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Sample records for urban slum areas

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Spousal Violence against Women in Slum and Nonslum Areas of Urban Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M.; Naved, Ruchira T.; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a…

  2. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  3. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J. C. N.; Foppen, J. W.; Muwanga, A.; Kulabako, R.

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619 μS/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2 mmol/L), HCO3 (11 mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3 mmol/L; average of 2.23 mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2 mmol/L and 6 μmol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2 mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation

  4. Understanding the fate of sanitation-related nutrients in a shallow sandy aquifer below an urban slum area.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, P M; Havik, J C N; Foppen, J W; Muwanga, A; Kulabako, R

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that wastewater leaching from on-site sanitation systems to alluvial aquifers underlying informal settlements (or slums) may end up contributing to high nutrient loads to surface water upon groundwater exfiltration. Hence, we conducted a hydro-geochemical study in a shallow sandy aquifer in Bwaise III parish, an urban slum area in Kampala, Uganda, to assess the geochemical processes controlling the transport and fate of dissolved nutrients (NO3, NH4 and PO4) released from on-site sanitation systems to groundwater. Groundwater was collected from 26 observation wells. The samples were analyzed for major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cl and SO4) and nutrients (o-PO4, NO3 and NH4). Data was also collected on soil characteristics, aquifer conductivity and hydraulic heads. Geochemical modeling using PHREEQC was used to determine the level of o-PO4 control by mineral solubility and sorption. Groundwater below the slum area was anoxic and had near neutral pH values, high values of EC (average of 1619μS/cm) and high concentrations of Cl (3.2mmol/L), HCO3 (11mmol/L) and nutrients indicating the influence from wastewater leachates especially from pit latrines. Nutrients were predominantly present as NH4 (1-3mmol/L; average of 2.23mmol/L). The concentrations of NO3 and o-PO4 were, however, low: average of 0.2mmol/L and 6μmol/L respectively. We observed a contaminant plume along the direction of groundwater flow (NE-SW) characterized by decreasing values of EC and Cl, and distinct redox zones. The redox zones transited from NO3-reducing in upper flow areas to Fe-reducing in the lower flow areas. Consequently, the concentrations of NO3 decreased downgradient of the flow path due to denitrification. Ammonium leached directly into the alluvial aquifer was also partially removed because the measured concentrations were less than the potential input from pit latrines (3.2mmol/L). We attributed this removal (about 30%) to anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) given

  5. Prevalence and correlates of physical spousal violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Angeles, Gustavo; Lance, Peter M; Naved, Ruchira T; Thornton, Juliana

    2011-09-01

    This study explores the prevalence and correlates of past-year physical violence against women in slum and nonslum areas of urban Bangladesh. The authors use multivariate logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Urban Health Survey, a population-based survey of 9,122 currently married women aged between 15 and 49 who were selected using a multistage cluster sampling design. The prevalence of reported past-year physical spousal violence is 31%. Prevalence of past-year physical spousal violence is higher in slums (35%) than in nonslums (20%). Slapping/arm-twisting and pushing/shaking/ throwing something at the women are the most commonly reported acts of physical abuse. Multivariate analysis shows that the risk of physical spousal abuse is lower among older women, women with post-primary education, and those belonging to rich households and women whose husbands considered their opinion in decision making. Women are at higher risk of abuse if they had many children, believe that married woman should work if the husband is not making enough money, and approve wife-beating norms. This study serves to confirm the commonness of physical spousal abuse in urban Bangladesh, demonstrating the seriousness of this multifaceted phenomenon as a social and public health issue. The present findings suggest the need for comprehensive prevention and intervention strategies that capitalize on the interplay of individual and sociocultural factors that cause physical spousal violence. Our study adds to a growing literature documenting domestic violence against women in urban areas of developing south Asian nations. PMID:21831870

  6. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  7. India: environmental degradation, urban slums, political tension.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1985-09-01

    This article presents an overview of stresses facing Indian society, including population pressures on land and agriculture, topsoil erosion, deforestation, flooding, unemployment, urban slums, and political unrest. Over 60% of India's arable land is estimated to suffer from environmental degradation. This has been caused both by a rapidly growing poor population seeking subsistence and by the misappropriation of natural resources by the wealthy for luxury consumption. Although deforestation is officially cited at 0.37 million acres/year, more sensitive estimates put it at 2.5 million acres/year. Deforestation and massive soil erosion have further created silting, flooding, and pollution in the plains areas of the country. Moreover, the urban population of India is expected to double in the next 15 years to reach a level of 350-400 million. At present, 20-33% of the urban population lives in slums without basic facilities. The employment crisis precipitated by increasing urbanization and migration is expected to be a major problem in the decades ahead. By the year 2000, 7.5 million people will enter the labor force annually. Demographic tension has been a major factor in recent political unrest. Language differences, inequitable access to resources, and the lack of job opportunities have been central issues in these conflicts. Unless more effective means can be found to cope simultaneously with the need to speed up development and meet the needs of a rapidly expanding population, the social and environmental fabric of India is in danger of further erosion.

  8. Automated detection of slum area change in Hyderabad, India using multitemporal satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kit, Oleksandr; Lüdeke, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents an approach to automated identification of slum area change patterns in Hyderabad, India, using multi-year and multi-sensor very high resolution satellite imagery. It relies upon a lacunarity-based slum detection algorithm, combined with Canny- and LSD-based imagery pre-processing routines. This method outputs plausible and spatially explicit slum locations for the whole urban agglomeration of Hyderabad in years 2003 and 2010. The results indicate a considerable growth of area occupied by slums between these years and allow identification of trends in slum development in this urban agglomeration.

  9. Sustainable sanitation technology options for urban slums.

    PubMed

    Katukiza, A Y; Ronteltap, M; Niwagaba, C B; Foppen, J W A; Kansiime, F; Lens, P N L

    2012-01-01

    Poor sanitation in urban slums results in increased prevalence of diseases and pollution of the environment. Excreta, grey water and solid wastes are the major contributors to the pollution load into the slum environment and pose a risk to public health. The high rates of urbanization and population growth, poor accessibility and lack of legal status in urban slums make it difficult to improve their level of sanitation. New approaches may help to achieve the sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7; ensuring environmental sustainability. This paper reviews the characteristics of waste streams and the potential treatment processes and technologies that can be adopted and applied in urban slums in a sustainable way. Resource recovery oriented technologies minimise health risks and negative environmental impacts. In particular, there has been increasing recognition of the potential of anaerobic co-digestion for treatment of excreta and organic solid waste for energy recovery as an alternative to composting. Soil and sand filters have also been found suitable for removal of organic matter, pathogens, nutrients and micro-pollutants from grey water.

  10. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  11. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks. PMID:26931206

  12. Hypertension in a Brazilian urban slum population.

    PubMed

    Unger, Alon; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Snyder, Robert E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Mohr, Sharif; Costa, Vinícius B A; Melendez, Astrid X T O; Reis, Renato B; Santana, Francisco S; Riley, Lee W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2015-06-01

    Low- and middle-income countries account for the majority of hypertension disease burden. However, little is known about the distribution of this illness within subpopulations of these countries, particularly among those who live in urban informal settlements. A cross-sectional hypertension survey was conducted in 2003 among 5649 adult residents of a slum settlement in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hypertension was defined as either an elevated arterial systolic (≥140 mmHg) or diastolic (≥90 mmHg) blood pressure. Sex-specific multivariable models of systolic blood pressure were constructed to identify factors associated with elevated blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the population 18 years and older was 21% (1162/5649). Men had 1.2 times the risk of hypertension compared with women (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.05, 1.36). Increasing age and lack of any schooling, particularly for women, were also significantly associated with elevated blood pressure (p < 0.05). There was also a direct association between men who were black and an elevated blood pressure. Among those who were hypertensive, 65.5% were aware of their condition, and only 36.3% of those aware were actively using anti-hypertensive medications. Men were less likely to be aware of their diagnosis or to use medications (p < 0.01 for both) than women. The prevalence of hypertension in this slum community was lower than reported frequencies in the non-slum population of Brazil and Salvador, yet both disease awareness and treatment frequency were low. Further research on hypertension and other chronic non-communicable diseases in slum populations is urgently needed to guide prevention and treatment efforts in this growing population.

  13. Slum Definitions in Urban India: Implications for the Measurement of Health Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Laura B.

    2015-01-01

    Half the population of low- and middle-income countries will live in urban areas by 2030, and poverty and inequality in these contexts is rising. Slum dwelling is one way in which to conceptualize and characterize urban deprivation but there are many definitions of what constitutes a slum. This paper presents four different slum definitions used in India alone, demonstrating that assessments of both the distribution and extent of urban deprivation depends on the way in which it is characterized, as does slum dwelling’s association with common child health indicators. Using data from India’s National Family and Health Survey from 2005–2006, two indictors of slum dwelling embedded in the survey and two constructed from the household questionnaire are compared using descriptive statistics and linear regression models of height- and weight-for-age z-scores. The results highlight a tension between international and local slum definitions, and underscore the importance of improving empirical representations of the dynamism of slum and city residents. PMID:26877568

  14. Household Transmission of Leptospira Infection in Urban Slum Communities

    PubMed Central

    Maciel, Elves A. P.; de Carvalho, Ana Luiza F.; Nascimento, Simone F.; de Matos, Rosan B.; Gouveia, Edilane L.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2008-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease, is the cause of epidemics associated with high mortality in urban slum communities. Infection with pathogenic Leptospira occurs during environmental exposures and is traditionally associated with occupational risk activities. However, slum inhabitants reside in close proximity to environmental sources of contamination, suggesting that transmission during urban epidemics occurs in the household environment. Methods and Findings A survey was performed to determine whether Leptospira infection clustered within households located in slum communities in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Hospital-based surveillance identified 89 confirmed cases of leptospirosis during an outbreak. Serum samples were obtained from members of 22 households with index cases of leptospirosis and 52 control households located in the same slum communities. The presence of anti-Leptospira agglutinating antibodies was used as a marker for previous infection. In households with index cases, 22 (30%) of 74 members had anti-Leptospira antibodies, whereas 16 (8%) of 195 members from control households had anti-Leptospira antibodies. Highest titres were directed against L. interrogans serovars of the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup in 95% and 100% of the subjects with agglutinating antibodies from case and control households, respectively. Residence in a household with an index case of leptospirosis was associated with increased risk (OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.13–13.12) of having had a Leptospira infection. Increased infection risk was found for all age groups who resided in a household with an index case, including children <15 years of age (P = 0.008). Conclusions This study identified significant household clustering of Leptospira infection in slum communities where recurrent epidemics of leptospirosis occur. The findings support the hypothesis that the household environment is an important transmission determinant in the urban slum setting

  15. Strategies to reduce exclusion among populations living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2009-08-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4-5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak.

  16. Strategies to Reduce Exclusion among Populations Living in Urban Slum Settlements in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The health and rights of populations living in informal or slum settlements are key development issues of the twenty-first century. As of 2007, the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. More than one billion of these people, or one in three city-dwellers, live in inadequate housing with no or a few basic resources. In Bangladesh, urban slum settlements tend to be located in low-lying, flood-prone, poorly-drained areas, having limited formal garbage disposal and minimal access to safe water and sanitation. These areas are severely crowded, with 4–5 people living in houses of just over 100 sq feet. These conditions of high density of population and poor sanitation exacerbate the spread of diseases. People living in these areas experience social, economic and political exclusion, which bars them from society's basic resources. This paper overviews policies and actions that impact the level of exclusion of people living in urban slum settlements in Bangladesh, with a focus on improving the health and rights of the urban poor. Despite some strategies adopted to ensure better access to water and health, overall, the country does not have a comprehensive policy for urban slum residents, and the situation remains bleak. PMID:19761090

  17. Lifestyle pattern in selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area.

    PubMed

    Basher, M S; Haque, M M; Ullah, M S; Nasreen, S A; Begum, A A; Islam, M N; Akhter, S; Haque, M S

    2012-04-01

    Lifestyle is composed of cultural and behavioural patterns and lifelong personal habits that developed through processes of socialization. Lifestyle may be health promotive or detrimental to health. Health requires the promotion of healthy lifestyle. Many current day health problems are associated with lifestyle changes. Because of rising urban population, the number of slum dwellers is rising. The mobility of people from rural to urban areas is the main reason of the growing slum population in cities. This Descriptive, cross-sectional study was directed to assess lifestyle pattern in four purposively selected slums in Mymensingh Municipal area. Non-Probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study unit. Sample size was one hundred and twenty-three (123) families. Data were collected by interview with one of the adult family members, preferably with the head of the family, with mixed type of interviewer administered questionnaire. There were 494 family members with an average family size of 4.02, while mean age was 24.58 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 17.79 years. Male-female ratio was 103:100. Of 409 members over 5 years, 174(42.54%) did not have schooling and were illiterate. At least 105(33.02%) members were house-wives, and 99(81.15%) members were smokers. An overwhelming majority (79, 64.23%) families had monthly income between 2000 to 4999 taka. As many as 55(44.72%) families lived in kaccha house, while 40(32.52%) had to live in "Jhupree". In cent per cent families, tube well was the source of water for drinking and other household purposes. A highest majority 121(98.37%) of the families had latrine, while the remaining 2(1.63%) did not have any latrine, and defecate in open air. Of 121 families, 78(64.46%) families had sanitary latrine, while 43(37.54%) did not have sanitary latrine. It was revealed that 86(69.92%) families had cell-phone, while 65(52.85%) families had television, 10(8.13%) families had radio, and 5

  18. Evaluation of Maternal Health Service Indicators in Urban Slum of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Saira Parveen; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Afsana, Kaosar; Yunus, Fakir Md; Chowdhury, Ahmed M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A continuous influx of poor people to urban slums poses a challenge to Bangladesh’s health system as it has failed to tackle maternal morbidity and mortality. BRAC is the largest non-governmental organisation in Bangladesh. BRAC has been working to reduce maternal, neonatal and under-five children morbidity and mortality of slum dwellers in cities. BRAC has been doing this work for a decade through a programme called MANOSHI. This programme provides door-to-door services to its beneficiaries through community health workers (CHWs) and normal delivery service through its delivery and maternity centres. BRAC started the ‘MANOSHI’ programme in Narayanganj City Corporation during 2011 to address maternal, neonatal and child health problems facing slum dwellers. We investigated the existing maternal health-service indicators in the slums of Narayanganj City Corporation and compared the findings with a non-intervention area. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012, in 47 slums of Narayanganj City Corporation as intervention and 10 slums of Narsingdi Sadar Municipality as comparison area. A total of 1206 married women, aged 15–49 years, with a pregnancy outcome in the previous year were included for interview. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive and maternal health-care practices like use of contraceptive methods, antenatal care (ANC), delivery care, postnatal care (PNC) were collected through a structured questionnaire. The chi-square test, Student t test, Mann Whitney U-test, factor analysis and log-binominal test were performed by using STATA statistical software for analysing data. Results The activities of BRAC CHWs significantly improved four or more ANC (47% vs. 21%; p<0.000) and PNC (48% vs. 39%; p<0.01) coverage in the intervention slums compared to comparison slums. Still, about half of the deliveries in both areas were attended at home by unskilled birth attendants, of which a very few received PNC

  19. Beliefs and practices during pregnancy and childbirth in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide urbanization has become a crucial issue in recent years. Bangladesh, one of the poorest and most densely-populated countries in the world, has been facing rapid urbanization. In urban areas, maternal indicators are generally worse in the slums than in the urban non-slum areas. The Manoshi program at BRAC, a non governmental organization, works to improve maternal, newborn, and child health in the urban slums of Bangladesh. This paper describes maternal related beliefs and practices in the urban slums of Dhaka and provides baseline information for the Manoshi program. Methods This is a descriptive study where data were collected using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The respondents for the quantitative methods, through a baseline survey using a probability sample, were mothers with infants (n = 672) living in the Manoshi program areas. Apart from this, as part of a formative research, thirty six in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted during the same period from two of the above Manoshi program areas among currently pregnant women who had also previously given births (n = 18); and recently delivered women (n = 18). Results The baseline survey revealed that one quarter of the recently delivered women received at least four antenatal care visits and 24 percent women received at least one postnatal care visit. Eighty-five percent of deliveries took place at home and 58 percent of the deliveries were assisted by untrained traditional birth attendants. The women mostly relied on their landladies for information and support. Members of the slum community mainly used cheap, easily accessible and available informal sectors for seeking care. Cultural beliefs and practices also reinforced this behavior, including home delivery without skilled assistance. Conclusions Behavioral change messages are needed to increase the numbers of antenatal and postnatal care visits, improve birth preparedness, and encourage skilled

  20. Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

    2006-01-01

    Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

  1. Fuzzy B-spline optimization for urban slum three-dimensional reconstruction using ENVISAT satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marghany, Maged

    2014-06-01

    A critical challenges in urban aeras is slums. In fact, they are considered a source of crime and disease due to poor-quality housing, unsanitary conditions, poor infrastructures and occupancy security. The poor in the dense urban slums are the most vulnerable to infection due to (i) inadequate and restricted access to safety, drinking water and sufficient quantities of water for personal hygiene; (ii) the lack of removal and treatment of excreta; and (iii) the lack of removal of solid waste. This study aims to investigate the capability of ENVISAT ASAR satellite and Google Earth data for three-dimensional (3-D) slum urban reconstruction in developed countries such as Egypt. The main objective of this work is to utilize some 3-D automatic detection algorithm for urban slum in ENVISAT ASAR and Google Erath images were acquired in Cairo, Egypt using Fuzzy B-spline algorithm. The results show that the fuzzy algorithm is the best indicator for chaotic urban slum as it can discriminate between them from its surrounding environment. The combination of Fuzzy and B-spline then used to reconstruct 3-D of urban slum. The results show that urban slums, road network, and infrastructures are perfectly discriminated. It can therefore be concluded that the fuzzy algorithm is an appropriate algorithm for chaotic urban slum automatic detection in ENVSIAT ASAR and Google Earth data.

  2. Sleep and Quality of Life in Urban Poverty: The Effect of a Slum Housing Upgrading Program

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Design: Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Setting: Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Participants: A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for “roof”). Interventions: Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m2 modular house provided by TECHO. Measurements and Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P < 0.001). Overall quality of life (z = -6.85, P < 0.001), physical health domain (z = -4.35, P < 0.001), psychological well-being domain (z = -3.72, P < 0.001) and environmental domain (z = -7.10, P < 0.001) of WHOQOL-BREF were also improved. Interviews demonstrated the importance of serenity for improving quality of life. Conclusions: A minimal improvement in the quality of basic housing can significantly increase sleep quality and quality of life among slum dwellers. Understanding sleep and daily life conditions in informal urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity. Citation: Simonelli G; Leanza Y; Boilard A; Hyland M; Augustinavicius JL; Cardinali DP; Vallières A; Pérez-Chada D; Vigo DE. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty

  3. Impact of Environment and Social Gradient on Leptospira Infection in Urban Slums

    PubMed Central

    Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Santana, Francisco S.; Mohr, Sharif; Melendez, Astrid X. T. O.; Queiroz, Adriano; Santos, Andréia C.; Ravines, Romy R.; Tassinari, Wagner S.; Carvalho, Marília S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2008-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis has become an urban health problem as slum settlements have expanded worldwide. Efforts to identify interventions for urban leptospirosis have been hampered by the lack of population-based information on Leptospira transmission determinants. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of Leptospira infection and identify risk factors for infection in the urban slum setting. Methods and Findings We performed a community-based survey of 3,171 slum residents from Salvador, Brazil. Leptospira agglutinating antibodies were measured as a marker for prior infection. Poisson regression models evaluated the association between the presence of Leptospira antibodies and environmental attributes obtained from Geographical Information System surveys and indicators of socioeconomic status and exposures for individuals. Overall prevalence of Leptospira antibodies was 15.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.0–16.8). Households of subjects with Leptospira antibodies clustered in squatter areas at the bottom of valleys. The risk of acquiring Leptospira antibodies was associated with household environmental factors such as residence in flood-risk regions with open sewers (prevalence ratio [PR] 1.42, 95% CI 1.14–1.75) and proximity to accumulated refuse (1.43, 1.04–1.88), sighting rats (1.32, 1.10–1.58), and the presence of chickens (1.26, 1.05–1.51). Furthermore, low income and black race (1.25, 1.03–1.50) were independent risk factors. An increase of US$1 per day in per capita household income was associated with an 11% (95% CI 5%–18%) decrease in infection risk. Conclusions Deficiencies in the sanitation infrastructure where slum inhabitants reside were found to be environmental sources of Leptospira transmission. Even after controlling for environmental factors, differences in socioeconomic status contributed to the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that effective prevention of leptospirosis may need to address the social

  4. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented. PMID:1509300

  5. Burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in a semi-urban slum in southern India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background India has seen rapid unorganized urbanization in the past few decades. However, the burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition in such populations is difficult to quantify. The morbidity experience of children living in semi-urban slums of a southern Indian city is described. Methods A total of 176 children were recruited pre-weaning from four geographically adjacent, semi-urban slums located in the western outskirts of Vellore, Tamil Nadu for a study on water safety and enteric infections and received either bottled or municipal drinking water based on their area of residence. Children were visited weekly at home and had anthropometry measured monthly until their second birthday. Results A total of 3932 episodes of illness were recorded during the follow-up period, resulting in an incidence of 12.5 illnesses/child-year, with more illness during infancy than in the second year of life. Respiratory, mostly upper respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal illnesses were most common. Approximately one-third of children were stunted at two years of age, and two-thirds had at least one episode of growth failure during the two years of follow up. No differences in morbidity were seen between children who received bottled and municipal water. Conclusions Our study found a high burden of childhood diseases and malnutrition among urban slum dwellers in southern India. Frequent illnesses may adversely impact children’s health and development, besides placing an additional burden on families who need to seek healthcare and find resources to manage illness. PMID:23360429

  6. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  7. Indian Americans in Southside Minneapolis: Additional Field Notes From the Urban Slum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Richard P.; And Others

    A survey conducted by 8 University of Minnesota students was taken in the urban slum of Minneapolis. The survey was concerned with the contemporary situation of urban American Indians and with the attitudes of local businessmen toward urban Indians. The method used involved recording respondent's answers, and much of the content of the…

  8. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to Leptospirosis among urban slum residents in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Reis, Renato B; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Hagan, José E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Costa, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Leptospirosis among Urban Slum Residents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Navegantes de Araújo, Wildo; Finkmoore, Brooke; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Reis, Renato B.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Hagan, José E.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Costa, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities. PMID:23269657

  10. Social Determinants, Suboptimal Health Behavior, and Morbidity in Urban Slum Population: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Palipudi VenkataTrinadaKrishna; Bansal, Rajkumar K.

    2008-01-01

    Improving the health of urban residents, particularly those living in slum areas, requires an integrated approach. Appropriate interventions must be based on a well-grounded understanding of health determinants. Social factors are as important as physical factors in determining health status and suggest alternative interventions. Employment, stress, social exclusion, social support, substance use, nutrition, transport, and conditions during childhood are among the most important social determinants of health status identified by the International Center for Health and Society. This paper uses social determinants of health approach to understand morbidity outcomes for people residing in the slums of Surat City, India. To quantify suboptimal health behavior and identify the determinants of health status for this population survey data on household characteristics, health-seeking behavior, socioeconomic status, food and personal habits, social life, and physical activity has been used. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, logistic regression analysis reveals that social exclusion, stress, and lack of social support are significantly associated with morbidity. Thus, understanding of social determinants of health by policy makers is important as the health sector has a crucial role in addressing disparities in social determinants. PMID:18404392

  11. Menstrual pattern, sexual behaviors, and contraceptive use among postpartum women in Nairobi urban slums.

    PubMed

    Ndugwa, Robert P; Cleland, John; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Zulu, Eliya M

    2011-06-01

    Postpartum months provide a challenging period for poor women. This study examined patterns of menstrual resumption, sexual behaviors and contraceptive use among urban poor postpartum women. Women were eligible for this study if they had a birth after the period September 2006 and were residents of two Nairobi slums of Korogocho and Viwandani. The two communities are under continuous demographic surveillance. A monthly calendar type questionnaire was administered retrospectively to cover the period since birth to the interview date and data on sexual behavior, menstrual resumption, breastfeeding patterns, and contraception were collected. The results show that sexual resumption occurs earlier than menses and postpartum contraceptive use. Out of all postpartum months where women were exposed to the risk of another pregnancy, about 28% were months where no contraceptive method was used. Menstrual resumption acts as a trigger for initiating contraceptive use with a peak of contraceptive initiation occurring shortly after the first month when menses are reported. There was no variation in contraceptive method choice between women who initiate use before and after menstrual resumption. Overall, poor postpartum women in marginalized areas such as slums experience an appreciable risk of unintended pregnancy. Postnatal visits and other subsequent health system contacts provide opportunities for reaching postpartum women with a need for family planning services.

  12. Poor Perinatal Care Practices in Urban Slums: Possible Role of Social Mobilization Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zulfia; Mehnaz, Saira; Khalique, Najam; Ansari, Mohd Athar; Siddiqui, Abdul Razzaque

    2009-01-01

    Background: Making perinatal care accessible to women in marginalized periurban areas poses a public health problem. Many women do not utilize institutional care in spite of physical accessibility. Home-based care by traditional birth attendants (TBA) is hazardous. Inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices are common. Many barriers to perinatal care can be overcome by social mobilization and capacity building at the community level. Objectives: To determine the existing perinatal practices in an urban slum and to identify barriers to utilization of health services by mothers. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting and Participants: The high-risk periurban areas of Nabi Nagar, Aligarh has a population of 40,000 living in 5,480 households. Mothers delivering babies in September 2007 were identified from records of social mobilization workers (Community Mobilization Coordinators or CMCs) already working in an NGO in the area. A total of 92 mothers were interviewed at home. Current perinatal practices and reasons for utilizing or not utilizing health services were the topics of inquiry. Statistical Analysis: Data was tabulated and analyzed using SPSS 12. Results: Analyses revealed that 80.4% of mothers had received antenatal care. However, this did not translate into safe delivery practices as more than 60% of the women had home deliveries conducted by traditional untrained or trained birth attendants. Reasons for preferring home deliveries were mostly tradition (41.9%) or related to economics (30.7%). A total of 56% of the deliveries were conducted in the squatting position and in 25% of the cases, the umbilical cord was cut using the edge of a broken cup. Although breast-feeding was universal, inappropriate early neonatal feeding practices were common. Prelacteal feeds were given to nearly 50% of the babies and feeding was delayed beyond 24 hours in 8% of the cases. Several mothers had breastfeeding problems. Conclusion: Barriers to

  13. Food Store Choice Among Urban Slum Women Is Associated With Consumption of Energy-Dense Food.

    PubMed

    Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. PMID:27208014

  14. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  15. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  16. Public Health Risks in Urban Slums: Findings of the Qualitative ‘Healthy Kitchens Healthy Cities’ Study in Kathmandu, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Manandah, Shraddha; Sah, Dilip; Khanal, Sudeepa; MacGuire, Frances; King, Rebecca; Wallace, Hilary; Baral, Sushil Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Communities in urban slums face multiple risks to their health. These are shaped by intermediary and structural determinants. Gaining a clear understanding of these determinants is a prerequisite for developing interventions to reduce the health consequences of urban poverty. With 828 million people living in slum conditions, the need to find ways to reduce risks to health has never been greater. In many low income settings, the kitchen is the epicentre of activities and behaviours which either undermine or enhance health. Methods We used qualitative methods of semi-structured interviews, observation and participatory workshops in two slum areas in Kathmandu, Nepal to gain women’s perspectives on the health risks they faced in and around their kitchens. Twenty one women were interviewed and four participatory workshops with a total of 69 women were held. The women took photographs of their kitchens to trigger discussions. Findings The main health conditions identified by the women were respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease and burn injuries. Women clearly understood intermediary (psychosocial, material and behavioural) determinants to these health conditions such as poor ventilation, cooking on open fires, over-crowding, lack of adequate child supervision. Women articulated the stress they experienced and clearly linked this to health conditions such as heart disease and uptake of smoking. They were also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. Subsequent analysis highlighted how female headed-households and those with disabilities had to contend with greater risks to health. Conclusions Women living in slums are very aware of the intermediary determinants–material, behavioural and psycho-social, that increase their vulnerability to ill health. They are also able to identify protective factors, particularly social capital. It is only by understanding the determinants at all levels, not just the behavioural, that we

  17. Access to Health Services Among Slum Dwellers in an Industrial Township and Surrounding Rural Areas: A Rapid Epidemiological Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitav; Bhawalkar, J.S.; Jadhav, S.L.; Rathod, Hetal; Khedkar, D.T.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The biggest challenge in implementing the primary health care principles is of equitable distribution of health care to all. The rural masses and urban slum dwellers are most vulnerable to lack of access to health care. Aim: To study access to health services among slum dwellers and rural population. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional survey in an urban slum and surrounding rural areas in field practice area of a medical college. Materials and Methods: Structured instrument along with qualitative techniques such as focus group discussions, were used to collect information on access and utilization of health services from 865 individuals of both sexes and all ages selected from urban slums, villages, and indoor and outdoor patients. Access to basic determinants of good health such as housing, water, and sanitation was also elicited. Besides, health needs based on self-reported disease conditions were compiled. Results: More than 50% of respondents were living in poor housing and insanitary conditions. Besides the burden of communicable diseases and malnutrition (especially in children), risk of lifestyle diseases as evidenced by high Body mass index in 25% of adults surveyed was found. Private medical practitioners were more accessible than government facilities. More than 60% sought treatment from private medical facilities for their own ailments (for sickness in children this proportion was 74%). People who visited government facilities were more dissatisfied with the services (30.88%) than those who visited private facilities (18.31%). This difference was significant (OR=1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.40 to 2.88; χ2 =15.95, df=1, P=0.007). The main barriers to health care identified were waiting time long, affordability, poor quality of care, distance, and attitude of health workers. Conclusion: The underprivileged in India continue to have poor access to basic determinants of good health as well as to curative services from government sources

  18. Induced Abortion Practices in an Urban Indian Slum: Exploring Reasons, Pathways and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Deepanjali; Bharat, Shalini; Chandrakant Gawde, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India. Materials and methods: A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n = 57) using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data. Results: The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions. Conclusion: Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions. PMID:26622312

  19. Tuberculosis DALY-Gap: Spatial and Quantitative Comparison of Disease Burden Across Urban Slum and Non-slum Census Tracts.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Mariel A; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia; Sales, Carolina Maia Martins; Gomes, Teresa; Snyder, Robert E; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Riley, Lee W

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively assess disease burden due to tuberculosis between populations residing in and outside of urban informal settlements in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), or "DALY-gap." Using the 2010 Brazilian census definition of informal settlements as aglomerados subnormais (AGSN), we allocated tuberculosis (TB) DALYs to AGSN vs non-AGSN census tracts based on geocoded addresses of TB cases reported to the Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases in 2005 and 2010. DALYs were calculated based on the 2010 Global Burden of Disease methodology. DALY-gap was calculated as the difference between age-adjusted DALYs/100,000 population between AGSN and non-AGSN. Total TB DALY in Rio in 2010 was 16,731 (266 DALYs/100,000). DALYs were higher in AGSN census tracts (306 vs 236 DALYs/100,000), yielding a DALY-gap of 70 DALYs/100,000. Attributable DALY fraction for living in an AGSN was 25.4%. DALY-gap was highest for males 40-59 years of age (501 DALYs/100,000) and in census tracts with <60% electricity (12,327 DALYs/100,000). DALY-gap comparison revealed spatial and quantitative differences in TB burden between slum vs non-slum census tracts that were not apparent using traditional measures of incidence and mortality. This metric could be applied to compare TB burden or burden for other diseases in mega-cities with large informal settlements for more targeted resource allocation and evaluation of intervention programs.

  20. Dietary Habits of Female Urban Slum-dwellers in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Harsha; Chheda, Purvi; Kehoe, Sarah; Taskar, Vijaya; Brown, Nick; Shivashankaran, Devi; Subbulakshmi, G; Rao, Shobha; Gandhi, Meera; Muley-Lotankar, Priyadarshini; Potdar, Ramesh; Margetts, Barrie; Fall, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    RESEARCH QUESTION: Intakes of micronutrient-rich foods are low among women of child-bearing age living in slums. We investigated relationships between consumption of these foods and socio-demographic variables. METHODOLOGY: A 91-item Food Frequency Questionnaire was administered to women (n=1651) aged 16-40 yrs living in a Mumbai slum. We identified associations between categorical demographic variables and consumption frequency of these foods using chi-square tests. Associations with age and body mass index were investigated using one-way ANOVAs. RESULTS: A quarter of women ate fruit and green leafy vegetables < 3 times per week, Apart from in tea, median consumption of milk and milk products was < twice a week, 16% never consumed non-vegetarian foods. Median consumption of non-vegetarian foods was 4.5 times per week. Women employed in unskilled jobs and those whose husbands had skilled occupations ate green leafy vegetables more frequently. Participants educated to tertiary level consumed fruit and milk most frequently (p<0.05). PMID:23400755

  1. Performance of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are one approach to addressing the health workforce crisis in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, a pioneer in this area, uses female volunteer CHWs as core workers in its health programs. After 25 years of implementing the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through its community-based mother, newborn and child health interventions. However, the program experienced suboptimal performance among CHWs, with a high percentage of them remaining in their positions but becoming "inactive", not truly participating in daily community health activities. This suggests a need to better understand the relative importance of factors affecting their active participation and to recommend strategies for improving their participation. This mixed-method study included a descriptive correlational design to assess factors relating to level of activity of CHWs and focus group discussions to explore solutions to these problems. A sample of 542 current female CHWs from project areas participated in the survey. Financial incentives were the main factor linked to the activity of CHWs. CHWs who thought that running their families would be difficult without CHW income had more than three times greater odds to become active. In addition, social prestige and positive community feedback to the CHWs were important non-financial factors associated with level of activity. In order to improve volunteer CHWs' performance, a combination of financial and non-financial incentives should be used. PMID:22595068

  2. Performance of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Tasneem, Sakiba; Oliveras, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are one approach to addressing the health workforce crisis in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi NGO, a pioneer in this area, uses female volunteer CHWs as core workers in its health programs. After 25 years of implementing the CHW model in rural areas, BRAC has begun using female CHWs in urban slums through its community-based mother, newborn and child health interventions. However, the program experienced suboptimal performance among CHWs, with a high percentage of them remaining in their positions but becoming "inactive", not truly participating in daily community health activities. This suggests a need to better understand the relative importance of factors affecting their active participation and to recommend strategies for improving their participation. This mixed-method study included a descriptive correlational design to assess factors relating to level of activity of CHWs and focus group discussions to explore solutions to these problems. A sample of 542 current female CHWs from project areas participated in the survey. Financial incentives were the main factor linked to the activity of CHWs. CHWs who thought that running their families would be difficult without CHW income had more than three times greater odds to become active. In addition, social prestige and positive community feedback to the CHWs were important non-financial factors associated with level of activity. In order to improve volunteer CHWs' performance, a combination of financial and non-financial incentives should be used.

  3. Environmental Transmission of Typhoid Fever in an Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Alastair I.; Cosmas, Leonard; Macharia, Daniel; Fields, Barry; Bigogo, Godfrey; Mugoh, Maina; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L.; Wakefield, Jonathan; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteric fever due to Salmonella Typhi (typhoid fever) occurs in urban areas with poor sanitation. While direct fecal-oral transmission is thought to be the predominant mode of transmission, recent evidence suggests that indirect environmental transmission may also contribute to disease spread. Methods Data from a population-based infectious disease surveillance system (28,000 individuals followed biweekly) were used to map the spatial pattern of typhoid fever in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi Kenya, between 2010–2011. Spatial modeling was used to test whether variations in topography and accumulation of surface water explain the geographic patterns of risk. Results Among children less than ten years of age, risk of typhoid fever was geographically heterogeneous across the study area (p = 0.016) and was positively associated with lower elevation, OR = 1.87, 95% CI (1.36–2.57), p <0.001. In contrast, the risk of typhoid fever did not vary geographically or with elevation among individuals less than 6b ten years of age. Conclusions Our results provide evidence of indirect, environmental transmission of typhoid fever among children, a group with high exposure to fecal pathogens in the environment. Spatially targeting sanitation interventions may decrease enteric fever transmission. PMID:26633656

  4. URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AND THE INDIAN SLUM, A CASE STUDY (IN SLUMS AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, EXPERIMENTS IN SELF-HELP, BY MARSHALL B. CLINARD. NEW YORK, THE FREE PRESS, 1966/139-278).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLINARD, MARSHALL B.

    THE DELHI PILOT PROJECT IN URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT, DESIGNED TO STIMULATE CITIZEN PARTICIPATION, INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP, AND SELF- HELP ACTIVITIES TO ALLEVIATE SLUM CONDITIONS, WAS INITIATED BY THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT (AIDED BY FORD FOUNDATION GRANTS) IN 1958. SLUM DWELLERS WERE ORGANIZED INTO--(1) VIKAS SUBHAS (ZONE COUNCILS) OF 15-100…

  5. Spatial Distribution of Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Slum Setting: Role of Socioeconomic Gradient in Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kikuti, Mariana; Cunha, Geraldo M.; Paploski, Igor A. D.; Kasper, Amelia M.; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Tavares, Aline S.; Cruz, Jaqueline S.; Queiroz, Tássia L.; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Santana, Perla M.; Lima, Helena C. A. V.; Calcagno, Juan; Takahashi, Daniele; Gonçalves, André H. O.; Araújo, Josélio M. G.; Gauthier, Kristine; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Kitron, Uriel; Ko, Albert I.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease. Methodology/Principal Findings From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ≤1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with

  6. Emerging changes in reproductive behaviour among married adolescent girls in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2006-05-01

    Structural and social inequalities, a harsh political economy and neglect on the part of the state have made married adolescent girls an extremely vulnerable group in the urban slum environment in Bangladesh. The importance placed on newly married girls' fertility results in high fertility rates and low rates of contraceptive use. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a Dhaka slum from December 2001-January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from among 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. Cultural and social expectations meant that 128 of the girls had borne children before they were emotionally or physically ready. Twenty-seven had terminated their pregnancies, of whom 11 reported they were forced to do so by family members. Poverty, economic conditions, marital insecurity, politics in the household, absence of dowry and rivalry among family, co-wives and in-laws made these young women acquiesce to decisions made by others in order to survive. Young married women's status is changing in urban slum conditions. When their economical productivity takes priority over their reproductive role, the effects on reproductive decision-making within families may be considerable. This paper highlights the vulnerability of young women as they pragmatically make choices within the social and structural constraints in their lives.

  7. Effect of modelling slum populations on influenza spread in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangzhuo; Chu, Shuyu; Chungbaek, Youngyun; Khan, Maleq; Kuhlman, Christopher; Marathe, Achla; Mortveit, Henning; Vullikanti, Anil; Xie, Dawen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This research studies the impact of influenza epidemic in the slum and non-slum areas of Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, by taking proper account of slum demographics and residents’ activities, using a highly resolved social contact network of the 13.8 million residents of Delhi. Methods An SEIR model is used to simulate the spread of influenza on two different synthetic social contact networks of Delhi, one where slums and non-slums are treated the same in terms of their demographics and daily sets of activities and the other, where slum and non-slum regions have different attributes. Results Differences between the epidemic outcomes on the two networks are large. Time-to-peak infection is overestimated by several weeks, and the cumulative infection rate and peak infection rate are underestimated by 10–50%, when slum attributes are ignored. Conclusions Slum populations have a significant effect on influenza transmission in urban areas. Improper specification of slums in large urban regions results in underestimation of infections in the entire population and hence will lead to misguided interventions by policy planners. PMID:27687898

  8. School Enrollment among Urban Non-Slum, Slum and Rural Children in Kenya: Is the Urban Advantage Eroding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugisha, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    For long now, the urban child has been considered to be more likely than his/her rural counterpart in being able to realize the dream of fully participating in school. This observation has mainly been attributed to what is commonly known as the "urban advantage." This "urban advantage" is associated with increased access to facilities such as…

  9. Community perception of Dengue in slum areas of metropolitan city of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Anima; Gupta, Urmila Das; Majumdar, Kunal Kanti; Laskar, Krishna; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Sen, Sumitra

    2008-09-01

    Dengue is one of the major public health problems which can be controlled with active participation of the community. A cross sectional study was conducted in urban field practice area of Calcutta National Medical College to determine perception of general population on the disease Dengue. A total 161 individuals were interviewed regarding the different aspects of the Dengue fever. The result showed that out of total respondents, majority (68.9%) had knowledge that fever is the main symptom of the disease, though only 6.2% knew of retro-orbital pain as the pathognomic symptom of the disease. Out of total respondents 83.3% were unaware regarding modes of transmission of disease and the level of awareness is significantly higher among educated group (p < 0.05). 69.6% were unaware about the prevention of disease but there is no significant variation in relation to literacy status. Regarding awareness about vector control 60% of the respondents belonging to the lower socio economic class were unaware followed by 58.6% of the upper lower class. Only 39.1% had knowledge about breeding places of Aedes aegypti. The main source of information was found to be mass media (65%) and 7% of the respondents did not get any information about Dengue. Specific intervention measures such as Information Education Communication to be provided to the urban slum community for prevention and control of Dengue/Dengue haemorrhagic fever.

  10. Children's health in slum settings.

    PubMed

    Unger, Alon

    2013-10-01

    Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide.

