS and 7% for BRAF mutations. RNA and DNA from CTCs was available from 42 of the 43 patients, in which ASB-PCR was able to detect the most mutations. Inconclusive results in patients with low CTC counts limited the interpretation of discrepancies between tissue and CTCs. Determination of KRAS and BRAF mutations in CTCs is challenging but feasible. Of the tested methods, nested ASB-PCR, enabling detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations in patients with as little as two CTCs, seems to be superior. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  5. Quantitative Primary Tumor Indocyanine Green Measurements Predict Osteosarcoma Metastatic Lung Burden in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Fourman, Mitchell S; Mahjoub, Adel; Mandell, Jon B; Yu, Shibing; Tebbets, Jessica C; Crasto, Jared A; Alexander, Peter E; Weiss, Kurt R

    2018-03-01

    Current preclinical osteosarcoma (OS) models largely focus on quantifying primary tumor burden. However, most fatalities from OS are caused by metastatic disease. The quantification of metastatic OS currently relies on CT, which is limited by motion artifact, requires intravenous contrast, and can be technically demanding in the preclinical setting. We describe the ability for indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography to quantify primary and metastatic OS in a previously validated orthotopic, immunocompetent mouse model. (1) Can near-infrared ICG fluorescence be used to attach a comparable, quantitative value to the primary OS tumor in our experimental mouse model? (2) Will primary tumor fluorescence differ in mice that go on to develop metastatic lung disease? (3) Does primary tumor fluorescence correlate with tumor volume measured with CT? Six groups of 4- to 6-week-old immunocompetent Balb/c mice (n = 6 per group) received paraphyseal injections into their left hindlimb proximal tibia consisting of variable numbers of K7M2 mouse OS cells. A hindlimb transfemoral amputation was performed 4 weeks after injection with euthanasia and lung extraction performed 10 weeks after injection. Histologic examination of lung and primary tumor specimens confirmed ICG localization only within the tumor bed. Mice with visible or palpable tumor growth had greater hindlimb fluorescence (3.5 ± 2.3 arbitrary perfusion units [APU], defined as the fluorescence pixel return normalized by the detector) compared with those with a negative examination (0.71 ± 0.38 APU, -2.7 ± 0.5 mean difference, 95% confidence interval -3.7 to -1.8, p < 0.001). A strong linear trend (r = 0.81, p < 0.01) was observed between primary tumor and lung fluorescence, suggesting that quantitative ICG tumor fluorescence is directly related to eventual metastatic burden. We did not find a correlation (r = 0.04, p = 0.45) between normalized primary tumor fluorescence and CT volumetric measurements. We

  6. Primary Tumors of the Osseous Chest Wall and Their Management.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathew; Shen, K Robert

    2017-05-01

    Primary osseous tumors of the chest wall are uncommon neoplasms. They occur in a wide variety of pathologic forms, most of which can be distinguished by unique radiologic appearance. Management of these tumors depends on the diagnosis and stage. Adequate surgical resection is critical in achieving the best outcomes for most of these tumors. Chemotherapy and radiation may have an adjuvant role. Surgeons considering resection of any chest wall tumor should have a sound knowledge of the principles of resection and reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting with trigeminal anesthesia: An uncommon presentation of head & neck cancer with unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ameer T; Dagher, Walid I; O'Leary, Miriam A; Wein, Richard O

    The differential diagnosis of facial anesthesia is vast. This may be secondary to trauma, neoplasm, both intracranial and extracranial, infection, and neurologic disease. When evaluating a patient with isolated facial anesthesia, the head and neck surgeon often thinks of adenoid cystic carcinoma, which has a propensity for perineural invasion and spread. When one thinks of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with or without unknown primary, the typical presentation involves dysphagia, odynophagia, weight loss, hoarseness, or more commonly, a neck mass. Squamous cell carcinoma presenting as facial anesthesia and perineural spread, with no primary site is quite rare. Case presentations and review of the literature. Trigeminal anesthesia is an uncommon presentation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with unknown primary. We present two interesting cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the trigeminal nerve, with no primary site identified. We will also review the literature of head and neck malignancies with perineural spread and the management techniques for the two different cases presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2017-03-28

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients.

  9. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S.

    2017-01-01

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients. PMID:28206954

  10. Resection of primary tumor at diagnosis in stage IV-S neuroblastoma: does it affect the clinical course?

    PubMed

    Guglielmi, M; De Bernardi, B; Rizzo, A; Federici, S; Boglino, C; Siracusa, F; Leggio, A; Cozzi, F; Cecchetto, G; Musi, L; Bardini, T; Fagnani, A M; Bartoli, G C; Pampaloni, A; Rogers, D; Conte, M; Milanaccio, C; Bruzzi, P

    1996-05-01

    To determine whether resection of primary tumor has a favorable influence on outcome of infants (age 0 to 11 months) with stage IV-S neuroblastoma. Between March 1976 and December 1993, 97 infants with previously untreated neuroblastoma diagnosed in 21 Italian institutions were classified as having stage IV-S disease. Seventy percent were younger than 4 months. Adrenal was the primary tumor site in 64 of 85 patients with a recognizable primary tumor. Liver was the organ most often infiltrated by the tumor (82 patients), followed by bone marrow and skin. The overall survival (OS) rate at 5 years in 80% and event-free survival (EFS) rate 68%. In 24 infants, the effect of resection of primary tumor could not be evaluated because of rapidly fatal disease progression (n = 8), absence of a primary tumor (n = 12), or partial resection (n = 4). Of 73 assessable patients, 26 underwent primary tumor resection at diagnosis: one died of surgical complications, one relapsed locally and died, and two others relapsed (one of these two locally) and survived, for a 5-year OS rate of 92% and EFS rate of 84%. Of the remaining 47 patients who did not undergo primary tumor resection at diagnosis 11 suffered unfavorable events, of whom five died, for an OS rate of 89% and EFS rate of 75% (no significant difference from previous group). Disease recurred at the primary tumor site in only one five who died, and in only one of six survivors of progression or relapse; in these patients, the primary tumor, located in the mediastinum, was successfully resected. Infants who underwent resection of the primary tumor at diagnosis had no better outcome than those in whom the decision was made not to operate.

  11. Age dependency of primary tumor sites and metastases in patients with Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Worch, Jennifer; Ranft, Andreas; DuBois, Steven G; Paulussen, Michael; Juergens, Heribert; Dirksen, Uta

    2018-06-01

    The median age of patients with Ewing sarcoma (EwS) at diagnosis is around 14-15 years. Older age is associated with a worse outcome. The correlation of age at diagnosis on sites of disease has not been fully described. The goal of this study was to evaluate the differences in sites of primary tumor and metastatic tumor involvement according to age groups. EwS data from the Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatology (GPOH) database of the Cooperative Ewing Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81/86 and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study EICESS 92 and the EUROpean Ewing tumor Working Initiative of National Groups-99-Protocol (EURO-E.W.I.N.G.-99) study were analyzed. Patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated statistically using chi square tests. The study population included 2,635 patients with bone EwS. Sites of primary and metastatic tumors differed according to the age groups of young children (0-9 years), early adolescence (10-14 years), late adolescence (15-19 years), young adults (20-24 years), and adults (more than 24 years). Young children demonstrated the most striking differences in site of disease with a lower proportion of pelvic primary and axial tumors. They presented less often with metastatic disease at diagnosis. Site of primary and metastatic tumor involvement in EwS differs according to patient age. The biological and developmental etiology for these differences requires further investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Locomotor proteins in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Yunusova, N. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Villert, A. B.

    2016-08-01

    The paper discusses the capability for active movement in an extracellular matrix, wherein remodeling of the cytoskeleton by actin binding proteins plays a significant role in metastases formation. We studied the expression of actin binding proteins and β-catenin in tissues of primary tumors and metastases of ovarian and breast cancer. Contents of p45 Ser β-catenin and the actin severing protein gelsolin were decreased in metastases of ovarian cancer relative to primary tumors. The level of the cofilin, functionally similar to gelsolin, was significantly higher in metastases compared to primary ovarian and breast tumor tissue. In breast cancer, significant increase in the number of an actin monomer binder protein thymosin-β4 was observed in metastases as compared to primary tumors. The data obtained suggest the involvement of locomotor proteins in metastases formation in ovarian and breast cancer.

  13. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Éden Sartor; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Corrêa, Isaac José Felippe; Robles, Laercio; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors are extremely rare neoplasms derived from hormone-producing neuroendocrine cells. It is difficult to make their diagnosis before biopsy, surgical resection or necropsy. A recent publication described only 94 cases of these tumors. There is no sex predilection and apparently it has no association with cirrhosis or preexisting hepatic disease. The most effective treatment is hepatectomy, and resection is determined by size and location of the lesions. PMID:25628206

  14. Primary mesenchymal or mixed-cell-origin lung tumors in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Watson, A D; Young, K M; Dubielzig, R R; Biller, D S

    1993-03-15

    Primary lung tumors of mesenchymal or mixed cell origin were diagnosed in 4 dogs with clinical and radiographic abnormalities indicating an intrathoracic mass. Each dog had 1 large intrapulmonary lesion, and 1 dog also had nodules scattered throughout all lung lobes. Two dogs were euthanatized; 1 had a biphasic pulmonary blastoma; and the other had a pulmonary chondroblastic osteosarcoma with intrapulmonary metastases. The masses in the other 2 dogs were hamartomas (lipomatous in 1, microcystic in the other), which were resected. Both dogs survived more than 1 year after surgery. Primary lung tumors are uncommon in dogs and are generally malignant (adenocarcinomas or carcinomas). Tumors of connective tissue or mixed cell origin are rare, but the outcome is potentially good after surgical removal.

  15. Advances in evaluation of primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Silverman, Daniel H S

    2008-07-01

    The evaluation of primary brain tumor is challenging. Neuroimaging plays a significant role. At diagnosis, imaging is needed to establish a differential diagnosis, provide prognostic information, as well as direct biopsy. After the initial treatment, imaging is needed to distinguish recurrent disease from treatment-related changes such as radiation necrosis. In low-grade gliomas, this also includes monitoring anaplastic transformation into high-grade tumors. Recently, targeted treatments have been an extremely active area of research. Evaluation in clinical trials of such targeted treatments demands advanced roles of imaging such as treatment planning, monitoring response, and predicting treatment outcomes. Current clinical gold standard magnetic resonance imaging provides superior structural detail but poor specificity in identifying viable tumors in treated brain with surgery/radiation/chemotherapy. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is capable of identifying anaplastic transformation and has prognostic value. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG in evaluating recurrent tumor and treatment-induced changes can be significantly improved by coregistration with magnetic resonance imaging and potentially by delayed imaging 3 to 8 hours after injection. Amino acid PET tracers can be more sensitive than FDG in imaging some recurrent tumors, in particular recurrent low-grade tumors. They are also promising for differentiating between recurrent tumors and treatment-induced changes. Newer PET tracers to image important aspects of tumor biology have been actively studied. Tracers for imaging membrane transport such as (18)F-choline have shown promise in differential diagnosis. (18)F-labeled nucleotide analogs such as 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]-fluorothymidine (FLT) and (18)F-FMAU have been developed to image proliferation. The use of FLT has demonstrated prognostic power in predicting treatment response in patients treated with an antiangiogenic

  16. Malignant neoplasm in the axilla of a male: suspected primary carcinoma of an accessory mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Isao; Fukuchi, Osamu; Nogi, Hiroko; Kinoshita, Satoki; Uchida, Ken; Morikawa, Toshiaki

    2010-04-01

    A 58-year-old Japanese male patient visited our hospital for evaluation of an elastic hard mass, measuring 80 x 50 mm, in the right axillary area. Incisional biopsy for suspected malignancy was performed, and histopathologic examination by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining yielded a diagnosis of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma metastatic from an unknown primary. As the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for both ER and PgR, metastatic breast cancer was strongly suspected. Ultrasonography, CT, and MRI revealed no evidence of tumors in the bilateral mammary glands. Detailed examination of the head and neck region, lung, and upper and lower gastrointestinal tract also revealed no evidence of a primary tumor. After chemotherapy, the patient underwent tumor resection with axillary lymph node dissection. On the basis of the histological features of H&E-stained specimens and immunohistochemistry of the resected tumor, this case was diagnosed as breast cancer of unknown origin in a male. The tumor could have been an axillary lymph node metastasis from an occult breast carcinoma, or primary cancer arising in an accessory mammary gland.

  17. [Clinical analysis of 138 multiple primary cancers diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor initially].

    PubMed

    Lyu, J M; Xiong, H C; Wu, B; Zhou, X Q; Hu, J

    2018-02-23

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics, strategy of treatment and prognosis of multiple primary cancers(MPC) diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly. Methods: From January, 2000 to December, 2015, the clinical, follow-up and prognostic data of 138 MPC patients diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor firstly were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 138 cases were found in 10 580 cases with malignant tumors, and the incidence was 1.30%. There were 129 cases of duplex primary cancers, 8 cases of triple primary cancers and 1 case of quintuple primary cancers. The repetitive primary cancer was occurred in digestive system (61cases, 44.2%) most frequently, with the next in respiratory system (46 cases, 33.3%). 52.2% (72 cases) suffered second primary cancer in 2 years after first primary cancer diagnosed, and 75.4% (104 cases) in 5 years. The median overall survival in patients with all cancer lesions radically treated was 168 months, better than any other treatment (68 months, P <0.05). Conclusions: The second primary cancers of MPC cases initially diagnosed of digestive system malignant tumor most frequently occurred in the digestive system and respiratory system. More concern should be attracted in follow-up, especially in the first 5 years. The key to improve patient' prognosis was radical treatment to every primary cancer.

  18. [Colorectal cancer the importance of primary tumor location].

    PubMed

    Ryska, M; Bauer, J

    2017-01-01

    Retrospective evaluations of the relevance of primary colorectal cancer (CRC) location consistently indicate that right-sided tumors, arising in the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic bend, transverse colon and splenic flexure, are clinically, biologically and genetically different from left-sided tumors - those located in the descending colon, sigmoid colon or rectum. Location in the right-sided colon represents a negative prognostic indicator, particularly for stage III and IV carcinomas. Irrespective of treatment, the rightward location is associated with a significantly increased risk of death when compared to the left side.Key words: colorectal cancer - location - therapy - prognosis.

  19. Performance of 177Lu-DOTATATE-based peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: a multiparametric response evaluation correlating with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Pradeep; Ranade, Rohit; Ostwal, Vikas; Shrikhande, Shailesh V; Goel, Mahesh; Basu, Sandip

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of Lu-DOTATATE peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (GEP-NET) and correlate it with primary tumor site, tumor proliferation index, and dual tracer imaging characteristics. Fifty patients (M : F 33 : 17, age: 26-71 years) with histopathologically confirmed metastatic/inoperable NETs who had undergone at least three cycles of PRRT with Lu-DOTATATE were included in the analysis. As part of the pretreatment evaluation, they underwent either Tc-HYNIC TOC (n=40)/Ga-DOTATATE PET (n=10) or fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT). Response was assessed after three and five cycles PRRT on the basis of three parameters: (a) symptomatic and subjective scale, (b) biochemical tumor marker level, and (c) objective imaging (F-FDG/Ga DOTATATE PET/CT, Tc-HYNIC TOC, ceCT), and was categorized using predefined criteria (detailed in methods). Stable disease on imaging assessment with response on symptomatic or biochemical tumor marker scales or both were included in the responder group. The study population was broadly classified into (a) metastatic GEP-NET with known primary (n=43 i.e. 86%), which was further subclassified according to the site of primary and (b) those with unknown primary (n=7 i.e. 14%). Symptomatic response: 96% of patients showed a symptomatic response or improvement in health-related quality of life, irrespective of tumor proliferation index, dual tracer imaging characteristics, and response or progression of disease in the scan. Biochemical tumor marker response: 83% of scan responders showed a decrease, 10% showed a stable value, and 7% showed an increase in tumor marker levels. Among the scan nonresponders, 67% patients showed a corresponding increase in the tumor marker level, 22% patient showed a decrease, whereas 11% showed stable values. Scan response: 31 out of total 50 patients (62%) showed a partial scan response with either a

  20. Self-targeting of TNF-releasing cancer cells in preclinical models of primary and metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Dondossola, Eleonora; Dobroff, Andrey S; Marchiò, Serena; Cardó-Vila, Marina; Hosoya, Hitomi; Libutti, Steven K; Corti, Angelo; Sidman, Richard L; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2016-02-23

    Circulating cancer cells can putatively colonize distant organs to form metastases or to reinfiltrate primary tumors themselves through a process termed "tumor self-seeding." Here we exploit this biological attribute to deliver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), a potent antitumor cytokine, directly to primary and metastatic tumors in a mechanism that we have defined as "tumor self-targeting." For this purpose, we genetically engineered mouse mammary adenocarcinoma (TSA), melanoma (B16-F10), and Lewis lung carcinoma cells to produce and release murine TNF. In a series of intervention trials, systemic administration of TNF-expressing tumor cells was associated with reduced growth of both primary tumors and metastatic colonies in immunocompetent mice. We show that these malignant cells home to tumors, locally release TNF, damage neovascular endothelium, and induce massive cancer cell apoptosis. We also demonstrate that such tumor-cell-mediated delivery avoids or minimizes common side effects often associated with TNF-based therapy, such as acute inflammation and weight loss. Our study provides proof of concept that genetically modified circulating tumor cells may serve as targeted vectors to deliver anticancer agents. In a clinical context, this unique paradigm represents a personalized approach to be translated into applications potentially using patient-derived circulating tumor cells as self-targeted vectors for drug delivery.

  1. Application of carbon-ion beams or gamma-rays on primary tumors does not change the expression profiles of metastatic tumors in an in vivo murine model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Imadome, Kaori; Nakawatari, Miyako; Sakai, Minako; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nakano, Takashi; Imai, Takashi

    2009-05-01

    To clarify how carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion) on primary tumors affects the characteristics of subsequently arising metastatic tumor cells. Mouse squamous cell carcinomas, NR-S1, in synergic C3H/HeMsNrs mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5-50 Gy of C-ion (290 MeV per nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak) or gamma-rays ((137)Cs source) as a reference beam. The volume of the primary tumors and the number of metastatic nodules in lung were studied, and histologic analysis and microarray analysis of laser-microdissected tumor cells were also performed. Including 5 Gy of C-ion and 8 Gy of gamma-rays, which did not inhibit the primary tumor growth, all doses used in this study inhibited lung metastasis significantly. Pathologic findings showed no difference among the metastatic tumor nodules in the nonirradiated, C-ion-irradiated, and gamma-ray-irradiated groups. Clustering analysis of expression profiles among metastatic tumors and primary tumors revealed a single cluster consisting of metastatic tumors different from their original primary tumors, indicating that the expression profiles of the metastatic tumor cells were not affected by the local application of C-ion or gamma-ray radiotherapy. We found no difference in the incidence and histology, and only small differences in expression profile, of distant metastasis between local C-ion and gamma-ray radiotherapy. The application of local radiotherapy per se or the type of radiotherapy applied did not influence the transcriptional changes caused by metastasis in tumor cells.

  2. Whole-genome and multisector exome sequencing of primary and post-treatment glioblastoma reveals patterns of tumor evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Amini, Seyed S.; Virk, Selene M.; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brat, Daniel J.; Grimsby, Jonna; Sougnez, Carrie; Muller, Florian; Hu, Jian; Sloan, Andrew E.; Cohen, Mark L.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Scarpace, Lisa; Laird, Peter W.; Weinstein, John N.; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Chin, Lynda; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prototypical heterogeneous brain tumor refractory to conventional therapy. A small residual population of cells escapes surgery and chemoradiation, resulting in a typically fatal tumor recurrence ∼7 mo after diagnosis. Understanding the molecular architecture of this residual population is critical for the development of successful therapies. We used whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of multiple sectors from primary and paired recurrent GBM tumors to reconstruct the genomic profile of residual, therapy resistant tumor initiating cells. We found that genetic alteration of the p53 pathway is a primary molecular event predictive of a high number of subclonal mutations in glioblastoma. The genomic road leading to recurrence is highly idiosyncratic but can be broadly classified into linear recurrences that share extensive genetic similarity with the primary tumor and can be directly traced to one of its specific sectors, and divergent recurrences that share few genetic alterations with the primary tumor and originate from cells that branched off early during tumorigenesis. Our study provides mechanistic insights into how genetic alterations in primary tumors impact the ensuing evolution of tumor cells and the emergence of subclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25650244

  3. Advising potential recipients on the use of organs from donors with primary central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Warrens, Anthony N; Birch, Rhiannon; Collett, David; Daraktchiev, Maren; Dark, John H; Galea, George; Gronow, Katie; Neuberger, James; Hilton, David; Whittle, Ian R; Watson, Christopher J E

    2012-02-27

    Deciding to use an organ from a donor with a primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor necessitates offsetting the risk of tumor transmission with the chances of survival if the patient waits for another offer of a transplant. Published data vary in the quoted risk of tumor transmission. We used data obtained by reviewing 246 UK recipients of organs taken from donors with CNS tumors and found no evidence of a difference in overall patient mortality for recipients of a kidney, liver, or cardiothoracic organ, compared with recipients of organs from donors without a CNS tumor. Recent publication of the UK experience of transplanting organs from CNS tumor donors found no transmission in 448 recipients of organs from 177 donors with a primary CNS tumor (Watson et al., Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 1437). This 0% transmission rate is associated with an upper 95% confidence interval limit of 1.5%. Using a series of assumptions of risk, we compared the risks of dying as a result of the transmission of a primary brain tumor with the risks of dying if not transplanted. On this basis, the use of kidneys from a donor with a primary CNS tumor provides a further 8 years of life over someone who waited for a donor who did not have a primary CNS tumor, in addition to the life years gained by the transplant itself. The benefits for the recipients of livers and cardiothoracic organs were less, but there was no disadvantage in the impact on life expectancy.

  4. Anesthetic implications of primary cardiac tumors in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Barry D; Devavaram, Prabhakar; Hansen, Dolly D; Dinardo, James A; Forbess, Joseph M; Mehrota, Ramji; McGowan, Francis X

    2002-10-01

    To determine the degree of hemodynamic and airway compromise in infants and children undergoing anesthesia for primary cardiac tumors. Retrospective study. Tertiary-care, academic children's hospital. Patients <18 years old who had undergone anesthesia and surgery for resection or biopsy of a primary cardiac tumor (n = 25). None. Charts were reviewed for intraoperative complications, defined as (1) hypotension (20% decrease from baseline) during or after induction; (2) failure to gain airway control by insertion of an airway or endotracheal intubation, inability to ventilate after administration of a muscle relaxant, need for change in patient position, rigid bronchoscopy, or cardiopulmonary bypass for adequate oxygenation; and (3) new arrhythmias. Hypotension during induction occurred in 4 patients (16%), 3 of whom were hemodynamically unstable preoperatively. Hypotension after induction was found in 2 (8%) patients. Hypotension occurred more frequently in patients with obstruction to blood flow and arrhythmia (n = 3), obstruction to blood flow only (n = 1), and arrhythmia only (n = 1). No patient had airway difficulty related to the tumor, although one intrapericardial tumor mimicked an anterior mediastinal mass. New arrhythmias occurred in 3 (12%) patients. The subgroup of patients at greatest risk are patients with a combination of obstruction to blood flow and arrhythmias. Despite the alarming diagnosis, the intraoperative course tends to be fairly stable in most cases. Extensive pericardial tumors may produce the same airway concerns as anterior mediastinal masses, but airway complications do not seem to be a problem with intrachamber tumors. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor-Like Presentation of Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Boulouis, Grégoire; Dequatre, Nelly; Godard, Sophie; Néel, Antoine; Arquizan, Caroline; Detante, Olivier; Bloch-Queyrat, Coralie; Zuber, Mathieu; Touzé, Emmanuel; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille; Guillevin, Loïc; Naggara, Olivier; Pagnoux, Christian

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of patients with tumor-like presentation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients enrolled in the French primary angiitis of the central nervous system cohort, who initially presented tumor-like brain lesions and compared them with other patients within the cohort. The 10 patients with tumor-like presentation in the cohort were younger and had more seizures at diagnosis than the other 75 patients (median of 37 [30-48] years versus 46 [18-79] years; P=0.008; 9 [90%] with seizures versus 22 [29%], P<0.001; respectively). All 10 patients had a biopsy (stereotactic procedure in 7 and open-wedge surgery in 3). Histological findings suggestive of vasculitis were observed in 9 patients in whom conventional cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance angiography were negative. In the remaining patient, vascular imaging demonstrated diffuse bilateral large- and medium-sized vessel involvement (biopsy did not reveal vasculitis). All patients with tumor-like presentation received glucocorticoids, combined with cyclophosphamide in 9 cases. With a median follow-up of 27 (12-130) months, 5 (50%) patients relapsed, but achieved remission again after treatment intensification. Patients with tumor-like presentation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system represent a subgroup characterized with mainly small-sized vessel disease that requires histological confirmation because vascular imaging is often normal. Although relapses are not uncommon, global outcomes are good under treatment with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Fascin and EMMPRIN expression in primary mucinous tumors of ovary: a tissue microarray study.

    PubMed

    Alici, Omer; Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Baris, Sancar; Karagoz, Filiz; Kandemir, Bedri

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the expressions of fascin and EMMPRIN in primary malignant, borderline and benign mucinous ovarian tumors, and to investigate the relationship of these markers with tumor progression and their applicability to differential diagnosis. An immunohistochemical study was performed for fascin and EMMPRIN using the tissue microarray technique. Eighty-one cases were included in the study; there were 37 benign, 25 borderline and 19 malignant primary mucinous ovarian tumors. For each case, a total staining score was determined, consisting of scores for extent of staining and intensity of staining. The cases were allocated to negative, weakly positive and strongly positive staining categories, according to the total staining score. Both of the markers were significantly negative in benign tumors as compared with borderline and malignant tumors. There was no significant difference between borderline and malignant groups for both markers. Sixty-eight percent of malignant tumors were stained positive by fascin, while this rate was 40% for borderline mucinous tumors. All malignant tumors were strongly stained positive for EMMPRIN, while this rate was 92% for borderline mucinous tumors. The rest of the cases stained weakly positive. No significant difference in staining score was found between fascin and EMMPRIN expression. In ovarian primary mucinous tumors, fascin and EMMPRIN may play an important role in tumor progression from benign tumor to carcinoma. In that context, EMMPRIN and fascin expression may have potential application in the differential diagnosis of some diagnostically problematic mucinous ovarian tumors. However, the differential diagnostic applicability of EMMPRIN appears to be more limited than that of fascin due to its wide spectrum of staining in mucinous ovarian tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The membrane mucin MUC4 is elevated in breast tumor lymph node metastases relative to matched primary tumors and confers aggressive properties to breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Workman, Heather C; Miller, Jamie K; Ingalla, Ellen Q; Kaur, Rouminder P; Yamamoto, Diane I; Beckett, Laurel A; Young, Lawrence Jt; Cardiff, Robert D; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carraway, Kermit L; Sweeney, Colleen; Carraway, Kermit L

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that overexpression of the membrane-associated mucin MUC4 is potently anti-adhesive to cultured tumor cells, and suppresses cellular apoptotic response to a variety of insults. Such observations raise the possibility that MUC4 expression could contribute to tumor progression or metastasis, but the potential involvement of MUC4 in breast cancer has not been rigorously assessed. The present study aimed to investigate the expression of the membrane mucin MUC4 in normal breast tissue, primary breast tumors and lymph node metastases, and to evaluate the role of MUC4 in promoting the malignant properties of breast tumor cells. MUC4 expression levels in patient-matched normal and tumor breast tissue was initially examined by immunoblotting lysates of fresh frozen tissue samples with a highly specific preparation of anti-MUC4 monoclonal antibody 1G8. Immunohistochemical analysis was then carried out using tissue microarrays encompassing patient-matched normal breast tissue and primary tumors, and patient-matched lymph node metastases and primary tumors. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown was employed to assess the contribution of MUC4 to the cellular growth and malignancy properties of JIMT-1 breast cancer cells. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed that MUC4 levels are suppressed in the majority (58%, p < 0.001) of primary tumors relative to patient-matched normal tissue. On the other hand, lymph node metastatic lesions from 37% (p < 0.05) of patients expressed higher MUC4 protein levels than patient-matched primary tumors. MUC4-positive tumor emboli were often found in lymphovascular spaces of lymph node metastatic lesions. shRNA-mediated MUC4 knockdown compromised the migration, proliferation and anoikis resistance of JIMT-1 cells, strongly suggesting that MUC4 expression actively contributes to cellular properties associated with breast tumor metastasis. Our observations suggest that after an initial loss of MUC4 levels during the

  8. Vessel co-option in primary human tumors and metastases: an obstacle to effective anti-angiogenic treatment?

    PubMed

    Donnem, Tom; Hu, Jiangting; Ferguson, Mary; Adighibe, Omanma; Snell, Cameron; Harris, Adrian L; Gatter, Kevin C; Pezzella, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Angiogenesis has been regarded as essential for tumor growth and progression. Studies of many human tumors, however, suggest that their microcirculation may be provided by nonsprouting vessels and that a variety of tumors can grow and metastasize without angiogenesis. Vessel co-option, where tumor cells migrate along the preexisting vessels of the host organ, is regarded as an alternative tumor blood supply. Vessel co-option may occur in many malignancies, but so far mostly reported in highly vascularized tissues such as brain, lung, and liver. In primary and metastatic lung cancer and liver metastasis from different primary origins, as much as 10-30% of the tumors are reported to use this alternative blood supply. In addition, vessel co-option is introduced as a potential explanation of antiangiogenic drug resistance, although the impact of vessel co-option in this clinical setting is still to be further explored. In this review we discuss tumor vessel co-option with specific examples of vessel co-option in primary and secondary tumors and a consideration of the clinical implications of this alternative tumor blood supply.

  9. Cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer: a single-institution experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Hugo; Després, Philippe; Fortin, Bernard; Filion, Edith; Donath, David; Soulières, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Ayad, Tarek; Christopoulos, Apostolos; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effectiveness and rate of complications of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer. Between February 2005 and November 2008, 25 patients with an unknown primary cancer underwent IMRT, with a median radiation dose of 70 Gy. The bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa were included in the target volume. All patients had squamous cell carcinoma, except for 1 patient who had adenosquamous differentiation. They were all treated with curative intent. Of the 25 included patients, 20 were men and 5 were women, with a median age of 54 years. Of these patients, 3 had Stage III, 18 had Stage IVa, and 4 had Stage IVb. Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) received platinum-based chemotherapy in a combined-modality setting. Neck dissection was reserved for residual disease after definitive IMRT. Overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. With a median follow-up of 38 months, the overall survival, disease-free survival, and locoregional control rates were all 100% at 3 years. No occurrence of primary cancer was observed during the follow-up period. The reported rates of xerostomia reduced with the interval from the completion of treatment. Nine patients (36%) reported Grade 2 or greater xerostomia at 6 months, and only 2 (8%) of them reported the same grade of salivary function toxicity after 24 months of follow-up. In our institution, IMRT for unknown primary cancer has provided good overall and disease-free survival in all the patients with an acceptable rate of complications. IMRT allowed us to address the bilateral neck and ipsilateral putative pharyngeal mucosa with minimal late salivary function toxicity. The use of concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT for more advanced disease led to good clinical results with reasonable toxicities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Whole-genome and multisector exome sequencing of primary and post-treatment glioblastoma reveals patterns of tumor evolution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Amini, Seyed S; Virk, Selene M; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brat, Daniel J; Grimsby, Jonna; Sougnez, Carrie; Muller, Florian; Hu, Jian; Sloan, Andrew E; Cohen, Mark L; Van Meir, Erwin G; Scarpace, Lisa; Laird, Peter W; Weinstein, John N; Lander, Eric S; Gabriel, Stacey; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matthew; Chin, Lynda; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Verhaak, Roel G W

    2015-03-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a prototypical heterogeneous brain tumor refractory to conventional therapy. A small residual population of cells escapes surgery and chemoradiation, resulting in a typically fatal tumor recurrence ∼ 7 mo after diagnosis. Understanding the molecular architecture of this residual population is critical for the development of successful therapies. We used whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing of multiple sectors from primary and paired recurrent GBM tumors to reconstruct the genomic profile of residual, therapy resistant tumor initiating cells. We found that genetic alteration of the p53 pathway is a primary molecular event predictive of a high number of subclonal mutations in glioblastoma. The genomic road leading to recurrence is highly idiosyncratic but can be broadly classified into linear recurrences that share extensive genetic similarity with the primary tumor and can be directly traced to one of its specific sectors, and divergent recurrences that share few genetic alterations with the primary tumor and originate from cells that branched off early during tumorigenesis. Our study provides mechanistic insights into how genetic alterations in primary tumors impact the ensuing evolution of tumor cells and the emergence of subclonal heterogeneity. © 2015 Kim et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Primary brain tumors, neural stem cell, and brain tumor cancer cells: where is the link?

    PubMed Central

    Germano, Isabelle; Swiss, Victoria; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of brain tumor-derived cells (BTSC) with the properties of stem cells has led to the formulation of the hypothesis that neural stem cells could be the cell of origin of primary brain tumors (PBT). In this review we present the most common molecular changes in PBT, define the criteria of identification of BTSC and discuss the similarities between the characteristics of these cells and those of the endogenous population of neural stem cells (NPCs) residing in germinal areas of the adult brain. Finally, we propose possible mechanisms of cancer initiation and progression and suggest a model of tumor initiation that includes intrinsic changes of resident NSC and potential changes in the microenvironment defining the niche where the NSC reside. PMID:20045420

  12. Lung Adenocarcinoma with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Rearrangement Presenting as Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site: Recognition and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, John D; Anthony Greco, F

    Molecular cancer classifier assays are being used with increasing frequency to predict tissue of origin and direct site-specific therapy for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). We postulated some CUP patients predicted to have non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by molecular cancer classifier assay may have anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged tumors, and benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed CUP patients who had the 92-gene molecular cancer classifier assay (CancerTYPE ID; bioTheranostics, Inc.) performed on tumor biopsies to identify patients predicted to have NSCLC. Beginning in 2011, we have tested these patients for ALK rearrangements and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, based on the proven therapeutic value of these targets in NSCLC. We identified CUP patients with predicted NSCLC who were subsequently found to have ALK rearrangements. NSCLC was predicted by the molecular cancer classifier assay in 37 of 310 CUP patients. Twenty-one of these patients were tested for ALK rearrangements, and four had an EML4-ALK fusion gene detected. The diagnosis of lung cancer was strongly suggested in only one patient prior to molecular testing. One patient received ALK inhibitor treatment and has had prolonged benefit. We report on patients with lung adenocarcinoma and ALK rearrangements originally diagnosed as CUP who were identified using a molecular cancer classifier assay. Although ALK inhibitors treatment experience is limited, this newly identifiable group of lung cancer patients should be considered for therapy according to guidelines for stage IV ALK-positive NSCLC.

  13. Lung Adenocarcinoma with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Rearrangement Presenting as Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Site: Recognition and Treatment Implications.

    PubMed

    Hainsworth, John D; Anthony Greco, F

    2016-03-01

    Molecular cancer classifier assays are being used with increasing frequency to predict tissue of origin and direct site-specific therapy for patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP). We postulated some CUP patients predicted to have non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by molecular cancer classifier assay may have anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged tumors, and benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed CUP patients who had the 92-gene molecular cancer classifier assay (CancerTYPE ID; bioTheranostics, Inc.) performed on tumor biopsies to identify patients predicted to have NSCLC. Beginning in 2011, we have tested these patients for ALK rearrangements and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations, based on the proven therapeutic value of these targets in NSCLC. We identified CUP patients with predicted NSCLC who were subsequently found to have ALK rearrangements. NSCLC was predicted by the molecular cancer classifier assay in 37 of 310 CUP patients. Twenty-one of these patients were tested for ALK rearrangements, and four had an EML4-ALK fusion gene detected. The diagnosis of lung cancer was strongly suggested in only one patient prior to molecular testing. One patient received ALK inhibitor treatment and has had prolonged benefit. We report on patients with lung adenocarcinoma and ALK rearrangements originally diagnosed as CUP who were identified using a molecular cancer classifier assay. Although ALK inhibitors treatment experience is limited, this newly identifiable group of lung cancer patients should be considered for therapy according to guidelines for stage IV ALK-positive NSCLC.

  14. Second primary cancers following borderline ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Sanci, Muzaffer; Gultekin, Emre; Cingillioglu, Basak; Gultekin, Ozge Elmastas; Ozvural, Seyfettin; Emirdar, Volkan; Yildirim, Yusuf

    2011-06-01

    Several studies have reported an increased risk of second primary cancers subsequent to invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. However, there is no adequate data regarding such risk in borderline ovarian tumors (BOTs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of subsequent second primary cancers among women with BOTs. BOT patients treated in our center between December 1985 and April 2009 were retrospectively screened for developing second primary cancer during follow-up period. There were 96 women diagnosed with BOT. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 47 ± 14.3, ranging from 19 to 79. Eighty-eight (91.6%) patients had stage I disease, two patients (2.1%) had stage II and six (6.2%) had stage III. Twenty-five (26.0%) patients received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Mean follow-up time was 96.5 ± 442 months (range: 9-280 months). There were ten (10.4%) recurrences. Only one patient developed second primary cancer. Second primary cancer observed in this case was basal cell carsinoma of the eyelid, which was diagnosed 2 years after primary disease. There were no patients with common women's cancers such as breast and colorectal cancers. These findings do not suggest increased risk of subsequent cancers in patients with BOT. However, population-based studies are needed for evaluating exact risk of developing second primary malignancies in women with BOTs.

  15. [Advances in the management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary: advances in diagnostic imaging and surgical modalities and new international staging system].

    PubMed

    Troussier, Idriss; Klausner, Guillaume; Morinière, Sylvain; Blais, Eivind; Jean-Christophe Faivre; Champion, Ambroise; Geoffrois, Lionnel; Pflumio, Carole; Babin, Emmanuel; Maingon, Philippe; Thariat, Juliette

    2018-02-01

    Cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary represent 3 % of head and neck cancers. Their diagnostic work up has largely changed in recent years. This review provides an update on diagnostic developments and their potential therapeutic impact. This is a systematic review of the literature. In recent years, changes in epidemiology-based prognostic factors such as human papilloma virus (HPV) cancers, advances in imaging and minimally invasive surgery have been integrated in the management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary. In particular, systematic use of PET scanner and increasing practice of robotic or laser surgery have contributed to increasing detection rate of primary cancers. These allow more adapted and personalized treatments. The impact of changes in the eighth TNM staging system is discussed. The management of cervical lymphadenopathies of unknown primary cancer has changed significantly in the last 10 years. On the other hand, practice changes will have to be assessed. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructural characterization of primary cilia in pathologically characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors.

    PubMed

    Moser, Joanna J; Fritzler, Marvin J; Rattner, Jerome B

    2014-01-01

    Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that are involved in cell cycle progression. Ultrastructurally, the primary cilium region is complex, with normal ciliogenesis progressing through five distinct morphological stages in human astrocytes. Defects in early stages of ciliogenesis are key features of astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines and provided the impetus for the current study which describes the morphology of primary cilia in molecularly characterized human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Seven surgically resected human GBM tissue samples were molecularly characterized according to IDH1/2 mutation status, EGFR amplification status and MGMT promoter methylation status and were examined for primary cilia expression and structure using indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. We report for the first time that primary cilia are disrupted in the early stages of ciliogenesis in human GBM tumors. We confirm that immature primary cilia and basal bodies/centrioles have aberrant ciliogenesis characteristics including absent paired vesicles, misshaped/swollen vesicular hats, abnormal configuration of distal appendages, and discontinuity of centriole microtubular blades. Additionally, the transition zone plate is able to form in the absence of paired vesicles on the distal end of the basal body and when a cilium progresses beyond the early stages of ciliogenesis, it has electron dense material clumped along the transition zone and a darkening of the microtubules at the proximal end of the cilium. Primary cilia play a role in a variety of human cancers. Previously primary cilia structure was perturbed in cultured cell lines derived from astrocytomas/glioblastomas; however there was always some question as to whether these findings were a cell culture phenomena. In this study we confirm that disruptions in ciliogenesis at early stages do occur in GBM tumors and that these ultrastructural findings bear resemblance to those previously

  17. Metastatic Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Related to Primary Tumor Development in Childhood or Adolescence: Significant Link to SDHB Mutations

    PubMed Central

    King, Kathryn S.; Prodanov, Tamara; Kantorovich, Vitaly; Fojo, Tito; Hewitt, Jacqueline K.; Zacharin, Margaret; Wesley, Robert; Lodish, Maya; Raygada, Margarita; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; McCormack, Shana; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Milosevic, Dragana; Kebebew, Electron; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Pacak, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To present data on the high rate of SDHB mutations in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma whose initial tumor presentation began in childhood or adolescence. Patients and Methods From 2000 to 2010, 263 patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma were evaluated through the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Of the 263 patients, 125 patients were found to have metastatic disease; of these 125 patients, 32 patients presented with a tumor before 20 years of age. An additional 17 patients presented with a tumor before 20 years of age but demonstrated no development of metastatic disease. Genetic testing for mutations in the VHL, MEN, and SDHB/C/D genes was performed on patients without previously identified genetic mutations. Results Of the 32 patients who presented with metastatic disease and had their primary tumor in childhood or adolescence, sequence analysis of germline DNA showed SDHB mutations in 23 patients (71.9%), SDHD mutations in three patients (9.4%), VHL mutations in two patients (6.3%), and an absence of a known mutation in four patients (12.5%). The majority of these 32 patients (78.1%) presented with primary tumors in an extra-adrenal location. Conclusion The majority of patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma who presented with a primary tumor in childhood/adolescence had primary extra-adrenal tumors and harbored SDHB mutations. Except for primary tumors located in the head and neck where SDHD genetic testing is advised, we recommend that patients who present with metastatic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma with primary tumor development in childhood or adolescence undergo SDHB genetic testing before they undergo testing for other gene mutations, unless clinical presentation or family history suggests a different mutation. PMID:21969497

  18. Fever of unknown origin as the first manifestation of colonic pathology.

    PubMed

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; López-Bernus, Amparo; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Carpio-Pérez, Adela; Fuentes-Pardo, Lucía; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Alvela-Suárez, Lucia; Romero-Alegría, Angela; Iglesias-Gomez, Alicia; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero

    2013-04-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is an entity caused by more than 200 diseases. Haematologic neoplasms are the most common malignant cause of FUO. Fever as a first symptom of colonic tumour pathology, both benign and malignant, is a rare form of presentation. Our work is a descriptive study of a series of 23 patients with colonic tumoral pathology who presented with fever of unknown origin. The mean age was 67.6 years; 56.5% of patients were men and 43.5% were women. Primary malignant neoplasia was the most common diagnosis. Blood cultures were positive in 45% of the samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most common cause of bacteraemia. Nine of 10 faecal occult blood tests performed were positive. Fever secondary to colon neoplasms, both benign and malignant, usually presents with a bacteraemic pattern, with positive results for blood-culture tests in a high percentage of cases.

  19. PRC2/EED-EZH2 Complex Is Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer Lymph Node Metastasis Compared to Primary Tumor and Correlates with Tumor Proliferation In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongxiang; Simons, Diana L.; Segall, Ilana; Carcamo-Cavazos, Valeria; Schwartz, Erich J.; Yan, Ning; Zuckerman, Neta S.; Dirbas, Frederick M.; Johnson, Denise L.; Holmes, Susan P.; Lee, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis is a key event in the progression of breast cancer. Therefore it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms which facilitate regional lymph node metastatic progression. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed gene expression profiling of purified tumor cells from human breast tumor and lymph node metastasis. By microarray network analysis, we found an increased expression of polycomb repression complex 2 (PRC2) core subunits EED and EZH2 in lymph node metastatic tumor cells over primary tumor cells which were validated through real-time PCR. Additionally, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and quantitative image analysis of whole tissue sections showed a significant increase of EZH2 expressing tumor cells in lymph nodes over paired primary breast tumors, which strongly correlated with tumor cell proliferation in situ. We further explored the mechanisms of PRC2 gene up-regulation in metastatic tumor cells and found up-regulation of E2F genes, MYC targets and down-regulation of tumor suppressor gene E-cadherin targets in lymph node metastasis through GSEA analyses. Using IHC, the expression of potential EZH2 target, E-cadherin was examined in paired primary/lymph node samples and was found to be significantly decreased in lymph node metastases over paired primary tumors. Conclusions/Significance This study identified an over expression of the epigenetic silencing complex PRC2/EED-EZH2 in breast cancer lymph node metastasis as compared to primary tumor and its positive association with tumor cell proliferation in situ. Concurrently, PRC2 target protein E-cadherin was significant decreased in lymph node metastases, suggesting PRC2 promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lymph node metastatic process through repression of E-cadherin. These results indicate that epigenetic regulation mediated by PRC2 proteins may provide additional advantage for the outgrowth of metastatic tumor cells in lymph nodes. This opens

  20. Are Mammographically Occult Additional Tumors Identified More Than 2 Cm Away From the Primary Breast Cancer on MRI Clinically Significant?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sarah; Mango, Victoria; Friedlander, Lauren; Desperito, Elise; Wynn, Ralph; Ha, Richard

    2018-06-08

    To evaluate the clinical significance of mammographically occult additional tumors identified more than 2cm away from the primary breast cancer on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An Institutional Review Board approved review of consecutive preoperative breast MRIs performed from 1/1/08 to 12/31/14, yielded 667 patients with breast cancer. These patients underwent further assessment to identify biopsy proven mammographically occult breast tumors located more than 2cm away from the edge of the primary tumor. Additional MRI characteristics of the primary and secondary tumors and pathology were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (v. 24). Of 667 patients with breast cancer, 129 patients had 150 additional ipsilateral mammographically occult tumors that were more than 2cm away from the edge of the primary tumor. One hundred twelve of 129 (86.8%) patients had one additional tumor and 17/129 (13.2%) had two or more additional tumors. In 71/129 (55.0%), additional tumors were located in a different quadrant and in 58/129 (45.0%) additional tumors were in the same quadrant but ≥2cm away. Overall, primary tumor size was significantly larger (mean 1.87± 1.25 cm) than the additional tumors (mean 0.79 ± 0.61cm, p < 0.001). However, in 20/129 (15.5%) the additional tumor was larger and in 26/129 (20.2%) the additional tumor was ≥1cm. The primary tumor was significantly more likely to be invasive (81.4%, 105/129) compared to additional tumors (70%, 105/150, p = 0.03). In 9/129 (7.0%) patients, additional tumors yielded unsuspected invasive cancer orhigher tumor grade. The additional tumor was more likely to be nonmass lesion type (37.3% vs 24% p = 0.02) and focus lesion type (10% vs 0.08%, p < 0.001) compared to primary tumor. Mammographically occult additional tumors identified more than 2cm away from the primary breast tumor on MRI are unlikely to be surgically treated if undiagnosed and may be clinically significant. Copyright

  1. SU-F-R-13: Decoding 18F-FDG Uptake Heterogeneity for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Texture Analysis in PET Images

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    Purpose: To explore 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity of primary tumor and lymphoma tumor by texture features of PET image and quantify the heterogeneity difference between primary tumor and lymphoma tumor. Methods: 18 patients with primary tumor and lymphoma tumor in lung cancer were enrolled. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans before treatment. Texture features, based on Gray-level Co-occurrence Matrix, second and high order matrices are extracted from code using MATLAB software to quantify 18F-FDG uptake heterogeneity. The relationships of volume between energy, entropy, correlation, homogeneity and contrast were analyzed. Results: For different cases, tumor heterogeneity was not the same. Texturemore » parameters (contrast, entropy, and correlation) of lymphoma were lower than primary tumor. On the contrast, the texture parameters (energy, homogeneity and inverse different moment) of lymphoma were higher than primary tumor. Significantly, correlations were observed between volume and energy (primary, r=−0.194, p=0.441; lymphoma, r=−0.339, p=0.582), homogeneity (primary, r=−0.146, p=0.382; lymphoma, r=−0.193, p=0.44), inverse difference moment (primary, r=−0.14, p=0.374; lymphoma, r=−0.172, p=0.414) and a positive correlation between volume and entropy (primary, r=0.233, p=0.483; lymphoma, r=0.462, p=0.680), contrast (primary, r=0.159, p=0.399; lymphoma, r=0.341, p=0.584), correlation (primary, r=0.027, p=0.165; lymphoma, r=0.046, p=0.215). For the same patient, energy for primary and lymphoma tumor is equal. The volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but the homogeneity were higher than primary tumor. Conclusion: This study showed that there were effective heterogeneity differences between primary and lymphoma tumor by FDG-PET image texture analysis.« less

  2. Mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma of unknown primary: can they be distinguished on liver MRI?

    PubMed

    Al Ansari, Najwa; Kim, Bong Soo; Srirattanapong, Saowanee; Semelka, Charles T A; Ramalho, Miguel; Altun, Ersan; Woosley, John T; Calvo, Benjamin; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-12-01

    To determine MR features suggestive of mass-forming cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or liver metastases of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (AUP), and to compare the ability of two experienced radiologists to establish the correct diagnosis. 61 patients with CCA or AUP, with MRIs were placed into two groups: population 1, 28 patients with certain diagnosis of either CCA or AUP; and population 2, 33 patients with uncertain diagnosis. Using population 1 with known diagnosis, two investigators formulated imaging criteria for CCA or AUP, which represented phase 1 of the study. In phase 2, two independent radiologists categorized the patients in populations 1 and 2 as CCA or AUP using the formulated criteria. This categorization was compared with the patient medical records and pathologist review. Findings were tested for statistical significance. In phase 1, solitary lesion, multifocal lesions with dominant lesion, capsule retraction, and porta hepatis lymphadenopathy were features of CCA; multifocal lesions with similar size, and ring enhancement were features of AUP. The number of lesions, capsule retraction, and early tumor enhancement pattern were observed to be significant features (P < 0.05). In phase 2, agreement between the two radiologists was good (k = 0.663). For population 1, the agreement was good (k = 0.659), and was fair for population 2 (k = 0.293). Concordance between the two radiologists, medical record, and the pathologist was found in 41/61 (67%) patients. Distinctive features of CCA and AUP are identifiable on MRI images, which may aid the radiologist to establish the correct diagnosis.