  11. Survey of Hypertension, Diabetes and Obesity in Three Nigerian Urban Slums

    PubMed Central

    PHEABIAN AKINWALE, Olaoluwa; JOHN OYEFARA, Lekan; ADEJOH, Pius; ADEWALE ADENEYE, Adejuwon; KAZEEM ADENEYE, Adeniyi; ADESOLA MUSA, Zaidat; SOLOMON OYEDEJI, Kolawole; AYOBAMI SULYMAN, Medinat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) exist in slums as the inhabitants adopt an urbanized lifestyle which places them at a higher risk for. Lack of knowledge about the morbidity, complications and the method of control contributes to a large percentage of undetected and untreated cases. Methods This cross-sectional survey polled 2,434 respondents from Ijora Oloye, Ajegunle and Makoko, three urban slums in Lagos metropolis, southwestern Nigeria between June 2010 and October 2012. We investigated the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity. Respondents signed consent forms and their health conditions were documented based on self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension and family history using a semi-structured questionnaire. Diagnostic tests; weight and height for body mass index, blood glucose, and blood pressure were performed. Results More than one quarter of the participants were suffering from hypertension and only half of this were diagnosed earlier, while a further few were already on treatment. Therefore on screening, it had been possible to diagnose over three hundred more respondents, who were not previously aware of their health status. The respondents’ BMI showed that more than half of them were either overweight or obese and are at risk for diabetes, while 3.3% were confirmed as being diabetic, with their sugar levels greater than the normal range. Conclusion This study therefore revealed the near absence of screening programs for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity in these urban slums. This was further confirmed by the detection of new and undiagnosed cases of hypertension in about one quarter of the respondents. PMID:26060658

  12. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies.

  13. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  14. Diarrhoeal disease morbidity in children below 5 years in urban slums of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, S; Dosajh, U

    1986-07-01

    To determine the magnitude of morbidity related to diarrhea among children under 5 years of age, a study was carried out in 4 slum areas of Delhi in May-June 1984. Of the 3645 children surveyed, 963 (26.4%) had suffered from 1 or more new episodes of diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. This suggests a mean annual incidence of diarrhea in the slums of Delhi of 7.9 episodes/child, with an average duration of 3.9 days/episode. The mean episodes/child/year ranged from a low of 4.1 in Ballimaran to a high of 11.9 in the Seelampur slum. The incidence of diarrhea was highest in chldren 7-12 months of age (13.6 episodes/year). In 24.2% of the diarrhea episodes, the families sought no medical help. 54.5% of cases were treated by private practitioners, 21% were seen at hospitals, and 0.3% were treated with home remedies. Only 20.2% of mothers of children with diarrhea were familiar with oral rehydration therapy, despite the easy accessibility of information about this treatment in the slum areas. Among the mothers with knowledge of oral rehydration, 47.9% used it for all diarrhea episodes, 33.0% used it for selected episodes, and 19.1% had never used it. A higher incidence of diarrhea was found among children living in homes where unfiltered water from handpumps was used for drinking or where residents defecated in open fields. Children with grade 2 or 3 malnutrition also showed a higher incidence of diarrhea. Among the socioeconomic parameters, diarrhea was positively associated with low female income and illiteracy on the part of the mother. Finally, infants who were exclusively breastfed had a lower incidence of diarrhea than those who were receiving supplementary feedings.

  15. Urban Futures - Innovation Engines or Slums? A Stellar Evolution Model of Urban Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutters, S. T.; Timmes, F.; Desouza, K.

    2015-12-01

    Why, as cities grow in size and density, do some "ignite" into global engines of innovation and prosperity while others grow into dense slums? This is our overarching question as we explore a novel framework for thinking about the evolution of cities and, more specifically, the divergent trajectories they may take. We develop a speculative framework by examining the analogies between the evolution of cities and the evolution of stars. Like cities, stellar gas clouds can grow in mass, eventually reaching temperature and density thresholds at which they ignite the hydrogen fuel in their cores to become full-fledged stars. But not all gas and dust clouds share this fate. Some never achieve the critical conditions and do not unleash the energy we witness emanating from our own star. Some stars, after exhaustion of their initial fuel, evolve to incredible density but lack the temperature to ignite the next fuel needed to maintain the critical interactions that release so much energy. Instead they fade away to an object of intense density, but without the vibrant emission of light and energy associated with non-degenerate stars. The fate of cities, too, depends on the density of interactions - not of gas molecules, but of people. This elevated rate of face-to-face interactions in an urban core is critical for the transition to an innovative and creative economy. Yet, density is not enough, as evidenced both by many megacities in the developing world and degenerate stars. What is this missing element that, along with density, ignites a city and turns it into an innovation engine? With these analogies in mind, we explore whether they are useful for framing future research on cities, what questions they may help pose, and, more broadly, how physical, social, and natural scientists can all contribute to an interdisciplinary endeavor to understand cities more deeply.

  16. Obesity patterns among women in a slum area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joao G; Falcão, Romero W; Pinto, Renato A; Correia, Jailson B

    2011-06-01

    High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour diet recall questionnaire, data were collected from 632 women aged 20-60 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29% and 17% respectively. Physical inactivity was found in 17% of the women; 12% of them had short stature, and 44% had energy intake below the recommended dietary allowance. Results of multiple logistic regression showed that overweight/obesity differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the following aspects: abdominal circumference, energy intake, and short stature. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity was found in a very poor community associated with high-energy intake and short stature.

  17. Why women choose to give birth at home: a situational analysis from urban slums of Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Devasenapathy, Niveditha; George, Mathew Sunil; Ghosh Jerath, Suparna; Singh, Archna; Negandhi, Himanshu; Alagh, Gursimran; Shankar, Anuraj H; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increasing institutional births is an important strategy for attaining Millennium Development Goal -5. However, rapid growth of low income and migrant populations in urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, including India, presents unique challenges for programmes to improve utilisation of institutional care. Better understanding of the factors influencing home or institutional birth among the urban poor is urgently needed to enhance programme impact. To measure the prevalence of home and institutional births in an urban slum population and identify factors influencing these events. Design Cross-sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative methods. Setting Urban poor settlements in Delhi, India. Participants A house-to-house survey was conducted of all households in three slum clusters in north-east Delhi (n=32 034 individuals). Data on birthing place and sociodemographic characteristics were collected using structured questionnaires (n=6092 households). Detailed information on pregnancy and postnatal care was obtained from women who gave birth in the past 3 months (n=160). Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders from the community and healthcare facilities. Results Of the 824 women who gave birth in the previous year, 53% (95% CI 49.7 to 56.6) had given birth at home. In adjusted analyses, multiparity, low literacy and migrant status were independently predictive of home births. Fear of hospitals (36%), comfort of home (20.7%) and lack of social support for child care (12.2%) emerged as the primary reasons for home births. Conclusions Home births are frequent among the urban poor. This study highlights the urgent need for improvements in the quality and hospitality of client services and need for family support as the key modifiable factors affecting over two-thirds of this population. These findings should inform the design of strategies to promote institutional births. PMID:24852297

  18. Partnership in Action: Introducing Family-Based Intervention for Children with Disability in Urban Slums of Kolkata, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the processes and findings of a three-year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two…

  19. Immunization in urban areas: issues and strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, S. J.; Cheyne, J.

    1994-01-01

    In the past, immunization programmes have focused primarily on rural areas. However, with the recognition of the increasing numbers of urban poor, it is timely to review urban immunization activities. This update addresses two questions: Is there any need to be concerned about urban immunization and, if so, is more of the same kind of rural EPI activity needed or are there specific urban issues that need specific urban strategies? Vaccine-preventable diseases have specific urban patterns that require efficacious vaccines for younger children, higher target coverage levels, and particular focus to ensure national and global eradication of poliomyelitis. Although aggregate coverage levels are higher in urban than rural areas, gaps are masked since capital cities are better covered than other urban areas and the coverage in the poorest slum and periurban areas within cities is as bad as or worse than that in rural areas. Difficult access to immunization services in terms of distance, costs, and time can still be the main barrier in some parts of the city. Mobilization and motivation strategies in urban areas should make use of the mass media and workplace networks as well as the traditional word-of-mouth strategies. Use of community health workers has been successful in some urban settings. Management issues concern integration of the needs of the poor into a coherent city health plan, coordination of different health providers, and clear lines of responsibility for addressing the needs of new, urbanizing areas. PMID:8205637

  20. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5–6 days/week, but close by 4–5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  1. Who serves the urban poor? A geospatial and descriptive analysis of health services in slum settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alayne M; Islam, Rubana; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2015-03-01

    In Bangladesh, the health risks of unplanned urbanization are disproportionately shouldered by the urban poor. At the same time, affordable formal primary care services are scarce, and what exists is almost exclusively provided by non-government organizations (NGOs) working on a project basis. So where do the poor go for health care? A health facility mapping of six urban slum settlements in Dhaka was undertaken to explore the configuration of healthcare services proximate to where the poor reside. Three methods were employed: (1) Social mapping and listing of all Health Service Delivery Points (HSDPs); (2) Creation of a geospatial map including Global Positioning System (GPS) co-ordinates of all HSPDs in the six study areas and (3) Implementation of a facility survey of all HSDPs within six study areas. Descriptive statistics are used to examine the number, type and concentration of service provider types, as well as indicators of their accessibility in terms of location and hours of service. A total of 1041 HSDPs were mapped, of which 80% are privately operated and the rest by NGOs and the public sector. Phamacies and non-formal or traditional doctors make up 75% of the private sector while consultation chambers account for 20%. Most NGO and Urban Primary Health Care Project (UPHCP) static clinics are open 5-6 days/week, but close by 4-5 pm in the afternoon. Evening services are almost exclusively offered by private HSDPs; however, only 37% of private sector health staff possess some kind of formal medical qualification. This spatial analysis of health service supply in poor urban settlements emphasizes the importance of taking the informal private sector into account in efforts to increase effective coverage of quality services. Features of informal private sector service provision that have facilitated market penetration may be relevant in designing formal services that better meet the needs of the urban poor. PMID:25759453

  2. Operational feasibility and bio-efficacy of alphacypermethrin (Fendona) treated jute curtains to control urban malaria in a slum settlement of Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M A; Razdan, R K

    2002-01-01

    Operational feasibility and bio-efficacy of alphacypermethrin treated curtains was evaluated in slum settlements of Andrews Ganj, New Delhi. Jute curtains treated with alphacypermethrin @ 100 mg/m2 were fixed on windows, doors and eves before on set of transmission and evaluations were carried out for two years. Entomological evaluation revealed that jute curtains treated with alphacypermethrin in Slum-I resulted drastic reduction in daytime indoor resting mosquitoes such as An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Similarly, malaria incidence also reduced in the treated curtain used area when compared to that of in untreated curtain and without curtain areas. Bioassay tests on An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus showed that alphacypermethrin could produce > 70 per cent mortality up to six months in case of An. stephensi--a principal urban malaria vector and hence two rounds of treatment are sufficient in an year to protect inhabitants from malaria. The study indicates alphacypermethrin treated curtains could curtail malaria transmission in slum settlements and is operationally feasible in small houses and is also cost-effective.

  3. The high cost of diarrhoeal illness for urban slum households–a cost-recovery approach: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak B; Stoklosa, Hanni; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Ridpath, Alison; Patil-Deshmuk, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community. Design A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5 weeks. Participants Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included. Results The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163 600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness. Conclusions The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure. PMID:23558731

  4. Contraceptive Adoption, Discontinuation, and Switching among Postpartum Women in Nairobi's Urban Slums.

    PubMed

    Mumah, Joyce N; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Mutua, Michael; Kabiru, Caroline W; Cleland, John

    2015-12-01

    Unmet need for contraception is highest within 12 months post-delivery, according to research. Using longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we assess the dynamics of contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Nairobi's slums. Results show that by 6 months postpartum, 83 percent of women had resumed sexual activity and 51 percent had resumed menses, yet only 49 percent had adopted a modern contraceptive method. Furthermore, almost half of women discontinued a modern method within 12 months of initiating use, with many likely to switch to another short-term method with high method-related dissatisfaction. Women who adopted a method after resumption of menses had higher discontinuation rates, though the effect was much reduced after adjusting for other variables. To reduce unmet need, effective intervention programs are essential to lower high levels of discontinuation and encourage switching to more effective methods. PMID:26643488

  5. Contraceptive Adoption, Discontinuation, and Switching among Postpartum Women in Nairobi's Urban Slums

    PubMed Central

    Mumah, Joyce N.; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Mutua, Michael; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Cleland, John

    2015-01-01

    Unmet need for contraception is highest within 12 months post‐delivery, according to research. Using longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we assess the dynamics of contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Nairobi's slums. Results show that by 6 months postpartum, 83 percent of women had resumed sexual activity and 51 percent had resumed menses, yet only 49 percent had adopted a modern contraceptive method. Furthermore, almost half of women discontinued a modern method within 12 months of initiating use, with many likely to switch to another short‐term method with high method‐related dissatisfaction. Women who adopted a method after resumption of menses had higher discontinuation rates, though the effect was much reduced after adjusting for other variables. To reduce unmet need, effective intervention programs are essential to lower high levels of discontinuation and encourage switching to more effective methods. PMID:26643488

  6. Contraceptive Adoption, Discontinuation, and Switching among Postpartum Women in Nairobi's Urban Slums.

    PubMed

    Mumah, Joyce N; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Mutua, Michael; Kabiru, Caroline W; Cleland, John

    2015-12-01

    Unmet need for contraception is highest within 12 months post-delivery, according to research. Using longitudinal data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System, we assess the dynamics of contraceptive use during the postpartum period among women in Nairobi's slums. Results show that by 6 months postpartum, 83 percent of women had resumed sexual activity and 51 percent had resumed menses, yet only 49 percent had adopted a modern contraceptive method. Furthermore, almost half of women discontinued a modern method within 12 months of initiating use, with many likely to switch to another short-term method with high method-related dissatisfaction. Women who adopted a method after resumption of menses had higher discontinuation rates, though the effect was much reduced after adjusting for other variables. To reduce unmet need, effective intervention programs are essential to lower high levels of discontinuation and encourage switching to more effective methods.

  7. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices. PMID:27066081

  8. Human rights and reproductive health: political realities and pragmatic choices for married adolescent women living in urban slums, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh, particularly in urban slums, married adolescent women’s human rights to life, health, and reproductive and sexual health remain adversely affected because of the structural inequalities and political economic, social and cultural conditions which shape how rights are understood, negotiated and lived. Methods The focus of the research and methods was anthropological. An initial survey of 153 married adolescent women was carried out and from this group, 50 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected participants and, from the in-depth interviews, a further eight case studies of women and their families were selected for in-depth repeated interviews and case histories. Results This paper speaks of the unanticipated complexities when writing on reproductive rights for poor adolescent women living in the slums, where the discourses on ‘universal human rights’ are often removed from the reality of adolescent women’s everyday lives. Married adolescent women and their families remain extremely vulnerable in the unpredictable, crime-prone and insecure urban slum landscape because of their age, gender and poverty. Adolescent women’s understanding of their rights such as the decision to marry early, have children, terminate pregnancies and engage in risky sexual behaviour, are different from the widely accepted discourse on rights globally, which assumes a particular kind of individual thinking and discourse on rights and a certain autonomy women have over their bodies and their lives. This does not necessarily exist in urban slum populations. Conclusions The lived experiences and decisions made pertaining to sexual and reproductive health and ‘rights’ exercised by married adolescent women, their families and slum communities, allow us to reflect on the disconnect between the international legal human rights frameworks as applied to sexual and reproductive health rights, and how these are played out on the ground. These notions are

  9. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces.

  10. Real or perceived: the environmental health risks of urban sack gardening in Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, Courtney Maloof; Mwaniki, Dennis; Njenga, Mary; Karanja, Nancy K; WinklerPrins, Antoinette M G A

    2013-03-01

    Cities around the world are undergoing rapid urbanization, resulting in the growth of informal settlements or slums. These informal settlements lack basic services, including sanitation, and are associated with joblessness, low-income levels, and insecurity. Families living in such settlements may turn to a variety of strategies to improve their livelihoods and household food security, including urban agriculture. However, given the lack of formal sanitation services in most of these informal settlements, residents are frequently exposed to a number of environmental risks, including biological and chemical contaminants. In the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya, households practice a form of urban agriculture called sack gardening, or vertical gardening, where plants such as kale and Swiss chard are planted into large sacks filled with soil. Given the nature of farming in slum environments, farmers and consumers of this produce in Kibera are potentially exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants due to the lack of formal sanitation systems. Our research demonstrates that perceived and actual environmental risks, in terms of contamination of food crops from sack gardening, are not the same. Farmers perceived exposure to biological contaminants to be the greatest risk to their food crops, but we found that heavy metal contamination was also significant risk. By demonstrating this disconnect between risk perception and actual risk, we wish to inform debates about how to appropriately promote urban agriculture in informal settlements, and more generally about the trade-offs created by farming in urban spaces. PMID:23512752

  11. Whether and where to Enrol? Choosing a Primary School in the Slums of Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Slums account for around a third of the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and are thought to be growing rapidly. But there is little in the research literature about education of children who live in slums and it is doubtful whether they are covered in official statistics such as those on enrolment rates. This paper addresses this gap with…

  12. Environmental sources of Cryptosporidium in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Wuhib, T; Lima, A A; Guerrant, R L; Sears, C L

    1993-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrheal disease in children worldwide. To elucidate the environmental sources of this parasite, we selected an urban slum in Fortaleza, Brazil, a community with a known high incidence of cryptosporidiosis, and examined both stool smears from household animals (n = 127) and filtrates from local water sources (n = 18) for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Because previous work in this community has demonstrated the seasonal nature of human infection with Cryptosporidium, collections were made separately for the dry and rainy seasons. Of the 64 stools collected during the dry season (September-December 1990), four (6.3%) were positive by acid-fast staining for Cryptosporidium. Of the 63 rainy season samples (March-May 1991), nine (14.3%) were positive. Overall, oocysts were detected in 13 (10.2%) of 127 animal stool samples. Freshwater samples were obtained from a variety of sources including open and closed wells, and running city water and then processed. Four of 18 samples (22.2%), including a sample from city water were positive by at least one of two staining techniques (acid-fast and immunofluorescence). In summary, animals may serve as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium, with potential for the contamination of immediate household water sources. These findings may help to explain the high incidence of cryptosporidiosis among infants in this impoverished community.

  13. Use of Population-based Surveillance to Determine the Incidence of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in an Urban Slum and a Rural Setting in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Robert F.; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Mwiti, William; Njuguna, Henry; Bigogo, Godfrey M.; Olack, Beatrice; Ochieng, John B.; Wamola, Newton; Montgomery, Joel M.; Williamson, John; Parashar, Umesh D.; Burton, Deron C.; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a major cause of mortality among children <2 years of age. Disease burden data are important for introducing and sustaining new rotavirus vaccines in immunization programs. Methods We analyzed population-based infectious disease surveillance data from 2007 to 2010 from Kenyan sites in rural and urban slum areas. Stool specimens were collected from patients of all ages presenting to study clinics with diarrheal disease and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay. Incidence rates were adjusted using data on healthcare utilization (from biweekly home visits) and proportion of stools collected at study clinics from patients meeting case definitions. Results Rotavirus was detected in 285 (9.0%) of 3174 stools tested, including 122 (11.9%) from children <5 years of age and 162 (7.6%) from participants ≥5 years of age. Adjusted incidence rates for infants were 13,419 and 12,135 per 100,000 person-years of observation in rural and urban areas, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were high in adults across age ranges. The rates suggest that annually, among children <5 years of age, there are >54,500 cases of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis in rural Nyanza Province and >16,750 cases in Nairobi urban slums. Conclusions Community-based surveillance in urban and rural Kenya suggests that rotavirus plays an important role as a cause of acute gastroenteritis in adults, as well as in children. In addition to substantially preventing illness and complications from diarrheal disease in children, rotavirus infant immunization has the potential of indirectly preventing diarrheal disease in older children and adults, assuming children are the predominant sources of transmission. PMID:24343615

  14. Spatiotemporal Determinants of Urban Leptospirosis Transmission: Four-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Slum Residents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, José E.; Moraga, Paula; Costa, Federico; Capian, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D. M.; Reis, Renato B.; Nery, Nivison; Santana, Francisco S.; Fraga, Deborah; dos Santos, Balbino L.; Santos, Andréia C.; Queiroz, Adriano; Tassinari, Wagner; Carvalho, Marilia S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Diggle, Peter J.; Ko, Albert I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rat-borne leptospirosis is an emerging zoonotic disease in urban slum settlements for which there are no adequate control measures. The challenge in elucidating risk factors and informing approaches for prevention is the complex and heterogeneous environment within slums, which vary at fine spatial scales and influence transmission of the bacterial agent. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a prospective study of 2,003 slum residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil during a four-year period (2003–2007) and used a spatiotemporal modelling approach to delineate the dynamics of leptospiral transmission. Household interviews and Geographical Information System surveys were performed annually to evaluate risk exposures and environmental transmission sources. We completed annual serosurveys to ascertain leptospiral infection based on serological evidence. Among the 1,730 (86%) individuals who completed at least one year of follow-up, the infection rate was 35.4 (95% CI, 30.7–40.6) per 1,000 annual follow-up events. Male gender, illiteracy, and age were independently associated with infection risk. Environmental risk factors included rat infestation (OR 1.46, 95% CI, 1.00–2.16), contact with mud (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.17–2.17) and lower household elevation (OR 0.92 per 10m increase in elevation, 95% CI 0.82–1.04). The spatial distribution of infection risk was highly heterogeneous and varied across small scales. Fixed effects in the spatiotemporal model accounted for the majority of the spatial variation in risk, but there was a significant residual component that was best explained by the spatial random effect. Although infection risk varied between years, the spatial distribution of risk associated with fixed and random effects did not vary temporally. Specific “hot-spots” consistently had higher transmission risk during study years. Conclusions/Significance The risk for leptospiral infection in urban slums is determined in large part by

  15. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  16. Migration and labour characteristics of slum dwellers in Bombay.

    PubMed

    Desai, V

    1994-03-01

    This article presents a description of the migration and labor force characteristics of a sample of Bombay households in three slum areas. Interviews were conducted among 135 households in 1989. Slum areas were both similar and different from one another. Wadala slum had a large migrant population and a more integrated community structure. Slum dwellers tended to retain assets at their place of origin and were from agricultural areas in south Maharashtra. A greater proportion had close kin living in Wadala. Slum dwellers tended to be better-educated, formal-sector workers. Worli slum was less affluent and less close-knit. Migrants were mostly external migrants from Uttar and Andhra Pradesh. Kurla slum was the oldest slum area and had mixed traits. Kin interaction was voluntary and selective and flexible. The decision to return was unrelated to years spent in Bombay. Survey findings indicate that all areas had roughly equal proportions of internal and external migrants. Villagers migrated to cities due to unemployment in villages and the opportunity for social mobility and better employment. This analysis indicates that community-based politics were more influenced by state concerns than by the attributes of settlers or settlement types. State policies and market forces constrained poor people's housing options. The cost of urban housing and amenities rises as population density increases. The demand in urban areas for public services, housing, and infrastructure increases due to expanding populations, inadequate and deteriorating facilities, and social pressures. Governments are constrained by high debt levels and inadequate revenues. National agencies may be inefficient in the provision of services and infrastructure. There is growing pressure on international donors and developing country governments to reexamine the role of the private sector in financing and providing services and infrastructure.

  17. Linear growth increased in young children in an urban slum of Haiti: a randomized controlled trial of a lipid-based nutrient supplement123

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Lora L; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Green, Jamie; Joseph, Saminetha; François, Judith; Anténor, Marie-Lucie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Mounce, Jacqueline; Nickerson, Nathan M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Haiti has experienced rapid urbanization that has exacerbated poverty and undernutrition in large slum areas. Stunting affects 1 in 5 young children. Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a daily lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) for increased linear growth in young children. Design: Healthy, singleton infants aged 6–11 mo (n = 589) were recruited from an urban slum of Cap Haitien and randomly assigned to receive: 1) a control; 2) a 3-mo LNS; or 3) a 6-mo LNS. The LNS provided 108 kcal and other nutrients including vitamin A, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc at ≥80% of the recommended amounts. Infants were followed monthly on growth, morbidity, and developmental outcomes over a 6-mo intervention period and at one additional time point 6 mo postintervention to assess sustained effects. The Bonferroni multiple comparisons test was applied, and generalized least-squares (GLS) regressions with mixed effects was used to examine impacts longitudinally. Results: Baseline characteristics did not differ by trial arm except for a higher mean age in the 6-mo LNS group. GLS modeling showed LNS supplementation for 6 mo significantly increased the length-for-age z score (±SE) by 0.13 ± 0.05 and the weight-for-age z score by 0.12 ± 0.02 compared with in the control group after adjustment for child age (P < 0.001). The effects were sustained 6 mo postintervention. Morbidity and developmental outcomes did not differ by trial arm. Conclusion: A low-energy, fortified product improved the linear growth of young children in this urban setting. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01552512. PMID:24225356

  18. A population-based survey of prevalence of diabetes and correlates in an urban slum community in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slum populations in Africa continue to grow faster than national populations. Health strategies that focus on non-communicable diseases (NCD) in this segment of the population are generally lacking. We determined the prevalence of diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors correlates in Kibera, Nairobi’s largest slum. Methods We conducted a population-based household survey utilising cluster sampling with probability proportional to size. Households were selected using a random walk method and consenting residents aged 18 years and above were recruited. The WHO STEPS instrument was administered. A random capillary blood sugar (RCBS) was obtained; known persons with diabetes and subjects with a RCBS >11.1 had an 8 hours fasting blood sugar (FBS) drawn. Diabetes was defined as a RCBS of ≥ 11.1 mmol/l and a FBS of ≥ 7.0 mmol/l, or a prior diagnosis or receiving diabetes drug treatment. Results Out of 2061 enrolled; 50.9% were males, mean age was 33.4 years and 87% had a minimum of primary education. Only 10.6% had ever had a blood sugar measurement. Age adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI 4.2-6.4) and prevalence increased with age peaking at 10.5% (95% CI 6.8-14.3%) in the 45–54 year age category. Diabetes mellitus (DM) correlates were: 13.1% smoking, 74.9% alcohol consumption, 75.7% high level of physical activity; 16.3% obese and 29% overweight with higher rates in women. Among persons with diabetes the odds of obesity, elevated waist circumference and hypertension were three, two and three fold respectively compared to those without diabetes. Cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with diabetes were high and mirrored that of the entire sample; however they had a significantly higher use of tobacco. Conclusions This previously unstudied urban slum has a high prevalence of DM yet low screening rates. Key correlates include cigarette smoking and high alcohol consumption. However high

  19. Trials and tribulations of conducting interventional studies in urban slums of a developing country: Experiences from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Pal, Debottam; Saha, Jayanta; Lopez, AnnaLena; Ali, Mohammad; Bannerjee, Barnali; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit; Kanungo, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies involving human subjects provide most internally valid evidences in epidemiological research due to their robust methodology. While conducting population-based interventional studies, to achieve external validity, inclusion of information from vulnerable groups like urban slum-dwellers of the developing world, in the epidemiological estimates is of paramount importance. The challenges faced while conducting 2 consecutive large-scale, community-based vaccine trials in urban slums of Kolkata, India are presented in this article. Interventions in these communities often get constrained by issues pertaining to human rights and benefits, socio-cultural factors, political environment, methodological shortcomings in addition to the challenges in ensuring community participation. While conducting these trials although we intermittently faced obstacles, by virtue of having a long term and robust surveillance system and developing a trusted relationship between the researchers, community leaders and residents we were able to come up with a commendable community participation which culminated into the success of the interventions. Bridging the gap between research and field operations by incorporating knowledge gathered from interventional studies and making strategies to improve health conditions of these informal settlers is a major unfulfilled agenda. We believe the lessons learnt during our research will help researchers while developing efficient interventions in similar setting.

  20. Trials and tribulations of conducting interventional studies in urban slums of a developing country: Experiences from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Pal, Debottam; Saha, Jayanta; Lopez, AnnaLena; Ali, Mohammad; Bannerjee, Barnali; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit; Kanungo, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies involving human subjects provide most internally valid evidences in epidemiological research due to their robust methodology. While conducting population-based interventional studies, to achieve external validity, inclusion of information from vulnerable groups like urban slum-dwellers of the developing world, in the epidemiological estimates is of paramount importance. The challenges faced while conducting 2 consecutive large-scale, community-based vaccine trials in urban slums of Kolkata, India are presented in this article. Interventions in these communities often get constrained by issues pertaining to human rights and benefits, socio-cultural factors, political environment, methodological shortcomings in addition to the challenges in ensuring community participation. While conducting these trials although we intermittently faced obstacles, by virtue of having a long term and robust surveillance system and developing a trusted relationship between the researchers, community leaders and residents we were able to come up with a commendable community participation which culminated into the success of the interventions. Bridging the gap between research and field operations by incorporating knowledge gathered from interventional studies and making strategies to improve health conditions of these informal settlers is a major unfulfilled agenda. We believe the lessons learnt during our research will help researchers while developing efficient interventions in similar setting. PMID:26224251

  1. In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Palit, Anup; Batabyal, Prasenjit; Kanungo, Suman; Sur, Dipika

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated and determined the potentiality of different water sources, both for drinking and domestic purposes, in diarrheal disease transmission in diarrhea endemic foci of urban slums in Kolkata, India in a one and half year prospective study. Out of 517 water samples, collected from different sources, stored water (washing) showed higher prevalence of fecal coliforms (58%) (p < 0.0001) in comparison with stored (drinking) samples (28%) and tap/tubewell water (8%) respectively. Among different sources, stored water (washing) samples had the highest non-permissible range of physico-chemical parameters. Fecal coliform levels in household water containers (washing) were comparatively high and almost 2/3 of these samples failed to reach the satisfactory level of residual chlorine. Interestingly, 7% stored water (washing) samples were found to be harboring Vibrio cholerae Improper usage of stored water and unsafe/poor sanitation practices such as hand washing etc. are highlighted as contributory factors for sustained diarrheal episodes. Vulnerability of stored water for domestic usage, a hitherto unexplored source, at domiciliary level in an urban slum where enteric infections are endemic, is reported for the first time. This attempt highlights the impact of quality of stored water at domiciliary level for fecal-oral contamination vis-à-vis disease transmission.

  2. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Children in an Urban Slum of Karachi

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Hatcher, Juanita; Akhtar, Saeed; Rafique, Ghazala; Beg, Mohammad Asim

    2008-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. The study aimed to estimate prevalence and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among 1 to 5 years old children residing in an urban slum of Karachi Pakistan. Methods and Principal Findings A cross sectional survey was conducted from February to June 2006 in Ghosia Colony Gulshan Town Karachi, Pakistan. A simple random sample of 350 children aged 1–5 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric tools and stool tests to obtain epidemiological and disease data. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods. The mean age of participants was 2.8 years and 53% were male. The proportions of wasted, stunted and underweight children were 10.4%, 58.9% and 32.7% respectively. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 52.8% (95% CI: 46.1; 59.4). Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Blastocystis hominis and Hymenolepis nana. About 43% children were infected with single parasite and 10% with multiple parasites. Age {Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1; 1.9}, living in rented households (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.9) and history of excessive crying (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.4) were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions Intestinal parasites are highly prevalent in this setting and poverty was implicated as an important risk factor for infection. Effective poverty reduction programmes and promotion of deworming could reduce intestinal parasite carriage. There is a need for mass scale campaigns to

  3. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  4. Prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and assessments of their risk factors in urban slums of Bangalore

    PubMed Central

    Dasappa, Hemavathi; Fathima, Farah Naaz; Prabhakar, Rugmani; Sarin, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background: To determine the prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes and to assess the risk factors associated with diabetes and pre-diabetes in the urban slums of Bangalore. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four slums of Bangalore in the age group of 35 years and above comprising of total 2013 subjects. Risk factors like age, sex, family history, behavior, physical activity, BMI, waist hip ration, diet habits were assessed to find their association with diabetes. Results: Prevalence of diabetes was 12.33% and of pre-diabetes was 11.57%. Prevalence was more among the females compared to males. Increasing age, over weight and obesity, sedentary life style, tobacco consumption, diet habits showed statistically significant association with prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes. Conclusion: Physical activity like regular exercises both at the office and at home, fibers-rich diet, blood sugar estimation after 35 years are some of the recommendations which can control diabetes. PMID:26288781

  5. Detecting Slums from Quick Bird Data in Pune Using AN Object Oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.

    2012-07-01

    We have been witnessing a gradual and steady transformation from a pre dominantly rural society to an urban society in India and by 2030, it will have more people living in urban than rural areas. Slums formed an integral part of Indian urbanisation as most of the Indian cities lack in basic needs of an acceptable life. Many efforts are being taken to improve their conditions. To carry out slum renewal programs and monitor its implementation, slum settlements should be recorded to obtain an adequate spatial data base. This can be only achieved through the analysis of remote sensing data with very high spatial resolution. Regarding the occurrences of settlement areas in the remote sensing data pixel-based approach on a high resolution image is unable to represent the heterogeneity of complex urban environments. Hence there is a need for sophisticated method and data for slum analysis. An attempt has been made to detect and discriminate the slums of Pune city by describing typical characteristics of these settlements, by using eCognition software from quick bird data on the basis of object oriented approach. Based on multi resolution segmentation, initial objects were created and further depend on texture, geometry and contextual characteristics of the image objects, they were classified into slums and non-slums. The developed rule base allowed the description of knowledge about phenomena clearly and easily using fuzzy membership functions and the described knowledge stored in the classification rule base led to the best classification with more than 80% accuracy.

  6. Purchase of drinking water is associated with increased child morbidity and mortality among urban slum-dwelling families in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Sari, Mayang; Akhter, Nasima; Bloem, Martin W

    2009-07-01

    In developing countries, poor families in urban slums often do not receive municipal services including water. The objectives of our study were to characterize families who purchased drinking water and to examine the relation between purchasing drinking water and child morbidity and mortality in urban slums of Indonesia, using data collected between 1999 and 2003. Of 143,126 families, 46.8% purchased inexpensive drinking water from street vendors, 47.4% did not purchase water, i.e., had running or spring/well water within household, and 5.8% purchased more expensive water in the previous 7 days. Families that purchased inexpensive drinking water had less educated parents, a more crowded household, a father who smoked, and lower socioeconomic level compared with the other families. Among children of families that purchased inexpensive drinking water, did not purchase drinking water, or purchased more expensive water, the prevalence was, respectively, for diarrhea in last 7 days (11.2%, 8.1%, 7.7%), underweight (28.9%, 24.1%, 24.1%), stunting (35.6%, 30.5%, 30.5%), wasting (12.0%, 10.5%, 10.9%), family history of infant mortality (8.0%, 5.6%, 5.1%), and of under-five child mortality (10.4%, 7.1%, 6.4%) (all P<0.0001). Use of inexpensive drinking water was associated with under-five child mortality (Odds Ratio [O.R.] 1.32, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.20-1.45, P<0.0001) and diarrhea (O.R. 1.43, 95% C.I. 1.29-1.60, P<0.0001) in multivariate logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Purchase of inexpensive drinking water was common and associated with greater child malnutrition, diarrhea, and infant and under-five child mortality in the family. Greater efforts must be made to ensure access to safe drinking water, a basic human right and target of the Millennium Development Goals, in urban slums.

  7. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene. PMID:18821373

  8. Water disinfection and hygiene behaviour in an urban slum in Kenya: impact on childhood diarrhoea and influence of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Graf, Jürg; Meierhofer, Regula; Wegelin, Martin; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-10-01

    In this research project, we studied factors that presumably affect the incidence of diarrhoea among young children in urban slums in developing countries: consumption of safe drinks, hygiene behaviour, cleanliness of household surroundings and the quality of raw water. Beliefs concerning the causes of diarrhoea were also related to health-improving behaviour, namely the application of the water-treatment method SODIS (solar water disinfection) and hygiene behaviour. We conducted a survey in a shanty town in Nairobi, Kenya. Field workers interviewed 500 households. Analysis with regression models revealed that two out of the four postulated factors were significant: children have a lower risk of contracting diarrhoea when they consume high percentages of safe drinks and live in households with good hygiene. As regards beliefs, we found that biomedical knowledge of children's diarrhoea as well as the perceived social norm for treating water was associated with the use of SODIS and good hygiene.

  9. Effect of a school feeding programme on nutritional status and anaemia in an urban slum: a preliminary evaluation in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Neervoort, Femke; von Rosenstiel, Ines; Bongers, Karlien; Demetriades, Matthew; Shacola, Marina; Wolffers, Ivan

    2013-06-01

    To reduce malnutrition and improve child survival, school feeding programmes have been established in many parts of Africa, although prevalence of child malnutrition and anaemia remains high, especially in urban slums. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a school feeding programme in the slums of Nairobi (Kenya) on anaemia and nutritional status, together with an investigation for socioeconomic determinants that may overrule this effect. Sixty-seven children at the St. George primary school in Kibera participated in the school feeding programme for 1 year and data concerning anaemia rate, nutritional status and socioeconomic status were collected during a medical health check. Data were compared with a control group of children attending the same school, of the same age and with the same gender distribution without participation in a feeding programme. Data were analyzed with statistical software (SPSS 17.0). Children participating in the school feeding programme were less stunted (p = 0.02) and wasted (p = 0.02) than children in the control group, and levels of anaemia were lower (p = 0.01). Having no father (p = 0.01) and living in small families (p = 0.003) overruled the effect of the feeding programme. Also, the higher the mother's education, the more wasting was seen (p = 0.04) despite participation in the programme. The programme reduced anaemia and malnutrition and has improved child growth in our study group greatly, but we found that education level of the mother, family size and absence of a father overruled the effect of the school feeding programme. Because sample size of our study is small, we encourage further large-scaled research on reviewing programmatic interventions to develop optimal feeding strategies and improve nutritional status of children.

  10. Material deprivation and unemployment affect coercive sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi: A multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Vearey, Jo; Kabiru, Caroline W; Thomas, Liz

    2015-05-01

    We explore relations among material deprivation (measured by insufficient housing, food insecurity and poor healthcare access), socio-economic status (employment, income and education) and coercive sex. A binary logistic multi-level model is used in the estimation of data from a survey of 1071 young people aged 18-23 years, undertaken between June and July 2013, in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. For young men, unemployment was associated with coercive sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-3.21) while material deprivation (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.75-2.39) was not. Young women in materially deprived households were more likely to report coercive sex (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) than in non-materially deprived households. Analysis of local indicators of deprivation is critical to inform the development of effective strategies to reduce coercive sex in urban slums in Malawi.

  11. Material deprivation and unemployment affect coercive sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi: A multi-level approach.

    PubMed

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Kazembe, Lawrence N; Vearey, Jo; Kabiru, Caroline W; Thomas, Liz

    2015-05-01

    We explore relations among material deprivation (measured by insufficient housing, food insecurity and poor healthcare access), socio-economic status (employment, income and education) and coercive sex. A binary logistic multi-level model is used in the estimation of data from a survey of 1071 young people aged 18-23 years, undertaken between June and July 2013, in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. For young men, unemployment was associated with coercive sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-3.21) while material deprivation (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.75-2.39) was not. Young women in materially deprived households were more likely to report coercive sex (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.07-2.22) than in non-materially deprived households. Analysis of local indicators of deprivation is critical to inform the development of effective strategies to reduce coercive sex in urban slums in Malawi. PMID:25814337

  12. The Sound of Stigmatization: Sonic Habitus, Sonic Styles, and Boundary Work in an Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ori

    2015-07-01

    Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory.

  13. The Sound of Stigmatization: Sonic Habitus, Sonic Styles, and Boundary Work in an Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Ori

    2015-07-01

    Based on focus groups and interviews with student renters in an Israeli slum, the article explores the contributions of differences in sonic styles and sensibilities to boundary work, social categorization, and evaluation. Alongside visual cues such as broken windows, bad neighborhoods are characterized by sonic cues, such as shouts from windows. Students understand "being ghetto" as being loud in a particular way and use loudness as a central resource in their boundary work. Loudness is read as a performative index of class and ethnicity, and the performance of middle-class studentship entails being appalled by stigmatized sonic practices and participating in their exoticization. However, the sonic is not merely yet another resource of boundary work. Paying sociological attention to senses other than vision reveals complex interactions between structures anchored in the body, structures anchored in language, and actors' identification strategies, which may refine theorizations of the body and the senses in social theory. PMID:26430711

  14. The role of material deprivation and consumerism in the decisions to engage in transactional sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Vearey, Jo; Thomas, Liz; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional sex has been associated with a high risk of HIV acquisition and unintended pregnancy among young women in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. However, few studies have explored the structural drivers of transactional sex from the perspective of both genders in these settings. This paper explores how young men and women understand the factors that lead to transactional sex among their peers, and how deprivation of material resources (housing, food and health care access) and consumerism (a desire for fashionable goods) may instigate transactional sex in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. Data from 5 focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews undertaken with a total of 60 young men and women aged 18–23 years old, conducted between December 2012 and May 2013, were analysed using anticipated and grounded codes. Housing and food deprivation influenced decisions to engage in transactional sex for both young men and women. Poor health care access and a desire for fashionable goods (such as the latest hair or clothing styles and cellular phones) influenced the decisions of young women that led to transactional sex. Interventions that engage with deprivations and consumerism are essential to reducing sexual and reproductive health risks in urban slums. PMID:25741631

  15. Understanding shallow groundwater contamination in Bwaise slum, Kampala, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Havik, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater in unsewered urban areas is heavily contaminated by onsite sanitation activities and is believed to be an important source of nutrients ex-filtrating into streams and thus contributing to eutrophication of Lakes in urban areas. Currently the fate of nutrients and especially phosphorus leached into groundwater in such areas is not well known. In this study, we undertook an extensive investigation of groundwater in Bwaise slum, Kampala Uganda to understand the distribution and fate of sanitation-related nutrients N and P that are leached into groundwater. Transects of monitoring wells were installed in Bwaise slum and downstream of the slum. From these wells, water levels were measured and water quality analyses done to understand the distribution and composition of the nutrients, how they evolve downstream and the possible subsurface processes affecting their fate during transport. These findings are necessary to evaluate the risk of eutrophication posed by unsewered areas in urban cities and to design/implement sanitation systems that will effectively reduce the enrichment of these nutrients in groundwater. Key words: fate, groundwater, nutrients, processes, slums

  16. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Maria Clotildes N de; Taddei, José A A C; Diniz-Santos, Daniel R; Vieira, Camilo; Carneiro, Nadya B; Melo, Rita Franca; Silva, Luciana R

    2008-02-01

    Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children),each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  17. Age-related prevalence, intensity and frequency distribution of gastrointestinal helminth infection in urban slum children from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bundy, D A; Kan, S P; Rose, R

    1988-01-01

    The gastrointestinal helminth infection status of 1574 children living in a slum area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was assessed by quantitative coprology. Almost two-thirds were infected with Trichuris trichiura, 49.6% with Ascaris lumbricoides, and 5.3% with hookworm. Infection prevalence rose rapidly to a stable asymptote at 7 years of age, and the age-intensity profile was convex with maximal values in the 5-10 year age classes. This pattern was the same for males and females, but differed markedly between different ethnic groups. The frequency distributions of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly overdispersed (k values were 0.21 and 0.27, respectively), and age-dependent over the 0-8 year age classes. This suggests that the force of infection with these nematodes is lower in infants than in older children.