  3. Cutaneous perivascular epithelioid cell tumors: A review on an infrequent neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Requena, Luis; Mentzel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    “Perivascular epithelioid cutaneous” cell tumors (PEComa) are a family of mesenchymal tumors with shared microscopic and immunohistochemical properties: They exhibit both smooth muscle cell and melanocytic differentiation. Non-neoplastic counterpart of PEComa’s cells are unknown, as well as the relationship between extracutaneous PEComa and primary cutaneous ones. We will review the clinical setting, histopathologic features, chromosomal abnormalities, differential diagnosis and treatment options for cutaneous PEComa. PMID:27019799

  4. Hotspot mutation panel testing reveals clonal evolution in a study of 265 paired primary and metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Rashmi S; Patel, Keyur P; Singh, Rajesh R; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kopetz, E Scott; Subbiah, Vivek; Alvarez, Ricardo H; Davies, Michael A; Jabbar, Kausar J; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Lazar, Alexander J; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Broaddus, Russell R; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Routbort, Mark J

    2015-06-01

    We used a clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) hotspot mutation panel to investigate clonal evolution in paired primary and metastatic tumors. A total of 265 primary and metastatic tumor pairs were sequenced using a 46-gene cancer mutation panel capable of detecting one or more single-nucleotide variants as well as small insertions/deletions. Mutations were tabulated together with tumor type and percentage, mutational variant frequency, time interval between onset of primary tumor and metastasis, and neoadjuvant therapy status. Of note, 227 of 265 (85.7%) tumor metastasis pairs showed identical mutation calls. Of the tumor pairs with identical mutation calls, 160 (60.4%) possessed defining somatic mutation signatures and 67 (25.3%) did not exhibit any somatic mutations. There were 38 (14.3%) cases that showed at least one novel mutation call between the primary and metastasis. Metastases were almost two times more likely to show novel mutations (n = 20, 7.5%) than primary tumors (n = 12, 4.5%). TP53 was the most common additionally mutated gene in metastatic lesions, followed by PIK3CA and SMAD4. PIK3CA mutations were more often associated with metastasis in colon carcinoma samples. Clinical NGS hotspot panels can be useful in analyzing clonal evolution within tumors as well as in determining subclonal mutations that can expand in future metastases. PIK3CA, SMAD4, and TP53 are most often involved in clonal divergence, providing potential targets that may help guide the clinical management of tumor progression or metastases. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Next generation sequencing of carcinoma of unknown primary reveals novel combinatorial strategies in a heterogeneous mutational landscape

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Ishwaria M.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia; Subbiah, Vivek; Janku, Filip; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Hong, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Advanced carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) has limited effective therapeutic options given the phenotypic and genotypic diversity. To identify future novel therapeutic strategies we conducted an exploratory analysis of next-generation sequencing (NGS) of relapsed, refractory CUP. Methods We identified patients in our phase I clinic where archival tissue was available for a targeted NGS CLIA-certified assay. Results Of 17 patients tested, 15 (88%) demonstrated genomic alterations (median 2 aberrations; range 0–8, total 59 alterations). Nine (53%) patients had altered cell signaling including the PI3K/AKT/MTOR (n=5, 29%) and MAPK pathways (n=3,18%); 7 (41%) patients demonstrated ≥1 alterations in tumor suppressor genes (TP53 in 5 patients), 8 (47%) had impaired epigenetic regulation and DNA methylation, 8 (47%) had aberrant cell cycle regulation, commonly in the cyclin dependent kinases. Ten (59%) patients had alterations in transcriptional regulators. Concurrent mutations affecting cell cycle regulation were noted to occur with aberrant epigenetic regulation (n=6, 35%) and MAPK/PI3K pathway (n=5, 29%). Conclusion Every patient had a unique molecular profile with no two patients demonstrating an identical panel of mutations. We identify two emerging novel combinatorial strategies targeting impaired cell cycle arrest, first with epigenetic modifiers and, second, with MAPK/PI3K pathway inhibition. PMID:28781987

  6. Analysis of imaging characteristics of primary malignant bone tumors in children

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yingwei; Liu, Xueyong; Pan, Shinong; Deng, Chunbo; Li, Xiaohan; Guo, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the imaging characteristics of primary malignant bone tumors in children. The imaging results of 34 children with primary malignant bone tumors confirmed by histopathological diagnosis between March 2008 and January 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. In total, 25 patients had osteosarcoma, with radiography and computed tomography (CT) showing osteolytic bone destruction or/and osteoblastic bone sclerosis, an aggressive periosteal reaction, a soft-tissue mass and cancerous bone. The tumors appeared as mixed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals that were inhomogeneously enhanced. A total of 5 patients presented with Ewing sarcoma, with radiography and CT showing invasive bone destruction and a soft-tissue mass. Of the 5 cases, 2 showed a laminar periosteal reaction. The tumors were shown to have mixed low signal on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal on T2-weighted images (T2WI); 1 case showed marked inhomogeneous enhancement. Another 3 patients exhibited chondrosarcoma. Of these cases, 1 was adjacent to the cortex of the proximal tibia, and presented with local cortical bone destruction and a soft-tissue mass containing scattered punctate and amorphous calcifications. MRI revealed mixed low T1 signal and high T2 signals. Another case was located in the medullary cavity of the distal femur, with radiography revealing a localized periosteal reaction. The tumor appeared with mixed MRI signals, and with involvement of the epiphysis and epiphyseal plates. Radiography and CT of the third case showed bone destruction in the right pubic ramus, with patchy punctate, cambered calcifications in the soft-tissue mass. MRI of the soft-tissue mass revealed isointensity on T1WI and heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2WI. Ossifications and the septum appeared as low T1WI and T2WI. Of the 34 patients, 1 patient presented with lymphoma involving the T12, L1 and L2 vertebrae. CT showed vertebral bone destruction, a soft-tissue mass and a

  7. Primary chemotherapy to avoid mastectomy in tumors with diameters of three centimeters or more.

    PubMed

    Bonadonna, G; Veronesi, U; Brambilla, C; Ferrari, L; Luini, A; Greco, M; Bartoli, C; Coopmans de Yoldi, G; Zucali, R; Rilke, F

    1990-10-03

    In 165 women with breast cancer who were candidates for mastectomy because the largest diameter of the tumor was 3 cm or more, we administered primary chemotherapy in the attempt to substitute conservative for mutilating surgery. We then systematically quantitated tumor reduction by clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic evaluations. Five consecutive groups of 33 patients received cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF); fluorouracil, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and cyclophosphamide (FAC); or fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC). The regimens for the five groups were as follows: group 1, three cycles of CMF; group 2, four cycles of CMF; group 3, three cycles of FAC; group 4, four cycles of FAC; and group 5, three cycles of FEC. In response to primary chemotherapy, 157 of the 161 assessable patients showed measurable tumor shrinkage; progressive disease was documented in four. Tumor shrinkage to less than 3 cm was documented in 127 (81%) of the 157 women subjected to surgery, thus allowing a breast-saving procedure, rather than modified radical mastectomy, in these 127 women. Histopathologic complete remission was documented in seven patients. Tumor response was unrelated to age, menopausal status, DNA content (ploidy), [3H]thymidine-labeling index, drug combination used, or number of treatment cycles in excess of three. The degree of response was inversely proportional to the initial tumor size, and the frequency of response was greater in receptor-negative tumors. Severe vomiting and hair loss were less frequent with CMF than with anthracycline-containing regimens, and the frequency of severe leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was minimal. Our results challenge the classical indication for primary mastectomy by showing that use of full-dose primary chemotherapy, sequentially combined with conservative surgery and radiation, can offer an effective and safe alternative to women concerned about the preservation of body integrity.

  8. Relation between primary tumor FDG avidity and site of first distant metastasis in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Hong; Moon, Seung Hwan; Cho, Young Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Choe, Yearn Seong; Kim, Byung-Tae; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2016-08-01

    Identification of tumor imaging features associated with metastatic pattern may allow better understanding of cancer dissemination. Here, we investigated how primary tumor F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avidity influences the first site of breast cancer metastasis.Subjects were 264 patients with advanced breast cancer who underwent positron emission tomography/computed tomography at diagnosis and had metastasis at presentation (n = 193) or metastatic relapse after surgery (n = 71). Primary tumor FDG avidity (maximum SUV [SUVmax] ≥10.1) was compared with histology and first metastatic sites.The most common site of first metastasis was the bone, occurring in 62.7% of patients with metastasis at presentation and 38.0% of those with metastatic relapse. First metastasis to lung occurred in 30.1% and 35.2%, and to liver in 25.4% and 15.2% of respective groups. In patients with metastasis at presentation, primary tumors were FDG avid in 98/193 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (37.8% vs 22.1%; P = 0.018). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors were FDG avid in 31/71 cases, and this was associated with more frequent first metastasis to lung (48.4% vs 25.0%; P = 0.041) and liver (29.0% vs 5.0%; P = 0.008). In patients with metastasis relapse, primary tumors that were FDG avid but hormone receptor negative had more first metastasis to lung (57.9% vs 26.9%; P = 0.016).FDG-avid primary breast tumors have favored first spread to the lung and liver, which suggests that tumor cells with heightened glycolytic activity better colonize these organs.

  9. Deterministic Evolutionary Trajectories Influence Primary Tumor Growth: TRACERx Renal.

    PubMed

    Turajlic, Samra; Xu, Hang; Litchfield, Kevin; Rowan, Andrew; Horswell, Stuart; Chambers, Tim; O'Brien, Tim; Lopez, Jose I; Watkins, Thomas B K; Nicol, David; Stares, Mark; Challacombe, Ben; Hazell, Steve; Chandra, Ashish; Mitchell, Thomas J; Au, Lewis; Eichler-Jonsson, Claudia; Jabbar, Faiz; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Lynch, Joanna; Fernando, Archana; Stamp, Gordon; Nye, Emma; Stewart, Aengus; Xing, Wei; Smith, Jonathan C; Escudero, Mickael; Huffman, Adam; Matthews, Nik; Elgar, Greg; Phillimore, Ben; Costa, Marta; Begum, Sharmin; Ward, Sophia; Salm, Max; Boeing, Stefan; Fisher, Rosalie; Spain, Lavinia; Navas, Carolina; Grönroos, Eva; Hobor, Sebastijan; Sharma, Sarkhara; Aurangzeb, Ismaeel; Lall, Sharanpreet; Polson, Alexander; Varia, Mary; Horsfield, Catherine; Fotiadis, Nicos; Pickering, Lisa; Schwarz, Roland F; Silva, Bruno; Herrero, Javier; Luscombe, Nick M; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Rosenthal, Rachel; Birkbak, Nicolai J; Wilson, Gareth A; Pipek, Orsolya; Ribli, Dezso; Krzystanek, Marcin; Csabai, Istvan; Szallasi, Zoltan; Gore, Martin; McGranahan, Nicholas; Van Loo, Peter; Campbell, Peter; Larkin, James; Swanton, Charles

    2018-04-19

    The evolutionary features of clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have not been systematically studied to date. We analyzed 1,206 primary tumor regions from 101 patients recruited into the multi-center prospective study, TRACERx Renal. We observe up to 30 driver events per tumor and show that subclonal diversification is associated with known prognostic parameters. By resolving the patterns of driver event ordering, co-occurrence, and mutual exclusivity at clone level, we show the deterministic nature of clonal evolution. ccRCC can be grouped into seven evolutionary subtypes, ranging from tumors characterized by early fixation of multiple mutational and copy number drivers and rapid metastases to highly branched tumors with >10 subclonal drivers and extensive parallel evolution associated with attenuated progression. We identify genetic diversity and chromosomal complexity as determinants of patient outcome. Our insights reconcile the variable clinical behavior of ccRCC and suggest evolutionary potential as a biomarker for both intervention and surveillance. Copyright © 2018 Francis Crick Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High fidelity of driver chromosomal alterations among primary and metastatic renal cell carcinomas: implications for tumor clonal evolution and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kouba, Eril J; Eble, John N; Simper, Novae; Grignon, David J; Wang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Lisha; Martignoni, Guido; Williamson, Sean R; Brunelli, Matteo; Luchini, Claudio; Calió, Anna; Cheng, Liang

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated considerable genomic heterogeneity in both primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This mutational diversity has serious implications for the development and implementation of targeted molecular therapies. We evaluated 39 cases of primary RCC tumors with their matched metastatic tumors to determine if the hallmark chromosomal anomalies of these tumors are preserved over the course of disease progression. Thirty-nine matched pairs of primary and metastatic RCCs (20 clear cell RCC, 16 papillary RCC, and 3 chromophobe RCC) were analyzed. All clear cell RCC and papillary RCC tumors were evaluated for chromosome 3p deletion, trisomy 7 and 17 using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromophobe RCC tumors were evaluated for genetic alterations in chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, and 17. Of the 20 clear cell RCC tumors, 18 primary tumors (90%) showed a deletion of chromosome 3p and were disomic for chromosomes 7 and 17. All molecular aberrations were conserved within the matched metastatic tumor. Of the 16 papillary RCC tumors, 10 primary tumors (62%) showed trisomy for both chromosomes 7 and 17 without 3p deletion. These molecular aberrations and others were conserved in the paired metastatic tumors. Of the three chromophobe RCC tumors, multiple genetic anomalies were identified in chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, and 17. These chromosomal aberrations were conserved in the matched metastatic tumors. Our results demonstrated genomic fidelity among the primary and metastatic lesions in RCCs. These findings may have important clinical and diagnostic implications.

  11. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in primary brain tumor patients: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis Pranas; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Sliauzys, Albertas; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2016-12-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54.31±13.68years; 68% women) gender and age matched controls were obtained. The most common brain tumor diagnoses were meningioma (41%), glioblastoma (20%) and pituitary adenoma (16%). Right and left 2D:4D ratios, and right minus left 2D:4D (D r-l ) were compared between patients and controls, and were correlated with age. Right and left 2D:4D ratios were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to controls (t=-4.28, p<0.001 and t=-3.69, p<0.001, respectively). The D r-l was not different between brain tumor patients and controls (p=0.27). In meningioma and glioma patients, age at presentation correlated negatively with left 2D:4D ratio (rho=-0.42, p=0.01 and rho=-0.36, p=0.02, respectively) and positively with D r-l (rho=0.45, p=0.009 and rho=0.65, p=0.04, respectively). Right and left hand 2D:4D ratios are lower in primary brain tumor patients relative to healthy individuals suggesting greater prenatal testosterone and lower prenatal estrogen exposure in brain tumor patients. Greater age at presentation is associated with greater D r-l and with lower left 2D:4D ratio of meningioma and glioma patients. Due to small sample size our results should be considered preliminary and interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multiple Primary Merkel Cell Carcinomas Presenting as Pruritic, Painful Lower Leg Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Laura; VandenBoom, Timothy; Melian, Edward; Peterson, Anthony; Hutchens, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin which almost exclusively presents as a solitary tumor. It is most often seen on sun-exposed regions, historically almost exclusively on the head and neck, with only rare case reports on the extremities. Although recent studies have shown increased incidence with up to 20% on the extremities, here we present one of these rare emerging presentations, with the addition of a unique treatment option. Our patient is an 80-year-old male with a 3-month history of multiple raised, rapidly enlarging tumors on the right ankle. Two separate biopsies were performed and demonstrated sheets and clusters of small blue cells filling the dermis with scant cytoplasm, dusty chromatin, and nuclear molding. Subsequent immunohistochemical stains confirmed the diagnosis of multiple primary MCC. Despite the characteristic immunohistochemical profile of primary MCC, the possibility of a metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma from an alternate primary site was entertained, given his unusual clinical presentation. A complete clinical workup including CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no evidence of disease elsewhere. Instead of amputation, the patient opted for nonsurgical treatment with radiation therapy alone, resulting in a rapid and complete response. This case represents an unusual presentation of primary MCC and demonstrates further evidence that radiation as monotherapy is an effective local treatment option for inoperable MCC. PMID:26594171

  13. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor after 4 years tumor-free follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lambrescu, Ioana Maria; Martin, Sorina; Cima, Luminita; Herlea, Vlad; Badiu, Corin; Fica, Simona

    2015-06-01

    A primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumour (PHNET) is a very rare disease. The liver represents the preferential site for neuroendocrine tumors' metastases. A 45-year old Caucasian female who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, accompanied by diffuse abdominal pain was found to have on contrast-enhanced computer tomography an encapsulated, partially cystic liver mass. The patient underwent an uneventful left atypical hepatic resection. Histopatological and immunohistochemical examination revealed a slowly growing (G1) hepatic neuroendocrine tumour. Post surgery, the specific neuroendocrine markers (serum Chromogranin A and 24h urinary 5 hydroxy-indolacetic acid) were within normal range. Further functional imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. The patient is presently after 4 years of follow-up with no local recurrence or distant metastases. The diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge that requires a thorough long term follow-up in order to exclude an occult primary neuroendocrine tumour.

  14. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of the liver: CT/MRI findings and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Martin E; Chawla, Tanya P; Lavelle, Lisa P; Cleary, Sean; Fischer, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the CT and MRI features of primary PEComas of the liver and to document the associated clinical outcomes. Retrospective study included 20 patients with primary hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComa) with pathology and clinical outcomes for correlation. Study group included 20 patients: 16 women, 4 men; mean age 53 (range 35-77) years. Initial pathology diagnoses were classic angiomyolipoma (AML) (n = 11), epithelioid AML (n = 7), and PEComa not otherwise specified (n = 2). Mean tumor size was 5.1 (range 1.3-15.0) cm. CT/MRI features included well-defined margins 20/20 (100%), arterial enhancement 18/19 (95%), subcapsular location 17/20 (85%), heterogeneous 16/20 (80%), dysmorphic vessels 14/20 (70%), fat 13/20 (65%), hemorrhage 4/20 (20%), cystic components 4/20 (20%), and calcification 1/20 (5%). At the time of discovery, 18 patients were asymptomatic and their tumors were incidentally detected on imaging, and 2 patients were symptomatic. Ultimately, 18 tumors were benign and 2 developed metastases. On CT/MRI, most primary hepatic PEComas were well-defined, arterial enhancing, subcapsular, heterogeneous masses that often had dysmorphic vessels and contained fat. Most tumors were benign but complications included local symptoms, bleeding, and malignant change.

  15. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors: current concepts and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Margaret; Minn, Yuriko; Chew, Terri; Bondy, Melissa; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a sufficiently detailed perspective on epidemiologic studies of primary brain tumors to encourage multidisciplinary etiologic and prognostic studies among surgeons, neuro-oncologists, epidemiologists, and molecular scientists. Molecular tumor markers that predict survival and treatment response are being identified with hope of even greater gains in this area from emerging array technologies. Regarding risk factors, studies of inherited susceptibility and constitutive polymorphisms in genes pertinent to carcinogenesis (for example, DNA repair and detoxification genes and mutagen sensitivity) have revealed provocative findings. Inverse associations of the history of allergies with glioma risk observed in 3 large studies and reports of inverse associations of glioma with common infections suggest a possible role of immune factors in glioma genesis or progression. Studies continue to suggest that brain tumors might result from workplace, dietary, and other personal and residential exposures, but studies of cell phone use and power frequency electromagnetic fields have found little to support a causal connection with brain tumors; caveats remain. The only proven causes of brain tumors (that is, rare hereditary syndromes, therapeutic radiation, and immune suppression giving rise to brain lymphomas) account for a small proportion of cases. Progress in understanding primary brain tumors might result from studies of well-defined histologic and molecular tumor types incorporating assessment of potentially relevant information on subject susceptibility and environmental and noninherited endogenous factors (viruses, radiation, and carcinogenic or protective chemical exposures through diet, workplace, oxidative metabolism, or other sources). Such studies will require the cooperation of researchers from many disciplines. PMID:12356358

  16. ACUPS (adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site): a clinical and cost benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, C.S.; Langlands, A.O.

    1987-10-01

    A retrospective review of 287 patients with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma unknown primary site was performed. These patients represented 2.9% of the new referrals to the Westmead Department of Radiation Oncology between the years 1979 and 1985. Age, sex, and survival characteristics of the study population are presented. Tissue biopsy procedures are reviewed and the uniform necessity of open biopsy is questioned in the light of recent advances in FNA (fine needle aspirate) techniques. A semi-quantitative analysis of the monetary cost of the investigation of these patients has been performed. This has been correlated with the objective and symptomatic benefitmore » accrued by the patient population. A higher incidence of speculative, low-yield investigations has been demonstrated for those patients referred from general medical and surgical units. Ante-mortem identification of the primary site remains the exception rather than the rule in this and other series. This fact, coupled with an inability of therapeutic intervention to alter the natural history of the disease means the cost and toxicity of investigation and treatment of these patients must influence approaches to their management.« less

  17. Unknown primary Merkel cell carcinoma: 23 new cases and a review.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Tina I; Vallow, Laura A; Halyard, Michele Y; Weenig, Roger H; Warschaw, Karen E; Weaver, Amy L; Roenigk, Randall K; Brewer, Jerry D; Otley, Clark C

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding unknown primary Merkel cell carcinoma (UPMCC). We sought to document the characteristics and behavior of UPMCC, and determine the most appropriate treatment. A multicenter, retrospective, consecutive study reviewing patients given a diagnosis of UPMCC between 1981 and 2008 was completed. In addition, a literature review of cases of UPMCC was performed. In all, 23 patients with UPMCC are described and 34 cases from previous reports are compiled. Among the 23 new cases of UPMCC, the average age at diagnosis was 66.0 years; the majority of patients were male (87%) and Caucasian (100% of those reported). One patient was immunosuppressed, and 39% had a history of other cancer. After the initial biopsy, 16 patients had further evaluation of the involved lymph node basin. Half of these had additional positive nodes (8 of 16). The majority of patients had lymph node basin involvement only (78%), whereas 22% had lymph node basin and distant metastasis. The most common lymph node basin involved was inguinal. The median size of the involved lymph node at diagnosis was 5.0 cm. At 2 years, the overall survival of stage IIIB UPMCC was significantly improved versus stage IIIB known primary Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC): 76.9% to 36.4%. Limited number of cases and retrospective review are limitations. Our data demonstrate improved overall survival in patients with stage IIIB UPMCC versus those with stage IIIB known primary MCC. Because of the unpredictable natural history of UPMCC, we recommend individualization of care based on the details of each patient's clinical presentation. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Computed tomography findings of ovarian metastases from colon cancer: comparison with primary malignant ovarian tumors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyuck Jae; Lee, Joo-Hyuk; Seo, Sang-Soo; Lee, Sun; Kim, Seok Ki; Kim, Joo-Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Young Hoon

    2005-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) findings of ovarian metastases from colon cancer were evaluated and were compared with those of primary malignant ovarian tumors. Sixteen patients with 21 masses from colon cancer and 20 patients with 31 primary malignant ovarian tumors were included in this study. The CT findings (laterality, size, margin, shape, mass characteristic, strong enhancement of cyst wall, enhancement of solid portion, amount of ascites, peritoneal seeding, lymph node enlargement, and metastasis) and ages of the patients in both groups were compared. Univariate analysis, the Pearson chi test, and the independent-samples t test were used to distinguish them. A smooth margin of the tumor (odds ratio=24.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.9-204.2) and cystic nature of the mass (Pearson chi=12.96, P=0.005) were strong predictors of ovarian metastasis from colon cancer. Ovarian metastases from colon cancer show a smooth margin and more cystic nature on CT compared with primary malignant ovarian tumors.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma primary cultures maintain genomic and phenotypic profile of parental tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Cifola, Ingrid; Bianchi, Cristina; Mangano, Eleonora; Bombelli, Silvia; Frascati, Fabio; Fasoli, Ester; Ferrero, Stefano; Di Stefano, Vitalba; Zipeto, Maria A; Magni, Fulvio; Signorini, Stefano; Battaglia, Cristina; Perego, Roberto A

    2011-06-13

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by recurrent copy number alterations (CNAs) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH), which may have potential diagnostic and prognostic applications. Here, we explored whether ccRCC primary cultures, established from surgical tumor specimens, maintain the DNA profile of parental tumor tissues allowing a more confident CNAs and LOH discrimination with respect to the original tissues. We established a collection of 9 phenotypically well-characterized ccRCC primary cell cultures. Using the Affymetrix SNP array technology, we performed the genome-wide copy number (CN) profiling of both cultures and corresponding tumor tissues. Global concordance for each culture/tissue pair was assayed evaluating the correlations between whole-genome CN profiles and SNP allelic calls. CN analysis was performed using the two CNAG v3.0 and Partek software, and comparing results returned by two different algorithms (Hidden Markov Model and Genomic Segmentation). A very good overlap between the CNAs of each culture and corresponding tissue was observed. The finding, reinforced by high whole-genome CN correlations and SNP call concordances, provided evidence that each culture was derived from its corresponding tissue and maintained the genomic alterations of parental tumor. In addition, primary culture DNA profile remained stable for at least 3 weeks, till to third passage. These cultures showed a greater cell homogeneity and enrichment in tumor component than original tissues, thus enabling a better discrimination of CNAs and LOH. Especially for hemizygous deletions, primary cultures presented more evident CN losses, typically accompanied by LOH; differently, in original tissues the intensity of these deletions was weaken by normal cell contamination and LOH calls were missed. ccRCC primary cultures are a reliable in vitro model, well-reproducing original tumor genetics and phenotype, potentially useful for future functional approaches

  20. Polyclonal origin of parathyroid tumors is common and is associated with multiple gland disease in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuhong; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Jamingal, Sarada; Wentworth, Shannon; Ferlitch, Janice; Koh, James; Balenga, Nariman; Olson, John A

    2018-01-01

    Parathyroid tumors are mostly considered monoclonal neoplasms, the rationale for focused parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism. We reported that flow sorting parathyroid tumor cells and methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (me-PCR) of polymorphic human androgen receptor gene and phosphoglycerate kinase gene alleles in deoxyribonucleic acid reveals that ≤35% of parathyroid tumors are polyclonal. We sought to confirm these findings and assess for clinical relevance. Parathyroid tumors from 286 female primary hyperparathyroidism patients were analyzed for clonal status. Tumor clonal status was compared with clinical variables and operative findings. Statistical analysis was performed and significance was established at P < .05. In the study, 176 (62%) patients were informative for human androgen receptor gene and/or phosphoglycerate kinase gene. Assignment of clonal status was made in 119 (68%) tumors, of which 64 (54%) were monoclonal and 55 (46%) were polyclonal. Comparison of tumor clonal status to clinical variables in patients with complete operative data (N = 82) showed that while clinical features were the same between tumor types, patients with polyclonal tumors more often had multiple gland disease (risk ratio 4.066, confidence interval, 1.016-16.26; P = .039) potentially missed at unilateral neck exploration. This work confirms that primary hyperparathyroidism is often the result of polyclonal tumors and that parathyroid tumor clonal status may be associated with multiple gland disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Primary tumor location predicts poor clinical outcome with cetuximab in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dalyong; Kim, Sun Young; Lee, Ji Sung; Hong, Yong Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Kyu-Pyo; Kim, Jihun; Jang, Se Jin; Yoon, Young-Kwang; Kim, Tae Won

    2017-11-23

    In metastatic colorectal cancer, the location of the primary tumor has been suggested to have biological significance. In this study, we investigated whether primary tumor location affects cetuximab efficacy in patients with RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. Genotyping by the SequenomMassARRAY technology platform (OncoMap) targeting KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF was performed in tumors from 307 patients who had been given cetuximab as salvage treatment. Tumors with mutated RAS (KRAS or NRAS; n = 127) and those with multiple primary location (n = 10) were excluded. Right colon cancer was defined as a tumor located in the proximal part to splenic flexure. A total of 170 patients were included in the study (right versus left, 23 and 147, respectively). Patients with right colon cancer showed more mutated BRAF (39.1% vs. 5.4%), mutated PIK3CA (13% vs. 1.4%), poorly differentiated tumor (17.4% vs. 3.4%), and peritoneal involvement (26.1% vs. 8.8%) than those with left colon and rectal cancer. Right colon cancer showed poorer progression-free survival (2.0 vs.5.0 months, P = 0.002) and overall survival (4.1 months and 13.0 months, P < 0.001) than the left colon and rectal cancer. By multivariable analysis, BRAF mutation, right colon primary, poorly differentiated histology, and peritoneal involvement were associated with risk of death. In RAS wild-type colon cancer treated with cetuximab as salvage treatment, right colon primary was associated with poorer survival outcomes than left colon and rectal cancer.

  2. Primary intra-abdominal malignant fibrous histiocytoma: a highly aggressive tumor.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S; Gourgiotis, Stavros; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Karameris, Andreas; Tsohataridis, Efstathios

    2010-12-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of late adult life occurring predominantly in the extremities. Primary intra-abdominal MFH is a very rare occurrence. The aim of this study is to describe a very rare case of an intra-abdominal MFH with a highly aggressive clinical course. A 67-year-old male was referred to our department with a 2-week history of dull lower abdominal pain and a gradually enlarging right lower abdominal mass, which he first noticed 2 months prior to admission. Computed tomography (CT) scan demonstrated a mass in the right iliac fossa. On exploratory laparotomy, a tumor was found in the right iliac fossa attached to the parietal lateral peritoneum without any evidence of invasion into the adjacent structures. Complete excision of the tumor with clear margins was performed. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations showed a MFH. One month after surgery, while on adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient was readmitted with dyspnea and a slightly palpable mass in the area of the previous radical resection. CT scan revealed local tumor recurrence along with multiple pulmonary metastatic deposits. Unfortunately, despite treatment, the patient died of progressive disease 5 weeks later. Primary intra-abdominal MFH is a very rare but aggressive malignancy with a high tendency of local recurrence and metastatic spread. Early detection and complete surgical excision with clear margins is the treatment of choice. In some cases, however, the tumor can exhibit a highly aggressive clinical course despite radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.

  3. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become moremore » pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.« less

  4. Recurrent Merkel cell carcinoma of the testis with unknown primary site: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mweempwa, Angela; Tan, Alvin; Dray, Michael

    2016-11-05

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine tumor that commonly arises in the skin. It is rare for it to occur in the testes. There are only seven cases of testicular Merkel cell carcinoma reported in the literature. A 66-year-old Maori man presented to our hospital with left testicular swelling. His alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels were within normal limits. His lactate dehydrogenase concentration was elevated to 267 U/L. Ultrasound imaging confirmed a large testicular mass, and he underwent left orchiectomy. His histological examination revealed a neuroendocrine tumor with an immunostaining pattern suggesting Merkel cell carcinoma. He presented to our hospital again 3 months later with right testicular swelling that was confirmed on ultrasound sonography to be a tumor. He underwent a right orchiectomy, and his histological examination revealed metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. A primary lesion was not identified, and computed tomographic imaging did not reveal spread to other organs. He received six cycles of adjuvant carboplatin and etoposide chemotherapy and remained disease-free 18 months after completion of chemotherapy. Given the paucity of studies, standard adjuvant treatment for testicular Merkel cell carcinoma remains uncertain, although platinum-based chemotherapy seems to be an appropriate option.

  5. Tracing the origin of disseminated tumor cells in breast cancer using single-cell sequencing.

    PubMed

    Demeulemeester, Jonas; Kumar, Parveen; Møller, Elen K; Nord, Silje; Wedge, David C; Peterson, April; Mathiesen, Randi R; Fjelldal, Renathe; Zamani Esteki, Masoud; Theunis, Koen; Fernandez Gallardo, Elia; Grundstad, A Jason; Borgen, Elin; Baumbusch, Lars O; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; White, Kevin P; Kristensen, Vessela N; Van Loo, Peter; Voet, Thierry; Naume, Bjørn

    2016-12-09

    Single-cell micro-metastases of solid tumors often occur in the bone marrow. These disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may resist therapy and lay dormant or progress to cause overt bone and visceral metastases. The molecular nature of DTCs remains elusive, as well as when and from where in the tumor they originate. Here, we apply single-cell sequencing to identify and trace the origin of DTCs in breast cancer. We sequence the genomes of 63 single cells isolated from six non-metastatic breast cancer patients. By comparing the cells' DNA copy number aberration (CNA) landscapes with those of the primary tumors and lymph node metastasis, we establish that 53% of the single cells morphologically classified as tumor cells are DTCs disseminating from the observed tumor. The remaining cells represent either non-aberrant "normal" cells or "aberrant cells of unknown origin" that have CNA landscapes discordant from the tumor. Further analyses suggest that the prevalence of aberrant cells of unknown origin is age-dependent and that at least a subset is hematopoietic in origin. Evolutionary reconstruction analysis of bulk tumor and DTC genomes enables ordering of CNA events in molecular pseudo-time and traced the origin of the DTCs to either the main tumor clone, primary tumor subclones, or subclones in an axillary lymph node metastasis. Single-cell sequencing of bone marrow epithelial-like cells, in parallel with intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity profiling from bulk DNA, is a powerful approach to identify and study DTCs, yielding insight into metastatic processes. A heterogeneous population of CNA-positive cells is present in the bone marrow of non-metastatic breast cancer patients, only part of which are derived from the observed tumor lineages.

  6. Predictors of outcomes in patients with primary retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Keung, Emily Z; Hornick, Jason L; Bertagnolli, Monica M; Baldini, Elizabeth H; Raut, Chandrajit P

    2014-02-01

    Although sarcoma histology is recognized as a prognostic factor, most studies of retroperitoneal sarcomas report results combining multiple histologies and are inadequately powered to identify prognostic factors specific to a particular histology. We reviewed our experience with retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcoma (RP DDLPS) to identify factors predictive of outcomes. All patients with RP DDLPS treated at our institution between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of progression-free survival (PFS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS), and overall survival (OS). We identified 119 patients with primary DDLPS. Median tumor size was 20.5 cm; 21% were multifocal. French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group tumor grades were intermediate in 53% of patients and high in 28% (unknown 19%). Resections were complete (R0/R1) in 80% of patients and incomplete (R2) in 11% (unknown 9%). Tumors were removed intact in 72% of patients and fragmented in 16% (unknown 12%). Median follow-up was 74.1 months. One hundred patients (84%) experienced recurrence or progression, with 92% occurring in the retroperitoneum. Median PFS, LRFS, DRFS, and OS were 21.1, 21.5, 45.8, and 59.0 months, respectively, and were significantly worse with R2 resection. On multivariate analysis, tumor integrity (intact vs fragmented) was predictive of PFS, multifocality predicted LRFS, and extent of resection (R0/R1 vs R2), grade, and tumor integrity predicted OS. In this cohort of primary RP DDLPS, factors under surgeon control (tumor integrity, extent of resection) and reflective of tumor biology (grade, multifocality) impact patient outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential proteomic profiling of primary and recurrent chordomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Xu, Wei; Jiao, Jian; Jiang, Dongjie; Liu, Jian; Chen, Tenghui; Wan, Zongmiao; Xu, Leqin; Zhou, Zhenhua; Xiao, Jianru

    2015-05-01

    Chordomas are locally destructive tumors with high rates of recurrence and a poor prognosis. The mechanisms involved in chordoma recurrence remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the proteomic profile of a chordoma primary tumor (CSO) and a recurrent tumor (CSR) through mass spectrum in a chordoma patient who underwent surgery. Bioinformatic analysis of the profile showed that 359 proteins had a significant expression difference and 21 pathways had a striking alteration between the CSO and the CSR. The CSR showed a significant increase in carbohydrate metabolism. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that the cancer stem cell marker activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM or CD166) expression level was higher in the recurrent than that in the primary tumor. The present study analyzed the proteomic profile change between CSO and CSR and identified a new biomarker ALCAM in recurrent chordomas. This finding sheds light on unraveling the pathophysiology of chordoma recurrence and on exploring more effective prognostic biomarkers and targeted therapies against this devastating disease.

  8. Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Sun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hy-Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2007-08-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES-PNET) of the uterus is an extremely rare malignancy. A 30-year-old Korean woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. A computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge uterine mass measuring 18 x 20 x 21 cm, metastasis to both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, and omental infiltration. The pathology report of the uterine mass described a uniformly hypercellular tumor, which was arranged in diffuse solid sheets of uniform, small, rounded, and sometimes spindle-shaped cells, with scanty cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the mass tested positive for vimentin, CD99, and chromogranin. The patient received several courses of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but died from tumor progression 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary uterine ES-PNET in a woman of reproductive age. A review of the literature indicates that primary uterine ES-PNET requires early diagnosis and multimodality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The behavior of this tumor is potentially aggressive.

  9. Primary tumor resection in metastatic breast cancer: A propensity-matched analysis, 1988-2011 SEER data base.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Nasreen A; Brinkley, Jason; Kachare, Swapnil; Muzaffar, Mahvish

    2018-03-02

    Primary tumor resection (PTR) in metastatic breast cancer is not a standard treatment modality, and its impact on survival is conflicting. The primary objective of this study was to analyze impact of PTR on survival in metastatic patients with breast cancer. A retrospective study of metastatic patients with breast cancer was conducted using the 1988-2011 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data base. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between PTR and survival and to adjust for the heterogeneity between the groups, and a propensity score-matched analysis was also performed. A total of 29 916 patients with metastatic breast cancer were included in the study, and 15 129 (51%) of patients underwent primary tumor resection, and 14 787 (49%) patients did not undergo surgery. Overall, decreasing trend in PTR for metastatic breast cancer in last decades was noted. Primary tumor resection was associated with a longer median OS (34 vs 18 months). In a propensity score-matched analysis, prognosis was also more favorable in the resected group (P = .0017). Primary tumor resection in metastatic breast cancer was associated with survival improvement, and the improvement persisted in propensity-matched analysis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Intratumoral hemorrhage because of primary spinal mixed germ cell tumor presenting with atypical radiological features in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Junkoh; Takahashi, Mayu; Nakano, Yoshiteru; Saito, Takeshi; Kitagawa, Takehiro; Ueta, Kunihiro; Miyaoka, Ryo; Nakamura, Eiichiro; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    Germ cell tumors are known to arise in the central nervous system, usually in the intracranial regions. However, primary spinal mixed germ cell tumors are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of intratumoral hemorrhage because of a primary spinal mixed germ cell tumor consisting of germinoma and immature teratoma in the conus medullaris of an adult patient that presented with rapid changes on magnetic resonance image (MRI). We report this rare case and discuss the clinical manifestations of an intramedullary spinal mixed germ cell tumor in adult. A case report. A 42-year-old woman experienced buttock numbness, and a spinal cord tumor was observed on the conus medullaris on MRI. The patient was scheduled for an operation in 1 month, but she developed sudden-onset neurologic deterioration. Rapid progression of the tumor was observed on follow-up MRI. The tumor was removed by emergency surgery and was identified as a primary mixed germinoma and immature teratoma. The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy after gross total resection. The neurologic deficit of the patient was relieved, and recurrence of the tumor was not observed 26 months after the surgery. We present this rare case and emphasize the necessity of precise diagnosis and early treatment of primary spinal germ cell tumor. Close observation on MRI is required after surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be considered according to the pathologic features. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ribonuclease binase inhibits primary tumor growth and metastases via apoptosis induction in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Mironova, Nadezhda L; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Patutina, Olga A; Sen'kova, Aexandra V; Simonenko, Olga V; Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Markov, Oleg V; Zenkova, Marina A; Makarov, Alexander A

    2013-07-01

    Exogenous ribonucleases are known to inhibit tumor growth via apoptosis induction in tumor cells, allowing to consider them as promising anticancer drugs for clinical application. In this work the antitumor potential of binase was evaluated in vivo and the mechanism of cytotoxic effect of binase on tumor cells was comprehensively studied in vitro. We investigated tumoricidal activity of binase using three murine tumor models of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), lymphosarcoma RLS 40 and melanoma B-16. We show for the first time that intraperitoneal injection of binase at a dose range 0.1-5 mg/kg results in retardation of primary tumor growth up to 45% in LLC and RLS 40 and inhibits metastasis up to 50% in LLC and RLS 40 and up to 70% in B-16 melanoma. Binase does not exhibit overall toxic effect and displays a general systemic and immunomodulatory effects. Treatment of RLS 40-bearing animals with binase together with polychemotherapy revealed that binase decreases the hepatotoxicity of polychemotherapy while maintaining its antitumor effect. It was demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of binase is realized via the induction of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway is manifested by a drop of mitochondrial potential, increase in calcium concentration and inhibition of respiratory activity. Subsequent synthesis of TNF-α in the cells under the action of binase triggers extrinsic apoptotic pathway through the binding of TNF with cell-death receptors and activation of caspase 8. Thus binase is a potential anticancer therapeutics inducing apoptosis in cancer cells.

  12. Primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column: review of pathology and surgical decision making.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Eli, Ilyas M; Schmidt, Meic H; Brockmeyer, Douglas L

    2016-08-01

    Spinal column tumors are rare in children and young adults, accounting for only 1% of all spine and spinal cord tumors combined. They often present diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In this article, the authors review the current management of primary osseous tumors of the pediatric spinal column and highlight diagnosis, management, and surgical decision making.

  13. Long-term primary culture of mouse mammary tumor cells: production of virus.

    PubMed

    Young, L J; Cardiff, R D; Ashley, R L

    1975-05-01

    Long-term primary cultures of mouse mammary tumor cells proved an excellent source of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). Virus purified from these primary cultures had the same morphologic biochemical, immunologic, and biologic characteristics as MMTV. Quantitation of MMTV-protein equivalents released into the medium was measured by the radioimmunoassay for MMTV. Peak production levels were 20-40 mug MMTV protien equivalents/75-cm-2 flask/24 hours. These cultures produced MMTV for as long as 90 days. MMTV cultivation depended on the initial cell-plating density and hormones. Maximal MMTV release was obtained at a plating density of 1 times 10-6 cells/cm-2 in the presence of insulin and hydrocortisone. Insulin alone gave basal levels of MMTV, and hydrocortisone alone increased MMTV release only three-fold, but insulin and hydrocortisone together effected an eightfold increase in MMTV release. This suggested that hydrocortisone had a primary effect on MMTV release and insulin acted synergistically with hydrocortisone to maximize MMTV release.

  14. Stromal Gene Expression and Function in Primary Breast Tumors that Metastasize to Bone Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    surrounding bone microenvironment were investigated by purifying endothelial cells from tumor-burdened and non-tumor burdened spines . 4T1...of Balb/c mice. Fresh resected tissue (normal fat pad, primary tumor tissue or the metastatic sites spine , femur and lung) was obtained and cell... Hedgehog signalling pathway: Lasp1, CREBBP/EP300 inhibitory protein 1 and FoxP1. Of interest as well are a number of differentially regulated ESTs

  15. Primary tumor location as a predictor of the benefit of palliative resection for colorectal cancer with unresectable metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Xin; Ma, Wen-Juan; Gu, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Qi; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Gu, Yang-Kui

    2017-07-27

    It is still under debate that whether stage IV colorectal cancer patients with unresectable metastasis can benefit from primary tumor resection, especially for asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients. Retrospective studies have shown controversial results concerning the benefit from surgery. This retrospective study aims to evaluate whether the site of primary tumor is a predictor of palliative resection in asymptomatic stage IV colorectal cancer patients. One hundred ninety-four patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer were selected from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center Database in the period between January 2007 and December 2013. All information was carefully reviewed and collected, including the treatment, age, sex, carcinoembryonic antigen, site of tumor, histology, cancer antigen 199, number of liver metastases, and largest diameter of liver metastasis. The univariate and multivariate analyses were used to detect the relationship between primary tumor resection and overall survival of unresectable stage IV colorectal cancer patients. One hundred twenty-five received palliative resection, and 69 received only chemotherapy. Multivariate analysis indicated that primary tumor site was one of the independent factors (RR 0.569, P = 0.007) that influenced overall survival. For left-side colon cancer patients, primary tumor resection prolonged the median overall survival time for 8 months (palliative resection vs. no palliative resection: 22 vs. 14 months, P = 0.009); however, for right-side colon cancer patients, palliative resection showed no benefit (12 vs. 10 months, P = 0.910). This study showed that left-side colon cancer patients might benefit from the primary tumor resection in terms of overall survival. This result should be further explored in a prospective study.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Ovarian Tumors From Extragenital Primary Sites.

    PubMed

    Sal, Veysel; Demirkiran, Fuat; Topuz, Samet; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Yalcin, Ibrahim; Bese, Tugan; Sozen, Hamdullah; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Salihoglu, Yavuz; Turan, Hasan; Iyibozkurt, Cem; Kolomuc, Tugba; Sofiyeva, Nigar; Berkman, Sinan; Arvas, Macit

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes and prognostic factors of metastasectomy in patients with metastatic ovarian tumors from extragenital primary sites. All patients with pathologically confirmed metastatic ovarian tumors between January 1997 and June 2015 were included in this study. A total of 131 patients were identified. The data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clinicopathological features were evaluated by both univariate and multivariate analyses. The primary sites were colorectal region (53.4%), stomach (26%), and breast (13%). Preoperative serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels were elevated in 29.4% and 39.8% of the patients, respectively. Cytoreductive surgery was performed in 41.2% of the patients. Seventy-three (55.7%) patients had no residual disease after surgery. Sixty-six (49.6%) patients had combined metastases at the time of the surgery to sites including the liver, pancreas, lung, bone, lymph nodes, bladder, or the intestine. With a median follow-up of 33 months, the median survival time was 22 months. The estimated 5-year survival probability is 0.26. On univariate analysis, primary cancer site, combined metastasis outside the ovaries, residual disease, preoperative serum CA 125 and CA 19-9 levels, and histologic type were significant parameters for overall survival. Furthermore, residual disease, preoperative serum CA 19-9 level, and primary cancer site were found to be independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. The most common primary sites for ovarian metastasis are gastrointestinal tract. Metastasectomy may have beneficial effects on survival, especially if the residual disease is less than 5 mm. Prospective studies warranted to evaluate the value of metastasectomy in patients with ovarian metastasis.

  17. BRAF/NRAS mutation frequencies among primary tumors and metastases in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Colombino, Maria; Capone, Mariaelena; Lissia, Amelia; Cossu, Antonio; Rubino, Corrado; De Giorgi, Vincenzo; Massi, Daniela; Fonsatti, Ester; Staibano, Stefania; Nappi, Oscar; Pagani, Elena; Casula, Milena; Manca, Antonella; Sini, Mariacristina; Franco, Renato; Botti, Gerardo; Caracò, Corrado; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo A; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2012-07-10

    The prevalence of BRAF, NRAS, and p16CDKN2A mutations during melanoma progression remains inconclusive. We investigated the prevalence and distribution of mutations in these genes in different melanoma tissues. In all, 291 tumor tissues from 132 patients with melanoma were screened. Paired samples of primary melanomas (n = 102) and synchronous or asynchronous metastases from the same patients (n = 165) were included. Tissue samples underwent mutation analysis (automated DNA sequencing). Secondary lesions included lymph nodes (n = 84), and skin (n = 36), visceral (n = 25), and brain (n = 44) sites. BRAF/NRAS mutations were identified in 58% of primary melanomas (43% BRAF; 15% NRAS); 62% in lymph nodes, 61% subcutaneous, 56% visceral, and 70% in brain sites. Mutations were observed in 63% of metastases (48% BRAF; 15% NRAS), a nonsignificant increase in mutation frequency after progression from primary melanoma. Of the paired samples, lymph nodes (93% consistency) and visceral metastases (96% consistency) presented a highly similar distribution of BRAF/NRAS mutations versus primary melanomas, with a significantly less consistent pattern in brain (80%) and skin metastases (75%). This suggests that independent subclones are generated in some patients. p16CDKN2A mutations were identified in 7% and 14% of primary melanomas and metastases, with a low consistency (31%) between secondary and primary tumor samples. In the era of targeted therapies, assessment of the spectrum and distribution of alterations in molecular targets among patients with melanoma is needed. Our findings about the prevalence of BRAF/NRAS/p16CDKN2A mutations in paired tumor lesions from patients with melanoma may be useful in the management of this disease.

  18. Carcinoma of unknown primary: key radiological issues from the recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, M B; Bromham, N R; Arnold, S E

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) accounts for 3–5% of cancer cases and is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the UK. CUP management is challenging, partly owing to the heterogeneity of the condition and its presentation, but also owing to the lack of dedicated clinical services for these patients. The recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on metastatic malignancy of unknown primary origin were developed to improve the co-ordination of diagnostic and clinical services at hospitals treating cancer patients in England and Wales, in particular by the setting up of CUP teams to manage these patients. Radiologists have a vital role in the diagnosis of these patients and should work closely with the CUP team to streamline the diagnostic pathway. This article summarises areas of the NICE guidelines relevant to radiology and discusses the radiological management of patients with CUP, including initial investigation, the importance of biopsy, the management of specific presentations, special investigations and organisational issues. PMID:22374278

  19. [Regression and therapy-resistance of primary liver tumors and liver metastases after regional chemotherapy and local tumor ablation].

    PubMed

    Fischer, H-P

    2005-05-01

    High dosage regional chemotherapy, chemoembolization and other methods of regional treatment are commonly used to treat unresectable primary liver malignancies and liver metastases. In liver malignancies of childhood neoadjuvant chemotherapy is successfully combined with surgical treatment. Chemotherapy and local tumor ablation lead to characteristic histomorphologic changes: Complete destruction of the tumor tissue and its vascular bed is followed by encapsulated necroses. After selective eradication of the tumor cells under preservation of the fibrovasular bed the tumor is replaced by hypocellular edematous and fibrotic tissue. If completely damaged tumor tissue is absorbed quickly, the tumor area is replaced by regenerating liver tissue. Obliterating fibrohyalinosis of tumor vessels, and perivascular edema or necrosis indicate tissue damage along the vascular bed. Degenerative pleomorphism of tumor cells, steatosis, hydropic swelling and Malloryhyalin in HCC can represent cytologic findings of cytotoxic cellular damage. Macroscopic type of HCC influences significantly the response to treatment. Multinodular HCC often contain viable tumor nodules close to destroyed nodules after treatment. Encapsulated uninodular tumors undergo complete necrosis much easier. Large size and a tumor capsule limitate the effect of percutaneous injection of ethanol into HCC. In carcinomas with an infiltrating border, especially in metastases of adenocarcinomas and hepatic cholangiocarcinoma cytostatic treatment damages the tumor tissue mainly in the periphery. Nevertheless the infiltrating rim, portal veins, lymphatic spaces and bile ducts as well as the angle between liver capsule, tumor nodule and bordering parenchyma are the main refugees of viable tumor tissue even after high dosage regional chemotherapy. This local resistance is caused by special local conditions of vascularization and perfusion. These residues are the source of local tumor progression and distant metastases

  20. [Gynecological malignant tumor related multiple primary malignant neoplasms: clinical analysis of 30 cases].

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Zhou, Shulin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Yicong; Ma, Jingjing; Fu, Shilong; Cheng, Wenjun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the clinical features of gynecological malignant tumor related multiple primary malignant neoplasms (MPMN). Apply retrospective and comprehensive analysis to the clinical data of 30 patients with gynecological malignant tumor related MPMN. Synchronous MPMN were found in 9 patients. Their average age was 50.2 years old and their median age was 49 years old. The neoplasms were located at ovary, uterus, cervix, breast and intestine. Metachronous MPMN were found in 21 patients. Their average age was 57.7 and their median age was 57 years old. The median interval between the first and the second primary malignant neoplasm was 4.0 years. The neoplasms were located at breast, ovary, uterus, gastrointestinal tract, uterine cervix, lung etc. In 30 cases, 26 of them were treated by surgical operation and further adjunctive treatment of chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy was conducted as per the neoplasm staging and its pathological results. The rest 4 patients (first primary malignant neoplasms were excised from 3 of them and another one was not treated by surgical operation) received adjunctive treatment of chemotherapy and (or) radiotherapy. Followed ups, which varied from 6 to 60 months, were made to 29 patients and 20 out of the 29 were alive.5-year survival rate of patients with gynecological malignant tumor related MPMN was 47.8%, 2-year survival rate was 73.9%, and 1-year survival rate was 88.6%. Pay more attention to the patients with gynecological malignant tumor related MPMN, examine the high-risk patients with malignant tumor comprehensively, identify whether it is recurrence, metastasis or new growth of malignant neoplasm, and further ensure early diagnosis and proper treatment, avoiding misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.

  1. Local control of metastatic lung tumors treated with SBRT of 48 Gy in four fractions: in comparison with primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, Yasushi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Yamashita, Motohiro; Shinkai, Tetsu; Kubo, Yoshiro; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Inoue, Takeshi; Sakai, Shinya; Aono, Shoji; Takahashi, Tadaaki; Semba, Takatoshi; Uwatsu, Kotaro

    2010-02-01

    The optimal dose of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for metastatic lung tumors has not been clarified. Local control rates of metastatic lung tumors treated with SBRT of 48 Gy in four fractions, which is one of the common dose schedules for Stage I primary lung cancer in Japan, were examined. Between 2006 and 2008, 12 metastatic lung tumors (colorectal cancer, 7; others, 5) in 10 patients and 56 lesions of Stage I primary lung cancer (T1, 43; T2, 13) in 52 patients were treated with SBRT of 48 Gy in four fractions at the isocenter. Two-year overall survival rates were 86% for patients with metastatic lung tumors and 96% for patients with Stage I primary lung cancer (P = 0.4773). One- and 2-year local control rates were 48% and 25% for metastatic lung tumors, and 91% and 88% for Stage I primary lung cancer, respectively (P < 0.0001). The local control rates after SBRT of 48 Gy in four fractions were significantly worse in metastatic lung tumors compared with Stage I primary lung cancer. In SBRT, metastatic lung tumors should be clearly differentiated from primary lung cancer and should be given higher doses.

  2. Occult Primary Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastasis to the Breast Detected on Screening Mammogram.

    PubMed

    Policeni, Fabiana; Pakalniskis, Brittany; Yang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic tumors are rare in the breast. Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (WDNETs) are slow-growing neoplasms that arise from neuroendocrine cells, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree. Metastatic WDNET to the breast is a rare entity. We present a case report of ileal WDNET metastatic to the breast which was initially identified as a small mass in the patient's left breast on screening mammography. Targeted ultrasound identified a suspicious mass, and ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy was performed. Pathology revealed metastatic WDNET. Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was then performed and demonstrated left axillary Level 2 lymphadenopathy, and liver lesions were suspicious for metastasis. The patient underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT) to evaluate for distant metastatic disease. A spiculated mass was found near the ileocecal valve, suggestive of primary ileal WDNET. In addition, CT identified multiple liver lesions, most compatible with metastasis. Indium 111 OctreoScan confirmed radiotracer uptake in the ileum consistent with primary neuroendocrine tumor. In this report, we review the imaging characteristics of metastatic WDNET to the breast by different imaging modalities including mammogram, ultrasound, and breast MRI.

  3. Primary epithelioid trophoblastic tumor with a synchronous breast carcinoma detected only with FDG-PET/CT Scan.

    PubMed

    Kara, T; Ozcan Kara, P; Baba, F; Celik, C; Kara Gedik, G

    2011-01-01

    Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a recently described, rare and distinctive type of gestational trophoblastic tumor. We report the case of a 31-year old patient who had a full-term pregnancy 18 months before presentation. She had a right axillary lymph node metastasis and was referred for FDG-PET/CT scan for evaluation of distant metastasis and to detect primary malignancy. The axillary lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic breast carcinoma. FDG-PET/CT revealed increased uptake of right axillary lymph node, soft tissue density lesion with a diameter of 24 mm on left cervical region with increased FDG uptake, increased uptake on cervical region and left inguinal lymph node with increased uptake. Pelvic MRI imaging and ultrasonography were negative for malignancy in cervical region. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in cervical region. Gestational trophoblastic tumor was not suspected because she had no signs such as abnormal vaginal bleeding. FDG-PET/CT demonstrated the primary lesion in cervical region. We report a rare case of primary epithelioid trophoblastic tumor detected only with FDG-PET/CT scan which synchronized with breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporalis myofascial flap for primary cranial base reconstruction after tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Eldaly, Ahmed; Magdy, Emad A; Nour, Yasser A; Gaafar, Alaa H

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the use of the temporalis myofascial flap in primary cranial base reconstruction following surgical tumor ablation and to explain technical issues, potential complications, and donor site consequences along with their management. Retrospective case series. Tertiary referral center. Forty-one consecutive patients receiving primary temporalis myofascial flap reconstructions following cranial base tumor resections in a 4-year period. Flap survival, postoperative complications, and donor site morbidity. Patients included 37 males and 4 females ranging in age from 10 to 65 years. Two patients received preoperative and 18 postoperative radiation therapy. Patient follow-up ranged from 4 to 39 months. The whole temporalis muscle was used in 26 patients (63.4%) and only part of a coronally split muscle was used in 15 patients (36.6%). Nine patients had primary donor site reconstruction using a Medpor((R)) (Porex Surgical, Inc., Newnan, GA) temporal fossa implant; these had excellent aesthetic results. There were no cases of complete flap loss. Partial flap dehiscence was seen in six patients (14.6%); only two required surgical débridement. None of the patients developed cerebrospinal leaks or meningitis. One patient was left with complete paralysis of the temporal branch of the facial nerve. Three patients (all had received postoperative irradiation) developed permanent trismus. The temporalis myofascial flap was found to be an excellent reconstructive alternative for a wide variety of skull base defects following tumor ablation. It is a very reliable, versatile flap that is usually available in the operative field with relatively low donor site aesthetic and functional morbidity.

  5. Mena deficiency delays tumor progression and decreases metastasis in polyoma middle-T transgenic mouse mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Wang, Yarong; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Sellers, Rani S; Wang, Weigang; Li, Jiufeng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2010-01-01

    The actin binding protein Mammalian enabled (Mena), has been implicated in the metastatic progression of solid tumors in humans. Mena expression level in primary tumors is correlated with metastasis in breast, cervical, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. Cells expressing high Mena levels are part of the tumor microenvironment for metastasis (TMEM), an anatomical structure that is predictive for risk of breast cancer metastasis. Previously we have shown that forced expression of Mena adenocarcinoma cells enhances invasion and metastasis in xenograft mice. Whether Mena is required for tumor progression is still unknown. Here we report the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression, metastasis and on normal mammary gland development. To investigate the role of Mena in tumor progression and metastasis, Mena deficient mice were intercrossed with mice carrying a transgene expressing the polyoma middle T oncoprotein, driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus. The progeny were investigated for the effects of Mena deficiency on tumor progression via staging of primary mammary tumors and by evaluation of morbidity. Stages of metastatic progression were investigated using an in vivo invasion assay, intravital multiphoton microscopy, circulating tumor cell burden, and lung metastases. Mammary gland development was studied in whole mount mammary glands of wild type and Mena deficient mice. Mena deficiency decreased morbidity and metastatic dissemination. Loss of Mena increased mammary tumor latency but had no affect on mammary tumor burden or histologic progression to carcinoma. Elimination of Mena also significantly decreased epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced in vivo invasion, in vivo motility, intravasation and metastasis. Non-tumor bearing mice deficient for Mena also showed defects in mammary gland terminal end bud formation and branching. Deficiency of Mena decreases metastasis by slowing tumor progression and reducing tumor cell invasion and intravasation. Mena

  6. Combined p16 and p53 expression in cervical cancer of unknown primary and other prognostic parameters : A single-center analysis.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Müjdat; Müller von der Grün, Jens; Winkelmann, Ria; Fokas, Emmanouil; Rödel, Franz; Ackermann, Hanns; Rödel, Claus; Balermpas, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    Cervical cancer of unknown primary (CUP) represents an uncommon and heterogeneous subentity of head and neck cancer. However, both optimal diagnostics and therapy remain unclear. An improved understanding of the underlying pathology is essential to enable future tailored therapies and optimized outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 53 patients with head and neck CUP and 48 available cervical lymph node specimens. All patients have received radiotherapy between 2007 and 2015. Preradiotherapy involved lymph node specimens were analyzed for p16 and p53 immunoreactivity. The prognostic relevance of the combined p16 and p53 status and other clinical parameters were examined by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median patient age was 61.5 years and median irradiation dose to the involved nodal levels was 66 Gy. Of the 48 evaluated specimens, 13 (27%) were p16-positive and 31 (64.6%) p53-positive. After a median follow up of 32.9 months, patients with p16-negative and simultaneously p53-positive tumors showed a significantly inferior tumor-specific survival (TSS) compared to those with either p16+/p53-, p16+/p53+, or p16-/p53- (univariate: p = 0.055, multivariate: p = 0.038). Other factors with an adverse impact on TSS in the univariate analysis were smoking history (p = 0.032) and nodal stage (p = 0.038). The combined p16- and p53-expression status in cervical metastases of CUP may represent a simple method for risk stratification. Further validation of these biomarkers in large prospective trials is essential to design rational trials for CUP treatment optimization.

  7. Does Radiotherapy for the Primary Tumor Benefit Prostate Cancer Patients with Distant Metastasis at Initial Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yeona; Chang, Jee Suk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon; Choi, Young Deuk; Ham, Won Sik; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Jaeho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives Treatment of the primary tumor reportedly improves survival in several types of metastatic cancer. We herein evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of radiotherapy for the primary tumor in prostate cancer with metastasis. Materials/Methods The study cohort included 140 men with metastatic prostate cancer at initial diagnosis. Metastatic sites were divided into 4 groups as follows: solitary bone, 2–4 bones, ≥5 bones, and visceral organs. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients treated with (prostate radiotherapy [PRT] group) or without radiotherapy to the primary tumor. Results Patients in PRT group presented with a statistically significantly younger age (p = .02), whereas other characteristics showed no significant difference. Overall survival (OS) and biochemical failure-free survival (BCFFS) were improved in PRT patients (3-year OS: 69% vs. 43%, p = 0.004; 3-year BCFFS: 52% vs. 16%, p = 0.002). Multivariate analysis identified PRT as a significant predictor of both OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, p = 0.015). None of the 38 PRT patients experienced severe (grade ≥3) genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Conclusions Our data suggest that radiotherapy to the primary tumor was associated with improved OS and BCFFS in metastatic prostate cancer. The results of this study warrant prospective controlled clinical trials of this approach in stage IV prostate cancer patients with limited extent of bone metastasis and good performance status. PMID:26807740

  8. Therapeutically targeting cyclin D1 in primary tumors arising from loss of Ini1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Melissa E.; Cimica, Velasco; Chinni, Srinivasa; Jana, Suman; Koba, Wade; Yang, Zhixia; Fine, Eugene; Zagzag, David; Montagna, Cristina; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are rare, highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis and with no standard or effective treatment strategies. RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivation of the INI1 tumor suppressor gene. INI1 directly represses CCND1 and activates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p16Ink4a and p21CIP. RTs are exquisitely dependent on cyclin D1 for genesis and survival. To facilitate translation of unique therapeutic strategies, we have used genetically engineered, Ini1+/− mice for therapeutic testing. We found that PET can be used to noninvasively and accurately detect primary tumors in Ini1+/− mice. In a PET-guided longitudinal study, we found that treating Ini1+/− mice bearing primary tumors with the pan-cdk inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in complete and stable regression of some tumors. Other tumors showed resistance to flavopiridol, and one of the resistant tumors overexpressed cyclin D1, more than flavopiridol-sensitive cells. The concentration of flavopiridol used was not sufficient to down-modulate the high level of cyclin D1 and failed to induce cell death in the resistant cells. Furthermore, FISH and PCR analyses indicated that there is aneuploidy and increased CCND1 copy number in resistant cells. These studies indicate that resistance to flavopiridol may be correlated to elevated cyclin D1 levels. Our studies also indicate that Ini1+/− mice are valuable tools for testing unique therapeutic strategies and for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in tumors that arise owing to loss of Ini1, which is essential for developing effective treatment strategies against these aggressive tumors. PMID:21173237

  9. The current evidence for a biomarker-based approach in cancer of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    El Rassy, Elie; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2018-05-02

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) accounts for the seventh to eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer yet its prognosis remains poor with conventional chemotherapy. The spectrum of therapeutic management includes both locoregional and systemic therapy and should intend to offer optimal benefit to favorable CUP patients and palliative care to unfavorable cases. The recent molecular advances have revolutionized the armamentarium of cancer treatments though a biomarker-based approach. Unfortunately, solid data in CUP is lacking in the absence of a CUP-specific driver molecular signature. This prompted us to screen the medical literature for clinical data that evaluates the efficacy and safety of the biomarker-based approach in CUP patients. In this review, we will summarize the available evidence for the applicability of targeted therapies in CUP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence estimates for primary brain tumors in the United States by age, gender, behavior, and histology.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly R; McCarthy, Bridget J; Freels, Sally; Kim, Yoonsang; Davis, Faith G

    2010-06-01

    Prevalence is the best indicator of cancer survivorship in the population, but few studies have focused on brain tumor prevalence because of previous data limitations. Hence, the full impact of primary brain tumors on the healthcare system in the United States is not completely described. The present study provides an estimate of the prevalence of disease in the United States, updating an earlier prevalence study. Incidence data for 2004 and survival data for 1985-2005 were obtained by the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States from selected regions, modeled under 2 different survival assumptions, to estimate prevalence rates for the year 2004 and projected estimates for 2010. The overall incidence rate for primary brain tumors was 18.1 per 100 000 person-years with 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-year observed survival rates of 62%, 54%, 45%, and 30%, respectively. On the basis of the sum of nonmalignant and averaged malignant estimates, the overall prevalence rate of individuals with a brain tumor was estimated to be 209.0 per 100 000 in 2004 and 221.8 per 100 000 in 2010. The female prevalence rate (264.8 per 100 000) was higher than that in males (158.7 per 100 000). The averaged prevalence rate for malignant tumors (42.5 per 100 000) was lower than the prevalence for nonmalignant tumors (166.5 per 100 000). This study provides estimates of the 2004 (n = 612 770) and 2010 (n = 688 096) expected number of individuals living with primary brain tumor diagnoses in the United States, providing more current and robust estimates for aiding healthcare planning and patient advocacy for an aging US population.

  11. Epilepsy in patients with primary brain tumors: The impact on mood, cognition, and HRQOL.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Z; Wong, C H; Dexter, M; Olsson, G; Wong, M; Gebsky, V; Nahar, N; Wood, A; Byth, K; King, M; Bleasel, A B

    2015-07-01

    A primary brain tumor (PBT) is often a fatal disease of the nervous system and has a serious impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Presence of epilepsy and adverse reactions from tumor and epilepsy treatments may cause additional decline in HRQOL. We aimed to study the impact of epileptic seizures on cognition, mood, and HRQOL in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Patients were grouped on an ordinal scale according to epilepsy burden from none to severe based on the presence of epileptic seizures and seizure frequency: L1, no epilepsy; L2, with epilepsy, seizure-free in the last 6 months with antiepileptic drugs; and L3, with epilepsy, at least one seizure in the last 6 months with AEDs. Health-related quality of life was measured by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31) tools, cognition by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) tool and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), mood by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), activities of daily living (ADLs) by the Barthel Index (BI), and performance status by the Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) scale in patients with primary brain tumors at least one month following neurosurgery with or without radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Eighty-one patients with a diagnosis of primary brain tumors were recruited. Sixty-eight percent of patients were diagnosed with primary brain tumor-related epilepsy, 50.61% patients had cognitive impairment, 33% had abnormal scores in the anxiety scale, and 34% had abnormal scores in the depression scale. There were no statistically significant differences in these scores among L1, L2, and L3 groups. There were statistically significant differences in duration of disease and KPS and BI scores between L1 and L3 groups. The L3 group has significantly longer duration of disease and scored low in both the BI and KPS scale when compared to the L1 group. All patients with primary brain tumors scored

  12. [Echocardiography in diagnosis of primary cardiac tumors in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Erdmenger Orellana, Julio; Vázquez, Clara; Ortega Maldonado, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    We report the experience in the diagnosis of primary cardiac tumor during the period from 1999 to 2004, 8500 studies were revised echocardiographic carried out. We found 21 patients, 11 of female sex (55%). In 15/21 (71%), the age of presentation was less than 1 year. In 9/21 the tumor was multiple (42.8%), lodged in the ventricle right in 2/21 (9.5%), in the ventricle left 3 (14.2%), 8 in the septum interventricular (38%) and 4 compromised the auriculas. They were classified like rabdomiomas 14 (66%), 5 associates with sclerosis tuberosa, 4 mixomas (19%), 2 fibromas (9.5%) and 1 rabdomiosarcoma (4.7%). In five patients the diagnosis was prenatal. The global mortality went of 9.5%. The echocardiograpy is a good diagnosis method in our series the rabdomioma occupied the first place in frequency.

  13. Effect of gibberellic Acid on crown gall tumor induction in aging primary pinto bean leaves.

    PubMed

    Anand, V K; Bauer, C; Heberlein, G T

    1975-06-01

    Gibberellic acid was tested for its effect on tumor induction by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in primary pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) leaves in various stages of development. The hormone was found to promote tumor induction in partially aged leaves but did not effect tumor induction in very young leaves or in fully matured leaves. It is suggested that the natural loss of susceptibility to tumor induction in maturing pinto bean leaves is associated with a concomitant loss of endogenous gibberellins and/or a sensitivity to gibberellins.

  14. Breed-specific incidence rates of canine primary bone tumors — A population based survey of dogs in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Anfinsen, Kristin P.; Grotmol, Tom; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Jonasdottir, Thora J.

    2011-01-01

    This is one of few published population-based studies describing breed specific rates of canine primary bone tumors. Incidence rates related to dog breeds could help clarify the impact of etiological factors such as birth weight, growth rate, and adult body weight/height on development of these tumors. The study population consisted of dogs within 4 large/giant breeds; Irish wolfhound (IW), Leonberger (LB), Newfoundland (NF), and Labrador retriever (LR), born between January 1st 1989 and December 31st 1998. Questionnaires distributed to owners of randomly selected dogs — fulfilling the criteria of breed, year of birth, and registration in the Norwegian Kennel Club — constituted the basis for this retrospective, population-based survey. Of the 3748 questionnaires received by owners, 1915 were completed, giving a response rate of 51%. Forty-three dogs had been diagnosed with primary bone tumors, based upon clinical examination and x-rays. The breeds IW and LB, with 126 and 72 cases per 10 000 dog years at risk (DYAR), respectively, had significantly higher incidence rates of primary bone tumors than NF and LR (P < 0.0001). Incidence rates for the latter were 11 and 2 cases per 10 000 DYAR, respectively. Pursuing a search for risk factors other than body size/weight is supported by the significantly different risks of developing primary bone tumors between similarly statured dogs, like NF and LB, observed in this study. Defining these breed-specific incidence rates enables subsequent case control studies, ultimately aiming to identify specific etiological factors for developing primary bone tumors. PMID:22210997

  15. Drug screening of cancer cell lines and human primary tumors using droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ada Hang-Heng; Li, Haoran; Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui Paulo da Silva; Liu, Yan; Vong, Chi Man; Wong, Hang Cheong; Wong, Pak Kin; Wang, Haitao; Sun, Heng; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2017-08-22

    Precision Medicine in Oncology requires tailoring of therapeutic strategies to individual cancer patients. Due to the limited quantity of tumor samples, this proves to be difficult, especially for early stage cancer patients whose tumors are small. In this study, we exploited a 2.4 × 2.4 centimeters polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic chip which employed droplet microfluidics to conduct drug screens against suspended and adherent cancer cell lines, as well as cells dissociated from primary tumor of human patients. Single cells were dispersed in aqueous droplets and imaged within 24 hours of drug treatment to assess cell viability by ethidium homodimer 1 staining. Our results showed that 5 conditions could be screened for every 80,000 cells in one channel on our chip under current circumstances. Additionally, screening conditions have been adapted to both suspended and adherent cancer cells, giving versatility to potentially all types of cancers. Hence, this study provides a powerful tool for rapid, low-input drug screening of primary cancers within 24 hours after tumor resection from cancer patients. This paves the way for further technological advancement to cutting down sample size and increasing drug screening throughput in advent to personalized cancer therapy.

  16. Contemporary Role of Radiotherapy in the Management of Primary Penile Tumors and Metastatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Crook, Juanita

    2016-11-01

    Squamous cell cancer of the penis is a radiocurable malignancy all too often managed solely by partial or total penectomy. Effective management of the primary tumor while preserving penile morphology and function is a priority. External radiotherapy and brachytherapy have a role to play in the definitive management of the primary tumor. Surgical nodal staging remains a cornerstone of management because it is the strongest predictor of survival, and inguinal status determines pelvic management. Postoperative radiotherapy of the regional nodes for high-risk pathology is indicated. Chemoradiotherapy should be considered as neoadjuvant treatment for unresectable nodes or as definitive management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlled release microspheres loaded with BMP7 suppress primary tumors from human glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    González-Gómez, P.; de la Fuente, M.; Hernández-Laín, Aurelio; Mira, H.; Sánchez-Gómez, P.; Garcia-Fuentes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma tumor initiating cells are believed to be the main drivers behind tumor recurrence, and therefore therapies that specifically manage this population are of great medical interest. In a previous work, we synthesized controlled release microspheres optimized for intracranial delivery of BMP7, and showed that these devices are able to stop the in vitro growth of a glioma cell line. Towards the translational development of this technology, we now explore these microspheres in further detail and characterize the mechanism of action and the in vivo therapeutic potential using tumor models relevant for the clinical setting: human primary glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that BMP7 can stop the proliferation and block the self-renewal capacity of those primary cell lines that express the receptor BMPR1B. BMP7 was encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in the form of a complex with heparin and Tetronic, and the formulation provided effective release for several weeks, a process controlled by carrier degradation. Data from xenografts confirmed reduced and delayed tumor formation for animals treated with BMP7-loaded microspheres. This effect was coincident with the activation of the canonical BMP signaling pathway. Importantly, tumors treated with BMP7-loaded microspheres also showed downregulation of several markers that may be related to a malignant stem cell-like phenotype: CD133+, Olig2, and GFAPδ. We also observed that tumors treated with BMP7-loaded microspheres showed enhanced expression of cell cycle inhibitors and reduced expression of the proliferation marker PCNA. In summary, BMP7-loaded controlled release microspheres are able to inhibit GBM growth and reduce malignancy markers. We envisage that this kind of selective therapy for tumor initiating cells could have a synergistic effect in combination with conventional cytoreductive therapy (chemo-, radiotherapy) or with immunotherapy. PMID:25860932

  18. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervical Lymph Node Metastases From Unknown Primary Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Madani, Indira; Vakaet, Luc; Bonte, Katrien

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional (two-dimensional) radiotherapy in the treatment of cervical lymph node metastases from unknown primary cancer (UPC). Methods and Materials: Between February 2003 and September 2006, 23 patients with UPC of squamous cell carcinoma were treated with IMRT. Extended putative mucosal and bilateral nodal sites were irradiated to a median dose of 66 Gy. In 19 patients, IMRT was performed after lymph node dissection, and in 4 patients primary radiotherapy was given. The conventional radiotherapy group (historical control group) comprised 18 patients treated to a median dose of 66 Gy betweenmore » August 1994 and October 2003. Results: Twenty patients completed treatment. As compared with conventional radiotherapy, the incidence of Grade 3 acute dysphagia was significantly lower in the IMRT group (4.5% vs. 50%, p = 0.003). By 6 months, Grade 3 xerostomia was detected in 11.8% patients in the IMRT group vs. 53.4% in the historical control group (p = 0.03). No Grade 3 dysphagia or skin fibrosis was observed after IMRT but these were noted after conventional radiotherapy (26.7%, p = 0.01) and 26.7%, p = 0.03) respectively). With median follow-up of living patients of 17 months, there was no emergence of primary cancer. One patient had persistent nodal disease and another had nodal relapse at 5 months. Distant metastases were detected in 4 patients. The 2-year overall survival and distant disease-free probability after IMRT did not differ significantly from those for conventional radiotherapy (74.8% vs. 61.1% and 76.3% vs. 68.4%, respectively). Conclusions: Use of IMRT for UPC resulted in lower toxicity than conventional radiotherapy, and was similar in efficacy.« less

  19. Immune response in melanoma: an in-depth analysis of the primary tumor and corresponding sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Michelle W.; Medicherla, Ratna C.; Qian, Meng; de Miera, Eleazar Vega-Saenz; Friedman, Erica B.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod

    2013-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node is the initial site of metastasis. Down-regulation of anti-tumor immunity plays a role in nodal progression. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between immune modulation and sentinel lymph node positivity, correlating it with outcome in melanoma patients. Lymph node/primary tissues from melanoma patients prospectively accrued and followed at New York University Medical Center were evaluated for the presence of regulatory T-cells (Foxp3+) and dendritic cells (conventional: CD11c+, mature: CD86+) using immunohistochemistry. Primary melanoma immune cell profiles from sentinel lymph node-positive/-negative patients were compared. Logistic regression models inclusive of standard-of-care/immunologic primary tumor characteristics were constructed to predict the risk of sentinel lymph node positivity. Immunological responses in the positive sentinel lymph node were also compared to those in the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin and matched negative sentinel lymph node. Decreased immune response was defined as increased regulatory T-cells or decreased dendritic cells. Associations between the expression of these immune modulators, clinicopathologic variables, and clinical outcome were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analyses. Primary tumor conventional dendritic cells and regression were protective against sentinel lymph node metastasis (odds ratio=0.714, 0.067; P=0.0099, 0.0816, respectively). Anti-tumor immunity was down-regulated in the positive sentinel lymph node with an increase in regulatory T-cells compared to the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin (P=0.0005) and matched negative sentinel lymph node (P=0.0002). The positive sentinel lymph node also had decreased numbers of conventional dendritic cells compared to the negative sentinel lymph node (P<0.0001). Adding sentinel lymph node regulatory T-cell expression improved the discriminative power of a recurrence risk assessment model

  20. SU-E-I-100: Heterogeneity Studying for Primary and Lymphoma Tumors by Using Multi-Scale Image Texture Analysis with PET-CT Images

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dengwang; Wang, Qinfen; Li, H

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is studying tumor heterogeneity of the primary and lymphoma by using multi-scale texture analysis with PET-CT images, where the tumor heterogeneity is expressed by texture features. Methods: Datasets were collected from 12 lung cancer patients, and both of primary and lymphoma tumors were detected with all these patients. All patients underwent whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scan before treatment.The regions of interest (ROI) of primary and lymphoma tumor were contoured by experienced clinical doctors. Then the ROI of primary and lymphoma tumor is extracted automatically by using Matlab software. According to the geometry size of contourmore » structure, the images of tumor are decomposed by multi-scale method.Wavelet transform was performed on ROI structures within images by L layers sampling, and then wavelet sub-bands which have the same size of the original image are obtained. The number of sub-bands is 3L+1.The gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) is calculated within different sub-bands, thenenergy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity were extracted from GLCM.Finally, heterogeneity statistical analysis was studied for primary and lymphoma tumor using the texture features. Results: Energy, inertia, correlation and gray in-homogeneity are calculated with our experiments for heterogeneity statistical analysis.Energy for primary and lymphomatumor is equal with the same patient, while gray in-homogeneity and inertia of primaryare 2.59595±0.00855, 0.6439±0.0007 respectively. Gray in-homogeneity and inertia of lymphoma are 2.60115±0.00635, 0.64435±0.00055 respectively. The experiments showed that the volume of lymphoma is smaller than primary tumor, but thegray in-homogeneity and inertia were higher than primary tumor with the same patient, and the correlation with lymphoma tumors is zero, while the correlation with primary tumor isslightly strong. Conclusion: This studying showed that there were effective

  1. Ewing's Sarcoma: An Analysis of miRNA Expression Profiles and Target Genes in Paraffin-Embedded Primary Tumor Tissue.

    PubMed

    Parafioriti, Antonina; Bason, Caterina; Armiraglio, Elisabetta; Calciano, Lucia; Daolio, Primo Andrea; Berardocco, Martina; Di Bernardo, Andrea; Colosimo, Alessia; Luksch, Roberto; Berardi, Anna C

    2016-04-30

    The molecular mechanism responsible for Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) remains largely unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small non-coding RNAs able to regulate gene expression, are deregulated in tumors and may serve as a tool for diagnosis and prediction. However, the status of miRNAs in ES has not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study compared global miRNAs expression in paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 20 ES patients, affected by primary untreated tumors, with miRNAs expressed in normal human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) by microarray analysis. A miRTarBase database was used to identify the predicted target genes for differentially expressed miRNAs. The miRNAs microarray analysis revealed distinct patterns of miRNAs expression between ES samples and normal MSCs. 58 of the 954 analyzed miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in ES samples compared to MSCs. Moreover, the qRT-PCR analysis carried out on three selected miRNAs showed that miR-181b, miR-1915 and miR-1275 were significantly aberrantly regulated, confirming the microarray results. Bio-database analysis identified BCL-2 as a bona fide target gene of the miR-21, miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-497, miR-195, miR-let-7a, miR-34a and miR-1915. Using paraffin-embedded tissues from ES patients, this study has identified several potential target miRNAs and one gene that might be considered a novel critical biomarker for ES pathogenesis.

  2. Primary Lung Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma Presenting as a Cavitary Pancoast Tumor in a 32-Year-Old Man.

    PubMed

    Corvini, Michael; Koorji, Alysha; Sgroe, Erica; Nguyen, Uyen

    2018-06-01

    Signet ring cell carcinoma, a subtype of adenocarcinoma, is a rare cause of primary lung cancer. The authors report a case of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma presenting as a cavitary Pancoast tumor in a 32-year-old male smoker. Beyond the rarity of primary lung signet ring cell carcinoma itself, the youth of the patient, his smoking status, the presence of cavitation, and the location of the tumor in the superior sulcus make it especially atypical.

  3. Feasibility of Primary Tumor Culture Models and Preclinical Prediction Assays for Head and Neck Cancer: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Dohmen, Amy J. C.; Swartz, Justin E.; Van Den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Willems, Stefan M.; Spijker, René; Neefjes, Jacques; Zuur, Charlotte L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary human tumor culture models allow for individualized drug sensitivity testing and are therefore a promising technique to achieve personalized treatment for cancer patients. This would especially be of interest for patients with advanced stage head and neck cancer. They are extensively treated with surgery, usually in combination with high-dose cisplatin chemoradiation. However, adding cisplatin to radiotherapy is associated with an increase in severe acute toxicity, while conferring only a minor overall survival benefit. Hence, there is a strong need for a preclinical model to identify patients that will respond to the intended treatment regimen and to test novel drugs. One of such models is the technique of culturing primary human tumor tissue. This review discusses the feasibility and success rate of existing primary head and neck tumor culturing techniques and their corresponding chemo- and radiosensitivity assays. A comprehensive literature search was performed and success factors for culturing in vitro are debated, together with the actual value of these models as preclinical prediction assay for individual patients. With this review, we aim to fill a gap in the understanding of primary culture models from head and neck tumors, with potential importance for other tumor types as well. PMID:26343729

  4. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: a comparative study of histological and chromosomal characteristics between primary tumors and their corresponding metastases.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Julien; Kammerer-Jacquet, Solène-Florence; Dugay, Frédéric; Beaumont, Marion; Lespagnol, Alexandra; Cornevin, Laurence; Verhoest, Grégory; Bensalah, Karim; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Belaud-Rotureau, Marc-Antoine

    2017-07-01

    Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has a poor prognosis with a 50% risk of metastases. Little is known about the phenotypic and molecular profiles of metastases regarding their corresponding primary tumors. This study aimed to screen phenotypic and genotypic differences between metastases and their corresponding primary tumors. We selected four cases with available frozen material. The histological, immunohistochemical (VEGFA, CD31, SMA, Ki67, p53, PAR-3), FISH (VHL gene), next-generation sequencing (VHL and c-MET genes), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and array-(comparative genomic hybridization) CGH analyses were realized. Metastases were nodal, hepatic (synchronous), adrenal, and pulmonary (metachronous). High-grade tumor cells were significantly more frequent in metastases (p = 0.019). Metastases and high-grade zones of primary tumors shared similar characteristics compared to low-grade zones: a lower microscopic vascular density (43.5 vs 382.5 vessels/mm 2 ; p = 0.0027), a higher expression of VEGF (73 vs 10%, p = 0.045), Ki67 (37.6 vs 8.3%; p = 0.011), and p53 (54 vs 10.6%; p = 0.081), and a cytoplasmic and membranous PAR-3 staining. Metastases exhibited more chromosomal imbalances than primary tumors in total (18.75 ± 6.8; p = 0.044) with more genomic gains (13.5 ± 7; p = 0.013). The loss of chromosome 9 and gain of Xq were found in both primary tumors and metastases but gains of loci or chromosomes 2p, 3q, 5, 8q, 12, and 20 were only found in metastases. The VHL gene status was similar in each tumor couple. Although metastases and primary tumors share common histological features, this study highlights chromosomal differences specific to metastases which could be involved in ccRCC metastatic evolution.

  5. Impact of Primary Tumor Location on First-line Bevacizumab or Cetuximab in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Matthew; Bottiglieri, Sal; Almhanna, Khaldoun

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the United States, with a large proportion of patients presenting with metastatic disease or developing a recurrence. Systemic chemotherapy is the mainstay of therapy in this setting. There is a clear benefit in the addition of bevacizumab or cetuximab (for rat sarcoma [RAS] wild type tumors) to oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based regimens which can be considered for first-line therapy. However, many significant questions remain as to which agent reflects best practice. Our review aimed to elucidate the benefit of adding bevacizumab and cetuximab to initial therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer based on primary tumor location and a variety of other disease- and patient-related factors, addressing the paucity of evidence that currently exists in this area and contributing to current literature and clinical practices. The primary endpoints of the study were first Progression-Free Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included best response to first- and second-line therapies, Treatment- Related Adverse Events (TRAEs), second PFS, cost of therapy, and an assessment of other patient- and disease-related factors affecting PFS and OS. While there were trends towards improved OS in patients with left-sided primary tumors (n=57) compared to those with right-sided disease (n=23), there were no significant differences between the two groups in either primary endpoint. While no differences were found for patients with left- or right- sided tumors stratified by add-on agent, these analyses were limited by the small number of patients receiving cetuximab with first-line therapy (n=4). However, the bevacizumab cohort (n=76) was sizable enough to provide ample data and produce clinically relevant results. Add-on therapy with bevacizumab in our study achieved impressive survival outcomes in both left-sided (median first PFS = 13 months, 95% CI 11-15 months; median OS = 37 months, 95% CI 21

  6. Bayesian pretest probability estimation for primary malignant bone tumors based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Matthias; Neubauer, Jakob; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2017-03-01

    In the diagnostic process of primary bone tumors, patient age, tumor localization and to a lesser extent sex affect the differential diagnosis. We therefore aim to develop a pretest probability calculator for primary malignant bone tumors based on population data taking these variables into account. We access the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute, 2015 release) database and analyze data of all primary malignant bone tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2012. We record age at diagnosis, tumor localization according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-O-3) and sex. We take relative probability of the single tumor entity as a surrogate parameter for unadjusted pretest probability. We build a probabilistic (naïve Bayes) classifier to calculate pretest probabilities adjusted for age, tumor localization and sex. We analyze data from 12,931 patients (647 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 3659 chondrosarcomas, 1080 chordomas, 185 dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas, 2006 Ewing's sarcomas, 281 fibroblastic osteosarcomas, 129 fibrosarcomas, 291 fibrous malignant histiocytomas, 289 malignant giant cell tumors, 238 myxoid chondrosarcomas, 3730 osteosarcomas, 252 parosteal osteosarcomas, 144 telangiectatic osteosarcomas). We make our probability calculator accessible at http://ebm-radiology.com/bayesbone/index.html . We provide exhaustive tables for age and localization data. Results from tenfold cross-validation show that in 79.8 % of cases the pretest probability is correctly raised. Our approach employs population data to calculate relative pretest probabilities for primary malignant bone tumors. The calculator is not diagnostic in nature. However, resulting probabilities might serve as an initial evaluation of probabilities of tumors on the differential diagnosis list.

  7. Lack of relevant information for tumor staging in pathology reports of primary cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Busam, K J

    2001-05-01

    For the T classification of primary cutaneous melanoma, the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging (AJCC) system relies on tumor thickness and level of invasion. A new T classification has been proposed based on thickness and ulceration. The slides and reports of 135 departmental pathology consultations of patients referred to a major cancer center with a diagnosis of primary cutaneous invasive malignant melanoma were examined. Whether the outside pathology reports contained information on tumor thickness, level of invasion, and ulceration was recorded. Dermatopathologists had issued 76.3% of the reports and general surgical pathologists, 24.3%. Information provided was as follows: tumor thickness, 97.8%; Clark level, 71.9%; and presence or absence of ulceration, 28.1%. Of the 97 melanomas with no comment on ulceration, 17 were indeed ulcerated. Thus, the lack of a comment on ulceration cannot be equated with the absence of ulceration. The present study documents that many pathology reports on melanomas lack sufficient information for AJCC staging. Therefore, review of outside pathology material is necessary not only to confirm or revise the tumor diagnosis but also to provide clinicians with histologic parameters required for AJCC staging.

  8. TERT promoter mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Pilsworth, Jessica A; Cochrane, Dawn R; Xia, Zhouchunyang; Aubert, Geraldine; Färkkilä, Anniina E M; Horlings, Hugo M; Yanagida, Satoshi; Yang, Winnie; Lim, Jamie L P; Wang, Yi Kan; Bashashati, Ali; Keul, Jacqueline; Wong, Adele; Norris, Kevin; Brucker, Sara Y; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Krämer, Bernhard; Staebler, Annette; Oliva, Esther; Shah, Sohrab P; Kommoss, Stefan; Kommoss, Friedrich; Gilks, C Blake; Baird, Duncan M; Huntsman, David G

    2018-02-15

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene is highly expressed in stem cells and silenced upon differentiation. Cancer cells can attain immortality by activating TERT to maintain telomere length and telomerase activity, which is a crucial step of tumorigenesis. Two somatic mutations in the TERT promoter (C228T; C250T) have been identified as gain-of-function mutations that promote transcriptional activation of TERT in multiple cancers, such as melanoma and glioblastoma. A recent study investigating TERT promoter mutations in ovarian carcinomas found C228T and C250T mutations in 15.9% of clear cell carcinomas. However, it is unknown whether these mutations are frequent in other ovarian cancer subtypes, in particular, sex cord-stromal tumors including adult granulosa cell tumors. We performed whole-genome sequencing on ten adult granulosa cell tumors with matched normal blood and identified a TERT C228T promoter mutation in 50% of tumors. We found that adult granulosa cell tumors with mutated TERT promoter have increased expression of TERT mRNA and exhibited significantly longer telomeres compared to those with wild-type TERT promoter. Extension cohort analysis using allelic discrimination revealed the TERT C228T mutation in 51 of 229 primary adult granulosa cell tumors (22%), 24 of 58 recurrent adult granulosa cell tumors (41%), and 1 of 22 other sex cord-stromal tumors (5%). There was a significant difference in overall survival between patients with TERT C228T promoter mutation in the primary tumors and those without it (p = 0.00253, log-rank test). In seven adult granulosa cell tumors, we found the TERT C228T mutation present in recurrent tumors and absent in the corresponding primary tumor. Our data suggest that TERT C228T promoter mutations may have an important role in progression of adult granulosa cell tumors.

  9. Single-cell sequencing deciphers a convergent evolution of copy number alterations from primary to circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Ni, Xiaohui; Guo, Hua; Su, Zhe; Ba, Yi; Tong, Zhongsheng; Guo, Zhi; Yao, Xin; Chen, Xixi; Yin, Jian; Yan, Zhao; Guo, Lin; Liu, Ying; Bai, Fan; Xie, X Sunney; Zhang, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Copy number alteration (CNA) is a major contributor to genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. Here, we studied genomic alterations in single primary tumor cells and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the same patient. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in single cells from both samples occurred sporadically, whereas CNAs among primary tumor cells emerged accumulatively rather than abruptly, converging toward the CNA in CTCs. Focal CNAs affecting the MYC gene and the PTEN gene were observed only in a minor portion of primary tumor cells but were present in all CTCs, suggesting a strong selection toward metastasis. Single-cell structural variant (SV) analyses revealed a two-step mechanism, a complex rearrangement followed by gene amplification, for the simultaneous formation of anomalous CNAs in multiple chromosome regions. Integrative CNA analyses of 97 CTCs from 23 patients confirmed the convergence of CNAs and revealed single, concurrent, and mutually exclusive CNAs that could be the driving events in cancer metastasis. © 2017 Gao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. The isoform A of reticulon-4 (Nogo-A) in cerebrospinal fluid of primary brain tumor patients: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Koper, Olga Martyna; Kamińska, Joanna; Milewska, Anna; Sawicki, Karol; Mariak, Zenon; Kemona, Halina; Matowicka-Karna, Joanna

    2018-05-18

    The influence of isoform A of reticulon-4 (Nogo-A), also known as neurite outgrowth inhibitor, on primary brain tumor development was reported. Therefore the aim was the evaluation of Nogo-A concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of brain tumor patients compared with non-tumoral individuals. All serum results, except for two cases, obtained both in brain tumors and non-tumoral individuals, were below the lower limit of ELISA detection. Cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations were significantly lower in primary brain tumor patients compared to non-tumoral individuals. The univariate linear regression analysis found that if white blood cell count increases by 1 × 10 3 /μL, the mean cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentration value decreases 1.12 times. In the model of multiple linear regression analysis predictor variables influencing cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations included: diagnosis, sex, and sodium level. The mean cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentration value was 1.9 times higher for women in comparison to men. In the astrocytic brain tumor group higher sodium level occurs with lower cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations. We found the opposite situation in non-tumoral individuals. Univariate linear regression analysis revealed, that cerebrospinal fluid Nogo-A concentrations change in relation to white blood cell count. In the created model of multiple linear regression analysis we found, that within predictor variables influencing CSF Nogo-A concentrations were diagnosis, sex, and sodium level. Results may be relevant to the search for cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary brain tumor patients. Nogo-A concentrations were tested by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  11. Primary small-bowel malignancy: update in tumor biology, markers, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Santosh

    2014-12-01

    Primary small-bowel malignancies (SBM) are rare tumors but their incidence is rising. An estimated 9160 new cases and 1210 deaths due to SBM may occur in the USA in 2014. We review advances made in tumor biology, immunohistochemistry, and discuss treatment strategies for these malignancies. Relevant articles from PubMed/Medline and Embase searches were collected using the phrases "small-bowel adenocarcinoma, gastrointestinal carcinoids, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small-bowel leiomyosarcoma, and small-bowel lymphoma". Advances in imaging techniques such as wireless capsule endoscopy, CT and MRI enterography, and endoscopy (balloon enteroscopy) along with discovery of molecular markers such as c-kit and PDGFRA for GIST tumors have improved our ability to diagnose, localize, and treat these patients. Early detection and surgical resection offers the best chance for long-term survival in all tumors except bowel lymphoma where chemotherapy plays the main role. Adjuvant therapy with imatinib has improved overall survival for GIST tumors, somatostatin analogs have improved symptoms and also inhibited tumor growth and stabilized metastatic disease in carcinoid disease, but chemotherapy has not improved survival for adenocarcinoma. Recent advances in molecular characterization holds promise in novel targeted therapies. Currently ongoing trials are exploring efficacy of targeted therapies and role of adjuvant therapy for adenocarcinoma and results are awaited. Early detection and aggressive surgical therapy for all localized tumors and lymph node sampling particularly for adenocarcinoma remains the main treatment modality.

  12. Differential Impact of Close Surgical Margin on Local Recurrence According to Primary Tumor Size in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeon Yeob; Choi, Nayeon; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Chung, Man Ki; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2017-06-01

    The extent of surgical safety margin (gross tumor border to resection margin) in oral cancer surgery remains unclear, and no study has determined the differential impact of close surgical margin and microscopic extension according to primary tumor size in oral cancers. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 325 patients with surgically treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas to determine the effect of a close surgical margin (<5 mm) (cSM 5 ) on local recurrence. In addition, the depth of microscopic tumor infiltration was determined in 90 available surgical specimens. The cSM 5 was not related to the risk of local tumor recurrence in early-stage oral cancer, while it significantly increased the rate of local tumor recurrence in resectable advanced-stage oral cancers (hazard ratio 3.157, 95 % confidence interval 1.050-9.407, p = 0.041). Addition of postoperative adjuvant radiation to early-stage tumors with cSM 5 did not further reduce the local recurrence rate compared to surgery alone. The depth of microscopic tumor extension from the gross tumor border was significantly associated with primary tumor thickness (ρ = 0.390, p < 0.001) and tumor sizes (ρ = 0.308, p = 0.003), which was a median (range) of 0.84 (0.14-2.32) mm in T1, 1.06 (0.20-4.34) mm in T2, and 1.77 (0.13-4.70) mm in T3-4. The cSM 5 was a significant risk factor for local recurrence only in advanced oral cancers, but not in early-stage tumors, where microscopic tumor extension was not beyond 3 mm in T1 tumors. Thus, the extent of surgical safety margin can be redefined according to the primary tumor size.

  13. Prevalence of scrub typhus in pyrexia of unknown origin and assessment of interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma levels in scrub typhus-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Meher; Sultan, Asfia; Chowdhry, Madhav; Azam, Mohd; Khan, Fatima; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Haris M

    2018-01-01

    Scrub typhus is lesser known cause of fever of unknown origin in India. Even if there have been reports documenting the prevalence of scrub typhus in different parts of India, it is still an unknown entity, and clinicians usually do not consider it as differential diagnosis. The present study was performed to document the prevalence of scrub typhus among febrile patients in western part of Uttar Pradesh and to assess the clinical profile of infected patients on the one hand and knowledge, attitude, and practices among clinicians on the other. A total of 357 adult patients with fever of more than 5-day duration were recruited. All patients underwent complete physical examination, and detailed clinical history was elicited as per predesigned pro forma. After primary screening to rule out malaria, enteric fever, and leptospirosis infection, secondary screening for scrub typhus was done by rapid screen test and IgM ELISA. Scrub typhus infection was positive in 91 (25.5%) cases. The most common symptoms among the patients were fever (100%), pain in abdomen (79.1%), pedal edema 56 (61.5%), rash 44 (48.3%), headache 44 (48.3%), vomiting 42 (46.1%), constipation 33 (36.2%), cough 28 (30.7%), and lymphadenopathy 20 (21.9%). The median values of interleukin-8, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in healthy controls were 15.54 pg/ml, 7.77 pg/ml, and 54.1 pg/ml, respectively, while the median values of these cytokines in scrub typhus-positive patients were 21.04 pg/ml, 8.74 pg/ml, and 73.8 pg/ml, respectively. Our results highlight that scrub typhus infection is an important cause of pyrexia of unknown origin, and active surveillance is necessary to assess the exact magnitude and distribution of the disease.

  14. Primary Culture System for Germ Cells from Caenorhabditis elegans Tumorous Germline Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Vagasi, Alexandra S.; Rahman, Mohammad M.; Chaudhari, Snehal N.; Kipreos, Edward T.

    2017-01-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line is an important model system for the study of germ stem cells. Wild-type C. elegans germ cells are syncytial and therefore cannot be isolated in in vitro cultures. In contrast, the germ cells from tumorous mutants can be fully cellularized and isolated intact from the mutant animals. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the isolation of germ cells from tumorous mutants that allows the germ cells to be maintained for extended periods in an in vitro primary culture. This protocol has been adapted from Chaudhari et al., 2016. PMID:28868332

  15. Precision medicine based on epigenomics: the paradigm of carcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Moran, Sebastián; Martinez-Cardús, Anna; Boussios, Stergios; Esteller, Manel

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a common hallmark of human cancer. Single epigenetic markers are starting to be incorporated into clinical practice; however, the translational use of these biomarkers has not been validated at the 'omics' level. The identification of the tissue of origin in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is an example of how epigenomics can be incorporated in clinical settings, addressing an unmet need in the diagnostic and clinical management of these patients. Despite the great diagnostic advances made in the past decade, the use of traditional diagnostic procedures only enables the tissue of origin to be determined in ∼30% of patients with CUP. Thus, development of molecularly guided diagnostic strategies has emerged to complement traditional procedures, thereby improving the clinical management of patients with CUP. In this Review, we present the latest data on strategies using epigenetics and other molecular biomarkers to guide therapeutic decisions involving patients with CUP, and we highlight areas warranting further research to engage the medical community in this unmet need.

  16. Metachronous Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung During Adjuvant Imatinib Mesylate Therapy for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of Stomach: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meng-Jie; Weng, Shan-Shan; Cao, Ying; Li, Xiao-Fen; Wang, Liu-Hong; Xu, Jing-Hong; Yuan, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal tumor in gastrointestinal tracts; however, the synchronous or metachronous coexistence of GIST with additional primary malignancy is not common.Here, we present an unusual case of gastric GIST with metachronous primary lung adenocarcinoma diagnosed during his adjuvant treatment with oral receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (400 mg daily). After 6-month use of imatinib, the patient suffered from dry cough and dyspnea. Subsequent lung biopsy demonstrated adenocarcinoma with diffuse interstitial changes.Our research emphasizes the possibility of an additional primary tumor with GIST, and reminds the clinicians to strengthen the surveillance of the additional cancer during the follow-up of GIST patients.

  17. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors in the Middle Eastern population in California, USA 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, John R

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing Middle Eastern (ME) population has rarely been studied in the U.S.. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology of primary brain tumors in this ethnic population with the non-Hispanic, non-Middle Eastern White (NHNMW) in California. ME cases were identified by surname in the California cancer registry and ME population estimates were based on ancestry. Data for 683 cases of primary brain tumors (429 benign, 238 malignant, 16 uncertain) in the ME and 15,589 cases (8352 benign, 6812 malignant, 425 uncertain) in the NHNMW were available for this study. ME patients were significantly (p < 0.05) younger and their age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for benign tumors of 10.0 in men and 17.6 in women were higher than similar rates of 7.3 and 10.6 in the NHNMW group (p < 0.05). Rates for malignant tumors were similar. Meningioma was the main histology responsible for the observed increase in patients over 40 years of age. Also increased were benign tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands. The overall mortality in patients with benign tumors was significantly lower than malignant tumors. This study presents a significantly high incidence of benign meningioma in the ME population in California. This may be due to higher susceptibility or exposure of this ethnic group to the risk factor(s) for this neoplasm. Considering the reported causal association of benign meningioma with childhood radiation exposure from Israel, exposure to this risk factor in this ethnic group needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  18. Impact of Surgical Resection of the Primary Tumor on Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic Pheochromocytoma or Sympathetic Paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Roman-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Zhou, Shouhao; Ayala-Ramirez, Montserrat; Shen, Chan; Waguespack, Steven G; Habra, Mouhammed A; Karam, Jose A; Perrier, Nancy; Wood, Christopher G; Jimenez, Camilo

    2018-07-01

    To determine whether primary tumor resection in patients with metastatic pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma (PPG) is associated with longer overall survival (OS). Patients with metastatic PPG have poor survival outcomes. The impact of surgical resection of the primary tumor on OS is not known. We retrospectively studied patients with metastatic PPG treated at the University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center from January 2000 through January 2015. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests was used to compare OS among patients undergoing primary tumor resection and patients not treated surgically. Propensity score method was applied to adjust for selection bias using demographic, clinical, biochemical, genetic, imaging, and pathologic information. A total of 113 patients with metastatic PPG were identified. Eighty-nine (79%) patients had surgery and 24 (21%) patients did not. Median OS was longer in patients who had surgery than in patients who did not [148 months, 95% confidence interval (CI) 112.8-183.2 months vs 36 months, 95% CI 27.2-44.8 months; P < 0.001].Fifty-three (46%) patients had synchronous metastases; of these patients, those who had surgery had longer OS than those who did not (85 months, 95% CI 64.5-105.4 months vs 36 months, 95% CI 29.7-42.3 months; P < 0.001). Patients who had surgery had a similar ECOG performance status to the ones who did not (P = 0.1798, two sample t test; P = 0.2449, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Univariate and propensity score analysis confirmed that patients treated with surgery had longer OS than those not treated surgically irrespective of age, race, primary tumor size and location, number of metastatic sites, and genetic background (log-rank P < 0.001).In patients with hormonally active tumors (70.8%), the symptoms of catecholamine excess improved after surgery. However, the tumor burden was a more important determinant of OS than hormonal secretion. Primary tumor resection in patients with metastatic PPG appeared to be

  19. Analysis of nodal coverage utilizing image guided radiation therapy for primary gynecologic tumor volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Faisal; Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda, CA; Sarkar, Vikren

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation dose delivered to pelvic lymph nodes, if daily Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) was implemented with treatment shifts based on the primary site (primary clinical target volume [CTV]). Our secondary goal was to compare dosimetric coverage with patient outcomes. Materials and methods: A total of 10 female patients with gynecologic malignancies were evaluated retrospectively after completion of definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to their pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor site. IGRT consisted of daily kilovoltage computed tomography (CT)-on-rails imaging fused with initial planning scans for position verification. The initial plan was created using Varian's Eclipsemore » treatment planning software. Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 45 Gy (range: 37.5 to 50 Gy) to the primary volume and 45 Gy (range: 45 to 64.8 Gy) to nodal structures. One IGRT scan per week was randomly selected from each patient's treatment course and re-planned on the Eclipse treatment planning station. CTVs were recreated by fusion on the IGRT image series, and the patient's treatment plan was applied to the new image set to calculate delivered dose. We evaluated the minimum, maximum, and 95% dose coverage for primary and nodal structures. Reconstructed primary tumor volumes were recreated within 4.7% of initial planning volume (0.9% to 8.6%), and reconstructed nodal volumes were recreated to within 2.9% of initial planning volume (0.01% to 5.5%). Results: Dosimetric parameters averaged less than 10% (range: 1% to 9%) of the original planned dose (45 Gy) for primary and nodal volumes on all patients (n = 10). For all patients, ≥99.3% of the primary tumor volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose (V95%) and the average minimum dose was 96.1% of the prescribed dose. In evaluating nodal CTV coverage, ≥ 99.8% of the volume received ≥ 95% the prescribed dose and the average minimum dose was 93%. In evaluating

  20. Prognostic impact of gastrointestinal bleeding and expression of PTEN and Ki-67 on primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prognostic indicators for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are under investigation. The latest risk classification criteria may still have room for improvement. This study aims to investigate prognostic factors for primary GISTs from three aspects, including clinicopathological parameters, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of PTEN, and Ki-67 labeling index (LI), and attempts to find valuable predictors for the malignancy potential of primary GISTs. Methods Tumor samples and clinicopathological data from 84 patients with primary GISTs after R0 resection were obtained. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed based on tissue microarray (TMA) to estimate expression of PTEN and Ki-67 in tumor cells. Results The cut-off point of Ki-67 LI was determined as 1%, using a receiver operator characteristic test with a sensitivity of 71.7% and a specificity of 64.5%. Univariate analysis demonstrated the following factors as poor prognostic indicators for relapse-free survival (RFS) against a median follow-up of 40.25 months: gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding (P = 0.009), non-gastric tumor location (P = 0.001), large tumor size (P = 0.022), high mitotic index (P < 0.001), high cellularity (P = 0.012), tumor rupture (P = 0.013), absent or low expression of PTEN (P = 0.036), and Ki-67 LI >1% (P = 0.043). Gastrointestinal bleeding (hazard ratio, 3.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.63 to 9.10; P = 0.002) was a negative independent risk predictor in multivariate analysis, in addition to tumor size (P = 0.023), and mitotic index (P = 0.002). In addition, GI bleeding showed a good ability to predict recurrence potential, when included in our re-modified risk stratification criteria. Conclusions This study suggests that GI bleeding is an independent predictor of poor prognosis for RFS in primary GISTs. Expression of PTEN and Ki-67 are correlated with high risk potential and may predict early recurrence in univariate analysis

  1. Primary benign tumors in chiropractic practice and the importance of x-ray diagnosis: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Jacques C.

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of primary benign bone tumors were diagnosed radiographically in a chiropractic practice. Although primary osseous tumors are somewhat uncommon, their potential presence emphasizes the importance of x-ray diagnosis as an essential adjunct to chiropractic practice. This procedure may preclude underlying lesions before considering treatment of seemingly uncomplicated injuries. Two such cases are presented: unicameral bone cyst and osteochondroma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  2. Dynamic Contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Differentiating Between Primary Tumor, Metastatic Node and Normal Tissue in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liangliang; Ye, Yufeng; Chen, Hanwei; Chen, Shihui; Jiang, Jinzhao; Dan, Guo; Huang, Bingsheng

    2018-06-01

    To study the difference of the Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters among the primary tumor, metastatic node and peripheral normal tissue of head and neck cancer. Consecutive newly-diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with nodal metastasis between December 2010 and July 2013 were recruited, and 25 patients (8 females; 24~63,mean 43±11 years old) were enrolled. DCE-MRI was performed in the primary tumor region including the regional lymph nodes on a 3.0-T MRI system. Three quantitative parameters: Ktrans (volume transfer constant), ve (volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space) and kep (the rate constant of contrast transfer) were calculated for the largest node. A repeated-measure ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction and post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction were used to evaluate the differences in Ktrans, ve and kep among primary tumors, metastatic nodes and normal tissue. The values of both Ktrans and ve of normal tissue differed significantly from those of nodes (both P < 0.001) and primary tumors (both P < 0.001) respectively, while no significant differences of Ktrans and ve were observed between nodes and primary tumors (P = 0.075 and 0.365 respectively). The kep values of primary tumors were significantly different from those of nodes (P = 0.001) and normal tissue (P = 0.002), while no significant differences between nodes and normal tissue (P > 0.999). The DCE-MRI parameters were different in the tumors, metastatic nodes and normal tissue in head and neck cancer. These findings may be useful in the characterization of head and neck cancer.