  18. Cost of behavior change communication channels of Manoshi -a maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) program in urban slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost of behavior change communication (BCC) interventions has not been rigorously studied in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to assess the implementation costs of a BCC intervention in a maternal, neonatal and child health program (Manoshi) run by BRAC, which has been operating in the urban slums of Dhaka since 2007. The study estimates the costs of BCC tools per exposure among the different types of BCC channels: face-to-face, group counseling, and mass media. Methods The study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in the Dhaka urban slum area. A micro-costing approach was applied using primary and secondary data sources to estimate the cost of BCC tools. Primary data were collected through interviews with service-providers and managers from the Manoshi program, observations of group counseling, and mass media events. Results Per exposure, the cost of face-to-face counseling was found to be 3.08 BDT during pregnancy detection, 3.11 BDT during pregnancy confirmation, 12.42 BDT during antenatal care, 18.96 BDT during delivery care and 22.65 BDT during post-natal care. The cost per exposure of group counseling was 22.71 BDT (95% CI 21.30-24.87) for Expected Date of Delivery (EDD) meetings, 14.25 BDT (95% CI 12.37-16.12) for Women Support Group meetings, 17.83 BDT (95% CI 14.90-20.77) for MNCH committee meetings and 6.62 BDT (95% CI 5.99-7.26) for spouse forum meetings. We found the cost per exposure for mass media interventions was 9.54 BDT (95% CI 7.30-12.53) for folk songs, 26.39 BDT (95% CI 23.26-32.56) for street dramas, 0.39 BDT for TV-broadcasting and 7.87 BDT for billboards. Considering all components reaching the target audience under each broader type of channel, the total cost per exposure was found to be 60.22 BDT (0.82 USD) for face-to-face counseling, 61.40 BDT (0.82 USD) for group counseling and 44.19 BDT (0.61 USD) for mass media. Conclusions The total cost for group counseling was the highest per exposure, followed by face

  19. Molecular diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in a slum area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Joycenea Matsuda; Machado, Silvia Maria Almeida; Lourenço, Maria Cristina; Ferreira, Rosa Maria Carvalho; Fonseca, Leila de Souza; Saad, Maria Helena Feres

    2008-12-01

    This retrospective molecular study involving restriction fragment length polymorphism, using insertion sequence 6110 as a marker, was conducted in order to provide an initial insight into the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in the slums of the Complexo de Manguinhos, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Of the 67 strains evaluated, 23 (34.3%) were found to belong to clusters (total clusters, 10). Household and social chains of transmission were associated with clustering, in 20% and 60%, respectively. Living in the Conjunto Habitacional Programado 2 slum was associated with clustering. Although not significant, it is relevant that 26% of the clustered strains presented primary resistance. These findings, although possibly underestimating the prevalence due to the failure to analyze all strains, could help improve the local tuberculosis control program.

  20. Soil-transmitted helminth infection and nutritional status among urban slum children in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Suchdev, Parminder S; Davis, Stephanie M; Bartoces, Monina; Ruth, Laird J; Worrell, Caitlin M; Kanyi, Henry; Odero, Kennedy; Wiegand, Ryan E; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional impact of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 205 pre-school (PSC) and 487 school-aged children (SAC) randomly selected from the surveillance registry of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of the Kibera slum in Kenya. Hemoglobin, iron deficiency (ID), vitamin A deficiency (VAD), inflammation, malaria, anthropometry, and STH ova were measured. Poisson regression models evaluated associations between STH and malnutrition outcomes and controlled for confounders. Approximately 40% of PSC and SAC had STH infection, primarily Ascaris and Trichuris; 2.9% of PSC and 1.1% of SAC had high-intensity infection. Malnutrition prevalence among PSC and SAC was anemia (38.3% and 14.0%, respectively), ID (23.0% and 5.0%, respectively), VAD (16.9% and 4.5%, respectively), and stunting (29.7% and 16.9%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, STH in PSC was associated with VAD (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.6) and ID (PR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.6-6.6) but not anemia or stunting. No associations were significant in SAC. Integrated deworming and micronutrient supplementation strategies should be evaluated in this population.

  1. Acute diarrhoeal disease in children under 7 years of age in a peri-urban slum of Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Araya, M.; Figueroa, G.; Espinoza, J.; Montesinos, N.; Spencer, E.; Brunser, O.

    1985-01-01

    A group of 168 families who lived in a peri-urban slum in Santiago were surveyed for 9 months. All of them had a child under 7 years of age. Medical activities and data collection were carried out at a Field Station and by means of twice-weekly visits to each home, at which time cases of diarrhoea were recorded and investigated. Faecal samples for bacteriological, parasitological and rotavirus studies were obtained during each episode. The characteristics of clinical course, hygienic practices in the family, and monthly anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers were also recorded. The mean monthly incidence of diarrhoea was 7.1 episodes per 100 children. Of the episodes, 44.2% were associated with pathogenic bacteria, 14.4% with rotavirus, 38.4% with parasites and in 27.9% no enteropathogens were identified. It was found that adequate hygienic habits were not associated with a decreased risk of developing diarrhoea and that about 60% of children did not have diarrhoea throughout the study period. The nutritional status was adequate in most cases: weight-for-age was below the 5th percentile in 11.5% of subjects and the height-for-age was normal in all. No moderate or severe cases of malnutrition were detected. PMID:4067299

  2. Determinants of Health Care Seeking for Diarrheal Illness in Young Children in Urban Slums of Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Byomkesh; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kanungo, Suman; Roy, Subhasis; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.; Sur, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    Maternal practices regarding children's health care have been recognized as an important factor associated with mortality rates among children < 5 years of age. We focused on health care-seeking practices of primary caretakers of children < 5 years of age with diarrheal disease in Kolkata. We interviewed caretakers of 1,058 children in a baseline survey and 6,077 children on six subsequent surveys. The prevalence of diarrhea during the preceding 2 weeks was 7.9% in the baseline survey and 5.7% (lowest 3.5% to highest 7.8%) in subsequent surveys. Multivariate logistic regression showed that formal education of primary caretakers was associated with seeking care outside the home (odds ratio [OR] = 15.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] [2.5–85.7]; P = 0.002). Multinomial logistic regression showed that formal education of the primary caretaker (OR = 21.4; 95% CI [3.2–139.0]; P = 0.002) and presence of dry mouth during diarrhea (OR = 17.3; 95% CI [2.7–110.9]; P = 0.003) were associated with seeking care from licensed providers compared with the children for whom care was not sought outside of the home. This health care utilization and attitudes survey (HUAS) can serve as a tool to identify the factors that influence a better health care-seeking pattern in urban slums of Kolkata. PMID:23629936

  3. Ensuring Universal Access to Eye Health in Urban Slums in the Global South: The Case of Bhopal (India).

    PubMed

    Pregel, Andrea; Vaughan Gough, Tracy; Jolley, Emma; Buttan, Sandeep; Bhambal, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Sightsavers is an international organisation working with partners in over 30 countries to eliminate avoidable blindness and help people with disabilities participate more fully in society. In the context of its Urban Eye Health Programme in Bhopal (India), the organisation launched a pilot approach aimed at developing an Inclusive Eye Health (IEH) model and IEH Minimum Standards. Accessibility audits were conducted in a tertiary eye hospital and four primary vision centres located within urban slums, addressing the accessibility of physical infrastructures, communication and service provision. The collection and analysis of disaggregated data inform the inclusion strategy and provide a baseline to measure the impact of service provision. Trainings of eye health staff and sensitisation of decision makers on accessibility, Universal Design, disability and gender inclusion are organised on a regular basis. A referral network is being built to ensure participation of women, people with disabilities and other marginalised groups, explore barriers at demand level, and guarantee wider access to eye care in the community. Finally, advocacy interventions will be developed to raise awareness in the community and mainstream disability and gender inclusion within the public health sector. Founded on principles of Universal Design, accessibility and participation, and in line with international human rights treaties, Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Sightsavers' IEH model ultimately aims to develop a sustainable, scalable and universally accessible system-strengthening approach, capable of ensuring more inclusive services to people with disabilities, women and other marginalised groups, and designed to more effectively meet the health needs of the entire population. PMID:27534321

  4. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  5. Quantitative estimates of dietary intake with special emphasis on snacking pattern and nutritional status of free living adults in urban slums of Delhi: impact of nutrition transition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Archna; Gupta, Vidhu; Ghosh, Arpita; Lock, Karen; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Background The nutritional landscape of India is experiencing the fallout of urbanization and globalization. The changes are manifest in dietary patterns as well as health outcomes. The study aimed at assessing household dietary intake pattern with special emphasis on snacking pattern, anthropometric and lipid profiles in low socio-economic status households in an urban slum of Delhi. Methods Community based cross-sectional study in 260 households of a purposively selected urban slum in North-East district of Delhi, India. Family dietary surveys including consumption pattern of commercial food products rich in Partially Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils (PHVOs), 24 h dietary recall and assessment of dietary diversity using Household Diet Diversity Scores (HDDS) were done. Assessment of nutritional status using anthropometric and lipid profile on a subsample (n =130) were also conducted. Results Median energy and fat intake were adequate. Micronutrient intake was found to be inadequate for vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium and folate. PHVO usage was low (<20 % households). Milk (39 %), green leafy vegetables (25 %) and fruits (25 %) intake were below recommendations. Mean HDDS was 7.87. Prevalence of overweight/obesity was high (66.7 %). Lipid profile showed mean HDL-C levels lower than recommendations for females. Conclusion Community based awareness programs for prevention of non-communicable diseases should incorporate healthy diet and lifestyle practices with emphasis on quantity and quality of nutrient intake. This must be considered as an integral part of chronic disease prevention strategy for underprivileged communities in urban India. PMID:26918196

  6. Descending the sanitation ladder in urban Uganda: evidence from Kampala Slums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While the sanitation ladder is useful in analysing progressive improvements in sanitation, studies in Uganda have not indicated the sanitation barriers faced by the urban poor. There are various challenges in shared latrine use, cleaning and maintenance. Results from Kampala city indicate that, failure to clean and maintain sanitation infrastructure can lead to a reversal of the potential benefits that come with various sanitation facilities. Methods A cross sectional qualitative study was conducted between March and May 2013. Data were collected through 18 focus group discussions (FGDs) held separately; one with women, men and youth respectively. We also used pictorial methods; in addition, 16 key informant interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using content thematic approach. Relevant quotations per thematic area were identified and have been used in the presentation of the results. Results Whether a shared sanitation facility was improved or not, it was abandoned once it was not properly used and cleaned. The problem of using shared latrines began with the lack of proper latrine training when people do not know how to squat on the latrine hole. The constrained access and security concerns, obscure paths that were filthy especially at night, lack of light in the latrine cubicle, raised latrines sometimes up to two metres above the ground, coupled with lack of cleaning and emptying the shared facilities only made a bad situation worse. In this way, open defecation gradually substituted use of the available sanitation facilities. This paper argues that, filthy latrines have the same net effect as crude open defection. Conclusion Whereas most sanitation campaigns are geared towards provision of improved sanitation infrastructure, these findings show that mere provision of infrastructure (improved or not) without adequate emphasis on proper use, cleaning and maintenance triggers an involuntary descent off the sanitation ladder. Understanding this

  7. Vegetation in Bangalore's Slums: Composition, Species Distribution, Density, Diversity, and History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopal, Divya; Nagendra, Harini; Manthey, Michael

    2015-06-01

    There is widespread acknowledgement of the need for biodiversity and greening to be part of urban sustainability efforts. Yet we know little about greenery in the context of urban poverty, particularly in slums, which constitute a significant challenge for inclusive development in many rapidly growing cities. We assessed the composition, density, diversity, and species distribution of vegetation in 44 slums of Bangalore, India, comparing these to published studies on vegetation diversity in other land-use categories. Most trees were native to the region, as compared to other land-use categories such as parks and streets which are dominated by introduced species. Of the most frequently encountered tree species, Moringa oleifera and Cocos nucifera are important for food, while Ficus religiosa plays a critical cultural and religious role. Tree density and diversity were much lower in slums compared to richer residential neighborhoods. There are also differences in species preferences, with most plant (herb, shrub and vines) species in slums having economic, food, medicinal, or cultural use, while the species planted in richer residential areas are largely ornamental. Historic development has had an impact on species distribution, with older slums having larger sized tree species, while recent slums were dominated by smaller sized tree species with greater economic and food use. Extensive focus on planting trees and plant species with utility value is required in these congested neighborhoods, to provide livelihood support.

  8. Slum health: Diseases of neglected populations

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lee W; Ko, Albert I; Unger, Alon; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2007-01-01

    Background Urban slums, like refugee communities, comprise a social cluster that engenders a distinct set of health problems. With 1 billion people currently estimated to live in such communities, this neglected population has become a major reservoir for a wide spectrum of health conditions that the formal health sector must deal with. Discussion Unlike what occurs with refugee populations, the formal health sector becomes aware of the health problems of slum populations relatively late in the course of their illnesses. As such, the formal health sector inevitably deals with the severe and end-stage complications of these diseases at a substantially greater cost than what it costs to manage non-slum community populations. Because of the informal nature of slum settlements, and cultural, social, and behavioral factors unique to the slum populations, little is known about the spectrum, burden, and determinants of illnesses in these communities that give rise to these complications, especially of those diseases that are chronic but preventable. In this article, we discuss observations made in one slum community of 58,000 people in Salvador, the third largest city in Brazil, to highlight the existence of a spectrum and burden of chronic illnesses not likely to be detected by the formal sector health services until they result in complications or death. Lack of health-related data from slums could lead to inappropriate and unrealistic allocation of health care resources by the public and private providers. Similar misassumptions and misallocations are likely to exist in other nations with large urban slum populations. Summary Continued neglect of ever-expanding urban slum populations in the world could inevitably lead to greater expenditure and diversion of health care resources to the management of end-stage complications of diseases that are preventable. A new approach to health assessment and characterization of social-cluster determinants of health in urban slums

  9. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score <-2 or oedema (2): height for age <-2 (11), weight for age <-2 (11), body mass index for age <-2 (4). Rates of undernutrition were highest (9 of 13; 69%) in children aged 18-24 months. Hand-washing before the meal was lacking in all centres. Caregivers were often distracted and rarely encouraged children to feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. PMID:26507408

  10. THE SUCCESSFUL URBAN SLUM CHILD, A PSYCHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PERSONALITY AND ACADEMIC SUCCESS IN DEPRIVED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Inst. of Urban Studies.

    SUCCESSFUL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PUPILS FROM LOW-INCOME HOUSEHOLDS IN DEPRESSED NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE URBAN NORTH ARE COMPARED WITH AVERAGE AND FAILING PUPILS FROM IDENTICAL SETTINGS. THE AIM OF THE 3 YEAR PROJECT IS TO DOCUMENT DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND TO RELATE THESE PATTERNS TO SCHOLASTIC PERFORMANCE. EMPHASIS IS ON…

  11. Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India: A Case Study of the Food Environments of Rural Villages and an Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vidhu; Downs, Shauna M.; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Lock, Karen; Singh, Archna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the food environment in rural villages and an urban slum setting in India with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in these foods. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two low-income villages in Haryana and an urban slum in Delhi. Participants Street vendors (n = 44) were surveyed and the nutritional content of snacks (n = 49) sold by vendors was analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Vendors' awareness and perception of fats and oils, as well as the type of snacks sold, along with the content and quality of fat present in the snacks. Analysis Descriptive statistics of vendor survey and gas chromatography to measure fatty acid content in snacks. Results A variety of snacks were sold, including those in unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8 g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings. Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids). Conclusions and Implications Interventions need to target the manufacturers of oils and fats used in freshly prepared products to improve the quality of foods available in the food environment of low-socioeconomic groups in India. PMID:26872553

  12. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  13. Antibiotic use among children in an urban Brazilian slum: a risk factor for diarrhea?

    PubMed Central

    Schorling, J B; De Souza, M A; Guerrant, R L

    1991-01-01

    Among a cohort of children in a poor urban setting in Brazil, the relative risk for the occurrence of a new episode of diarrhea in the two weeks following antibiotic use vs all other weeks was 1.44 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.33, 2.45). Among children ever [corrected] exposed to antibiotics, the odds ratio was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.84, 2.16) after stratifying by individual child and controlling for previous diarrhea. Further research is needed to confirm whether antibiotics are a risk factor for diarrhea in such settings. PMID:1983925

  14. Material deprivation and unemployment affect coercive sex among young people in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi: A multi-level approach

    PubMed Central

    Kamndaya, Mphatso; Kazembe, Lawrence N.; Vearey, Jo; Kabiru, Caroline W.; Thomas, Liz

    2015-01-01

    We explore relations among material deprivation (measured by insufficient housing, food insecurity and poor healthcare access), socio-economic status (employment, income and education) and coercive sex. A binary logistic multi-level model is used in the estimation of data from a survey of 1071 young people aged 18–23 years, undertaken between June and July 2013, in the urban slums of Blantyre, Malawi. For young men, unemployment was associated with coercive sex (odds ratio [OR]=1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–3.21) while material deprivation (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 0.75–2.39) was not. Young women in materially deprived households were more likely to report coercive sex (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.07–2.22) than in non-materially deprived households. Analysis of local indicators of deprivation is critical to inform the development of effective strategies to reduce coercive sex in urban slums in Malawi. PMID:25814337

  15. Heterogenic colonization patterns by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus from urban slums

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana Amélia Nunes; Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Costa, Federico; Ristow, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the renal colonization by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus (rats), as it is the major natural reservoir of urban leptospirosis. We caught 72 R. norvegicus, out of which 32 were found to be positive for L. interrogans by immunofluorescence assay. From these rats, we selected 17 and divided them into six groups based on the mass-age/sex. We performed the immunohistochemistry test against L. interrogans in the kidney sections of the rats and systematically counted the colonized tubules (CTs) in 20 fields. The proportion of positive fields varied from 5% to 95%. The number of CTs in 20 fields varied from 0.5 to 85.5. These differences were not related to age or sex of the animals. The characterization of leptospiral colonization patterns in the natural reservoirs is important to better understand the host-pathogen interactions in leptospirosis. PMID:26691476

  16. Heterogenic colonization patterns by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus from urban slums.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Amélia Nunes; Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Costa, Federico; Ristow, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the renal colonization by Leptospira interrogans in Rattus norvegicus (rats), as it is the major natural reservoir of urban leptospirosis. We caught 72 R. norvegicus, out of which 32 were found to be positive for L. interrogans by immunofluorescence assay. From these rats, we selected 17 and divided them into six groups based on the mass-age/sex. We performed the immunohistochemistry test against L. interrogans in the kidney sections of the rats and systematically counted the colonized tubules (CTs) in 20 fields. The proportion of positive fields varied from 5% to 95%. The number of CTs in 20 fields varied from 0.5 to 85.5. These differences were not related to age or sex of the animals. The characterization of leptospiral colonization patterns in the natural reservoirs is important to better understand the host-pathogen interactions in leptospirosis. PMID:26691476

  17. Educating the Urban Poor: A Case Study of Running Preschools in Non-Notified Slums of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaijayanti, K.; Subramanian, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recently reported that the world's population is shifting to its cities. India is no exception. Throughout the country, an increasing number of migrants are leaving agricultural lifestyles in search of economic and educational opportunities, often relocating to non-notified slums. Despite the fact that many…

  18. Acute Respiratory Infections among Under-Five Age Group Children at Urban Slums of Gulbarga City: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pattankar, Jayashree; Puttahonnappa, Suresh Kuralayanapalya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Among all illness, Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) account for 30-60% of paediatric outpatient attendance and 20-30% of hospital admissions. Aim To study the morbidity pattern of ARI among under-five-age group children and to assess the determinants. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted for a one year period, comprising a cumulative sample of 400 children from 3 urban slums of Gulbarga city. History of nasal discharge, cough, fever, sore throat, breathing difficulty, any discharge from ear alone or in combination, was used in the recognition of an ARI episode. Respiratory rate >60/minute (<2 month infants), >50(2-11 months) and >40(1-5 years) in a child with cough, cold or fever singly or in combination was considered the criteria for recognition of pneumonia. Results Out of the 400 surveyed, ARI was detected among 109 children giving an incidence of 27.25%. Among these, Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) was found among 19.25% and Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) among 8%. ARI was observed among 38.04% of infants, 37.84% of 2-3-year-old children, 36.87% of boys, 40.43% of children born to illiterate father’s, 35.77% of SES class IV & 40.79% of SES class V, and 41.89% of children with family history of respiratory illness. All these data were found to be statistically significant. High rates of ARI were also observed among 41.36% of children living in households with firewood fuel usage, 35.04% of children with pets in the household, 34.82% of children with delayed milestones, 53.85% of children with grade IV and 66.67% of children with grade V malnutrition. More episodes occurred during winter months of the year (Oct – Jan). During the follow-up phase of study done on a cohort of 112 children for a period of one year, an attack rate of 3.27 episodes/child/year was observed. Conclusion Community education programs should focus on addressing specific issues viz. identification of respiratory illness

  19. Sprawl in European urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prastacos, Poulicos; Lagarias, Apostolos

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the 2006 edition of the Urban Atlas database is used to tabulate areas of low development density, usually referred to as "sprawl", for many European cities. The Urban Atlas database contains information on the land use distribution in the 305 largest European cities. Twenty different land use types are recognized, with six of them representing urban fabric. Urban fabric classes are residential areas differentiated by the density of development, which is measured by the sealing degree parameter that ranges from 0% to 100% (non-developed, fully developed). Analysis is performed on the distribution of the middle to low density areas defined as those with sealing degree less than 50%. Seven different country groups in which urban areas have similar sprawl characteristics are identified and some key characteristics of sprawl are discussed. Population of an urban area is another parameter considered in the analysis. Two spatial metrics, average patch size and mean distance to the nearest neighboring patch of the same class, are used to describe proximity/separation characteristics of sprawl in the urban areas of the seven groups.

  20. Serological trail of Brucella infection in an urban slum population in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Martha Olivera; Ristow, Paula; Ko, Albert I.; Di-Lorenzo, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis is a re-emerging zoonosis with new cases reported each year in many Latin American countries, but it is mostly under-recognized. This study presents a serological investigation of infection with Brucella abortus and Brucella canis in a poor urban community in the city of Salvador, Brazil. Methodology Human sera (n = 180) were randomly selected from 3,171 samples taken from healthy individuals during 2003-2004 and tested with C-ELISA for B. abortus and I-ELISA for B. canis. Results Thirteen percent (24/180) of the individuals were positive for B. abortus and 4.6 % (8/174) were positive for B. canis. Among the variables studied only age (older than 45 years) appeared to be a risk factor for the detection of Brucella antibodies. Conclusion These results indicate the presence of Brucella infection in this settlement and highlight the need to understand the epidemiology of infection under these circumstances to establish the necessary measures for surveillance and control. PMID:23000868

  1. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  2. Fractal cartography of urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C.; Tenedório, José A.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide. PMID:22829981

  3. Fractal cartography of urban areas.

    PubMed

    Encarnação, Sara; Gaudiano, Marcos; Santos, Francisco C; Tenedório, José A; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2012-01-01

    In a world in which the pace of cities is increasing, prompt access to relevant information is crucial to the understanding and regulation of land use and its evolution in time. In spite of this, characterization and regulation of urban areas remains a complex process, requiring expert human intervention, analysis and judgment. Here we carry out a spatio-temporal fractal analysis of a metropolitan area, based on which we develop a model which generates a cartographic representation and classification of built-up areas, identifying (and even predicting) those areas requiring the most proximate planning and regulation. Furthermore, we show how different types of urban areas identified by the model co-evolve with the city, requiring policy regulation to be flexible and adaptive, acting just in time. The algorithmic implementation of the model is applicable to any built-up area and simple enough to pave the way for the automatic classification of urban areas worldwide.

  4. High prevalence of enteroparasitosis in urban slums of Belo Horizonte-Brazil. Presence of enteroparasites as a risk factor in the family group

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Frederico F; Busatti, Haendel G N O; Cruz, Valeria L; Santos, Joseph F G; Gomes, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluates the prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the urban slums of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and the risk of transmitting enteroparasites to the family members of infected individuals. Stool samples were collected and examined at clinical laboratories near each slum. Individuals were identified and classified as positive for parasitosis (IP+), and individuals with negative stool tests were classified as negative for parasitosis (IP−) and enrolled as control patients. We collected samples from 594 patients, of which 20.2% and 79.8% were classified as IP+ and IP−, respectively. In addition, 744 family members (FIPs) effectively participated in the study by providing fecal samples. In total, 1338 participants were evaluated. Of these, 34.6% were tested positive for parasitosis. Blastocystis was the most prevalent parasite, infecting 22.4% of individuals. Among FIPs, the overall prevalence was 46.1%. Of these, 50.6% and 44.7% were classified as FIPs+ and FIPs−, respectively. These results showed that IP+ did not impact the prevalence of infection within the studied communities, not constituting index cases of specific risk behaviors, suggesting that, in fact, these communities are exposed to similar oral–fecal routes of contamination. PMID:24091002

  5. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum

    PubMed Central

    Panti-May, Jesús A.; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S. A.; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G.; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C.; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N.; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.; Childs, James E.; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013–2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics. PMID:27015422

  6. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    PubMed

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  7. Undernutrition and Its Correlates among Children of 3–9 Years of Age Residing in Slum Areas of Bhubaneswar, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sai Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Undernutrition among children is a major public health concern worldwide, more prevalent in Asia and Africa. It manifests itself in various forms such as wasting or stunting or underweight and retards physical and mental development, increases susceptibility to infection, and reduces educational attainment and productivity. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of wasting, stunting, and underweight and determine its associates among slum children of 3–9 years of age, residing in Bhubaneswar city, India. After obtaining informed consent, a total of 249 children from 249 households were studied and their parents/guardians were interviewed to collect all relevant information. 23.3%, 57.4%, and 45.4% of children were found to have wasting, stunting, and underweight, respectively. Variables like birth order of child, period of initiation of breastfeeding and mother's education were found to be strong predictors of wasting, whereas toilet facility in household and practice of drinking water storage were significantly associated with stunting among slum children as revealed in multiple regression analysis. Thus, a multipronged approach is needed such as giving priority to improve education for slum community especially for women, creating awareness regarding benefits of early initiation of breastfeeding, small family size, and proper storage of drinking water, and providing toilet facility in slum households which could improve the nutritional status of slum children. PMID:25580460

  8. Mental health in the slums of Dhaka - a geoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Urban health is of global concern because the majority of the world's population lives in urban areas. Although mental health problems (e.g. depression) in developing countries are highly prevalent, such issues are not yet adequately addressed in the rapidly urbanising megacities of these countries, where a growing number of residents live in slums. Little is known about the spectrum of mental well-being in urban slums and only poor knowledge exists on health promotive socio-physical environments in these areas. Using a geo-epidemiological approach, the present study identified factors that contribute to the mental well-being in the slums of Dhaka, which currently accommodates an estimated population of more than 14 million, including 3.4 million slum dwellers. Methods The baseline data of a cohort study conducted in early 2009 in nine slums of Dhaka were used. Data were collected from 1,938 adults (≥ 15 years). All respondents were geographically marked based on their households using global positioning systems (GPS). Very high-resolution land cover information was processed in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain additional exposure information. We used a factor analysis to reduce the socio-physical explanatory variables to a fewer set of uncorrelated linear combinations of variables. We then regressed these factors on the WHO-5 Well-being Index that was used as a proxy for self-rated mental well-being. Results Mental well-being was significantly associated with various factors such as selected features of the natural environment, flood risk, sanitation, housing quality, sufficiency and durability. We further identified associations with population density, job satisfaction, and income generation while controlling for individual factors such as age, gender, and diseases. Conclusions Factors determining mental well-being were related to the socio-physical environment and individual level characteristics. Given that mental well-being is

  9. Determinants for participation in a public health insurance program among residents of urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. This paper examines the determinants associated with participation in the NHIF among residents of urban slums in Nairobi city. Methods The study used data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System in two slums in Nairobi city, where a total of about 60,000 individuals living in approximately 23,000 households are under surveillance. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with participation in the NHIF program. Results Only 10% of the respondents were participating in the NHIF program, while less than 1% (0.8%) had private insurance coverage. The majority of the respondents (89%) did not have any type of insurance coverage. Females were more likely to participate in the NHIF program (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001), while respondents who were formerly in a union (OR = 0.5; p < 0.05) and who were never in a union (OR = 0.6; p < 0.05) were less likely to have public insurance coverage. Respondents working in the formal employment sector (OR = 4.1; p < 0.001) were more likely to be enrolled in the NHIF program compared to those in the informal sector. Membership in microfinance institutions such as savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs) and community-based savings and credit groups were important determinants of access to health insurance. Conclusions The proportion of slum residents without any type of insurance is high, which underscores the need for a social health insurance program to ensure equitable access to health care among the poor and vulnerable segments of the population. As the Kenyan government moves toward transforming the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to harness the unique opportunities

  10. Knowledge, attitude and practices related to dengue in rural and slum areas of Delhi after the dengue epidemic of 1996.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Kumar, P; Aggarwal, O P

    1998-06-01

    To assess the knowledge and attitudes about dengue and practice of prevention followed by the residents of a rural area and an urban resettlement colony of East Delhi, an interview based cross sectional KAP study was undertaken in Jan 97 to Feb 97, a few months after the dengue epidemic in rural area and urban areas of East Delhi. A pre-structured and pre-tested format containing the relevant questions was administered to the subjects. A total of 687 subjects (334 rural and 353 urban) were interviewed. Nearly four fifth (82.3%) of these were aware of Dengue. Audiovisual media was the most common source of information in both the areas. Knowledge about the disease was fair to good. Fever was the commonest symptom of the disease known to 92% urban and 83% rural respondents followed by symptoms of bleeding and headache. Mosquito was known to spread the disease to 71% rural and 89% urban respondents. More than two third respondents in urban and two fifth in rural areas had used some method of mosquito control or personal protection during the epidemic.

  11. Socio-economic aspects of improved sanitation in slums: a review.

    PubMed

    Isunju, J B; Schwartz, K; Schouten, M A; Johnson, W P; van Dijk, M P

    2011-06-01

    This socio-economic review provides an overview of the sanitation crisis in slum areas, and re-emphasizes the importance of sanitation. It highlights a lack of recognition of actual drivers for sanitation improvements, and the complexities in the provision of sanitation services in the context of urban slums with a mix of tenants and landlords. It elaborates how the drivers of demand for sanitation outlined in contemporary research are not universal but are rather context specific. The authors point out specific knowledge gaps for future research; for example, the need to establish a scientific basis for context-specific drivers of demand for sanitation improvements in slums, and a better understanding of associated complexities in order to set boundary conditions for achieving desired improvements. PMID:21616514

  12. Establishment of social club for adolescents living in urban slums: a potential tool to impart HIV/AIDS education.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kirti; Shivaswamy, M S; Diwan, Vishal; De Costa, Ayesha; Bhattacharya, Aruna; Mahadik, Vijay K

    2013-05-01

    An interventional study was carried out under a Government of Madhya Pradesh, India supported project with aims to describe establishment of a social club (a youth club), incorporating strategy of life-skill-based education and its potential as a tool for creating HIV/AIDS awareness among adolescents of age 15-19 years living in slums of Ujjain city. The social club activities included AIDS education by combined methods, vocational training and recreational activities for the adolescents. Establishment of social club was feasible with available local resources. Social club activities were need based, thus received good response from adolescents (94% had attendance above 75% in AIDS awareness sessions). Knowledge and attitude improved and misconceptions reduced significantly by AIDS education. Majority (86%) of the participants contributed as AIDS messengers in the community. The social clubs seem to have potential to improve HIV/AIDS awareness and empower adolescents to adopt healthy lifestyle through combination of teen friendly activities and atmosphere. PMID:24765690

  13. Outcomes and costs of implementing a community-based intervention for hypertension in an urban slum in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Gomez, Gabriela B; Agyemang, Charles; Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the processes, outcomes and costs of implementing a multi-component, community-based intervention for hypertension among adults aged > 35 years in a large slum in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods The intervention in 2012–2013 was based on four components: awareness-raising; improved access to screening; standardized clinical management of hypertension; and long-term retention in care. Using multiple sources of data, including administrative records and surveys, we described the inputs and outputs of each intervention activity and estimated the outcomes of each component and the impact of the intervention. We also estimated the costs associated with implementation, using a top-down costing approach. Findings The intervention reached 60% of the target population (4049/6780 people), at a cost of 17 United States dollars (US$) per person screened and provided access to treatment for 68% (660/976) of people referred, at a cost of US$ 123 per person with hypertension who attended the clinic. Of the 660 people who attended the clinic, 27% (178) were retained in care, at a cost of US$ 194 per person retained; and of those patients, 33% (58/178) achieved blood pressure control. The total intervention cost per patient with blood pressure controlled was US$ 3205. Conclusion With moderate implementation costs, it was possible to achieve hypertension awareness and treatment levels comparable to those in high-income settings. However, retention in care and blood pressure control were challenges in this slum setting. For patients, the costs and lack of time or forgetfulness were barriers to retention in care. PMID:27429489

  14. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  15. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes.

  16. [Blood donation in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Charpentier, F

    2013-05-01

    Medical and technical developments increase the difficulty to provide sufficient safe blood for all patients in developed countries and their sociodemographic and societal changes. Sufficient national blood supply remains a reached, however still actual, challenge. Tomorrow is prepared today: the management of blood donation programs both in line with these developments and with social marketing strategies is one of the keys to success. If the main components of this organization are well known (mobile blood drives in various appropriate environments, and permanent blood donation centers) their proportions in the whole process must evolve and their contents require adaptations, especially for whole blood donation in urban areas. We have to focus on the people's way of life changes related to increasing urbanization of the society and prominent position taken by very large cities. This requires targeting several goals: to draw the attention of the potential blood-giving candidate, to get into position to collect him when he will decide it, to give meaning and recognition to his "sacrifice" (give time rather than donate blood) and to give him desire and opportunity to come back and donate one more time. In this strategy, permanent blood centers in urban areas have significant potential for whole blood collection, highlighted by the decrease of apheresis technology requirements. This potential requires profound changes in their location, conception and organization. The concept of Maison Du Don (MDD) reflects these changes. PMID:23597586

  17. Automatic mapping of urban areas from Landsat data using impervious surface fraction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization is a result of aggregation of people in urban areas that can help advance socioeconomic development and pull out people from the poverty line. However, if not monitored well, it can also lead to loss of farmlands, natural forests as well as to societal impacts including burgeoning growth of slums, pollution, and crime. Thus, spatiotemporal information that shapes the urbanization is thus critical to the process of urban planning. The overall objective of this study is to develop an impervious surface fraction algorithm (ISFA) for automatically mapping urban areas from Landsat data. We processed the data for 1986, 2001 and 2014 to trace the multi-decadal spatiotemporal change of Honduran capital city using a three-step procedure: (1) data pre-processing to perform image normalization as well as to produce the difference in the values (DVSS) between the simple ratio (SR) of green and shortwave bands and the soil adjust vegetation index (SAVI), (2) quantification of urban areas using ISFA, and (3) accuracy assessment of mapping results using the ground reference data constructed using land-cover maps and FORMOSAT-2 imagery. The mapping accuracy assessment was performed for 2001 and 2014 by comparing with the ground reference data indicated satisfactory results with the overall accuracies and Kappa coefficients generally higher than 90% and 0.8, respectively. When examining the urbanization between these years, it could be observed that the urban area was significantly expanded from 1986 to 2014, mainly driven by two factors of rapid population growth and socioeconomic development. This study eventually leads to a realization of the merit of using ISFA for multi-decadal monitoring of the urbanization of Honduran capital city from Landsat data. Results from this research can be used by urban planners as a general indicator to quantify urban change and environmental impacts. The methods were thus transferable to monitor urban growth in cities and their peri

  18. Risk factors for cryptosporidiosis among children in a semi urban slum in southern India: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Francis, Mark R; Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Prabakaran, Ashok D; Jayavelu, Nithya; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-12-01

    The risk factors for acquisition of cryptosporidial infection in resource-poor settings are poorly understood. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess factors associated with childhood cryptosporidiosis (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) in an endemic, Indian slum community using data from two community-based studies with 580 children followed prospectively until their second birthday. Factors were assessed for overall cryptosporidiosis (N = 406), and for multiple (N = 208), asymptomatic (N = 243), and symptomatic (N = 163) infections, respectively. Presence of older siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, P = 0.002) and stunting at 6 months of age (OR = 1.74, P = 0.019) were important risk factors for childhood cryptosporidiosis. Always boiling drinking water before consumption, the use of a toilet by all members of the family, and maternal age ≥ 23 years were protective. These results provide insights into acquisition of childhood cryptosporidiosis in settings with poor environmental sanitation, contaminated public water supply systems, and close human-animal contact. Disease control strategies will require a multifaceted approach. PMID:25331810

  19. Shared Sanitation versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy. PMID:26123953

  20. Risk factors for cryptosporidiosis among children in a semi urban slum in southern India: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Francis, Mark R; Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Prabakaran, Ashok D; Jayavelu, Nithya; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N; Ward, Honorine D; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-12-01

    The risk factors for acquisition of cryptosporidial infection in resource-poor settings are poorly understood. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess factors associated with childhood cryptosporidiosis (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) in an endemic, Indian slum community using data from two community-based studies with 580 children followed prospectively until their second birthday. Factors were assessed for overall cryptosporidiosis (N = 406), and for multiple (N = 208), asymptomatic (N = 243), and symptomatic (N = 163) infections, respectively. Presence of older siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, P = 0.002) and stunting at 6 months of age (OR = 1.74, P = 0.019) were important risk factors for childhood cryptosporidiosis. Always boiling drinking water before consumption, the use of a toilet by all members of the family, and maternal age ≥ 23 years were protective. These results provide insights into acquisition of childhood cryptosporidiosis in settings with poor environmental sanitation, contaminated public water supply systems, and close human-animal contact. Disease control strategies will require a multifaceted approach.

  1. Shared Sanitation Versus Individual Household Latrines in Urban Slums: A Cross-Sectional Study in Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Heijnen, Marieke; Routray, Parimita; Torondel, Belen; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    A large and growing proportion of the global population rely on shared sanitation facilities despite evidence of a potential increased risk of adverse health outcomes compared with individual household latrines (IHLs). We sought to explore differences between households relying on shared sanitation versus IHLs in terms of demographics, sanitation facilities, and fecal exposure. We surveyed 570 households from 30 slums in Orissa, India, to obtain data on demographics, water, sanitation, and hygiene. Latrine spot-checks were conducted to collect data on indicators of use, privacy, and cleanliness. We collected samples of drinking water and hand rinses to assess fecal contamination. Households relying on shared sanitation were poorer and less educated than those accessing IHLs. Individuals in sharing households were more likely to practice open defecation. Shared facilities were less likely to be functional, less clean, and more likely to have feces and flies. No differences in fecal contamination of drinking water or hand-rinse samples were found. Important differences exist among households accessing shared facilities versus IHLs that may partly explain the apparent adverse health outcomes associated with shared sanitation. As these factors may capture differences in risk and promote sanitary improvements, they should be considered in future policy.

  2. Risk Factors for Cryptosporidiosis among Children in a Semi Urban Slum in Southern India: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Francis, Mark R.; Ajjampur, Sitara S. R.; Prabakaran, Ashok D.; Jayavelu, Nithya; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N.; Ward, Honorine D.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for acquisition of cryptosporidial infection in resource-poor settings are poorly understood. A nested case-control study was conducted to assess factors associated with childhood cryptosporidiosis (detected by stool polymerase chain reaction) in an endemic, Indian slum community using data from two community-based studies with 580 children followed prospectively until their second birthday. Factors were assessed for overall cryptosporidiosis (N = 406), and for multiple (N = 208), asymptomatic (N = 243), and symptomatic (N = 163) infections, respectively. Presence of older siblings (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, P = 0.002) and stunting at 6 months of age (OR = 1.74, P = 0.019) were important risk factors for childhood cryptosporidiosis. Always boiling drinking water before consumption, the use of a toilet by all members of the family, and maternal age ≥ 23 years were protective. These results provide insights into acquisition of childhood cryptosporidiosis in settings with poor environmental sanitation, contaminated public water supply systems, and close human–animal contact. Disease control strategies will require a multifaceted approach. PMID:25331810

  3. Patterns, appropriateness, and predictors of antimicrobial prescribing for adults with upper respiratory infections in urban slum communities of Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Suttajit, Siritree; Wagner, Anita K; Tantipidoke, Ruangthip; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Sitthi-amorn, Chitr

    2005-03-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URIs) are the most common infections worldwide. Their frequent inappropriate treatment with antibiotics is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, contribute to morbidity and mortality, and waste scarce resources. Using data from registration books and prescriptions, we measured patterns and assessed appropriateness and predictors of antibiotic prescribing for viral and bacterial URIs treated in health centers located in two slum communities in Bangkok, Thailand. Based on recorded diagnoses and symptoms, 91% of the patients probably had viral URIs; 60% of viral and 89% of bacterial URI patients were prescribed an antibiotic. Compliance with the national treatment guideline was 36.4% for treatment of viral URIs and only 1.7% for treatment of bacterial URIs. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic regardless of diagnosis. Among viral URI patients, those who were young, male, and self-paying were more likely to receive antibiotics; part-time physicians were more likely to prescribe antibiotics for these patients. Among patients with bacterial URIs, those who paid for drugs by themselves were more likely to receive antibiotics compared to patients covered by the national health insurance plan. We used these formative results as input to the design of health center and community interventions to encourage more appropriate prescribing for URI among adults. PMID:15916061

  4. Sediment problems in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    One obstacle to a scientific recognition and an engineering solution to sediment-related environmental problems is that such problems are bound in conflicting and generally undefinable political and institutional restraints. Also, some of the difficulty may involve the fact that the scientist or engineer, because of his relatively narrow field of investigation, cannot always completely envision the less desirable effects of his work and communicate alternative solutions to the public. For example, the highway and motor-vehicle engineers have learned how to provide the means by which one can transport himself from one point to another with such great efficiency that a person's employment in this country is now commonly more than 5 miles from his residence. However, providing such efficient personal transport has created numerous serious environmental problems. Obstacles to recognition of and action to control sediment problems in and around urban areas are akin to other environmental problems with respect to the many scientific, engineering, economic, and social aspects.

  5. How community physical, structural, and social stressors relate to mental health in the urban slums of Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Greif, Meredith J; Nii-Amoo Dodoo, F

    2015-05-01

    Urban health in developing counties is a major public health challenge. It has become increasingly evident that the dialog must expand to include mental health outcomes, and to shift focus to the facets of the urban environment that shape them. Population-based research is necessary, as empirical findings linking the urban environment and mental health have primarily derived from developed countries, and may not be generalizable to developing countries. Thus, the current study assesses the prevalence of mental health problems (i.e., depression, perceived powerlessness), as well as their community-based predictors (i.e., crime, disorder, poverty, poor sanitation, local social capital and cohesion), among a sample of 690 residents in three poor urban communities in Accra, Ghana. It uncovers that residents in poor urban communities in developing countries suffer from mental health problems as a result of local stressors, which include not only physical and structural factors but social ones. Social capital and social cohesion show complex, often unhealthy, relationships with mental health, suggesting considerable drawbacks in making social capital a key focus among policymakers.

  6. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul virus, and Bartonella spp. among Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the urban slum environment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Kosoy, Michael Y; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norway rats in Salvador, Brazil, trapped during the rainy season from June to August of 2010. These data were complemented with previously unpublished Leptospira and SEOV prevalence information collected in 1998. Immunofluorescence staining of kidney impressions was used to identify Leptospira interrogans in 2010, whereas isolation was used in 1998, and western blotting was used to detect SEOV antibodies in 2010, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used in 1998: in 2010, Bartonella spp. were isolated from a subsample of rats. The most common pathogen in both years was Leptospira spp. (83%, n=142 in 1998, 63%, n=84 in 2010). SEOV was detected in 18% of individuals in both 1998 and 2010 (n=78 in 1998; n=73 in 2010), and two species of Bartonella were isolated from 5 of 26 rats (19%) tested in 2010. The prevalence of all agents increased significantly with rat mass/age. Acquisition of Leptospira spp. occurred at a younger mass/age than SEOV and Bartonella spp. infection, suggesting differences in the transmission dynamics of these pathogens. These data indicate that Norway rats in Salvador serve as reservoir hosts for all three of these zoonotic pathogens and that the high prevalence of leptospiral carriage in Salvador rats poses a high degree of risk to human health.

  7. Is Working Risky or Protective for Married Adolescent Girls in Urban Slums in Kenya? Understanding the Association between Working Status, Savings and Intimate-Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Muthengi, Eunice; Gitau, Tabither; Austrian, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that women’s empowerment, though beneficial in many aspects, can also increase the risk of intimate-partner violence (IPV). This study seeks to examine the association between work and experience of physical violence among married adolescents, and to understand the impact of access to independent financial resources on this risk. Authors draw on the asset-building framework and the ecological model. Methods The data is from a baseline survey of girls aged 15–19 residing in urban slums in four cities and towns in Kenya (Nairobi, Thika, Nakuru and Kisumu). The analytic sample is 452 married girls. Logistic regression is used to examine associations between working status, savings and experience of IPV in the previous six months, controlling for other factors. This is complemented by content analysis of in-depth interviews with 32 adolescent girls and 16 young men. Results Compared to girls who did not work, working with no regular savings was significantly associated with greater odds (OR = 1.96, p<0.01) of experiencing IPV. There was no difference between girls who did not work and those who worked but had regular savings. Qualitative findings indicate savings decrease girls’ dependency on men and allow them to leave abusive partners. Discussion Findings imply that in these communities with patriarchal gender norms and high levels of poverty, female employment and financial conflicts can be triggers of violence in marriages. On the other hand, girls’ management of and access to independent financial resources through savings can potentially help to reduce this risk. PMID:27232997

  8. Using Positive Deviance to Understand the Uptake of Optimal Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices by Mothers in an Urban Slum of Mumbai.

    PubMed

    D'Alimonte, M R; Deshmukh, D; Jayaraman, A; Chanani, S; Humphries, D L

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Positive deviance research seeks out well-nourished children living in disadvantaged contexts to understand local growth-promoting behaviors. This study explored the factors that influence the uptake of infant and young child feeding behaviors among mothers. Methods Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ) > 0 (n = 10) or a HAZ < -2.0 (n = 12) were purposefully selected from households enrolled in a community management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) program in an urban slum of Mumbai, India. Qualitative methods were employed by means of semi-structured key informant interviews with positive and non-positive deviant mothers. Eligibility was restricted to households with limited resources and more than one child. A 24-h dietary recall and anthropometric measurements were taken for the index child. An observation checklist assessed household hygiene. Data analysis was based on the Grounded Theory of qualitative research. Results Positive deviant mothers (those with children with a HAZ > 0) largely exhibited optimal infant and young child feeding practices explained by maternal information seeking behaviors; mothers acknowledging the importance of maternal health; and social support. The relationship between mother and health worker seemed to influence how well they listened to the health workers' recommendations. Across all households, the daily consumption of high-energy, processed foods was apparent. Conclusions Practical considerations include exploring how to tailor CMAM programs to include social support and counseling training for health workers to engage more closely with mothers; exploring the feasibility of a women's social group for mothers to share information on child rearing; and teaching mothers about healthy eating and the link between nutrition and health.

  9. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature.

  10. Epidemiological study of mental morbidity in an urban slum community in India for the development of a community mental health programme.

    PubMed

    Silvanus, V; Subramanian, P

    2012-03-01

    A crossectional field study was carried out in an urban slum in order to assess the prevalence and nature of mental morbidity and identify stressors in the community. A face to face interview was conducted with the help of a questionnaire. The interview consisted of three sections as follows: Data identifying the informant by age, sex, marital status, education, occupation, age at marriage, number of members, children and monthly income. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 5- item version used as a screening instrument to assess the present mental health status of the informant and data of past illnesses in self or family and questions framed to elicit perceptions regarding mental illness, alcoholism, their causation and treatment. The subjects who scored above 2 ie 3,4,and 5 in the GHQ were requested to follow up at the Mental Health OPD and subjected to a standardized psychiatric interview by a Psychiatrist. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Third Revised (DSM 3 R) criteria were used for diagnosis. After the interview and examination, the appropriate treatment was instituted. A total of 443 individuals were screened. The overall prevalence rate of mental illness in the community was 61 per thousand. It is estimated that the case rate ranges from 38 to 84 per thousand within 95% confidence limits. The overall severity ranged from mild to severe morbidity. The prevalence of severe mental morbidity which includes psychosis, depressive illness, mental retardation was 22.5 per thousand. Neurosis (63.31%) especially Major Depression and Adjustment disorder, Psychosis (10.00%), Somatization disorder (6.66%) and Psychiatric symptoms secondary to physical illness were the major groups of illness. Women were found to have more mental health problems than men. The morbidity pattern also differs significantly with the gender. Neurosis was seen more among the female subjects. There was a significant association of mental health problems with low educational status

  11. Do the Most Vulnerable People Live in the Worst Slums? A Spatial Analysis of Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Weeks, John R.; Engstrom, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Slums are examples of localized communities within third world urban systems representing a range of vulnerabilities and adaptive capacities. This study examines vulnerability in relation to flooding, environmental degradation, social-status, demographics, and health in the slums of Accra, Ghana by utilizing a place-based approach informed by fieldwork, remote sensing, census data, and geographically weighted regression. The study objectives are threefold: (1) to move slums from a dichotomous into a continuous classification and examine the spatial patterns of the gradient, (2) develop measures of vulnerability for a developing world city and model the relationship between slums and vulnerability, and (3) to assess if the most vulnerable individuals live in the worst slums. A previously developed slum index is utilized, and four new measures of vulnerability are developed through principle components analysis, including a novel component of health vulnerability based on child mortality. Visualizations of the vulnerability measures assess spatial patterns of vulnerability in Accra. Ordinary least squares, spatial, and geographically weighted regression model the ability of the slum index to predict the four vulnerability measures. The slum index performs well for three of the four vulnerability measures, but is least able to predict health vulnerability underscoring the complex relationship between slums and child mortality in Accra. Finally, quintile analysis demonstrates the elevated prevalence of high vulnerability in places with high slum index scores. PMID:22379509

  12. Distribution of dermatophytes from soils of urban and rural areas of cities of Paraiba State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos de; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; Santos, Jozemar Pereira dos

    2013-01-01

    The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF DERMATOPHYTES FROM SOILS OF URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF CITIES OF PARAIBA STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Zélia Braz Vieira da Silva; de Oliveira, Aurylene Carlos; Guerra, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento; Pontes, Luiz Renato de Araújo; dos Santos, Jozemar Pereira

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The dermatophytes, keratinophilic fungi, represent important microorganisms of the soil microbiota, where there are cosmopolitan species and others with restricted geographic distribution. The aim of this study was to broaden the knowledge about the presence of dermatophytes in soils of urban (empty lots, schools, slums, squares, beaches and homes) and rural areas and about the evolution of their prevalence in soils of varying pH in cities of the four mesoregions of Paraiba State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from 31 cities of Paraiba State. Of 212 samples, 62% showed fungal growth, particularly those from the Mata Paraibana mesoregion (43.5%), which has a tropical climate, hot and humid. Soil pH varied from 4.65 to 9.06, with 71% of the growth of dermatophytes occurring at alkaline pH (7.02 - 9.06) (ρ = 0.000). Of 131 strains isolated, 57.3% were geophilic species, particularly Trichophyton terrestre (31.3%) and Mycrosporum gypseum (21.4%). M. nanum and T. ajelloi were isolated for the first time in Paraiba State. The zoophilic species identified were T. mentagrophytes var. mentagrophytes (31.3 %) and T. verrucosum (7.6 %), and T. tonsurans was isolated as an anthropophilic species. The soils of urban areas including empty lots, schools, slums and squares of cities in the mesoregions of Paraiba State were found to be the most suitable reservoirs for almost all dermatophytes; their growth may have been influenced by environmental factors, soils with residues of human and/or animal keratin and alkaline pH. PMID:24213189

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Health Behaviour Change and Economic Activity among Slum-Dwelling Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Nairobi, Kenya: The Role of Social, Health and Economic Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Karen; Anderson, Althea D.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent girls and young women in urban slum areas in developing countries face a myriad of challenges regarding education, sexual health, livelihoods and gender-based violence. One way of understanding how these challenges interact with each other is through the Asset Building Framework, which posits that girls need a combination of social,…

  15. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  16. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL... Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway department... partly in such area involving funds authorized for and limited to urban areas....

  17. Inspired by the Slum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratapchandran, Sarat

    2009-01-01

    An innovative learning technique that originated in a slum in India's capital, New Delhi, sets the stage for "Q&A" that is now the Oscar winning movie, "Slumdog Millionaire". In an interview, Dr. Sugata Mitra, the creator of this new educational pedagogy termed Minimally Invasive Education (MIE), explains how it can help bridge the digital divide…

  18. Feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) for onsite sanitation and resource recovery (nutrients, energy and water) in urban slums.

    PubMed

    Bair, Robert A; Ozcan, Onur Y; Ozcan, Onur O; Calabria, Jorge L; Dick, George H; Yeh, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    Slums are challenging locations for sanitation technologies. High population densities, a lack of water and electricity infrastructure, and space constraints combine to ensure that many traditional waste treatment technologies fail when implemented in this context. This paper proposes the use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for slum sanitation. AnMBRs allow for localized water reuse, high quality treatment, and energy production at the point of treatment. A water, energy, nutrient, and mass balance was conducted on a theoretical AnMBR directly coupled to a public toilet. The combined system would be capable of recycling its water for use in toilet flushing and would be capable of providing enough energy to power both the toilet and AnMBR operation. The addition of food waste to the feed would help to ensure process stability and energy production by the AnMBR. Ammonia accumulation within the system would have to be managed through struvite precipitation, ion exchange, oxidation, plant uptake or other means. Generated biogas can be converted into heat and/or electricity using small scale gas generators. AnMBR technology has high potential for success in slum settings, if considerations for maintenance and supplies are made as part of the design and system delivery.

  19. Improving the environment in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  20. Assessing the earthquake hazards in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, W.W.; Gori, P.L.; Kockelman, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Major urban areas in widely scattered geographic locations across the United States are a t varying degrees of risk from earthquakes. the locations of these urban areas include Charleston, South Carolina; Memphis Tennessee; St.Louis, Missouri; Salt Lake City, Utah; Seattle-Tacoma, Washington; Portland, Oregon; and Anchorage, Alaska; even Boston, Massachusetts, and Buffalo New York, have a history of large earthquakes. Cooperative research during the past decade has focused on assessing the nature and degree of the risk or seismic hazard i nthe broad geographic regions around each urban area. The strategy since the 1970's has been to bring together local, State, and Federal resources to solve the problem of assessing seismic risk. Successfl sooperative programs have been launched in the San Francisco Bay and Los Angeles regions in California and the Wasatch Front region in Utah. 

  1. Improving aerosol retrieval over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picón, A. J.; Wu, Y.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval over urban areas is complicated since surface models in the operational algorithms are based on vegetation models such as the case of MODIS. To improve satellite retrieval of aerosols in urban areas, we use simultaneous AERONET radiometer and MODIS measurements in combination to refine surface albedo models. Refined surface models have been implemented for NYC and Mexico City demonstrating significant improvement in AOD in terms of accuracy and spatial resolution. Based on these direct retrievals of the surface reflection for the MODIS Land Aerosol Bands, we were able to show that current parameterizations of the surface as a function of the Modified Vegetation Index are not in good agreement either quantitatively or qualitatively. Further comparisons in other urban areas (eg. Beijing) show that for cases with surface reflectance ratios sufficiently high at the AERONET site, similar over biases can be observed. On the other hand, other cities such as Kanpur, Buenos Aires and Rome do not show any significant bias which can be traced to the fact that these sites are located in regions with less urban surface correlations. Further comparisons in these urban centers are also made with other satellites aerosol retrievals such as POLDER, MISR and OMI.

  2. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Pre-School-Aged and School-Aged Children in an Urban Slum: A Cross-Sectional Study of Prevalence, Distribution, and Associated Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephanie M.; Worrell, Caitlin M.; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Odero, Kennedy O.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Ruth, Laird J.; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Fox, LeAnne M.

    2014-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. PMID:25157123

  3. Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm < 0.1%. The STH infection prevalence ranged from 22% to 71% between sub-village sectors. The PSAC have similar STH prevalences to SAC and should receive deworming. Small areas can contain heterogeneous prevalences; determinants of STH infection should be characterized and slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping.

  4. Influence of Urban Changes on Informal Settlements and Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change in the Nigerian Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, P. O.; Babatola, O.; Fasona, M.

    2011-12-01

    The history of growth of cities and urban changes has left with it many footprints in different trajectories. The growth of large and medium cities in Nigeria overtime has resulted in sharp urban segregation between formal and informal areas. Next to the large and medium cities are the pockets of slums and unplanned informal settlements on the outskirts of large cities. The proliferation of urban slums in cities is exacerbated by the concentration of high population of urban poor in over-crowded living spaces in rapidly changing urban areas. Urban changes manifest in the changes of population, demography and livelihood characteristics of cities. These changes are the main factors that influence adaptive capacity of city dwellers and their vulnerability to climate change. Urban changes and their accompanying changes in the population, demographic and livelihood characteristics in Nigerian cities present both prospects and challenges for building future adaptive capacity to climate change. This study focuses on urban changes and the growth of urban slums in Nigerian cities and the influence of changes in population levels, demographic composition and livelihood characteristics on the adaptive capacity to climate change. The study examines (i) the typology of urban slums in time, space, scale, form and structure in the Northern and Southern Nigeria; (ii) the differentials in the perception of risk and response mechanisms to climate change in different demographic groups, cultures and regions; (iii) characterizes the potentials and challenges of future adaptive capacity to climate change; and (iv) assesses how livelihood strategies change in response to urban changes and how the range of potential adaptations to climate stresses is likely to change overtime. This study will profile urban slums and informal settlements in Nigeria, present comparisons of the socio-economic indicators for mapping of urban slums in Nigeria, provide a detailed analysis of adaptation

  5. Rainwater Harvesting and Consumption in urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar Abbasi, Ali; Tabatabaee, Javad; Ranaee, Ehsan

    2013-04-01

    The soaring rate of urban demand for soft water and the rising cost associated with construction and protection of centralized large-scale water treatment and distribution systems associated with expansion of cities and immigrations of rural population to cities have contributed to increase acceptance of water harvesting systems in urban areas at least. This issue requires special attention in Iran as a developing country in the Middle East semitropical area. In this context, a recent pilot project has been proposed to analyze the performance of rainwater harvesting systems as an answer to some parts of soft water demand in Iranian urban society. A system of rainwater draining and storage has been implemented in a two hectares urban area. Observations and analyses related to runoff quantity and quality have been performed between November 2007 and November 2009 at the basin outlet as well as inside a storage tank which has been set up in the area for water harvesting purposes. The potential of the harvested rainwater to be employed in different consumption contexts has been analyzed in light of national and international standards. Although most of the sampling results support the idea that the quality of harvested water is adequate for any field of consuption, including drinking use (especially during rainfall period of time), a comparison between biological quality evaluation plus turbidity and color of samples with the related standards has led to identify limitations of harvested water usage with particular reference to plant consumptions. Keywords- rainwater harvesting system, runoff, water quality standards

  6. Mining Mineral Aggregates in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Robert D.

    This study can be used in a geographic research methods course to show how nearest-neighbor analysis and regression analysis can be used to study various aspects of land use. An analysis of the sand, gravel, and crushed stone industry in three urban areas of Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Florida illustrates the locational problems faced by…

  7. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacka-Rejzner, Urszula

    2015-12-01

    In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  8. Integrated groundwater quality management in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartjes, F. A.; Otte, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, groundwater assessments and remediations are approached at the scale of individual groundwater plumes. In urban areas, however, this management of individual groundwater plumes is often problematic for technical, practical or financial reasons, since the groundwater quality is often affected by a combination of sources, including (former) industrial activities, spills and leachate from uncontrolled landfills and building materials. As a result, often a whole series of intermingling contamination plumes is found in large volumes of groundwater. In several countries in the world, this led to stagnation of groundwater remediation in urban areas. Therefore, in the Netherlands there is a tendency managing groundwater in urban areas from an integrated perspective and on a larger scale. This so-called integrated groundwater quality management is often more efficient and hence, cheaper, since the organisation of the management of a cluster of groundwater plumes is much easier than it would be if all individual groundwater plumes were managed at different points in time. Integrated groundwater quality management should follow a tailor-made approach. However, to facilitate practical guidance was developed. This guidance relates to the delineation of the domain, the management of sources for groundwater contamination, procedures for monitoring, and (risk-based) assessment of the groundwater quality. Function-specific risk-based groundwater quality criteria were derived to support the assessment of the groundwater quality.

  9. The association of health-care use and hepatitis C virus infection in a random sample of urban slum community residents in southern India.

    PubMed

    Marx, Melissa A; Murugavel, K G; Sivaram, Sudha; Balakrishnan, P; Steinhoff, Mark; Anand, S; Thomas, David L; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2003-02-01

    To determine whether health-care use was associated with prevalent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Chennai, India, 1,947 adults from 30 slum communities were randomly selected to be interviewed about parenteral and sexual risks for HCV infection and to provide biological specimens for HCV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Prevalent HCV infection was detected in 2.4% of non-injection drug using (IDU) participants. Controlling for other associated factors, and excluding IDU, men who used informal health-care providers were five times as likely to be HCV infected as those who did not use informal providers (Adjusted Odds Ratio, AOR = 5.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57, 21.6), a finding not detected in women. More research is needed to determine the extent to which HCV infection is associated with reuse of contaminated injection equipment in health-care settings in developing countries. PMID:12641422

  10. Racial Prejudice and Locational Equilibrium in an Urban Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    Racial prejudice is said to influence strongly the locational decisions of households in urban areas. This paper introduces racial prejudice into a model of an urban area and derives several results about residential location. A previously developed long-run model of an urban area adds a locational dimension to a model of the housing market under…

  11. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway...

  12. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway...

  13. 23 CFR 1.7 - Urban area boundaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urban area boundaries. 1.7 Section 1.7 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL § 1.7 Urban area boundaries. Boundaries of an urban area shall be submitted by the State highway...

  14. 76 FR 53029 - Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... of an urban area. The increase in the jump distance was a result of changing planning practices that... Register (75 FR 52174) and requested comments on proposed criteria for the 2010 Census urban areas. In... pairs of urban areas, with 87 commenters expressing concern about the impact on planning...

  15. Child care hygiene practices of women migrating from rural to urban areas of bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Begum, Housne Ara; Moneesha, Shanta Shyamolee; Sayem, Amir Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Children's hygiene is very important for better health but there is a paucity of studies in this area. This questionnaire study examined the child care hygiene practices of mothers of young children. A total of 354 women from slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh, who migrated from rural to urban areas were selected for this study. The mean score on hygiene practice was 6.21 of 10 items (SD = 2.113). Low (score = 3) and high hygiene practice (score = 7-10) were practiced by 12.4% and 45.8% of participants, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that independent variables explained 39.9% of variance in hygiene practices. Eight variables have significant effect: participant's education (0.108; P < .05), time spent since marriage to first birth (0.030; P < .05), number of children (-0.105; P < .05), number of antenatal visits (0.319; P < .001), microcredit status (0.214; P < .001), breastfeeding (0.224; P < .001), husband's monthly income (0.146; P < .001), and household economic status (-0.0114; P < .05). The overall hygiene practice indicates the necessity of awareness building initiatives.

  16. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2009-09-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  17. Methods on defining the urban fringe area of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiulan; Li, Xuerui; Feng, Zhongke; Fang, Yuan

    2010-11-01

    Urban fringe lies in the transitional region between urban area and rural area. Defining the urban fringe area and researching the changing situation will be beneficial to the urban planning and the readjustment of land use structure. Taking Land-Sat TM images as basic information, using the theories of Shannon entropy and land use degree comprehensive index, methods on how to define the urban fringe area of Beijing are discussed. Further, the urban fringe area of Beijing is defined by using these two methods. It shows that the urban fringe area in Beijing includes a part of the urban district and also a small part of rural district. Distributing ring, it extends around irregularly, especially northwest and southeast.

  18. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts.

  19. Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a "quasi-experimental" mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project.

    PubMed

    Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias, Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis, Priscila Brandão Dos; Dias, Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a "quasi-experimental", multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents' health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the "formal city", increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts. PMID:26648363

  20. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  2. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-01-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  3. Development and validation of a global positioning system-based "map book" system for categorizing cluster residency status of community members living in high-density urban slums in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, Peter; Choko, Augustine T; Webb, Emily L; Thindwa, Deus; Squire, S Bertel; Sambakunsi, Rodrick; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Chunda, Treza; Chavula, Kondwani; Makombe, Simon D; Lalloo, David G; Corbett, Elizabeth L

    2013-05-15

    A significant methodological challenge in implementing community-based cluster-randomized trials is how to accurately categorize cluster residency when data are collected at a site distant from households. This study set out to validate a map book system for use in urban slums with no municipal address systems, where classification has been shown to be inaccurate when address descriptions were used. Between April and July 2011, 28 noncontiguous clusters were demarcated in Blantyre, Malawi. In December 2011, antiretroviral therapy initiators were asked to identify themselves as cluster residents (yes/no and which cluster) by using map books. A random sample of antiretroviral therapy initiators was used to validate map book categorization against Global Positioning System coordinates taken from participants' households. Of the 202 antiretroviral therapy initiators, 48 (23.8%) were categorized with the map book system as in-cluster residents and 147 (72.8%) as out-of-cluster residents, and 7 (3.4%) were unsure. Agreement between map books and the Global Positioning System was 100% in the 20 adults selected for validation and was 95.0% (κ = 0.96, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.00) in an additional 20 in-cluster residents (overall κ = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.00). With map books, cluster residents were classified rapidly and accurately. If validated elsewhere, this approach could be of widespread value in that it would enable accurate categorization without home visits.

  4. First Steps in Initiating an Effective Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Program in Urban Slums: the BRAC Manoshi Project's Experience with Community Engagement, Social Mapping, and Census Taking in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Marcil, Lucy; Afsana, Kaosar; Perry, Henry B

    2016-02-01

    The processes for implementing effective programs at scale in low-income countries have not been well-documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This article describes the initial steps taken by one such program--the BRAC Manoshi Project, which now reaches a population of 6.9 million. The project has achieved notable increases in facility births and reductions in maternal and neonatal mortality. The focus of the paper is on the initial steps--community engagement, social mapping, and census taking. Community engagement began with (1) engaging local leaders, (2) creating Maternal, Neonatal, and Child Health Committees for populations of approximately 10,000 people, (3) responding to advice from the community, (4) social mapping of the community, and (5) census taking. Social mapping involved community members working with BRAC staff to map all important physical features that affect how the community carries out its daily functions--such as alleys, lanes and roads, schools, mosques, markets, pharmacies, health facilities, latrine sites, and ponds. As the social mapping progressed, it became possible to conduct household censuses with maps identifying every household and listing family members by household. Again, this was a process of collaboration between BRAC staff and community members. Thus, social mapping and census taking were also instrumental for advancing community engagement. These three processes-community engagement, social mapping, and census taking--can be valuable strategies for strengthening health programs in urban slum settings of low-income countries. PMID:26830423

  5. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncaptured stormwater runoff from urban and urbanizing areas has negative impacts on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Alters hydrologic regimes through conversion of precipitation to runoff, lowers extent of infiltration. Aggravates nonpoint source pollution issues.

  6. Health seeking and hygiene behaviours predict nutritional status of pre-school children in a slum area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abate, G; Kogi-Makau, W; Muroki, N M

    2000-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was done from March to May 1997 in four selected slum kebeles (villages) of Addis Ababa in which nutritional status of 758 children aged 6 to 36 months was examined and stratified into malnourished and well nourished groups. Analysis of hygiene and health seeking practices of randomly selected households of the two sets of children determined practices that significantly exacerbate childhood malnutrition. The rates of immunization for the malnourished (80.2%) and well nourished households (77.6%) were practically the same. No significant difference was found in the prevalence of home treatment or food withholding habits at times of diarrhoea episodes between the two groups. The study established six variables to predict childhood malnutrition in the slum section of Addis Ababa: 1) presence of child waste inside house (Odds Ratio = 7.44; p < 0.0001), 2) diarrhoea treatment at the hospital (OR = 0.47;p < 0.05), 3) prolonged storage of cooked foods (OR = 2.86;p < 0.05), 4) feeding with washed hands (OR = 0.44; p < 0.01), and 5) poor handling of drinking water (OR = 3.18; p < 0.01) and 6) foods (OR = 3.52; p < 0.01). Hence strong and sustainable advice with a view of changing the behaviours of households towards good personal and household hygiene practices, and increased utilization of health settings is recommended as these may limit the overall success of public health programmes.

  7. ICMR Task Force National Collaborative Study on Identification of High Risk Families, Mothers and Outcome of their Off-springs with particular reference to the problem of maternal nutrition, low birth weight, perinatal and infant morbidity and mortality in rural and urban slum communities. Summary, conclusions and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, S K; Singh, K K; Saxena, B N

    1991-12-01

    The objectives was to assess the determinants of and rates of abortion, stillbirth, and infant mortality for a cohort of pregnant women from slums in New Delhi, Calcutta, and Madras, India and rural slums in Hyderabad, Varanasi, and Chandigarh, India in 1981. The relationship of low birthweight (LBW) and high risk pregnancies to social, environmental, nutritional, cultural, and biological factors was of interest. The results showed variation both between and within urban and rural areas. Rural pregnancy outcome showed fewer LBWs and perinatal and neonatal mortality. Perinatal, neonatal, and infant mortality rates were consistent with prior findings. There was a demonstrated need for prenatal care and referral due to the 10-12% with a poor obstetric history and the significant number with anemia, bleeding, hypertension, toxemia, and urinary tract infections during this pregnancy. Many women were malnourished (body weight 40 kg, height 145 cm, and midarm circumference of 22.5 cm. These women can be identified as high risk. Other risk factors identified were women with disadvantageous personal habits: smoking, alcohol use, tobacco chewing, and working. 10-25% of pregnancies were not registered even though the prenatal clinic was accessible and outreach was provided. 20% completed the recommended number of prenatal visits. 75-85% visited at least once and sometimes more often. Screening for high risk must be done at the 1st visit. Women had strong feelings about the preference for a Dai during delivery and for place of delivery. Poor training of health workers was reflected in the lack of adequate sanitation during the birthing process. Neonatal units were lacking and primary care absent. 10-14% of births were preterm of which 50% occurred at 36 weeks. Multiple regression identified risk factors for fetal and neonatal mortality and LBW as maternal age, preterm birth, maternal anemia, previous preterm or LBW, birth interval, and previous fetal and neonatal mortality

  8. Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

  9. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space. PMID:22269497

  10. Mapping commuter cycling risk in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Bennet, Scott A; Scott, Darren M

    2012-03-01

    Cycling is becoming an increasingly important transportation option for commuters. Cycling offers exercise opportunities and reduces the burden of motor vehicle travel on society. Mapping the risk of collision between cyclists and motor vehicles in urban areas is important to understanding safe cyclist route opportunities, making informed transportation planning decisions, and exploring patterns of injury epidemiology. To date, many geographic analyses and representations of cyclist risk have not taken the concept of exposure into account. Instead, risk is either expressed as a rate per capita, or as a count of events. Using data associated with the City of Hamilton, Canada, we illustrate a method for mapping commuter cyclist collision risk per distance travelled. This measure can be used to more realistically represent the underlying geography of cycling risk, and provide more geographically and empirically meaningful information to those interested in understanding how cycling safety varies over space.

  11. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers

  12. Factors that Prevent Children from Gaining Access to Schooling: A Study of Delhi Slum Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujita, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5-14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend…

  13. The effects of urban stream improving the thermal environment in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Na, Sang-il; Park, Jong-hwa

    2012-10-01

    Urban areas create distinctive urban climates by Urban Heat Island (UHI) that is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC) change, concentration of population and increase anthropogenic heat. In general, the study of thermal environment in urban area focused on UHI intensity and phenomenon. Recently, climate improvement has been studied using water and green belt of urban, as interest in UHI phenomenon mitigation or enhancement has been increased. Therefore in this study, effects of urban stream on urban thermal environment were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data acquired on 6 September 2009 were utilized to derive the surface Temperature (Ts) and surface energy balance using Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land (SEBAL) (Bastiaanssen et al., 1998). The surface energy budget consists of net radiation at the surface (Rn), sensible heat flux to the air (H), latent heat flux (LE) and soil heat flux (G). The net radiation flux is computed by subtracting all outgoing radiant fluxes (K↑: shortwave outgoing, L↑ longwave outgoing) from all incoming radiant fluxes (K↓ shortwave incoming, L↓: longwave incoming). This is given in the surface energy budget equation: Rn = H + LE + G = K↓ - K↑ + L↓ - L↑. The result indicates that the Ts of urban stream are1 °C lower than circumjacent urban area, LE flux of urban stream is higher than surrounding urban area. However, land covers of streamside and around stream with concrete, asphalt and barren belt are comprised of hot spot zone that deteriorates urban thermal environment. And urban stream does perform a role of cool spot zone that improves urban thermal environment.

  14. Urban Area Monitoring using MODIS Time Series Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, S.; Sarkar, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Growing urban sprawl and its impact on global climate due to urban heat island effects has been an active area of research over the recent years. This is especially significant in light of rapid urbanization that is happening in some of the first developing nations across the globe. But so far study of urban area growth has been largely restricted to local and regional scales, using high to medium resolution satellite observations, taken at distinct time periods. In this presentation we propose a new approach to detect and monitor urban area expansion using long time series of MODIS data. This work characterizes data points using a vector of several annual metrics computed from the MODIS 8-day and 16-day composite L3 data products, at 250M resolution and over several years and then uses a vector angle mapping classifier to detect and segment the urban area. The classifier is trained using a set of training points obtained from a reference vector point and polygon pre-filtered using the MODIS VI product. This work gains additional significance, given that, despite unprecedented urban growth since 2000, the area covered by the urban class in the MODIS Global Land Cover (MCD12Q1, MCDLCHKM and MCDLC1KM) product hasn't changed since the launch of Terra and Aqua. The proposed approach was applied to delineate the urban area around several cities in Asia known to have maximum growth in the last 15 years. Results were verified using high resolution Landsat data.

  15. 78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... 11, 2000, at 65 FR 19477-8 or http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... Urbanized Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is to provide recipients of...

  16. Urban expansion in Tokyo metropolitan area between 1972 and 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagan, H.; Yamagata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to World Bank Report, more than half of the world’s population is now living in cities and over two-thirds of greenhouse gas emissions come from cities worldwide. The Kanto Plain is the largest plain in Japan, which experienced the greatest urban expansion in the 20th century. Satellite images collected over a span of years can be used to identify and characterize both natural and anthropogenic changes over large areas of land. Landsat satellite images are ideal for this purpose; imagery recorded over nearly four decades provides a unique resource for temporal analysis of urban area land cover change. The purpose of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal urban area changes in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area (include the neighboring regions). and to investigate the possible causes of those changes. To do this, we applied land-cover classification schemes to Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor images recorded between 1972 and 2002, which we acquired from the Landsat archive. We used two supervised classification methods, the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network method and the subspace method, to accurately classify land cover on Landsat images recorded in 1972, 1985, and 2002. This allowed us to quantitatively present urban area changes between 1972 and 2002, and allowed us to analyze its relation with multi-time 1 kilometer grid population density census data to further report on the trends of urban expansion. Figure 1 shows the urban area in 1972, and figure 2 shows the urban area in 2002. From the two maps, along with the high economic growth of the Japanese economy, the concentration of the population in Tokyo extremely increased over the period from 1972 to 2002. As a result, these factors lead to urban sprawl in the suburban areas of Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Figure 1. Urban area in 1972. Figure 2. Urban area in 2002.

  17. Are Streams in Agricultural and Urban Areas Contaminated by Pesticides?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimbrough, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    To answer this question, a study of pesticides in streams in a small agricultural area and a small urban area in Colorado was conducted in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The results indicate that pesticides are present in streams, and both agricultural and urban areas are probable sources of the contamination. In the agricultural area, 30 pesticides were detected and in the urban area, 26 pesticides were detected at least once during the thirteen month study. In the agricultural area, the herbicides alachlor (two samples) and cyanazine (four samples) and the insecticide diazinon (one sample) were the only pesticides that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) or health advisory levels (HALs) for drinking water. No pesticides exceeded MCLs or HALs in the urban area.

  18. Acceptability of the rainwater harvesting system to the slum dwellers of Dhaka City.

    PubMed

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Kabir, M R

    2010-01-01

    Urban area like Dhaka City, in Bangladesh, has scarcity of safe drinking water which is one of the prominent basic needs for human kind. This study explored the acceptability of harvested rainwater in a densely populated city like Dhaka, using a simple and low cost technology. A total of 200 random people from four slums of water-scarce Dhaka City were surveyed to determine the dwellers' perception on rainwater and its acceptability as a source of drinking water. The questionnaire was aimed at finding the socio-economic condition and the information on family housing, sanitation, health, existing water supply condition, knowledge about rainwater, willingness to accept rainwater as a drinking source etc. A Yield before Spillage (YBS) model was developed to know the actual rainwater availability and storage conditions which were used to justify the effective tank size. Cost-benefit analysis and feasibility analysis were performed using the survey results and the research findings. The survey result and overall study found that the low cost rainwater harvesting technique was acceptable to the slum dwellers as only the potential alternative source of safe drinking water.

  19. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  20. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  1. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  2. Regional Collaboration Among Urban Area Security Initiative Regions: Results of the Johns Hopkins Urban Area Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J.; Resnick, Beth A.; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration–related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  3. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments.

  4. Regional collaboration among Urban Area Security Initiative regions: results of the Johns Hopkins urban area survey.

    PubMed

    Errett, Nicole A; Bowman, Calvin; Barnett, Daniel J; Resnick, Beth A; Frattaroli, Shannon; Rutkow, Lainie

    2014-01-01

    Regional collaboration has been identified as a potential facilitator of public health preparedness efforts. The Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grant program, administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) since 2003, has provided 64 high-risk metropolitan areas funding to enhance their regional preparedness capabilities. This study describes informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure, as well as regional collaboration-related activities and assessment methods, in FFY2010 UASI regions. A cross-sectional online survey was administered via Survey Monkey from September through December 2013. Points of contact from FFY2010 funded UASI metropolitan areas completed the survey, with a response rate of 77.8% (n=49). Summary statistics were calculated to describe the current informal and formal regional collaboration infrastructure. Additionally, the cross-sectional survey collected rates of agreement with 8 collaborative preparedness statements at 3 time points. The survey found that UASI regions are engaging in collaborative activities and investments to build capabilities, with most collaboration occurring in the prevention, protection, and response mission areas. Collaborative relationships in preparedness among emergency managers and municipal chief executive officers improved during the FFY2010 UASI performance period compared to the pre-UASI award period, with lasting effects. The majority of UASI regions reported conducting independent assessments of capabilities and their measurement at the UASI region level. Urban areas that received a FFY2010 UASI grant award are engaging in collaborative activities and have established interjurisdictional relationships in preparedness. The use of grant funds to encourage collaboration in preparedness has the potential to leverage limited resources and promote informed investments. PMID:25398073

  5. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-03-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  6. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings.

  7. Understanding congested travel in urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  8. Understanding congested travel in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Serdar; Lima, Antonio; González, Marta C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization and increasing demand for transportation burdens urban road infrastructures. The interplay of number of vehicles and available road capacity on their routes determines the level of congestion. Although approaches to modify demand and capacity exist, the possible limits of congestion alleviation by only modifying route choices have not been systematically studied. Here we couple the road networks of five diverse cities with the travel demand profiles in the morning peak hour obtained from billions of mobile phone traces to comprehensively analyse urban traffic. We present that a dimensionless ratio of the road supply to the travel demand explains the percentage of time lost in congestion. Finally, we examine congestion relief under a centralized routing scheme with varying levels of awareness of social good and quantify the benefits to show that moderate levels are enough to achieve significant collective travel time savings. PMID:26978719

  9. Community Based Information Systems for Education Management in Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khosla, Renu

    Lack of education causes and is caused by poverty. In urban areas, it adds to the vulnerability of the poor, resulting in inaccessible schools and irrelevant curricula. Building urban communities and harnessing social capital can create an environment where the poor will have greater opportunities for making decisions that influence their lives.…

  10. Sustainable water cycle design for urban areas.

    PubMed

    Maher, M; Lustig, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the argument that the environmental, social and economic benefits of decentralised systems are such that they should present a serious alternative to centralised systems in existing and future planned urban developments. It will be shown that the combination of technical, social and regulatory factors that influenced the popularity of centralised systems has altered, and that decentralised systems should now be considered as well. The environmental, social and economic advantages and disadvantages of several sustainable watercycle case studies are examined and compared with centralised systems. The studies examined will go from large scale down to designs suitable for typical residential houses on standard urban blocks.

  11. Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Generalized flood-frequency estimates for urban areas in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gann, Ector Eugene

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating flood-frequency information for urban areas in Missouri. Flood-frequency relations are presented which provide an estimate of the flood-peak discharge for floods with recurrence intervals from 2.33 to 100 years for basins with various degrees of existing or projected urban development. Drainage area sizes for which the relations are applicable range from 0.1 to 50 square miles. These generalized relations will be useful to the urban planner and designer until more comprehensive studies are completed for the individual urban areas within the State. The relations will also be of use in the definition of flood-hazard areas in Missouri.

  14. Physical modeling of gas dispersion over urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michálek, Petr; Zacho, David

    2016-06-01

    Experimental study of gas dispersion over urban area model was conducted in boundary layer wind tunnel in VZLU Prague. A scale model of urban area near the Centre of Liberec was made and dispersion of gas emissions from nearby heating plant was measured. The measurements included velocity field and concentration field by means of hot wire anemometer and flame ionization detector. The purpose of this work was to validate and verify a new computational dispersion model, which was developed in VZLU.