  3. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes by exogenous dhC16-Cer contributes to its anti-cancer activity in primary effusion lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Dai, Lu; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and highly aggressive B-cell malignancy with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, while lack of effective therapies. Our recent data indicated that targeting the sphingolipid metabolism by either sphingosine kinase inhibitor or exogenous ceramide species induces PEL cell apoptosis and suppresses tumor progression in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms for these exogenous ceramides “killing” PEL cells remain largely unknown. Based on the microarray analysis, we found that exogenous dhC16-Cer treatment affected the expression of many cellular genes with important functions within PEL cells such as regulation of cell cycle, cell survival/proliferation, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that a subset of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) was up-regulated from dhC16-Cer treated PEL cells. One of these elevated TSGs, Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) was required for dhC16-Cer induced PEL cell cycle arrest. Moreover, dhC16-Cer up-regulation of THBS1 was through the suppression of multiple KSHV microRNAs expression. Our data demonstrate that exogenous ceramides display anti-cancer activities for PEL through regulation of both host and oncogenic virus factors. PMID:28146424

  4. Up-regulation of tumor suppressor genes by exogenous dhC16-Cer contributes to its anti-cancer activity in primary effusion lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yueyu; Qiao, Jing; Lin, Zhen; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Dai, Lu; Qin, Zhiqiang

    2017-02-28

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare and highly aggressive B-cell malignancy with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection, while lack of effective therapies. Our recent data indicated that targeting the sphingolipid metabolism by either sphingosine kinase inhibitor or exogenous ceramide species induces PEL cell apoptosis and suppresses tumor progression in vivo. However, the underlying mechanisms for these exogenous ceramides "killing" PEL cells remain largely unknown. Based on the microarray analysis, we found that exogenous dhC16-Cer treatment affected the expression of many cellular genes with important functions within PEL cells such as regulation of cell cycle, cell survival/proliferation, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that a subset of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) was up-regulated from dhC16-Cer treated PEL cells. One of these elevated TSGs, Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) was required for dhC16-Cer induced PEL cell cycle arrest. Moreover, dhC16-Cer up-regulation of THBS1 was through the suppression of multiple KSHV microRNAs expression. Our data demonstrate that exogenous ceramides display anti-cancer activities for PEL through regulation of both host and oncogenic virus factors.

  5. Alcohol Devitalization and Replantation for Primary Malignant Bone Tumors of the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Xihai; CHEN, Ge; WANG, Jun; TANG, Lian; YIN, Yiran

    2017-01-01

    Background: This paper is aimed at studying the therapeutic effects of in situ replantation of alcohol-devitalized bone segments to treat malignant bone tumors of the knee joint. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data for 45 patients from January 2013 to January 2016 who underwent replantation following alcohol-devitalization of bone segments and 40 who underwent prosthesis implantation. The two groups were comparable in basal clinical biometric data, including gender, age, tumor type and location, Enneking staging, and maximum tumor diameter. Radical tumor resection was combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy following the two-implantation procedures. Results: The median follow-up time was 25 months, and the outcomes were compared. We found no differences in the length of bone lesions, surgery time, intraoperative blood loss, amount of postoperative drainage, and perioperative complications, which were just three for each method. We also found no significant differences in limb function scores, internal fixation imaging scores, tumor-free survival rate, and overall survival rate between the two groups. Replantation following alcohol-devitalization of tumor-bearing bone segment demonstrated similar clinical outcomes compared with prosthesis implantation in the treatment of primary malignant bone tumors of the knee joint. Conclusion: Both therapies enjoy good application safety and effectiveness. Because alcohol devitalization is inexpensive and easy to apply in the clinic, it should be considered a preferred method in the treatment of bone tumors. PMID:29308374

  6. Improved Dosimetric and Clinical Outcomes With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.ed; Li Baoqing; Farwell, D. Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To compare differences in dosimetric, clinical, and quality-of-life endpoints among a cohort of patients treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (CRT) for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 51 patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Twenty-four patients (47%) were treated using CRT, and 27 (53%) were treated using IMRT. The proportions of patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy were 54% and 63%, respectively. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control,more » and disease-specific survival for the entire patient population were 86%, 89%, and84%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of these endpoints with respect to radiation therapy technique (p > 0.05 for all). Dosimetric analysis revealed that the use of IMRT resulted in significant improvements with respect to mean dose and V30 to the contralateral (spared) parotid gland. In addition, mean doses to the ipsilateral inner and middle ear structures were significantly reduced with IMRT (p < 0.05 for all). The incidence of severe xerostomia in the late setting was 58% and 11% among patients treated by CRT and IMRT, respectively (p < 0.001). The percentages of patients who were G-tube dependent at 6 months after treatment were 42% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: IMRT results in significant improvements in the therapeutic ratio among patients treated by radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin.« less

  7. Prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Machiavelli, M R; Romero, A O; Pérez, J E; Lacava, J A; Domínguez, M E; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M R; Romero Acuña, L A; Romero Acuña, J M; Langhi, M J; Amato, S; Ortiz, E H; Vallejo, C T; Leone, B A

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed in patients with noninflammatory locally advanced breast carcinoma. Between January 1989 and April 1995, 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma participated in the study. Of these, 140 fully evaluable patients (67, stage IIIA; 73, stage IIIB) were treated with three courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), followed by modified radical mastectomy when technically feasible or definitive radiation therapy. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 75 years); 55% of patients were postmenopausal. Objective response was recorded in 99 of 140 patients (71%; 95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Complete response occurred in 11 patients (8%), and partial response occurred in 88 patients (63%). No change was recorded in 37 patients (26%), and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (3%). One hundred and thirty-six patients underwent the planned surgery. Maximal pathological response of the primary tumor (in situ carcinoma or minimal microscopic residual tumor) was observed in 24 (18%); 112 patients (82%) presented minimal pathological response of the primary tumor (gross residual tumor). The number of metastatic axillary nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was as follows: N0, 39 patients (29%); N1-N3, 35 patients (26%); > N3, 62 patients (45%). Considering the initial TNM status, 75% of the patients had decreases in tumor compartment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, 31% and 23% of patients with clinical N1 and N2, respectively, showed uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. A significant correlation was noted between pathological response of primary tumor and the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Median disease-free survival was 34 months, whereas median overall survival was 66 months. Pathological responses of both primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes

  8. Clinicopathological feature and prognosis of primary hepatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Tian, Yangzi; Liu, Shushang; Xu, Guanghui; Guo, Man; Lian, Xiao; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-09-01

    Compared to gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), hepatic GIST is very rare in clinic. Reports on clinicopathological feature and prognosis of this rare disease are limited in literature. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to summarize clinical and pathological features as well as prognosis of the primary hepatic GIST. One case of primary hepatic GIST from our center and 22 cases reported in MEDLINE or China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were enrolled into this study. Clinicopathological features as well as survival data of hepatic GIST were analyzed and compared with 297 gastric GISTs and 59 small intestinal GISTs from our center. Majority of the 22 cases (95.7%) of hepatic GIST was larger than 5 cm in size, and 75.0% of the tumors were over 5/50 HPF in mitotic index. Most of the hepatic GISTs (85.7%) displayed spindle cell shape in morphology. All of the hepatic GIST (100%) enrolled in this study were classified as high-risk category by the National Institute of Health (NIH) risk classification. The 5-year median disease-free survival (DFS) time was 24.0 months and 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was 33.3%, respectively. Distribution of clinicopathological features was significantly different among hepatic, gastric, and small intestinal GIST. The DFS and DSS of hepatic GIST were significantly lower than those of the other two groups. Majority of the hepatic GIST is large in size and highly malignant. Prognosis of the primary hepatic GIST is worse than that of gastric GIST and small intestinal GIST. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Are biomechanical changes necessary for tumor progression?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, Josef A.

    2014-03-01

    Already the Roman Celsus recognized rigid tissue as characteristic for solid tumors. Conversely, changes towards a weaker cytoskeleton have been described as a feature of cancer cells since the early days of tumor biology. It remains unclear if a carcinoma's rigid signature stems from more inflexible cells or is caused by the stroma. Despite that the importance of cell biomechanics for tumor progression becomes more and more evident the chicken-and-egg problem to what extent cancer cells already change their mechanical properties within the solid tumor in order to transgress its boundary or mechanical changes are induced by the microenvironment when the cell has left the tumor has been discussed highly controversial. Comprehensive clinical biomechanical measurements only exist from tumor tissue without the possibility to identify individual cells or from individual cancer cells from pleural effusions. Since the biomechanical properties of cells in carcinomas remain unknown measurements on individual cells that directly stem out of primary tumor samples are required, which we have conducted. We found in cervix and mammary carcinomas a distinctive increase of softer cells as well as contractile cells. A soft and contractile cell is like a strong elastic rope. The cell can generate a strong tensile tension to pull its self along and is soft against compression to avoid jamming.

  10. Outcome of supratentorial intraaxial extra ventricular primary pediatric brain tumors: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Bhattacharjee, Suchanda; Uppin, Megha S.; Purohit, Aniruddh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the second most frequent malignancy of childhood and the most common solid tumor in this age group. CNS tumors represent approximately 17% of all malignancies in the pediatric age range, including adolescents. Glial neoplasms in children account for up to 60% of supratentorial intraaxial tumors. Their histological distribution and prognostic features differ from that of adults. Aims and Objectives: To study clinical and pathological characteristics, and to analyze the outcome using the Engel's classification for seizures, Karnofsky's score during the available follow-up period of minimum 1 year following the surgical and adjuvant therapy of supratentorial intraaxial extraventricular primary pediatric (SIEPP) brain tumors in children equal or less than 18 years. Materials and Methods: The study design is a prospective study done in NIMS from October 2008 to January 2012. All the patients less than 18 years of age operated for SIEPP brain tumors proven histopathologically were included in the study. All the patients with recurrent or residual primary tumors or secondaries were excluded from the study. Post operative CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is done following surgery. Results and Analysis: There were 2, 8 and 20 patients in the age range of 0-2 years, >2-10 years and 10-18 years, respectively. There were 21 male patients and 9 female patients. Out of 30 patients, 16 had lesion in the temporal lobe, 6 in frontal lobe, 4 in thalamus, 3 in parietal lobe and 1 in occipital lobe. Out of 30 patients, 11 patients had malignant lesions and nineteen patients had benign lesions. Gross total excision could be achieved in 19 patients and subtotal in 11 patients. Seven patients had mortality and four of the remaining 23 patients had increased deficits postoperatively. Remaining 19 patients either improved or remained same. Conclusions: SIEPP brain tumors have male preponderance, occur in 95% of patients in

  11. Single cells from human primary colorectal tumors exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines.

    PubMed

    Adalsteinsson, Viktor A; Tahirova, Narmin; Tallapragada, Naren; Yao, Xiaosai; Campion, Liam; Angelini, Alessandro; Douce, Thomas B; Huang, Cindy; Bowman, Brittany; Williamson, Christina A; Kwon, Douglas S; Wittrup, K Dane; Love, J Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Cancer is an inflammatory disease of tissue that is largely influenced by the interactions between multiple cell types, secreted factors, and signal transduction pathways. While single-cell sequencing continues to refine our understanding of the clonotypic heterogeneity within tumors, the complex interplay between genetic variations and non-genetic factors ultimately affects therapeutic outcome. Much has been learned through bulk studies of secreted factors in the tumor microenvironment, but the secretory behavior of single cells has been largely uncharacterized. Here we directly profiled the secretions of ELR+ CXC chemokines from thousands of single colorectal tumor and stromal cells, using an array of subnanoliter wells and a technique called microengraving to characterize both the rates of secretion of several factors at once and the numbers of cells secreting each chemokine. The ELR+ CXC chemokines are highly redundant, pro-angiogenic cytokines that signal via the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors, influencing tumor growth and progression. We find that human primary colorectal tumor and stromal cells exhibit polyfunctional heterogeneity in the combinations and magnitudes of secretions for these chemokines. In cell lines, we observe similar variance: phenotypes observed in bulk can be largely absent among the majority of single cells, and discordances exist between secretory states measured and gene expression for these chemokines among single cells. Together, these measures suggest secretory states among tumor cells are complex and can evolve dynamically. Most importantly, this study reveals new insight into the intratumoral phenotypic heterogeneity of human primary tumors.

  12. Aggressive gastrointestinal stromal tumor with spinal metastases: a case report.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Brian R; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Dunn, John C; Hakim, M Nawar

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 56-year-old male who presented with several month history of severe low back pain. Physical examination revealed generalized tenderness at his thoracolumbar spine without notable neuromuscular findings. Radiographs revealed a chronic compression fracture of T10 and T11 with anterior height loss. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple lytic lesions in the thoracolumbar spine without canal compromise. During his hospital stay, he developed acute cord compression with loss of motor and sensory levels below T12 and an absence of sphincter tone. The patient was taken for emergent multilevel, posterior decompression and fusion with biopsy of the lesion. Microscopic examination of the tissue in addition to immunohistochemical analysis utilizing CD117-antibody/c-kit revealed gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Further workup revealed the primary tumor to be intra-abdominal and the patient was subsequently begun on adjuvant chemotherapy. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors should be considered in the workup of patients with bone metastasis with an unknown primary malignancy. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Management of the Primary Tumor and Limited Metastases in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Herman, Joseph M; Hoffman, John P; Thayer, Sarah P; Wolff, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    New combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy have been proven to increase response rates and survival times compared with single-agent gemcitabine for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. These responses have been dramatic for a subset of patients, therefore raising questions about the management of limited metastatic disease with surgery or other ablative methods. Similarly, for patients having a complete radiographic response to chemotherapy in the metastatic compartment, whether to consider local therapy in the form of radiation or surgery for the primary tumor is now an appropriate question. Therefore, collaboration among experts in surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology has led to the development of guiding principles for local therapies to the primary intact pancreatic tumor for patients with limited metastatic disease and those who have had a significant response after systemic therapy.

  14. Quality of Life in Patients With Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors in the Literature as Assessed by the FACT-Br.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Nicholas; Chiu, Leonard; Zeng, Liang; Zhang, Liying; Cella, David; Popovic, Marko; Chow, Ronald; Lam, Henry; Poon, Michael; Chow, Edward

    2012-12-01

    The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br) is a quality of life (QOL) assessment tool that was originally developed for use in patients with primary brain tumors. However, the tool has also been used to assess QOL in patients with metastatic brain tumors. The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in QOL responses as assessed by the FACT-Br in patients with primary and metastatic brain neoplasms. A systematic literature search was conducted using the OvidSP platform in MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 2 2012) and EMBASE (1980 to 2012 Week 28). Articles in which the FACT-Br was used as a QOL assessment for patients with malignant brain tumors (both primary and metastatic) were included in the study. The weighted means of FACT-Br subscale and overall scores were calculated for the studies. To compare these scores, weighted analysis of variance was conducted and PROC GLM was performed for the data. A P-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 23 studies (four in brain metastases, 18 in primary brain tumors and 1 in a mixed sample) using the FACT-Br for assessment of QOL were identified. Social and functional well-being were significantly better in patients with primary brain tumors (weighted mean score of 22.2 vs. 10.7, P = 0.0026, 16.9 vs. 6.2, P = 0.0025, respectively). No other scale of the FACT-Br was significantly different between the two groups and the performance status of patients included in both groups was similar. Patients with primary brain cancer seemed to have better social and functional well-being scores than those with metastatic brain tumors. Other QOL domains were similar between these two groups. However, the heterogeneity in the included studies and the low sample size of included samples in patients with metastatic brain tumors could have confounded our findings.

  15. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. PMID:26216635

  16. Multi-course PDT of malignant tumors: the influence on primary tumor, metastatic spreading and homeostasis of cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Victor V.; Chissov, Valery I.; Yakubovskaya, Raisa I.; Filonenko, E. V.; Sukhin, Garry M.; Nemtsova, E. R.; Belous, T. A.; Zharkova, Natalia N.

    1996-12-01

    The first clinical trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer with two photosensitizers, PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS, were started in P.A. Hertzen Research Oncological Institute (Moscow, Russia) in 1992 and 1994. Up to now, 208 patients with primary, recurrent and metastatic malignant tumors (469) of skin (34 patients/185 tumors), breast cancer (24/101), head and neck (30/31), trachea and bronchus (31/42), esophagus (35/35), stomach (31/32), rectum (4/4), vagina and uterine cervix (7/8) and bladder (12/31) have been treated by PDT. One-hundred-thirty patients were injected with PHOTOHEME, 64 patients were injected with PHOTOSENS, 14 patients were injected with PHOTOHEME and PHOTOSENS. Totally, 302 courses of treatment were performed: 155 patients had one course and 53 patients were subjected to two to nine PDT sources with intervals from 1 to 18 months. A therapeutic effect of a one-course and multi- course PDT of malignant tumors (respiratory, digestive and urogenital systems) was evaluated clinically, histologically, roentgenologically, sonographically and endoscopically. The biochemical, hematological and immunological investigations were performed for all the patients in dynamics. Results of our study showed that a multi-course PDT method seems to be perspective in treatment of malignant tumors of basic localizations.

  17. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-27

    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Anal Canal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Anal Canal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Appendix Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Bartholin Gland Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma; Chordoma; Colorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Fibromyxoid Tumor; Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Giant Cell Carcinoma; Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Sarcomatoid Carcinoma; Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Malignant Odontogenic Neoplasm; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Malignant Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm of Unknown Primary Origin; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Mixed Mesodermal (Mullerian) Tumor; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Paraganglioma; Paranasal Sinus Adenocarcinoma; Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma; Parathyroid Gland Carcinoma; Pituitary Gland Carcinoma; Placental Choriocarcinoma; Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma

  18. Phenotypic characterization of telomerase-immortalized primary non-malignant and malignant tumor-derived human prostate epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Yongpeng; Li Hongzhen; Miki, Jun

    2006-04-01

    In vitro human prostate cell culture models are critical for clarifying the mechanism of prostate cancer progression and for testing preventive and therapeutic agents. Cell lines ideal for the study of human primary prostate tumors would be those derived from spontaneously immortalized tumor cells; unfortunately, explanted primary prostate cells survive only short-term in culture, and rarely immortalize spontaneously. Therefore, we recently have generated five immortal human prostate epithelial cell cultures derived from both the benign and malignant tissues of prostate cancer patients with telomerase, a gene that prevents cellular senescence. Examination of these cell lines for their morphologies and proliferativemore » capacities, their abilities to grow in low serum, to respond to androgen stimulation, to grow above the agar layer, to form tumors in SCID mice, suggests that they may serve as valid, useful tools for the elucidation of early events in prostate tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the chromosome alterations observed in these immortalized cell lines expressing aspects of the malignant phenotypes imply that these cell lines accurately recapitulate the genetic composition of primary tumors. These novel in vitro models may offer unique models for the study of prostate carcinogenesis and also provide the means for testing both chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents.« less

  19. High dose intensity of cisplatin and etoposide in adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.

    PubMed

    Gill, I; Guaglianone, P; Grunberg, S M; Scholz, M; Muggia, F M

    1991-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of unknown primary (AUP) has generally a poor prognosis. Previous studies have suggested that Cisplatin and Etoposide have activity in AUP. The aim of this study was to determine if dose intensification of this combination would result in increased efficacy. Each 28 day cycle consisted of Cisplatin 100 mg/m2 given on Day 1 and 8 with Etoposide 80 mg/m2 given on day 1, 2, 8 and 9. Sixteen patients (Pts) with no prior chemotherapy were accrued to this study. Predominant sites of disease were lung, liver, and bone. BHCG and AFP were not elevated. One complete remission was seen in a patient with a mediastinal mass (duration of remission = 59 weeks). Two other patients had a partial response. Overall response rate was 19%. Moderate to severe renal toxicity was recorded in 8 patients, with neuro- and ototoxicities in 2 patients each. Severe granulocytopenia occurred in 8 patients, and one patient died of congestive heart failure on day 1 of cycle 2. This excessive toxicity, without enhanced efficacy does not encourage a more extensive empiric trial by this dose schedule in the treatment of AUP.

  20. Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression with Tumor Angiogenesis and with Early Relapse in Primary Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hoshina, Seigo; Takayanagi, Toshiaki; Tominaga, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an independent prognostic indicator in breast cancer. In this report, the relationship between expression of vascular endothclial growth factor (VEGF; a selective mitogen for endothelial cells) and the microvessel density was examined in 103 primary breast cancers. The expression of VEGF was evaluated by immunocytochemical staining using anti‐VEGF antibody. The microvessel density, which was determined by immunostaining for factor VIII antigen, in VEGF‐rich tumors was clearly higher than that in VEGF‐poor tumors (P<0.01). There was a good correlation between VEGF expression and the increment of microvessel density. Furthermore, postoperative survey demonstrated that the relapse‐free survival rate of VEGF‐rich tumors was significantly worse than that of VEGF‐poor tumors. It was suggested that the expression of VEGF is closely associated with the promotion of angiogenesis and with early relapse in primary breast cancer. PMID:7525523

  1. Correlating planned radiation dose to the cochlea with primary site and tumor stage in patients with head and neck cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jeanette; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya

    The aim of the study was to determine tumor characteristics that predict higher planned radiation (RT) dose to the cochlea in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2004 to 2012, 99 patients with HNC underwent definitive IMRT to a median dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left cochlea-vestibular apparatus contoured for IMRT optimization as avoidance structures. If disease involvement was adjacent to the cochlea, preference was given to tumor coverage by prescription dose. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dose-volume histogram planning data, and mean planning dose to themore » cochlea (from left or right cochlea, receiving the greater amount of RT dose) was correlated to primary site and tumor stage. Mean (standard deviation) cochlear volume was 1.0 (0.60) cm{sup 3} with maximum and mean planned doses of 31.9 (17.5) Gy and 22.1 (13.7) Gy, respectively. Mean planned dose (Gy) to cochlea by tumor site was as follows: oral cavity (18.6, 14.4), oropharynx (21.7, 9.1), nasopharynx (36.3, 10.4), hypopharynx (14.9, 7.1), larynx (2.1, 0.62), others including the parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus (33.6, 24.0), and unknown primary (25.6, 6.7). Average mean planned dose (Gy) to the cochlea in T0-T2 and T3-T4 disease was 22.0 and 29.2 Gy, respectively (p = 0.019). By site, a significant difference was noted for nasopharynx and others (31.6 and 50.7, p = 0.012) but not for oropharynx, oral cavity, and hypopharynx. Advanced T category predicted for higher mean cochlear dose, particularly for nasopharyngeal, parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus HNC sites.« less

  2. Collecting Tumor Samples From Patients With Gynecological Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Borderline Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Borderline Ovarian Serous Tumor; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Childhood Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma; Childhood Malignant Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Endometrioid Stromal Sarcoma; Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Malignant Mesothelioma; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Melanoma; Neoplasm of Uncertain Malignant Potential; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Paget Disease of the Vulva; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Vaginal Carcinoma; Recurrent Vulvar Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell

  3. Cervical lymph node metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from an unknown primary: outcomes and patterns of failure.

    PubMed

    Mistry, R C; Qureshi, S S; Talole, S D; Deshmukh, S

    2008-01-01

    Management of cervical lymph nodes metastases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from primary of unknown origin (PUO) is contentious and there is insignificant data from India on this subject. To present experience of management of these patients treated with curative intent at a single institution. Retrospective study of patients treated between 1989-1994 in a tertiary referral cancer centre. Eighty-nine patients were evaluated in the study period and their survival compared with patients with common sites of primary in the head and neck with comparable node stage. Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical stage of the neck nodes at presentation was N1 in 11%, N2a in 28.5%, N2b in 22.5%, N3 in 35% and Nx in 3.4% patients. All patients underwent surgery and 70 patients received more than 40Gy postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty-nine (32.6%) patients had relapse of which 19 (21%) were in the neck. Postoperative radiotherapy did not influence the neck relapse (p=0.72). Primary was detected in 13 patients (14.6%) on subsequent follow up. The overall five and eight-years survival was 55% and 51% respectively. The overall five-year survival was better compared to patients with known primary with comparable node stage. Patients with cervical lymph nodes metastases of SCC from PUO have reasonable survival and low rate of development of subsequent primary when treated with surgery and radiotherapy. The overall survival is comparable to that of patients with known primary and hence an attempt at cure should always be made.

  4. Clinical, Biologic, and Prognostic Differences on the Basis of Primary Tumor Site in Neuroblastoma: A Report From the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group Project

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Kieuhoa T.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Neuhaus, John; London, Wendy B.; Hero, Barbara; Ambros, Peter F.; Nakagawara, Akira; Miniati, Doug; Wheeler, Kate; Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Cohn, Susan L.; DuBois, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Neuroblastoma (NB) is a heterogeneous tumor arising from sympathetic tissues. The impact of primary tumor site in influencing the heterogeneity of NB remains unclear. Patients and Methods Children younger than age 21 years diagnosed with NB or ganglioneuroblastoma between 1990 and 2002 and with known primary site were identified from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group database. Data were compared between sites with respect to clinical and biologic features, as well as event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Among 8,369 children, 47% had adrenal tumors. All evaluated clinical and biologic variables differed statistically between primary sites. The features that were > 10% discrepant between sites were stage 4 disease, MYCN amplification, elevated ferritin, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and segmental chromosomal aberrations, all of which were more frequent in adrenal versus nonadrenal tumors (P < .001). Adrenal tumors were more likely than nonadrenal tumors (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.67 to 2.63; P < .001) and thoracic tumors were less likely than nonthoracic tumors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.39; P < .001) to have MYCN amplification after controlling for age, stage, and histologic grade. EFS and OS differed significantly according to the primary site (P < .001 for both comparisons). After controlling for age, MYCN status, and stage, patients with adrenal tumors had higher risk for events (hazard ratio, 1.13 compared with nonadrenal tumors; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.23; P = .008), and patients with thoracic tumors had lower risk for events (HR, 0.79 compared with nonthoracic; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.92; P = .003). Conclusion Clinical and biologic features show important differences by NB primary site, with adrenal and thoracic sites associated with inferior and superior survival, respectively. Future studies will need to investigate the biologic origin of these differences. PMID:25154816

  5. Systematic review of current prognostication systems for primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Chun Yuet; Chai, Xun; Quek, Richard; Teo, Melissa C C; Goh, Brian K P

    2018-04-01

    The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy has revolutionized the management of GIST and emphasized the need for accurate prognostication systems. Numerous prognostication systems have been proposed for GIST but at present it remains unknown which system is superior. The present systematic review aims to summarize current prognostication systems for primary treatment-naive GIST. A literature review of the Pubmed and Embase databases was performed to identify all published articles in English, from the 1st January 2002 to 28th Feb 2017, reporting on clinical prognostication systems of GIST. Twenty-three articles on GIST prognostication systems were included. These systems were classified as categorical systems, which stratify patients into risk groups, or continuous systems, which provide an individualized form of risk assessment. There were 16 categorical systems in total. There were 4 modifications of the National Institute of Health (NIH) system, 2 modifications of Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) criteria and 3 modifications of Joensuu (modified NIH) criteria. Of the 7 continuous systems, there were 3 prognostic nomograms, 3 mathematical models and 1 prognostic heat/contour maps. Tumor size, location and mitotic count remain the main variables used in these systems. Numerous prognostication systems have been proposed for the risk stratification of GISTs. The most widely used systems today are the NIH, Joensuu modified NIH, AFIP and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram. More validation and comparison studies are required to determine the optimal prognostication system for GIST. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical management and perioperative morbidity of patients with primary borderline ovarian tumor (BOT).

    PubMed

    Trillsch, Fabian; Ruetzel, Jan David; Herwig, Uwe; Doerste, Ulrike; Woelber, Linn; Grimm, Donata; Choschzick, Matthias; Jaenicke, Fritz; Mahner, Sven

    2013-07-09

    Surgery is the cornerstone for clinical management of patients with borderline ovarian tumors (BOT). As these patients have an excellent overall prognosis, perioperative morbidity is the critical point for decision making when the treatment strategy is developed and the primary surgical approach is defined. Clinical and surgical parameters of patients undergoing surgery for primary BOT at our institutions between 1993 and 2008 were analyzed with regard to perioperative morbidity depending on the surgical approach (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy). A total of 105 patients were analyzed (44 with primary laparoscopy [42%], 61 with primary laparotomy [58%]). Complete surgical staging was achieved in 33 patients at primary surgical approach (31.4%) frequently leading to formal indication of re-staging procedures. Tumor rupture was significantly more frequent during laparoscopy compared to laparotomy (29.5% vs. 13.1%, p = 0.038) but no other intraoperative complications were seen in laparoscopic surgery in contrast to 7 of 61 laparotomies (0% vs. 11.5%, p = 0.020). Postoperative complication rates were similar in both groups (19.7% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.848). Irrespective of the surgical approach, surgical management of BOT has acceptable rates of perioperative complications and morbidity. Choice of initial surgical approach can therefore be made independent of complication-concerns. As the recently published large retrospective AGO ROBOT study observed similar oncologic outcome for both approaches, laparoscopy can be considered for staging of patients with BOT if this appears feasible. An algorithm for the surgical management of BOT patients has been developed.

  7. HtrA3 Is Downregulated in Cancer Cell Lines and Significantly Reduced in Primary Serous and Granulosa Cell Ovarian Tumors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harmeet; Li, Ying; Fuller, Peter J; Harrison, Craig; Rao, Jyothsna; Stephens, Andrew N; Nie, Guiying

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The high temperature requirement factor A3 (HtrA3) is a serine protease homologous to bacterial HtrA. Four human HtrAs have been identified. HtrA1 and HtrA3 share a high degree of domain organization and are downregulated in a number of cancers, suggesting a widespread loss of these proteases in cancer. This study examined how extensively the HtrA (HtrA1-3) proteins are downregulated in commonly used cancer cell lines and primary ovarian tumors.Methods. RT-PCR was applied to various cancer cell lines (n=17) derived from the ovary, endometrium, testes, breast, prostate, and colon, and different subtypes of primary ovarian tumors [granulosa cell tumors (n=19), mucinous cystadenocarcinomas (n=6), serous cystadenocarcinomas (n=8)] and normal ovary (n = 9). HtrA3 protein was localized by immunohistochemistry.Results. HtrA3 was extensively downregulated in the cancer cell lines examined including the granulosa cell tumor-derived cell lines. In primary ovarian tumors, the HtrA3 was significantly lower in serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. In contrast, HtrA1 and HtrA2 were expressed in all samples with no significant differences between the control and tumors. In normal postmenopausal ovary, HtrA3 protein was localized to lutenizing stromal cells and corpus albicans. In serous cystadenocarcinoma, HtrA3 protein was absent in the papillae but detected in the mesenchymal cyst wall.Conclusion. HtrA3 is more extensively downregulated than HtrA1-2 in cancer cell lines. HtrA3, but not HtrA1 or HtrA2, was decreased in primary ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma and granulosa cell tumors. This study provides evidence that HtrA3 may be the most relevant HtrA associated with ovarian malignancy.

  8. The Tumor Macroenvironment: Cancer-Promoting Networks Beyond Tumor Beds.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a giant cell tumor: One case in the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Ouzaa, M R; Bennis, A; Iken, M; Abouzzahir, A; Boussouga, M; Jaafar, A

    2015-10-01

    Hyperparathyroidism can present itself as brown tumors (or osteolytic expansive lesions) that usually disappear after normalization of calcium and phosphate levels. It rarely occurs simultaneously with a giant cell tumor. The authors report one case of a localized form at the distal radius in a patient being followed for primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnostic challenges related to the clinical and radiological similarities of these two pathological entities are discussed, as they can lead to delays in therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors registry data in the United States compared with other common cancers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Adah S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Kruchko, Carol; Rogers, Lisa; Peereboom, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Complete prevalence proportions illustrate the burden of disease in a population. This study estimates the 2010 complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors overall and by Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groups, and compares the brain tumor prevalence estimates to the complete prevalence of other common cancers as determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) by age at prevalence (2010): children (0–14 y), adolescent and young adult (AYA) (15–39 y), and adult (40+ y). Methods. Complete prevalence proportions were estimated using a novel regression method extended from the Completeness Index Method, which combines survival and incidence data from multiple sources. In this study, two datasets, CBTRUS and SEER, were used to calculate complete prevalence estimates of interest. Results. Complete prevalence for malignant primary brain tumors was 47.59/100000 population (22.31, 48.49, and 57.75/100000 for child, AYA, and adult populations). The most prevalent cancers by age were childhood leukemia (36.65/100000), AYA melanoma of the skin (66.21/100000), and adult female breast (1949.00/100000). The most prevalent CBTRUS histologies in children and AYA were pilocytic astrocytoma (6.82/100000, 5.92/100000), and glioblastoma (12.76/100000) in adults. Conclusions. The relative impact of malignant primary brain tumors is higher among children than any other age group; it emerges as the second most prevalent cancer among children. Complete prevalence estimates for primary malignant brain tumors fills a gap in overall cancer knowledge, which provides critical information toward public health and health care planning, including treatment, decision making, funding, and advocacy programs. PMID:28039365

  11. Gallotannin-rich Caesalpinia spinosa fraction decreases the primary tumor and factors associated with poor prognosis in a murine breast cancer model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several treatment alternatives are available for primary breast cancer, although those for metastatic disease or inflammation associated with tumor progression are ineffective. Therefore, there is a great need for new therapeutic alternatives capable of generating an immune response against residual tumor cells, thus contributing to eradication of micrometastases and cancer stem cells. The use of complex natural products is an excellent therapeutic alternative widely used by Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, and ancestral Latin-American Indian populations. Methods The present study evaluated cytotoxic, antitumor, and tumor progression activities of a gallotannin-rich fraction derived from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). The parameters evaluated in vitro were mitochondrial membrane depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and clonogenic activity. The parameters evaluated in vivo were tumor growth, leukocyte number, metastatic cell number, and cytokine production by flow cytometry. Results The in vitro results showed that the P2Et fraction induced apoptosis with mitochondrial membrane potential loss, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and decreased clonogenic capacity of 4T1 cells. In vivo, the P2Et fraction induced primary tumor reduction in terms of diameter and weight in BALB/c mice transplanted with 4T1 cells and decreased numbers of metastatic cells, mainly in the spleen. Furthermore, decreases in the number of peripheral blood leukocytes (leukemoid reaction) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels were found, which are events associated with a poor prognosis. The P2Et fraction exerts its activity on the primary tumor, reduces cell migration to distant organs, and decreases IL-6 serum levels, implying tumor microenvironment mechanisms. Conclusions Overall, the P2Et fraction lessens risk factors associated with tumor progression and diminishes primary tumor size, showing

  12. Gallotannin-rich Caesalpinia spinosa fraction decreases the primary tumor and factors associated with poor prognosis in a murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Urueña, Claudia; Mancipe, Juan; Hernandez, John; Castañeda, Diana; Pombo, Luis; Gomez, Alejandra; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2013-04-03

    Several treatment alternatives are available for primary breast cancer, although those for metastatic disease or inflammation associated with tumor progression are ineffective. Therefore, there is a great need for new therapeutic alternatives capable of generating an immune response against residual tumor cells, thus contributing to eradication of micrometastases and cancer stem cells. The use of complex natural products is an excellent therapeutic alternative widely used by Chinese, Hindu, Egyptian, and ancestral Latin-American Indian populations. The present study evaluated cytotoxic, antitumor, and tumor progression activities of a gallotannin-rich fraction derived from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). The parameters evaluated in vitro were mitochondrial membrane depolarization, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and clonogenic activity. The parameters evaluated in vivo were tumor growth, leukocyte number, metastatic cell number, and cytokine production by flow cytometry. The in vitro results showed that the P2Et fraction induced apoptosis with mitochondrial membrane potential loss, phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation, and decreased clonogenic capacity of 4T1 cells. In vivo, the P2Et fraction induced primary tumor reduction in terms of diameter and weight in BALB/c mice transplanted with 4T1 cells and decreased numbers of metastatic cells, mainly in the spleen. Furthermore, decreases in the number of peripheral blood leukocytes (leukemoid reaction) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) serum levels were found, which are events associated with a poor prognosis. The P2Et fraction exerts its activity on the primary tumor, reduces cell migration to distant organs, and decreases IL-6 serum levels, implying tumor microenvironment mechanisms. Overall, the P2Et fraction lessens risk factors associated with tumor progression and diminishes primary tumor size, showing good potential for use as an adjuvant in

  13. Comprehensive Cancer-Predisposition Gene Testing in an Adult Multiple Primary Tumor Series Shows a Broad Range of Deleterious Variants and Atypical Tumor Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, James; Smith, Philip S; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; West, Hannah; Luchetti, Andrea; Rodger, Faye; Clark, Graeme; Carss, Keren; Stephens, Jonathan; Stirrups, Kathleen; Penkett, Chris; Mapeta, Rutendo; Ashford, Sofie; Megy, Karyn; Shakeel, Hassan; Ahmed, Munaza; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Brewer, Carole; Casey, Ruth T; Armstrong, Ruth; Cole, Trevor; Evans, Dafydd Gareth; Fostira, Florentia; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Hanson, Helen; Henderson, Alex; Hoffman, Jonathan; Izatt, Louise; Kumar, Ajith; Kwong, Ava; Lalloo, Fiona; Ong, Kai Ren; Paterson, Joan; Park, Soo-Mi; Chen-Shtoyerman, Rakefet; Searle, Claire; Side, Lucy; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Snape, Katie; Woodward, Emma R; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Maher, Eamonn R

    2018-06-12

    Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ 2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Survival of patients with multiple primary malignancies: a study of 783 patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Pandurengan, R. K.; Dumont, A. G.; Araujo, D. M.; Ludwig, J. A.; Ravi, V.; Patel, S.; Garber, J.; Benjamin, R. S.; Strom, S. S.; Trent, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We sought to investigate the characteristics and survival rate of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) associated with other primary malignancies. Patients and methods: A total of 783 patients with GIST were identified from 1995 to 2007. Additional primaries included tumors not considered metastasis, invasion, or recurrence of GIST, nor non-melanoma skin cancer. Data on gender, age at diagnosis, follow-up time after diagnosis, and death were collected. Results: Of the 783 patients with GIST, 153(20%) were identified with at least one additional primary. Patients with additional primaries were more often men (M : F 1.5 versus 1.3) and older (66 versus 53 years). More patients had another cancer diagnosed before (134) than after (52) GIST. Primaries observed before GIST were cancers of the prostate (25), breast (12), esophagus (9), and kidney (7) and melanoma (6). Lung (5) and kidney (5) primaries were the most frequent after GIST. The 5-year survival was 68% for patients with primaries before GIST, 61% for patients with primaries after GIST, 58% for patients with GIST only, and 49% for patients with two or more primaries in addition to GIST (P = 0.002). Conclusions: Approximately 20% of patients with GIST develop other cancers. Inferior median 5-year survival was observed in patients with GIST with two or more other cancers. The etiology and clinical implications of other malignancies in patients with GIST should be investigated. PMID:20348145

  15. Survival According to BRAF-V600 Tumor Mutations – An Analysis of 437 Patients with Primary Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Meckbach, Diana; Bauer, Jürgen; Pflugfelder, Annette; Meier, Friedegund; Busch, Christian; Eigentler, Thomas K.; Capper, David; von Deimling, Andreas; Mittelbronn, Michel; Perner, Sven; Ikenberg, Kristian; Hantschke, Markus; Büttner, Petra; Garbe, Claus; Weide, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic impact of BRAF-V600 tumor mutations in stage I/II melanoma patients has not yet been analyzed in detail. We investigated primary tumors of 437 patients diagnosed between 1989 and 2006 by Sanger sequencing. Mutations were detected in 38.7% of patients and were associated with age, histological subtype as well as mitotic rate. The mutational rate was 36.7% in patients with disease-free course and 51.7% in those with subsequent distant metastasis (p = 0.031). No difference in overall survival (p = 0.119) but a trend for worse distant-metastasis-free survival (p = 0.061) was observed in BRAF mutant compared to BRAF wild-type patients. Independent prognostic factors for overall survival were tumor thickness, mitotic rate and ulceration. An interesting significant prognostic impact was observed in patients with tumor thickness of 1 mm or less, with the mutation present in 6 of 7 patients dying from melanoma. In conclusion, no significant survival differences were found according to BRAF-V600 tumor mutations in patients with primary melanoma but an increasing impact of the mutational status was observed in the subgroup of patients with tumor thickness of 1 mm or less. A potential role of the mutational status as a prognostic factor especially in this subgroup needs to be investigated in larger studies. PMID:24475086

  16. Association of Primary Tumor Site With Mortality in Patients Receiving Bevacizumab and Cetuximab for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aljehani, Mayada A; Morgan, John W; Guthrie, Laurel A; Jabo, Brice; Ramadan, Majed; Bahjri, Khaled; Lum, Sharon S; Selleck, Matthew; Reeves, Mark E; Garberoglio, Carlos; Senthil, Maheswari

    2018-01-01

    Biologic therapy (BT) (eg, bevacizumab or cetuximab) is increasingly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Recent investigations have suggested that right- or left-sided primary tumor origin affects survival and response to BT. To evaluate the association of tumor origin with mortality in a diverse population-based data set of patients receiving systemic chemotherapy (SC) and bevacizumab or cetuximab for mCRC. This population-based nonconcurrent cohort study of statewide California Cancer Registry data included all patients aged 40 to 85 years diagnosed with mCRC and treated with SC only or SC plus bevacizumab or cetuximab from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014. Patients were stratified by tumor origin in the left vs right sides. Treatment with SC or SC plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. Mortality hazards by tumor origin (right vs left sides) were assessed for patients receiving SC alone or SC plus bevacizumab or cetuximab. Subgroup analysis for patients with wild-type KRAS tumors was also performed. A total of 11 905 patients with mCRC (6713 men [56.4%] and 5192 women [43.6%]; mean [SD] age, 60.0 [10.9] years) were eligible for the study. Among these, 4632 patients received SC and BT. Compared with SC alone, SC plus bevacizumab reduced mortality among patients with right- and left-sided mCRC, whereas SC plus cetuximab reduced mortality only among patients with left-sided tumors and was associated with significantly higher mortality for right-sided tumors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.14-1.51; P < .001). Among patients treated with SC plus BT, right-sided tumor origin was associated with higher mortality among patients receiving bevacizumab (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.25-1.36; P < .001) and cetuximab (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.68-2.12; P < .001) BT, compared with left-sided tumor origin. In patients with wild-type KRAS tumors (n = 668), cetuximab was associated with reduced mortality among only patients with left-sided mCRC compared

  17. Penile sparing surgical approaches for primary penile tumors: preserving function and appearance

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Adam S.; Fisher, John S.; Lawindy, Samuel M.; Pavlinec, Jonathan G.; Carrion, Rafael E.

    2017-01-01

    Penile cancer is a rare and potentially disfiguring disease. There are multiple treatment options for primary penile lesions. Penile sparing approaches offer an attractive option as they can provide several quality of life benefits without detrimental oncologic outcomes. With appropriate diagnostic evaluation and staging, penile sparing techniques provide proper cancer control with improved cosmetic and functional results. Regardless of the chosen treatment modality, a commitment to close follow-up remains a critical component of all treatment considerations. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the multiple treatment strategies for primary penile tumors with a focus on penile sparing surgical approaches. PMID:29184777

  18. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous with retinal tumor in tuberous sclerosis: report of a case including tumoral immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Milot, J; Michaud, J; Lemieux, N; Allaire, G; Gagnon, M M

    1999-03-01

    The authors describe an ocular lesion combining the characteristics of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) and a retinal tumor in an infant with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Case report. Immunohistochemistry and cytogenetic studies were performed on TSC cells from an intraocular tumor in a 6-week-old infant. Histopathologic examination showed a thick fibrovascular membrane between the aspect of the lens and the astrocytic component of the mass. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) showed a variable intracytoplasmic reaction in the astrocytic proliferation, involving approximately 50% of the cells. Tissue culture studies showed a fairly rapid proliferation of fusiform cells, consistent with bipolar astrocytic cells. Cytogenetic studies showed one abnormal clone consisting of three hyperdiploid cells with a loss of chromosome 9 and a gain of chromosomes 6 and 12. The atypical localization of the retinal tumor could be explained by the fact that it was trapped during its proliferation by the retinal detachment associated with the PHPV.

  19. Unknown primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: retrospective analysis of 80 cases.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Masanobu; Kitamura, Morimasa; Tateya, Ichiro; Tamaki, Hisanobu; Tanaka, Shinzo; Asato, Ryo; Shinohara, Shogo; Takebayashi, Shinji; Maetani, Toshiki; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Kumabe, Yohei; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Ushiro, Koji; Ichimaru, Kazuyuki; Honda, Keigo; Yamada, Koichiro; Omori, Koichi

    2018-06-01

    The management of patients with cervical metastasis in head and neck cancer of unknown primary (HNCUP) remains controversial. This current multicenter retrospective study investigated the treatment outcomes of patients with HNCUP. The study included patients who were treated curatively at 12 institutions in Japan from January 2006 to December 2015. Eighty patients with HNCUP were included. The median follow-up period was 34 months. The three-year overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), regional relapse-free survival (RRFS), local progression-free survival (LPFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 72.5%, 80.3%, 74.0%, 89.7%, and 86.9%, respectively. Nodal status was a significant factor for OS, DSS, RRFS, and DMFS; and extracapsular extension (ECE) was significant for OS and DSS. There was a distinct difference between the survival rates of patients with N1-2a and N2b-3 disease. RT was a significant positive factor for LPFS (3-year LPFS, RT 93.0% vs. no RT 83.0%, p = .043). For N2a as well as N1 disease without ECE, a single treatment modality, including ND or RT alone is acceptable. When ND alone is performed, thorough monitoring should be continued during follow-up to identify the emergence of the primary lesion.

  20. Bilateral maxillary brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism: Report of a rare entity and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, N; Sharada, P; Prakash, Nilima; Pradeep, GL

    2011-01-01

    Brown tumors are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteoclastic activity and peritrabecular fibrosis due to hyperparathyroidism, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon. The classical “brown tumor” is commonly seen in ends of long bones, the pelvis and ribs. Facial involvement is rare and, when present, usually involves the mandible. We report a case of 60-year-old male with a rare initial presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism with bilateral maxillary brown tumors. The present case represents the third report of the bilateral maxillary brown tumors in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Differential diagnosis is important for the right treatment choice. It should exclude other giant cell lesions that affect the maxillae. PMID:21731279

  1. Assessment of left ventricular myocardial deformation by cardiac MRI strain imaging reveals myocardial dysfunction in patients with primary cardiac tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Hua-Yan; Shi, Ke; Guo, Ying-Kun

    2018-02-15

    To assess left ventricular myocardial deformation in patients with primary cardiac tumors. MRI was retrospectively performed in 61 patients, including 31 patients with primary cardiac tumors and 30 matched normal controls. Left ventricular strain and function parameters were then assessed by MRI-tissue tracking. Differences between the tumor group and controls, left and right heart tumor groups, left ventricular wall tumor and non-left ventricular wall tumor groups, and tumors with and without LV enlargement groups were assessed. Finally, the correlations among tumor diameter, myocardial strain, and LV function were analyzed. Left ventricular myocardial strain was milder for tumor group than for normal group. Peak circumferential strain (PCS) and its diastolic strain rate, longitudinal strains (PLS) and its diastolic strain rates, and peak radial systolic and diastolic velocities of the right heart tumor group were lower than those of the left heart tumor group (all p<0.050), but the peak radial systolic strain rate of the former was higher than that of the latter (p=0.017). The corresponding strains were lower in the left ventricular wall tumor groups than in the non-left ventricular wall tumor group (p<0.050). Peak radial systolic velocities were generally higher for tumors with LV enlargement than for tumors without LV enlargement (p<0.050). Peak radial strain, PCS, and PLS showed important correlations with the left ventricular ejection fraction (all p<0.050). MRI-tissue tracking is capable of quantitatively assessing left ventricular myocardial strain to reveal sub-clinical abnormalities of myocardial contractile function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Up-front systemic chemotherapy is a feasible option compared to primary tumor resection followed by chemotherapy for colorectal cancer with unresectable synchronous metastases.

    PubMed

    Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hinoi, Takao; Shimomura, Manabu; Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Ishizaki, Yasuyo; Adachi, Tomohiro; Saito, Yasufumi; Miguchi, Masashi; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kochi, Masatoshi; Mukai, Shoichiro; Ohdan, Hideki

    2015-04-24

    In stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) with unresectable metastases, whether or not resection of the primary tumor should be indicated remains controversial. We aim to determine the impact of primary tumor resection on the survival of stage IV CRC patients with unresectable metastases. We retrospectively investigated 103 CRC patients with stage IV colorectal cancer with metastases, treated at Hiroshima University Hospital between 2007 and 2013. Of these, those who had resectable primary tumor but unresectable metastases and received any chemotherapy were included in the study. We analyzed the overall survival (OS) and short-term outcomes between the patients who received up-front systemic chemotherapy (USC group) and those who received primary tumor resection followed by chemotherapy (PTR group). Of the 57 included patients, 15 underwent USC and 42 PTR. The median survival times were 13.4 and 23.9 months in the USC and PTR groups, respectively (P = 0.093), but multivariate analysis for the overall survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60 to 2.73, P = 0.495). In the USC group, the disease control rate of primary tumor was observed in 12 patients (80.0%), but emergency laparotomy was required for 1 patient. Morbidity in the PTR group was observed in 18 cases (42.9%). The overall survival did not differ significantly between the USC and PTR groups. USC may help avoid unnecessary resection and consequently the high morbidity rate associated with primary tumor resection for stage IV CRC with unresectable metastases.

  3. Simultaneous 11C-Methionine Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Suspected Primary Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Cornelius; Goericke, Sophia; Grueneisen, Johannes; Sawicki, Lino Morris; Goebel, Juliane; El Hindy, Nicolai; Wrede, Karsten; Binse, Ina; Poeppel, Thorsten; Quick, Harald; Forsting, Michael; Hense, Joerg; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated 11C- methionine PET/MRI for suspected primary brain tumors, in comparison to MRI alone. Material and Methods Forty-eight consecutive patients with suspected primary brain tumor were prospectively enrolled for an integrated 11C-methionine PET/MRI. Two neuro-radiologists separately evaluated the MRI alone and the integrated PET/MRI data sets regarding most likely diagnosis and diagnostic confidence on a 5-point scale. Reference standard was histopathology or follow-up imaging. Results Fifty-one suspicious lesions were detected: 16 high-grade glioma and 25 low-grade glioma. Ten non-malignant cerebral lesions were described by the reference standard. MRI alone and integrated PET/MRI each correctly classified 42 of the 51 lesions (82.4%) as neoplastic lesions (WHO grade II, III and IV) or non-malignant lesions (infectious and neoplastic lesions). Diagnostic confidence for all lesions, low-grade astrocytoma and high-grade astrocytoma (3.7 vs. 4.2, 3,1 vs. 3.8, 4.0 vs. 4,7) were significantly (p < 0.05) better with integrated PET/MRI than in MRI alone. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the high potential of integrated 11C-methionine-PET/MRI for the assessment of suspected primary brain tumors. Although integrated methionine PET/MRI does not lead to an improvement of correct diagnoses, diagnostic confidence is significantly improved. PMID:27907162

  4. Pattern of metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments in primary lung cancer: rationale for segmentectomy.

    PubMed

    Sakairi, Yuichi; Yoshino, Ichiro; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Suzuki, Hidemi; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Iwata, Takekazu; Mizobuchi, Teruaki

    2014-05-01

    Patterns of intrapulmonary metastasis, particularly metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments, were investigated in lung cancer patients to address the rationale for segmentectomy. In a consecutive series of patients who underwent resection of two or more pulmonary segments for primary lung cancer, intrapulmonary spread patterns, such as segmental/intersegmental node metastasis and pulmonary parenchymal metastasis, were pathologically examined. Eligible 244 lesions included 167 adenocarcinomas, 66 squamous cell carcinomas, and 11 large cell carcinomas. Pathologic stages included 0 to IA (n=111), IB (n=56), IIA (n=31), IIB (n=20), IIIA (n=23), and IIIB to IV (n=3); and N1 (n=26) and N2 (n=22). Intrapulmonary spread was observed in 24 cases (9.8%). Of these, metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments was only observed in 4 cases (1.6%), and such cancer spread was more frequently seen in cases with extrapulmonary (hilar to mediastinal) nodal metastasis (7.9%) than in cases without extrapulmonary metastasis (0.5%; p=0.01). Metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments was not observed in 64 tumors with pure or mixed ground glass opacity features on computed tomography. Although tumor location (peripheral or central/intermediate) was not related to the incidence of metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments, intrapulmonary spread was observed in only 1 of 52 peripheral small (≤20 mm) tumors. Metastasis outside tumor-bearing segments is rarely observed in cases with tumors (1) without extrapulmonary nodal metastasis and (2) with ground glass opacity or peripheral small (≤20 mm) features. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unusual presentations of melanoma: melanoma of unknown primary site, melanoma arising in childhood, and melanoma arising in the eye and on mucosal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sondak, Vernon K; Messina, Jane L

    2014-10-01

    Most melanomas present as primary tumors on the skin surface in adults; however, melanomas also arise in the eye and on the mucosal surfaces or present as apparently metastatic disease without any known history of a cutaneous primary. Melanoma is also being diagnosed during childhood more frequently than ever. Surgeons need to be aware of and understand these unusual presentations of melanoma to optimally manage their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An; Wang, Li-Fu

    2014-01-01

    To compare drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection. We collect 42 patients with obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection from January 2008 - August 2012, for which percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (pTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (pTBS) were performed. In 25 patients drainage was combined with anti-tumor treatment, antineoplastic therapy including intra/postprodure local treatment and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, the other 17 undergoing drainage only. We assessed the two kinds of treatment with regard to patient prognosis. Both treatments demonstrated good effects in reducing bilirubin levels in the short term and promoting liver function. The time to reobstruction was 125 days in the combined group and 89 days in the drainage only group; the mean survival times were 185 and 128 days, the differences being significant. Interventional drainage in the treatment of the obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection can decrease bilirubin level quickly in a short term and promote the liver function recovery. Combined treatment prolongs the survival time and period before reobstruction as compared to drainage only.