  15. Climate Change Projections for African Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo; Engelbrecht, Francois; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Mercogliano, Paola; Naidoo, Mogesh

    2013-04-01

    Mainly driven by changes in the orbital characteristics of Earth around the sun, the planet's climate has been continuously changing over periods of tens of thousands of years. However, the warming that has been detected in the Earth's atmosphere over the last century is occurring at a rate that cannot be explained by any known natural cycle. Main-stream science has indeed reached consensus that the 'enhanced green house effect', caused by the interplay of incoming short-wave irradiation, outgoing long-wave radiation and the absorption of energy by enhanced levels of CO2 and water vapour in the troposphere, is the main forcing mechanism responsible for the phenomena of global warming. The enhanced greenhouse effect strengthens the 'natural green house effect' that results from the CO2 and water vapour occurring naturally in the atmosphere. The continuous burning of fossil fuels since the industrial revolution and the simultaneous degradation of large forests, are the main reasons for the increase in CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. The availability of climate change projection data varies considerably for different areas on Earth. Whereas the data centres storing climate change projections for Europe and North America now store petabytes of data, regionally downscaled projections for Africa are rarely available. In the context of the research project CLUVA, (Assessing vulnerability of urban systems, populations and goods in relation to natural and man-made disasters in Africa, co-funded by the European Commission under grant agreement no: 265137), the Council for Industrial and Scientific Research (CSIR) in South Africa and the Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC) in Italy have produced a large set of projections of climate change over Africa, covering the time period 1950 to 2100. Through the collaboration between CMCC and CSIR, a multi-model ensemble of eight high-resolution simulations of climate change over parts of West and East

  16. Caring for Caregivers of People Living with HIV in the Family: A Response to the HIV Pandemic from Two Urban Slum Communities in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Rewa; Purohit, Vidula; Karve, Latika; Bhalerao, Vinod; Karvande, Shilpa; Rangan, Sheela; Reddy, Srikanth; Paranjape, Ramesh; Sahay, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In low resource settings, the vast majority of ‘Person/people Living with HIV’ (PLHIV/s) and inadequate healthcare delivery systems to meet their treatment and care needs, caregivers play a vital role. Home based caregivers are often unrecognized with limited AIDS policies and programs focusing on them. We explored the perceptions and norms regarding care being provided by family caregivers of PLHIVs in India. Methodology A community based qualitative study to understand the issues pertaining to home based care for PLHIV was conducted in urban settings of Pune city, in Maharashtra, India. Eight Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among men, women and peer educators were carried out. A total of 44 in-depth Interviews (IDIs) with PLHIVs (20) and their caregivers (24), were conducted using separate guides respectively. Data was analyzed thematically. Results Home based care was perceived as economically viable option available for PLHIVs. ‘Care’ comprised of emotional, adherence, nursing and financial support to PLHIV. Home based care was preferred over hospital based care as it ensured confidentiality and patient care without hampering routine work at home. Women emerged as more vital primary caregivers compared to men. Home based care for men was almost unconditional while women had no such support. The natal family of women also abandoned. Their marital families seemed to provide support. Caregivers voiced the need for respite care and training. Discussion Gender related stigma and discrimination existed irrespective of women being the primary family caregivers. The support from marital families indicates a need to explore care and support issues at natal and marital homes of the women living with HIV respectively. Home based care training and respite care for the caregivers is recommended. Gender sensitive interventions addressing gender inequity and HIV related stigma should be modeled while designing interventions for PLHIVs and their family

  17. Incorporating green-area user groups in urban ecosystem management.

    PubMed

    Colding, Johan; Lundberg, Jakob; Folke, Carl

    2006-08-01

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example cityregion, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  18. Modeling of nonpoint-source water quality in urban and non-urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Donigian, A.S.; Huber, W.C.

    1991-06-01

    Nonpoint source assessment procedures and modeling techniques are reviewed and discussed for both urban and non-urban land areas. Detailed reviews of specific methodologies and models are presented, along with overview discussions focusing on urban methods and models, and on non-urban (primarily agricultural) methods and models. Simple procedures, such as constant concentration, regression, statistical, and loading function approaches are described, along with complex models such as SWMM, HSPF, STORM, CREAMS, SWRRB, and others. Brief case studies of ongoing and recently completed modeling efforts are described. Recommendations for nonpoint runoff quality modeling are presented to elucidate expected directions of future modeling efforts.

  19. "Making It": Understanding Adolescent Resilience in Two Informal Settlements (Slums) in Nairobi, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Beguy, Donatien; Ndugwa, Robert P.; Zulu, Eliya M.; Jessor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many adolescents living in contexts characterized by adversity achieve positive outcomes. We adopt a protection-risk conceptual framework to examine resilience (academic achievement, civic participation, and avoidance of risk behaviors) among 1,722 never-married 12-19 year olds living in two Kenyan urban slums. We find stronger associations…

  20. Growing Up at the "Margins": Concerns, Aspirations, and Expectations of Young People Living in Nairobi's Slums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabiru, Caroline W.; Mojola, Sanyu A.; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2013-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4,033 12-22-year-olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with…

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  2. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  3. 41 CFR 102-83.80 - What is an urban area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an urban area? 102-83.80 Section 102-83.80 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Urban Areas § 102-83.80 What is an urban area? Urban area means any metropolitan area (MA)...

  4. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  5. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M.; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T.J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted. PMID:22294927

  6. Decentralized sensor fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan; Barbosa, Marco; Bowden, Richard; Capitán, Jesús; Corominas, Andreu; Gilbert, Andrew; Illingworth, John; Merino, Luis; Mirats, Josep M; Moreno, Plínio; Ollero, Aníbal; Sequeira, João; Spaan, Matthijs T J

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites), a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  7. Understanding Road Usage Patterns in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Hunter, Timothy; Bayen, Alexandre M.; Schechtner, Katja; González, Marta C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we combine the most complete record of daily mobility, based on large-scale mobile phone data, with detailed Geographic Information System (GIS) data, uncovering previously hidden patterns in urban road usage. We find that the major usage of each road segment can be traced to its own - surprisingly few - driver sources. Based on this finding we propose a network of road usage by defining a bipartite network framework, demonstrating that in contrast to traditional approaches, which define road importance solely by topological measures, the role of a road segment depends on both: its betweeness and its degree in the road usage network. Moreover, our ability to pinpoint the few driver sources contributing to the major traffic flow allows us to create a strategy that achieves a significant reduction of the travel time across the entire road system, compared to a benchmark approach. PMID:23259045

  8. Report card on low level ozone in urban areas

    SciTech Connect

    Onischak, M.

    1994-12-31

    It has been four years since the Clean Air Act was amended in November of 1990. Much work has been done in this time, and the country is beginning to see real air quality benefits. Although these changes have not completely licked the urban ozone problem yet, they have made a lot of progress. All of the urban areas which have been required to reduce their ozone levels have done a good job of lowering their emissions. While the urban areas have not all been able to meet every federal deadline, the areas have all been able to achieve the control milestones before the mandatory Clean Air Act sanctions have taken effect. Some areas are even ready to declare their ozone problems solved.

  9. Communal sanitation alternatives for slums: A case study of Kibera, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, M. A. C.; Mathenge, R. W.

    Despite the prominence of communal practices as a last resort for any decent way of sanitation in slum areas, its application and use is flagrantly ignored. This paper provides insight in the appropriateness of communal sanitation facilities for slum conditions. Recent scholarly investigations in developing countries provide theoretical and empirical evidence of a divergence between the expectations from the users of sanitation facilities, and the expectations from other stakeholders. This paper presents the results from a case study in the Kibera slum attached to Nairobi, which is one of the largest African slums. A series of interviews with government agencies, Non-Governmental Organisations and Community Building Organisations was carried out. In addition, a survey was conducted of 76 users of different sanitation facilities. The research culminates in a series of concerns on financial, technological, situational and participatory dimensions. The main conclusion is a firm confirmation that communal sanitation are indeed the only viable alternative for slums, and therefore, the results of the research advocate a serious recognition of the use and appropriateness of communal sanitation for slum dwellers.

  10. Access to and Exclusion from Primary Education in Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh's urban population is rising fast. In the capital, Dhaka, some 4 million people live in slums. They are lacking in wealth, power and social connections; probably under-counted in national surveys; and under-served by both government and non-government organisations, many of whom still see poverty as a rural issue or see the urban poor…

  11. Implications of urban structure on carbon consumption in metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Urban structure influences directly or indirectly the majority of all green house gas (GHG) emissions in cities. The prevailing belief is that dense metropolitan areas produce less carbon emissions on a per capita basis than less dense surrounding rural areas. Consequently, density targets have a major role in low-carbon urban developments. However, based on the results of this study, the connection seems unclear or even nonexistent when comprehensive evaluation is made. In this letter, we propose a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) method for calculating the consumption-based carbon footprints in metropolitan areas, i.e. carbon consumption, with the emphasis on urban structures. The method is input-output-based hybrid LCA, which operates with the existing data from the region. The study is conducted by performing an analysis of the carbon consumption in two metropolitan areas in Finland, including 11 cities. Both areas consist of a dense city core and a less dense surrounding suburban area. The paper will illustrate that the influence of urban density on carbon emissions is insignificant in the selected metropolitan areas. In addition, the utilized consumption-based method links the climate effects of city-level development to the global production of emissions.

  12. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  13. Infant mortality in the Indian slums: case studies of Calcutta metropolis and Raipur city.

    PubMed

    Gupta, H S; Baghel, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the levels of infant mortality, its causes and determinants, and its differentials in selected slums of Calcutta Metropolis and Raipur in India. Data were gathered through interview of 2142 mothers who had experienced a live birth and/or death of an infant within the year prior to the survey. The study found that although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the slums was quite high, it was lower compared to rural India. The study¿s finding underlines the importance of "urban residence" as a primary controlling factor of infant mortality. IMR was 1.5 times higher in the slums of Calcutta than in Raipur, indicating that infant death is far worse in the metropolis than in smaller cities. Although a number of individual-, household-, and slum-level factors played an explanatory role in infant mortality, differences in neighborhood environment contributed most significantly to the infant mortality differentials in the two slums. This study also found that mere literacy or low level of education is not an effective depressant of infant mortality. PMID:12349427

  14. [Characteristics of surface runoff pollution of Shanghai urban area].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-feng; Li, Tian; Li, He

    2007-07-01

    Sampling and monitoring of surface runoff in Shanghai urban area were carried out during rainy seasons from 2003 to 2005, and pollutographs of COD, BOD5, SS, NH4+ -N, TP and TN of 56 rainfall events from 19 sampling sites were analyzed. Discharge processes of runoff pollutants during rain events and relationships of the processes with rainfall characters were discussed, and event mean concentrations (EMCs) were calculated. Probability distribution of EMCs and correlation between EMCs and rain characters were analyzed. Medium event mean concentrations of pollutants in surface runoff of Shanghai urban area are: COD 205, BOD5 68, SS 185, NH4+ -N 3.14,TP 0.40, TN 7.23 (mg/L), which are much higher than those in Paris urban area. The ratio of BOD5 to COD is 0.37, which is very high for surface runoff compared with that of large cities of developed countries. Results show that impervious surface pollution is serious in Shanghai urban area and some measures must be taken to improve urban water environment quality except stormwater separation. PMID:17891947

  15. Growing up at the ‘margins’: Concerns, aspirations, and expectations of young people living in Nairobi’s slums

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, Caroline W; Mojola, Sanyu A; Beguy, Donatien; Okigbo, Chinelo

    2014-01-01

    We explore the concerns, challenges, aspirations, and expectations of sub-Saharan African youth, and investigate how these youth cope with neighborhood constraints to aspiration achievement. We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 4033 12-22 year olds (50.3% males) from two Kenyan urban slums and subsequent in-depth interviews conducted with a subset of 75 youth when they were 13-24 years old (45.3% male). We observe that despite the challenges characteristic of urban slums, some youth maintain high aspirations and try to achieve them through education, delinquency, residential mobility, and religion. We note that others adjust their aspirations to account for limited opportunities. Overall, our findings highlight positive youth agency and underscore the need to improve the quality of life in urban slums. PMID:24999299

  16. A canopy model of mean winds through urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coceal, O.; Belcher, S. E.

    2004-04-01

    An urban canopy model is developed for spatially averaged mean winds within and above urban areas. The urban roughness elements are represented as a canopy-element drag carefully formulated in terms of morphological parameters of the building arrays and a mean sectional drag coefficient for a single building. Turbulent stresses are represented using a mixing-length model, with a mixing length that depends upon the density of the canopy and distance from the ground, which captures processes known to occur in canopies. The urban canopy model is sufficiently simple that it can be implemented in numerical weather-prediction models. The urban canopy model compares well with wind tunnel measurements of the mean wind profile through a homogeneous canopy of cubical roughness elements and with measurements of the effective roughness length of cubical roughness elements. These comparisons give confidence that the basic approach of a canopy model can be extended from fine-scale vegetation canopies to the canopies of large-scale roughness elements that characterize urban areas. The urban canopy model is also used to investigate the adjustment to inhomogeneous canopies. The canonical case of adjustment of a rural boundary layer to a uniform urban canopy shows that the winds within the urban canopy adjust after a distance x0 = 3Lc ln K, where Lc is the canopy drag length-scale, which characterizes the canopy-element drag, and ln K depends weakly on canopy parameters and varies between about 0.5 and 2. Thus the density and shape of buildings within a radius x0 only determine the local canopy winds. In this sense x0 gives a dynamical definition of the size of a neighbourhood. The urban canopy model compares well with observations of the deceleration of the wind associated with adjustment of a rural boundary layer to a canopy of cubical roughness elements, but only when the sectional drag coefficient is taken to be somewhat larger than expected. We attribute this discrepancy to

  17. Smoking initiation, continuation and prevalence in deprived urban areas compared to non-deprived urban areas in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Wingen, Marleen; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that smoking prevalence is higher in deprived areas than in affluent areas. We aimed to determine whether smoking initiation or continuation contributes most to inequalities in current smoking, and in which population subgroups these area differences were largest. Therefore, we assessed the relationship between area deprivation and current smoking, initiation and continuation in urban areas, in subgroups defined by gender, generation and educational level. Cross-sectional data of 20,603 Dutch adults (18 years and over) living in 963 urban areas in The Netherlands were obtained from the annual national health survey (2003-2009). Three interrelated smoking outcomes were used: current smoking (smokers/total population), initiation (ever-smokers/total population) and continuation (smokers/ever-smokers). Area deprivation was dichotomised; deprived urban areas (as defined by the Dutch government) and non-deprived urban areas (reference group) were distinguished. Multilevel logistic regression models controlled for individual characteristics (including education and income) and tested for interaction with gender, generation and education. After controlling for individual characteristics, odds for smoking were not significantly higher in deprived areas (current smoking: OR = 1.04 [0.92-1.18], initiation: OR = 1.05 [0.93-1.18], continuation: OR = 1.03 [0.88-1.19]). For smoking initiation, significant differences between deprived areas and other areas remained in younger generations (OR = 1.19 [1.02-1.38]) and higher educated (OR = 1.23 [1.04-1.45]) respondents. For continuation and current smoking, after controlling for individual characteristics, no associations were found in any subgroups. In conclusion, area deprivation appears to be independently related to smoking initiation in, respectively, higher educated and younger generations. These results suggest that initiatives to reduce area-level inequalities in smoking should focus on preventing

  18. Modelling population changes in small English urban areas.

    PubMed

    Congdon, P; Shepherd, J

    1986-10-01

    The authors examine processes underlying the growth of small urban areas in England. "There is evidence of 'people-led' growth in environmentally attractive locations (for example, through retirement migration). However, growth of small- and medium-sized towns also reflects employment decentralisation and deconcentration to freestanding or satellite towns, and the extension of commuter hinterlands.... Government policies encouraging growth are also demonstrated to be significant." The processes resulting in population decline in some small towns are identified. "The impact on modelling growth in urban areas of a diversity of causal processes and locational contexts for growth is considered."

  19. Modelling muddy floods in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, S. A.; Schmidt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Muddy floods are sediment loaded runoff from agricultural land. The related flooding and mud depositions become a major problem when occuring in settling areas to cover streets, private properties, industrial areas etc. Beside of the psychological strain for the affected residents the costs for mud removal are a burden that has to be considered. Up to now, the threat of muddy floods has poorly been considered in the planing processes of settling or industrial areas. This is because there is no adequate tool to predict the exact places where the mud is transported and where it might be deposited during flash floods. At present the structures of settlements have not been considered in digital elevation models (DEM) wich are used for erosion and deposition modelling. As these structures notably influence surface runoff, it is necessary to develop a method that integrates the elements of settlements into the DEM. We use GIS to alter DEMs with informations about settlement structures (buildings, streets, sidewalks, ditches, walls etc.) and also with information about planed constructions. This altered DEM will than be applied in an event-based soil erosion model (Erosion 3D) that is able to predict both runoff and transported sediment. The aim of this study is to find out runoff and deposition patterns in settlements in case of flash floods, but also to test the impact of changes in the anthropogenic surface due to new constructions. Such a tool would be useful in the planning process of new settlements or industrial areas or to evaluate possible protection measures.

  20. Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Musson-Genon, L.; Seigneur, C.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially-distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area.

  1. Modelling atmospheric dry deposition in urban areas using an urban canopy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Musson-Genon, L.; Seigneur, C.

    2015-03-01

    Atmospheric dry deposition is typically modelled using an average roughness length, which depends on land use. This classical roughness-length approach cannot account for the spatial variability of dry deposition in complex settings such as urban areas. Urban canopy models have been developed to parametrise momentum and heat transfer. We extend this approach here to mass transfer, and a new dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept is presented. It uses a local mixing-length parametrisation of turbulence within the canopy, and a description of the urban canopy via key parameters to provide spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon depending on the height-to-width ratio of built areas: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow. Differences between the classical roughness-length model and the model developed here are investigated. Sensitivity to key parameters are discussed. This approach provides spatially distributed dry deposition fluxes that depend on surfaces (streets, walls, roofs) and flow regimes (recirculation and ventilation) within the urban area.

  2. Faecal virome of red foxes from peri-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lojkić, Ivana; Biđin, Marina; Prpić, Jelena; Šimić, Ivana; Krešić, Nina; Bedeković, Tomislav

    2016-04-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most abundant carnivore species in the Northern Hemisphere. Since their populations are well established in peri-urban and urban areas, they represent a potential reservoir of viruses that transmit from wildlife to humans or domestic animals. In this study, we evaluated the faecal virome of juvenile and adult foxes from peri-urban areas in central Croatia. The dominating mammalian viruses were fox picobirnavirus and parvovirus. The highest number of viral reads (N=1412) was attributed to a new fox circovirus and complete viral genome was de novo assembled from the high-throughput sequencing data. Fox circovirus is highly similar to dog circoviruses identified in diseased dogs in USA and Italy, and to a recently discovered circovirus of foxes with neurologic disease from the United Kingdom. Our fox picobirnavirus was more closely related to the porcine and human picobirnaviruses than to known fox picobirnaviruses. PMID:27012914

  3. A million dollar exit from the anarchic slum-world: Slumdog Millionaire's hollow idioms of social justice.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mitu

    2010-01-01

    This article contests the characterisation of the popular and acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire, as a realistic portrayal of India's urban poverty that will ultimately serve as a tool of advocacy for India's urban poor. It argues that the film's reductive view of slum-spaces will more probably reinforce negative attitudes towards slum-dwellers, lending credibility to the sorts of policies that have historically dispossessed them of power and dignity. By drawing attention to the film's celebration of characters and spaces that symbolise Western culture and Northern trajectories of 'development', the article also critically engages with some of the issues raised by the film's enormous success.

  4. A million dollar exit from the anarchic slum-world: Slumdog Millionaire's hollow idioms of social justice.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Mitu

    2010-01-01

    This article contests the characterisation of the popular and acclaimed film, Slumdog Millionaire, as a realistic portrayal of India's urban poverty that will ultimately serve as a tool of advocacy for India's urban poor. It argues that the film's reductive view of slum-spaces will more probably reinforce negative attitudes towards slum-dwellers, lending credibility to the sorts of policies that have historically dispossessed them of power and dignity. By drawing attention to the film's celebration of characters and spaces that symbolise Western culture and Northern trajectories of 'development', the article also critically engages with some of the issues raised by the film's enormous success. PMID:20607903

  5. 77 FR 18651 - Qualifying Urban Areas for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... urban area criteria published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2011 (76 FR 53030).\\4\\ This Notice... Angels, CA 3,751 Angola, IN 11,196 Anna, IL 6,078 Anna, TX 10,746 Annandale, MN 3,262 Antigo, WI...

  6. Water Management and Sediment Control for Urbanizing Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Columbus, OH.

    This handbook, developed for use by the Soil Conservation Service and property owners, land developers, local government agencies, and consulting firms, is designed to provide information on water management and minimizing erosion on land undergoing development in urban areas. The standards and specifications listed in this handbook are to provide…

  7. Pregnant Women's and Community Health Workers' Perceptions of Root Causes of Malnutrition Among Infants and Young Children in the Slums of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Sabina; Bogin, Barry A.; Griffiths, Paula L.

    2011-01-01

    Research in Bangladesh shows that malnutrition among infants and young children is most severe in urban slums. We examined the root causes of malnutrition as perceived by pregnant women and community health workers. We conducted 10 focus group discussions in the slums of Dhaka in 2008 and 2009. Participants accurately perceived inappropriate care, inappropriate environment, inappropriate food, and flooding to be major causes. Recurrent flooding has not traditionally been identified by experts as a cause of malnutrition. We recommend further research to address the nutritional risks flooding creates for vulnerable slum populations. PMID:21653248

  8. Land subsidence caused by ground water withdrawal in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Johnson, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    At least eight urban areas in the world have encountered significant economic impact from land subsidence caused by pumping of ground water from unconsolidated sediment. The areas, most of which are coastal, include Bangkok, Houston, Mexico City, Osaka, San Jose, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Venice. Flooding related to decreased ground elevation is the principal adverse effect of the subsidence. Lesser effects include regional tilting, well-casing failures, "rising" buildings, and ground failure or rupture. Subsidence of most of these urban areas began before the phenomenon was discovered and understood. Thus, the subsidence problems were unanticipated. Methods to arrest subsidence typically have included control of ground water pumping and development of surface water to offset the reductions of ground water pumping. Ground water recharge has also been practiced. Areas threatened by flooding have been protected by extensive networks of dikes and sea walls, locks, and pumping stations to remove storm runoff. ?? 1985 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  9. Land security and the challenges of realizing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sharmila L

    2012-12-15

    Addressing the human right to water and sanitation in the slums of Mumbai, India requires disentangling the provision of basic services from a more complicated set of questions around land security and land ownership. Millions of slum-dwellers in Mumbai lack adequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation, which places them at risk for waterborne diseases. Many slums are located in hazardous areas such as flood plains, increasing their susceptibility to climate change-related weather patterns. Access to water and sanitation in slums generally hinges on whether a dwelling was created prior to January 1, 1995, because those constructed created prior to that date have greater land security. Although the so-called "1995 cut-off rule" looms large in Mumbai slum policy, a closer reading of the relevant laws and regulations suggests that access to water and sanitation could be expanded to slums created after January 1, 1995. State and municipal governments already have the authority to expand access to water services; they just need to exercise their discretion. However, slums located on central government land are in a more difficult position. Central government agencies in Mumbai have often refused to allow the state and municipal governments to rehabilitate or improve access to services for slums located on their land. As a result, an argument could be made that by interfering with the efforts of sub-national actors to extend water and sanitation to services to slum-dwellers, the central government of India is violating its obligations to respect the human right to water and sanitation under international and national jurisprudence.

  10. Intake fraction of nonreactive vehicle emissions in US urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Teoh, Soon-Kay; Nazaroff, William W.

    Intake fraction, which is the fraction of emissions that are inhaled by people, quantifies the "exposure efficiency" of an emission source. We use three methods to estimate intake fractions for vehicle emissions in US urban areas. First, we use a one-compartment steady-state mass-balance model, incorporating meteorological and demographic data. Second, we use an empirical emissions-to-concentration relationship for vehicle carbon monoxide developed for 15 US urban areas. Third, we analyze model results for benzene and diesel particulate matter from the US Environmental Protection Agency's National-scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). The population-weighted mean intraurban intake fraction for nonreactive gaseous vehicle emissions in US urban areas is estimated to be in the range 7-21 per million, with a best estimate of 14 per million. The intake fraction for diesel particles is 4 per million, based on NATA results. An intake fraction of 4 per million means that 4 mg of pollution are inhaled per kg emitted. Intake fraction values for urban vehicle emissions are usually higher in winter than in summer because of seasonal variability in the atmospheric mixing height. The results presented in this work can be used in health risk assessments, cost-benefit analyses, and other investigations that require a summary of the emission-to-intake relationship.

  11. Estimating vehicle fuel consumption in urban areas. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, L.J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Traffic flow simulation and assignment techniques were used to model area-wide effects of traffic management measures. Relationships between fuel consumption under urban driving conditions and the inverse of average travel speed were inferred from experimental tests. From the results a relationship which gave urban fuel consumption as a function of journey distance, total delayed time, and number of stops, was suggested for the 'average urban passenger car' in the UK. A review of reported potential fuel savings from traffic management measures was also undertaken. The effects on fuel consumption of changing the common cycle time for a co-ordinated system of signalised intersections were evaluated using the SATURN traffic simulation/assignment model.

  12. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  13. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions.

  14. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  15. The role of wildlife in the transmission of parasitic zoonoses in peri-urban and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    Mackenstedt, Ute; Jenkins, David; Romig, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter. Urban foxes and/or raccoons are common sights in many peri-urban and urban areas of Europe where they can reach far higher population densities than in their natural habitats. The same is true for foxes and dingoes in some urban areas of Australia. Unfortunately, some of these highly adaptable species are also hosts for a number of parasites of public health and veterinary importance. Due to the complexity of many parasitic life cycles involving several host species, the interactions between wild animals, domestic animals and humans are not fully understood. The role of potential hosts for transmission of a zoonotic disease in urban or peri-urban areas cannot be extrapolated from data obtained in rural areas. Since more than 75% of human diseases are of zoonotic origin, it is important to understand the dynamics between wildlife, domestic animal species and humans in urbanized areas, and to conduct more focused research on transmission of zoonotic parasites including arthropod vectors under such conditions. PMID:25830108

  16. Predictability of Road Traffic and Congestion in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  17. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion.

  18. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion. PMID:25849534

  19. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Heat Island and Urban Metabolism by Satellite Imagery over the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Zhan, S.; Kuai, X.; Zhan, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this research is to combine DMSP-OLS nighttime light data with Landsat imagery and use spatio-temporal analysis methods to evaluate the relationships between urbanization processes and temperature variation in Phoenix metropolitan area. The urbanization process is a combination of both land use change within the existing urban environment as well as urban sprawl that enlarges the urban area through the transformation of rural areas to urban structures. These transformations modify the overall urban climate environment, resulting in higher nighttime temperatures in urban areas compared to the surrounding rural environment. This is a well-known and well-studied phenomenon referred to as the urban heat island effect (UHI). What is unknown is the direct relationship between the urbanization process and the mechanisms of the UHI. To better understand this interaction, this research focuses on using nighttime light satellite imagery to delineate and detect urban extent changes and utilizing existing land use/land cover map or newly classified imagery from Landsat to analyze the internal urban land use variations. These data are combined with summer and winter land surface temperature data extracted from Landsat. We developed a time series of these combined data for Phoenix, AZ from 1992 to 2013 to analyze the relationships among land use change, land surface temperature and urban growth.

  1. Addressing Inequities in Urban Health: Do Decision-Makers Have the Data They Need? Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015.

    PubMed

    Elsey, H; Thomson, D R; Lin, R Y; Maharjan, U; Agarwal, S; Newell, J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and uncontrolled urbanisation across low and middle-income countries is leading to ever expanding numbers of urban poor, defined here as slum dwellers and the homeless. It is estimated that 828 million people are currently living in slum conditions. If governments, donors and NGOs are to respond to these growing inequities they need data that adequately represents the needs of the urban poorest as well as others across the socio-economic spectrum.We report on the findings of a special session held at the International Conference on Urban Health, Dhaka 2015. We present an overview of the need for data on urban health for planning and allocating resources to address urban inequities. Such data needs to provide information on differences between urban and rural areas nationally, between and within urban communities. We discuss the limitations of data most commonly available to national and municipality level government, donor and NGO staff. In particular we assess, with reference to the WHO's Urban HEART tool, the challenges in the design of household surveys in understanding urban health inequities.We then present two novel approaches aimed at improving the information on the health of the urban poorest. The first uses gridded population sampling techniques within the design and implementation of household surveys and the second adapts Urban HEART into a participatory approach which enables slum residents to assess indicators whilst simultaneously planning the response. We argue that if progress is to be made towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities, as articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11, then understanding urban health inequities is a vital pre-requisite to an effective response by governments, donors, NGOs and communities.

  2. Addressing Inequities in Urban Health: Do Decision-Makers Have the Data They Need? Report from the Urban Health Data Special Session at International Conference on Urban Health Dhaka 2015.

    PubMed

    Elsey, H; Thomson, D R; Lin, R Y; Maharjan, U; Agarwal, S; Newell, J

    2016-06-01

    Rapid and uncontrolled urbanisation across low and middle-income countries is leading to ever expanding numbers of urban poor, defined here as slum dwellers and the homeless. It is estimated that 828 million people are currently living in slum conditions. If governments, donors and NGOs are to respond to these growing inequities they need data that adequately represents the needs of the urban poorest as well as others across the socio-economic spectrum.We report on the findings of a special session held at the International Conference on Urban Health, Dhaka 2015. We present an overview of the need for data on urban health for planning and allocating resources to address urban inequities. Such data needs to provide information on differences between urban and rural areas nationally, between and within urban communities. We discuss the limitations of data most commonly available to national and municipality level government, donor and NGO staff. In particular we assess, with reference to the WHO's Urban HEART tool, the challenges in the design of household surveys in understanding urban health inequities.We then present two novel approaches aimed at improving the information on the health of the urban poorest. The first uses gridded population sampling techniques within the design and implementation of household surveys and the second adapts Urban HEART into a participatory approach which enables slum residents to assess indicators whilst simultaneously planning the response. We argue that if progress is to be made towards inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable cities, as articulated in Sustainable Development Goal 11, then understanding urban health inequities is a vital pre-requisite to an effective response by governments, donors, NGOs and communities. PMID:27184570

  3. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  4. Topsoil investigation on two different urban areas in West Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metal contents of urban soils in two different urban areas have been investigated in Sopron town (169.01 km2) and in Szombathely town 97.50 km2) in Hungary. In a standard network 208 samples have been collected Sopron from 0 to 10 and from 10 to 20 cm depth. 164 samples have been taken on 88 points in the area of Szombathely. We analysed all of the soil samples with ICP equipment applying Lakanen-Erviö method (Ammonium Acetate - EDTA (pH 4.65)) and we focused on Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn during the evaluation. The soils of suburb are determined largely by the bedrock, but in the downtown the soil pH was alkaline in soils of Sopron. Therefore, the toxic elements are still accumulated in the topsoil. The lead content was very high (suggested pollution limit >25 mg Pb/kg) in both layers on the whole area of the town. Urban soils with high copper content (among 611 mg and 1221 mg Cu/kg) have been collected from garden and viticulture areas. According to our measurements we found the highest average values in the soils of parks. The pH of urban topsoils of Szombathely was mostly neutral and it was lower in soil of agricultural areas on the suburb, where the artificial fertiliser is still used. The Pb content was high (more than 25 mg Pb/kg) in case of 13 samples next to traffic roads of the town. The Co, Cu and Ni results were below the suggested Hungarian background limits. The Zn values were above the suggested Hungarian pollution (20 mg Zn/kg) and interventional limits (>40 mg Zn/kg) in most cases. According to the results we found the highest average values of heavy metals in the soil of traffic areas or next to the Gyöngyös creek, which could be originated from traffic contamination, binding in the soil of urban green spaces, thus possibly affects human health. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project. Keywords: anthropogenic effects, heavy metal content, lead pollution, polluted urban soils

  5. A STUDY OF STABILITY CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN AREA

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S T; Lundquist, J K

    2005-11-01

    Accurate numerical prediction of airflow and tracer dispersion in urban areas depends, to a great extent, on the use of appropriate stability conditions. Due to the lack of relevant field measurements or sufficiently sophisticated turbulence models, modelers often assume that nearly neutral conditions are appropriate to use for the entire urban area being simulated. The main argument for such an assumption is that atmospheric stability (as defined by the Richardson number) is determined by both mechanical stresses and buoyant forcing but, for a typical urban setting with a given thermal stability or sensible heat flux, building-induced mechanical stresses can become so dominant to drive the resulting stability toward nearly neutral conditions. Results from our recent simulations of two Joint URBAN 2003 releases, using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model - FEM3MP, appear to support partially the assumption that urban areas tend toward neutral stability. More specifically, based on a model-data comparison for winds and concentration in the near field and velocity and turbulence profiles in the urban wake region, Chan and Lundquist (2005) and Lundquist and Chan (2005) observed that neutral stability assumption appears to be valid for intensive operation period (IOP) 9 (a nighttime release with moderate winds) and also appears to be valid for IOP 3 (a daytime release with strong buoyant forcing) in the urban core area but is less valid in the urban wake region. Our model, developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), is based on solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on massively parallel computer platforms. The numerical algorithm is based on finite-element discretization for effective treatment of complex building geometries and variable terrain, together with a semi-implicit projection scheme and modern iterative solvers developed by Gresho and

  6. Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in complex urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroyer, S.; Bélair, S.; Husain, S.; Vionnet, V.

    2013-12-01

    A Sub-kilometer atmospheric modeling system with grid-spacings of 2.5 km, 1 km and 250 m and including urban processes is currently being developed at the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) in order to provide more accurate weather forecasts at the city scale. Atmospheric lateral boundary conditions are provided with the 15-km Canadian Regional Deterministic Prediction System (RDPS). Surface physical processes are represented with the Town Energy Balance (TEB) model for the built-up covers and with the Interactions between the Surface, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA) land surface model for the natural covers. In this study, several research experiments over large metropolitan areas and using observational networks at the urban scale are presented, with a special emphasis on the representation of local atmospheric circulations and their impact on extreme weather forecasting. First, numerical simulations are performed over the Vancouver metropolitan area during a summertime Intense Observing Period (IOP of 14-15 August 2008) of the Environmental Prediction in Canadian Cities (EPiCC) observational network. The influence of the horizontal resolution on the fine-scale representation of the sea-breeze development over the city is highlighted (Leroyer et al., 2013). Then severe storms cases occurring in summertime within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) are simulated. In view of supporting the 2015 PanAmerican and Para-Pan games to be hold in GTA, a dense observational network has been recently deployed over this region to support model evaluations at the urban and meso scales. In particular, simulations are conducted for the case of 8 July 2013 when exceptional rainfalls were recorded. Leroyer, S., S. Bélair, J. Mailhot, S.Z. Husain, 2013: Sub-kilometer Numerical Weather Prediction in an Urban Coastal Area: A case study over the Vancouver Metropolitan Area, submitted to Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology.

  7. High resolution modelling of extreme precipitation events in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemerink, Martijn; Volp, Nicolette; Schuurmans, Wytze; Deckers, Dave

    2015-04-01

    significant soil consolidation and the low-lying areas are prone to urban flooding. The simulation results are compared with measurements in the sewer network. References [1] Guus S. Stelling G.S., 2012. Quadtree flood simulations with subgrid digital elevation models. Water Management 165 (WM1):1329-1354. [2] Vincenzo Cassuli and Guus S. Stelling, 2013. A semi-implicit numerical model for urban drainage systems. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol. 73:600-614. DOI: 10.1002/fld.3817

  8. 41 CFR 102-83.60 - What is an urbanized area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is an urbanized area? 102-83.60 Section 102-83.60 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Space Rural Areas § 102-83.60 What is an urbanized area? An urbanized area is a statistical...

  9. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

    2015-02-01

    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eskişehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %.

  10. Determination effects of impervious areas on urban watershed.

    PubMed

    Şimşek Uygun, Burcu; Albek, Mine

    2015-02-01

    After the industrial revolution, urban growth has been increasing, especially with technological advances. Urbanization is accelerating environmental pollution and also affects climate significantly because of land use or land cover changes. In this study, the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) is used for modeling the impervious areas of Eskişehir which is located in the Porsuk Stream Watershed in Inner Anatolia, Turkey. Effects of impervious areas of Eskisehir on the Porsuk Stream pollution between 1975 and 2010 have been investigated. Important water quality parameters like nitrate, orthophosphate, sediment, chloride, and total coliform are modeled. Impervious land segments have been found to be affecting all parameter concentrations and also surface flows significantly as determined using the t test with a confidence level of 95 %. PMID:25182427

  11. Developing technologies for rainwater utilization in urbanized area.

    PubMed

    Kim, R H; Lee, S; Lee, J H; Kim, Y M; Suh, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Rainwater utilization has potential to recover the hydrological cycle, to buffer extreme run-off situations in the watercourses, and to reduce the costs for water supply in urban areas. However, relatively few works have been done for developing technologies to improve the water quality during rainwater utilization in large cities where the contamination of rainwater is anticipated. Therefore, this study focused on developing technologies for rainwater utilization subsystems including catchment, storage, treatment, infiltration, and use for buildings in urban areas. The rainwater samples collected from roof and roof garden were compared with wet deposition to analyze and identify the major components that may cause problems in rainwater utilization. Based on these results, novel techniques utilizing TiO2, sunlight, and bauxsol to minimize the contamination level by particles, microorganisms, and nutrients were developed for rainwater subsystems and applied to explore their suitability.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections and urbanization.

    PubMed

    Crompton, D W; Savioli, L

    1993-01-01

    About a third of the population in the cities of developing countries live in slums and shanty towns. By the year 2000 it is estimated that this number will grow to 2200 million, and by 2025 about 57% of the population in developing countries will be in urban areas. The prevalence of infections caused by Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis and the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections may increase among the rural populations who are migrating to these urban and suburban settings owing to the favourable conditions for transmission. Urgent consideration should therefore be given to improving sanitation in deprived urban areas and to treating periodically these populations to reduce the worm burden, especially in school-age children.

  13. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another...

  14. Airborne SAR/IFSAR for mapping in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayakula, Thongthit

    There are many problems in topographic mapping in an urban area. Traditional land survey is a very time consuming technique and can be very expensive. Photogrammetry is a popular choice but there are some problems such as clouds and limited operational time. Since Synthetic Aperture Radar, (SAR), is an active remote sensing system and its signal can penetrate through clouds, it can be operated at any time of day and is a independent of the weather. SAR could be a good solution for topographic mapping in an urban area. Combining SAR data and Interferometric radar technology can provide enough information for topographic mapping. Information can be extracted from SAR intensity Image. This thesis focuses on feature extraction and classification for topographic mapping in an urban area from airborne interferometric SAR data. A new algorithm is described which is simple and practical but yet very efficient for feature extraction and for object-based feature classification. An adapted Canny-Petrou-Kittler algorithm is applied for edge detection. Since the algorithm provides good detection, good localization and only one response to a single edge, it is an ideal edge detection for dense urban areas. Since the SAR image is noisy by its nature, small weak edges are expected. The modified non-maximal technique is also proposed to reduce unwanted edge. The technique of generation of bald earth DEM is proposed to obtain a normalised DEM for feature extraction. Region growing from edge detection is then applied to extract a more accurate shape of the feature and generate feature surface by using topographic parameters. The extracted feature is then classified by object-oriented classification technique, in which the classification is performed at object level not pixel level. And at the end of the process 3D city model can be produced.

  15. Urban areas impact on surface water quality during rainfall events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. S. S.; Soares, D.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Costa, M. L.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing population and welfare puts water management under stress, especially in what concerns water quality. Surface water properties are strongly linked with hydrological processes and are affected by stream flow variability. Changes in some chemical substances concentrations can be ascribed to different water sources. Runoff generated in urban areas is considered the main responsible for water quality degradation inside catchments. This poster presents the methodology and first results of a study that is being developed to assess the impact of urbanization on surface water quality, during rainfall events. It focuses on the Ribeira dos Covões catchment (620 ha) located in central Portugal. Due to its proximity to the Coimbra city in central region, the urban areas sprawled during the last decades. In 2008, urban areas represented 32% of the area. Recently a highway was constructed crossing the catchment and a technological industrial park is being build-up in the headwaters. Several water samples were collected at four different locations: the catchment outlet and in three sub-catchments with distinct urbanization patterns - Espírito Santo that represents a highly urbanized area (45%) located over sandstone, Porto do Bordalo with 30% of urbanized area located over limestone, and IParque, mainly forest and just downstream the disturbed technological industrial park construction area. The samples were collected at different times during rainfall events to monitor the variability along the hydrograph. Six monitoring campaigns were performed: two in April 2011, at the end of the winter period, and the others between October and November 2011, after the dry summer. The number of samples collected per monitoring campaign is variable according with rainfall pattern. Parameters such as pH, conductivity, turbidity and total suspended sediments were immediately analyzed. The samples were then preserved, after filtered (0.45µm), and later analyzed for dissolved

  16. Urban heat evolution in a tropical area utilizing Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanollahi, Jamil; Tzanis, Chris; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Abdullah, Ahmad Makmom

    2016-01-01

    Cloud cover is the main limitation of using remote sensing to study Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change, and Land Surface Temperature (LST) in tropical area like Malaysia. In order to study LULC change and its effect on LST, the Landsat images were utilized within Geographical Information System (GIS) with the aim of removing the effect of cloud cover and image's gaps on the Digital Number (DN) of the pixels. 5356 points according to pixels coordinate which represent the 960 m to 960 m area were created in GIS environment and matched with thermal bands of the study area in remote sensing environment. The DNs of these points were processed to extract LST and imported in GIS environment to derive the temperature maps. Temperature was found to be generally higher in 2010 than in 2000. The comparison of the highest temperature area in the temperature maps with ground stations data showed that the topographical characteristics of the area, and the wind speed, and direction influence the occurrence of Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect. This study concludes that integration of remote sensing data and GIS is a useful tool in urban LST detection in tropical area.

  17. Malaria Parasitemia among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Njuguna, Henry N.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Cosmas, Leonard; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O.; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Nairobi is considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, but travel can influence transmission of malaria. We investigated the demographic characteristics and travel history of patients with documented fever and malaria in a study clinic in a population-based surveillance system over a 5-year period, January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. During the study period, 11,480 (68%) febrile patients had a microscopy test performed for malaria, of which 2,553 (22%) were positive. Malaria was detected year-round with peaks in January, May, and September. Children aged 5–14 years had the highest proportion (28%) of positive results followed by children aged 1–4 years (23%). Almost two-thirds of patients with malaria reported traveling outside Nairobi; 79% of these traveled to three counties in western Kenya. History of recent travel (i.e., in past month) was associated with malaria parasitemia (odds ratio: 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 9.0–11.0). Malaria parasitemia was frequently observed among febrile patients at a health facility in the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi. The majority of patients had traveled to western Kenya. However, 34% reported no travel history, which raises the possibility of local malaria transmission in this densely populated, urban setting. These findings have important implications for malaria control in large Nairobi settlements. PMID:26598567

  18. Malaria Parasitemia Among Febrile Patients Seeking Clinical Care at an Outpatient Health Facility in an Urban Informal Settlement Area in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, Henry N; Montgomery, Joel M; Cosmas, Leonard; Wamola, Newton; Oundo, Joseph O; Desai, Meghna; Buff, Ann M; Breiman, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Nairobi is considered a low-risk area for malaria transmission, but travel can influence transmission of malaria. We investigated the demographic characteristics and travel history of patients with documented fever and malaria in a study clinic in a population-based surveillance system over a 5-year period, January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. During the study period, 11,480 (68%) febrile patients had a microscopy test performed for malaria, of which 2,553 (22%) were positive. Malaria was detected year-round with peaks in January, May, and September. Children aged 5-14 years had the highest proportion (28%) of positive results followed by children aged 1-4 years (23%). Almost two-thirds of patients with malaria reported traveling outside Nairobi; 79% of these traveled to three counties in western Kenya. History of recent travel (i.e., in past month) was associated with malaria parasitemia (odds ratio: 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 9.0-11.0). Malaria parasitemia was frequently observed among febrile patients at a health facility in the urban slum of Kibera, Nairobi. The majority of patients had traveled to western Kenya. However, 34% reported no travel history, which raises the possibility of local malaria transmission in this densely populated, urban setting. These findings have important implications for malaria control in large Nairobi settlements.

  19. A Theory on the Ventilation over Hypothetical Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C. C.

    2013-04-01

    Urban roughness is one of the major factors affecting the flows and turbulence structures in the bottom of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Whereas, our understanding of their relation is limited. In this paper, we attempt to examine the interaction among aerodynamic resistance (friction factor f), ventilation (air exchange rate ACH), and pollutant removal (pollutant removal rate PCH). Using the method of characteristic, analytical solution shows that the turbulent ventilation of a hypothetical urban area is directly proportional to the square root of friction factor (ACH? f1-2) regardless of the building geometry. Next, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) sensitivity tests are performed to verify the theory. In addition to the commonly employed rectangular building models, seven types of urban roughness elements, in the form of idealized building models, are tested. As a pilot study, the building models are of the same height so a roof level is easily defined across the entire hypothetical urban areas. Two configurations of passive scalar sources, ground-level-only (vehicular emission) and all-solid-boundary (heat dissipation), are employed to contrast their transport behaviors. To look into the mechanism of ventilation and pollutant removal, the ACH and PCH are partitioned into their respective mean and turbulent components. The CFD results show that both the ventilation and pollutant removal are mainly attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, the ACH″ and f1-2 calculation from the CFD results agree very well with the analytical solution (correlation coefficient over 0.9). However, the pollutant and heat exhibit different removal behaviors so simple estimates using friction factor have not yet arrived. Because of the substantial aged air removal by ACH″ and its linear relation with f1-2, it is proposed to use friction factor, which can be determined by wind tunnel experiments or mathematical modeling, as a

  20. Public facility planning in urban villagers' community based on Public Participation GIS: a case study of Wuhan new urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Yang

    2009-10-01

    As a unique group in China's urbanization, "urban villager" is the concern of various parties of the society. From "farmers" to "urban residents", urban villagers' means of production and life style change dramatically. At present, public facility planning in urban villagers' community always fail to meet their particular demands. Taking PPGIS as an instrument, the paper analyzes the present status of public facilities in urban villagers' community and the new demand on public facilities from the changing production means and life style. The purpose is to put forward suggestions for public facility setting in urban villagers' community and offer theoretic guidance and proposal for Wuhan new urban areas. PPGIS is gradually being applied to social science researches in recent years. Through the integrated platform, it can achieve the objective of communication, coordination, cooperation and collaboration of different interests. In this research, ephemeral mapping, sketch mapping, scale mapping and aerial photographs are used to acquire spatial data of public facilities and attribute data of urban villagers in their community. Through the comparison of data, the research shows that while urban villagers in Wuhan new urban areas gradually accept city life, they inevitably maintain certain rural habits and customs. Therefore, the public facility planning in this particular kind of communities can neither be treated equal as countryside facility planning, nor simply adopt the practice in urban residential areas' planning; rather the planning system should take into account facilities of different categories at all levels, communities of different types and residential groups.

  1. [Characteristics of atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area].

    PubMed

    He, Cheng-Wu; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Mao, Yu-Xiang

    2014-02-01

    With the ion-exchange resin method, the atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition in Beijing urban area within the Fifth Ring Road was investigated from June to October, 2012. The relationship between atmospheric nitrogen wet deposition and rainfall precipitation was investigated, the differences of nitrogen wet deposition in different months, different ring roads (the Fifth Ring Road, the Fourth Ring Road, the Third Ring Road and the Second Ring Road) and different functional areas (institutes and colleges district, ring-road, residential areas, railway station and public garden) were also investigated. The results showed that the average value and standard deviation of ammonia-nitrogen, nitrate-nitrogen and nitrite-nitrogen were significantly different during different months in 2012. The atmospheric nitrite nitrogen deposition first decreased and then increased, the maximum value appeared in September. The positive relationships between ammonia nitrogen (nitrate nitrogen) and mean monthly precipitation and negative relationships between nitrite nitrogen and mean monthly precipitation were both significant (P < 0.05). The three nitrogen depositions of ring-road and railway station were higher than other functional areas, but only the nitrite nitrogen deposition had obvious regional difference. The differences of the three nitrogen depositions among different ring roads were all not significant and it meant that the nitrogen wet deposition was equally distributed in Beijing urban area. PMID:24812938

  2. A theory of ventilation estimate over hypothetical urban areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C C

    2015-10-15

    Urban roughness is a major factor governing the flows and scalar transport in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) but our understanding is rather limited. The ventilation and pollutant removal of hypothetical urban areas consisting of various types of street canyons are examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aerodynamic resistance, ventilation efficiency, and pollutant removal are measured by the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively. Two source configurations of passive tracer, ground-level-only (Tracer 0) and all-solid-boundary (Tracer 1) are employed to contrast their transport behavior. It is found that the ventilation and pollutant removal are largely attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, with a consistent support from analytical solution and CFD results, the turbulent ACH is a linear function of the square root of the friction factor (ACH'∝f(1/2)) regardless of building geometry. Tracer 0 and Tracer 1 exhibit diversified removal behavior as functions of friction factor so analytical parameterizations have not yet been developed. In view of the large portion of aged air removal by turbulence, it is proposed that the aerodynamic resistance can serve as an estimate to the minimum ventilation efficiency of urban areas. PMID:25901939

  3. A theory of ventilation estimate over hypothetical urban areas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Ho; Ng, Chi-To; Wong, Colman C C

    2015-10-15

    Urban roughness is a major factor governing the flows and scalar transport in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) but our understanding is rather limited. The ventilation and pollutant removal of hypothetical urban areas consisting of various types of street canyons are examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aerodynamic resistance, ventilation efficiency, and pollutant removal are measured by the friction factor f, air exchange rate (ACH), and pollutant exchange rate (PCH), respectively. Two source configurations of passive tracer, ground-level-only (Tracer 0) and all-solid-boundary (Tracer 1) are employed to contrast their transport behavior. It is found that the ventilation and pollutant removal are largely attributed to their turbulent components (over 60%). Moreover, with a consistent support from analytical solution and CFD results, the turbulent ACH is a linear function of the square root of the friction factor (ACH'∝f(1/2)) regardless of building geometry. Tracer 0 and Tracer 1 exhibit diversified removal behavior as functions of friction factor so analytical parameterizations have not yet been developed. In view of the large portion of aged air removal by turbulence, it is proposed that the aerodynamic resistance can serve as an estimate to the minimum ventilation efficiency of urban areas.

  4. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  5. Urban-area extraction from polarimetric SAR image using combination of target decomposition and orientation angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Bin; Lu, Da; Wu, Zhilu; Qiao, Zhijun G.

    2016-05-01

    The results of model-based target decomposition are the main features used to discriminate urban and non-urban area in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) application. Traditional urban-area extraction methods based on modelbased target decomposition usually misclassified ground-trunk structure as urban-area or misclassified rotated urbanarea as forest. This paper introduces another feature named orientation angle to improve urban-area extraction scheme for the accurate mapping in urban by PolSAR image. The proposed method takes randomness of orientation angle into account for restriction of urban area first and, subsequently, implements rotation angle to improve results that oriented urban areas are recognized as double-bounce objects from volume scattering. ESAR L-band PolSAR data of the Oberpfaffenhofen Test Site Area was used to validate the proposed algorithm.

  6. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification. (a) Urban area boundaries. Routes on the Federal-aid highway...

  7. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  8. Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly

  9. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.230 Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an... prior to fiscal year 2005, an individual hospital may be redesignated from a rural area to an urban...

  10. A critical knowledge pathway to low-carbon, sustainable futures: Integrated understanding of urbanization, urban areas, and carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Gurney, Kevin R.; Seto, Karen C.; Chester, Mikhail; Duren, Riley M.; Hughes, Sara; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Marcotullio, Peter; Baker, Lawrence; Grimm, Nancy B.; Kennedy, Christopher; Larson, Elisabeth; Pincetl, Stephanie; Runfola, Dan; Sanchez, Landy; Shrestha, Gyami; Feddema, Johannes; Sarzynski, Andrea; Sperling, Joshua; Stokes, Eleanor

    2014-10-01

    Independent lines of research on urbanization, urban areas, and carbon have advanced our understanding of some of the processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This synthesis integrates some of these diverse viewpoints as a first step toward a coproduced, integrated framework for understanding urbanization, urban areas, and their relationships to carbon. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas, affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas, based not only on demographics or income but also on other interconnected features of urban development pathways such as urban form, economic function, economic-growth policies, and other governance arrangements. It points to a wide array of uncertainties around the urbanization processes, their interactions with urban socio-institutional and built environment systems, and how these impact the exchange of carbon flows within and outside urban areas. We must also understand in turn how carbon feedbacks, including carbon impacts and potential impacts of climate change, can affect urbanization processes. Finally, the paper explores options, barriers, and limits to transitioning cities to low-carbon trajectories, and suggests the development of an end-to-end, coproduced and integrated scientific understanding that can more effectively inform the navigation of transitional journeys and the avoidance of obstacles along the way.

  11. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  12. Family planning use among urban poor women from six cities of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Nanda, Priya; Achyut, Pranita; Pillai, Gita; Guilkey, David K

    2012-08-01

    Family planning has widespread positive impacts for population health and well-being; contraceptive use not only decreases unintended pregnancies and reduces infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, but it is critical to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals. This study uses baseline, representative data from six cities in Uttar Pradesh, India to examine family planning use among the urban poor. Data were collected from about 3,000 currently married women in each city (Allahabad, Agra, Varanasi, Aligarh, Gorakhpur, and Moradabad) for a total sample size of 17,643 women. Participating women were asked about their fertility desires, family planning use, and reproductive health. The survey over-sampled slum residents; this permits in-depth analyses of the urban poor and their family planning use behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used to examine the role of wealth and education on family planning use and unmet need for family planning. Across all of the cities, about 50% of women report modern method use. Women in slum areas generally report less family planning use and among those women who use, slum women are more likely to be sterilized than to use other methods, including condoms and hormonal methods. Across all cities, there is a higher unmet need for family planning to limit childbearing than for spacing births. Poorer women are more likely to have an unmet need than richer women in both the slum and non-slum samples; this effect is attenuated when education is included in the analysis. Programs seeking to target the urban poor in Uttar Pradesh and elsewhere in India may be better served to identify the less educated women and target these women with appropriate family planning messages and methods that meet their current and future fertility desire needs.

  13. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  14. 24 CFR 203.426 - Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inapplicability to housing in older declining urban areas. 203.426 Section 203.426 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  15. Dynamics in urban water quality: monitoring the Amsterdam city area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vlugt, Corné; Yu, Liang; Rozemeijer, Joachim; van Breukelen, Boris; Ouboter, Maarten; Stuurman, Roelof; Broers, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    Urban water quality is influenced by a large number of heterogeneous sources. We aimed to identify solute pathways from different sources in the urban area of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. The city is situated in the Dutch delta, and largely below mean sea level. The water system of the centre of the city is connected to the large fresh water lake Ijsselmeer, but suburbs are mainly located within reclaimed lake and polder areas where water is pumped out in order to maintain the water levels, which are generally 1 tot 4 m. below sea level. Sources of water include: urban storm runoff, inlet water from the Ijsselmeer and surrounding areas, groundwater seepage and possibly also leaking sewage systems. The temporal dynamics and spatial patterns related to these flow routes and sources were largely unknown to date. Water quality is measured at those pumping stations systematically each month. We analysed the pumping discharge data and the concentration data to calculate daily water balances and annual load estimates for HCO3,Ca, Cl, Na, SO4, Ptot, Ntot ,NH4, NH3 and NO3. Chloride appears to be a good tracer to identify inlet water and bicarbonate and DIC were effective to estimate the groundwater contribution to the surface water outflow to the regional system. We were able to improve the solute balances by calibrating the measured temporal patterns of chloride and DIC using known concentrations from the individual sources. Subsequently the water balances where used to identify periods where one of the sources was dominant and by doing so we improved our understanding of the dynamics of N, P and S fluxes and the relations with dry and wet meteorological conditions. It appeared that N and P were largely related to groundwater outflow , whereas S was mainly related to dry periods and shallow flow routes influenced by sewage, urban storm runoff and shallow groundwater flow . The results are used to optimize urban water management which benefits from the improved insight in

  16. Is global dimming and brightening limited to urban areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Katsumasa; Imamovic, Adel; Folini, Doris; Ohmura, Atsumu; Wild, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Efforts have been put into place for decades around the world to understand the surface energy budget of the Earth. One of the pillars of such activities is the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) project (Ohmura and Lang 1989), which established a database for the measurements of Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) and other parameters around the world. A major finding from the GEBA project is "global dimming and brightening" (Ohmura and Lang 1989; Wild 2009), which refers originally to the secular trend of SSR on the decadal time scale in Europe that had declined till around 1980s and then has been rising ever since. Secular trends have also been found elsewhere in the world, but the strength and the direction of the trend differ across regions (Ohmura 2009; Skeie et al. 2011; Wild et al. 2005). As a number of observations are made in or close to urban areas, speculations have arisen that the observed SSR trends may be influenced by local atmospheric pollution (with the direct aerosol effects being predominant (Kvalevåg and Myhre 2007)) and also by enhanced cloud cover over urban areas (Shepherd 2005). Thus, this raises a question: to what extent the observed global dimming and brightening is limited to urban areas. To date, only a few studies address this problem including a statistical study based on population data (Alpert et al. 2005) and model studies inspecting SSR trends (e.g. Dwyer et al. 2010; Skeie et al. 2011). Answers are, however, inconclusive and remain debated. We investigate whether the observed global dimming and brightening is a large scale phenomenon or limited to urban areas by using the following two complementary approaches: 1) We focus on a set of selected 14 stations in Japan that yield various high quality measurements since 1961 with three of them being least influenced by urbanization (based on expert elicitation). We look into seasonal time-series of SSR, cloud amount, and sunshine duration (Source: Japanese Meteorological Agency) as well

  17. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit.

  18. [Human African trypanosomiasis in an urban area: an emerging problem?].

    PubMed

    Louis, F J; Bilenge, C M; Simarro, P P; Meso, V Kande; Lucas, P; Jannin, J

    2003-08-01

    The human African trypanosomiasis is essentially a rural disease. The notification of cases in urban area has always been incidental; either a diagnosis made in town revealed a disease contracted in rural environment or it meant the preservation of a complete epidemiological cycle in a remaining urban micro-focus. In Kinshasa, in Democratic Republic of Congo, about forty cases have been notified each year. All of them came from the nearby foci of Bandundu, Lower Congo and Kasaï. In 1996 the number of cases reached suddenly 254 and today the average annual number comes up to 500 in spite of all the efforts undertaken to fight the disease. A study of cases in 1998 and 1999 shows that patients are essentially distributed in suburbs and that the most affected by the disease are the 15-49 year old ones whose job is related with agricultural or fishing activities. Two phenomena seem to explain this sudden increase: the massive inflow of refugees in outskirts of town coming from provinces where trypanosomiasis is endemic and a major economic crisis throwing out urban population in suburbs living on a subsistence micro-agriculture. These concomitant factors have contributed to the setting up of a trypanosomiasis belt around the capital. Today a strategy has to be reconsidered in order to fight against the disease in the capital itself and to make the medical staff aware of the diagnosis of a disease still unknown in their sanitary district.

  19. Congestion, air pollution, and road fatalities in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Shefer, D

    1994-08-01

    The continuous rapid growth in vehicle miles travelled coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is useful to initiate and implement programs that treat jointly traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. Market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high-polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives that may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to investigate thoroughly these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the "socially optimal level of congestion" that will yield the highest net social benefit. PMID:7522455

  20. LCA of selective waste collection systems in dense urban areas.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, Alfredo; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents research concerning the environmental analysis of the selective collection management of municipal solid waste. The main goal of this study is to quantify and to compare, by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the potential environmental impacts of three selective collection systems modelled on densely populated urban areas. These systems are: the mobile pneumatic, the multi-container and the door-to-door. Impact assessment method based on CML 2 baseline 2000 is applied to the different systems. The study separates and analyzes the collection systems in substages: two urban substages and one inter-city substage. At the urban level, the multi-container system has the least environmental impact of all systems. The mobile pneumatic system has greater environmental impacts in terms of global warming, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. In this system, the pipes and the pneumatic transport have the greatest impacts. The door-to-door system has a greatest environmental impact in terms of abiotic depletion, ozone layer depletion and human toxicity. An overall evaluation of the three substages, with a sensitivity analysis, indicates that the mobile pneumatic system at an inter-city distance of 20 km shows the greatest environmental impacts and the greatest energy demand. Inter-city transport is key; the results show that from an inter-city distance of 11 km onwards, this becomes the substage which most contributes to global warming impact and energy demand, in all the systems.

  1. Outdoor air pollution in urban areas and allergic respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G

    1999-12-01

    Respiratory allergic diseases (rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, bronchial asthma and its equivalents) appear to be increasing in most countries, and subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to experience respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked, among various factors, to air pollution, which is now an important public health hazard. Laboratory studies confirm the epidemiological evidence that inhalation of some pollutants, either individually or in combination, adversely affect lung function in asthmatics. The most abundant air pollutants in urban areas with high levels of vehicle traffic are respirable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. While nitrogen dioxide does not exert consistent effects on lung function, ozone, respirable particulate matter and allergens impair lung function and lead to increased airway responsiveness and bronchial obstruction in predisposed subjects. However, besides acting as irritants, airborne pollutants can modulate the allergenicity of antigens carried by airborne particles. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived paucimicronic particles, pollutants can modify the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents and after their allergenic potential. In addition, by inducing airway inflammation, which increases airway epithelial permeability, pollutants overcome the mucosal barrier and so facilitate the allergen-induced inflammatory responses. Moreover, air pollutants such as diesel exhaust emissions are thought to modulate the immune response by increasing immunoglobulin E synthesis, thus facilitating allergic sensitization in atopic subjects and the subsequent development of clinical respiratory symptoms. PMID:10695313

  2. CFD model simulation of LPG dispersion in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiggia, Marco; Landucci, Gabriele; Busini, Valentina; Derudi, Marco; Alba, Mario; Scaioni, Marco; Bonvicini, Sarah; Cozzani, Valerio; Rota, Renato

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing concern related to the releases of industrial hazardous materials (either toxic or flammable) due to terrorist attacks or accidental events in congested industrial or urban areas. In particular, a reliable estimation of the hazardous cloud footprint as a function of time is required to assist emergency response decision and planning as a primary element of any Decision Support System. Among the various hazardous materials, the hazard due to the road and rail transportation of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is well known since large quantities of LPG are commercialized and the rail or road transportation patterns are often close to downtown areas. Since it is well known that the widely-used dispersion models do not account for the effects of any obstacle like buildings, tanks, railcars, or trees, in this paper a CFD model has been applied to simulate the reported consequences of a recent major accident involving an LPG railcar rupture in a congested urban area (Viareggio town, in Italy), showing both the large influence of the obstacles on LPG dispersion as well as the potentials of CFD models to foresee such an influence.

  3. Human pharmaceuticals in wastewaters from urbanized areas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Elorriaga, Yanina; Marino, Damián J; Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Ronco, Alicia E

    2013-04-01

    The study contributes with a first survey of pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewaters discharging into fresh and estuarine waters from areas with varying degrees of urbanization of Argentina. Analyses were done on the soluble fraction by HPLC-MS after SPE extraction. In all of the samples were detected caffeine and ibuprofen within the range of 0.9-44.2 and 0.4-13.0 μg/L, and lower levels of carbamazepine, atenolol and diclofenac between 0.2-2.3, 0.2-1.7 and <0.03-1.2 μg/L, respectively. Profiles of compounds were similar in all studied locations. PMID:23229304

  4. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... affecting § 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... urban area. (a) General—(1) Purposes. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(5)— (i) For fiscal...

  5. More Ambitious Educational Choices in Urban Areas: A Matter of Local Labor Market Characteristics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Simon; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Urban-rural disparities in educational outcomes have so far primarily received attention in U.S.-based research. These studies show that pupils in rural areas are at a disadvantage compared with pupils in (sub)urban areas. This article aims to examine urban-nonurban differences in educational choice in a European context, namely Flanders (the…

  6. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining the boundaries of urbanized... developing and updating a statewide highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional usage of the existing roads and streets. Guidance criteria and procedures are provided in the...

  7. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining the boundaries of urbanized... developing and updating a statewide highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional usage of the existing roads and streets. Guidance criteria and procedures are provided in the...

  8. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... may be designated in both rural and urban areas. Guidance for determining the boundaries of urbanized... developing and updating a statewide highway functional classification in rural and urban areas to determine functional usage of the existing roads and streets. Guidance criteria and procedures are provided in the...

  9. Comparison of Migrants in Two Rural and an Urban Area of Central Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, E. A.

    The goal of this study was to compare the migration and adaptation of settlers in urban areas with settlers in rural areas of Brazil. A sample of 1,255 families, divided into an urban group, a near-urban rural group, and a rural group were interviewed. The migration patterns of the groups were discussed and factors related to migration were…

  10. 75 FR 52173 - Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... urban territory. Hops are used primarily to account for territory in which planning and zoning processes... Commerce Bureau of the Census Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census; Notice #0;#0;Federal... the Census Proposed Urban Area Criteria for the 2010 Census AGENCY: Bureau of the Census,...

  11. Numerical photochemical modeling over Madrid (Spain) mesoscale urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, Roberto; Ramirez-Montesinos, Arturo; Marcelo, Luis M.; Sanz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Luis M.

    1995-09-01

    Photochemical air quality models provide the most defensible method for relating future air quality to changes in emission, and hence are the foundation for determining the effectiveness of proposed control strategies. In this contribution, we will show results from different photochemical schemes under typical emission conditions for a summer day in the Madrid mesocsale urban area. We will show that complex numerical integrated urban mesoscale models are a powerful tool to predict the ozone levels on this area. The comparison of model simulations at different grid points show an acceptable preliminary behavior. The results presented in this paper are prepared for August 15th, 1991 and the predicted ozone values are compared with those measured at two stations of the Madrid city monitoring network. Results show that the shape is successfully predicted by using the NUFOMO (numerical photochemical model) model. Because of the computer limitations, we have limited the results to this case study. Further investigations will provide additional information to produce a statistical analysis of the results. However, preliminary results show that the NUFOMO model is able to reproduce the measured ozone values.

  12. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already.

  13. Bird population and habitat surveys in urban areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraaf, R.M.; Geis, A.D.; Healy, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Breeding bird populations in six habitats in Columbia. MD, were studied to develop procedures suitable for measuring bird use of residential areas and to identify habitat characteristics that define the distribution of various common bird species. A procedure to measure bird use based on 4-min transect counts on plots measuring 91 m ? 91 m proved better than point counts. Transect counts reduced many of the problems associated with counting birds in urban areas, such as varying noise and visibility. Eighty percent of observations were recorded in the first 4 min. Habitat measurement procedures were examined also. It was found that a subsample of woody tree and shrub crown volumes made on 0.2 ha was highly correlated with similar measures made on 0.8-ha plots.

  14. Instrumentation for slope stability -- Experience from an urban area

    SciTech Connect

    Flentje, P.; Chowdhury, R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the monitoring of several existing landslides in an urban area near Wollongong in the state of New South Wales, Australia. A brief overview of topography and geology is given and reference is made to the types of slope movement, processes and causal factors. Often the slope movements are extremely slow and imperceptible to the eye, and catastrophic failures are quite infrequent. However, cumulative movements at these slower rates do, over time, cause considerable distress to structures and disrupt residential areas and transport routes. Inclinometers and piezometers have been installed at a number of locations and monitoring of these has been very useful. The performance of instrumentation at different sites is discussed in relation to the monitoring of slope movements and pore pressures. Interval rates of inclinometer shear displacement have been compared with various periods of cumulative rainfall to assess the relationships.

  15. Energy and other resource conservation within urbanizing areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Peter G.

    1982-05-01

    The reported research seeks to answer several questions regarding energy conservation within urbanizing areas. As a practical matter, to what extent can dependence upon exhaustible resources be reduced? Can these reductions be achieved without severely impairing social well-being and environmental quality? And, what seem to be the prevailing institutional constraints limiting energy conservation within urbanizing areas? The study area was the proposed “downtown” of The Woodlands, a new town north of Houston, Texas. Two plans were developed for this area. In one, no particular attempt was made to conserve energy (conventional plan), while in the other, energy conservation was a primary consideration (conservation plan). For both plans, estimates were made of energy consumption within buildings, in the transportation sector, and in the actual production of building materials themselves (embodied energy). In addition, economic and environmental analyses were performed, including investigation of other resource issues such as water supply, solid waste disposal, stormwater management, and atmospheric emissions. Alternative on-site power systems were also investigated. Within the bounds of economic feasibility and development practicality, it was found that application of energy-conserving methods could yield annual energy savings of as much as 23%, and reduce dependence on prime fuels by 30%. Adverse economic effects on consumers were found to be minimal and environmental quality could be sustained. The major institutional constraints appeared to be those associated with traditional property ownership and with the use of common property resources. The resistance to change of everyday practices in land development and building industries also seemed to constrain potential applications.

  16. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (<20 g) and insectivorous species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (<6.5 ha), while less common non-residents increased with area, indicative of a nested distribution. Areas at least 6.5 ha and more generally >20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and <5% alien species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  17. Urban areas of Carbonia (Sardinia, Italy): anthropogenic and natural sinkhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mureddu, A.; Corda, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    This work aims to contribute to knowledge on the phenomena of sinkholes in the urban area of Carbonia, primed mostly as a result of mining in underground coal Sulcis, as well as natural causes, in the hills and valleys structurated on the bedrock of Cambrian area, in the localities of Cannas and Serbariu. During the exploitation of the coal deposits, (so called Lignitifero), mines of the Sulcis Area, in over a century of mining, have produced large underground excavations, which were extracted more than 50 million tons of coal and large quantities of tailings. On older crops of mineral minings centers of Serbariu, Cortoghiana and Bacu Abis, the mining operations reached the depth of 300 meters from the surface of the country, over 100 meters below sea level. In the late of 1960, following the closure of the mines, were manifested in the temporal effects of the disruptions caused by the collapse of underground voids, affecting a much wider area of the below mining cultivations. The first signs of instability are occurred with the sudden opening of large potholes and structural damage to buildings up area of Bacu Abis, in neighboring areas to the Mine of Serbariu, intended for production facilities ("Su Landiri Durci"), and along certain streets service. In the case of mine "Serbariu" located on the outskirts of the urban west Carbonia, exploited in the period between 1940 and 1964, the cultivation of the layers of coal left in place, at short depth from the surface level, consisting of empty mines, with more than 5 km of galleries. So, have been found important effects of instability of the soil in urban areas and in the recently built road infrastructure linking lots of settlements. The area affected by mining operations has an area of over 4 square kilometers, is covered in part by the built environment and road infrastructure of regional and state level. In the mining center, now converted to craft and commercial area, have continued various undergrounds mining

  18. A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events.

  19. A century of the evolution of the urban area in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946-70, 1988-97, and 2004-10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  20. A Century of the Evolution of the Urban Area in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Miao; Xu, Yanyan; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Chunlin; Sun, Fengyun; Chen, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of the historical urbanization process is essential in understanding the dynamics of urbanization and scientifically planned urban development. Based on historical urban area maps and remote sensing images, this study examined the urban expansion of Shenyang from 1910 to 2010 using area statistics, typology identification, and landscape metrics approaches. The population and gross domestic product were analyzed as driving factors. The results showed that the urban area of Shenyang increased 43.39-fold during the study period and that the growth rate has accelerated since the 1980s. Three urban growth types were distinguished: infilling, edge-expansion, and spontaneous growth. Edge-expansion was the primary growth type. Infilling growth became the main growth type in the periods 1946–70, 1988–97, and 2004–10. Spontaneous growth was concentrated in the period of 1997 to 2000. The results of landscape metrics indicate that the urban landscape of Shenyang originally was highly aggregated, but has become increasingly fragmented. The urban fringe area was the traditional hot zone of urbanization. Shenyang was mainly located north of the Hun River before 1980; however, the south side of the river has been the hot zone of urbanization since the 1980s. The increase of urban area strongly correlated with the growth of GDP and population. Over a long time scale, the urbanization process has been affected by major historical events. PMID:24893167

  1. Network Optimization for Induced Seismicity Monitoring in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, T.; Husen, S.; Wiemer, S.

    2012-12-01

    With the global challenge to satisfy an increasing demand for energy, geological energy technologies receive growing attention and have been initiated in or close to urban areas in the past several years. Some of these technologies involve injecting fluids into the subsurface (e.g., oil and gas development, waste disposal, and geothermal energy development) and have been found or suspected to cause small to moderate sized earthquakes. These earthquakes, which may have gone unnoticed in the past when they occurred in remote sparsely populated areas, are now posing a considerable risk for the public acceptance of these technologies in urban areas. The permanent termination of the EGS project in Basel, Switzerland after a number of induced ML~3 (minor) earthquakes in 2006 is one prominent example. It is therefore essential to the future development and success of these geological energy technologies to develop strategies for managing induced seismicity and keeping the size of induced earthquake at a level that is acceptable to all stakeholders. Most guidelines and recommendations on induced seismicity published since the 1970ies conclude that an indispensable component of such a strategy is the establishment of seismic monitoring in an early stage of a project. This is because an appropriate seismic monitoring is the only way to detect and locate induced microearthquakes with sufficient certainty to develop an understanding of the seismic and geomechanical response of the reservoir to the geotechnical operation. In addition, seismic monitoring lays the foundation for the establishment of advanced traffic light systems and is therefore an important confidence building measure towards the local population and authorities. We have developed an optimization algorithm for seismic monitoring networks in urban areas that allows to design and evaluate seismic network geometries for arbitrary geotechnical operation layouts. The algorithm is based on the D-optimal experimental

  2. A framework for probabilistic pluvial flood nowcasting for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntegeka, Victor; Murla, Damian; Wang, Lipen; Foresti, Loris; Reyniers, Maarten; Delobbe, Laurent; Van Herk, Kristine; Van Ootegem, Luc; Willems, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Pluvial flood nowcasting is gaining ground not least because of the advancements in rainfall forecasting schemes. Short-term forecasts and applications have benefited from the availability of such forecasts with high resolution in space (~1km) and time (~5min). In this regard, it is vital to evaluate the potential of nowcasting products for urban inundation applications. One of the most advanced Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) techniques is the Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System, which was originally co-developed by the UK Met Office and Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The scheme was further tuned to better estimate extreme and moderate events for the Belgian area (STEPS-BE). Against this backdrop, a probabilistic framework has been developed that consists of: (1) rainfall nowcasts; (2) sewer hydraulic model; (3) flood damage estimation; and (4) urban inundation risk mapping. STEPS-BE forecasts are provided at high resolution (1km/5min) with 20 ensemble members with a lead time of up to 2 hours using a 4 C-band radar composite as input. Forecasts' verification was performed over the cities of Leuven and Ghent and biases were found to be small. The hydraulic model consists of the 1D sewer network and an innovative 'nested' 2D surface model to model 2D urban surface inundations at high resolution. The surface components are categorized into three groups and each group is modelled using triangular meshes at different resolutions; these include streets (3.75 - 15 m2), high flood hazard areas (12.5 - 50 m2) and low flood hazard areas (75 - 300 m2). Functions describing urban flood damage and social consequences were empirically derived based on questionnaires to people in the region that were recently affected by sewer floods. Probabilistic urban flood risk maps were prepared based on spatial interpolation techniques of flood inundation. The method has been implemented and tested for the villages Oostakker and Sint-Amandsberg, which are part of the

  3. Surface ozone in the urban area of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. A. F. D.; Costa, P. S.; Silva, C.; Godoi, R. M.; Martin, S. T.; Tota, J.; Barbosa, H. M.; Pauliquevis, T.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Wolf, S. A.; Cirino, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    When nitrogen oxides from vehicle and industrial emissions mix with volatile organic compounds from trees and plants with exposure to sunlight, a chemical reaction occurs contributing to ground-level ozone pollution. The preliminary results of the surface ozone study in urban area of Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, are presented for the first intensive operating period (IOP1) of the GoAmazon experiment (February/March 2014). Photochemical ozone production was found to be a regular process, with an afternoon maximum of the ozone mixing ratio of lower than 20 ppbv for cloudy days or clear sky weather. Typical ozone concentrations at mid-day were low (about 10 ppb). On the other hand, several high-value ozone episodes with surface ozone mixing ratios up to three times larger were registered during the dry season of 2013 (September/October). At the beginning of the wet season, the ozone concentration in Manaus decreased significantly, but diurnal variations can be found during the days with rainfall and other fast changes of meteorological conditions. Possible explanations of the nature of pulsations are discussed. Photochemical ozone production by local urban plumes of Manaus is named as a first possible source of the ozone concentration and biomass burning or power plant emissions are suggested as an alternative or an additional source.

  4. Persistent Scatterer InSAR monitoring of Bratislava urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakon, Matus; Perissin, Daniele; Papco, Juraj; Lazecky, Milan

    2014-05-01

    The main purpose of this research is to monitor the ground stability of Bratislava urban area by application of the satellite radar interferometry. Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia, is situated in its south-west on the borders with Austria and Hungary and only 62 kilometers from the border with Czech Republic. With an exclusive location and good infrastructure, the city attracts foreign investors and developers, what has resulted in unprecedented boom in construction in recent years. Another thing is that Danube River in the last five hundred years caused a hundred of devastating floods, so therefore flood occurs every five years, on average. From geological point of view, the Little Carpathians covers the main part of study area and are geologically and tectonically interesting. The current state of relief and spatial distribution of individual geological forms is the result of vertical geodynamic movements of tectonic blocks, e.g., subsiding parts of Vienna Basin and Danubian Basin or uplifting mountains. The Little Carpathians horst and the area of Vienna Basin contains a number of tectonic faults, where ground motions as a result of geodynamic processes are mostly expected. It is assumed that all the phenomena stated above has an impact on the spatial composition of the Earth's surface in Bratislava urban area. As nowadays surface of the Little Carpathians is heavily eroded and morphology smoothed, question of this impact cannot be answered only by interpreting geological tectonic maps. Furthermore, expected changes have never been revealed by any geodetic measurements which would offer advantages of satellite radar interferometry concerning temporal coverage, spatial resolution and accuracy. Thus the generation of ground deformation maps using satellite radar interferometry could gather valuable information. The work aims to perform a series of differential interferograms and PSInSAR (Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

  5. Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands

  6. [Photosynthetic characteristics of five arbor species in Shenyang urban area].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Me; He, Xing-Yuan; Wang, Kui-Ling; Chen, Wei

    2007-08-01

    By using LI-6400 infrared gas analyzer, this paper studied the diurnal and seasonal variations of the photosynthetic rate of main arbor species (Populus alba x P. berolinensis, Salix matsudana, Ulmus pumila, Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus davidiana) in Shenyang urban area. The correlations between net photosynthetic rate and environmental factors (photosynthetic active radiation, temperature, and stomatal conductance) were assessed by multivariate regression analysis, and related equations were constructed. The results showed that for test arbor species, the diurnal variation of photosynthetic rate mainly presented a single peak curve, and the seasonal variation was in the order of summer > autumn > spring. The major factors affecting the photosynthetic rate were photosynthetic active radiation, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration.

  7. Texture mapping based on multiple aerial imageries in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Ye, Siqi; Wang, Yuefeng; Han, Caiyun; Wang, Chenxi

    2015-12-01

    In the realistic 3D model reconstruction, the requirement of the texture is very high. Texture is one of the key factors that affecting realistic of the model and using texture mapping technology to realize. In this paper we present a practical approach of texture mapping based on photogrammetry theory from multiple aerial imageries in urban areas. By collinearity equation to matching the model and imageries, and in order to improving the quality of texture, we describe an automatic approach for select the optimal texture to realized 3D building from the aerial imageries of many strip. The texture of buildings can be automatically matching by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the platform of texture mapping process has a high degree of automation and improve the efficiency of the 3D modeling reconstruction.

  8. Do speed cameras reduce speeding in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Daniele Falci de; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-11-01

    This observational study aimed to estimate the prevalence of speeding on urban roadways and to analyze associated factors. The sample consisted of 8,565 vehicles circulating in areas with and without fixed speed cameras in operation. We found that 40% of vehicles 200 meters after the fixed cameras and 33.6% of vehicles observed on roadways without speed cameras were moving over the speed limit (p < 0.001). Motorcycles showed the highest recorded speed (126km/h). Most drivers were men (87.6%), 3.3% of all drivers were using their cell phones, and 74.6% of drivers (not counting motorcyclists) were wearing their seatbelts. On roadway stretches without fixed speed cameras, more women drivers were talking on their cell phones and wearing seatbelts when compared to men (p < 0.05 for both comparisons), independently of speed limits. The results suggest that compliance with speed limits requires more than structural interventions. PMID:26648375

  9. Factors influencing childhood immunisation in an urban area of Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, T V; Rodrigues, L C

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the factors associated with incomplete vaccination in an urban area in Sao Paulo, Brazil; and to explore whether differences in vaccine coverage in the catchment area of health centres remain after the demographic constitution of the population in these areas is controlled for. DESIGN--The children were selected as controls for a case-control study. 455 children were selected at random (but age matched) from the health centre registries. Data was collected from the health centre records and from home interviews. SETTING--All children were registered in FAISA, a municipal health service comprising a large network of health centres and hospitals. FAISA's services are free at the point of delivery, and over 85% of the city's children are registered. PARTICIPANTS--Participants were selected to represent, except in their age distribution, all children registered in the municipal health service. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected on subjects' vaccine history, year of birth, sex, birth order and birth weight, and health centre of registration; their mothers' age, education, and marital status; and the family's income per capita and history of migration. Analysis was undertaken to identify risk factors for vaccination and whether the differential coverage in health centres' catchment areas remained after demographic characteristics of the population were controlled for. The high coverage for DPT and polio vaccines suggests that low overall coverage was not simply a result of mothers failing to bring children for vaccination. The variable that best predicted vaccine coverage was year of birth. Children born to immigrant mothers or into large families had lower vaccine uptake. The characteristics of children and their mothers did not account for the variation in vaccination coverage in catchment areas of different health centres. CONCLUSIONS--It is likely that in this area vaccination completeness was associated

  10. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental changes associated with urbanization in nine metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Cuffney, Thomas F; Brightbill, Robin A; May, Jason T; Waite, Ian R

    2010-07-01

    Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates along gradients of urban intensity were investigated in nine metropolitan areas across the United States. Invertebrate assemblages in metropolitan areas where forests or shrublands were being converted to urban land were strongly related to urban intensity. In metropolitan areas where agriculture and grazing lands were being converted to urban land, invertebrate assemblages showed much weaker or nonsignificant relations with urban intensity because sites with low urban intensity were already degraded by agriculture. Ordination scores, the number of EPT taxa, and the mean pollution-tolerance value of organisms at a site were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition. Diversity indices, functional groups, behavior, and dominance metrics were not good indicators of urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urban effects than were abundance metrics, and qualitative samples collected from multiple habitats gave similar results to those of single habitat quantitative samples (riffles or woody snags) in all metropolitan areas. Changes in urban intensity were strongly correlated with a set of landscape variables that was consistent across all metropolitan areas. In contrast, the instream environmental variables that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses varied among metropolitan areas. The natural environmental setting determined the biological, chemical, and physical instream conditions upon which urbanization acts and dictated the differences in responses to urbanization among metropolitan areas. Threshold analysis showed little evidence for an initial period of resistance to urbanization. Instead, assemblages were degraded at very low levels of urbanization, and response rates were either similar across the gradient or higher at low levels of urbanization. Levels of impervious cover that have been suggested as protective of streams (5-10%) were associated with significant

  11. Expansion of urban area and wastewater irrigated rice area in Hyderabad, India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gumma, K.M.; van, Rooijen D.; Nelson, A.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Aakuraju, R.V.; Amerasinghe, P.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate land use changes in urban and peri-urban Hyderabad and their influence on wastewater irrigated rice using Landsat ETM + data and spectral matching techniques. The main source of irrigation water is the Musi River, which collects a large volume of wastewater and stormwater while running through the city. From 1989 to 2002, the wastewater irrigated area along the Musi River increased from 5,213 to 8,939 ha with concurrent expansion of the city boundaries from 22,690 to 42,813 ha and also decreased barren lands and range lands from 86,899 to 66,616 ha. Opportunistic shifts in land use, especially related to wastewater irrigated agriculture, were seen as a response to the demand for fresh vegetables and easy access to markets, exploited mainly by migrant populations. While wastewater irrigated agriculture contributes to income security of marginal groups, it also supplements the food basket of many city dwellers. Landsat ETM + data and advanced methods such as spectral matching techniques are ideal for quantifying urban expansion and associated land use changes, and are useful for urban planners and decision makers alike. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management. PMID:21491706

  13. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  14. Visualizing diurnal population change in urban areas for emergency management.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  15. Baltimore WATERS Test Bed -- Quantifying Groundwater in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Ryan, R. J.; Crook, N.; Kerchkof, T.; Larson, P.; Smith, J.; Baeck, M. L.; Kaushal, S.; Belt, K.; McGuire, M.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Shedlock, R.; Band, L.; Groffman, P.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the urban water cycle, with an emphasis on urban groundwater, using investigations at multiple spatial scales. The overall study focuses on the 171 sq km Gwynns Falls watershed, which spans an urban to rural gradient of land cover and is part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study LTER. Within the Gwynns Falls, finer-scale studies focus on the 14.3 sq km Dead Run and its subwatersheds. A coarse-grid MODFLOW model has been set up to quantify groundwater flow magnitude and direction at the larger watershed scale. Existing wells in this urban area are sparse, but are being located through mining of USGS NWIS and local well data bases. Wet and dry season water level synoptics, stream seepage transects, and existing permeability data are being used in model calibration. In collaboration with CUAHSI HMF Geophysics, a regional-scale microgravity survey was conducted over the watershed in July 2007 and will be repeated in spring 2008. This will enable calculation of the change in groundwater levels for use in model calibration. At the smaller spatial scale (Dead Run catchment), three types of data have been collected to refine our understanding of the groundwater system. (1) Multiple bromide tracer tests were conducted along a 4 km reach of Dead Run under low-flow conditions to examine groundwater- surface water exchange as a function of land cover type and stream position in the watershed. The tests will be repeated under higher base flow conditions in early spring 2008. Tracer test data will be interpreted using the USGS OTIS model and results will be incorporated into the MODFLOW model. (2) Riparian zone geophysical surveys were carried out with support from CUAHSI HMF Geophysics to delineate depth to bedrock and the water table topography as a function of distance from the stream channel. Resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and seismic refraction surveys were run in ten transects across and around the stream channels. (3) A finer

  16. 78 FR 49445 - Wildlife Services Policy on Wildlife Damage Management in Urban Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Urban Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are...) program is making a policy decision on how to define ``urban rodent control,'' as referred to in the Act... December 22, 1987 (7 U.S.C. 426c), APHIS-WS is authorized, except for urban rodent control, to...