  7. Primary Tumor and MEF Cell Isolation to Study Lung Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shengli; Maziveyi, Mazvita; Alahari, Suresh K

    2015-05-20

    In breast tumorigenesis, the metastatic stage of the disease poses the greatest threat to the affected individual. Normal breast cells with altered genotypes now possess the ability to invade and survive in other tissues. In this protocol, mouse mammary tumors are removed and primary cells are prepared from tumors. The cells isolated from this procedure are then available for gene profiling experiments. For successful metastasis, these cells must be able to intravasate, survive in circulation, extravasate to distant organs, and survive in that new organ system. The lungs are the typical target of breast cancer metastasis. A set of genes have been discovered that mediates the selectivity of metastasis to the lung. Here we describe a method of studying lung metastasis from a genetically engineered mouse model.. Furthermore, another protocol for analyzing mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from the mouse embryo is included. MEF cells from the same animal type provide a clue of non-cancer cell gene expression. Together, these techniques are useful in studying mouse mammary tumorigenesis, its associated signaling mechanisms and pathways of the abnormalities in embryos.

  8. Belinostat in Treating Patients With Advanced Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer or Ovarian Low Malignant Potential Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-20

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Stage III Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Borderline Ovarian Surface Epithelial-Stromal Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  9. Prognosis estimation under the light of metabolic tumor parameters on initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with primary extranodal lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Okuyucu, Kursat; Ozaydın, Sukru; Alagoz, Engin; Ozgur, Gokhan; Oysul, Fahrettin Guven; Ozmen, Ozlem; Tuncel, Murat; Ozturk, Mustafa; Arslan, Nuri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study. Patients and methods There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging. Quantitative PET/CT parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were used to estimate disease-free survival and overall survival. Results SUVmean, MTV and TLG were found statistically significant after multivariate analysis. SUVmean remained significant after ROC curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 88% and 64%, respectively, when the cut-off value of SUVmean was chosen as 5.15. After the investigation of primary presentation sites and histo-pathological variants according to recurrence, there is no difference amongst the variants. Primary site of extranodal lymphomas however, is statistically important (p = 0.014). Testis and central nervous system lymphomas have higher recurrence rate (62.5%, 73%, respectively). Conclusions High SUVmean, MTV and TLG values obtained from primary staging FDG-PET/CT are potential risk factors for both disease-free survival and overall survival in primary extranodal lymphoma. SUVmean is the most significant one amongst them for estimating recurrence/metastasis. PMID:27904443

  10. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  11. Primary CNS germ cell tumors in Japan and the United States: an analysis of 4 tumor registries

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Bridget J.; Shibui, Soichiro; Kayama, Takamasa; Miyaoka, Etsuo; Narita, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Michiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Sobue, Tomotaka; Palis, Bryan E.; Dolecek, Therese A.; Kruchko, Carol; Engelhard, Herbert H.; Villano, J. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) are relatively rare. Their incidence has been considered to be higher in East Asia than in the United States. This study estimates the incidence of CNS GCTs in Japan and the United States, investigates gender discrepancies in each country, and describes treatment outcomes. Data on primary CNS GCTs from 4 databases were utilized: population-based malignant incidence data from (1) the Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group (2004–2006; 14 registries), malignant and nonmalignant incidence data from (2) the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (2004–2008; 17 registries), and hospital-based observed survival data from (3) the Brain Tumor Registry of Japan (1984–2000) and (4) the US National Cancer Data Base (1990–2003). Incidence rates per 100 000 for malignant GCTs were not statistically significantly different between Japan (males = 0.143, females = 0.046) and the United States (males = 0.118, females = 0.030). The malignant incidence-rate ratio was higher for pineal GCTs versus nonpineal (ie, the rest of the brain) GCTs in Japan (11.5:1 vs 1.9:1, respectively) and the United States (16.0:1 vs 1.7:1, respectively). In general, 5-year survival estimates were high: over 75% for all GCTs, and over 81% for germinomas, regardless of the type of treatment in either Japan or the United States. The incidence of primary GCTs is similar between Japan and the United States and has the same gender-based patterns by location. High rates of survival were observed in both countries. PMID:22869621

  12. Differential gene expression profiling of matched primary renal cell carcinoma and metastases reveals upregulation of extracellular matrix genes.

    PubMed

    Ho, T H; Serie, D J; Parasramka, M; Cheville, J C; Bot, B M; Tan, W; Wang, L; Joseph, R W; Hilton, T; Leibovich, B C; Parker, A S; Eckel-Passow, J E

    2017-03-01

    The majority of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) studies analyze primary tumors, and the corresponding results are extrapolated to metastatic RCC tumors. However, it is unknown if gene expression profiles from primary RCC tumors differs from patient-matched metastatic tumors. Thus, we sought to identify differentially expressed genes between patient-matched primary and metastatic RCC tumors in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of RCC metastases. We compared gene expression profiles between patient-matched primary and metastatic RCC tumors using a two-stage design. First, we used Affymetrix microarrays on 15 pairs of primary RCC [14 clear cell RCC (ccRCC), 1 papillary] tumors and patient-matched pulmonary metastases. Second, we used a custom NanoString panel to validate seven candidate genes in an independent cohort of 114 ccRCC patients. Differential gene expression was evaluated using a mixed effect linear model; a random effect denoting patient was included to account for the paired data. Third, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data were used to evaluate associations with metastasis-free and overall survival in primary ccRCC tumors. We identified and validated up regulation of seven genes functionally involved in the formation of the extracellular matrix (ECM): DCN, SLIT2, LUM, LAMA2, ADAMTS12, CEACAM6 and LMO3. In primary ccRCC, CEACAM6 and LUM were significantly associated with metastasis-free and overall survival (P < 0.01). We evaluated gene expression profiles using the largest set to date, to our knowledge, of patient-matched primary and metastatic ccRCC tumors and identified up regulation of ECM genes in metastases. Our study implicates up regulation of ECM genes as a critical molecular event leading to visceral, bone and soft tissue metastases in ccRCC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email

  13. The Many Faces of Primary Aldosteronism and Cushing Syndrome: A Reflection of Adrenocortical Tumor Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Mete, Ozgur; Duan, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Adrenal cortical tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with distinct clinical, morphological, and molecular features. Recent discoveries of specific genotype-phenotype correlations in adrenal cortical adenomas have transformed our understanding of their respective endocrine syndromes. Indeed, a proportion of patients with primary aldosteronism are now known to harbor adrenal cortical adenomas with heterogeneous molecular alterations ( KCNJ5, ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D ) involving the calcium/calmodulin kinase signaling pathway. Several lines of evidence suggest that KCNJ5 -mutant aldosterone-producing adenomas have distinct clinicopathological phenotype compared to those harboring ATP1A1, ATP2B3 , and CACNA1D mutations. Benign adrenal cortical tumors presenting with Cushing syndrome often have diverse mutations ( PRKACA, PRKAR1A, GNAS, PDE11A , and PDE8B ) involving the cyclic AMP signaling pathway. In addition to cortisol-producing adenomas, bilateral micronodular adrenocortical disease and primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (PBMAH) have also expanded the spectrum of benign neoplasms causing adrenal Cushing disease. The recent discovery of inactivating ARMC5 germline mutations in PBMAH has challenged the old belief that this disorder is mainly a sporadic disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PBMAH harbors multiple distinct clonal proliferations, reflecting the heterogeneous genomic landscape of this disease. Although most solitary adrenal cortical tumors are sporadic, there is an increasing recognition that inherited susceptibility syndromes may also play a role in their pathogenesis. This review highlights the molecular and morphological heterogeneity of benign adrenal cortical neoplasms, reflected in the diverse presentations of primary aldosteronism and adrenal Cushing syndrome.

  14. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Mingyue; Duan, Chaijie; Qiu, Jianping; Li, Wenru; Zhu, Dongyun; Cai, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT) and its multiplanar reformation (MPR), volume rendering (VR) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors. Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology. Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6), tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16), extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1), longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1), morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1) and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19), distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10), and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density without

  15. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mingyue; Duan, Chaijie; Qiu, Jianping; Li, Wenru; Zhu, Dongyun; Cai, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT) and its multiplanar reformation (MPR), volume rendering (VR) and virtual bronchoscopy (VB) postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors. Methods Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology. Results Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6), tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16), extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm—56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1), longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm—68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1), morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1) and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19), distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10), and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n

  16. Primary rhabdomyosarcoma of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Lau, Steven K M; Cykowski, Matthew D; Desai, Shiv; Cao, Ying; Fuller, Gregory N; Bruner, Janet; Okazaki, Ian

    2015-05-01

    To report a case of primary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the pineal gland in an adult, as well as review the literature on this rare entity. The case is compared with previous reports of similar entities, with emphasis on this patient's characteristics and clinical presentation, investigations, and management. Diagnosis of primary RMS of the pineal gland was based on the presence of strap cells and multinucleated myotube-like structures, as well as tumor cell expression of skeletal muscle markers consistent with myogenic differentiation. Multimodality treatment was initiated based on pediatric protocols. Unfortunately, the disease progressed on treatment, and the patient survived only 5 months from diagnosis. Pineal RMS is a rare disease with poor prognosis. Optimal management is unknown but likely to involve aggressive multimodality therapy. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  17. Breast cancer brain metastases show increased levels of genomic aberration based homologous recombination deficiency scores relative to their corresponding primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Diossy, M; Reiniger, L; Sztupinszki, Z; Krzystanek, M; Timms, K M; Neff, C; Solimeno, C; Pruss, D; Eklund, A C; Tóth, E; Kiss, O; Rusz, O; Cserni, G; Zombori, T; Székely, B; Tímár, J; Csabai, I; Szallasi, Z

    2018-06-18

    Based on its mechanism of action, PARP inhibitor therapy is expected to benefit mainly tumor cases with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Therefore, identification of tumor types with increased HRD is important for the optimal use of this class of therapeutic agents. HRD levels can be estimated using various mutational signatures from next generation sequencing data and we used this approach to determine whether breast cancer brain metastases show altered levels of HRD scores relative to their corresponding primary tumor. We used a previously published next generation sequencing dataset of twenty-one matched primary breast cancer/brain metastasis pairs to derive the various mutational signatures/HRD scores strongly associated with HRD. We also performed the myChoice HRD analysis on an independent cohort of seventeen breast cancer patients with matched primary/brain metastasis pairs. All of the mutational signatures indicative of HRD showed a significant increase in the brain metastases relative to their matched primary tumor in the previously published whole exome sequencing dataset. In the independent validation cohort the myChoice HRD assay showed an increased level in 87.5% of the brain metastases relative to the primary tumor, with 56% of brain metastases being HRD positive according to the myChoice criteria. The consistent observation that brain metastases of breast cancer tend to have higher HRD measures may raise the possibility that brain metastases may be more sensitive to PARP inhibitor treatment. This observation warrants further investigation to assess whether this increase is common to other metastatic sites as well, and whether clinical trials should adjust their strategy in the application of HRD measures for the prioritization of patients for PARP inhibitor therapy.

  18. R132H Mutation in IDH1 Gene is Associated with Increased Tumor HIF1-Alpha and Serum VEGF Levels in Primary Glioblastoma Multiforme.

    PubMed

    Yalaza, Cem; Ak, Handan; Cagli, Mehmet Sedat; Ozgiray, Erkin; Atay, Sevcan; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2017-05-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumors. Although mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) have been identified in a number of cancers, their role in tumor development has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between IDH1 mutations, tumor tissue HIF-1 alpha, and serum VEGF levels in patients with primary GBM for the first time. 32 patients (mean age, years: 58±14.0) diagnosed with primary glioblastoma multiforme were screened for IDH1 mutations (R132H, R132S, R132C and R132L) by direct sequencing. Serum VEGF and tumor tissue HIF1-alpha levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Associations between categoric variables were determined using chi-square tests. Differences between two groups were compared with t test for continuous variables. Six percent of patients were found to be heterozygous for R132H mutation. Tumor HIF1-alpha and serum VEGF levels were found to be significantly increased in IDH1 -mutated tumor tissues ( p <0.0001 and p =0.0454, respectively). Our results suggest that mutated IDH1 may contribute to carcinogenesis via induction of HIF-1 alpha pathway in primary GBM. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  19. Brown tumors of the anterior skull base as the initial manifestation of true normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism: report of three cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khalatbari, Mahmoud Reza; Hamidi, Mehrdokht; Moharamzad, Yashar; Setayesh, Ali; Amirjamshidi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Brown tumor is a bone lesion secondary to hyperparathyroidism of various etiologies. Skeletal involvement in primary hyperparathyroidism secondary to parathyroid adenoma is very uncommon and brown tumor has become extremely a rare clinical entity. Hyperparathyroidism is usually associated with high levels of serum calcium. Brown tumor as the only and initial symptom of normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism is extremely rare. Moreover, involvement of the skull base and the orbit is exceedingly rare. The authors would report three cases of brown tumor of the anterior skull base that were associated with true normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism. Clinical manifestations, neuroimaging findings, pathological findings, diagnosis and treatment of the patients are discussed and the relevant literature is reviewed.

  20. Feasibility of the evidence-based cognitive telerehabilitation program Remind for patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Sophie D; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Rutten, Geert-Jan M; Gehring, Karin

    2018-05-01

    Many patients with primary brain tumors experience cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation programs focus on alleviating these deficits, but availability of such programs is limited. Our large randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrated positive effects of the cognitive rehabilitation program developed by our group. We converted the program into the iPad-based cognitive rehabilitation program ReMind, to increase its accessibility. The app incorporates psychoeducation, strategy training and retraining. This pilot study in patients with primary brain tumors evaluates the feasibility of the use of the ReMind-app in a clinical (research) setting in terms of accrual, attrition, adherence and patient satisfaction. The intervention commenced 3 months after resective surgery and patients were advised to spend 3 h per week on the program for 10 weeks. Of 28 eligible patients, 15 patients with presumed low-grade glioma or meningioma provided informed consent. Most important reason for decline was that patients (7) experienced no cognitive complaints. Participants completed on average 71% of the strategy training and 76% of the retraining. Some patients evaluated the retraining as too easy. Overall, 85% of the patients evaluated the intervention as "good" or "excellent". All patients indicated that they would recommend the program to other patients with brain tumors. The ReMind-app is the first evidence-based cognitive telerehabilitation program for adult patients with brain tumors and this pilot study suggests that postoperative cognitive rehabilitation via this app is feasible. Based on patients' feedback, we have expanded the retraining with more difficult exercises. We will evaluate the efficacy of ReMind in an RCT.

  1. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  2. Diagnostic value of 3.0T (1)H MRS with choline-containing compounds ratio (∆CCC) in primary malignant hepatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xinming; Ouyang, Han; Wang, Shuang; Zhou, Chunwu

    2016-08-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of 3.0-T (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) in primary malignant hepatic tumors and to compare the effects of (1)H MRS on the diagnostic accuracy of liver-occupying lesions between junior and experienced radiologists. This study included 50 healthy volunteers and 40 consecutive patients (50 lesions). Informed consent was obtained from each subject. Images were obtained on clinical whole-body 3.0-T MR system. Point -Resolved Spectroscopy was used to obtain the spectroscopy image. All conventional images were reviewed blindly by junior radiologist and experienced radiologist, respectively. The choline-containing compounds peak area (CCC-A) was measured with SAGE software, and the choline-containing compound ratio (∆CCC) was calculated. The efficacy of CCC-A and ∆CCC in the diagnosis of primary malignant hepatic tumors was determined by plotting receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. We also compared the effects of MRS on the diagnostic accuracy of liver-occupying lesions with junior and experienced radiologist. A significant increase in mean CCC-A was observed in malignant tumors compared with benign tumors. The ROC curve showed ∆CCC had a high discriminatory ability in diagnosing primary malignant hepatic tumors with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.3 and 93.3 %, respectively. The ∆CCC area under the curve (AUC) was 0.97 that was larger than that of both junior and experienced radiologist, while the significantly statistical difference was only obtained between ∆CCC and junior radiologist (P = 0.01). (1)H MRS with ∆CCC demonstrates good efficacy in diagnosing primary malignant hepatic tumors. The technique improves the accuracy of diagnosing liver-occupying lesions, particularly for junior radiologists.

  3. Primary tumor sidedness is an independent prognostic marker for survival in metastatic colorectal cancer: Results from a large retrospective cohort with mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Sophia C; Clark, Jeffrey W; Zheng, Hui; Borger, Darrell R; Blaszkowsky, Lawrence S; Allen, Jill N; Kwak, Eunice L; Wo, Jennifer Y; Parikh, Aparna R; Nipp, Ryan D; Murphy, Janet E; Goyal, Lipika; Zhu, Andrew X; Iafrate, A John; Corcoran, Ryan B; Ryan, David P; Hong, Theodore S

    2018-05-17

    Recent reports demonstrate inferior outcomes associated with primary right-sided vs left-sided colorectal tumors in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We sought to describe our experience with mCRC patients on whom we have molecular data to determine whether primary tumor sidedness was an independent prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). mCRC patients with documented primary tumor sidedness who received mutational profiling between 2009 and 2014 were identified (n = 367, median follow-up 30.4 months). Mutational profiling for >150 mutations across commonly mutated cancer genes including RAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, and PTEN as well as treatment data, including receipt of a biologic agent, were collected. Univariable/multivariable models were used to analyze relationships between collected data and OS. Among 367 patients, sidedness breakdown was as follows: 234 left (64%), 133 right (36%). 56% were male, with a median age at diagnosis of 57 (range 24-89). A total of 143 patients had RAS mutations. Five-year OS was 41%, median OS was 54 months (range 1-149). Five-year OS for left- vs right-sided tumors was 46% vs 24% (P < .0001). On univariable analysis, among both RAS wildtype and mutant tumors, left-sided tumors continued to have improved OS vs right-sided tumors (HR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.34-0.69 RAS wildtype; HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40-0.95 RAS mutant). Left-sidedness was an important prognostic factor for OS among RAS wildtype patients despite treatment with or without a biologic agent (P < .05). Left-sidedness remained significant for improved OS on multivariable analysis (P < .0001). Left-sided primary tumor remained most important prognostic factor for OS, even when adjusting for mutational status and receipt of biologic agent. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High CD49f expression is associated with osteosarcoma tumor progression: a study using patient-derived primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Penfornis, Patrice; Cai, David Z; Harris, Michael R; Walker, Ryan; Licini, David; Fernandes, Joseph D A; Orr, Griffin; Koganti, Tejaswi; Hicks, Chindo; Induru, Spandana; Meyer, Mark S; Khokha, Rama; Barr, Jennifer; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2014-08-01

    Overall prognosis for osteosarcoma (OS) is poor despite aggressive treatment options. Limited access to primary tumors, technical challenges in processing OS tissues, and the lack of well-characterized primary cell cultures has hindered our ability to fully understand the properties of OS tumor initiation and progression. In this study, we have isolated and characterized cell cultures derived from four central high-grade human OS samples. Furthermore, we used the cell cultures to study the role of CD49f in OS progression. Recent studies have implicated CD49f in stemness and multipotency of both cancer stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the role of CD49f in osteosarcomagenesis. First, single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies were subcultured and characterized for cell surface marker expression. Next, we characterized the growth and differentiation properties, sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs, and anchorage-independent growth. Xenograft assays showed that cell populations expressing CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell phenotype produced an aggressive tumor. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrated that inhibiting CD49f decreased the tumor-forming ability. Furthermore, the CD49f(hi) /CD90(lo) cell population is generating more aggressive OS tumor growth and indicating this cell surface marker could be a potential candidate for the isolation of an aggressive cell type in OSs. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Pucar, Darko; Hricak, Hedvig; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy (RT) occurs at the site of primary tumor by retrospectively comparing the tumor location on pre-RT and post-RT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and using step-section pathology after salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) as the reference standard. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated RT (69-86.4 Gy), and had pre-RT and post-RT prostate MRI, biopsy-proven local recurrence, and SRP. The location and volume of lesions on pre-RT and post-RT MRI were correlated with step-section pathology findings. Tumor foci >0.2 cm{sup 3} and/or resulting inmore » extraprostatic disease on pathology were considered clinically significant. Results: All nine significant tumor foci (one in each patient; volume range, 0.22-8.63 cm{sup 3}) were detected both on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and displayed strikingly similar appearances on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and step-section pathology. Two clinically insignificant tumor foci ({<=}0.06 cm{sup 3}) were not detected on imaging. The ratios between tumor volumes on pathology and on post-RT MRI ranged from 0.52 to 2.80. Conclusions: Our study provides a direct visual confirmation that clinically significant post-RT local recurrence occurs at the site of primary tumor. Our results are in agreement with reported clinical and pathologic results and support the current practice of boosting the radiation dose within the primary tumor using imaging guidance. They also suggest that monitoring of primary tumor with pre-RT and post-RT MRI could lead to early detection of local recurrence amenable to salvage treatment.« less

  6. Characterization of the expression of the pro-metastatic Mena(INV) isoform during breast tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Oudin, Madeleine J; Hughes, Shannon K; Rohani, Nazanin; Moufarrej, Mira N; Jones, Joan G; Condeelis, John S; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Gertler, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    Several functionally distinct isoforms of the actin regulatory Mena are produced by alternative splicing during tumor progression. Forced expression of the Mena(INV) isoform drives invasion, intravasation and metastasis. However, the abundance and distribution of endogenously expressed Mena(INV) within primary tumors during progression remain unknown, as most studies to date have only assessed relative mRNA levels from dissociated tumor samples. We have developed a Mena(INV) isoform-specific monoclonal antibody and used it to examine Mena(INV) expression patterns in mouse mammary and human breast tumors. Mena(INV) expression increases during tumor progression and to examine the relationship between Mena(INV) expression and markers for epithelial or mesenchymal status, stemness, stromal cell types and hypoxic regions. Further, while Mena(INV) robustly expressed in vascularized areas of the tumor, it is not confined to cells adjacent to blood vessels. Altogether, these data demonstrate the specificity and utility of the anti-Mena(INV)-isoform specific antibody, and provide the first description of endogenous Mena(INV) protein expression in mouse and human tumors.

  7. Primary perivascular epithelioid cell tumor in the rectum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Im, Soyoung; Yoo, Changyoung; Jung, Ji-Han; Choi, Hyun Joo; Yoo, Jinyoung; Kang, Chang Suk

    2013-04-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare collection of tumors arising in a wide array of anatomic locations. It is characterized by the presence of a peculiar population of myomelanocytic marker-positive perivascular epithelioid cells, and is commonly detected in the uterus. The colorectal area is an uncommon site for primary PEComa. In this study, we describe a 17-year-old patient presenting with a rectal polyp. Histologically, the tumor consisted of sheets of round to polygonal epithelioid cells with clear and granular cytoplasm, and a prominent capillary network. Some of the tumor cells were positive for Fontana-Masson staining. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45, and were negative for cytokeratin, vimentin, S-100 protein, actin, desmin, EMA, CD34, and c-kit. After finding melanosomes or premelanosomes at the ultrastructural level, the diagnosis of PEComa was made. Although PEComa arising within the intestinal tract is unusual and clinically unexpected, PEComa should be considered in the differential diagnosis of rectal polypoid lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro culture of primary plasmacytomas requires stromal cell feeder layers.

    PubMed Central

    Degrassi, A; Hilbert, D M; Rudikoff, S; Anderson, A O; Potter, M; Coon, H G

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to grow primary murine plasmacytomas in vitro have, to date, been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term in vitro growth of primary plasmacytomas is accomplished by using feeder layers composed of stromal cells from the initial site of plasmacytomagenesis. The early neoplastic lines established in this manner are dependent on physical contact with the stromal layer, which is mediated in part by CD44, for growth and survival. The stromal cells provide at least two stimuli for the plasma cells, one being interleukin 6 and the second, of unknown nature, resulting from direct physical interaction that cannot be replaced by soluble factors. These plasma cell lines have been passaged for as long as 20 months yet still maintain characteristics associated with primary plasmacytomas as they will grow in vivo only in pristane-primed animals, indicating a continued dependence on the pristane-induced microenvironment characteristic of early-stage tumors. The ability to grow primary plasmacytomas in culture and maintain their "primary" properties provides a model system for detailed analysis of early events in plasma cell tumor progression involving neoplastic cells completely dependent on physical contact with a stromal feeder layer for survival and expansion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8446628

  9. Alternative lengthening of telomeres predicts site of origin in neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Dogeas, Epameinondas; Karagkounis, Georgios; Heaphy, Christopher M; Hirose, Kenzo; Pawlik, Timothy M; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Meeker, Alan; Hruban, Ralph H; Cameron, John L; Choti, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    The determination of the primary tumor origin in patients with neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases (NELM) can pose a considerable management challenge. Recent studies have shown that the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is prevalent in some human tumors, including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET), and can be useful in predicting tumor biology. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the use of ALT as a biomarker in patients with NELM, in particular to predict the site of origin of metastases. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were constructed using tumor tissue from NELM patients undergoing liver resection between 1998 and 2010. These included 43 PanNET and 47 gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. The TMAs were tested for ALT using telomere-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization. The association between ALT positivity and clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes was investigated. Alternative lengthening of telomeres was positive (ALT+) in 26 (29%) of the 90 tumors included in the TMAs. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors were ALT+ in 56% of patients, compared with only 4% ALT+ among gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors (p < 0.001). The specificity of ALT for detecting pancreatic origin was 96% and the positive predictive value was 92%, and sensitivity was 56% and the negative predictive value was 70%. Additionally, ALT was associated with the pattern of metastatic disease: ALT+ NELM were more likely to have oligometastases (p = 0.001) and less likely to be bilateral in distribution (p = 0.05) than were ALT tumors. In addition, ALT+ was associated with improved prognosis in the PanNET patient population. Alternative lengthening of telomeres was found to be a useful biomarker in patients with NELM. This marker can be helpful in guiding therapy by identifying the site of origin in patients in whom the primary site is unknown. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Primary cutaneous perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa): Five new cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Lauren N; Tipton, Russell G; DeWall, Michael R; Parker, Douglas C; Stelton, Christina D; Morrison, Annie O; Coleman, Landon W; Fosko, Scott W; Vidal, Claudia I; Yadira Hurley, Maria; Deeken, Amy H; Gardner, Jerad M

    2017-08-01

    PEComas represent a family of uncommon mesenchymal tumors composed of "perivascular epithelioid cells" with a distinct immunophenotype that typically shows both myogenic and melanocytic differentiation. The PEComa family includes angiomyolipoma (AML), clear cell "sugar" tumor of the lung and extra pulmonary sites, lymphangioleiomyomatosis and clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres. Very rarely, PEComas may arise in the skin. Primary cutaneous PEComas typically display a dermal proliferation of epithelioid cells with pale, clear, or granular pink cytoplasm arranged in nests and trabecula with an intervening arborizing network of delicate capillaries. Primary cutaneous PEComas have a lower frequency of myogenic marker expression than their deep soft tissue and visceral counterparts. They also often express strong diffuse CD10, leading to potential confusion with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Most cases behave indolently. We report 5 additional cases of this rare entity. All showed classic histologic features and expression of either HMB-45 and/or Melan-A/MART-1. Four cases were tested for myogenic markers (2 were positive & 2 were negative). Three cases were tested for CD10 (all 3 were positive). All of our cases with clinical follow-up behaved indolently. Table 1 provides a summary of findings for all 5 cases in our series. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A primary tumor of mixed histological type is a novel poor prognostic factor for patients undergoing resection of liver metastasis from gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Naoki; Taniguchi, Kiyoaki; Serizawa, Akiko; Yamada, Takuji; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Furukawa, Toru

    2017-05-01

    Surgical resection can be an option for the treatment of metastatic liver tumors originating from gastric cancer; however, its prognostic impact is controversial. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors in patients with surgical resection of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the clinicopathological features of 38 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for metastatic tumors from gastric cancer in our institution between 1990 and 2014. The median overall survival of the patients was 28 months. The 5-year survival rate was 33.9%. Primary tumors of a mixed histological type, and residual tumors during the course of treatment were identified as significant independent poor prognostic factors. Histological evaluation of primary tumors may aid to identify patients suitable for undergoing surgical resection of liver metastasis from gastric cancer. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. The challenge of diagnosing a malignancy metastatic to the ovary: clinicopathological characteristics vary and morphology can be different from that of the corresponding primary tumor.

    PubMed

    Lobo, João; Machado, Bianca; Vieira, Renata; Bartosch, Carla

    2017-01-01

    An accurate diagnosis of metastases to the ovary is essential for adequate patient management. The aim of this retrospective study was to characterize clinicopathological features of metastatic malignancies that presented as an ovarian mass and compare them with their corresponding primary tumors. We reviewed clinical files and histological material of 120 patients with metastases to the ovary, diagnosed in our center between 2000 and 2014. Metastases were diagnosed before (18 %), synchronously (33 %), or after (49 %) the primary tumor was identified; 25 % were single, 40 % were unilateral; 47 % were ≥13 cm. Most originated from the gastrointestinal tract (73 %), followed by breast (13 %), and female reproductive organs (10 %). Gross features varied with primary tumor site. Metastases from gastrointestinal malignancies were significantly larger and frequently showed necrosis. Metastases to the appendix were cystic (94 %), and almost all metastases to the stomach (96 %) and breast (87 %) were solid. The predominant histological pattern was discordant in 44 % cases, mostly due to cystic changes in ovarian metastases which were observed across several histological types. Other metastases showed a predominant histological pattern which was present only focally in the primary tumor. Metastases showed significantly more edema, necrosis, and hemorrhage, but less lymphovascular invasion and inflammatory infiltrate than the corresponding primary tumors. Metastases to the ovary present highly variable clinicopathological features which frequently differ from those of the corresponding primary tumor. A metastasis should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an ovarian mass. All clinical, imaging, macroscopic, and histological aspects must be taken into account to establish a correct diagnosis which is essential for adequate treatment.

  13. Complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors registry data in the United States compared with other common cancers, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Adah S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Kruchko, Carol

    Complete prevalence proportions illustrate the burden of disease in a population. Here, this study estimates the 2010 complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors overall and by Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groups, and compares the brain tumor prevalence estimates to the complete prevalence of other common cancers as determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) by age at prevalence (2010): children (0–14 y), adolescent and young adult (AYA) (15–39 y), and adult (40+ y).

  14. Complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors registry data in the United States compared with other common cancers, 2010

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Adah S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Kruchko, Carol; ...

    2016-12-29

    Complete prevalence proportions illustrate the burden of disease in a population. Here, this study estimates the 2010 complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors overall and by Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) histology groups, and compares the brain tumor prevalence estimates to the complete prevalence of other common cancers as determined by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER) by age at prevalence (2010): children (0–14 y), adolescent and young adult (AYA) (15–39 y), and adult (40+ y).

  15. Surgical management of patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Bohan, Eileen; Glass-Macenka, Deanna

    2004-11-01

    To provide an overview of the diagnostic work-up, intraoperative technologies, postoperative treatment options, and investigational new therapies in patients with malignant brain tumors. Published textbooks and articles and other reference materials. Recent improvements in diagnostic and surgical equipment have influenced outcomes and overall quality of life for patients with central nervous system tumors. The ability to more accurately target and more safely remove brain tumors has enhanced the postoperative period and decreased hospital stays. However, malignant neoplasms continue to be refractory to current treatments, necessitating innovative surgical approaches at the time of initial diagnosis and at tumor recurrence. Nurses with an understanding of current diagnostic and surgical treatment modalities for brain tumors are able to provide accurate patient education and comprehensive care, enhancing the overall hospital and outpatient experience.

  16. Diagnostic value of 18F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography for patients with brain metastasis from unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Wolpert, Fabian; Weller, Michael; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Rushing, Elisabeth; Füreder, Lisa Michaela; Petyt, Gregory; Leske, Henning; Andratschke, Nicolaus; Regli, Luca; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Stupp, Roger; Stahel, Rolf; Dummer, Reinhard; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Roth, Patrick; Reyns, Nicolas; Kaufmann, Philipp Antonio; Preusser, Matthias; Le Rhun, Emilie

    2018-04-17

    In 30% of patients with brain metastasis (BM), neurological symptoms are the first clinical manifestation of systemic malignancy, referred to as BM from cancer of unknown primary site (BM-CUPS). Here, we define the diagnostic value of 18 F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the workup of BM-CUPS. We screened 565 patients operated for BM at the University Hospital Zurich and identified 64 patients with BM-CUPS with data on both FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) available at BM diagnosis. A cohort of 125 patients with BM-CUPS from Lille and Vienna was used for validation. FDG-PET/CT was not superior to chest/abdomen CT in localising the primary lesion in the discovery cohort, presumably because most primary tumours were lung cancers. However, FDG-PET/CT identified additional lesions suspicious of extracranial metastases in 27 of 64 patients (42%). The inclusion of FDG-PET/CT findings shifted the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score from 3 with CT alone to 2.5 for PET/CT (p = 3.8 × 10 -5 , Wilcoxon's test), resulting in a predicted survival of 5.3 versus 3.8 months (p = 6.1 × 10 -5 ; Wilcoxon's test). All observations were confirmed in the validation cohort. Lung cancers are the most common primary tumour in BM-CUPS; accordingly, CT alone shows similar overall sensitivity for detecting the primary tumour as FDG-PET/CT. Yet, FDG-PET/CT improves the accuracy of staging by detecting more metastases, reflected by decreased GPA scores and decreased predicted survival. Therefore, randomised trials on patients with BM should standardise methods of staging, notably when stratifying for GPA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  18. Role of Caspase-9 Gene Ex5+32 G>A (rs1052576) Variant in Susceptibility to Primary Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ozdogan, Selcuk; Kafadar, Ali; Yilmaz, Seda Gulec; Timirci-Kahraman, Ozlem; Gormus, Uzay; Isbir, Turgay

    2017-09-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the relationship of caspase-9 (CASP-9) gene polymorphism with the risk for primary brain tumor development. The study group included 43 glioma and 27 meningioma patients and 76 healthy individuals. CASP-9 gene Ex5+32 G>A (rs1052576) polymorphism was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Individuals with the CASP-9 GG genotype had significantly decreased risk of developing a glioma brain tumor (p=0.024). Additionally, the GA genotype was significantly lower in patients with glioma than the control group (p=0.019). A significantly decreased risk of developing glioma was found in the A allele carrier group (p=0.024). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between CASP-9 polymorphism and brain meningioma (p=0.493). CASP-9 (rs1052576) mutant A allele seems to be a protective factor for glioma brain tumor. Future studies with a larger sample size will clarify the possible roles of CASP-9 gene in the etiology and progression of primary brain tumors. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. A model and nomogram to predict tumor site origin for squamous cell cancer confined to cervical lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Arif N; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Kim, Sungjin; Kowalski, Jeanne; El-Deiry, Mark W; Beitler, Jonathan J

    2014-11-15

    The current study was conducted to develop a multifactorial statistical model to predict the specific head and neck (H&N) tumor site origin in cases of squamous cell carcinoma confined to the cervical lymph nodes ("unknown primaries"). The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was analyzed for patients with an H&N tumor site who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2011. The SEER patients were identified according to their H&N primary tumor site and clinically positive cervical lymph node levels at the time of presentation. The SEER patient data set was randomly divided into 2 data sets for the purposes of internal split-sample validation. The effects of cervical lymph node levels, age, race, and sex on H&N primary tumor site were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression models and an associated set of nomograms were developed based on relevant factors to provide probabilities of tumor site origin. Analysis of the SEER database identified 20,011 patients with H&N disease with both site-level and lymph node-level data. Sex, race, age, and lymph node levels were associated with primary H&N tumor site (nasopharynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx) in the multivariate models. Internal validation techniques affirmed the accuracy of these models on separate data. The incorporation of epidemiologic and lymph node data into a predictive model has the potential to provide valuable guidance to clinicians in the treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma confined to the cervical lymph nodes. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  20. Long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic gamma knife surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of glomus jagulare tumor.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Raef F A; Morgan, Magad S; Fahmy, Osama M; Hassan, Hamdy T

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to report and confirm long-term effectiveness and safety of stereotactic Gamma Knife Surgery as a primary sole treatment in the management of 40 glomus jagulare tumors patients. Retrospective analysis of clinical and radiological outcomes of 40 GJTs consecutive patients treated with GKS as primary sole treatment at International Medical Center (IMC), Cairo-Egypt from the beginning of 2005 till the end of 2014,with mean follow-up period of 84 months (range 36-156 months), mean tumor volume was 6.5 cc, and mean peripheral radiation dose of 15 Gy, to mean isodose curve of 38%. The most common neurological deficit at initial evaluation was bulbar symptoms in 24 patients, followed by pulsatile tinnitus in 22, deterioration of hearing in 20 patients. The overall clinical control achieved in 92.5% of patients, while actuarial tumor size control rate post- GKS was 97.5% at 3 years, 97% at 5 years and 92% at 10 years of follow-up period. Gamma knife surgery could be used effectively and safely as a primary sole treatment tool in the management of glomus jugulare tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plerixafor Improves Primary Tumor Response and Reduces Metastases in Cervical Cancer Treated with Radio-Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chaudary, Naz; Pintilie, Melania; Jelveh, Salomeh; Lindsay, Patricia; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: There is an important need to improve the effectiveness of radio-chemotherapy (RTCT) for cervical cancer. The CXCL12/CXCR4 pathway can influence RT response by recruiting normal myeloid cells to the tumor microenvironment that in turn can exert radioprotective effects, and may promote metastases. The objective of this study was to explore the efficacy and toxicity of combining RTCT with CXCL12/CXCR4 inhibition in cervical cancer. Experimental Design: CXCR4 expression was measured in 115 patients with cervical cancer. Two primary orthotopic cervical cancer xenografts (OCICx) with different levels of CXCR4 expression were treated with RT (30 Gy: 15 daily fractions) and weekly cisplatin (4 mg/kg), with or without the CXCR4 inhibitor Plerixafor (5 mg/kg/day). The endpoints were tumor growth delay and lymph node metastases. Acute intestinal toxicity was assessed using a crypt cell assay. Results: There was a fivefold variation in CXCR4 mRNA expression in the patient samples, and good correlation between the expression in patients and in the xenografts. The combination of RTCT and Plerixafor produced substantial tumor growth delay and reduced lymph node metastases compared with RTCT alone in both of the xenograft models. There was a trend toward reduced acute intestinal toxicity with the addition of Plerixafor to RTCT. There were no changes in normal organ morphology to suggest increased late toxicity. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the addition of Plerixafor to standard RTCT improves primary tumor response and reduces metastases in cervical cancer with no increase in toxicity. This combination warrants further investigation in phase I/II clinical trials. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1242-9. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a 24-years experience.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuping; Jiang, Jiyao; Liu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous group of lesions, which the clinicopathological features have a marked degree of heterogeneity comparing with that of gonadal GCTs. Accurately diagnosing CNS GCTs might be extremely difficult and requires immunohistochemical verification. This study was to investigate the biological feature of CNS GCTs and diagnostic value of immunohistochemical markers OCT3/4, C-kit, PLAP, and CD30 in CNS GCTs. A retrospective study was performed on 34 patients with CNS germ cell tumors between 1990 and 2014. 34 CNS GCTs account for 9.2% of all primary CNS neoplasms. The sellar region (35.3%) and pineal gland (17.6%) were the most common sites of intracranial GCTs. Hydrocephalus (82.4%) and diplopia (46.9%) were the two most common clinical presentations. The most common histological subtypes were germinoma (67.6%). PLAP, c-kit, OCT3/4 were highly expressed in gernimomas. CD30 and CK AE1/3 stainings were positive in embryonal carcinoma. Yolk sac tumor component showed positive staining for AFP and CK AE1/3. β-HCG staining was positive in choriocarcinoma and STGC. Patients with mature teratomas and germinomas had a better prognosis (a 5-year survival rate) than those with embryonal carcinoma and choriocarcinoma (a 5-year survival rates were 0). Our finding suggest that the incidences of primary CNS GCTs are higher in South China than in the West, but mixed GCTs are uncommon in our study. The judicious use of a panel of selected markers is helpful in diagnosing and predicting the prognosis for CNS GCTs.

  3. Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve the Provision of Information for Adults with Primary Brain Tumors and Their Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Langbecker, Danette; Janda, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adults with primary brain tumors and their caregivers have significant information needs. This review assessed the effect of interventions to improve information provision for adult primary brain tumor patients and/or their caregivers. Methods: We included randomized or non-randomized trials testing educational interventions that had outcomes of information provision, knowledge, understanding, recall, or satisfaction with the intervention, for adults diagnosed with primary brain tumors and/or their family or caregivers. PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched for studies published between 1980 and June 2014. Results: Two randomized controlled, 1 non-randomized controlled, and 10 single group pre–post trials enrolled more than 411 participants. Five group, four practice/process change, and four individual interventions assessed satisfaction (12 studies), knowledge (4 studies), and information provision (2 studies). Nine studies reported high rates of satisfaction. Three studies showed statistically significant improvements over time in knowledge and two showed greater information was provided to intervention than control group participants, although statistical testing was not performed. Discussion: The trials assessed intermediate outcomes such as satisfaction, and only 4/13 reported on knowledge improvements. Few trials had a randomized controlled design and risk of bias was either evident or could not be assessed in most domains. PMID:25667919

  4. Human Papillomavirus as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool in Cancer of Unknown Primary in the Head and Neck Region.

    PubMed

    Sivars, Lars; Tani, Edneia; Näsman, Anders; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Dalianis, Tina

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as a risk factor for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), especially tonsillar and base of tongue cancer. Furthermore, HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue SCC have a significantly better prognosis than their HPV-negative counterparts and head and neck cancer (HNSCC) in general. HPV has recently also been implicated in cancer of unknown primary (CUP) in the head and neck region, where a primary tumour is not found despite extensive workup. Using fine-needle aspiration cytology to determine CUP HPV status in cervical lymph nodes could be of advantage, since it is minimally invasive and it is assumed that an HPV-positive lymph node metastasis likely has an HPV-positive otopharyngeal SCC origin. We review the current knowledge of HPV in HNSCC, with an emphasis on CUP of the head and neck region, its relation to oropharyngeal, tonsillar and base of tongue SCC and implications of HPV status for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion of the primary tumor in hypopharyngeal carcinoma after total laryngopharyngectomy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuki; Omura, Go; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Rikitake, Ryoko; Akashi, Ken; Fukuoka, Osamu; Yoshida, Masafumi; Ando, Mizuo; Asakage, Takahiro; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to determinate the prognostic value of lymphovascular invasion in the specimens resected during total laryngopharyngectomy for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Patients who underwent total laryngopharyngectomy at our institution between 2004 and 2014 were included in this study and retrospectively analyzed. We then discriminated for vascular invasion and lymphatic invasion of the primary tumor in all cases. We reviewed 135 records (120 men and 15 women; age range, 36-84 years). Tumors with lymphatic invasion tended to be associated with more metastatic lymph nodes and extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastatic lymph nodes. Tumors with vascular invasion tended to be associated with nonpyriform sinus locations. In a multivariate analysis, nonpyriform sinus locations, >3 metastatic lymph nodes, and vascular invasion remained significant prognostic factors for overall survival (OS); in recursive partitioning analysis, ECS and vascular invasion remained important categorical variables for OS. Vascular invasion is a strong prognostic biomarker for advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1535-1543, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Lymph node status as a prognostic factor after palliative resection of primary tumor for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingguo; Wang, Changjian; Li, Yaqi; Li, Xinxiang; Xu, Ye; Cai, Guoxiang; Lian, Peng; Cai, Sanjun

    2017-07-18

    Lymph node (LN) status is one of the most important predictors for M0 colorectal cancer patients. However, its clinical impact on stage IV colorectal cancer remains unclear. The study aimed to explore the prognostic value of LN status after palliative resection of primary tumor for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We combined analyses of mCRC patients in Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC).A total of 17,553 patients with mCRC were identified in SEER database. X-tile program was adopted to identify 2 and 10 as optimal cutoff values for negative lymph node (NLN) count to divide patients into 3 subgroups of high, middle and low risk of cancer related death. N stage and NLN count were verified as independent prognostic factors in multivariate analyses of patients in whole cohort and in subgroup analyses of each N stage (P<0.05). Validation of FUSCC cohort of patients demonstrated that metastatic tumor burden (P = 0.042), NLN count (P = 0.039) and sequential chemotherapy (P = 0.040) were significant predictors of poorer CSS. Specifically, the prognosis of patients at stage N0 was significantly more favorable than that of patients at stage N2 (P = 0.038). In conclusion, primary tumor LN status was a strong predictor of CSS after palliative resection of metastatic colorectal cancer. Advanced N stage and small number of NLN were correlated with high risk of cancer related death after palliative resection of primary tumor.

  7. Primary cutaneous perivascular epithelioid cell tumor: a clinicopathological and molecular reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Charli-Joseph, Yann; Saggini, Andrea; Vemula, Swapna; Weier, Jingly; Mirza, Sonia; LeBoit, Philip E

    2014-12-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) is a rare neoplasm of uncertain histogenesis with a mixed myomelanocytic immunophenotype, rarely arising in the skin (primary cutaneous PEComa [pcPEComa]). We analyzed the clinicopathological features of 8 pcPEComas, assayed for DNA copy number changes and for initiating mutations common in melanocytic neoplasms. pcPEComas were evaluated using immunohistochemistry, comparative genomic hybridization, and DNA sequencing. pcPEComas were erythematous nodules, mostly in the lower extremities of women (5/8), composed of large pale-staining epithelioid cells. The patient's age range was 26 to 67 (mean 46) years. The percentages of tumors staining positively were as follows: micro-ophthalmia-associated transcription factor, NKI/C3, bcl-1, E-cadherin, and cathepsin K (100%); HMB-45, 4E-binding protein 1, and CD68 (88%); smooth muscle actin and muscle-specific actin (40%); S100 (38%); calponin (20%); desmin (13%); and melan-A, SOX10, and keratin (0%). No chromosomal copy number changes or initiating mutations were identified. Small sample size is a limitation. pcPEComas have a different molecular signature than extracutaneous tumors and are unrelated to tuberous sclerosis. However, the common expression of 4E-binding protein 1 points to a role of the mTOR pathway in their pathogenesis. Because pcPEComas are diagnostically challenging, we propose that micro-ophthalmia-associated transcription factor, NKIC3, smooth muscle actin, desmin, bcl-1, cathepsin K, and 4E-binding protein 1 can be used when evaluating a possible pcPEComa. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation therapy in the management of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin: how does the addition of concurrent chemotherapy affect the therapeutic ratio?

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen M; Farwell, D Gregory; Lau, Derick H; Li, Bao-Qing; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patients (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiation Therapy in the Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin: How Does the Addition of Concurrent Chemotherapy Affect the Therapeutic Ratio?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allen.chen@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.

    2011-10-01

    Purpose: To determine how the addition of cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy influences outcomes among a cohort of patients treated for head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 60 consecutive patients treated by radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis of occult primary origin were reviewed. Thirty-two patients (53%) were treated by concurrent chemoradiation, and 28 patients (47%) were treated by radiation therapy alone. Forty-five patients (75%) received radiation therapy after surgical resection, and 15 patients (25%) received primary radiation therapy. Thirty-five patientsmore » (58%) were treated by intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Results: The 2-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival were 89%, 89%, and 79%, respectively, among patients treated by chemoradiation, compared to 90%, 92%, and 83%, respectively, among patients treated by radiation therapy alone (p > 0.05, for all). Exploratory analysis failed to identify any subset of patients who benefited from the addition of concurrent chemotherapy to radiation therapy. The use of concurrent chemotherapy was associated with a significantly increased incidence of Grade 3+ acute and late toxicity (p < 0.001, for both). Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation is associated with significant toxicity without a clear advantage to overall survival, local-regional control, and progression-free survival in the treatment of head-and-neck cancer of unknown primary origin. Although selection bias cannot be ignored, prospective data are needed to further address this question.« less

  10. Pathological characteristics and clinical specifications in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a study of 68 cases.

    PubMed

    Stoica-Mustafa, Elena; Pechianu, C; Iorgescu, Andreea; Hortopan, Monica; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Tomulescu, V; Dumitraşcu, T; Ungureanu, C; Andronesi, D; Popescu, I; Herlea, V

    2012-01-01

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) represent a group of tumors, having their origin in cells of diffuse endocrine system, with particular clinical course, diagnosis and treatment. In our study, were included 68 patients with neuroendocrine digestive tumors admitted, diagnosed and treated in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, in the last ten years--2000-2010 (retrospective study). Thirty-three (49%) patients were males, 35 (51%) females, and the main age was 58.9 years. In 62 (90.3%) cases was possible to find the primary tumor. The examined tumors had different localizations: pancreas--32 (47.04%) cases (head--17 (24.99%) cases, and body and tail--15 (22.05%) cases), stomach--7 (10.29%) cases, small intestine--7 (10.29%) cases, 6 (8.82%) cases--unknown primary site (diagnosis was established on metastases), right colon--6 (8.82%) cases, liver--6 (8.82%) cases, rectum--2 (2.94%) cases, and retroperitoneum--2 (2.94%) cases. Microscopic examination revealed 59 (86.8%) malignant tumors and 9 (13.2%) benign tumors. Using WHO 2000 Classification, 28 cases of malignant tumors were well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 31 cases were poor differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. From malignant cases, 25 (42.3%) have distant metastases and 15 (25.9%) lymph node metastases. Cases of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors included in our study had clinical and histopathological features in correspondence with data from literature--slight predominance in women, predominance in 5th and 6th decades of life, the most frequent localizations were at pancreatic level--both head and body and tail, but the rarest were in colon and retroperitoneum. Most of the cases studied, were malignant tumors, from these more than a half were poor differentiated, and a quarter of them having lymph node or distant metastases.

  11. Sensitivity of endometrial cancer cells from primary human tumor samples to new potential anticancer peptide lactaptin.

    PubMed

    Koval, Olga A; Sakaeva, Galiya R; Fomin, Alexander S; Nushtaeva, Anna A; Semenov, Dmitry V; Kuligina, Elena V; Gulyaeva, Ludmila F; Gerasimov, Alexey V; Richter, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy which is associated with a poor prognosis when diagnosed at an advanced stage; therefore, the discovery of efficacious new drugs is required to reinforce conventional chemotherapy. Short-term cultures of primary cells from endometrial tumors could be used for testing new anticancer therapeutics as well as for the development of personalized cancer therapy strategy. Here, the antitumor effect of a recombinant analogue of lactaptin (RL2), a new potential anticancer molecule, was examined against primary human endometrial cancer cells. Primary cell cultures of malignant and normal human endometrium were performed by enzymatic digestion of endometrial tissue from biopsy material. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to determine the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) state of estrogen (ERs) and progesterone (PRs) hormone receptors and aromatase (Cyp 19) in cell cultures. Dynamic monitoring of cell adhesion and proliferation was made using the iCELLigence system (ASEA Biosciences). The sensitivity of cell cultures to conventional anticancer drugs and the lactaptin analog was estimated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, and the iCELLligence system. Established short-term primary cultures of endometrial cancer cells were ERα/ERβ/PR-positive and sensitive for RL2. The IC 50 values of doxorubicin and cisplatin were determined for all of the primary cultures designed. KE normal cells displaying low Cyp19 mRNA levels and high ERβ and PR mRNA levels were more resistant to RL2 treatment as well as to cisplatin and doxorubicin. Our results indicate that the recombinant analog of lactaptin, RL2, exerts cytotoxic effects against primary hormone-dependent endometrial tumor cells in vitro with features of apoptosis.

  12. Prognostic Impact of Radiation Therapy to the Primary Tumor in Patients With Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Oligometastasis at Diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Department of Radiation Oncology, Instituto Madrileno de Oncologia/Grupo IMO, Madrid; Gomez, Daniel, E-mail: dgomez@mdanderson.org

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. Methods and Materials: From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (<5 metastases) at diagnosis underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy ({>=}45 Gy) to the primary site. Forty-four of these patients also received definitive local treatment for the oligometastases. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed bettermore » overall survival (OS) for those patients who received at least 63 Gy of radiation to the primary site (P=.002), received definitive local treatment for oligometastasis (P=.041), had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score >80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume {<=}124 cm{sup 3} (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Conclusions: Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.« less

  13. Neuroblastoma: treatment outcome after incomplete resection of primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae; Park, Kwi-Won; Jung, Sung-Eun; Youn, Woong-Jae

    2009-09-01

    For International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) stages III or IV neuroblastoma (intermediate or high risk), complete excision of the primary tumor is not always feasible. Most current studies on the treatment outcome of these patients have reported on the complete excision status. The aim of this study is to review the treatment outcome after the incomplete resection. The medical records of 37 patients that underwent incomplete resection between January 1986 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Incomplete resection was assessed by review of the operative notes and postoperative computerized tomography. Age, gender, tumor location, INSS stage, N-myc gene copy number, pre- and postoperative therapy, and treatment outcome were reviewed. The treatment outcome was evaluated according to the postoperative treatment protocol in the high-risk group. Intermediate-risk patients were treated with conventional chemotherapy, isotretinoin (ITT) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). High-risk patients were treated with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), ITT, and IL-2 (N = 11). Before the introduction of PBSCT, the high-risk patients were also treated with the conventional chemotherapy (N = 19). Intermediate-risk patients (N = 5) currently have no evidence of disease (NED). For the high-risk patients (N = 32), 19 patients were treated with chemotherapy alone; 15 patients died of their disease while four patients currently have an NED status. Eight of 11 patients that underwent PBSCT are currently alive. For intermediate risk, conventional chemotherapy appears to be acceptable treatment. However, for high-risk patients, every effort should be made to control residual disease including the use of myeloablative chemotherapy, differentiating agents and immune-modulating agents.

  14. Nucleolin antagonist triggers autophagic cell death in human glioblastoma primary cells and decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model

    PubMed Central

    d'Angelo, Michele; Cristiano, Loredana; Galzio, Renato; Destouches, Damien; Florio, Tiziana Marilena; Dhez, Anne Chloé; Astarita, Carlo; Cinque, Benedetta; Fidoamore, Alessia; Rosati, Floriana; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Courty, José; Cimini, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Nucleolin (NCL) is highly expressed in several types of cancer and represents an interesting therapeutic target. It is expressed at the plasma membrane of tumor cells, a property which is being used as a marker for several human cancer including glioblastoma. In this study we investigated targeting NCL as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this pathology. To explore this possibility, we studied the effect of an antagonist of NCL, the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L using primary culture of human glioblastoma cells. In this system, N6L inhibits cell growth with different sensitivity depending to NCL localization. Cell cycle analysis indicated that N6L-induced growth reduction was due to a block of the G1/S transition with down-regulation of the expression of cyclin D1 and B2. By monitoring autophagy markers such as p62 and LC3II, we demonstrate that autophagy is enhanced after N6L treatment. In addition, N6L-treatment of mice bearing tumor decreased in vivo tumor growth in orthotopic brain tumor model and increase mice survival. The results obtained indicated an anti-proliferative and pro-autophagic effect of N6L and point towards its possible use as adjuvant agent to the standard therapeutic protocols presently utilized for glioblastoma. PMID:26540346

  15. Gene silencing in primary and metastatic tumors by small interfering RNA delivery in mice: quantitative analysis using melanoma cells expressing firefly and sea pansy luciferases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-20

    Silencing of oncogenes or other genes contributing to tumor malignancy or progression by RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising approach to treating tumor patients. To achieve RNAi-based tumor therapy, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) or siRNA-expressing vector needs to be delivered to tumor cells, but little information about its in vivo delivery has been reported. In this study, we examined whether the expression of the target gene in tumor cells can be suppressed by the delivery of RNAi effectors to primary and metastatic tumor cells. To quantitatively evaluate the RNAi effects in tumor cells, mouse melanoma B16-BL6 cells were stably transfected with both firefly (a model target gene) and sea pansy (an internal standard gene) luciferase genes to obtain B16-BL6/dual Luc cells. The target gene expression in subcutaneous primary tumors of B16-BL6/dual Luc cells was significantly suppressed by direct injection of the RNAi effectors followed by electroporation. The expression in metastatic hepatic tumors was also significantly reduced by an intravenous injection of either RNAi effector by the hydrodynamics-based procedure. These results indicate that the both RNAi effectors have a potential to silence target gene in tumor cells in vivo when successfully delivered to tumor cells.

  16. Germline genetics of cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and its specific subtypes.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang; Kumar, Abhishek; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Hallmans, Göran; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Ohlsson, Claes; Folprecht, Gunnar; Löffler, Harald; Krämer, Alwin; Försti, Asta

    2016-04-19

    Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is a fatal cancer diagnosed through metastases at various organs. Little is known about germline genetics of CUP which appears worth of a search in view of reported familial associations in CUP. In the present study, samples from CUP patients were identified from 2 Swedish biobanks and a German clinical trial, totaling 578 CUP patients and 7628 regionally matched controls. Diagnostic data specified the organ where metastases were diagnosed. We carried out a genome-wide association study on CUP cases and controls. In the whole sample set, 6 loci reached an allelic p-value in the range of 10-7 and were supported by data from the three centers. Three associations were located next to non-coding RNA genes. rs2660852 flanked 5'UTR of LTA4H (leukotriene A4 hydrolase), rs477145 was intronic to TIAM1 (T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastases) and rs2835931 was intronic to KCNJ6 (potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6). In analysis of subgroups of CUP patients (smokers, non-smokers and CUP with liver metastases) genome-wide significant associations were noted. For patients with liver metastases associations on chromosome 6 and 11, the latter including a cluster of genes DHCR7 and NADSYN1, encoding key enzymes in cholesterol and NAD synthesis, and KRTAP5-7, encoding a keratin associated protein. This first GWAS on CUP provide preliminary evidence that germline genes relating to inflammation (LTA4H), metastatic promotion (TIAM1) in association with lipid metabolic disturbance (chromosome 11 cluster) may contribute to the risk of CUP.

  17. Stromal Gene Expression and Function in Primary Breast Tumors that Metastasize to Bone Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    by quantitative RT-QPCR. Further analysis of epithelium from matched spine metastases revealed some genes that were up-regulated further at the...9-fold in matched bone metastases. The expression in spine metastases was verified by in situ hybridisation whilst the expression of stefin Al in...growth in the mammary gland of Balb/c mice. Fresh resected tissue (normal fat pad, primary tumor tissue or the metastatic sites spine , femur and lung) was

  18. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  19. Identification of Luminal Breast Cancers that Establish a Tumor Supportive Macroenvironment Defined by Pro-Angiogenic Platelets and Bone Marrow Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, Hanna S.; Marsh, Timothy; Markens, Beth A.; Castaño, Zafira; Greene-Colozzi, April; Hay, Samantha A.; Brown, Victoria E.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Signoretti, Sabina; Battinelli, Elisabeth M.; McAllister, Sandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer recurrence rates vary following treatment, suggesting that tumor cells disseminate early from primary sites but remain indolent indefinitely before progressing to symptomatic disease. The reasons why some indolent disseminated tumors erupt into overt disease are unknown. We discovered a novel process by which certain luminal breast cancer cells and patient tumor specimens (LBC “instigators”) establish a systemic macroenvironment that supports outgrowth of otherwise-indolent disseminated tumors (“responders”). Instigating LBCs secrete cytokines that are absorbed by platelets, which are recruited to responding tumor sites where they aid vessel formation. Instigator-activated bone marrow cells (BMCs) enrich responding tumor cell expression of CD24, an adhesion molecule for platelets, and provide a source of VEGFR2+ tumor vessel cells. This cascade results in growth of responder adenocarcinomas and is abolished when platelet activation is inhibited by aspirin. These findings highlight the macroenvironment as an important component of disease progression that can be exploited therapeutically. PMID:22896036

  20. Discovery of a highly selective KIT kinase primary V559D mutant inhibitor for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xuesong; Jiang, Zongru; Hu, Chen; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Ge, Juan; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Li; Yan, Hezhong; Wang, Jiaoxue; Ren, Tao; Tang, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Jing

    2017-12-19

    KIT kinase V559D mutation is the most prevalent primary gain-of-function mutation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs). Here we reported a highly selective KIT V559D inhibitor CHMFL-KIT-031, which displayed about 10-20 fold selectivity over KIT wt in the biochemical assay (IC 50 : 28 nM over 168 nM; Kd: 266 nM versus 6640 nM) and in cell (EC 50 : 176 nM versus 2000 nM for pY703) examination. It also displayed 15∼400-fold selectivity over other primary mutants such as L576P and secondary mutants including T670I, V654A (ATP binding pocket) as well as N822K and D816V (activation loop). In addition, it exhibited a selectivity S score (1) of 0.01 among 468 kinases/mutants in the KINOMEScan ™ assay. CHMFL-KIT-031 showed potent inhibitory efficacy for KIT V559D mediated signaling pathways in cell and anti-tumor activity in vivo (Tumor Growth Inhibition: 68.5%). Its superior selectivity would make it a good pharmacological tool for further dissection of KIT V559D mediated pathology in the GISTs.

  1. Discovery of a highly selective KIT kinase primary V559D mutant inhibitor for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xuesong; Jiang, Zongru; Hu, Chen; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Ge, Juan; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Li; Yan, Hezhong; Wang, Jiaoxue; Ren, Tao; Tang, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    KIT kinase V559D mutation is the most prevalent primary gain-of-function mutation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs). Here we reported a highly selective KIT V559D inhibitor CHMFL-KIT-031, which displayed about 10-20 fold selectivity over KIT wt in the biochemical assay (IC50: 28 nM over 168 nM; Kd: 266 nM versus 6640 nM) and in cell (EC50: 176 nM versus 2000 nM for pY703) examination. It also displayed 15∼400-fold selectivity over other primary mutants such as L576P and secondary mutants including T670I, V654A (ATP binding pocket) as well as N822K and D816V (activation loop). In addition, it exhibited a selectivity S score (1) of 0.01 among 468 kinases/mutants in the KINOMEScan™ assay. CHMFL-KIT-031 showed potent inhibitory efficacy for KIT V559D mediated signaling pathways in cell and anti-tumor activity in vivo (Tumor Growth Inhibition: 68.5%). Its superior selectivity would make it a good pharmacological tool for further dissection of KIT V559D mediated pathology in the GISTs. PMID:29340041

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors - the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Merrell, Kenneth W; Johnson, Jedediah E; Mou, Benjamin; Barney, Brandon M; Nelson, Kathryn E; Mayo, Charles S; Haddock, Michael G; Hallemeier, Christopher L; Olivier, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the efficacy of liver SBRT we reviewed our prospectively collected institutional SBRT database. Between May 2008 and March 2013, 80 patients with 104 liver lesions received SBRT. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated local control (LC), overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression models identified factors associated with LC and OS. The median follow-up for living patients was 38.6 months. Patients had primary (n=17) or metastatic (n=63) tumors. The median tumor size was 2.7 cm (range, 0.6-14.0). The 1 and 4 year rates of LC were 89.4% and 88%, respectively. Colorectal (CRC) metastasis was associated with lower rates of LC (p=0.013). OS at 1 and 4 years was 78% and 25%, respectively. Patients with CRC metastases had higher rates of OS (p=0.03). The occurrence of severe acute and late toxicity was 3.8% and 6.3%, respectively. SBRT should be studied in prospective clinical trials compared with other liver-directed treatment modalities.

  3. Implementing a Primary Healthcare Framework: The Importance of Nursing Leadership in Developing and Maintaining a Brain Tumor Support Group.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Linda J; Wright, Kylie M

    2015-08-01

    Although brain tumor support groups have been available internationally for many years, Liverpool Hospital in Australia has not traditionally provided this service. As a leadership initiative, the development of a brain tumor support group that incorporates a primary healthcare framework is a sustainable approach that showcases the role of nursing leaders in changing attitudes and improving outcomes. The purpose of this review of the literature and reflection of clinical experience is to explore nursing leadership within brain tumor-specific support groups. This article will showcase a nurse-led group that incorporated a coordinated approach to delivering patient-centered care. The initiation of activities and interventions that reflected the five tenets of primary health care resulted in improved outcomes for individuals and their family caregivers throughout the trajectory of their illness. Vital to the success of this project was moving from a standalone leader to building collective and collaborative leadership more conducive to facilitating change. The support group successfully demonstrated that individuals and family caregivers may see ongoing and long-term improvements during and following treatment.

  4. RNA-Sequencing of Primary Retinoblastoma Tumors Provides New Insights and Challenges Into Tumor Development.

    PubMed

    Elchuri, Sailaja V; Rajasekaran, Swetha; Miles, Wayne O

    2018-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is rare tumor of the retina caused by the homozygous loss of the Retinoblastoma 1 tumor suppressor gene (RB1). Loss of the RB1 protein, pRB, results in de-regulated activity of the E2F transcription factors, chromatin changes and developmental defects leading to tumor development. Extensive microarray profiles of these tumors have enabled the identification of genes sensitive to pRB disruption, however, this technology has a number of limitations in the RNA profiles that they generate. The advent of RNA-sequencing has enabled the global profiling of all of the RNA within the cell including both coding and non-coding features and the detection of aberrant RNA processing events. In this perspective, we focus on discussing how RNA-sequencing of rare Retinoblastoma tumors will build on existing data and open up new area's to improve our understanding of the biology of these tumors. In particular, we discuss how the RB-research field may be to use this data to determine how RB1 loss results in the expression of; non-coding RNAs, causes aberrant RNA processing events and how a deeper analysis of metabolic RNA changes can be utilized to model tumor specific shifts in metabolism. Each section discusses new opportunities and challenges associated with these types of analyses and aims to provide an honest assessment of how understanding these different processes may contribute to the treatment of Retinoblastoma.

  5. Surgical management of primary bone tumors of the spine: validation of an approach to enhance cure and reduce local recurrence.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Charles G; Saravanja, Davor D; Dvorak, Marcel F; Rampersaud, Y Raja; Clarkson, Paul W; Hurlbert, John; Fox, Richard; Zhang, Hongbin; Lewis, Stephen; Riaz, Salman; Ferguson, Peter C; Boyd, Michael C

    2011-05-01

    Multicenter ambispective cohort analysis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether applying Enneking's principles to surgical management of primary bone tumors of the spine significant decreases local recurrence and/or mortality. Oncologic management of primary tumors of spine has historically been inconsistent, controversial, and open to individual interpretation. A multicenter ambispective cohort analysis from 4 tertiary care spine referral centers was done. Patients were analyzed in 2 cohorts, "Enneking Appropriate" (EA), surgical margin as recommended by Enneking, and "Enneking Inappropriate" (EI), surgical margin not recommended by Enneking. Benign tumors were not included in mortality analysis. Two cohorts represented an analytic dataset with 147 patients, 86 male, average age 46 years (range: 10-83). Median follow-up was 4 (2-7) years in the EA and 6 (5.5-15.5) years in the EI. Seventy-one patients suffered at least 1 local recurrence during the study, 57 of 77 in the EI group and 14 of 70 in the EA group. EI surgical approach caused higher risk of first local recurrence (P < 0.0001). There were 48 deaths in total; 29 in the EI group and 19 in the EA. There was a strong correlation between the first local recurrence and mortality with an odds ratio of 4.69, (P < 0.0001). EI surgical approach resulted in a higher risk of mortality with a hazard ratio of 3.10, (P = 0.0485) compared to EA approach. Surgery results in a significant reduction in local recurrence when primary bone tumors of the spine are resected with EA margins. Local recurrence has a high concordance with mortality in resection of these tumors. A significant decrease in mortality occurs when EA surgery is used.

  6. Podoplanin-positive Cancer-associated Stromal Fibroblasts in Primary Tumor and Synchronous Lymph Node Metastases of HER2-overexpressing Breast Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Joanna; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Harazin-Lechowska, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Grela-Wojewoda, Aleksandra; Majchrzyk, Kaja; Kruczak, Anna; Sas-Korczyńska, Beata; Ryś, Janusz

    2018-04-01

    We compared the status of stromal podoplanin-positive cancer-associated fibroblasts (ppCAFs) between primary tumors and paired synchronous lymph node metastases (LNMs) and analyzed the prognostic significance of tumoral ppCAFs in 203 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast carcinoma. ppCAFs were found in 167/203 and in 35/87 tumors and LNM, respectively. ppCAFs were most frequently found in tumors and corresponding LNM (n=52, 59.8%; p=0.001). However, for all LNMs (n=12) without ppCAFs, their paired tumors also lacked ppCAFs. In both tumors and LNMs, ppCAFs were α-smooth muscle actin-positive and cluster of differentiation 21 protein-negative, suggesting them not to be resident lymph node cells. Moreover, in our series, the presence of ppCAFs in tumors was borderline related to poor disease-free survival (p=0.058). These results speak in favor of a hypothesis suggesting ppCAFs accompany metastatic cancer cells migrating from tumor to LNMs. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte grade in primary melanomas is independently associated with melanoma-specific survival in the population-based genes, environment and melanoma study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy E; Busam, Klaus J; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A; Groben, Pamela A; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-11-20

    Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (P(trend) < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions.

  8. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Grade in Primary Melanomas Is Independently Associated With Melanoma-Specific Survival in the Population-Based Genes, Environment and Melanoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Busam, Klaus J.; From, Lynn; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B.; Gallagher, Richard P.; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Groben, Pamela A.; Hao, Honglin; Orlow, Irene; Reiner, Anne S.; Luo, Li; Paine, Susan; Ollila, David W.; Wilcox, Homer; Begg, Colin B.; Berwick, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although most hospital-based studies suggest more favorable survival with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) present in primary melanomas, it is uncertain whether TILs provide prognostic information beyond existing melanoma staging definitions. We addressed the issue in an international population-based study of patients with single and multiple primary melanomas. Patients and Methods On the basis of the Genes, Environment and Melanoma (GEM) study, we conducted follow-up of 2,845 patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2003 with 3,330 invasive primary melanomas centrally reviewed for TIL grade (absent, nonbrisk, or brisk). The odds of TIL grades associated with clinicopathologic features and survival by TIL grade were examined. Results Independent predictors (P < .05) for nonbrisk TIL grade were site, histologic subtype, and Breslow thickness, and for brisk TIL grade, they were age, site, Breslow thickness, and radial growth phase. Nonbrisk and brisk TIL grades were each associated with lower American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor stage compared with TIL absence (Ptrend < .001). Death as a result of melanoma was 30% less with nonbrisk TIL grade (hazard ratio [HR], 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0) and 50% less with brisk TIL grade (HR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 0.9) relative to TIL absence, adjusted for age, sex, site, and AJCC tumor stage. Conclusion At the population level, higher TIL grade of primary melanoma is associated with a lower risk of death as a result of melanoma independently of tumor characteristics currently used for AJCC tumor stage. We conclude that TIL grade deserves further prospective investigation to determine whether it should be included in future AJCC staging revisions. PMID:24127443

  9. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Cancer.gov

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  10. Outcome of primary childhood central nervous system tumors: results from a single center in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rafsanjani, Kh Arjmandi; Bahoush, Gr; Nikpoor, F; Vossough, P

    2012-10-01

    Childhood primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies are one of the most important concerns in pediatric oncology. In this historical cohort, 82 patients treated in Ali-Asghar Children's Hospital between 1996 and 2005 were evaluated for age, gender, type of treatment, tumor pathology, and survival. The records of 38 female (46.3%) and 44 male (53.7%) patients were included. The mean age was 6.8 ± 3.39 years (6 months to 14 years); the frequency of medulloblastoma was significantly more than others (p = 0.012). Complete resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were done in 47.5, 82.9, and 97.56%, respectively. Estimated 5 years overall and event-free survivals (EFSs) were approximately 68.5 and 35%, respectively. The patients with complete resected tumors had significantly better outcome (p = 0.013). Also, low-grade versus high-grade astrocytoma was significantly a better outcome (p = 0.01). The poor EFS with consideration of high number of progressive disease among our patients (50% unresectable tumor) suggests that children in Iran with CNS tumors had high quality of care but availability of advanced treatment protocol and sharing of cooperative trial study is essential for survival improvement. In addition to use more advanced methods and equipments of radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic drugs, we should seriously consider development of better surgical techniques to increase the rate of complete resection of malignant CNS tumors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Clinical results of primary malignant musculoskeletal tumor treated by wide resection and recycling autograft reconstruction using liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Paholpak, Permsak; Sirichativapee, Winai; Wisanuyotin, Taweechok; Kosuwon, Weerachai; Jeeravipoolvarn, Polasak

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of primary malignant musculoskeletal tumors treated with wide resection and recycling autograft reconstruction using liquid nitrogen. We reviewed 12 patients who had a primary malignant bone and soft tissue tumor treated by wide resection and recycling autograft reconstruction using liquid nitrogen between March 2006 and March 2013. The results were judged by recurrence, functional status and complications. Functional status was assessed according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Score (MSTSS). Clinical failure was defined as need for reoperation in order to change the type of reconstruction or to amputate, and the presence of local recurrence. The most common tumor was osteosarcoma (eight cases) followed by Ewing's sarcoma (two cases). The tibia was the most frequently involved skeletal site (six cases) followed by the femur (three cases). The median follow-up period was 32 months. In 12 patients, 7 were still alive without recurrence. There were 3 clinical failures: 1 local recurrence and 2 graft complications at 28, 51 and 20 months after reconstruction, respectively. The main complication was infection (three cases). All osteotomy sites were radiographic unions, and the union time was 8.2 ± 2.7 months. The mean ± SD MSTSS score was 79% ± 11%; excellent functional results were achieved in seven patients. Recycling autograft reconstruction using liquid nitrogen had favorable clinical outcomes in terms of functional status and local recurrence. This reconstruction method, therefore, represents a reasonable alternative for limb salvage surgery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Gene expression profiles in primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions of Ela-c-myc transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Archana; Bollig, Aliccia; Wu, Jiusheng; Liao, Dezhong J

    2008-01-24

    Pancreatic carcinoma usually is a fatal disease with no cure, mainly due to its invasion and metastasis prior to diagnosis. We analyzed the gene expression profiles of paired primary pancreatic tumors and metastatic lesions from Ela-c-myc transgenic mice in order to identify genes that may be involved in the pancreatic cancer progression. Differentially expressed selected genes were verified by semi-quantitative and quantitative RT-PCR. To further evaluate the relevance of some of the selected differentially expressed genes, we investigated their expression pattern in human pancreatic cancer cell lines with high and low metastatic potentials. Data indicate that genes involved in posttranscriptional regulation were a major functional category of upregulated genes in both primary pancreatic tumors (PT) and liver metastatic lesions (LM) compared to normal pancreas (NP). In particular, differential expression for splicing factors, RNA binding/pre-mRNA processing factors and spliceosome related genes were observed, indicating that RNA processing and editing related events may play critical roles in pancreatic tumor development and progression. High expression of insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (Igfbp1) and Serine proteinase inhibitor A1 (Serpina1), and low levels or absence of Wt1 gene expression were exclusive to liver metastatic lesion samples. We identified Igfbp1, Serpina1 and Wt1 genes that are likely to be clinically useful biomarkers for prognostic or therapeutic purposes in metastatic pancreatic cancer, particularly in pancreatic cancer where c-Myc is overexpressed.

  13. [Immunohistochemical hormonal mismatch and human epidermal growth factor type 2 [HER2] phenotype of brain metastases in breast cancer carcinoma compared to primary tumors].

    PubMed

    Joubert, C; Boissonneau, S; Fina, F; Figarella-Branger, D; Ouafik, L; Fuentes, S; Dufour, H; Gonçalves, A; Charaffe-Jauffret, E; Metellus, P

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype changes between primary tumor and the corresponding brain metastases are recent reported data. Breast cancer, with biological markers predicting prognosis and guiding therapeutic strategy remains an interesting model to observe and evaluate theses changes. The objective of our study was to compare molecular features (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2, [HER2]) between brain metastases and its primary tumor in patients presenting with pathologically confirmed breast cancer. This retrospective study was based on the immunohistochemical analysis of the brain metastases paraffin embedded samples stored in our institutional tumor bank, after surgical resection. The level of expression of hormonal receptors and HER2 on brain metastases were centrally reviewed and compared to the expression status in primary breast cancer from medical records. Forty-four samples of brain metastases were available for analysis. Hormonal receptor modification status was observed in 11/44 brain metastases (25%) for ER and 6/44 (13.6%) for PR. A modification of HER2 overexpression was observed in brain metastases in 6/44 (13.6%). Molecular subtype modification was shown in 17 cases (38.6%). A significant difference was demonstrated between time to develop brain metastases in cases without status modification (HER2, ER and PR) (med=49.5months [7.8-236.4]) and in cases in which brain metastases status differs from primary tumor (med=27.5months [0-197.3]), (P=0.0244, IC95=3.09-51.62, Mann and Whitney test). the main interest of this study was to focus on the molecular feature changes between primary tumor and their brain metastases. Time to develop brain metastases was correlated to phenotypic changes in brain metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Local Recurrence of Prostate Cancer After Radiation Therapy Occur at the Site of Primary Tumor? Results of a Longitudinal MRI and MRSI Study

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine if local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy occurs at the same site as the primary tumor before treatment, using longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging to assess dominant tumor location. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and approved by our Committee on Human Research. We identified all patients in our institutional prostate cancer database (1996 onward) who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging before radiotherapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer and again at least 2 years after radiotherapy (n = 124). Two radiologists recorded the presence, location, andmore » size of unequivocal dominant tumor on pre- and postradiotherapy scans. Recurrent tumor was considered to be at the same location as the baseline tumor if at least 50% of the tumor location overlapped. Clinical and biopsy data were collected from all patients. Results: Nine patients had unequivocal dominant tumor on both pre- and postradiotherapy imaging, with mean pre- and postradiotherapy dominant tumor diameters of 1.8 cm (range, 1-2.2) and 1.9 cm (range, 1.4-2.6), respectively. The median follow-up interval was 7.3 years (range, 2.7-10.8). Dominant recurrent tumor was at the same location as dominant baseline tumor in 8 of 9 patients (89%). Conclusions: Local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation usually occurs at the same site as the dominant primary tumor at baseline, suggesting supplementary focal therapy aimed at enhancing local tumor control would be a rational addition to management.« less

  15. Multiple primary tumors: Colorectal carcinoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Pantoja Pachajoa, Diana A; Bruno, Marco Antonio; Alvarez, Fernando A; Viscido, Germán; Mandojana, Facundo; Doniquian, Alejandro

    2018-05-30

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer, whereas lymphoma is the sixth leading cause of cancer death, 90% of which corresponds to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The association of these two primary tumors, a solid tumor with an hematological malignancy, is very uncommon. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, a right upper quadrant mass and 12 kg of weight loss in 9 months. The computed tomography (CT) showed a large intra-abdominal mass and a wall thickening at the rectosigmoid junction. A colonoscopic biopsy confirmed a colorectal adenocarcinoma and a laparoscopic biopsy of the intraabdominal mass confirmed a diffuse large B-cell NHL. After multidisciplinary discussion it was decided to treat first the NHL with 3 cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone). The patient experienced a good response with a 70% decrease in the intraabdominal mass and a negative PET/CT. Four months after diagnosis an anterior rectal resection was performed. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged 5 days after surgery. The patient finally died 20 months after surgery due to disease progression. The association of CRC and NHL is an extremely rare scenario that represents a great multidisciplinary challenge with respect to treatment due to the scarce literature found on this topic. When CRC and NHL are present, all the different disease patterns must be considered in a multidisciplinary and patient-oriented fashion, in order to decide the best therapeutic strategy for each individual. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined human papillomavirus typing and TP53 mutation analysis in distinguishing second primary tumors from lung metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Daher, Tamas; Tur, Mehmet Kemal; Brobeil, Alexander; Etschmann, Benjamin; Witte, Biruta; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Krombach, Gabriele; Blau, Wolfgang; Grimminger, Friedrich; Seeger, Werner; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Bräuninger, Andreas; Gattenlöhner, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the occurrence of concurrent lung malignancies poses a significant diagnostic challenge because metastatic HNSCC is difficult to discern from second primary lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, this differentiation is crucial because the recommended treatments for metastatic HNSCC and second primary lung SCC differ profoundly. We analyzed the origin of lung tumors in 32 patients with HNSCC using human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and targeted next generation sequencing of all coding exons of tumor protein 53 (TP53). Lung tumors were clearly identified as HNSCC metastases or second primary tumors in 29 patients, thus revealing that 16 patients had received incorrect diagnoses based on clinical and morphological data alone. The HPV typing and mutation analysis of all TP53 coding exons is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with HNSCC and concurrent lung SCC, which can help to ensure that patients receive the most suitable treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Patterns of care analysis for head & neck cancer of unknown primary site: a survey inside the German society of radiation oncology (DEGRO).

    PubMed

    Müller von der Grün, Jens; Bon, Dimitra; Rödel, Claus; Balermpas, Panagiotis

    2018-05-14

    Due to the absence of randomized trials, the optimal management for squamous cell cancer of unknown primary in the head and neck region (SCCHN CUP) remains controversial. Current strategies are based on retrospective studies, clinical experience, and institutional policies. An anonymous questionnaire with a total of 24 questions was created and distributed by the use of an online version (Google Forms®, Google, Mountain View, CA, USA) as well as a printout version as equivalent option. An email with a link to the survey and the questionnaire as attachment was sent to 361 DEGRO(German Society of Radiation Oncology)-associated departments. Frequency distributions of responses for each question were calculated. The data were also analyzed by type of practice. Representativity of the sample size for the DEGRO was also evaluated. 66 responses were received including answers from 20 (30%) university departments, 16 (24%) non-university institutions, and 30 (46%) radiation oncology practices. 95% of the participants routinely present these cases in an interdisciplinary tumor board and use intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques for SCCHN CUP treatment. Surgery includes neck dissection in 83% and tonsillectomy in 73% of the cases. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status is routinely determined in 82% of the departments. Statistically significant differences between universities and institutions and clinics and practices could be found with respect to positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) utilization, indications for chemotherapy, radiotherapy volumes, and cumulative doses. Diagnostics and treatment for SCCHN CUP within the DEGRO remain heterogeneous. A prospective register trial with standard operation procedures is warranted to homogenize and possibly improve management.

  18. LAG-3 in Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Expression in Primary Tumors and Metastatic Lymph Nodes Is Associated With Improved Survival.

    PubMed

    Hald, Sigurd M; Rakaee, Mehrdad; Martinez, Inigo; Richardsen, Elin; Al-Saad, Samer; Paulsen, Erna-Elise; Blix, Egil Støre; Kilvaer, Thomas; Andersen, Sigve; Busund, Lill-Tove; Bremnes, Roy M; Donnem, Tom

    2018-05-01

    Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) is an immune checkpoint receptor and a putative therapeutic target in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored the prognostic effect of LAG-3 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in NSCLC and its potential for inclusion in an immunoscore, supplementing the TNM classification. Primary tumor tissue from 553 stage I-IIIB NSCLC patients and 143 corresponding metastatic lymph nodes were collected. The expression of LAG-3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. On univariate analysis, LAG-3 + TILs in the intraepithelial and stromal compartments of primary tumors and in the intraepithelial and extraepithelial compartments of metastatic lymph nodes were associated with improved disease-specific survival (DSS). On multivariate analysis, stromal LAG-3 + TILs were a significant independent predictor of improved DSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.82; P = .002). Stromal LAG-3 + TILs did not have prognostic impact across all pathologic stages. In the metastatic lymph nodes, intraepithelial (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.99; P = .049) and extraepithelial (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29-0.70; P < .001) LAG-3 + TILs were independently associated with favorable DSS. LAG-3 + TILs are an independent positive prognostic factor in stage I-IIIB NSCLC. LAG-3 in metastatic lymph nodes is a candidate marker for an immunoscore in NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic factors of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a cohort study based on high-volume centers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuechao; Qiu, Haibo; Zhang, Peng; Feng, Xingyu; Chen, Tao; Li, Yong; Tao, Kaixiong; Li, Guoxin; Sun, Xiaowei; Zhou, Zhiwei

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics, immunohistochemical expression and prognostic factors of patients with primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Data from 2,570 consecutive GIST patients from four medical centers in China (January 2001-December 2015) were reviewed. Survival curves were constructed by the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox regression models were used to identify independent prognostic factors. Of the included patients, 1,375 (53.5%) were male, and the patient age range was 18 to 95 (median, 58) years. The tumors were mostly found in the stomach (64.5%), small intestine (25.1%) and colorectal region (5.1%). At the time of diagnosis, the median tumor size was 4.0 (range: 0.1-55.0) cm, and the median mitotic index per 50 high power fields (HPFs) was 3 (range: 0-254). Of the 2,168 resected patients, 2,009 (92.7%) received curative resection. According to the modified National Institutes of Health (NIH) classification, 21.9%, 28.9%, 14.1% and 35.1% were very low-, low-, intermediate- and high-risk tumors, respectively. The rate of positivity was 96.4% for c-Kit, 87.1% for CD34, 96.9% for delay of germination 1 (DOG-1), 8.0% for S-100, 31.0% for smooth muscle actin (SMA) and 5.1% for desmin. However, the prognostic value of each was limited. Multivariate analysis showed that age, tumor size, mitotic index, tumor site, occurrence of curative resection and postoperative imatinib were independent prognostic factors. Furthermore, we found that high-risk patients benefited significantly from postoperative imatinib (P<0.001), whereas intermediate-risk patients did not (P=0.954). Age, tumor size, mitotic index, tumor site, occurrence of curative resection and postoperative imatinib were independent prognostic factors in patients with GISTs. Moreover, determining whether intermediate-risk patients can benefit from adjuvant imatinib would be of considerable interest in future studies.

  20. Characteristics of time-activity curves obtained from dynamic 11C-methionine PET in common primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuichi; Asano, Yoshitaka; Shinoda, Jun; Yano, Hirohito; Ikegame, Yuka; Kawasaki, Tomohiro; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Maruyama, Takashi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iwama, Toru

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether dynamic PET with 11 C-methionine (MET) (MET-PET) is useful in the diagnosis of brain tumors. One hundred sixty patients with brain tumors (139 gliomas, 9 meningiomas, 4 hemangioblastomas and 8 primary central nervous system lymphomas [PCNSL]) underwent dynamic MET-PET with a 3-dimensional acquisition mode, and the maximum tumor MET-standardized uptake value (MET-SUV) was measured consecutively to construct a time-activity curve (TAC). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated from the time-to-peak (TTP) and the slope of the curve in the late phase (SLOPE). The TAC patterns of MET-SUVs (MET-TACs) could be divided into four characteristic types when MET dynamics were analyzed by dividing the MET-TAC into three phases. MET-SUVs were significantly higher in early and late phases in glioblastoma compared to anaplastic astrocytoma, diffuse astrocytoma and the normal frontal cortex (P < 0.05). The SLOPE in the late phase was significantly lower in tumors that included an oligodendroglial component compared to astrocytic tumors (P < 0.001). When we set the cutoff of the SLOPE in the late phase to - 0.04 h -1 for the differentiation of tumors that included an oligodendroglial component from astrocytic tumors, the diagnostic accuracy was 74.2% sensitivity and 64.9% specificity. The area under the ROC curve was 0.731. The results of this study show that quantification of the MET-TAC for each brain tumor identified by a dynamic MET-PET study could be helpful in the non-invasive discrimination of brain tumor subtypes, in particular gliomas.

  1. FSensitive detection of mono- and polyclonal ESR1 mutations in primary tumors, metastatic lesions and cell free DNA of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peilu; Bahreini, Amir; Gyanchandani, Rekha; Lucas, Peter C.; Hartmaier, Ryan J.; Watters, Rebecca J.; Jonnalagadda, Amruth R.; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E.; Berg, Aaron; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Kurland, Brenda F.; Weiss, Kurt R.; Mathew, Aju; Leone, Jose Pablo; Davidson, Nancy E; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Ambros, Tadeu F.; Stern, Andrew M.; Puhalla, Shannon L.; Lee, Adrian V.; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Given the clinical relevance of ESR1 mutations as potential drivers of resistance to endocrine therapy, this study used sensitive detection methods to determine the frequency of ESR1 mutations in primary and metastatic breast cancer, and in cell free DNA (cfDNA). Patients and Methods Six ESR1 mutations (K303R, S463P, Y537C, Y537N, Y537S, D538G) were assessed by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), with lower limits of detection of 0.05% to 0.16%, in primary tumors (n=43), bone (n=12) and brain metastases (n=38), and cfDNA (n=29). Correlations between ESR1 mutations in metastatic lesions and single (1 patient) or serial blood draws (4 patients) were assessed. Results ESR1 mutations were detected for D538G (n=13), Y537S (n=3) and Y537C (n=1), and not for K303R, S463P or Y537N. Mutation rates were 7.0% (3/43 primary tumors), 9.1% (1/11 bone metastases), 12.5% (3/24 brain metastases), and 24.1% (7/29 cfDNA). Two patients showed polyclonal disease with more than one ESR1 mutation. Mutation allele frequencies were 0.07% to 0.2% in primary tumors, 1.4% in bone metastases, 34.3 to 44.9% in brain metastases, and 0.2% to 13.7% in cfDNA. In cases with both cfDNA and metastatic samples (n=5), mutations were detected in both (n=3) or in cfDNA only (n=2). Treatment was associated with changes in ESR1 mutation detection and allele frequency. Conclusions ESR1 mutations were detected at very low allele frequencies in some primary breast cancers, and at high allele frequency in metastases, suggesting that in some tumors rare ESR1 mutant clones are enriched by endocrine therapy. Further studies should address if sensitive detection of ESR1 mutations in primary breast cancer and in serial blood draws may be predictive for development of resistant disease. PMID:26500237

  2. Predictive Value of Primary Tumor Site for Loco-regional Recurrence in Early Breast Cancer Patients with One to Three Positive Axillary Lymphadenophy.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shaoqing; Wen, Ge; Ren, Yufeng; Li, Yiyang; Feng, Lingling; Wang, Chengtao; Huang, Xiaobo; Wen, Bixiu; Zhang, Yujing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: It remains controversial on high risks for early breast cancer patients with one to three axillary nodes after mastectomy who is predisposition to locoregional recurrence. The present study is to investigate the relationship between primary tumor site and loco-regional recurrence (LRR) and explore the predictive value of clinicopathological characteristics in LRR for early breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes after mastectomy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of 656 consecutively diagnosed patients with pT 1-2 N 1 M 0 breast cancer who were treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with radical operation without postoperative radiotherapy between March 1998 and December 2010. The primary tumor sites included outer quadrant in 455 patients (69.36%), inner quadrant in 156 patients (23.78%)and central quadrant in 45 patients (6.86%). LRR and LRR-free survival (LRFS) in combination with clinical and pathological features were analyzed to screen out patients with higher risk of LRR. Results: The median follow-up time was 64.9 months. The 5-, 10-year LRR for the cohort was 8.6% and 12.9%, respectively; the 5-, 10-year LRFS was 86.2% and 76.4%, respectively. Multivariate analyses showed that age of ≤35 years, inner quadrant tumor and non-luminal subtype were independent risk factors for LRR and LRFS. Patients with primary tumor in inner quadrant showed higher LRR and poorer LRFS when risk factors are ≥2 than those with tumors in other sites. Conclusions: Inner quadrant tumor was an independent predictor for LRR and LRFS in patients with early breast cancer and one to three positive axillary lymph nodes, which would be more accurate in combination with other prognostic indexes including patients' age, pathological T stage, Ki67 status, molecular subtypes.

  3. Tendencies for higher co-expression of EGFR and HER2 and downregulation of HER3 in prostate cancer lymph node metastases compared with corresponding primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, J; Shen, L; Xiang, J; Xu, J; Wei, Q

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members are potential targets for therapy using extra-cellular domain receptor binding agents, such as the antibodies trastuzumab and cetuximab, or antibodies labeled with therapeutically useful radionuclides or toxins. This is especially the case when the tumor cells are resistant to chemotherapy and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Studies concerning the expression of these receptors in prostate cancer vary in the literature, possibly due to differences in patient inclusion, sample preparations and scoring criteria. In our study, EGFR, HER2 and HER3 expression was analyzed in prostate cancer samples from primary tumors and corresponding lymph node metastases from 12 patients. The expression of HER2 and EGFR was scored from immunohistochemical preparations and the HercepTest criteria (0, 1+, 2+ or 3+), while HER3 expression was scored as no, weak or strong staining. There were 5 EGFR-positive (2+ or 3+) primary tumors and 6 EGFR-positive lymph node metastases, and there was EGFR upregulation in one metastasis. Only 4 of the 12 patients had marked HER2 expression (2+ or 3+) in their primary tumors and there was one downregulation and 5 cases of upregulation in the metastases. Thus, a total of 8 out of 12 analyzed metastases were HER2-positive. Of the 12 primary tumors, 9 expressed HER3 while only 2 of the lymph node metastases expressed recognizable HER3 staining, so 7 metastases appeared to have downregulated HER3 expression. In one of the primary tumors there was positive co-expression of EGFR and HER2, while this co-expression was observed in 4 of the metastases. Thus, there were tendencies for upregulation of HER2, increased co-expression of EGFR and HER2 and downregulation of HER3 in the prostate cancer lymph node metastases in comparison to the primary tumors. The results are encouraging for studies involving more patients. Possible strategies for EGFR- and HER2-targeted therapy are briefly discussed in the

  4. miR-16-5p Is a Stably-Expressed Housekeeping MicroRNA in Breast Cancer Tissues from Primary Tumors and from Metastatic Sites.

    PubMed

    Rinnerthaler, Gabriel; Hackl, Hubert; Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Hamacher, Frank; Hufnagl, Clemens; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fastner, Gerd; Sedlmayer, Felix; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-26

    For quantitative microRNA analyses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, expression levels have to be normalized to endogenous controls. To investigate the most stably-expressed microRNAs in breast cancer and its surrounding tissue, we used tumor samples from primary tumors and from metastatic sites. MiRNA profiling using TaqMan(®) Array Human MicroRNA Cards, enabling quantification of 754 unique human miRNAs, was performed in FFPE specimens from 58 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Forty-two (72%) samples were collected from primary tumors and 16 (28%) from metastases. In a cross-platform analysis of a validation cohort of 32 FFPE samples from patients with early breast cancer genome-wide microRNA expression analysis using SurePrintG3 miRNA (8 × 60 K)(®) microarrays from Agilent(®) was performed. Eleven microRNAs could be detected in all samples analyzed. Based on NormFinder and geNorm stability values and the high correlation (rho ≥ 0.8) with the median of all measured microRNAs, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-222-3p are suitable single gene housekeeper candidates. In the cross-platform validation, 29 human microRNAs were strongly expressed (mean log2-intensity > 10) and 21 of these microRNAs including miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p were also stably expressed (CV < 5%). Thus, miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p are both strong housekeeper candidates. Their Normfinder stability values calculated across the primary tumor and metastases subgroup indicate that miR-29a-3p can be considered as the strongest housekeeper in a cohort with mainly samples from primary tumors, whereas miR-16-5p might perform better in a metastatic sample enriched cohort.

  5. Tumor associated CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor migration and macrophage infiltration in GBM.

    PubMed

    Ge, Haitao; Mu, Luyan; Jin, Linchun; Yang, Changlin; Chang, Yifan Emily; Long, Yu; DeLeon, Gabriel; Deleyrolle, Loic; Mitchell, Duane A; Kubilis, Paul S; Lu, Dunyue; Qi, Jiping; Gu, Yunhe; Lin, Zhiguo; Huang, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    Tumor migration/metastasis and immunosuppression are major obstacles in effective cancer therapy. Incidentally, these 2 hurdles usually coexist inside tumors, therefore making therapy significantly more complicated, as both oncogenic mechanisms must be addressed for successful therapeutic intervention. Our recent report highlights that the tumor expression of a TNF family member, CD70, is correlated with poor survival for primary gliomas. In this study, we investigated how CD70 expression by GBM affects the characteristics of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We found that the ablation of CD70 in primary GBM decreased CD44 and SOX2 gene expression, and inhibited tumor migration, growth and the ability to attract monocyte-derived M2 macrophages in vitro. In the tumor microenvironment, CD70 was associated with immune cell infiltrates, such as T cells; myeloid-derived suppressor cells; and monocytes/macrophages based on the RNA-sequencing profile. The CD163+ macrophages were far more abundant than T cells were. This overwhelming level of macrophages was identified only in GBM and not in low-grade gliomas and normal brain specimens, implying their tumor association. CD70 was detected only on tumor cells, not on macrophages, and was highly correlated with CD163 gene expression in primary GBM. Additionally, the co-expression of the CD70 and CD163 genes was found to correlate with decreased survival for patients with primary GBM. Together, these data suggest that CD70 expression is involved in promoting tumor aggressiveness and immunosuppression via tumor-associated macrophage recruitment/activation. Our current efforts to target this molecule using chimeric antigen receptor T cells hold great potential for treating patients with GBM. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Observational study of patients with gastroenteropancreatic and bronchial neuroendocrine tumors in Argentina: Results from the large database of a multidisciplinary group clinical multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    O’CONNOR, JUAN MANUEL; MARMISSOLLE, FABIANA; BESTANI, CLAUDIA; PESCE, VERONICA; BELLI, SUSANA; DOMINICHINI, ENZO; MENDEZ, GUILLERMO; PRICE, PAOLA; GIACOMI, NORA; PAIROLA, ALEJANDRO; LORIA, FERNANDO SÁNCHEZ; HUERTAS, EDUARDO; MARTIN, CLAUDIO; PATANE, KARINA; POLERI, CLAUDIA; ROSENBERG, MOISES; CABANNE, ANA; KUJARUK, MIRTA; CAINO, ANALIA; ZAMORA, VICTOR; MARIANI, JAVIER; DIOCA, MARIANO; PARMA, PATRICIA; PODESTA, GUSTAVO; ANDRIANI, OSCAR; GONDOLESI, GABRIEL; ROCA, ENRIQUE

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) include a spectrum of malignancies arising from neuroendocrine cells throughout the body. The objective of this clinical investigation of retrospectively and prospectively collected data was to describe the prevalence, demographic data, clinical symptoms and methods of diagnosis of NET and the treatment and long-term follow-up of patients with NET. Data were provided by the participating centers and assessed for consistency by internal reviewers. All the cases were centrally evaluated (when necessary) by the pathologists in our group. The tissue samples were reviewed by hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining techniques to confirm the diagnosis of NET. In total, 532 cases were documented: 461 gastroenteropancreatic-NET (GEP-NET) and 71 bronchial NET (BNET). All the tumors were immunohistochemically defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society criteria. The most common initial symptoms in GEP-NET were abdominal pain, diarrhea, bowel obstruction, flushing, gastrointestinal bleeding and weight loss. The most common tumor types were carcinoid (58.0%), non-functional pancreatic tumor (23.0%), metastatic NET of unknown primary (16.0%) and functional pancreatic tumor (3.0%). Of the BNET, 89.0% were typical and 11.0% atypical carcinoids. Of the patients with GEP-NET, 59.2% had distant metastasis at diagnosis. The locations of the primary tumors in GEP-NET were the small bowel (26.9%), pancreas (25.2%), colon-rectum (12.4%), appendix (7.6%), stomach (6.9%), esophagus (2.8%), duodenum (2.0%) and unknown primary (16.3%). The histological subtypes based on the WHO classification were well-differentiated NET (20.1%), well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (66.5%) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (10.3%). Overall, 67.3% of the patients underwent surgery, 41.2% with curative intent and 26.1% for palliative purposes. The 5-year survival rates were 65.1% (95

  7. Cavernous sinus involvement is not a risk factor for the primary tumor site treatment outcome of Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Chan; Lee, Ta-Jen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Huang, Yenlin; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2018-02-05

    Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignancy of the head and neck. Cavernous sinus invasion from sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma and its related management have rarely been investigated. This study evaluated the relationship between treatment outcome and cavernous sinus involvement in addition to other parameters. A retrospective case series study was conducted at a tertiary referral center. The medical records of 47 patients diagnosed with primary sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma between 1984 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The survival impact of the primary treatment modalities and the anatomic sites of tumor involvement were analyzed. Cavernous sinus invasion was observed in 8 patients (17%), of whom 7 had ACC tumors originating from the maxillary sinus. The results of univariate analysis revealed that tumor stage, primary surgery, and the absence of skull-base and infratemporal fossa invasion were associated with better overall survival (P = 0.033, P = 0.012, P = 0.011, and P = 0.040, respectively) and better disease-free survival (P = 0.019, P = 0.001, P = 0.017, and P = 0.029, respectively). Multivariate analysis identified primary surgery as the only independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (P = 0.026). Cavernous sinus invasion by sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma was not associated with worse overall survival or disease-free survival (P = 0.200 and P = 0.198, respectively). Because maxillary adenoid cystic carcinoma is associated with a higher rate of cavernous sinus invasion, such cases warrant caution during preoperative planning. Primary surgery as the initial therapy provides better locoregional control and survival for patients with sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma. Cavernous sinus invasion did not significantly impact survival; thus, it should not be regarded as a contraindication for curative treatment.

  8. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  9. The impact of surgical resection of the primary tumor on the development of synchronous colorectal liver metastasis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pinson, H; Cosyns, S; Ceelen, Wim P

    2018-05-22

    In recent years different therapeutic strategies for synchronously liver metastasized colorectal cancer were described. Apart from the classical staged surgical approach, simultaneous and liver-first strategies are now commonly used. One theoretical drawback of the classical approach is, however, the stimulatory effect on liver metastases growth that may result from resection of the primary tumour. This systematic review, therefore, aims to investigate the current insights on the stimulatory effects of colorectal surgery on the growth of synchronous colorectal liver metastases in humans. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA statement. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Embase. Articles investigating the effects of colorectal surgery on synchronous colorectal liver metastases were included. Primary endpoints were metastatic tumor volume, metabolic and proliferative activity and tumour vascularization. Four articles meeting the selection criteria were found involving 200 patients. These studies investigate the effects of resection of the primary tumour on synchronous liver metastases using histological and radiological techniques. These papers support a possible stimulatory effect of resection of the primary tumor. Some limited evidence supports the hypothesis that colorectal surgery might stimulate the growth and development of synchronous colorectal liver metastases.

  10. Extraneural metastases of primary central nervous system tumors identified by fine needle aspiration: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Vandenbussche, Christopher J; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Nugent, Summer L; Ali, Syed Z

    2014-01-01

    Extraneural metastasis (EM) of primary central nervous system (PCNS) neoplasms is rare and signifies a poor clinical outcome. Due to its infrequent occurrence, relatively few reports on the cytomorphology of these neoplasms have been published. We describe a series of 19 cases from 16 patients at a single, large tertiary care center. A retrospective analysis of 19 cases of metastases from PCNS neoplasms identified on fine needle aspiration (FNA) in 8 male and 8 female patients aged 14-72 years (mean age 39.6) from 1989 to 2013 was conducted to further characterize the cytomorphologic features identified at metastatic sites. Six different PCNS neoplasms were identified: meningioma, glioblastoma, hemangiopericytoma (HPC), oligodendroglioma, medulloblastoma, and retinoblastoma. The mean latency period between the diagnoses of the primary and first metastatic tumors was 7.4 years (range 0-15). The most common PCNS malignancy responsible for EM was HPC. The most common metastatic sites were the lung (31%) and soft tissue/bone (31%). EM of PCNS tumors is extremely rare. FNA allows for quick, safe and accurate diagnosis. Cytomorphologic features are characteristic, and in conjunction with the clinical history and immunohistochemistry, an accurate diagnosis was obtained in 100% of the cases.

  11. Solid Tumor Second Primary Neoplasms: Who is at Risk, What Can We Do?

    PubMed Central

    Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Baxi, Shrujal S.; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Moskowitz, Chaya S.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen percent of incident malignancies in the U.S. are a second (or subsequent) cancer. Second primary neoplasms (SPN), particularly solid tumors, are a major cause of mortality and serious morbidity among cancer survivors successfully cured of their first cancer. Multiple etiologies may lead to a cancer survivor subsequently being diagnosed with an SPN, including radiotherapy for the first cancer, unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, germline and somatic mutations, aging, or an interaction between any of these factors. In this article, we discuss these factors and synthesize this information for use in clinical practice, including preventive strategies and screening recommendations for SPNs. PMID:24331190

  12. Deriving Therapies for Children with Primary CNS Tumors Using Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulation of Cerebral Microdialysis Data

    PubMed Central

    Jacus, M.O.; Throm, S.L.; Turner, D.C.; Patel, Y.T.; Freeman, B.B.; Morfouace, M.; Boulos, N.; Stewart, C. F.

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors continues to be a challenge despite recent advances in technology and diagnostics. In this overview, we describe our approach for identifying and evaluating active anticancer drugs through a process that enables rational translation from the lab to the clinic. The preclinical approach we discuss uses tumor subgroup-specific models of pediatric CNS tumors, cerebral microdialysis sampling of tumor extracellular fluid (tECF), and pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation to overcome challenges that currently hinder researchers in this field. This approach involves performing extensive systemic (plasma) and target site (CNS tumor) pharmacokinetic studies. Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation of the data derived from these studies are then used to inform future decisions regarding drug administration, including dosage and schedule. Here, we also present how our approach was used to examine two FDA approved drugs, simvastatin and pemetrexed, as candidates for new therapies for pediatric CNS tumors. We determined that due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic characteristics and insufficient concentrations in tumor tissue in a mouse model of ependymoma, simvastatin would not be efficacious in further preclinical trials. In contrast to simvastatin, pemetrexed was advanced to preclinical efficacy studies after our studies determined that plasma exposures were similar to those in humans treated at similar tolerable dosages and adequate unbound concentrations were found in tumor tissue of medulloblastoma-bearing mice. Generally speaking, the high clinical failure rates for CNS drug candidates can be partially explained by the fact that therapies are often moved into clinical trials without extensive and rational preclinical studies to optimize the transition. Our approach addresses this limitation by using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of data generated from appropriate in vivo models to

  13. Efficacy and Toxicity of Chemoradiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Unknown Primary of Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu; Balboni, Tracy A.; Haddad, Robert I.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: No single standard treatment paradigm is available for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary (HNCUP). Bilateral neck radiotherapy with mucosal axis irradiation is widely used, with or without chemotherapy and/or surgical resection. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a highly conformal method for delivering radiation that is becoming the standard of care and might reduce the long-term treatment-related sequelae. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for HNCUP. Patients and Materials: A retrospective study of all patients treated at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for HNCUP with IMRT between August 2004 and January 2009. The primary endpointmore » was overall survival; the secondary endpoints were locoregional and distant control, and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: A total of 24 patients with HNCUP were included. Of these patients, 22 had Stage N2 disease or greater. All patients underwent neck computed tomography, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and examination under anesthesia with directed biopsies. Of the 24 patients, 22 received concurrent chemotherapy, and 7 (29%) also underwent induction chemotherapy. The median involved nodal dose was 70 Gy, and the median mucosal dose was 60 Gy. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years, the 2-year actuarial overall survival and locoregional control rate was 92% and 100%, respectively. Only 25% of the patients had Grade 2 xerostomia, although 11 patients (46%) required esophageal dilation for stricture. Conclusion: In a single-institution series, IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for HNCUP was associated with superb overall survival and locoregional control. The xerostomia rates were promising, but the aggressive therapy was associated with significant rates of esophageal stenosis.« less

  14. Relative value of physical examination, mammography, and breast sonography in evaluating the size of the primary tumor and regional lymph node metastases in women receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herrada, J; Iyer, R B; Atkinson, E N; Sneige, N; Buzdar, A U; Hortobagyi, G N

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate physical examination and sonographic and mammographic measurements of breast tumors and regional lymph nodes with pathological findings and to evaluate the effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage by noninvasive methods. This was a retrospective analysis of 100 patients with locally advanced breast cancer registered and treated in prospective trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients received four cycles of a doxorubicin-containing regimen and had noninvasive evaluation of the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by physical examination, sonography, and mammography and underwent breast surgery and axillary dissection within 5 weeks after completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The correlations between clinical and pathological measurements were determined by Spearman rank correlation analysis. A proportional odds model was used to examine predictive values. Eighty-three patients had both a clinically detectable primary tumor and lymph node metastases. Sixty-four patients had a decrease in Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage after chemotherapy. For 54% of patients, there was concordance in clinical response between the primary tumor and lymph node compartment; for the rest, results were discordant. Physical examination correlated best with pathological findings in the measurement of the primary tumor (P = 0.0003), whereas sonography was the most accurate predictor of size for axillary lymph nodes (P = 0.0005). The combination of physical examination and mammography worked best for assessment of the primary tumor (P = 0.003), whereas combining physical examination with sonography gave optimal evaluation of regional lymph nodes (P = 0.0001). In conclusion, physical examination is the best noninvasive predictor of the real size of locally advanced primary breast cancer, whereas sonography correlates better with the real dimensions of axillary lymph

  15. Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Primary Failure Predicts Decreased Ustekinumab Efficacy in Psoriasis Patients.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Eric P; Fanucci, Kristina A; Saraiya, Ami; Volf, Eva; Au, Shiu-chung; Argobi, Yahya; Mansfield, Ryan; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2015-08-01

    Additional studies are needed to examine the efficacy of ustekinumab in psoriasis patients who have previously been exposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). To examine the predictive effect of TNFi primary failure and the number of TNFi exposures on the efficacy of ustekinumab in psoriasis treatment. This retrospective study examined 44 psoriasis patients treated at the Tufts Medical Center Department of Dermatology between January 2008 and July 2014. Patients were selected if they were treated with ustekinumab and had ≥ 1 previous TNFi exposure. The following subgroups were compared: patients with vs without a previous TNFi primary failure, and patients with one vs multiple previous TNFi exposures. The efficacy measure used was the previously validated Simple Measure for Assessing Psoriasis Activity (S-MAPA), which is calculated by the product of the body surface area and physician global assessment. The primary outcome was the percentage improvement S-MAPA from course baseline at week 12 of ustekinumab treatment. Secondary outcomes were the psoriasis clearance, primary failure, and secondary failure rates with ustekinumab treatment. Patients with a previous TNFi primary failure had a significantly lower percentage improvement in S-MAPA score at week 12 of ustekinumab treatment compared with patients without TNFi primary failure (36.2% vs 61.1%, P=.027). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that this relationship was independent of patient demographics and medical comorbidities. Patients with multiple TNFi exposures had a non-statistically significant lower percentage S-MAPA improvement at week 12 (40.5% vs 52.9%, P=.294) of ustekinumab treatment compared with patients with a single TNFi exposure. Among psoriasis patients previously exposed to TNFi, a history of a previous TNFi primary failure predicts a decreased response to ustekinumab independent of patient demographics and medical comorbidities.