  17. Capacitacion de educadores para areas marginales--I: Caracteristicas y necesidades educativas de los ninos, jovenes y adultos en las poblaciones menos favorecidas, rurales y urbanas. Tercera edicion (Preparation of Educators for Marginal Areas--I: Educational Needs and Characteristics of Children, Youth and Adults in Disadvantaged Populations, Rural and Urban. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Juan Carlos

    Forty percent of the families in Latin America have an income which does not provide essential necessities. Two-thirds of poor families live in the countryside, while the remainder reside in urban slums. The key variable in explaining poverty is education. Without education these families have irregular, unstable, and low paying employment…

  18. Assessing urbanized area expansion through the integration of Landsat and conventional data /79052/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. B.; Friedman, S. Z.

    1979-01-01

    An image base information system (IBIS) is utilized to integrate Landsat and census data for the purpose of mapping urban land and updating urbanized-area outer lines. IBIS is a subset of the video image communication and retrieval digital image processing system developed at JPL. IBIS is used to analyze three urban areas: Orlando, Florida; Seattle, Washington; and Boston, Massachusetts. In all three applications the primary objective is to map the expansion of urban land cover in the urban fringe. Pertinent tabular reports are produced.

  19. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  20. Hierarchical Spatial Analysis of Extreme Precipitation in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajulapati, C. R.; Mujumdar, P.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of extreme precipitation is important for hydrologic designs. Due to lack of availability of extreme precipitation data for sufficiently large number of years, estimating the probability of extreme events is difficult and extrapolating the distributions to locations where observations are not available is challenging. In an urban setting, the spatial variation of precipitation can be high; the precipitation amounts and patterns often vary within short distances of less than 10 km. Therefore it is crucial to study the uncertainties in the spatial variation of precipitation in urban areas. In this work, the extreme precipitation is modeled spatially using the Bayesian hierarchical spatial analysis and the spatial variation of return levels is studied. The analysis is carried out with both the Peak over Threshold (PoT) and the Block Maxima approaches for defining the extreme precipitation. The study area is Bangalore city, India. Daily data for seventeen stations in and around Bangalore city are considered in the study. The threshold exceedences are modeled using a Generalized Pareto (GP) distribution and the block maxima are modeled using Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. In the hierarchical analysis, the statistical model is specified in three layers. The data layer models the data (either block maxima or the threshold exceedences) at each station. In the process layer, the latent spatial process characterized by geographical and climatological covariates (lat-lon, elevation, mean temperature etc.) which drives the extreme precipitation is modeled and in the prior level, the prior distributions that govern the latent process are modeled. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to obtain the samples of parameters from the posterior distribution of parameters. The spatial maps of return levels for specified return periods, along with the associated uncertainties, are obtained. The results show that there is significant variation in

  1. Urban area structuring mapping using an airborne polarimetric SAR image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetto, Elisabeth; Malak, Charbel

    2009-09-01

    For several years, image classification and pattern recognition algorithms have been developed for the land coverage mapping using radar and multispectral imagery with medium to large pixel size. As several satellites now distribute submetric-pixel and metric-pixel images (for example QUICKBIRD,TERRASAR-X), the research turns to the study of the structure of cities: building structuring, grassy areas, road networks, etc, and the physical description of the urban surfaces. In that context, we propose to underline new potentialities of submetric-pixel polarimetric SAR images. We deal with the characterization of roofs and the mapping of trees. For that purpose, a first analysis based on photo-interpretation and the assessement of several polarimetric descriptors is carried out. Then, an image classification scheme is built using the polarimetric H/alpha-Wishart algorithm, followed by a decision tree. This one is based on the most pertinent polarimetric descriptors and aims at reducing the classification errors. The result proves the potential of such data. Our work relies on an image of a suburban area, acquired by the airborne RAMSES SAR sensor of ONERA.

  2. Collective Human Mobility Pattern from Taxi Trips in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chengbin; Jin, Xiaogang; Wong, Ka-Chun; Shi, Meixia; Liò, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. PMID:22529917

  3. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-29

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  4. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries. PMID:26219273

  5. The potential for hail and intense rainfall enhancement over urban areas: improving urban extreme weather risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntelekos, A. A.; Smith, J. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Foote, M.

    2009-04-01

    Urban communities and their infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of organized thunderstorm systems. Current models of urban extreme weather risk do not fully represent the complexity of the hydrometeorological processes involved, particularly in relation to intense convective precipitation and severe weather. Hail is a severe thunderstorm hazard that can be extremely damaging to property (especially automobiles, buildings and agriculture) over and in proximity to urban environments. This study identifies some of the mechanisms that future generations of catastrophe models should consider incorporating in their representation of hydrometeorlogical hazards in urban areas. In addition, such information could help to inform planning policy and improve urban resilience to extreme events. Evidence is provided that urban environments, through the existence of high-rise buildings and densely build-up areas, but also through air-pollution (aerosols) can potentially lead to an enhancement of both flooding and hail. Conclusions are drawn from two separate studies over the heavily urbanized corridor of the northeastern United States but could be expanded to apply to other urban areas. Observational and modelling (Weather Research and Forecasting - WRF) analyses of an extreme thunderstorm over the Baltimore, Maryland metropolitan area on 7 July 2004 provided evidence that the urban canopy redistributed heavy rainfall and convergence centres in the vicinity of the urban environment. Modelling analyses suggest that convective rainfall around the urban core was increased by about 30% due to the heterogeneities of land surface processes associated with the city of Baltimore. Chesapeake Bay also played an important role in rainfall distribution by acting as a divergence zone for northerly winds. Cloud-to-ground lightning analyses show that the city of Baltimore and the Chesapeake Bay combined played a role in the distribution of lightning in the periphery of the

  6. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  7. Determining Surface Roughness in Urban Areas Using Lidar Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Donald

    2009-01-01

    An automated procedure has been developed to derive relevant factors, which can increase the ability to produce objective, repeatable methods for determining aerodynamic surface roughness. Aerodynamic surface roughness is used for many applications, like atmospheric dispersive models and wind-damage models. For this technique, existing lidar data was used that was originally collected for terrain analysis, and demonstrated that surface roughness values can be automatically derived, and then subsequently utilized in disaster-management and homeland security models. The developed lidar-processing algorithm effectively distinguishes buildings from trees and characterizes their size, density, orientation, and spacing (see figure); all of these variables are parameters that are required to calculate the estimated surface roughness for a specified area. By using this algorithm, aerodynamic surface roughness values in urban areas can then be extracted automatically. The user can also adjust the algorithm for local conditions and lidar characteristics, like summer/winter vegetation and dense/sparse lidar point spacing. Additionally, the user can also survey variations in surface roughness that occurs due to wind direction; for example, during a hurricane, when wind direction can change dramatically, this variable can be extremely significant. In its current state, the algorithm calculates an estimated surface roughness for a square kilometer area; techniques using the lidar data to calculate the surface roughness for a point, whereby only roughness elements that are upstream from the point of interest are used and the wind direction is a vital concern, are being investigated. This technological advancement will improve the reliability and accuracy of models that use and incorporate surface roughness.

  8. [An intervention policy for reducing noise pollution in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Cosa, M; Cosa, G

    1989-01-01

    The methodological methods for a reduction of the noise pollution in the urban areas, mainly, can be advised in 8 operative points: 1) reduction of the source's noise; 2) control of the traffic; 3) planning of the urban and regional development; 4) building's shelter against the noise; 5) compensation's and incentivation's interventions for the exposed people; 6) controls activity and restaining of the noise's sources; 7) scientific research; 8) health education. For executive motivations we must, necessarily, divide the intervention turned to a reduction of the noise's emissions caused by fixed source compared to the noise's emissions determined by motor or railway traffic (mobile sources). This operative criteria have been utilized recently (1988) from Italian Department of Ecology for a bill. The controls of fixed source are made by Public Health Services of U.S.L. (Local Sanitary Unit) assisted, in case, by multiarea country's districts. The regulations of traffic can be took in consideration, in short time, only in more simple problems, as the setting up of pedestrian island or the suspensions of the heavy traffic, etc. The traffic's regulation must care same general data: the halved of traffic's flow in same rilevation's point, involve a reduction of only 3 dBA of the sound pressure level previously measured; if the percentage of heavy traffic is higher than 10% of the traffic's flow, the first intervention must be the no thorough fare to heavy lorries. In general, then, the best way for the resolution of vehicular noise pollution is the noisy emission's control of the single vehicle, because only the regulation of traffic's flow doesn't suffice to realise a enough reduction of noise pollution. For the resolution of more complex problems is necessary a preliminary stage to study and to plan those before to can carry out a typology of intervention. This necessity is, of course, more expensive in time and money; in fact, the solution of the problem can be the

  9. URBAN EFFICIENT ENERGY EVALUATION IN HIGH RESOLUTION URBAN AREAS BY USING ADAPTED WRF-UCM AND MICROSYS CFD MODELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Gonzalez, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism modeling has advanced substantially during the last years due to the increased detail in mesoscale urban parameterization in meteorological mesoscale models and CFD numerical tools. Recently the implementation of the “urban canopy model” (UCM) into the WRF mesoscale meteorological model has produced a substantial advance on the understanding of the urban atmospheric heat flux exchanges in the urban canopy. The need to optimize the use of heat energy in urban environment has produced a substantial increase in the detailed investigation of the urban heat flux exchanges. In this contribution we will show the performance of using a tool called MICROSYS (MICRO scale CFD modelling SYStem) which is an adaptation of the classical urban canopy model but on a high resolution environment by using a classical CFD approach. The energy balance in the urban system can be determined in a micrometeorologicl sense by considering the energy flows in and out of a control volume. For such a control volume reaching from ground to a certain height above buildings, the energy balance equation includes the net radiation, the anthropogenic heat flux, the turbulent sensible heat flux, the turbulent latent heat flux, the net storage change within the control volume, the net advected flux and other sources and sinks. We have applied the MICROSYS model to an area of 5 km x 5 km with 200 m spatial resolution by using the WRF-UCM (adapted and the MICROSYS CFD model. The anthropogenic heat flux has been estimated by using the Flanner M.G. (2009) database and detailed GIS information (50 m resolution) of Madrid city. The Storage energy has been estimated by calculating the energy balance according to the UCM procedure and implementing it into the MICROSYS tool. Results show that MICROSYS can be used as an energy efficient tool to estimate the energy balance of different urban areas and buildings.

  10. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  11. Universal immunization in urban areas: Calcutta's success story.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, E R

    1990-01-01

    The Central Government of Calcutta, India aimed to immunize 85% (85,262) of the city's 12 month old infants against polio, diphtheria, measles, tuberculosis, pertussis and tetanus. The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) achieved this target 3 months earlier than intended. In fact, at the end of December 1990, it achieved 110.6% for DPT3, 142.16% for OPV3, 151.96% for BCG, and 97% for measles. UIP was able to surpass its targets by emphasizing team work. Government, the private sector, UNICEF, and the voluntary sector made up the Apex Coordination Committee on Immunization headed up by the mayor. The committee drafted an action plan which included routine immunization sessions on a fixed day and intensive immunization drives. Further the involved organizations pooled together cold chain equipment. In addition, the District Family Welfare Bureau was the distribution center for vaccines, syringes, immunization cards, report formats, vaccine carriers, and ice packs. Health workers administered immunizations from about 300 centers generally on Wednesday, National Immunization Day. Intensive immunization drives focused on measles immunizations. UIP leaders encouraged all center to routinely record coverage and submit monthly progress reports to the District Family Welfare Bureau. The Calcutta Municipal Corporation coordinated promotion activities and social mobilization efforts. Promotion included radio and TV announcements, newspaper advertisements, cinema slides, billboards, and posters. The original UIP plan to use professional communicators to mobilize communities was ineffective, so nongovernmental organizations entered the slums to encourage people to encourage their neighbors to immunize their children. Further Islamic, Protestant, and Catholic leaders encouraged the faithful to immunize their children. A UNICEF officer noted that this success must be sustained, however. PMID:2133577

  12. Universal immunization in urban areas: Calcutta's success story.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, E R

    1990-01-01

    The Central Government of Calcutta, India aimed to immunize 85% (85,262) of the city's 12 month old infants against polio, diphtheria, measles, tuberculosis, pertussis and tetanus. The Universal Immunization Program (UIP) achieved this target 3 months earlier than intended. In fact, at the end of December 1990, it achieved 110.6% for DPT3, 142.16% for OPV3, 151.96% for BCG, and 97% for measles. UIP was able to surpass its targets by emphasizing team work. Government, the private sector, UNICEF, and the voluntary sector made up the Apex Coordination Committee on Immunization headed up by the mayor. The committee drafted an action plan which included routine immunization sessions on a fixed day and intensive immunization drives. Further the involved organizations pooled together cold chain equipment. In addition, the District Family Welfare Bureau was the distribution center for vaccines, syringes, immunization cards, report formats, vaccine carriers, and ice packs. Health workers administered immunizations from about 300 centers generally on Wednesday, National Immunization Day. Intensive immunization drives focused on measles immunizations. UIP leaders encouraged all center to routinely record coverage and submit monthly progress reports to the District Family Welfare Bureau. The Calcutta Municipal Corporation coordinated promotion activities and social mobilization efforts. Promotion included radio and TV announcements, newspaper advertisements, cinema slides, billboards, and posters. The original UIP plan to use professional communicators to mobilize communities was ineffective, so nongovernmental organizations entered the slums to encourage people to encourage their neighbors to immunize their children. Further Islamic, Protestant, and Catholic leaders encouraged the faithful to immunize their children. A UNICEF officer noted that this success must be sustained, however.

  13. An urban transport emission model for the Antwerp area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensink, C.; De Vlieger, I.; Nys, J.

    We present a detailed modelling approach which provides hourly emissions of CO, NO x, VOC, PM, SO 2 and Pb for individual streets and road segments in the Antwerp area (20 km×20 km). The hourly emissions are computed as a function of road type, vehicle type, fuel type, traffic volume, vehicle age, trip length distribution and the actual ambient temperature. The traffic volumes are derived from an urban traffic flow model for the city of Antwerp, which contains a network with almost 2000 road segments. The traffic flow model has been implemented in a GIS environment. The emission factors used in the model are derived from the COPERT-II methodology. Cold start emissions and evaporation losses are included in the model. Results are shown for the hourly hot- and cold start emissions obtained for CO, NO x and VOC. For these pollutants a partial validation of the model results was carried out by comparing the COPERT-II emission factors with on-the-road traffic emission measurements carried out for gasoline passenger cars with a closed-loop controlled three-way catalyst.

  14. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  15. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles.

  16. Vision-Based Georeferencing of GPR in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Barzaghi, Riccardo; Cazzaniga, Noemi Emanuela; Pagliari, Diana; Pinto, Livio

    2016-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveying is widely used to gather accurate knowledge about the geometry and position of underground utilities. The sensor arrays need to be coupled to an accurate positioning system, like a geodetic-grade Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) device. However, in urban areas this approach is not always feasible because GNSS accuracy can be substantially degraded due to the presence of buildings, trees, tunnels, etc. In this work, a photogrammetric (vision-based) method for GPR georeferencing is presented. The method can be summarized in three main steps: tie point extraction from the images acquired during the survey, computation of approximate camera extrinsic parameters and finally a refinement of the parameter estimation using a rigorous implementation of the collinearity equations. A test under operational conditions is described, where accuracy of a few centimeters has been achieved. The results demonstrate that the solution was robust enough for recovering vehicle trajectories even in critical situations, such as poorly textured framed surfaces, short baselines, and low intersection angles. PMID:26805842

  17. Education in Urban Areas. Cross-National Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromquist, Nelly P., Ed.

    This book provides a collection of articles that covers urban education from both developed and developing countries. It presents five studies focused on the United States and other industrialized countries, two studies on Asia, two on Africa, and one on Latin American. Major sections discuss concepts and trends in urban education, the…

  18. 23 CFR 470.105 - Urban area boundaries and highway functional classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 49 CFR part 7, Appendix D. (b) Highway Functional Classification. (1) The State transportation agency... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urban area boundaries and highway functional... PLANNING AND RESEARCH HIGHWAY SYSTEMS Federal-aid Highway Systems § 470.105 Urban area boundaries...

  19. Rural-urban area of residence and trajectories of children׳s behavior in England.

    PubMed

    Midouhas, Emily; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-11-01

    Despite extensive studies of neighborhood effects on children׳s outcomes, there is little evidence on rural-urban impacts on child mental health. We modeled trajectories of emotional-behavioral problems of white majority children at ages 3, 5, and 7 in England in areas with varying levels of rural and urban settlement, using the Millennium Cohort Study. After adjusting for area selection, children in less sparse rural areas had fewer conduct and peer problems, and children in areas with a mix of rural and urban settlement had fewer emotional symptoms, explained by the quality of their schools. Area differences remained in emotional problems. PMID:25460905

  20. Optimized groundwater drawdown in a subsiding urban mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Duran, Emre; Baumann, Rainer; Finkel, Michael

    2009-02-01

    SummaryThis study establishes the first real-world application of evolution strategies for solving a groundwater management problem. In an urban coal mining area in the Emscher and Rhine Basin of Northwestern Germany the groundwater table rises relative to subsiding ground and threatens local infrastructure and basements of buildings. The active extraction system, which consists of one highly productive horizontal and twelve vertical wells that pump more than 500 m 3/h, is revised by combining groundwater model and algorithmic optimization procedure. By capitalizing on the robustness and self-adaptivity of evolution strategies, both fixed and moving well formulations are solved. It is shown that well layout can be improved by automatic optimization even though it has been previously soundly configured by experts. The total pumping effort can be noticeably reduced while complying with the drawdown targets given at 24 different locations in the study area. Savings increase if new well positions are considered. For example, one additional well yields a 9% reduction of the total extraction rate. We also investigate the relevance of the spatially variable drawdown targets and demonstrate how those targets that mainly control the optimized well layouts can be identified by varying the penalty function. It is revealed that there is huge potential for additionally reducing the extraction rate if one or more of these individual targets could be resigned, for example as a result of technical construction or land use changes. A reduction of more than 25% has been estimated for giving up the most notable constraining target. This way, by testing the significance of given constraints, algorithmic optimization may guide the re-formulation of the original optimization problem in order to conceive new groundwater management scenarios that ultimately lead to an increased efficiency of the well field. This procedure is similar to a chance-constraint approach, efficient with CMA

  1. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  2. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum’s residents. Methods Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators—quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity—were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. Results In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts—on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people’s sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Conclusions Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household “water poverty” that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for

  3. Access to health in city slum dwellers: The case of Sodom and Gomorrah in Accra, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Tagbor, Harry; Togbe, Mabel Afi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid rural-urban migration of people to cities is a reality around the globe that has increased city slum dwellers. Sodom and Gomorrah is a city slum located in the heart of Accra, Ghana. Like other slums, it lacks basic amenities necessary for dwellers’ quality of life. This study describes residents’ access to health and factors associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Methods Questionnaires were administered in systematically selected shacks across the entire slum. Data on demographic characteristics, existent health facilities and number of users, health-insured residents and knowledge of common diseases were collected. Results Majority of the residents were from the northern parts of Ghana, relative to the south and a few of them come from other parts of West Africa. Seventy-one percent of residents had never visited a health facility in the last 5 years. When necessary, they access health care from drug stores (61.1%) or hospitals (33.1%). Residents’ age, educational status, income, health knowledge and membership of National Health Insurance Scheme were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the use of healthcare facilities. Younger residents and those without National Health Insurance Scheme membership, formal education, no knowledge of common illnesses and regular income were significantly less likely to use a healthcare facility. For most residents, neither distance (73.2%) nor transportation to health facilities was a problem (74.1%). Conclusion Conditions of profound environmental hazards, overcrowding, poor-quality housing and lack of health care in Sodom and Gomorrah pose grave threats to the health of the inhabitants. Multisectoral interventions and resource mobilisation championed by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development are needed to alter the trend. PMID:27247151

  4. Seismicity and Faulting in an Urbanized area: Flagstaff, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumbaugh, D. S.

    2013-12-01

    Flagstaff, Arizona is a community of more than 60,000 and lies in an area of active tectonism. Well documented evidence exists of geologically recent volcanism and fault related seismicity. The urban area is located within a volcanic field that is considered active and the area is also the locus of numerous fault systems, some of whose members are considered to be potentially active. This suggestion of active faulting and seismicity for the area is supported by the recent 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake. Chief concern for Flagstaff is focused upon the Anderson Mesa fault which has a mapped surface length of 40 kilometers with the north end extending into the city limits of Flagstaff. A worse case scenario for rupture along the entire length of the fault would be the occurrence of an Mw 6.9 earthquake. The slip rate for this fault is low, however it is not well determined due to a lack of Neogene or Quaternary deposits. The historic record of seismicity adjacent to the surface expression of the Anderson Mesa fault includes two well recorded earthquake swarms (1979,2011) as well as other individual events over this time period all of which are of M< 4.0. The epicentral locations of these events are of interest with respect to the fault geometry which shows four prominent segments: North, Central, South, Ashurst. All of the historic events are located within the central segment. This distribution can be compared to evidence available for the orientation of regional stresses. The focal mechanism for the 1993 Mw 5.3 Cataract Creek earthquake shows a northwest striking preferred slip surface with a trend (300) parallel to that of the Central segment of the Anderson Mesa fault (300-305). The other three fault segments of the Anderson Mesa fault have north-south trends. The seismicity of the Central segment of the fault suggests that slip on this segment may occur in the future. Given the length of this segment a MCE event could be as large as Mw 6.3.

  5. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments. PMID:27074746

  6. Phenotypic shifts in urban areas in the tropical lizard Anolis cristatellus.

    PubMed

    Winchell, Kristin M; Reynolds, R Graham; Prado-Irwin, Sofia R; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-05-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly important dimension of global change, and urban areas likely impose significant natural selection on the species that reside within them. Although many species of plants and animals can survive in urban areas, so far relatively little research has investigated whether such populations have adapted (in an evolutionary sense) to their newfound milieu. Even less of this work has taken place in tropical regions, many of which have experienced dramatic growth and intensification of urbanization in recent decades. In the present study, we focus on the neotropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus. We tested whether lizard ecology and morphology differ between urban and natural areas in three of the most populous municipalities on the island of Puerto Rico. We found that environmental conditions including temperature, humidity, and substrate availability differ dramatically between neighboring urban and natural areas. We also found that lizards in urban areas use artificial substrates a large proportion of the time, and that these substrates tend to be broader than substrates in natural forest. Finally, our morphological data showed that lizards in urban areas have longer limbs relative to their body size, as well as more subdigital scales called lamellae, when compared to lizards from nearby forested habitats. This shift in phenotype is exactly in the direction predicted based on habitat differences between our urban and natural study sites, combined with our results on how substrates are being used by lizards in these areas. Findings from a common-garden rearing experiment using individuals from one of our three pairs of populations provide evidence that trait differences between urban and natural sites may be genetically based. Taken together, our data suggest that anoles in urban areas are under significant differential natural selection and may be evolutionarily adapting to their human-modified environments.

  7. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process. PMID:12289002

  8. Promoting community based approaches to social infrastructure provision in urban areas in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uduku, N O

    1994-10-01

    Inadequate social infrastructure provision--in terms of education, health care facilities, and water and sanitation--has become a critical issue in Nigeria's urban areas. The decline of the Nigerian economy and the introduction of economic structural adjustment have curtailed drastically government spending on these services. Recommended is a return to the regional community-based approaches that prevailed in earlier periods. In precolonial Nigeria, the community help ethic ensured that all societies had adequate social infrastructure. With colonization and the emergence of an urban cash economy, the government took control of service provision in urban areas; in rural areas, neglected by government, self-help efforts continued to flourish. The trend in recent decades has been toward the privatization of urban services, deregulation, and growing inequities between affluent urban dwellers and the urban and rural poor. The recommended localization strategy would involve the creation of regional bodies to provide public utilities and regulate social infrastructure provision. Responsibility for the organization and provision of these services would rest with democratically elected community associations in rural areas and municipal councils in urban areas. The needs of poor communities could be funded by cross-subsidizing utility costs among affluent communities. Such a strategy, although unlikely to be supported by government and urban elites, would revitalize the community responsibility ethos that was lost in the urbanization process.

  9. A Cluster-based Method to Map Urban Area from DMSP/OLS Nightlights

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J.; Elvidge, Christopher; Zhao, Kaiguang; Thomson, Allison M.; Imhoff, Marc L.

    2014-05-05

    Accurate information of urban areas at regional and global scales is important for both the science and policy-making communities. The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime stable light data (NTL) provide a potential way to map urban area and its dynamics economically and timely. In this study, we developed a cluster-based method to estimate the optimal thresholds and map urban extents from the DMSP/OLS NTL data in five major steps, including data preprocessing, urban cluster segmentation, logistic model development, threshold estimation, and urban extent delineation. Different from previous fixed threshold method with over- and under-estimation issues, in our method the optimal thresholds are estimated based on cluster size and overall nightlight magnitude in the cluster, and they vary with clusters. Two large countries of United States and China with different urbanization patterns were selected to map urban extents using the proposed method. The result indicates that the urbanized area occupies about 2% of total land area in the US ranging from lower than 0.5% to higher than 10% at the state level, and less than 1% in China, ranging from lower than 0.1% to about 5% at the province level with some municipalities as high as 10%. The derived thresholds and urban extents were evaluated using high-resolution land cover data at the cluster and regional levels. It was found that our method can map urban area in both countries efficiently and accurately. Compared to previous threshold techniques, our method reduces the over- and under-estimation issues, when mapping urban extent over a large area. More important, our method shows its potential to map global urban extents and temporal dynamics using the DMSP/OLS NTL data in a timely, cost-effective way.

  10. Urban health in India: who is responsible?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indrani; Mondal, Swadhin

    2015-01-01

    Urban health has received relatively less focus compared with rural health in India, especially the health of the urban poor. Rapid urbanization in India has been accompanied by an increase in population in urban slums and shanty towns, which are also very inadequately covered by basic amenities, including health services. The paper presents existing and new evidence that shows that health inequities exist between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas, even in better-off states in India. The lack of evidence-based policies that cut across sectors continues to be a main feature of the urban health scenario. Although the problems of urban health are more complex than those of rural health, the paper argues that it is possible to make a beginning fairly quickly by (i) collecting more evidence of health status and inequities in urban areas and (ii) correcting major inadequacies in infrastructure-both health and non-health-without waiting for major policy overhauls.

  11. Integrated research on subsurface environments in Asian urban areas.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Burnett, William C; Ness, Gayl D

    2008-10-15

    The RIHN project "Human impacts on urban subsurface environments" aims to suggest improved development plans of urban centers for human well-being. This will be done by examining reconstructed past changes in urban environments, and by developing integrated nature-social models. Subsurface environmental indicators are developed from the points of view of: (1) human activities; (2) climate change; and (3) character of urban development and social policies. Water, heat, and material environments and transport vectors are being evaluated by a number of different approaches. Some of these include investigating changes in groundwater resources using satellite observations, reconstructing effects of climate change and urbanization using subsurface thermal regimes, and evaluating past contamination patterns from preserved subsurface records. In this overview paper, we describe the current status of urbanization in Asia, subsurface water conditions, material and contaminant transport to surface waters by groundwater, and subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect. The rapid pace of urbanization in Asia requires that we develop a better understanding of how to deal with environmental impacts, both above and below ground.

  12. Geochemistry of urban sediments from small urban areas and potential impact on surface waters: a case study in Northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Anabela; Oliveira, Ana Isabel; Pinto, João; Parker, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Urban sediments are an important source of contaminants in urban catchments with impact on river ecosystems. Surface runoff from impermeable surfaces transfers sediments and associated contaminants to water bodies affecting the quality of both water and sediment compartments. This study aims to evaluate the metal contents in urban sediments (road deposited sediments) in a small sized urban area, located in a rural mountainous region with no significant industrial units, or mining activities in the vicinity, and subsequently have an insight on the potential contribution to the metal loads transported by fluvial sediments in the streams from the surrounding drainage network. The area under investigation locates in the northeast Portugal, in the Trás-os-Montes region (NE Portugal). Vila Real is a rural city, with 52781 inhabitants, and in the urban area there are dispersed parks with forest and gardens; locally and in the surroundings of the city there are agricultural terrains. The industry is concentrated, in general, in the industry park. Major pollutant activities can be considered the agriculture (pollution by sediments, metals and use of fertilizers) and urban activities such as atmospheric deposition, vehicular traffic, residential activities, soil erosion and industrial activities. According to the aim of the study, road deposited sediment samples were collected in urban and periurban areas as well as in public playgrounds and in the industrial area. The samples were decomposed with aqua regia, and the concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were obtained by ICP-AES. The total concentrations of As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, in road-deposited sediments, indicate relative enrichments in samples collected in the main streets and roads, showing spatial variability. The association of Cu, Pb and Zn is observed in samples collected in the streets with high traffic density and industrial activity; in general, higher relative contents

  13. Microbial evaluation of sandboxes located in urban area.

    PubMed

    Gotkowska-Płachta, Anna; Korzeniewska, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the degree of bacteriological pollution of sandboxes situated in fenced and unfenced housing estates located in an urban area in Olsztyn, Poland. Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC22, HPC37), Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens determined by cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) methods were used as indicators of the sanitary state. Their maximum number in the sand samples reached values of up to 5.4×10(7), 2.6×10(6), 3.3×10(4), 2.1×10(3), 1.8×10(4), 1.9×10(1) and 1.2×10(4)CFU/g, respectively. It was found that values of culture-independent method were two-four orders greater than those obtained by the cultivation method. Among identified Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea spp. and Enterobacter cloacae were the most numerous, whereas Escherichia cells were detected only occasionally. Pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella sp. were isolated from sandboxes also when E. coli were absent. Bacteria from Staphylococcus genus were isolated irrespective of the site and time of sampling. Additionally, the presence of molds and yeasts was studied. Maximum counts of these microorganisms amounted to 1.0×10(5) and to 3.5×10(4)CFU/g. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria and Trichoderma genera were most numerous among molds, whereas Trichosporon was detected most frequently among yeasts. Sandboxes in the fenced housing estate and those located in the area which is not close to trees were less polluted than the sand collected from sandboxes in the unfenced housing estate. Potentially pathogenic bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. were identified in analyzed sandboxes, also when Toxocara and E. coli were absent. It seems that assessing the contamination of children's play areas basing only on fecal bacteria counts and by monitoring number of parasites' eggs may be insufficient to evaluate microbial pollution of sandboxes and may not fully

  14. Variability of hazardous air pollutants in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Chester W.; Buxton, Bruce E.; Holdren, Michael W.; Smith, Deborah L.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Rust, Steven W.; Pate, Alan D.; Sverdrup, George M.; Chuang, Jane C.

    The variability of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is an important factor in determining human exposure to such chemicals, and in designing HAP measurement programs. This study has investigated the factors which contribute to HAP variability in an urban area. Six measurement sites separated by up to 12 km collected data with 3 h time resolution to examine spatial variability within neighborhoods and between neighborhoods. The measurements were made in Columbus, OH. The 3 h results also were used to study temporal variability, and duplicate samples collected at each site were used to determine the component of variability attributable to the measurement process. Hourly samples collected over 10 days at one site provided further insight into the temporal resolution needed to capture short-term peak concentrations. Measurements at the 6 spatial sites focused on 78 chemicals. Twenty-three of these species were found in at least 95% of the 3 h samples, and 39 chemicals were present at least 60% of the time. The relative standard deviations for most of these 39 frequently detected chemicals was 1.0 or lower. Variability was segmented into temporal, spatial, and measurement components. Temporal variation was the major contributor to HAP variability for 19 of the 39 frequently detected compounds, based on the 3 h data. Measurement imprecision contributed less than 25% for most of the volatile organic species, but 30% or more of the variability for carbonyl compounds, trace elements, and particle-bound extractable organic mass. Interestingly, the spatial component contributed less than 20% of the total variability for all the chemicals except sulfur. Based on the data with hourly resolution, peak to median ratios (hourly peak to 24 h median) averaged between 2 and 4 for most of the volatile organic compounds, but there were two species with peak to median ratios of about 10.

  15. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... affecting § 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.230 Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or...

  16. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... affecting § 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.230 Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or...

  17. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... citations affecting § 412.230, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.230 Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or...

  18. Multiscale object-oriented change detection over urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianmei; Li, Deren

    2006-10-01

    Urban growth induces urban spatial expansion in many cities in China. There is a great need for up-to-date information for effective urban decision-making and sustainable development. Many researches have demonstrated that satellite images, especial high resolution images, are very suitable for urban growth studies. However, change detection technique is the key to keep current with the rapid urban growth rate, taking advantage of tremendous amounts of satellite data. In this paper, a multi-scale object-oriented change detection approach integrating GIS and remote sensing is introduced. Firstly, a subset of image is cropped based on existing parcel boundaries stored in GIS database, then a multi-scale watershed transform is carried out to obtain the image objects. The image objects are classified into different land cover types by supervised classification based on their spectral, geometry and texture attributes. Finally a rule-based system is set up to judge every parcel one by one whether or not change happened comparing to existing GIS land use types. In order to verify the application validity of the presented methodology, the rural-urban fringe of Shanghai in China with the support of QuickBird date and GIS is tested, the result shown that it is effective to detect illegal land use parcel.

  19. Innovative technologies for decentralised water-, wastewater and biowaste management in urban and peri-urban areas.

    PubMed

    Otterpohl, R; Braun, U; Oldenburg, M

    2003-01-01

    Avoiding the comingling of water flows coming from different sources and thus obtaining flows with a very low dilution factor is the first and major step key to technical solutions for adequate treatment of household wastewaters. Through their decentral structure and effective recovery of water, energy and fertiliser these systems can be highly cost efficient. Fresh water consumption can be reduced by up to 80% while nutrients can be recovered to a large extent. Source control is also advantageous for hygienic reasons: low volumes are far easier to sanitise. Source separation technology in municipal waste water treatment does often lead decentralised or semicentral systems. The first essential step is the separate collection and treatment of toilet waste in households, which contains almost all pathogens and nutrients. New toilet systems with very low dilution factors, ranging from vacuum- through urine sorting to dry toilets, have been introduced in several projects and proven feasible. New ideas such as the black- and greywater cycle systems are presently under research at the Technical University Hamburg Harburg. Such modular, integrated and small scale systems are only possible through recent advances in membrane technology and, due to their small scale, do have the potential to be installed in densely populated regions. These technologies are options for following the principles of ecological sanitation, to contain, to sanitise and to reuse also in urban areas (EcoSanRes, 2003).

  20. Robust human detection, tracking, and recognition in crowded urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms we recently developed to support an automated security surveillance system for very crowded urban areas. In our approach for human detection, the color features are obtained by taking the difference of R, G, B spectrum and converting R, G, B to HSV (Hue, Saturation, Value) space. Morphological patch filtering and regional minimum and maximum segmentation on the extracted features are applied for target detection. The human tracking process approach includes: 1) Color and intensity feature matching track candidate selection; 2) Separate three parallel trackers for color, bright (above mean intensity), and dim (below mean intensity) detections, respectively; 3) Adaptive track gate size selection for reducing false tracking probability; and 4) Forward position prediction based on previous moving speed and direction for continuing tracking even when detections are missed from frame to frame. The Human target recognition is improved with a Super-Resolution Image Enhancement (SRIE) process. This process can improve target resolution by 3-5 times and can simultaneously process many targets that are tracked. Our approach can project tracks from one camera to another camera with a different perspective viewing angle to obtain additional biometric features from different perspective angles, and to continue tracking the same person from the 2nd camera even though the person moved out of the Field of View (FOV) of the 1st camera with `Tracking Relay'. Finally, the multiple cameras at different view poses have been geo-rectified to nadir view plane and geo-registered with Google- Earth (or other GIS) to obtain accurate positions (latitude, longitude, and altitude) of the tracked human for pin-point targeting and for a large area total human motion activity top-view. Preliminary tests of our algorithms indicate than high probability of detection can be achieved for both moving and stationary humans. Our algorithms can simultaneously track

  1. Change of atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan from the viewpoint of rainfall intensity.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Masahide; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Eiho, Jiro

    2009-01-01

    The atmospheric condition in an urbanized area of Japan was examined from the viewpoint of a 14-year trend in the rainfall intensity. To cancel the wide-area meteorological phenomena such as a typhoon and a front, the rainfall datasets obtained not only in an urban area but also in a rural area was studied. The rainfall datasets collected on a 0.5 mm rainfall basis was used. The rainfall intensity dominantly increased in urban area, while that in rural area neither increased nor decreased. An increasing trend was clearly observed for rainfall with precipitation amounts of 5 and 10 mm. Rainfall with precipitation amounts of 15 and 20 mm showed neither an increasing nor a decreasing trend. The results of this study show that there is a high probability of a connection between the urbanization and the change of rainfall intensity.

  2. Generating Accurate Urban Area Maps from Nighttime Satellite (DMSP/OLS) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, Marc; Lawrence, William; Elvidge, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest by the international research community to use the nighttime acquired "city-lights" data sets collected by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan system to study issues relative to urbanization. Many researchers are interested in using these data to estimate human demographic parameters over large areas and then characterize the interactions between urban development , natural ecosystems, and other aspects of the human enterprise. Many of these attempts rely on an ability to accurately identify urbanized area. However, beyond the simple determination of the loci of human activity, using these data to generate accurate estimates of urbanized area can be problematic. Sensor blooming and registration error can cause large overestimates of urban land based on a simple measure of lit area from the raw data. We discuss these issues, show results of an attempt to do a historical urban growth model in Egypt, and then describe a few basic processing techniques that use geo-spatial analysis to threshold the DMSP data to accurately estimate urbanized areas. Algorithm results are shown for the United States and an application to use the data to estimate the impact of urban sprawl on sustainable agriculture in the US and China is described.

  3. Unsupervised polarimetric SAR urban area classification based on model-based decomposition with cross scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Deliang; Tang, Tao; Ban, Yifang; Su, Yi; Kuang, Gangyao

    2016-06-01

    Since it has been validated that cross-polarized scattering (HV) is caused not only by vegetation but also by rotated dihedrals, in this study, we use rotated dihedral corner reflectors to form a cross scattering matrix and propose an extended four-component model-based decomposition method for PolSAR data over urban areas. Unlike other urban area decomposition techniques which need to discriminate the urban and natural areas before decomposition, this proposed method is applied on PolSAR image directly. The building orientation angle is considered in this scattering matrix, making it flexible and adaptive in the decomposition. Therefore, we can separate cross scattering of urban areas from the overall HV component. Further, the cross and helix scattering components are also compared. Then, using these decomposed scattering powers, the buildings and natural areas can be easily discriminated from each other using a simple unsupervised K-means classifier. Moreover, buildings aligned and not aligned along the radar flight direction can be also distinguished clearly. Spaceborne RADARSAT-2 and airborne AIRSAR full polarimetric SAR data are used to validate the performance of our proposed method. The cross scattering power of oriented buildings is generated, leading to a better decomposition result for urban areas with respect to other state-of-the-art urban decomposition techniques. The decomposed scattering powers significantly improve the classification accuracy for urban areas.

  4. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  5. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  6. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas. PMID:26690056

  7. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species. PMID:26580412

  8. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects.

    PubMed

    Baldock, Katherine C R; Goddard, Mark A; Hicks, Damien M; Kunin, William E; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M; Potts, Simon G; Robertson, Kirsty M; Scott, Anna V; Stone, Graham N; Vaughan, Ian P; Memmott, Jane

    2015-03-22

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km(2)) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators.