  16. Association of Prognostic Value of Primary Tumor Location in Stage III Colon Cancer With RAS and BRAF Mutational Status.

    PubMed

    Taieb, Julien; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Emile, Jean-François; Le Malicot, Karine; Balogoun, Ralyath; Tabernero, Josep; Mini, Enrico; Folprecht, Gunnar; Van Laethem, Jean-Luc; Mulot, Claire; Bouché, Olivier; Aparicio, Thomas; Michel, Pierre; Thaler, Josef; Bridgewater, John; Van Cutsem, Eric; Perkins, Géraldine; Lepage, Come; Salazar, Ramon; Laurent-Puig, Pierre

    2017-11-22

    We know of no data on the prognostic value of primary tumor location (PTL) according to BRAF, RAS, and microsatellite instability (MSI) status in patients who have undergone resection for colon cancer (CC) and have been treated with current standard adjuvant chemotherapy. To determine the prognostic and predictive value of PTL according to BRAF, RAS, and MSI status in patients with stage III CC receiving adjuvant treatment with FOLFOX (folinic acid [leucovorin calcium], fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) with or without cetuximab. This post hoc analysis included patients with available tumor blocks of resected stage III colon adenocarcinoma who participated in the Pan-European Trials in Alimentary Tract Cancer (PETACC)-8 phase 3 randomized trial. Among the 2559 patients who underwent randomization, 1900 were screened by next-generation sequencing, which showed that 1869 had full information concerning PTL. We categorized primary tumor site as located proximal (right) or distal (left) to the splenic flexure. The associations between PTL (right- vs left-sided) and disease-free survival (DFS), survival after relapse (SAR), and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Cox models and adjusted for clinical and pathological features, treatment, and MSI, BRAF, and RAS status. Among the 1869 patients (1056 [57%] male; mean [SD] age, 59.4 [9.5] years) with full molecular data analyzed, 755 (40%) had a right-sided tumor, 164 (10%) had MSI, 942 (50%) had RAS mutations, and 212 (11%) had BRAF mutations. Right-sided tumor location was not prognostic for DFS in the whole population but was associated with a shorter SAR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% CI, 1.23-1.93; P = .001) and OS (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02-1.54; P = .03). When looking at DFS in the different molecular subgroups, we found similar results for microsatellite-stable tumors and tumors with MSI; a better DFS in right-sided vs left-sided tumors in patients with RAS mutations (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64-1.00; P = .046

  17. Primary Tumor Site as a Predictor of Treatment Outcome for Definitive Radiotherapy of Advanced-Stage Oral Cavity Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Taipei Chang Gung Head and Neck Oncology Group, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of definitive radiotherapy (RT) for oral cavity cancers and to assess prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: Definitive RT was performed on 115 patients with oral cavity cancers at Stages III, IVA, and IVB, with a distribution of 6%, 47%, and 47%, respectively. The median dose of RT was 72Gy (range, 62-76Gy). Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was administered to 95% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent salvage surgery after RT failure. Results: Eight-eight (76.5%) patients responded partially and 23 (20%) completely; of the patients who responded, 18% and 57%, respectively, experienced a durable effect of treatment. The 3-yearmore » overall survival, disease-specific survival, and progression-free survival were 22%, 27%, and 25%, respectively. The 3-year PFS rates based on the primary tumor sites were as follows: Group I (buccal, mouth floor, and gum) 51%, Group II (retromolar and hard palate) 18%, and Group III (tongue and lip) 6% (p < 0.0001). The 3-year progression-free survival was 41% for N0 patients and 19% for patients with N+ disease (p = 0.012). The T stage and RT technique did not affect survival. The patients who underwent salvage surgery demonstrated better 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival (53% vs. 19%, p = 0.015 and 53% vs. 24%, p = 0.029, respectively). Subsite group, N+, and salvage surgery were the only significant prognostic factors for survival after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: The primary tumor site and neck stage are prognostic predictors in advanced-stage oral cancer patients who received radical RT. The primary tumor extension and RT technique did not influence survival.« less

  18. Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic').

    PubMed

    Fauser, S; Soellner, C; Bien, C G; Tumani, H

    2017-09-01

    To compare the frequency of intrathecal immunoglobulin (Ig) synthesis in patients with symptomatic epilepsy and epilepsy of unknown etiology ('cryptogenic'). Patients with epileptic (n = 301) and non-epileptic (n = 10) seizures were retrospectively screened for autochthonous intrathecal Ig synthesis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in the cerebrospinal fluid. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were detected in 8% of patients with epilepsies of unknown etiology, 5% of patients with first seizures of unknown cause and 0-4% of patients with epilepsy due to brain tumors, cerebrovascular disease or other etiologies. Intrathecal IgG/OCBs were not seen in patients with psychogenic seizures. Identical OCBs in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were more common in all patient groups (10-40% depending on underlying etiology). Intrathecal IgG synthesis/OCBs were observed slightly more frequently in patients with 'cryptogenic' epilepsy and with first seizures of unknown etiology than in other patient groups. However, this remained an infrequent finding and thus we could not confirm humoral immunity as a leading disease mechanism in patients with epilepsy in general or with unknown etiology in particular. © 2017 EAN.

  19. Renin-secreting tumors.

    PubMed

    Roswell, R H

    1990-02-01

    Hypertension resulting from a renin-secreting tumor was first reported in 1967 by Robertson et al. Kihara and coworkers subsequently coined the term juxtaglomerular cell tumor for a similar tumor in a young woman with hyperreninemic hypertension. Since the description of these first two cases, it has become clear that renin-secreting tumors of both renal and nonrenal origin can cause surgically curable hypertension. Primary reninism has been suggested as a more appropriate term for the clinical syndrome associated with renin-secreting tumors, both renal and extrarenal, whether benign or malignant.

  20. Effect of intra-tumoral magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia and viral nanoparticle immunogenicity on primary and metastatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Mazur, Courtney M.; Osterberg, Bjorn; Song, Ailin; Gladstone, David J.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.; Veliz, Frank A.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Wagner, Robert J.; Fiering, Steven N.

    2017-02-01

    Although there is long association of medical hyperthermia and immune stimulation, the relative lack of a quantifiable and reproducible effect has limited the utility and advancement of this relationship in preclinical/clinical cancer and non-cancer settings. Recent cancer-based immune findings (immune checkpoint modulators etc.) including improved mechanistic understanding and biological tools now make it possible to modify and exploit the immune system to benefit conventional cancer treatments such as radiation and hyperthermia. Based on the prior experience of our research group including; cancer-based heat therapy, magnetic nanoparticle (mNP) hyperthermia, radiation biology, cancer immunology and Cowpea Mosaic Virus that has been engineered to over express antigenic proteins without RNA or DNA (eCPMV/VLP). This research was designed to determine if and how the intra-tumoral delivery of mNP hyperthermia and VLP can work together to improve local and systemic tumor treatment efficacy. Using the C3H mouse/MTG-B mammary adenocarcinoma cell model and the C57-B6 mouse/B-16-F10 melanoma cancer cell model, our data suggests the appropriate combination of intra-tumoral mNP heat (e.g. 43°C /30-60 minutes) and VLP (100 μg/200 mm3 tumor) not only result in significant primary tumor regression but the creation a systemic immune reaction that has the potential to retard secondary tumor growth (abscopal effect) and resist tumor rechallenge. Molecular data from these experiments suggest treatment based cell damage and immune signals such as Heat Shock Protein (HSP) 70/90, calreticulin, MTA1 and CD47 are potential targets that can be exploited to enhance the local and systemic (abscopal effect) immune potential of hyperthermia cancer treatment

  1. Conditional survival of all primary brain tumor patients by age, behavior, and histology.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kimberly R; McCarthy, Bridget J; Berbaum, Michael L; Davis, Faith G

    2011-01-01

    Survival statistics commonly reflect survival from the time of diagnosis but do not take into account survival already achieved after a diagnosis. The objective of this study was to provide conditional survival estimates for brain tumor patients as a more accurate measure of survival for those who have already survived for a specified amount of time after diagnosis. Data on primary malignant and nonmalignant brain tumor cases diagnosed from 1985-2005 from selected SEER state cancer registries were obtained. Relative survival up to 15 years postdiagnosis and varying relative conditional survival rates were computed using the life-table method. The overall 1-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis was 67.8% compared to the 6-month relative conditional survival rate of 85.7% for 6-month survivors (the probability of surviving to 1 year given survival to 6 months). The 10-year overall relative survival rate was 49.5% from time of diagnosis compared to the 8-year relative conditional survival rate of 79.2% for 2-year survivors. Conditional survival estimates and standard survival estimates varied by histology, behavior, and age at diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis for glioblastoma was 3.6% compared to the 3-year relative conditional survival rate of 36.4% for 2-year survivors. For most nonmalignant tumors, the difference between relative survival and the corresponding conditional survival estimates were minimal. Older age groups had greater numeric gains in survival but lower conditional survival estimates than other age groups. Similar findings were seen for other conditional survival intervals. Conditional survival is a useful disease surveillance measure for clinicians and brain tumor survivors to provide them with better 'real-time' estimates and hope. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Energy Metabolism Rewiring Precedes UVB-Induced Primary Skin Tumor Formation.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mohsen; Dousset, Léa; Mahfouf, Walid; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Redonnet-Vernhet, Isabelle; Mesli, Samir; Kasraian, Zeinab; Obre, Emilie; Bonneu, Marc; Claverol, Stephane; Vlaski, Marija; Ivanovic, Zoran; Rachidi, Walid; Douki, Thierry; Taieb, Alain; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Rezvani, Hamid Reza

    2018-06-19

    Although growing evidence indicates that bioenergetic metabolism plays an important role in the progression of tumorigenesis, little information is available on the contribution of reprogramming of energy metabolism in cancer initiation. By applying a quantitative proteomic approach and targeted metabolomics, we find that specific metabolic modifications precede primary skin tumor formation. Using a multistage model of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced skin cancer, we show that glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and fatty acid β-oxidation are decreased at a very early stage of photocarcinogenesis, while the distal part of the electron transport chain (ETC) is upregulated. Reductive glutamine metabolism and the activity of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) are both necessary for maintaining high ETC. Mice with decreased DHODH activity or impaired ETC failed to develop pre-malignant and malignant lesions. DHODH activity represents a major link between DNA repair efficiency and bioenergetic patterning during skin carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Presence of S100A8/Gr1-Positive Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Primary Tumors and Visceral Organs Invaded by Breast Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tanriover, Gamze; Eyinc, Mehmet Berk; Aliyev, Elnur; Dilmac, Sayra; Erin, Nuray

    2018-04-26

    Increased S100A8/A9 expression in Gr1-positive cells has been shown in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and may play a role in the formation of a metastatic milieu. We aimed to determine S100A8/A9 expression alone and with coexpression of Gr1 (a myeloid marker) in primary tumor and visceral tissues invaded by metastatic breast carcinoma. Female BALB/c mice were injected with 4TLM, 4THM, and 67NR orthotopically. Confluent cells (75%-80%) were used. Primary tumor, lung, liver, and spleen tissue samples were removed 26 days after injection. Peripheral blood smears and metastasis assay were performed, as was immunohistochemistry and staining. S100A8/A9 immunoreactivity alone or coexpressed with Gr1 was found in primary tumors formed by 4TLM and 4THM cells, which was markedly higher than in primary tumors formed by nonmetastatic 67NR cells. Similarly, liver and lung tissues obtained from mice injected with 4TLM or 4THM cells were invaded by S100A8/A9-positive and Gr1-positive cells. Double-positive cells were markedly fewer in liver and lung tissues of animals injected with 67NR cells. S100A8/A9-positive cells were mostly localized in red pulp of spleens. We observed an increased number of neutrophils in the peripheral blood of mice injected with metastatic breast carcinoma cells. Tumor-derived factors may increase S100A8/A9-positive cells locally and systemically, and S100A8/A9-positive cells may provide an appropriate milieu for the formation of metastasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Primary Tr1 cells from metastatic melanoma eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages through granzyme B- and perforin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hongxia; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Xue; Hou, Xianglian; Zhao, Li; Li, Tianhang; Yuan, Xiaozhou; Fu, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    In malignant melanoma, tumor-associated macrophages play multiple roles in promoting tumor growth, such as inducing the transformation of melanocytes under ultraviolet irradiation, increasing angiogenesis in melanomas, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Because granzyme B- and perforin-expressing Tr1 cells could specifically eliminate antigen-presenting cells of myeloid origin, we examined whether Tr1 cells in melanoma could eliminate tumor-promoting macrophages and how the interaction between Tr1 cells and macrophages could affect the growth of melanoma cells. Tr1 cells were characterized by high interleukin 10 secretion and low Foxp3 expression and were enriched in the CD4 + CD49b + LAG-3 + T-cell fraction. Macrophages derived from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of modified melanoma-conditioned media demonstrated tumor-promoting capacity, exemplified by improving the proliferation of cocultured A375 malignant melanoma cells. But when primary Tr1 cells were present in the macrophage-A375 coculture, the growth of A375 cells was abrogated. The conventional CD25 + Treg cells, however, were unable to inhibit macrophage-mediated increase in tumor cell growth. Further analyses showed that Tr1 cells did not directly eliminate A375 cells, but mediated the killing of tumor-promoting macrophages through the secretion of granzyme B and perforin. The tumor-infiltrating interleukin 10 + Foxp3 - CD4 + T cells expressed very low levels of granzyme B and perforin, possibly suggested the downregulation of Tr1 cytotoxic capacity in melanoma tumors. Together, these data demonstrated an antitumor function of Tr1 cells through the elimination of tumor-promoting macrophages, which was not shared by conventional Tregs.

  5. Changes in Signal Intensity of the Dentate Nucleus and Globus Pallidus in Pediatric Patients: Impact of Brain Irradiation and Presence of Primary Brain Tumors Independent of Linear Gadolinium-based Contrast Agent Administration.

    PubMed

    Tamrazi, Benita; Nguyen, Binh; Liu, Chia-Shang J; Azen, Colleen G; Nelson, Mary B; Dhall, Girish; Nelson, Marvin D

    2018-05-01

    Purpose To determine whether whole-brain irradiation, chemotherapy, and primary brain pathologic conditions affect magnetic resonance (MR) imaging signal changes in pediatric patients independent of the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study included 144 pediatric patients who underwent intravenous GBCA-enhanced MR imaging examinations (55 patients with primary brain tumors and whole-brain irradiation, 19 with primary brain tumors and chemotherapy only, 52 with primary brain tumors without any treatment, and 18 with neuroblastoma without brain metastatic disease). The signal intensities (SIs) in the globus pallidus (GP), thalamus (T), dentate nucleus (DN), and pons (P) were measured on unenhanced T1-weighted images. GP:T and DN:P SI ratios were compared between groups by using the analysis of variance and were analyzed relative to group, total cumulative number of doses of GBCA, age, and sex by using multivariable linear models. Results DN:P ratio for the radiation therapy group was greater than that for the other groups except for the group of brain tumors treated with chemotherapy (P < .05). The number of GBCA doses was correlated with the DN:P ratio for the nontreated brain tumor group (P < .0001). The radiation therapy-treated brain tumor group demonstrated higher DN:P ratios than the nontreated brain tumor group for number of doses less than or equal to 10 (P < .0001), whereas ratios in the nontreated brain tumor group were higher than those in the radiation therapy-treated brain tumor group for doses greater than 20 (P = .05). The GP:T ratios for the brain tumor groups were greater than that for the neuroblastoma group (P = .01). Conclusion Changes in SI of the DN and GP that are independent of the administration of GBCA occur in patients with brain tumors undergoing brain irradiation, as well as in patients with untreated primary brain tumors. © RSNA

  6. Sensitive Detection of Mono- and Polyclonal ESR1 Mutations in Primary Tumors, Metastatic Lesions, and Cell-Free DNA of Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peilu; Bahreini, Amir; Gyanchandani, Rekha; Lucas, Peter C; Hartmaier, Ryan J; Watters, Rebecca J; Jonnalagadda, Amruth R; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E; Berg, Aaron; Hamilton, Ronald L; Kurland, Brenda F; Weiss, Kurt R; Mathew, Aju; Leone, Jose Pablo; Davidson, Nancy E; Nikiforova, Marina N; Brufsky, Adam M; Ambros, Tadeu F; Stern, Andrew M; Puhalla, Shannon L; Lee, Adrian V; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2016-03-01

    Given the clinical relevance of ESR1 mutations as potential drivers of resistance to endocrine therapy, this study used sensitive detection methods to determine the frequency of ESR1 mutations in primary and metastatic breast cancer, and in cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Six ESR1 mutations (K303R, S463P, Y537C, Y537N, Y537S, D538G) were assessed by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), with lower limits of detection of 0.05% to 0.16%, in primary tumors (n = 43), bone (n = 12) and brain metastases (n = 38), and cfDNA (n = 29). Correlations between ESR1 mutations in metastatic lesions and single (1 patient) or serial blood draws (4 patients) were assessed. ESR1 mutations were detected for D538G (n = 13), Y537S (n = 3), and Y537C (n = 1), and not for K303R, S463P, or Y537N. Mutation rates were 7.0% (3/43 primary tumors), 9.1% (1/11 bone metastases), 12.5% (3/24 brain metastases), and 24.1% (7/29 cfDNA). Two patients showed polyclonal disease with more than one ESR1 mutation. Mutation allele frequencies were 0.07% to 0.2% in primary tumors, 1.4% in bone metastases, 34.3% to 44.9% in brain metastases, and 0.2% to 13.7% in cfDNA. In cases with both cfDNA and metastatic samples (n = 5), mutations were detected in both (n = 3) or in cfDNA only (n = 2). Treatment was associated with changes in ESR1 mutation detection and allele frequency. ESR1 mutations were detected at very low allele frequencies in some primary breast cancers, and at high allele frequency in metastases, suggesting that in some tumors rare ESR1-mutant clones are enriched by endocrine therapy. Further studies should address whether sensitive detection of ESR1 mutations in primary breast cancer and in serial blood draws may be predictive for development of resistant disease. See related commentary by Gu and Fuqua, p. 1034. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Aranda, Victoria; Bardelli, Alberto; Blanpain, Cedric; Bock, Christoph; Borowski, Christine; Caldas, Carlos; Califano, Andrea; Doherty, Michael; Elsner, Markus; Esteller, Manel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Korbel, Jan O; Lichter, Peter; Mason, Christopher E; Navin, Nicholas; Pe'er, Dana; Polyak, Kornelia; Roberts, Charles W M; Siu, Lillian; Snyder, Alexandra; Stower, Hannah; Swanton, Charles; Verhaak, Roel G W; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zuber, Johannes; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2015-08-01

    The extent of tumor heterogeneity is an emerging theme that researchers are only beginning to understand. How genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity affects tumor evolution and clinical progression is unknown. The precise nature of the environmental factors that influence this heterogeneity is also yet to be characterized. Nature Medicine, Nature Biotechnology and the Volkswagen Foundation organized a meeting focused on identifying the obstacles that need to be overcome to advance translational research in and tumor heterogeneity. Once these key questions were established, the attendees devised potential solutions. Their ideas are presented here.

  8. Toward understanding and exploiting tumor heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Ash A; Aranda, Victoria; Bardelli, Alberto; Blanpain, Cedric; Bock, Christoph; Borowski, Christine; Caldas, Carlos; Califano, Andrea; Doherty, Michael; Elsner, Markus; Esteller, Manel; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Korbel, Jan O; Lichter, Peter; Mason, Christopher E; Navin, Nicholas; Pe’er, Dana; Polyak, Kornelia; Roberts, Charles W M; Siu, Lillian; Snyder, Alexandra; Stower, Hannah; Swanton, Charles; Verhaak, Roel G W; Zenklusen, Jean C; Zuber, Johannes; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The extent of tumor heterogeneity is an emerging theme that researchers are only beginning to understand. How genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity affects tumor evolution and clinical progression is unknown. The precise nature of the environmental factors that influence this heterogeneity is also yet to be characterized. Nature Medicine, Nature Biotechnology and the Volkswagen Foundation organized a meeting focused on identifying the obstacles that need to be overcome to advance translational research in and tumor heterogeneity. Once these key questions were established, the attendees devised potential solutions. Their ideas are presented here. PMID:26248267

  9. [Focal myositis: An unknown disease].

    PubMed

    Gallay, L; Streichenberger, N; Benveniste, O; Allenbach, Y

    2017-10-01

    Focal myositis are inflammatory muscle diseases of unknown origin. At the opposite from the other idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, they are restricted to a single muscle or to a muscle group. They are not associated with extramuscular manifestations, and they have a good prognosis without any treatment. They are characterized by a localized swelling affecting mostly lower limbs. The pseudo-tumor can be painful, but is not associated with a muscle weakness. Creatine kinase level is normal. Muscle MRI shows an inflammation restricted to a muscle or a muscle group. Muscle biopsy and pathological analysis remain necessary for the diagnosis, showing inflammatory infiltrates composed by macrophages and lymphocytes without any specific distribution within the muscle. Focal overexpression of HLA-1 by the muscle fibers is frequently observed. The muscle biopsy permits to rule out differential diagnosis such a malignancy (sarcoma). Spontaneous remission occurs within weeks or months after the first symptoms, relapse is unusual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. 16. Photocopy of photograph (Photographer unknown, Date unknown) SUPPOSED OLDEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (Photographer unknown, Date unknown) SUPPOSED OLDEST VIEW OF MAIN AND EAST ELEVATIONS - Caleb Pusey House, 15 Race Street (Landingford Plantation), Upland, Delaware County, PA

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Variant III (EGFRvIII) Positivity in EGFR-Amplified Glioblastomas: Prognostic Role and Comparison between Primary and Recurrent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Felsberg, Jörg; Hentschel, Bettina; Kaulich, Kerstin; Gramatzki, Dorothee; Zacher, Angela; Malzkorn, Bastian; Kamp, Marcel; Sabel, Michael; Simon, Matthias; Westphal, Manfred; Schackert, Gabriele; Tonn, Jörg C; Pietsch, Torsten; von Deimling, Andreas; Loeffler, Markus; Reifenberger, Guido; Weller, Michael

    2017-11-15

    Purpose: Approximately 40% of all glioblastomas have amplified the EGFR gene, and about half of these tumors express the EGFRvIII variant. The prognostic role of EGFRvIII in EGFR -amplified glioblastoma patients and changes in EGFRvIII expression in recurrent versus primary glioblastomas remain controversial, but such data are highly relevant for EGFRvIII-targeted therapies. Experimental Design: EGFR -amplified glioblastomas from 106 patients were assessed for EGFRvIII positivity. Changes in EGFR amplification and EGFRvIII status from primary to recurrent glioblastomas were evaluated in 40 patients with EGFR -amplified tumors and 33 patients with EGFR -nonamplified tumors. EGFR single-nucleotide variants (SNV) were assessed in 27 patients. Data were correlated with outcome and validated in 150 glioblastoma patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. Results: Sixty of 106 EGFR -amplified glioblastomas were EGFRvIII-positive (56.6%). EGFRvIII positivity was not associated with different progression-free or overall survival. EGFRvIII status was unchanged at recurrence in 35 of 40 patients with EGFR -amplified primary tumors (87.5%). Four patients lost and one patient gained EGFRvIII positivity at recurrence. None of 33 EGFR- nonamplified glioblastomas acquired EGFR amplification or EGFRvIII at recurrence. EGFR SNVs were frequent in EGFR -amplified tumors, but were not linked to survival. Conclusions: EGFRvIII and EGFR SNVs are not prognostic in EGFR -amplified glioblastoma patients. EGFR amplification is retained in recurrent glioblastomas. Most EGFRvIII-positive glioblastomas maintain EGFRvIII positivity at recurrence. However, EGFRvIII expression may change in a subset of patients at recurrence, thus repeated biopsy with reassessment of EGFRvIII status is recommended for patients with recurrent glioblastoma to receive EGFRvIII-targeting agents. Clin Cancer Res; 23(22); 6846-55. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. [Metastatic tumors in the ovary, difficulties of histologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Tamás, Judit; Vereczkey, Ildikó; Tóth, Erika

    2015-09-01

    The ovary is a common site of metastases. Secondary tumors account for 3-40% of all ovarian malignancies. Most ovarian metastases arise from the colon, although tumors of the breast, stomach and endometrium are also common places of origin. Clinical and histological features of metastatic tumors frequently mimic primary ovarian malignancies, causing serious diagnostic problems for the surgical pathologist. However, differentiation between primary ovarian cancer and ovarian metastasis is important in order to prevent inappropriate management and suboptimal treatment. The distinction between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies is especially difficult in cases when the metastasis is diagnosed before the primary tumor. Frozen section is widely used in the intra-operative assessment of patients with ovarian tumors but it can be very difficult to distinguish certain types of primary ovarian tumors and metastases from other sites. We examined 152 cases of secondary ovarian neoplasm diagnosed at the National Institute of Oncology, Hungary from 2000 to 2014. Colorectal cancer was the most common primary tumor (58 cases), followed by breast (33 cases), endometrium (30 cases) and stomach cancer (13 cases). The differential diagnosis proved the most difficult in cases when endometrioid and mucinous tumors were present in the ovaries. Metastases of colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas may simulate benign or borderline cystadenomas too. In these cases the knowledge of the patient's history and immunohistochemical stains were helpful. In our study we discuss the diagnostic challenge of distinguishing these secondary ovarian tumors from primary ovarian neoplasms and the limits of the intraoperative frozen sections.

  13. Ajoene inhibits both primary tumor growth and metastasis of B16/BL6 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Noriega, Raquel; Farah, Carla; Abad, María-Jesús; Arsenak, Miriam; Apitz, Rafael

    2006-08-08

    Ajoene is an organosulphur compound derived from garlic with important effects on several membrane-associated processes such as platelet aggregation, as well as being cytotoxic for tumor cell lines in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ajoene on different cell types in vitro, as well as its inhibitory effects on both primary tumors and metastasis in a mouse model. We found ajoene to inhibit tumor cell growth in vitro, but also to inhibit strongly metastasis to lung in the B16/BL6 melanoma tumor model in C57BL/6 mice. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the anti-metastatic effect of ajoene. Ajoene also inhibited tumor-endothelial cell adhesion, as well as the in vivo TNF-alpha response to lipopolysaccharide. Possible mechanisms of its antitumoral activity are discussed in the light of these results.

  14. Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT Combined With Tumor Markers in the Evaluation of Ascites.

    PubMed

    Han, Na; Sun, Xun; Qin, Chunxia; Hassan Bakari, Khamis; Wu, Zhijian; Zhang, Yongxue; Lan, Xiaoli

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT combined with assessment of tumor markers in serum or ascites for the diagnosing and determining the prognosis of benign and malignant ascites. Patients with ascites of unknown cause who underwent evaluation with FDG PET/CT were included in this retrospective study. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) and levels of the tumor markers carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in serum and ascites were recorded. The diagnostic values of FDG PET/CT, CEA and CA-125 levels in serum or ascites, and the combination of imaging plus tumor marker assessment were evaluated. Factors that were predictive of survival were also analyzed. A total of 177 patients were included. Malignant ascites was eventually diagnosed in 104 patients, and benign ascites was diagnosed in the remaining 73 patients. With the use of FDG PET/CT, 44 patients (42.3%) were found to have primary tumors. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FDG PET/CT were 92.3%, 83.6%, and 88.7%, respectively. CA-125 levels in serum and ascites showed much better sensitivity than did CEA levels, but they showed significantly lower specificity. If the combination of tumor markers and FDG PET/CT was analyzed, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of tumor markers in serum were 96.6%, 78.1%, and 88.7%, and those of tumor markers in ascites were 97.7%, 80.0%, and 90.4%, respectively. Sex may be an important factor affecting survival time (hazard ratio, 0.471; p = 0.004), but age, CEA level, and FDG PET/CT findings could not predict survival. FDG PET/CT combined with assessment of tumor markers, especially CEA, increased the efficacy of diagnosis of ascites of unknown causes. Male sex conferred a poorer prognosis, whereas age, CEA level, and FDG uptake had no predictive significance in patients with malignant ascites.

  15. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  16. miR-16-5p Is a Stably-Expressed Housekeeping MicroRNA in Breast Cancer Tissues from Primary Tumors and from Metastatic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Rinnerthaler, Gabriel; Hackl, Hubert; Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Hamacher, Frank; Hufnagl, Clemens; Hauser-Kronberger, Cornelia; Zehentmayr, Franz; Fastner, Gerd; Sedlmayer, Felix; Mlineritsch, Brigitte; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For quantitative microRNA analyses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue, expression levels have to be normalized to endogenous controls. To investigate the most stably-expressed microRNAs in breast cancer and its surrounding tissue, we used tumor samples from primary tumors and from metastatic sites. MiRNA profiling using TaqMan® Array Human MicroRNA Cards, enabling quantification of 754 unique human miRNAs, was performed in FFPE specimens from 58 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Forty-two (72%) samples were collected from primary tumors and 16 (28%) from metastases. In a cross-platform analysis of a validation cohort of 32 FFPE samples from patients with early breast cancer genome-wide microRNA expression analysis using SurePrintG3 miRNA (8 × 60 K)® microarrays from Agilent® was performed. Eleven microRNAs could be detected in all samples analyzed. Based on NormFinder and geNorm stability values and the high correlation (rho ≥ 0.8) with the median of all measured microRNAs, miR-16-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-126-3p, and miR-222-3p are suitable single gene housekeeper candidates. In the cross-platform validation, 29 human microRNAs were strongly expressed (mean log2-intensity > 10) and 21 of these microRNAs including miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p were also stably expressed (CV < 5%). Thus, miR-16-5p and miR-29a-3p are both strong housekeeper candidates. Their Normfinder stability values calculated across the primary tumor and metastases subgroup indicate that miR-29a-3p can be considered as the strongest housekeeper in a cohort with mainly samples from primary tumors, whereas miR-16-5p might perform better in a metastatic sample enriched cohort. PMID:26821018

  17. Hippocampus-sparing radiotherapy using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to the primary brain tumor: the result of dosimetric study and neurocognitive function assessment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Su; Wee, Chan Woo; Seok, Jin-Yong; Hong, Joo Wan; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Kim, Jae-Sung; Kim, Chae-Yong; Park, Young Ho; Kim, Yu Jung; Kim, In Ah

    2018-02-20

    We hypothesized that hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy via volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) could preserve the neurocognitive function (NCF) of patients with primary brain tumors treated with radiotherapy. We reviewed data from patients with primary brain tumors who underwent hippocampal-sparing brain radiotherapy via VMAT between February 2014 and December 2015. The optimization criteria for the contralateral hippocampus was a maximum dose (D max ) of less than 17 Gy. For NCF evaluations, the Seoul Verbal Learning Test for total recall, delayed recall, and recognition (SVLT-TR, DR, and Recognition) was performed at baseline and at seven months after radiotherapy. A total of 26 patients underwent NCF testing seven months after radiotherapy. Their median age was 49.5 years (range 26-77 years), and 14 (53.8%) had grade III/IV tumors. The median D max to the contralateral hippocampus was 16.4 Gy (range 3.5-63.4). The median mean dose to the contralateral hippocampus, expressed as equivalent to a 2-Gy dose (EQD 2/2 ), was 7.4 Gy 2 (0.7-13.1). The mean relative changes in SVLT-TR, SVLT-DR, and SVLT-Recognition at seven months compared to the baseline were - 7.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], - 19.6% to 4.2%), - 9.2% (95% CI, - 25.4% to 7.0%), and - 3.4% (- 12.7% to 5.8%), respectively. Two patients (7.7%) showed deteriorated NCF in the SVLT-TR and SVLT-DR, and three (11.5%) in the SVLT-Recognition. The mean dose of the left hippocampus and bilateral hippocampi were significantly higher in patients showing deterioration of the SVLT-TR and SVLT-Recognition than in those without deterioration. The contralateral hippocampus could be effectively spared in patients with primary brain tumor via VMAT to preserve the verbal memory function. Further investigation is needed to identify those patients who will most benefit from hippocampal-sparing radiotherapy of the primary brain tumor.

  18. Do External or Internal Factors Lead to Tumor Development? It Is Still Unknown.

    PubMed

    Manskikh, V N

    2017-01-01

    Arguments supporting the "bad luck" hypothesis presented by C. Tomasetti and B. Vogelstein ((2015) Science, 347, 78-81) and A. V. Lichtenstein ((2017) Biochemistry (Moscow), 82, 75-80) are critically discussed. Those arguments are not sufficient for recognition of the "bad luck" hypothesis and the leading role of internal factors in spontaneous tumor development.

  19. Primary (de novo) dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the extremities: a multi-institution Tohoku Musculoskeletal Tumor Society study of 18 cases in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kawai, Akira; Ogose, Akira; Nishida, Jun; Yanagisawa, Michiro; Morita, Tetsuro; Tajino, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Dedifferentiated liposarcomas usually occur in the retroperitoneal space and relatively rarely in the extremities. We identified 18 patients with primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the extremities from the files of Tohoku Musculoskeletal Tumor Society and analyzed demographics, histologic findings, treatments and prognostic factors. The average follow-up period was 58 months. The subjects were 12 men and 6 women with a mean age of 65 years. All tumors were in the thigh. Nine patients noticed a rapid enlargement of the long-standing tumor. Histologic subtypes of the dedifferentiated area were undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (n = 12), osteosarcoma (n = 2), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 2), leiomyosarcoma (n = 1) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n = 1). In the patient with rhabdomyosarcoma-like dedifferentiated area, extensive necrosis was observed after the preoperative chemotherapy. One patient who underwent marginal excision developed a local recurrence, but inadequate surgical margin was not associated with a risk of local recurrence. Three patients had lung metastasis at initial presentation, and four other patients developed lung metastases during the follow-up period. The overall survival rate was 61.1% at 5 years. On univariate analyses, large size of the dedifferentiated area (>8 cm), high MIB-1-labeling index (>30%) for the dedifferentiated area and lung metastasis at initial presentation were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma in the extremities predominantly occurred in the thigh and a rapid enlargement of long-standing tumors was a characteristic symptom. Although the local behavior of these tumors was less aggressive than that of retroperitoneal dedifferentiated liposarcomas, they had a relatively high metastatic potential.

  20. Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cells Promoting Tumor Invasion and Metastasis: Existing Theories

    PubMed Central

    Man, Yan-gao; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Mason, Jeffrey; Avital, Itzhak; Bilchik, Anton; Bruecher, Bjoern; Protic, Mladjan; Nissan, Aviram; Izadjoo, Mina; Zhang, Xichen; Jewett, Anahid

    2013-01-01

    It is a commonly held belief that infiltration of immune cells into tumor tissues and direct physical contact between tumor cells and infiltrated immune cells is associated with physical destructions of the tumor cells, reduction of the tumor burden, and improved clinical prognosis. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that aberrant infiltration of immune cells into tumor or normal tissues may promote tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Neither the primary reason for these contradictory observations, nor the mechanism for the reported diverse impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells has been elucidated, making it difficult to judge the clinical implications of infiltration of immune cells within tumor tissues. This mini-review presents several existing hypotheses and models that favor the promoting impact of tumor-infiltrating immune cells on tumor invasion and metastasis, and also analyzes their strength and weakness. PMID:23386907

  1. Location of Primary Tumor and Benefit From Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies in Patients With RAS and BRAF Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moretto, Roberto; Cremolini, Chiara; Rossini, Daniele; Pietrantonio, Filippo; Battaglin, Francesca; Mennitto, Alessia; Bergamo, Francesca; Loupakis, Fotios; Marmorino, Federica; Berenato, Rosa; Marsico, Valentina Angela; Caporale, Marta; Antoniotti, Carlotta; Masi, Gianluca; Salvatore, Lisa; Borelli, Beatrice; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lonardi, Sara; De Braud, Filippo; Falcone, Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Right- and left-sided colorectal cancers (CRCs) differ in clinical and molecular characteristics. Some retrospective analyses suggested that patients with right-sided tumors derive less benefit from anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies; however, molecular selection in those studies was not extensive. Patients with RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic CRC (mCRC) who were treated with single-agent anti-EGFRs or with cetuximab-irinotecan (if refractory to previous irinotecan) were included in the study. Differences in outcome between patients with right- and left-sided tumors were investigated. Of 75 patients, 14 and 61 had right- and left-sided tumors, respectively. None of the right-sided tumors responded according to RECIST, compared with 24 left-sided tumors (overall response rate: 0% vs. 41%; p = .0032), and only 2 patients with right-sided tumors (15%) versus 47 patients with left-sided tumors (80%) achieved disease control (p < .0001). The median duration of progression-free survival was 2.3 and 6.6 months in patients with right-sided and left-sided tumors, respectively (hazard ratio: 3.97; 95% confidence interval: 2.09-7.53; p < .0001). Patients with right-sided RAS and BRAF wild-type mCRC seemed to derive no benefit from single-agent anti-EGFRs. Right- and left-sided colorectal tumors have peculiar epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics, distinct gene expression profiles and genetic alterations, and different prognoses. This study assessed the potential predictive impact of primary tumor site with regard to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody treatment in patients with RAS and BRAF wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The results demonstrated the lack of activity of anti-EGFRs in RAS and BRAF wild-type, right-sided tumors, thus suggesting a potential role for primary tumor location in driving treatment choices. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of bone metastases: From primary pain palliation to local tumor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napoli, A.; Leonardi, A.; Andrani, F.; Boni, F.; Anzidei, M.; Catalano, C.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of MRgFUS in primary pain palliation of painful bone metastases and in local tumor control. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 26 consecutive patients (female/male 12/14; age: 64.7±7.5yrs) with painful bone metastases. Before and 3 months after MRgFUS treatment pain severity and pain interference scores were assessed according to Brief Pain Inventory-Quality of Life (BPI-QoL) criteria and patients underwent both CT and MRI. Local tumor control was evaluated according to lesion size, density and perfusion at CT, dynamic contrast enhancement at MRI (Discovery 750HD, GE; Gd-Bopta, Bracco) and metabolic activity at PET or scintigraphy. Patients were classified as responders or non-responders. Results: No treatment-related adverse events were recorded during the study. As statistically significant difference between baseline and follow-up values for both pain severity and pain interference scores was observed (p<0.05). Increased bone density was observed in 9/26 (34.6%) patients. Non-Perfused Volume values ranged between 20% and 92%. There was no difference in NPV values between responders and non-responders (46.7±24.2% [25 - 90 %] vs. 45±24.9% [20 - 93 %]; p=0.7). In 6 patients (5 prostate and 1 breast primary cancer) there was nearly absence of metabolic activity after treatment (mean SUV=1.2). Conclusion: MRgFUS can be safely and effectively used as the primary treatment for pain palliation in patients with painful bone metastases; moreover our experience demonstrated also a potential role for the MRgFUS in local tumor control.

  3. Collision tumor of primary laryngeal mucosal melanoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma with IL-17A and CD70 gene over-expression.

    PubMed

    Sirikanjanapong, Sasis; Lanson, Biana; Amin, Milan; Martiniuk, Frank; Kamino, Hideko; Wang, Beverly Y

    2010-12-01

    The most common primary malignancy of the larynx is the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The primary malignant melanoma is quite rare in this location. Less than 60 cases of laryngeal melanomas have been reported to date. To our knowledge, collision primary malignant melanoma and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the vocal cords has not been reported. We report a 53-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with a collision tumor of laryngeal melanoma and invasive SCC. Multiple Th17 pathway related genes including CTLA-4, IL-17A-F, PLZF, FoxP3, RorγT, CD27, and CD70 were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) in this case. Both IL-17A and CD70 genes were detected in this case of collision tumor. The results may define useful biomarkers for early diagnosis of mucosal melanoma and open an immunotherapeutic field for clinical management with the potential benefit from the immunomodulators that enhance both genes.

  4. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver tumors — the Mayo Clinic experience

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Johnson, Jedediah E.; Mou, Benjamin; Barney, Brandon M.; Nelson, Kathryn E.; Mayo, Charles S.; Haddock, Michael G.; Hallemeier, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To better understand the efficacy of liver SBRT we reviewed our prospectively collected institutional SBRT database. Methods Between May 2008 and March 2013, 80 patients with 104 liver lesions received SBRT. The Kaplan-Meier method estimated local control (LC), overall survival (OS). Cox proportional hazards regression models identified factors associated with LC and OS. Results The median follow-up for living patients was 38.6 months. Patients had primary (n=17) or metastatic (n=63) tumors. The median tumor size was 2.7 cm (range, 0.6-14.0). The 1 and 4 year rates of LC were 89.4% and 88%, respectively. Colorectal (CRC) metastasis was associated with lower rates of LC (p=0.013). OS at 1 and 4 years was 78% and 25%, respectively. Patients with CRC metastases had higher rates of OS (p=0.03). The occurrence of severe acute and late toxicity was 3.8% and 6.3%, respectively. Conclusions SBRT should be studied in prospective clinical trials compared with other liver-directed treatment modalities. PMID:29296438

  5. A Case of Recurrent Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas with Involvement of the Spleen and Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Eun; Park, Nam Sook; Chun, Jae Min; Park, Nam Whan; Yang, Young Joon; Yun, Gak Won; Lee, Hyo Jin; Yun, Hwan Jung; Jo, Deog Yeon; Song, Kyu Sang

    2006-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare primary pancreatic tumor of an unknown etiology that is usually diagnosed in adolescent girls and young women. Most SPTPs are considered to be benign and only rarely metastasize. We report here on a 27-year old woman with recurrent SPTP with involvement of both the spleen and left kidney at the time of the initial diagnosis, and with aggressive behavior. In July 1995, she was admitted with abdominal discomfort and mass. She underwent exploratory laparotomy with distal pancrea tectomy, left nephrectomy and splenectomy, and was diagnosed with SPTP with invasion to both the spleen and left kidney. In June 2001, she again presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed as having recurrence of the tumor. She underwent mass excision and omentectomy. Then she was lost to follow-up. In November 2005, she presented once again with an abdominal mass and was diagnosed with recurred SPTP, which formed a huge intraperitoneal mass with peritoneal seeding and the tumor showed multiple metastases in the liver. She is currently being treated conservatively. PMID:19771270

  6. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  7. Incidence of CNS tumors in Appalachian children

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Luo, Alice; Durbin, Eric B.; Lycan, Ellen; Tucker, Thomas; Chen, Quan; Horbinski, Craig; Villano, John L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Determine whether the risk of astrocytomas in Appalachian children is higher than the national average. Methods We compared the incidence of pediatric brain tumors in Appalachia versus non-Appalachia regions, covering years 2000–2011. The North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collects population-based data from 55 cancer registries throughout United States and Canada. All invasive primary (i.e. non-metastatic tumors), with age at diagnosis 0–19 years old, were included. Nearly 27,000 and 2,200 central nervous system (CNS) tumors from non-Appalachia and Appalachia, respectively comprise the cohorts. Age-adjusted incidence rates of each main brain tumor subtype were compared. Results The incidence rate of pediatric CNS tumors was 8% higher in Appalachia, 3.31 [95% CI, 3.17–3.45] versus non–Appalachia, 3.06, [95% CI, 3.02–3.09] for the years 2001–2011, all rates are per 100,000 population. Astrocytomas accounted for the majority of this difference, with the rate being 16% higher in Appalachian children, 1.77, [95% CI, 1.67–1.87] versus non-Appalachian children, 1.52, [95% CI, 1.50–1.55]. Among astrocytomas, World Health Organization (WHO) grade I astrocytomas were 41% higher in Appalachia, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.56–0.70] versus non-Appalachia 0.44 [95% CI, 0.43–0.46] for the years 2004–2011. Conclusions and Relevance This is the first study to demonstrate that Appalachian children are at greater risk of CNS neoplasms, and that much of this difference is in WHO grade I astrocytomas, 41% more common. The cause of this increased incidence is unknown and we discuss the importance of this in relation to genetic and environmental findings in Appalachia. PMID:28285334

  8. Oncogenic transformation induced by cell-free nucleic acids circulating in plasma (genometastasis) remains after the surgical resection of the primary tumor: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    García-Olmo, Damián; García-Olmo, Dolores C; Domínguez-Berzosa, Carolina; Guadalajara, Hector; Vega, Luz; García-Arranz, Mariano

    2012-06-01

    The oncogenic transformation by cell-free nucleic acids circulating in plasma has been named as genometastasis. The feasibility of this phenomenon has been demonstrated and now it is necessary to value the impact of this phenomenon and to determine what conditions could promote or inhibit it. The goal of this study was to examine the transforming ability of plasma from colorectal cancer patients in a long-term follow-up after the surgical excision of the primary tumor, and to try correlate it with the clinical picture of patients. Blood samples were taken from eight patients with K-ras-mutated colorectal tumors, who were under surgical primary tumor resection at least 2 years before. Plasma was isolated by two centrifugations and added to cultures of NIH-3T3 cells and human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). In two cases, plasma was separated from cells by a membrane with 0.4-μm pores. The presence of mutated and non-mutated human K-ras sequences was tested by real-time PCR in cultured cells. After 30 days, cells were subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice in order to test their ability to generate tumors. In four of the eight patients analyzed after surgery, tumor DNA was detected in plasma. Plasmas from three of them were able to oncogenically transform NIH-3T3 cells in culture and, when those cells were injected in mice, carcinomas were generated. After a 2-year follow-up, metastases were found in two of the three patients whose plasmas were able to transform cells, and in two of the four in whom plasma tumor DNA was not detected. Thus, after a mean follow-up of 29.5 months, only four of 13 patients (30.8%) were alive and disease-free. Primary tumor resection does not assure a complete clean of blood of circulating oncogenes, in spite of a disease-free clinical picture. Moreover, in some cases plasma kept their oncogenic capabilities. The value of these findings as prognosis factor remains unclear and needs further investigations.

  9. Differential Motion Between Mediastinal Lymph Nodes and Primary Tumor in Radically Irradiated Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schaake, Eva E.; Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam; Rossi, Maddalena M.G.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective: In patients with locally advanced lung cancer, planning target volume margins for mediastinal lymph nodes and tumor after a correction protocol based on bony anatomy registration typically range from 1 to 1.5 cm. Detailed information about lymph node motion variability and differential motion with the primary tumor, however, is lacking from large series. In this study, lymph node and tumor position variability were analyzed in detail and correlated to the main carina to evaluate possible margin reduction. Methods and Materials: Small gold fiducial markers (0.35 × 5 mm) were placed in the mediastinal lymph nodes of 51 patients with non-small cell lung cancermore » during routine diagnostic esophageal or bronchial endoscopic ultrasonography. Four-dimensional (4D) planning computed tomographic (CT) and daily 4D cone beam (CB) CT scans were acquired before and during radical radiation therapy (66 Gy in 24 fractions). Each CBCT was registered in 3-dimensions (bony anatomy) and 4D (tumor, marker, and carina) to the planning CT scan. Subsequently, systematic and random residual misalignments of the time-averaged lymph node and tumor position relative to the bony anatomy and carina were determined. Additionally, tumor and lymph node respiratory amplitude variability was quantified. Finally, required margins were quantified by use of a recipe for dual targets. Results: Relative to the bony anatomy, systematic and random errors ranged from 0.16 to 0.32 cm for the markers and from 0.15 to 0.33 cm for the tumor, but despite similar ranges there was limited correlation (0.17-0.71) owing to differential motion. A large variability in lymph node amplitude between patients was observed, with an average motion of 0.56 cm in the cranial-caudal direction. Margins could be reduced by 10% (left-right), 27% (cranial-caudal), and 10% (anteroposterior) for the lymph nodes and −2%, 15%, and 7% for the tumor if an online carina registration protocol replaced

  10. Identification and survival outcomes of a cohort of patients with cancer of unknown primary in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong S; Hannouf, Malek B; Sarma, Sisira; Rodrigues, George B; Rogan, Peter K; Mahmud, Salaheddin M; Winquist, Eric; Brackstone, Muriel; Zaric, Gregory S

    2015-11-01

    Cancer of unknown primary origin (CUP) is defined by the presence of pathologically identified metastatic disease without clinical or radiological evidence of a primary tumour. Our objective was to identify incident cases of CUP in Ontario, Canada, and determine the influence of histology and sites of metastases on overall survival (OS). We used the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) and the Same-Day Surgery and Discharge Abstract Database (SDS/DAD) to identify patients diagnosed with CUP in Ontario between 1 January 2000, and 31 December 2005. Patient diagnostic information, including histology and survival data, was obtained from the OCR. We cross-validated CUP diagnosis and obtained additional information about metastasis through data linkage with the SDS/DAD database. OS was assessed using Cox regression models adjusting for histology and sites of metastases. We identified 3564 patients diagnosed with CUP. Patients without histologically confirmed disease (n = 1821) had a one-year OS of 10.9%, whereas patients with confirmed histology (n = 1743) had a one-year OS of 15.6%. The most common metastatic sites were in the respiratory or digestive systems (n = 1603), and the most common histology was adenocarcinoma (n = 939). Three-year survival rates were 3.5%, 5.3%, 41.6% and 3.6% among adenocarcinoma, unspecified carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated histology, respectively. Three-year survival rates were 40%, 2.4%, 8.0% and 4.6% among patients with metastases localised to lymph nodes, the respiratory or digestive systems, other specified sites, and unspecified sites, respectively. CUP patients in Ontario have a poor prognosis. Some subgroups may have better survival rates, such as patients with metastases localised to lymph nodes and patients with squamous cell histology.

  11. Association of functional magnetic resonance imaging indices with postoperative language outcomes in patients with primary brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Bornali; Penwarden, Amy; Wood, Joel M; Gallagher, Thomas A; Andreoli, Matthew J; Voss, Jed; Meier, Timothy; Nair, Veena A; Kuo, John S; Field, Aaron S; Moritz, Chad; Meyerand, M Elizabeth; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) has the potential to be a useful presurgical planning tool to treat patients with primary brain tumor. In this study the authors retrospectively explored relationships between language-related postoperative outcomes in such patients and multiple factors, including measures estimated from task fMRI maps (proximity of lesion to functional activation area, or lesion-to-activation distance [LAD], and activation-based language lateralization, or lateralization index [LI]) used in the clinical setting for presurgical planning, as well as other factors such as patient age, patient sex, tumor grade, and tumor volume. Patient information was drawn from a database of patients with brain tumors who had undergone preoperative fMRI-based language mapping of the Broca and Wernicke areas. Patients had performed a battery of tasks, including word-generation tasks and a text-versus-symbols reading task, as part of a clinical fMRI protocol. Individually thresholded task fMRI activation maps had been provided for use in the clinical setting. These clinical imaging maps were used to retrospectively estimate LAD and LI for the Broca and Wernicke areas. There was a relationship between postoperative language deficits and the proximity between tumor and Broca area activation (the LAD estimate), where shorter LADs were related to the presence of postoperative aphasia. Stratification by tumor location further showed that for posterior tumors within the temporal and parietal lobes, more bilaterally oriented Broca area activation (LI estimate close to 0) and a shorter Wernicke area LAD were associated with increased postoperative aphasia. Furthermore, decreasing LAD was related to decreasing LI for both Broca and Wernicke areas. Preoperative deficits were related to increasing patient age and a shorter Wernicke area LAD. Overall, LAD and LI, as determined using fMRI in the context of these paradigms, may be useful indicators of postsurgical outcomes. Whereas tumor

  12. Inactivation of MSH3 by promoter methylation correlates with primary tumor stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Haifeng; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Zhen; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangwu; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the MutS homolog human 3 (MSH3) gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methylation-specific PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MSH3 in 54 cases of NPC tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NNE) tissues. The association between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, and the mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors was analyzed. The promoter methylation of MSH3 was detected in 50% (27/54) of the primary tumors, but not in the 16 NNE tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in the 54 cases of human NPC as compared to the 16 NNE tissues (P<0.05). The MSH3-methylated cases exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels than the unmethylated cases (P<0.05). The MSH3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly associated with the variable T stage (P<0.05); however, they did not correlate with the age and sex of the patients, or with the N stage, TNM classification or histopathological subtype (P>0.05). On the whole, MSH3 was frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and its mRNA and protein expression correlated with the primary tumor stage in NPC. PMID:28656302

  13. Primary Pulmonary Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor in a 67-year-old Man

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Sang; In, Kwang Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Cho, Kyung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a branch of neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), which is very rare soft tissue sarcoma. We report a case of EES/PNET arising is the lung of a 67-yr-old man. Computed tomography, bone scintigraphy, and positron emission tomography confirmed the mass to have a primary pulmonary origin. The mass showed positive reactivity in the Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain and MIC-2 immunoreactivity in immunohistochemical stain. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed, which revealed an EWSR1 (Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1) 22q12 rearrangement. The diagnosis was confirmed both pathologically and genetically. The mass lesion was resected, and the patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:17923745

  14. Pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment in primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Junichi; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Sano, Fumiho; Hayashi, Masataro; Nishimoto, Arata; Hamano, Kimikazu

    2016-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between the presence of pulmonary emphysema and tumor microenvironment and their significance for the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer. The subjects included 48 patients with completely resected and pathologically confirmed stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Quantitative computed tomography was used to diagnose pulmonary emphysema, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression status in the intratumoral stromal cells as well as the microvessel density (MVD). Positive MMP-9 staining in the intratumoral stromal cells was confirmed in 17 (35%) of the 48 tumors. These 17 tumors were associated with a high MVD, frequent lymphovascular invasion, a high proliferative activity, and high postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The majority of the tumors (13 of 17) arose in patients with pulmonary emphysema (P = 0.02). Lung cancers arising from pulmonary emphysema were also associated with a high MVD, proliferative activity, and postoperative recurrence rate (all, P < 0.05). The MMP-9 expression in intratumoral stromal cells is associated with the clinicopathologic aggressiveness of lung cancer and is predominantly identified in tumors arising in emphysematous lungs. Further studies regarding the biological links between the intratumoral and extratumoral microenvironment will help to explain why lung cancers originating in emphysematous lung tissues are associated with a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "A novel in vivo model for the study of human breast cancer metastasis using primary breast tumor-initiating cells from patient biopsies"

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of breast cancer metastasis depends on the use of established breast cancer cell lines that do not accurately represent the heterogeneity and complexity of human breast tumors. A tumor model was developed using primary breast tumor-initiating cells isolated from patient core biopsies that would more accurately reflect human breast cancer metastasis. Methods Tumorspheres were isolated under serum-free culture conditions from core biopsies collected from five patients with clinical diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Isolated tumorspheres were transplanted into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice to establish tumorigenicity in vivo. Tumors and metastatic lesions were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin (H+E) staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results Tumorspheres were successfully isolated from all patient core biopsies, independent of the estrogen receptor α (ERα)/progesterone receptor (PR)/Her2/neu status or tumor grade. Each tumorsphere was estimated to contain 50-100 cells. Transplantation of 50 tumorspheres (1-5 × 103 cells) in combination with Matrigel into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice resulted in small, palpable tumors that were sustained up to 12 months post-injection. Tumors were serially transplanted three times by re-isolation of tumorspheres from the tumors and injection into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. At 3 months post-injection, micrometastases to the lung, liver, kidneys, brain and femur were detected by measuring content of human chromosome 17. Visible macrometastases were detected in the lung, liver and kidneys by 6 months post-injection. Primary tumors variably expressed cytokeratins, Her2/neu, cytoplasmic E-cadherin, nuclear β catenin and fibronectin but were negative for ERα and vimentin. In lung and liver metastases, variable redistribution of E-cadherin and β catenin to the membrane of tumor cells was observed. ERα was re-expressed in lung metastatic cells in two of five samples. Conclusions

  16. M-HIFU Inhibits Tumor Growth, Suppresses STAT3 Activity and Enhances Tumor Specific Immunity in a Transplant Tumor Model of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Yuan, Fang; Liang, Meihua; Lo, Hui-Wen; Shinohara, Mari L.; Robertson, Cary; Zhong, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Objective In this study, we explored the use of mechanical high intensity focused ultrasound (M-HIFU) as a neo-adjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection of the primary tumor. We also investigated the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in M-HIFU elicited anti-tumor immune response using a transplant tumor model of prostate cancer. Methods RM-9, a mouse prostate cancer cell line with constitutively activated STAT3, was inoculated subcutaneously in C57BL/6J mice. The tumor-bearing mice (with a maximum tumor diameter of 5∼6 mm) were treated by M-HIFU or sham exposure two days before surgical resection of the primary tumor. Following recovery, if no tumor recurrence was observed in 30 days, tumor rechallenge was performed. The growth of the rechallenged tumor, survival rate and anti-tumor immune response of the animal were evaluated. Results No tumor recurrence and distant metastasis were observed in both treatment groups employing M-HIFU + surgery and surgery alone. However, compared to surgery alone, M-HIFU combined with surgery were found to significantly inhibit the growth of rechallenged tumors, down-regulate intra-tumoral STAT3 activities, increase cytotoxic T cells in spleens and tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs), and improve the host survival. Furthermore, M-HIFU combined with surgery was found to significantly decrease the level of immunosuppression with concomitantly increased number and activities of dendritic cells, compared to surgery alone. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that M-HIFU can inhibit STAT3 activities, and when combined synergistically with surgery, may provide a novel and promising strategy for the treatment of prostate cancers. PMID:22911830

  17. 396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS I; DRG. NO. 68 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER-E3; GENERAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 47 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS II; DRG. NO. 69 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; GENERAL PLAN; TOWER E-9; DRG. NO. 59 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Brain Tumors: The Influence of Tumor Type and Routine MR Imaging Characteristics at BOLD Functional MR Imaging in the Primary Motor Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Fraga de Abreu, Vitor Hugo; Peck, Kyung K.; Petrovich-Brennan, Nicole M.; Woo, Kaitlin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of histologic features and anatomic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics of brain tumors on the functional MR imaging signal in the primary motor cortex (PMC), as false-negative blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional MR imaging activation can limit the accurate localization of eloquent cortices. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent was waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. It comprised 63 patients referred between 2006 and 2014 for preoperative functional MR imaging localization of the Rolandic cortex. The patients had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (n = 20), metastasis (n = 21), or meningioma (n = 22). The volumes of functional MR imaging activation were measured during performance of a bilateral hand motor task. Ratios of functional MR imaging activation were normalized to PMC volume. Statistical analysis was performed for the following: (a) differences between hemispheres within each histologic tumor type (paired Wilcoxon test), (b) differences across tumor types (Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher tests), (c) pairwise tests between tumor types (Mann-Whitney U test), (d) relationships between fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) data and enhancement volume with activation (Spearman rank correlation coefficient), and (e) differences in activation volumes by tumor location (Mann-Whitney U test). Results A significant interhemispheric difference was found between the activation volumes in GBMs (mean, 511.43 voxels ± 307.73 [standard deviation] and 330.78 voxels ± 278.95; P < .01) but not in metastases (504.68 voxels ± 220.98 and 460.22 voxels ± 276.83; P = .15) or meningiomas (424.07 voxels ± 247.58 and 415.18 voxels ± 222.36; P = .85). GBMs showed significantly lower activation ratios (median, 0.49; range, 0.04–1.15) than metastases (median, 0.79; range, 0.28–1.66; P = .043) and meningiomas (median, 0.91; range, 0.52–2.05; P

  2. Concurrent primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma and clear cell renal cell carcinoma in the horseshoe kidney: report of a rare case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ke; You, Qihan; Zhao, Ming; Yao, Hongtian; Xiang, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    Primary carcinoid tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the horseshoe kidney is exceptionally rare and only 4 such cases have been reported in the world literature to date. The simultaneous occurrence of different subtypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) or RCC coexistence with non-RCC neoplasms from the same kidney is unusual and infrequently reported. Herein we report a case of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma, concurrent with a clear cell RCC in the horseshoe kidney of a 37-year-old man. Histologically, both the carcinoid tumor and clear cell RCC demonstrated the characteristic morphology in their classic forms. In addition to the carcinoid tumor, the mature teratoma consisted of variably sized, large cystic spaces lined by cytologically bland mucinous columnar epithelium, pseudostratified columnar epithelium, ciliated epithelium and mature smooth muscle fibers were also identified within the cystic wall. Furthermore, foci of round, small nodules composed of mature prostatic acinus were noted in the teratoma which was confirmed by exhibiting strong immunoreactivity for prostate specific antigen. The present case serves to expand the histologic component that may be encountered in the mature terotoma of the kidney and further broadens the spectrum of primary tumors occurring in the horseshoe kidney.

  3. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  4. Histology-Stratified Tumor Control and Patient Survival After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Pineal Region Tumors: A Report From the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation.

    PubMed

    Iorio-Morin, Christian; Kano, Hideyuki; Huang, Marshall; Lunsford, L Dade; Simonová, Gabriela; Liscak, Roman; Cohen-Inbar, Or; Sheehan, Jason; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Mathieu, David

    2017-11-01

    Pineal region tumors represent a rare and histologically diverse group of lesions. Few studies are available to guide management and the outcomes after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Patients who underwent SRS for a pineal region tumor and for whom at least 6 months of imaging follow-up was available were retrospectively assessed in 5 centers. Data were collected from the medical record and histology level analyses were performed, including actuarial tumor control and survival analyses. A total of 70 patients were treated between 1989 and 2014 with a median follow-up of 47 months. Diagnoses were pineocytoma (37%), pineoblastoma (19%), pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation (10%), papillary tumor of the pineal region (9%), germinoma (7%), teratoma (3%), embryonal carcinoma (1%), and unknown (14%). Median prescription dose was 15 Gy at the 50% isodose line. Actuarial local control and survival rates were 81% and 76% at 20 years for pineocytoma, 50% and 56% at 5 years for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, 27% and 48% at 5 years for pineoblastoma, 33% and 100% at 5 years for papillary tumor of the pineal region, 80% and 80% at 20 years for germinoma, and 61% and 67% at 5 years for tumors of unknown histology. New focal neurological deficit, Parinaud syndrome, and hydrocephalus occurred in 9%, 7%, and 3% of cases, respectively. SRS is a safe modality for the management of pineal region tumors. Its specific role is highly dependent on tumor histology. As such, all efforts should be made to obtain a reliable histologic diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Fefian; Liu, Hong; Howard, Eric W.; Bullen, Liz C.; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is being developed as a treatment modality for metastatic cancer which can destroy primary tumors and induce effective systemic anti-tumor responses by using a targeted treatment approach in conjunction with the use of a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC). In this study, Non-invasive Laser Immunotherapy (NLIT) was used as the primary treatment mode. We incorporated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the treatment regimen to boost the tumor-killing effect of LIT. SWNTs and GC were conjugated to create a completely novel, immunologically modified carbon nanotube (SWNT-GC). To determine the efficacy of different laser irradiation durations, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, a series of experiments were performed. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a highly aggressive metastatic cancer cell line. Half of the treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 minutes survived without primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 minutes had no survivors. Thus, Laser+SWNT-GC treatment with 10 minutes of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  6. Colorectal breast carcinoma metastasis diagnosed as an obstructive colonic primary tumor. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Théraux, J; Bretagnol, F; Guedj, N; Cazals-Hatem, D; Panis, Y

    2009-12-01

    Common sites of colorectal breast carcinoma metastasis are bones, lungs, the central nervous system and the liver. Metastases in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are rare and especially involve the stomach rather than the colon. Clinical or radiological features usually cannot differentiate them from a primary colorectal tumor, resulting in inappropriate treatment. In some cases, this lesion suggests multifocal spread of breast cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Colorectal breast cancer metastasis is a rare finding and there is no consensus on the management of these lesions. The present case report describes a 69-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer presenting as an obstructive tumor of the transverse colon.

  7. 400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER E-6 TO E-23; TYPICAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 52 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Detailed longitudinal sampling of glioma stem cells in situ reveals Chr7 gain and Chr10 loss as repeated events in primary tumor formation and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Baysan, Mehmet; Woolard, Kevin; Cam, Margaret C; Zhang, Wei; Song, Hua; Kotliarova, Svetlana; Balamatsias, Demosthenes; Linkous, Amanda; Ahn, Susie; Walling, Jennifer; Belova, Galina I; Fine, Howard A

    2017-11-15

    Intratumoral heterogeneity at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, and morphologic levels is a commonly observed phenomenon in many aggressive cancer types. Clonal evolution during tumor formation and in response to therapeutic intervention can be predicted utilizing reverse engineering approaches on detailed genomic snapshots of heterogeneous patient tumor samples. In this study, we developed an extensive dataset for a GBM case via the generation of polyclonal and monoclonal glioma stem cell lines from initial diagnosis, and from multiple sections of distant tumor locations of the deceased patient's brain following tumor recurrence. Our analyses revealed the tissue-wide expansion of a new clone in the recurrent tumor and chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss as repeated genomic events in primary and recurrent disease. Moreover, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss produced similar alterations in mRNA expression profiles in primary and recurrent tumors despite possessing other highly heterogeneous and divergent genomic alterations between the tumors. We identified ETV1 and CDK6 as putative candidate genes, and NFKB (complex), IL1B, IL6, Akt and VEGF as potential signaling regulators, as potentially central downstream effectors of chr7 gain and chr10 loss. Finally, the differences caused by the transcriptomic shift following gain of chromosome 7 and loss of chromosome 10 were consistent with those generally seen in GBM samples compared to normal brain in large-scale patient-tumor data sets. © 2017 UICC.

  9. HER2-specific T cells target primary glioblastoma stem cells and induce regression of autologous experimental tumors.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nabil; Salsman, Vita S; Kew, Yvonne; Shaffer, Donald; Powell, Suzanne; Zhang, Yi J; Grossman, Robert G; Heslop, Helen E; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2010-01-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive human primary brain tumor and is currently incurable. Immunotherapies have the potential to target GBM stem cells, which are resistant to conventional therapies. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a validated immunotherapy target, and we determined if HER2-specific T cells can be generated from GBM patients that will target autologous HER2-positive GBMs and their CD133-positive stem cell compartment. HER2-specific T cells from 10 consecutive GBM patients were generated by transduction with a retroviral vector encoding a HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor. The effector function of HER2-specific T cells against autologous GBM cells, including CD133-positive stem cells, was evaluated in vitro and in an orthotopic murine xenograft model. Stimulation of HER2-specific T cells with HER2-positive autologous GBM cells resulted in T-cell proliferation and secretion of IFN-gamma and interleukin-2 in a HER2-dependent manner. Patients' HER2-specific T cells killed CD133-positive and CD133-negative cells derived from primary HER2-positive GBMs, whereas HER2-negative tumor cells were not killed. Injection of HER2-specific T cells induced sustained regression of autologous GBM xenografts established in the brain of severe combined immunodeficient mice. Gene transfer allows the reliable generation of HER2-specific T cells from GBM patients, which have potent antitumor activity against autologous HER2-positive tumors including their putative stem cells. Hence, the adoptive transfer of HER2-redirected T cells may be a promising immunotherapeutic approach for GBM.

  10. Tumor Environmental Factors Glucose Deprivation and Lactic Acidosis Induce Mitotic Chromosomal Instability – An Implication in Aneuploid Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunpeng; Hu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    Mitotic chromosomal instability (CIN) plays important roles in tumor progression, but what causes CIN is incompletely understood. In general, tumor CIN arises from abnormal mitosis, which is caused by either intrinsic or extrinsic factors. While intrinsic factors such as mitotic checkpoint genes have been intensively studied, the impact of tumor microenvironmental factors on tumor CIN is largely unknown. We investigate if glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis – two tumor microenvironmental factors – could induce cancer cell CIN. We show that glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis significantly increases CIN in 4T1, MCF-7 and HCT116 scored by micronuclei, or aneuploidy, or abnormal mitosis, potentially via damaging DNA, up-regulating mitotic checkpoint genes, and/or amplifying centrosome. Of note, the feature of CIN induced by glucose deprivation with lactic acidosis is similar to that of aneuploid human tumors. We conclude that tumor environmental factors glucose deprivation and lactic acidosis can induce tumor CIN and propose that they are potentially responsible for human tumor aneuploidy. PMID:23675453

  11. Identification of luminal breast cancers that establish a tumor-supportive macroenvironment defined by proangiogenic platelets and bone marrow-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Hanna S; Marsh, Timothy; Markens, Beth A; Castaño, Zafira; Greene-Colozzi, April; Hay, Samantha A; Brown, Victoria E; Richardson, Andrea L; Signoretti, Sabina; Battinelli, Elisabeth M; McAllister, Sandra S

    2012-12-01

    Breast cancer recurrence rates vary following treatment, suggesting that tumor cells disseminate early from primary sites but remain indolent indefinitely before progressing to symptomatic disease. The reasons why some indolent disseminated tumors erupt into overt disease are unknown. We discovered a novel process by which certain luminal breast cancer (LBC) cells and patient tumor specimens (LBC "instigators") establish a systemic macroenvironment that supports outgrowth of otherwise-indolent disseminated tumors ("responders"). Instigating LBCs secrete cytokines that are absorbed by platelets, which are recruited to responding tumor sites where they aid vessel formation. Instigator-activated bone marrow cells enrich responding tumor cell expression of CD24, an adhesion molecule for platelets, and provide a source of VEGF receptor 2(+) tumor vessel cells. This cascade results in growth of responder adenocarcinomas and is abolished when platelet activation is inhibited by aspirin. These findings highlight the macroenvironment as an important component of disease progression that can be exploited therapeutically. Currently, processes that mediate progression of otherwise indolent tumors are not well understood, making it difficult to accurately predict which cancer patients are likely to relapse. Our findings highlight the macroenvironment as an important component of disease progression that can be exploited to more accurately identify patients who would benefit from adjuvant therapy. ©2012 AACR.

  12. Primary cement spacers: a cost-effective, durable limb salvage option for knee tumors.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajay; Gulia, Ashish; Pruthi, Manish; Koushik, S

    2012-08-01

    Of a total of 818 limb sparing resections in the lower limb requiring reconstruction between December 2002 and April 2010 at our centre, primary cement spacers were used in 15 cases. In three cases they were used as joint sparing intercalary reconstructions and in 12 cases knee arthrodesis was done. Implants used to provide stability to the construct included stacked intramedullary Kuntscher nails in four, an interlocking nail in one, plates in two and a combination of nail with plate in eight. Mean length of bone resected was 18 cm. Mean follow-up was 26 months (10-87 months). There were no local recurrences and none of the spacers needed revision for mechanical failure. The Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score for patients ranged from 20 to 29 with a mean of 24 (80%). Patients with intercalary resection had better functional scores than those with arthrodesis. The construct was successfully revised to a vascularised fibula arthrodesis or prosthesis with good eventual function in three cases. Cement spacers are a suitable cost-effective, durable reconstruction modality in selected patients with good functional outcomes. They are an option to amputation in patients with financial constraints and those that present with large volume or infected fungating tumors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Most primary brain tumors are astrocytomas, glioblastomas, and meningiomas. Most primary spinal tumors are schwannomas, meningiomas, and ependymomas. Metastatic brain tumors have spread to the brain from other parts of the body. Get detailed information about CNS tumors and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  14. Soft-tissue reactions following irradiation of primary brain and pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Baglan, R.J.; Marks, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    One hundred and ninety-nine patients who received radiation therapy for a primary brain or pituitary tumor were studied for radiation-induced soft-tissue reactions of the cranium, scalp, ears and jaw. The frequency of these reactions was studied as a function of: the radiation dose 5 mm below the skin surface, dose distribution, field size and fraction size. Forty percent of patients had complete and permanent epilation, while 21% had some other soft-tissue complication, including: scalp swelling-6%, external otitis-6%, otitis media-5%, ear swelling-4%, etc. The frequency of soft-tissue reactions correlates directly with the radiation dose at 5 mm below the skin surface.more » Patients treated with small portals (<70 cm/sup 2/) had few soft-tissue reactions. The dose to superficial tissues, and hence the frequency of soft-tissue reactions can be reduced by: (1) using high-energy megavoltage beams; (2) using equal loading of beams; and (3) possibly avoiding the use of electron beams.« less

  15. [A rare primary tumor of the mediastinum: pleomorphic liposarcoma].

    PubMed

    Msaad, S; Yangui, I; Ayedi, L; Ketata, W; Sellami, T; Ayoub, A; Jlidi, R

    2007-12-01

    Liposarcoma of the mediastinum is a rare tumor with various histologic features. We report a case of mediatinal pleomorphic liposarcoma in a 37-year-old man who complained of chest pain. Computed tomography showed an anterior expansive process within the mediastinum. Histological diagnosis was established by a trans-thoracic computed tomography guided core-needle biopsy. Despite a first cure of chemotherapy with gemcitabin/cisplatin, disease progression led to death 3 months after diagnosis. Mediastinal pleomorphic liposarcoma is an exceptional invading tumor affecting the middle-aged adult. This tumor, usually giant, becomes symptomatic by compression of mediastinal structures. Surgery is the best treatment when possible. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed. Prognosis depends both on the quality of resection and the grade malignancy.

  16. The diagnostic utility of Merkel cell polyomavirus immunohistochemistry in a fine needle aspirate of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of unknown primary to the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Molberg, Kyle; Cheedella, Naga; Thibodeaux, Joel; Hinson, Stacy; Lucas, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin tumor with a high tendency for metastases. We report a case of MCC initially presenting as axillary and pancreatic metastases. A 33-year-old HIV-positive Hispanic male presented with a history of a rapidly growing axillary mass. A needle core biopsy demonstrated an epithelioid neoplasm composed of small to medium-sized cells with high nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, nuclear molding, and frequent mitotic figures. A subsequent PET scan revealed a 1.5 cm FDG avid mass in the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA of the pancreatic mass showed neoplastic cells with similar morphology to those of the axillary mass. The tumor cells were positive with pancytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK20, CD56, synatophysin, chromogranin, and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). This case of MCC most likely originated from a resolved primary skin lesion drained by the involved axillary lymph node with subsequent metastases to the pancreas and distant lymph nodes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. [Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina and treatment options: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Ch; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S; Hinkova, N; Nikolova, M; Veselinova, T

    2014-01-01

    To present and analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment, and treatment options for a patient with primary malignant melanoma of the vagina and review of literature. A 71-year-old patient with a history of vaginal bleeding caused by four tumor growths located in the vagina is presented. The size of each formation was about 2 cm. Three of them were located in the proximal two-thirds of the anterior wall of the vagina and one in the distal third. Excisional biopsy was performed of the lesion located near the entrance of the vagina. Histopathological examination revealed that it was a malignant melanoma of the vagina, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. After ruling out a tumor of an unknown primary site, the patient underwent radical hysterectomy type IV total vaginectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Hystological examination proved a clinically asymptomatic melanoma lesion of the uterine cervix. After surgery, the patient was given chemotherapy with Dacarbasine and monthly immunotherapy with BCG vaccine. The patient survived 21 months after surgery without developing a local relapse and died of distant metastases in the spine. Radical surgery for primary melanoma of the vagina is a secure way of achieving locoregional control of multifocal disease. The wide local excision can be used in unifocal lesions with security in achieving clean surgical margins.

  18. Epidemiology of pediatric primary malignant central nervous system tumors in Iran: a 10 year report of National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Beygi, Sara; Saadat, Soheil; Jazayeri, Seyed Behzad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-08-01

    CNS tumors are the leading cause of cancer related deaths among children and adolescents. Nonetheless, the incidence of pediatric CNS tumors in developing countries is poorly understood. We aimed to provide epidemiologic features of primary malignant CNS tumors in Iranian children 0-19 years of age using National Cancer Registry (NCR) data bank. The data recorded by NCR over a 10 year period (2000-2010) were reviewed. Of 1948 tumor cases, 93.3% were located in brain, 5.1% were found in the spinal cord & cauda equina, and 1.6% affected cranial nerves and other parts of the nervous system. The overall average annual age specific incidence rate was 1.43 per 100,000. Males were more likely to develop CNS tumors (1.65 per 100,000) compared to females (1.21 per 100,000, p<0.01). Children under 5 years of age had the highest age specific incidence rate (1.86 per 100,000). Astrocytic tumors with the incidence rate of 0.61 per 100,000 were the most frequent specific histology followed by embryonal (0.38 per 100,000), and ependymal tumors (0.10 per 100,000). With regard to the histological distribution of tumors, some unique features including the high proportion of unspecified malignant neoplasms (7.6%) were noted. The overall incidence rate was markedly lower than western findings. Major differences were also observed in incidence rates of specific histologies. Although the discrepancies may be attributable to diversity in classification schemes and registration practices, a real ethnic and geographical variation in predisposition to development of pediatric CNS cancers is strongly suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Polycomb proteins RING1B and EZH2 repress the tumoral pro-inflammatory function in metastasizing primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ruiz, Eugenia; Toll, Agustí; García-Diez, Irene; Andrades, Evelyn; Ferrandiz-Pulido, Carla; Masferrer, Emili; Yébenes, Mireia; Jaka, Ane; Gimeno, Javier; Gimeno, Ramón; García-Patos, Vicenç; Pujol, Ramón M; Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2018-03-08

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common malignancy in humans and approximately 5% metastasize, usually to regional lymph nodes. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may allow tumoral cells to acquire new functions in order to escape from the primary tumor. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and function of proteins of the Polycomb family of epigenetic regulators in the metastatic process of cSCC. A higher expression of RING1B and EZH2 was detected by immunohistochemistry in a series of primary cSCC tumors that metastasized (MSCCs) when compared with non-metastasizing cSCCs (non-MSCCs). Stable downregulation of RING1B and EZH2 in cSCC cells results in enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines and activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Accordingly, non-MSCCs display higher levels of membranous pS176-inhibitor of NF-kB kinase, and their stroma is enriched in neutrophils and eosinophils when compared with MSCCs. In vitro, hematopoietic cells exhibit a substantial migratory response to supernatants from Polycomb-depleted cSCC cells. Altogether, these data indicate that RING1B and EZH2 repress the innate inflammatory cSCC function and impair tumor immunosurveillance and suggest that patients with high-risk cSCCs could benefit from clinical therapies addressed to harness the immune response.

  20. Primary Fibro Sarcoma of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxha, Naim; Gashi, Shkelzen; Ahmegjekaj, Ilir; Bejta, Ilir; Sadiku, Muharrem; Ymeri, Halit; Kabashi, Antigona; Bicaj, Xhavit; Mucaj, Sefedin

    2013-01-01

    Primary malignant heart tumors represent rare entities where fibro sarcoma represents about 3% of all. Introducing the patient: A 15 years old patient with cardiac insufficiency (heart failure) symptoms, such as weakness, cyanosis, palpitations and breathing difficulties; enlargement of upper mediastinum and pleural effusion. Through echocardiography a pericardial effusion and intracavitary thrombus in atrium was diagnosed. With computed tomography is diagnosed a tumoral mass in right atrium which is also spread in the right ventricle of the heart. Tumor is completely removed; pat histology result showed primary fibro sarcoma of the heart. At that time no metastasis was found. Conclusion. Primary malignant heart tumors may manifest like cardiac insufficiency or like systemic diseases. Fibrosarcomas are rare and have bad prognosis. On average patients can live around six months after initial symptoms appeared and diagnosis of the tumor was done. In the case of cardiac insufficiency with differential diagnosis we should also think of heart tumors, which could certainly be proved for or eliminated by echocardiography. PMID:24167396

  1. Primary fibro sarcoma of the heart.

    PubMed

    Kabashi, Serbeze; Hoxha, Naim; Gashi, Shkelzen; Ahmegjekaj, Ilir; Bejta, Ilir; Sadiku, Muharrem; Ymeri, Halit; Kabashi, Antigona; Bicaj, Xhavit; Mucaj, Sefedin

    2013-01-01

    Primary malignant heart tumors represent rare entities where fibro sarcoma represents about 3% of all. Introducing the patient: A 15 years old patient with cardiac insufficiency (heart failure) symptoms, such as weakness, cyanosis, palpitations and breathing difficulties; enlargement of upper mediastinum and pleural effusion. Through echocardiography a pericardial effusion and intracavitary thrombus in atrium was diagnosed. With computed tomography is diagnosed a tumoral mass in right atrium which is also spread in the right ventricle of the heart. Tumor is completely removed; pat histology result showed primary fibro sarcoma of the heart. At that time no metastasis was found. Conclusion. Primary malignant heart tumors may manifest like cardiac insufficiency or like systemic diseases. Fibrosarcomas are rare and have bad prognosis. On average patients can live around six months after initial symptoms appeared and diagnosis of the tumor was done. In the case of cardiac insufficiency with differential diagnosis we should also think of heart tumors, which could certainly be proved for or eliminated by echocardiography.

  2. Multiple Head and Neck Tumors Frequently Originate from a Single Preneoplastic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, Maarten P.; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.; Ruijter-Schippers, Henrique J.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Snow, Gordon B.; Leemans, C. René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The development of second primary tumors has a negative impact on the prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Previously, we detected genetically altered and tumor-related mucosal lesions in the resection margins in 25% of unselected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients (Tabor MP, Brakenhoff RH, van Houten VMM, Kummer JA, Snel MHJ, Snijders PJF, Snow GB, Leemans CR, Braakhuis BJM: Persistence of genetically altered fields in head and neck cancer patients: biological and clinical implications. Clin Cancer Res 2001, 7: 1523–1532). The aim of this study was to determine whether first and second primary tumors are clonally related and originate from a single genetically altered field. From 10 patients we analyzed the first tumor of the oral cavity or oropharynx, the >3-cm remote second primary tumor, and the mucosa from the tumor-free margins from both resection specimens. We compared TP53 mutations and loss of heterozygosity profiles using 19 microsatellite markers at chromosomes 3p, 9p, 13q, and 17p. In all patients, genetically altered mucosal lesions were detected in at least one resection margin from both first and second primary tumor. Evidence for a common clonal origin of the first tumor, second primary tumor, and the intervening mucosa was found for at least 6 of 10 patients. Our results indicate that a proportion of multiple primary tumors have developed within a single preneoplastic field. Based on different etiology and clinical consequences, we propose that independent second primary tumors should be distinguished from second field tumors, that arise from the same genetically altered field the first tumor has developed from. PMID:12213734

  3. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P < 0.0001). Our findings that zonal differences in normal tissue persist in tumor tissue and that these differences are associated with Gleason score and sample type suggest that subtypes potentially resulting from different etiologic pathways might arise in these zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  4. Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube, & Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Research Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment Option Overview ... types of treatment for patients with ovarian germ cell tumors. Different types of treatment are available for ...

  5. Serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX Expression in Pituitary Adenomas: Markers in the Differential Diagnosis of Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Sellar Region.

    PubMed

    Casar-Borota, Olivera; Botling, Johan; Granberg, Dan; Stigare, Jerker; Wikström, Johan; Boldt, Henning Bünsow; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Pontén, Fredrik; Trouillas, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Differential diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemistry between a clinically nonfunctioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumor (NET)/pituitary adenoma and a primary or secondary NET of nonpituitary origin in the sellar region may be difficult. Serotonin, a frequently expressed marker in the NETs, has not been systematically evaluated in pituitary NETs. Although mutations in ATRX or DAXX have been reported in a significant proportion of pancreatic NETs, the mutational status of ATRX and DAXX and their possible pathogenetic role in pituitary NETs are unknown. Facing a difficult diagnostic case of an invasive serotonin and adrenocorticotroph hormone immunoreactive NET in the sellar region, we explored the immunohistochemical expression of serotonin, ATRX, and DAXX in a large series of pituitary endocrine tumors of different types from 246 patients and in 2 corticotroph carcinomas. None of the pituitary tumors expressed serotonin, suggesting that serotonin immunoreactive sellar tumors represent primary or secondary NETs of nonpituitary origin. Normal expression of ATRX and DAXX in pituitary tumors suggests that ATRX and DAXX do not play a role in the pathogenesis of pituitary endocrine tumors that remain localized to the sellar and perisellar region. A lack of ATRX or DAXX in a sellar NET suggests a nonpituitary NET, probably of pancreatic origin. One of the 2 examined corticotroph carcinomas, however, demonstrated negative ATRX immunolabeling due to an ATRX gene mutation. Further studies on a larger cohort of pituitary carcinomas are needed to clarify whether ATRX mutations may contribute to the metastatic potential in a subset of pituitary NETs.

  6. Measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient in primary rectal tumors: is there a benefit in performing histogram analyses?

    PubMed

    van Heeswijk, Miriam M; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Lahaye, Max J; Ayas, Z; Slenter, Jos M G M; Beets, Geerard L; Bakers, Frans C H; Beets-Tan, Regina G H

    2017-06-01

    The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a potential prognostic imaging marker in rectal cancer. Typically, mean ADC values are used, derived from precise manual whole-volume tumor delineations by experts. The aim was first to explore whether non-precise circular delineation combined with histogram analysis can be a less cumbersome alternative to acquire similar ADC measurements and second to explore whether histogram analyses provide additional prognostic information. Thirty-seven patients who underwent a primary staging MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI; b0, 25, 50, 100, 500, 1000; 1.5 T) were included. Volumes-of-interest (VOIs) were drawn on b1000-DWI: (a) precise delineation, manually tracing tumor boundaries (2 expert readers), and (b) non-precise delineation, drawing circular VOIs with a wide margin around the tumor (2 non-experts). Mean ADC and histogram metrics (mean, min, max, median, SD, skewness, kurtosis, 5th-95th percentiles) were derived from the VOIs and delineation time was recorded. Measurements were compared between the two methods and correlated with prognostic outcome parameters. Median delineation time reduced from 47-165 s (precise) to 21-43 s (non-precise). The 45th percentile of the non-precise delineation showed the best correlation with the mean ADC from the precise delineation as the reference standard (ICC 0.71-0.75). None of the mean ADC or histogram parameters showed significant prognostic value; only the total tumor volume (VOI) was significantly larger in patients with positive clinical N stage and mesorectal fascia involvement. When performing non-precise tumor delineation, histogram analysis (in specific 45th ADC percentile) may be used as an alternative to obtain similar ADC values as with precise whole tumor delineation. Histogram analyses are not beneficial to obtain additional prognostic information.

  7. 414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; TYPICAL SECTIONS; SHEET NO. 5; DRAWING NO. C-4028-5R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Clinical outcomes from maximum-safe resection of primary and metastatic brain tumors using awake craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Groshev, Anastasia; Padalia, Devang; Patel, Sephalie; Garcia-Getting, Rosemarie; Sahebjam, Solmaz; Forsyth, Peter A; Vrionis, Frank D; Etame, Arnold B

    2017-06-01

    To retrospectively analyze outcomes in patients undergoing awake craniotomies for tumor resection at our institution in terms of extent of resection, functional preservation and length of hospital stay. All cases of adults undergoing awake-craniotomy from September 2012-February 2015 were retrospectively reviewed based on an IRB approved protocol. Information regarding patient age, sex, cancer type, procedure type, location, hospital stay, extent of resection, and postoperative complications was extracted. 76 patient charts were analyzed. Resected cancer types included metastasis to the brain (41%), glioblastoma (34%), WHO grade III anaplastic astrocytoma (18%), WHO grade II glioma (4%), WHO grade I glioma (1%), and meningioma (1%). Over a half of procedures were performed in the frontal lobes, followed by temporal, and occipital locations. The most common indication was for motor cortex and primary somatosensory area lesions followed by speech. Extent of resection was gross total for 59% patients, near-gross total for 34%, and subtotal for 7%. Average hospital stay for the cohort was 1.7days with 75% of patients staying at the hospital for only 24h or less post surgery. In the postoperative period, 67% of patients experienced improvement in neurological status, 21% of patients experienced no change, 7% experienced transient neurological deficits, which resolved within two months post op, 1% experienced transient speech deficit, and 3% experienced permanent weakness. In a consecutive series of 76 patients undergoing maximum-safe resection for primary and metastatic brain tumors, awake-craniotomy was associated with a short hospital stay and low postoperative complications rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inactivation of MSH3 by promoter methylation correlates with primary tumor stage in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haifeng; Jiang, Bo; Zhou, Zhen; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Cao, Xiaolin; Huang, Guangwu; Li, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the MutS homolog human 3 (MSH3) gene by promoter methylation in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methylation‑specific PCR, semi‑quantitative reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect methylation and the mRNA and protein expression levels of MSH3 in 54 cases of NPC tissues and 16 cases of normal nasopharyngeal epithelial (NNE) tissues. The association between promoter methylation and mRNA expression, and the mRNA and protein expression of the gene and clinical factors was analyzed. The promoter methylation of MSH3 was detected in 50% (27/54) of the primary tumors, but not in the 16 NNE tissues. The mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly decreased in the 54 cases of human NPC as compared to the 16 NNE tissues (P<0.05). The MSH3‑methylated cases exhibited significantly lower mRNA and protein expression levels than the unmethylated cases (P<0.05). The MSH3 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly associated with the variable T stage (P<0.05); however, they did not correlate with the age and sex of the patients, or with the N stage, TNM classification or histopathological subtype (P>0.05). On the whole, MSH3 was frequently inactivated by promoter methylation and its mRNA and protein expression correlated with the primary tumor stage in NPC.

  10. The size of the primary tumor and age at initial diagnosis are independent predictors of the metastatic behavior and survival of patients with SDHB-related pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schovanek, Jan; Martucci, Victoria; Wesley, Robert; Fojo, Tito; Del Rivero, Jaydira; Huynh, Thanh; Adams, Karen; Kebebew, Electron; Frysak, Zdenek; Stratakis, Constantine A; Pacak, Karel

    2014-07-21

    Succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) mutations are associated with aggressive pheochromocytoma (PHEO)/paraganglioma (PGL) behavior, often resulting in metastatic disease and fatal outcomes. These tumors are often larger, extra-adrenal, and contain lower catecholamine concentrations than other hereditary PHEOs/PGLs. This study evaluated the size and age at diagnosis of primary SDHB-related PHEOs/PGLs as independent predictors of their metastatic behavior and outcome (survival). One hundred six patients with SDHB mutation-related PHEO/PGL were included in this retrospective study. The recorded largest diameters, locations, and patient ages at initial diagnosis of SDHB-related primary tumors were analyzed in the context of time to metastasis and patient survival. First, the development of metastatic disease in patients with primary tumors ≥4.5 cm was significantly earlier than in patients with smaller tumors (P = 0.003). Second, patients with primary tumors larger than 5.5 cm also had worse overall survival than patients with smaller tumors (P = 0.008). Third, age at initial diagnosis was found to be an independent predictor of patient survival (PHEOs: P = 0.041; PGLs: P < 0.001). Fourth, we did not observe a significant difference in survival based on the specific SDHB mutations or patient sex. Receiver operating characteristic curves established 4.5 cm as the best value to dichotomize the primary SDHB-related PHEO/PGL in order to evaluate the development of metastatic disease and 5.5 cm as the best value for survival prediction. Subsequently, the size of the primary tumor was found as an age-independent predictor of patient survival and metastases development in PGL. In both PHEO and PGL, age at diagnosis was found to be a size-independent predictor of patient survival. No significant difference was found in metastases development or patient survival between males and females or among specific SDHB mutations. This data further extends and supports previous

  11. Establishment of primary mixed cell cultures from spontaneous canine mammary tumors: Characterization of classic and new cancer-associated molecules

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Luciana B.; Nagamine, Marcia K.; Biondi, Luiz R.; Sanches, Daniel S.; Toyota, Fábio; Giovani, Tatiane M.; de Jesus, Isis P.; da Fonseca, Ivone I. M.; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, Nicolle; Diaz, Bruno L.; Salles Gomes, Cristina de O. Massoco

    2017-01-01

    There are many factors which make canine cancer like cancer in humans. The occurrence of spontaneous mammary tumors in pet dogs, tumor genetics, molecular targets and exposure to the same environmental risk factors are among these factors. Therefore, the study of canine cancer can provide useful information to the oncology field. This study aimed to establish and characterize a panel of primary mixed cell cultures obtained from spontaneous canine mammary tumors. Eight established cell cultures obtained from one normal mammary gland, one complex adenoma, one mixed adenoma, two complex carcinomas and two mixed carcinomas were analyzed. The gene expression levels of classic molecular cancer players such as fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) 2, breast cancer (BRCA) 1, BRCA2 and estrogen receptor (ESR) 1 were evaluated. For the first time, three orphan nuclear receptors, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) α, β and γ were studied in canine mammary cancer. The highest expression level of ERRα was observed in complex carcinoma-derived cell culture, while the highest levels of ERRβ and γ were observed in cells derived from a mixed carcinoma. Meanwhile, complex carcinomas presented the highest levels of expression of ESR1, BRCA1 and FGFR2 among all samples. BRCA2 was found exclusively in complex adenoma. The transcription factor GATA3 had its highest levels in mixed carcinoma samples and its lowest levels in complex adenoma. Proliferation assays were also performed to evaluate the mixed cell cultures response to ER ligands, genistein and DES, both in normoxia and hypoxic conditions. Our results demonstrate that morphological and functional studies of primary mixed cell cultures derived from spontaneous canine mammary tumors are possible and provide valuable tool for the study of various stages of mammary cancer development. PMID:28945747

  12. Obesity and Peritoneal Surface Disease: Outcomes after Cytoreductive Surgery with Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Appendiceal and Colon Primary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Swords, Douglas S.; Swett, Katrina R.; Randle, Reese W.; Shen, Perry; Stewart, John H.; Levine, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 37 % of the U.S. population is obese. It is unknown how obesity influences the operative and survival outcomes of cytoreductive surgery (CRS)/hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) procedures. Methods A retrospective analysis of a prospective database of 1,000 procedures was performed. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, comorbidities, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. Results A total of 246 patients with body mass index (BMI) of >30 kg/m2 underwent 272 CRS/HIPEC procedures. Ninety-five (38.6 %) were severely obese (BMI > 35 kg/m2). A total of 135 (49.6 %) procedures were performed for appendiceal and 60 (22.1 %) for colon cancer. Median follow-up was 52 months. Both major and minor morbidity were similar for obese and non-obese patients. The 30-day mortality rates for obese and nonobese patients were 1.5 and 2.5 %, respectively. Median intensive care unit and hospital stay were 1 and 9 days, regardless of BMI. The 30-day readmission rate was similar between obese and non-obese patients (24.8 vs. 19.4 %, p = 0.11). Median survival for low-grade appendiceal cancer (LGA) was 76 months for obese patients and 107 months for non-obese patients (p = 0.32). Survival was worse for severely obese patients (median survival 54 months) versus non-obese patients with LGA (p = 0.04). Survival was similar for obese and non-obese patients with peritoneal surface disease (PSD) from colon cancer or high-grade appendiceal cancer. Conclusions Obesity does not influence postoperative morbidity or mortality of patients with PSD, regardless of primary tumor. Severe obesity is associated with decreased long-term survival only in patients with LGA primary disease; however, application of CRS/HIPEC still offers meaningful prolongation of life. Obesity should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC procedures. PMID:23800899

  13. 413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; CONTINUOUS SPANS - LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS; SHEET NO. 18; DRAWING NO. C-4028-18R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. Health disparities and impact on outcomes in children with primary central nervous system solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Austin, Mary T; Hamilton, Emma; Zebda, Denna; Nguyen, Hoang; Eberth, Jan M; Chang, Yuchia; Elting, Linda S; Sandberg, David I

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Health disparities in access to care, early detection, and survival exist among adult patients with cancer. However, there have been few reports assessing how health disparities impact pediatric patients with malignancies. The objective in this study was to examine the impact of racial/ethnic and social factors on disease presentation and outcome for children with primary CNS solid tumors. METHODS The authors examined all children (age ≤ 18 years) in whom CNS solid tumors were diagnosed and who were enrolled in the Texas Cancer Registry between 1995 and 2009 (n = 2421). Geocoded information was used to calculate the driving distance between a patient's home and the nearest pediatric cancer treatment center. Socioeconomic status (SES) was determined using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality formula and 2007-2011 US Census block group data. Logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with advanced-stage disease. Survival probability and hazard ratios were calculated using life table methods and Cox regression. RESULTS Children with advanced-stage CNS solid tumors were more likely to be < 1 year old, Hispanic, and in the lowest SES quartile (all p < 0.05). The adjusted odds ratios of presenting with advanced-stage disease were higher in children < 1 year old compared with children > 10 years old (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.06-2.75), and in Hispanic patients compared with non-Hispanic white patients (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.19-2.04). Distance to treatment and SES did not impact disease stage at presentation in the adjusted analysis. Furthermore, 1- and 5-year survival probability were worst in children 1-10 years old, Hispanic patients, non-Hispanic black patients, and those in the lowest SES quartile (p < 0.05). In the adjusted survival model, only advanced disease and malignant behavior were predictive of mortality. CONCLUSIONS Racial/ethnic disparities are associated with advanced-stage disease presentation for children with CNS solid tumors

  15. Primary peritoneal carcinoma metastasizing to breast: a single case report and literature review from clinic to biology

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ji-Yuan; Gebre, Wondwossen; Dong, Yi-Min; Shaun, Xiao; Robbins, Rachel; Podrumar, Alida

    2016-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a type of rare malignant epithelial tumor. Metastasis from PPC to breast has been rarely reported. PPC originates de novo from the peritoneal tissues rather than invasion or metastasis from adjacent or remote organs. PPCs have been implicated in many cases of carcinomas of unknown primary origin. It is similar to ovarian cancer (OvCa), because it shares the same common embryonic origin, the coelomic epithelium (mesodermal origin). The mechanism of oncogenesis remains elusive. In this article, we report a rare case of PPC in a patient 10 years after total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy for uterine leiomyoma, which was widely spread in the abdomen and metastasized to the colon, liver and distant organs including breast. The treatment is similar to that of primary ovarian cancer. We also reviewed the primary peritoneal cancer metastatic to breast and discuss the possible mechanisms and biology of primary peritoneal cancer, using experimental and animal model. PMID:27807506

  16. Mutation patterns in small cell and non-small cell lung cancer patients suggest a different level of heterogeneity between primary and metastatic tumors.

    PubMed

    Saber, Ali; Hiltermann, T Jeroen N; Kok, Klaas; Terpstra, M Martijn; de Lange, Kim; Timens, Wim; Groen, Harry J M; van den Berg, Anke

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have shown heterogeneity in lung cancer, with parallel existence of multiple subclones characterized by their own specific mutational landscape. The extent to which minor clones become dominant in distinct metastasis is not clear. The aim of our study was to gain insight in the evolution pattern of lung cancer by investigating genomic heterogeneity between primary tumor and its distant metastases. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on 24 tumor and five normal samples of two small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and three non-SCLC (NSCLC) patients. Validation of somatic variants in these 24 and screening of 33 additional samples was done by single primer enrichment technology. For each of the three NSCLC patients, about half of the mutations were shared between all tumor samples, whereas for SCLC patients, this percentage was around 95. Independent validation of the non-ubiquitous mutations confirmed the WES data for the vast majority of the variants. Phylogenetic trees indicated more distance between the tumor samples of the NSCLC patients as compared to the SCLC patients. Analysis of 30 independent DNA samples of 16 biopsies used for WES revealed a low degree of intra-tumor heterogeneity of the selected sets of mutations. In the primary tumors of all five patients, variable percentages (19-67%) of the seemingly metastases-specific mutations were present albeit at low read frequencies. Patients with advanced NSCLC have a high percentage of non-ubiquitous mutations indicative of branched evolution. In contrast, the low degree of heterogeneity in SCLC suggests a parallel and linear model of evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The multidimensional burden of informal caregivers in primary malignant brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Bayen, Eléonore; Laigle-Donadey, Florence; Prouté, Myrtille; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Joël, Marie-Eve; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2017-01-01

    Informal caregivers (ICs) provide care and improve the quality of life of patients with malignant brain tumor. We analyze the impact of their involvement on themselves from a triple perspective. Home-dwelling patients with primary malignant brain tumor underwent a medical examination. ICs burden was evaluated by a self-administered postal questionnaire. Objective burden (Informal Care Time, ICT), subjective burden (Zarit Burden Inventory, ZBI), and financial burden (valuation of lost earnings using the Replacement and Opportunity Cost Methods, RCM, OCM) were evaluated. ICs (N = 84) were principally women (87 %) and spouses (64 %), of mean age 55 years, who assisted patients of mean age 53 years and with a mean KPS score of 61 (range = 30-90, med = 60). Subjective burden was moderate (mean ZBI = 30). Objective burden was high (mean ICT = 11.7 h/day), mostly consisting of supervision time. Higher subjective and objective burden were associated with poorer functional status (KPS) but not with a higher level of cognitive disorders in multivariate analyses. Other independent associated factors were bladder dysfunction and co-residency for objective burden and working and a poor social network for subjective burden. The 56 working ICs made work arrangements (75 %) that impacted their wages (36 %) and careers (30 %). Financial burden due to uncompensated caregiving hours for Activities of Daily Living had a mean monetary value from Є677(RCM) to Є1683(OCM) per month (i.e., ranging from Є8124 to Є20196 per year). IC burden is multidimensional. Greater provision of formal care, more IC support programs, and economic interventions targeting IC employment and finances are needed.

  18. Pit-1 inhibits BRCA1 and sensitizes human breast tumors to cisplatin and vitamin D treatment

    PubMed Central

    Seoane, Samuel; Arias, Efigenia; Sigueiro, Rita; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Martinez-Ordoñez, Anxo; Castelao, Esteban; Eiró, Noemí; Garcia-Caballero, Tomás; Macia, Manuel; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Maestro, Miguel; Vizoso, Francisco; Mouriño, Antonio; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The POU class 1 homeobox 1 (POU1F1, also known as Pit-1), pertaining to the Pit-Oct-Unc (POU) family of transcription factors, has been related to tumor growth and metastasis in breast. However, its role in response to breast cancer therapy is unknown. We found that Pit-1 down-regulated DNA-damage and repair genes, and specifically inhibited BRCA1 gene expression, sensitizing breast cancer cells to DNA-damage agents. Administration of 1α, 25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D3 (3-Epi, an endogenous low calcemic vitamin D metabolite) reduced Pit-1 expression, and synergized with cisplatin, thus, decreasing cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro, and reducing tumor growth in vivo. In addition, fifteen primary cultures of human breast tumors showed significantly decreased proliferation when treated with 3-Epi+cisplatin, compared to cisplatin alone. This response positively correlated with Pit-1 levels. Our findings demonstrate that high levels of Pit-1 and reduced BRCA1 levels increase breast cancer cell susceptibility to 3-Epi+cisplatin therapy. PMID:25992773

  19. Programmed death ligand 1 expression and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte density differences between paired primary and brain metastatic lesions in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Gong, Zhihua; Jia, Qingzhu; Wu, Yan; Yang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhu, Bo

    2018-04-15

    Immunotherapy targeting the programmed cell death-1/programmed death ligand 1(PD-L1) pathway has shown promising antitumor activity in brain metastases (BMs) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with an acceptable safety profile; however, the response rates often differ between primary lesions and intracranial lesions. Studies are necessary to identify detailed characterizations of the response biomarkers. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences of PD-L1 expression and CD8 + tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) density, two major response biomarkers of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, between paired primary and brain metastatic lesions in advanced NSCLC. We observed that among primary lesions or BMs, only a small number of patients harbored common PD-L1 expression on both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Additionally, we found that the numbers of CD8 + TILs were significantly fewer in BMs than in primary lung cancers. Low stromal CD8 + TIL numbers in BMs were associated with significantly shorter overall survival compared to high stromal CD8 + TIL counts. Notably, we demonstrated a discrepancy in PD-L1 expression and CD8 + TIL density between primary lung cancers and their corresponding BMs. Such heterogeneities are significantly associated with the time at which BMs occurred. Our study emphasizes the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of biomarkers for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, which should be concerned in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  1. 415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; Y.B. ANCHORAGE - FLOOR BEAMS YA-5 AND BENT 3; SHEET NO. 22; DRAWING NO. C-4028-22R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Primary iris leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Yeaney, Gabrielle A; Platt, Sean; Singh, Arun D

    Intraocular leiomyomas are uncommon and usually occur in the ciliary body. Primary leiomyoma of the iris is both rare and a difficult diagnosis to make, given melanocytic tumors are more common and may be amelanotic. The somewhat controversial diagnosis of iris leiomyoma requires further confirmation by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Herein, we describe a 58-year-old man with a 2-mm round translucent pink lesion of the iris. The tumor was excised by sector iridectomy. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for both smooth muscle actin and desmin and negativity for S-100, HMB45, SOX10, MelanA, CD31, CD34, and h-caldesmon. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor was excluded by chromogenic in situ hybridization-Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic myofilaments with focal fusiform densities and micropinocytotic vesicles. Our review of previous literature confirmed the unusual nature of this tumor. Primary iris leiomyoma should be considered in the differential of an amelanotic S-100-immunonegative iris tumor