  9. Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects

    PubMed Central

    Baldock, Katherine C. R.; Goddard, Mark A.; Hicks, Damien M.; Kunin, William E.; Mitschunas, Nadine; Osgathorpe, Lynne M.; Potts, Simon G.; Robertson, Kirsty M.; Scott, Anna V.; Stone, Graham N.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Insect pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service, but are under threat. Urban areas could be important for pollinators, though their value relative to other habitats is poorly known. We compared pollinator communities using quantified flower-visitation networks in 36 sites (each 1 km2) in three landscapes: urban, farmland and nature reserves. Overall, flower-visitor abundance and species richness did not differ significantly between the three landscape types. Bee abundance did not differ between landscapes, but bee species richness was higher in urban areas than farmland. Hoverfly abundance was higher in farmland and nature reserves than urban sites, but species richness did not differ significantly. While urban pollinator assemblages were more homogeneous across space than those in farmland or nature reserves, there was no significant difference in the numbers of rarer species between the three landscapes. Network-level specialization was higher in farmland than urban sites. Relative to other habitats, urban visitors foraged from a greater number of plant species (higher generality) but also visited a lower proportion of available plant species (higher specialization), both possibly driven by higher urban plant richness. Urban areas are growing, and improving their value for pollinators should be part of any national strategy to conserve and restore pollinators. PMID:25673686

  10. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Martin J.; Scheele, Ben C.; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R. Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species. PMID:26580412

  11. Citizen Science Program Shows Urban Areas Have Lower Occurrence of Frog Species, but Not Accelerated Declines.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Martin J; Scheele, Ben C; Ikin, Karen; Hoefer, Anke Maria; Beaty, R Matthew; Evans, Murray; Osborne, Will; Hunter, David; Rayner, Laura; Driscoll, Don A

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the influence of landscape change on animal populations is critical to inform biodiversity conservation efforts. A particularly important goal is to understand how urban density affects the persistence of animal populations through time, and how these impacts can be mediated by habitat provision; but data on this question are limited for some taxa. Here, we use data from a citizen science monitoring program to investigate the effect of urbanization on patterns of frog species richness and occurrence over 13 years. Sites surrounded by a high proportion of bare ground (a proxy for urbanization) had consistently lower frog occurrence, but we found no evidence that declines were restricted to urban areas. Instead, several frog species showed declines in rural wetlands with low-quality habitat. Our analysis shows that urban wetlands had low but stable species richness; but also that population trajectories are strongly influenced by vegetation provision in both the riparian zone and the wider landscape. Future increases in the extent of urban environments in our study area are likely to negatively impact populations of several frog species. However, existing urban areas are unlikely to lose further frog species in the medium term. We recommend that landscape planning and management focus on the conservation and restoration of rural wetlands to arrest current declines, and the revegetation of urban wetlands to facilitate the re-expansion of urban-sensitive species.

  12. Area-averaged profiles over the mock urban setting test array

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, M. A.; Brown, M. J.; Pardyjak, E. R.; Klewicki, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    Urban areas have a large effect on the local climate and meteorology. Efforts have been made to incorporate the bulk dynamic and thermodynamic effects of urban areas into mesoscale models (e.g., Chin et al., 2000; Holt et al., 2002; Lacser and Otte, 2002). At this scale buildings cannot be resolved individually, but parameterizations have been developed to capture their aggregate effect. These urban canopy parameterizations have been designed to account for the area-average drag, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, and surface energy balance modifications due to buildings (e.g., Sorbjan and Uliasz, 1982; Ca, 1999; Brown, 2000; Martilli et al., 2002). These models compute an area-averaged mean profile that is representative of the bulk flow characteristics over the entire mesoscale grid cell. One difficulty has been testing of these parameterizations due to lack of area-averaged data. In this paper, area-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles are derived from data collected at the Mock Urban Setting Test (MUST). The MUST experiment was designed to be a near full-scale model of an idealized urban area imbedded in the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL). It's purpose was to study airflow and plume transport in urban areas and to provide a test case for model validation. A large number of velocity measurements were taken at the test site so that it was possible to derive area-averaged velocity and TKE profiles.

  13. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  14. Results of the round table "Impact of natural and man-made hazards on urban areas"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina; Hostiuc, Constantin; Mihaila, Marina; Gheorghe (Popovici), Diana Alexandra; Anghelache, Mirela Adriana; Dutu, Andreea; Tascu-Stavre, Miroslav

    2015-04-01

    On Thursday the 6th of November a round table was organised at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies of the "Ion Mincu" University of Architecture and Urban Planning on the topic of this session. It included a review of the previous editions, and an outlook to the edition this year. We shared publications, and a publication is in work from the round table itself. The series of round tables at the Centre of Architectural and Urban Studies is an innitiative of Constantin Hostiuc, the secretary general of the centre. This round table was organised by Maria Bostenaru Dan, and moderated by Cristina Olga Gociman, who currently runs a project on a related topic. From the various ways to approach the effects of hazards, up to the disatrous ones, on urban areas, we consider the most suitable the approach to the impact. From the point of view of natural sciences and of the engineering ones this was approached a number of times, and newly social sciences are included as well. The role of planning and design for a better prevention, and even post-disaster intervention is ignored many times though. The goal of the round table was to bring together multidisciplinary approaches (architecture, urban planning, seismology, geography, structural engineering, ecology, communication sciences, art history) on a problem set from this point of view. Discussed topics were: 1. Assessment and mapping methods of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas (preventive, postdisaster) 2. Visualisation and communication techniques of the assessed impact, including GIS, internet, 3D 3. Strategies for the reduction of the impact of natural hazards on urban areas 4. Suitable methods of urban design for the mitigation of the effects of disasters in multihazard case 5. Partnership models among the involved actors in the decision process for disaster mitigaton 6. Urban planning instruments for risc management strategies (ex. master plan) 7. Lessons learned from the relationship between hazard

  15. Urban area delineation and detection of change along the urban-rural boundary as derived from LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christenson, J. W.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    LANDSAT digital multispectral scanner data, in conjunction with supporting ground truth, were investigated to determine their utility in delineation of urban-rural boundaries. The digital data for the metropolitan areas of Washington, D. C.; Austin, Texas; and Seattle, Washingtion; were processed using an interactive image processing system. Processing focused on identification of major land cover types typical of the zone of transition from urban to rural landscape, and definition of their spectral signatures. Census tract boundaries were input into the interactive image processing system along with the LANDSAT single and overlayed multiple date MSS data. Results of this investigation indicate that satellite collected information has a practical application to the problem of urban area delineation and to change detection.

  16. [Thirty years of suburbanization: the extension and dilution of urban areas].

    PubMed

    Le Jeannic, T

    1997-07-01

    The growth of suburbanization in France over the period 1960-1990 is analyzed using data from official sources. "Suburbanisation covers both a concentration of employment in urban areas, which consequently attract all the more people, and a greater need for space among large families who leave the saturated urban centres to live in the surrounding areas. This phenomenon continued throughout the 1980s, although it was partially offset by returns to the urban areas. One upshot of suburbanisation is that daily travel between home and work has lengthened considerably over the last thirty years." (EXCERPT)

  17. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  18. Government Incentives to Private Industry to Locate in Urban Poverty Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabb, William K.

    1969-01-01

    This report investigates the possible use of government subsidies for firms locating in urban poverty areas as a means of improving employment opportunities for the urban disadvantaged. Arguments in favor of incentives, emphasizing the need to avoid wasting manpower and to protect developing industries while inducing further industrialization, are…

  19. BOOK REVIEW (ABSTRACT FORMAT) "WATER FOR URBAN AREAS: CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES"

    EPA Science Inventory

    This book is a compilation of papers from the Sixth Global Environmental Forum, convened by the United Nations University in Tokyo, Japan in June 1997 on "Water for Urban Areas in the 21st Century." This book has a broad perspective of urban water including drinking, wastewater ...

  20. Modeling and predicting urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area based on cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yaolong; Zhao, Junsan; Murayama, Yuji

    2008-10-01

    The period of high economic growth in Japan which began in the latter half of the 1950s led to a massive migration of population from rural regions to the Tokyo metropolitan area. This phenomenon brought about rapid urban growth and urban structure changes in this area. Purpose of this study is to establish a constrained CA (Cellular Automata) model with GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to simulate urban growth pattern in the Tokyo metropolitan area towards predicting urban form and landscape for the near future. Urban land-use is classified into multi-categories for interpreting the effect of interaction among land-use categories in the spatial process of urban growth. Driving factors of urban growth pattern, such as land condition, railway network, land-use zoning, random perturbation, and neighborhood interaction and so forth, are explored and integrated into this model. These driving factors are calibrated based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA), spatial statistics, logistic regression, and "trial and error" approach. The simulation is assessed at both macro and micro classification levels in three ways: visual approach; fractal dimension; and spatial metrics. Results indicate that this model provides an effective prototype to simulate and predict urban growth pattern of the Tokyo metropolitan area.

  1. Urban streams across the USA: Lessons learned from studies in 9 metropolitan areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, L.R.; Cuffney, T.F.; Coles, J.F.; Fitzpatrick, F.; McMahon, G.; Steuer, J.; Bell, A.H.; May, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems have usually focused on single metropolitan areas. Synthesis of the results of such studies have been useful in developing general conceptual models of the effects of urbanization, but the strength of such generalizations is enhanced by applying consistent study designs and methods to multiple metropolitan areas across large geographic scales. We summarized the results from studies of the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in 9 metropolitan areas across the US (Boston, Massachusetts; Raleigh, North Carolina; Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Portland, Oregon). These studies were conducted as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program and were based on a common study design and used standard sample-collection and processing methods to facilitate comparisons among study areas. All studies included evaluations of hydrology, physical habitat, water quality, and biota (algae, macroinvertebrates, fish). Four major conclusions emerged from the studies. First, responses of hydrologic, physical-habitat, water-quality, and biotic variables to urbanization varied among metropolitan areas, except that insecticide inputs consistently increased with urbanization. Second, prior land use, primarily forest and agriculture, appeared to be the most important determinant of the response of biota to urbanization in the areas we studied. Third, little evidence was found for resistance to the effects of urbanization by macroinvertebrate assemblages, even at low levels of urbanization. Fourth, benthic macroinvertebrates have important advantages for assessing the effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems relative to algae and fishes. Overall, our results demonstrate regional differences in the effects of urbanization on stream biota and suggest additional studies to elucidate

  2. Urbanization and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1991-01-01

    In developing countries the level of urbanization is expected to increase to 39.5% by the end of this century and to 56.9% by 2025. The number of people living in slums and shanty towns represent about one-third of the people living in cities in developing countries. This article focuses upon these poor urban populations and comments upon their lifestyle and their exposure to hazardous environmental conditions which are associated with particular patterns of morbidity and mortality. The concept of marginality has been used to describe the lifestyle of the urban poor in developing countries. This concept is critically examined and it is argued that any concept of the urban poor in developing countries being socially, economically or politically marginal is a myth. However, it can certainly be claimed that in health terms the urban poor are marginal as demonstrated by some of the studies reviewed in this article. Most studies of the health of the urban poor in developing countries concentrate on the environmental conditions in which they live. The environmental conditions of the urban poor are one of the main hazards of the lifestyle of poor urban residents. However, other aspects of their way of life, or lifestyle, have implications for their health. Issues such as smoking, diet, alcohol and drug abuse, and exposure to occupational hazards, have received much less attention in the literature and there is an urgent need for more research in these areas.

  3. Nonpoint sources of volatile organic compounds in urban areas - Relative importance of land surfaces and air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Bender, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly detected in urban waters across the United States include gasoline-related compounds (e.g. toluene, xylene) and chlorinated compounds (e.g. chloroform, tetrachloroethane [PCE], trichloroethene [TCE]). Statistical analysis of observational data and results of modeling the partitioning of VOCs between air and water suggest that urban land surfaces are the primary nonpoint source of most VOCs. Urban air is a secondary nonpoint source, but could be an important source of the gasoline oxygenate methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE). Surface waters in urban areas would most effectively be protected by controlling land-surface sources.

  4. Lung deposited surface area size distributions of particulate matter in different urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Järvinen, Anssi; Saari, Sampo; Karjalainen, Panu; Lähde, Tero; Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2016-07-01

    Lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration is considered as a relevant metric for the negative health effects of aerosol particles. We report for the first time the size distributions of the LDSA measured in urban air. The measurements were carried out in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, including mobile laboratory and stationary measurements in different outdoor environments, such as traffic sites, a park area, the city center and residential areas. The main instrument in this study was an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), which was calibrated in the field to measure the LDSA concentration. The calibration factor was determined to be 60 μm2/(cm3 pA). In the experiments, the LDSA size distributions were found to form two modes at the traffic sites and in the city center. Both of these traffic related particle modes, the nucleation mode and the soot mode, had a clear contribution to the total LDSA concentration. The average total concentrations varied from 12 to 94 μm2/cm3, measured in the park area and at the traffic site next to a major road, respectively. The LDSA concentration was found to correlate with the mass of fine particles (PM2.5), but the relation of these two metrics varied between different environments, emphasizing the influence of traffic on the LDSA. The results of this study provide valuable information on the total concentrations and size distributions of the LDSA for epidemiological studies. The size distributions are especially important in estimating the contribution of outdoor concentrations on the concentrations inside buildings and vehicles through size-dependent penetration factors.

  5. Public Participation in Urban Environmental Management: A Model for Promoting Community-Based Environmental Management in Peri-Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoob, May; Brantly, Eugene; Whiteford, Linda

    In October 1992, the Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project held a workshop to explore how the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) could incorporate community participation as a core element in projects to improve water supply, sanitation, and other environmental conditions of peri-urban areas in developing countries. The…

  6. The social ecology of water in a Mumbai slum: failures in water quality, quantity, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Urban slums in developing countries that are not recognized by the government often lack legal access to municipal water supplies. This results in the creation of insecure “informal” water distribution systems (i.e., community-run or private systems outside of the government’s purview) that may increase water-borne disease risk. We evaluate an informal water distribution system in a slum in Mumbai, India using commonly accepted health and social equity indicators. We also identify predictors of bacterial contamination of drinking water using logistic regression analysis. Methods Data were collected through two studies: the 2008 Baseline Needs Assessment survey of 959 households and the 2011 Seasonal Water Assessment, in which 229 samples were collected for water quality testing over three seasons. Water samples were collected in each season from the following points along the distribution system: motors that directly tap the municipal supply (i.e., “point-of-source” water), hoses going to slum lanes, and storage and drinking water containers from 21 households. Results Depending on season, households spend an average of 52 to 206 times more than the standard municipal charge of Indian rupees 2.25 (US dollars 0.04) per 1000 liters for water, and, in some seasons, 95% use less than the WHO-recommended minimum of 50 liters per capita per day. During the monsoon season, 50% of point-of-source water samples were contaminated. Despite a lack of point-of-source water contamination in other seasons, stored drinking water was contaminated in all seasons, with rates as high as 43% for E. coli and 76% for coliform bacteria. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, monsoon and summer seasons were associated with significantly increased odds of drinking water contamination. Conclusions Our findings reveal severe deficiencies in water-related health and social equity indicators. All bacterial contamination of drinking water occurred due to post

  7. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.103 Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas... that is located in an urban area (as defined in subpart D of this part) may be reclassified as a...

  8. Urbanization and the groundwater budget, metropolitan Seoul area, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Young; Lee, Kang-Kun; Sung, Ig Hwan

    2001-07-01

    The city of Seoul is home to more than 10 million people in an area of 605 km2. Groundwater is ed for public water supply and industrial use, and to drain underground facilities and construction sites. Though most tap water is supplied from the Han River, the quantity and quality of groundwater is of great concern to Seoul's citizens, because the use of groundwater for drinking water is continuously increasing. This study identifies the major factors affecting the urban water budget and quality of groundwater in the Seoul area and estimates the urban water budget. These factors include leakage from the municipal water-supply system and sewer systems, precipitation infiltration, water-level fluctuations of the Han River, the subway pumping system, and domestic pumping. The balance between groundwater recharge and discharge is near equilibrium. However, the quality of groundwater and ability to control contaminant fluxes are impeded by sewage infiltration, abandoned landfills, waste dumps, and abandoned wells. Résumé. La ville de Séoul possède une population de plus de 10 millions d'habitants, pour une superficie de 605 km2. Les eaux souterraines sont pompées pour l'eau potable et pour les usages industriels, ainsi que pour drainer les équipements souterrains et les sites en construction. Bien que l'essentiel de l'eau potable provienne de la rivière Han, la quantité et la qualité de l'eau souterraine présentent un grand intérêt pour les habitants de Séoul, parce qu'on utilise de plus en plus l'eau souterraine pour l'eau potable. Cette étude identifie les facteurs principaux qui affectent la qualité de l'eau souterraine dans la région de Séoul et fait l'estimation du bilan d'eau urbaine. Les principaux facteurs affectant le bilan d'eau urbaine et la qualité de l'eau souterraine sont les fuites du réseau d'adduction et du réseau d'égouts, l'infiltration des eaux de précipitation, les fluctuations du niveau de la rivière Han, le réseau de pompage

  9. Hydropower production from bridges in urban or suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucciarelli, Tullio; Sammartano, Vincenzo; Sinagra, Marco; Morreale, Gabriele; Ferreira, Teresa

    2015-04-01

    A new technology for hydropower production from rivers crossing urban or suburban areas is proposed, based on the use of Cross-Flow turbines having its axis horizontal and normal to the flow direction. A large part of the river cross-section could be covered by the turbine cross-section and this would generate a small, but consistent jump between the water levels of the inlet and the outlet sections. The turbine should be anchored to a pre-existing bridge and the total length of its axis should be of the same order of the bridge length. Due to the large axis extension, it should be possible to easily attain a gross power similar to the power produced with a more traditional installation, based on weirs or barrages, if single jumps of few tens of centimeters were added over a large number of bridges. If the bridges were set in urbanized areas, the production of electricity would be located close to its consumption, according to the smart grid requirements, and the hydrological basin at the bridge section (along with the corresponding discharge) would be greater than the basin of traditional plants located in more upstream locations. The maximum water level to be attained in the upstream section of the bridge should be the minimum among the following ones: 1) the level corresponding to the maximum flood allowed by the surrounding infra-structures, 2) the level corresponding to the maximum force allowed by the bridge structures. The resulting upstream water level hydrographs should be compatible with the river suspended and bed load equilibrium and with the requirement of the aquatic living population. The system should include a mechanism able to raise the turbine completely out of the water level, if required, for maintenance or other purposes. The complete lifting of the turbine could be used to: a) reconstruct the natural river bed profile during floods, b) allow the navigation or fish movements during some periods of the year, or even some hours of the day. A

  10. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled, Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components ...

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF DECENTRALIZED BMP CONTROLS IN URBAN AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will present an overview of a recently completed project for the US EPA entitled Optimization of Urban Wet-weather Flow Control Systems. The focus of this effort is on techniques that are suitable for evaluating decentralized BMP controls. The four major components o...

  13. Urban Areas--Partial Creators of Their Own Atmospheric Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marotz, Glen A.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes typical urban-rural atmospheric differences, focuses on heat islands as an example of observable alternation-response effects, and briefly describes some simple exercises which are intended to illustrate the reason for such temperature differences. (Author/DE)

  14. Identification of multi-attribute functional urban areas under a perspective of community detection: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Jiao, Pengfei; Yuan, Ning; Wang, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Identifying functional urban areas is a significant research of considerable interest in many important fields such as city planning and facility location problem. Traditionally, we identify the function of urban areas from the macro-level perspective. With the availability of human digital footprints, investigation of functional urban areas from a micro-level perspective becomes possible. In this paper, we identified the functional urban areas of a metropolitan city in China by some metrics of community detection based on the social network of mobile phone users. The result shows that there are close relations between urban area and individual communication network, which can help us identify the function of areas more conveniently.

  15. Evaluation of light-curing units in rural and urban areas

    PubMed Central

    AlShaafi, Maan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the distribution of light-curing units (LCU) used in an urban area (Riyadh) and a rural area (Kharj) of Saudi Arabia, and to compare their irradiance values. Methods The study involved three dental centers in urban areas and two in rural areas, all of which were parts of a single healthcare institution providing dental services. The light outputs (power mW) from 140 LCUs were measured by laboratory-grade spectrometry, and the irradiance (mW/cm2) was calculated from the tip area of each LCU. The minimum acceptable irradiance outputs for the quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) and light-emitting diode (LED) units were set at 300 and 600 mW/cm2, respectively. The ages of these units and the protocol used to light-cure the resins were also determined. Results The total number of LCUs was 140, 112 (78%) in urban areas, and 28 (22%) in rural areas. In rural areas, only 7 of the 22 (32%) QTH units delivered irradiances greater than 300 mW/cm2 and were therefore considered clinically acceptable, whereas 4 of the 6 (66.7%) LED units delivered values greater than 600 mW/cm2. In urban centers, 43 of 61 (70.5%) LED units and 25 of 61 (49%) QTH units were considered clinically acceptable. Irradiance values for both QTH (P < 0.01) and LED (P < 0.05) units were significantly better in urban than in rural areas. Conclusions Urban areas had a greater distribution of LCUs than rural areas. Overall, irradiance values were significantly higher in urban areas. PMID:23960546

  16. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks.

  17. Density and Stability of Soil Organic Carbon beneath Impervious Surfaces in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0–20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05) positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N) in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks. PMID:25299685

  18. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  19. Bioclimatic characterisation of an urban area: a case study in Bologna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zauli Sajani, Stefano; Tibaldi, Stefano; Scotto, Fabiana; Lauriola, Paolo

    2008-11-01

    Summer bioclimatic discomfort is a significant public health problem. Bioclimatic characterisations of populations living in urban areas are usually very poor, although the risks are relatively higher in cities because of the phenomenon known as the "urban heat island". We compared airport, rural, and urban bioclimatic conditions in terms of apparent temperature, Thom index, and temperature alone in several sites within a radius of approximately 25 km from the city of Bologna (Italy). The comparison between meteorological monitoring stations within and near the urban area showed the large impact of the urban heat island effect. Nighttime data showed the largest differences among the investigated sites. Minimum apparent temperatures at rural stations were about 3.5 degrees C lower than the urban 30 m reference station, and 6 degrees C lower than the 2 m urban site. The 2 m apparent temperature values within the urban area were several degrees higher (typically 2 degrees C) than those taken above the roof, both for minimum and maximum values. Temporal trends in the different sites were highly correlated (generally above 0.90), but regression residuals were sometimes quite large. Finally, epidemiological implications are briefly addressed.

  20. [Object-oriented remote sensing image classification in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Resendes, Ana Paula da Costa

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the use of object-oriented classification of remote sensing imagery in epidemiological studies of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. To obtain temperature and environmental information, an object-oriented classification approach was applied to Landsat 5 TM scenes from the city of Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. For 1993-1996, VL incidence rates correlated positively with census tracts covered by dense vegetation, grass/pasture, and bare soil and negatively with areas covered by water and densely populated areas. In 2001-2006, positive correlations were found with dense vegetation, grass/pasture, bare soil, and densely populated areas and negative correlations with occupied urban areas with some vegetation. Land surface temperature correlated negatively with VL incidence in both periods. Object-oriented classification can be useful to characterize landscape features associated with VL in urban areas and to help identify risk areas in order to prioritize interventions.

  1. Multi-factor controls on terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Tian, H.; Pan, S.; Lockaby, G.; Chappelka, A.

    2014-12-01

    As urban land expands rapidly across the globe, much concern has been raised that urbanization may alter the terrestrial carbon cycle. Urbanization involves complex changes in land structure and multiple environmental factors. Little is known about the relative contribution of these individual factors and their interactions to the terrestrial carbon dynamics, however, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of carbon sequestration policies focusing on urban development. This study developed a comprehensive analysis framework for quantifying relative contribution of individual factors (and their interactions) to terrestrial carbon dynamics in urbanized areas. We identified 15 factors belonging to five categories, and we applied a newly developed factorial analysis scheme to the southern United States (SUS), a rapidly urbanizing region. In all, 24 numeric experiments were designed to systematically isolate and quantify the relative contribution of individual factors. We found that the impact of land conversion was far larger than other factors. Urban managements and the overall interactive effects among major factors, however, created a carbon sink that compensated for 42% of the carbon loss in land conversion. Our findings provide valuable information for regional carbon management in the SUS: (1) it is preferable to preserve pre-urban carbon pools than to rely on the carbon sinks in urban ecosystems to compensate for the carbon loss in land conversion. (2) In forested areas, it is recommendable to improve landscape design (e.g., by arranging green spaces close to the city center) to maximize the urbanization-induced environmental change effect on carbon sequestration. Urbanization-induced environmental change will be less effective in shrubland regions. (3) Urban carbon sequestration can be significantly improved through changes in management practices, such as increased irrigation and fertilizer and targeted use of vehicles and machinery with least

  2. SCREENING TO IDENTIFY AND PREVENT URBAN STORM WATER PROBLEMS: ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS AREA ACCURATELY AND INEXPENSIVELY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Complete identification and eventual prevention of urban water quality problems pose significant monitoring, "smart growth" and water quality management challenges. Uncontrolled increase of impervious surface area (roads, buildings, and parking lots) causes detrimental hydrologi...

  3. Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

  4. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: On February 21, 2012,...

  5. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  6. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout. PMID:27424113

  7. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout.

  8. Study on distribution of aerosol optical depth in Chongqing urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiqi; Liu, Can; Gao, Yanghua

    2015-12-01

    This paper selected 6S (second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum) model with dark pixel method to inversion aerosol optical depth by MODIS data, and got the spatial distribution and the temporal distribution of Chongqing urban area. By comparing with the sun photometer and API data, the result showed that the inversion method can be used in aerosol optical thickness monitoring in Chongqing urban area.

  9. A cloud detection algorithm using edge detection and information entropy over urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong; Wen, Tianxiao; Li, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Aiming at detecting cloud interference over urban area, an algorithm in this research is proposed to detect urban cloud area combining extracting edge information with information entropy, focusing on distinguishing complex surface features accurately to retain intact surface information. Firstly, image edge sharpening is used. Secondly, Canny edge detector and closing operation are applied to extract and strengthen edge features. Thirdly, information entropy extraction is adopted to ensure cloud positional accuracy. Compared with traditional cloud detection methods, this algorithm protects the integrity of urban surface features efficiently, improving the segmentation accuracy. Test results prove the effectiveness of this algorithm.

  10. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  11. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures.

  12. D Object Classification Based on Thermal and Visible Imagery in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasani, H.; Samadzadegan, F.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of land cover in the urban area especially 3D objects (buildings and trees) is a fundamental dataset for urban planning, ecological research, disaster management, etc. According to recent advances in sensor technologies, several types of remotely sensed data are available from the same area. Data fusion has been widely investigated for integrating different source of data in classification of urban area. Thermal infrared imagery (TIR) contains information on emitted radiation and has unique radiometric properties. However, due to coarse spatial resolution of thermal data, its application has been restricted in urban areas. On the other hand, visible image (VIS) has high spatial resolution and information in visible spectrum. Consequently, there is a complementary relation between thermal and visible imagery in classification of urban area. This paper evaluates the potential of aerial thermal hyperspectral and visible imagery fusion in classification of urban area. In the pre-processing step, thermal imagery is resampled to the spatial resolution of visible image. Then feature level fusion is applied to construct hybrid feature space include visible bands, thermal hyperspectral bands, spatial and texture features and moreover Principle Component Analysis (PCA) transformation is applied to extract PCs. Due to high dimensionality of feature space, dimension reduction method is performed. Finally, Support Vector Machines (SVMs) classify the reduced hybrid feature space. The obtained results show using thermal imagery along with visible imagery, improved the classification accuracy up to 8% respect to visible image classification.

  13. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures. PMID:26177388

  14. Hydrologic data for urban storm runoff from three localities in the Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Sherman R.

    1978-01-01

    Urban storm-runoff data, collected from 1975 to 1977, on three catchment areas in the Denver, Colo., metropolitan area are presented. The catchment are predominantly a single-family residential catchment area in Littleton, a multifamily residential and commercial catchment area in Lakewood, and a high-density residential and commercial catchment area in Denver. Precipitation, rainfall-runoff, snowmelt-runoff, water-quality (common constituents, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, coliform bacteria, and solids, trace elements, and pesticides), and catchment-area data are necessary to use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 's Storm Water Management Model II. The urban storm-runoff data may be used by planning, water-management, and environmental-protection agencies to assess the impact of urban storm runoff on the hydrologic system. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Downscaling of thermal images over urban areas using the land surface temperature-impervious percentage relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essa, W.; van der Kwast, J.; Verbeiren, B.; Batelaan, O.

    2013-08-01

    Intensive expansion and densification of urban areas decreases environmental quality and quality of urban life as exemplified by the urban heat island effect. For this reason, thermal information is becoming an increasingly important data source for integration in urban studies. It is expected that future spaceborne thermal sensors will provide data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for urban studies. Until they become operational, research has to rely on downscaling algorithms increasing the spatial resolution of relatively coarse resolution thermal images albeit having a high temporal resolution. Existing downscaling algorithms, however, have been developed for sharpening images over rural and natural areas, resulting in large errors when applied to urban areas. The objective of this study is to adapt the DisTrad method for downscaling land surface temperature (LST) over urban areas using the relationship between LST and impervious percentage. The proposed approach is evaluated by sharpening aggregated LST derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery collected over the city of Dublin on May 24th 2001. The new approach shows improved downscaling results over urban areas for all evaluated resolutions, especially in an environment with mixed land cover. The adapted DisTrad approach was most successful at a resolution of 480 m, resulting in a correlation of R2 = 0.84 with an observed image at the same resolution. Furthermore, sharpening using the adapted DisTrad approach was able to preserve the spatial autocorrelation present in urban environments. The unmixing performance of the adapted DisTrad approach improves with decreasing resolution due to the fact that the functional relationship between LST and impervious percentage was defined at coarse resolutions.

  16. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements.

  17. Slum Sanitation and the Social Determinants of Women's Health in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Corburn, Jason; Hildebrand, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate urban sanitation disproportionately impacts the social determinants of women's health in informal settlements or slums. The impacts on women's health include infectious and chronic illnesses, violence, food contamination and malnutrition, economic and educational attainment, and indignity. We used household survey data to report on self-rated health and sociodemographic, housing, and infrastructure conditions in the Mathare informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We combined quantitative survey and mapping data with qualitative focus group information to better understand the relationships between environmental sanitation and the social determinants of women and girls' health in the Mathare slum. We find that an average of eighty-five households in Mathare share one toilet, only 15% of households have access to a private toilet, and the average distance to a public toilet is over 52 meters. Eighty-three percent of households without a private toilet report poor health. Mathare women report violence (68%), respiratory illness/cough (46%), diabetes (33%), and diarrhea (30%) as the most frequent physical burdens. Inadequate, unsafe, and unhygienic sanitation results in multiple and overlapping health, economic, and social impacts that disproportionately impact women and girls living in urban informal settlements. PMID:26060499

  18. Floristic diversity in urban forest area of NEERI Campus, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakhi B; Chaudhari, P R; Wate, S R

    2008-01-01

    This study has been carried out to assess the diverse floristic wealth in urban forest area of NEERI campus at Nagpur, Maharashtra (India). This urban forest is ecologically important to maintain the atmospheric temperature around 2 degrees C below and higher relative humidity as compared to other urban areas. The water table is also observed to be shallower in this area as compared to other areas. Therefore, the biological diversity of this urban forest was studied, as it is directly related to ecology of the area. Floristic survey of NEERI premises recorded 135 vascular plants including 16 monocots and 119 dicots, belonging to 115 genera and 53 families. The taxa included 4 types of grasses, 55 herbs, 30 shrubs and 46 trees. The large number of species within very small area (43 ha) indicates rich biodiversity in this forest area. It is also observed that this forest patch has tall trees, with good density and rich cover of shrubs and herbs on forest floor indicating well knit plant community. These characteristics have given immense ecological importance to this urban forest area. Detailed vegetation study revealed that positive co-operation in the plant communities can significantly maintain species diversity in the environment.

  19. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  20. A Comparison of Social Bee-Plant Networks between Two Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, H G S; Evans, D M; Bego, L R; Sofia, S H

    2014-10-01

    In the last decade, several studies demonstrated the effectiveness of ecological network analysis to a better understanding of the structure bee-plant interaction networks; however, such approaches involving urban areas are still scarce. Here, we analyzed two assemblages of corbiculate bees (Apoidea, Apidae) in two geographically distinct urban areas in Brazil. In both study areas, apid bees visiting flowers were captured with an insect net. Surveys were performed biweekly and alternately in each area, over a 1-year period. Both urban areas were very similar for most indices. The two social bee-plant networks were significantly nested, a pattern usually described for bee-plant networks and somehow expected in our study, considering the recognized behavior of social apid bees in exploring a wide range of plant species. The modularity measures were low and very similar for the networks of both urban areas, a finding that could be due at least in part to the low phylogenetic distance between corbiculate bees and the broad dietary habits of the social apid bees. Network-level indices showed that both bee assemblages had a relatively low niche overlap, indicating that the set of social apid species studied exploited differently the arrays of plants available. Species level index (resource range) showed that in both urban areas, Trigona spinipes (Fabr.) and Apis mellifera L. showed the higher number of interactions, a result that demonstrates the importance of these species in social bee-plant interaction networks in urban areas. Similarly to other ecosystems, these two apid species behaved as super-generalists in the two urban areas surveyed herein.

  1. Towards the quantification of rockfall risk assessment for urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    In many mountainous inhabited areas rockfalls are a major threat for structures and population. The quantification of the risk gives an estimate of the potential consequences that allows the analysis of different scenarios, minimizing the subjectivity and the uncertainties that derive from judgmental and qualitative approaches. The four main phases of the rockfall phenomenon have to be determined including: a. the calculation of the frequency of the rock block volumes falling down the slope, b. the calculation of the probability of the rock blocks reaching a reference section with a certain level of kinetic energy; c. the calculation of the spatio-temporal probability of the exposed elements; and d. the calculation of the probability that an exposed element will suffer a certain degree of damage. Here, a step-by-step methodology for the quantification of risk is presented. The methodology focuses on steps (b) to (d). An example of an urban area that is situated at the toe of a talus cone below of a rocky slope is considered. Three different rock diameters are considered with their respective frequencies (step a). For the calculation of the spatial probability of a given rock size reaching a location, a probabilistic 3D trajectory analysis is performed using the software ROTOMAP. The inputs are the topographic relief, the rockfall source and velocity and the soil parameters (restitution coefficient and friction coefficients). The latter are evaluated by back analysis using historical events. The probability of a given rock magnitude reaching a critical section of the talus cone with a certain level of kinetic energy is evaluated. For the step (c), the spatio-temporal probability of the element at risk is calculated taking into account both the trajectographic analysis of the rock blocks and the location of the elements at risk on the talus cone. For the step (d), the probability of a certain degree of structural damage in the buildings is calculated. To this purpose

  2. Responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to urbanization in nine metropolitan areas of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; McMahon, G.; Kashuba, R.; May, J.T.; Waite, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrates were investigated in nine metropolitan areas (Boston, MA; Raleigh, NC; Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Milwaukee–Green Bay, WI; Denver, CO; Dallas–Fort Worth, TX; Salt Lake City, UT; and Portland, OR) as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. Several invertebrate metrics showed strong, linear responses to urbanization when forest or shrublands were developed. Responses were difficult to discern in areas where urbanization was occurring on agricultural lands because invertebrate assemblages were already severely degraded. There was no evidence that assemblages showed any initial resistance to urbanization. Ordination scores, EPT taxa richness, and the average tolerance of organisms were the best indicators of changes in assemblage condition at a site. Richness metrics were better indicators than abundance metrics, and qualitative samples were as good as quantitative samples. A common set of landscape variables (population density, housing density, developed landcover, impervious surface, and roads) were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses in all non-agricultural areas. The instream environmental variables (hydrology, water chemistry, habitat, and temperature) that were strongly correlated with urbanization and invertebrate responses were influenced by environmental setting (e.g., dominant ecoregion) and varied widely among metropolitan areas. Multilevel hierarchical regression models were developed that predicted invertebrate responses using only two landcover variables—basinscale landcover (percentage of basin area in developed land) and regional-scale landcover (antecedent agricultural land).

  3. Urban landscape features influencing rodent control and animal movement in two urban areas of California

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Pest” control of both native (e.g., gophers) and exotic (e.g., black rats, house mice) species may impact populations of non-target species inadvertently. We evaluated relationships among animal movement, rodent control, and landscape features in two urban locations in Californ...

  4. These lit areas are undeveloped: Delimiting China's urban extents from thresholded nighttime light imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying; Delahunty, Tina; Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Nighttime light imagery is a powerful tool to study urbanization because it can provide a uniform metric, lit area, to delimit urban extents. However, lit area is much larger than actual urban area, so thresholds of digital number (DN) values are usually needed to reduce the lit area. The threshold varies greatly among different regions, but at present it is still not very clear what factors impact the changes of the threshold. In this study, urban extent by province for China is mapped using official statistical data and four intercalibrated and geometrically corrected nighttime light images between 2004 and 2010. Lit area in the imagery for most provinces is at least 94% greater than the official amount of urban area. Regression analyses show a significant correlation between optimal thresholds and GDP per capita, and larger thresholds more commonly indicate higher economic level. Size and environmental condition may explain a province's threshold that is disproportionate to GDP. Findings indicate one threshold DN is not appropriate for multiple (adjacent) province urban extent mapping, and optimal thresholds for one year may be notably different than the next. Province-level derived thresholds are not appropriate for other geographic levels. Brightness of nighttime lights is an advantage over imagery that relies on daylight reflection, and decreases in brightness indicate faster growth in the horizontal direction than the vertical. A province's optimal threshold does not always maintain an increase with population and economic growth. In the economically developed eastern provinces, urban population densities decreased (and this is seen in the brightness data), while urban population increased.

  5. [Organic carbon storage in urban built-up areas of China in 1997-2006].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shu-Qing; Zhou, De-Cheng

    2012-05-01

    With the increase of greenhouse gases emission in urban regions, urban carbon cycle plays a more and more important role in global carbon cycle. To estimate urban carbon emission and carbon storage is crucial for understanding urban carbon cycle. By using China's statistics data and the results from recent publications, this paper estimated the organic carbon storage in China's urban built-up areas in 1997-2006. From 1997 to 2006, the total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas increased from 0.13-0.19 Pg C (averagely 0.16 Pg C) to 0.28-0.41 Pg C (averagely 0.34 Pg C), and the organic carbon density increased from 9.86-14.03 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 11.95 kg C x m(-2)) to 10.54-15.54 kg C x m(-2) (averagely 13.04 kg C x m(-2)). The total organic carbon storage in the urban built-up areas was mainly contributed by soils (78% in 1997 and 73% in 2006), followed by buildings (12% in 1997 and 16% in 2006) and green spaces (9% in 1997 and 10% in 2006), while the carbon storage in resident bodies only accounted for less than 1%, which could be neglected.

  6. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  7. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

  8. A new framework for modeling urban land expansion in peri-urban area by combining multi-source datasets and data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Xiao, R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    Peri-urban area is a new type region under the impacts of both rural Industrialization and the radiation of metropolitan during rapid urbanization. Due to its complex natural and social characteristics and unique development patterns, many problems such as environmental pollution and land use waste emerged, which became an urgent issue to be addressed. Study area in this paper covers three typical peri-urban districts (Pudong, Fengxian and Jinshan), which around the Shanghai inner city. By coupling cellular automata and multi-agent system model as the basic tools, this research focus on modelling the urban land expansion and driving mechanism in peri-urban area. The big data is aslo combined with the Bayesian maximum entropy method (BME) for spatiotemporal prediction of multi-source data, which expand the dataset of urban expansion models. Data assimilation method is used to optimize the parameters of the coupling model and minimize the uncertainty of observations, improving the precision of future simulation in peri-urban area. By setting quantitative parameters, the coupling model can effectively improve the simulation of the process of urban land expansion under different policies and management schemes, in order to provide scientificimplications for new urbanization strategy. In this research, we precise the urban land expansion simulation and prediction for peri-urban area, expand the scopes and selections of data acquisition measurements and methods, develop the new applications of the data assimilation method in geographical science, provide a new idea for understanding the inherent rules of urban land expansion, and give theoretical and practical support for the peri-urban area in urban planning and decision making.

  9. Monitoring urban growth on the European side of the Istanbul metropolitan area: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, S.; Curran, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with an area of around 5750 km 2 and a population of around 10.8 M (2000). In 1980, the population was only around 4.7 M and so has more than doubled in only 2 decades. In 2000, around 65% of the population were living on the European side of the city with its large industrial/commercial and trade centres. The population is increasing as a result of both births exceeding deaths and mass immigration. Consequently, planned and unplanned housing are increasing while green areas are decreasing in area. Monitoring urban growth will enable the Municipality of Istanbul to better manage this complex urban area. The primary aim of this research was to quantify urban growth on the European side of Istanbul. Six land covers were identified using Landsat 5 TM images for 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 and differences in land cover area between these dates were used to determine the rate of change. The accuracy of land cover maps was determined using aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. The overall accuracy of these classifications was between 80 and 86%; urban residential areas increased by around 1000 ha year -1 and forest, semi-natural vegetation, crop and bare soil areas decreased collectively at a similar rate. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between urban growth and population growth.

  10. Model estimation of the role of urban areas in global CO{sub 2} dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Krapivin, V.F.; Vilkova, L.P.; Rochon, G.L.; Hicks, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    The proposed Global Carbon Cycle Model (GCCM) considers the atmosphere, oceans and land masses as its main reservoirs. The oceans are subdivided into two reservoirs: a surface layer and deep-water mass sector. Land areas in the GCCM are divided into areas covering four degrees of latitude and five degrees of longitude. Each vegetated area belongs to one of thirty ecosystems, according to the Bazilevich classification, with additional urban and agricultural ecosystems, or is considered unvegetated. Urban areas are considered as part of the earth surface cell and distribution of the carbon excess dynamics of these cells is given in the GCCM input. Within the framework of scenarios of urban area functions, the carbon dioxide kinetics in the atmosphere are estimated.

  11. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  12. Phenology in central Europe--differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Roetzer, T; Wittenzeller, M; Haeckel, H; Nekovar, J

    2000-08-01

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  13. Characterization and spatial modeling of urban sprawl in the Wuhan Metropolitan Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chen; Liu, Yaolin; Stein, Alfred; Jiao, Limin

    2015-02-01

    Urban sprawl has led to environmental problems and large losses of arable land in China. In this study, we monitor and model urban sprawl by means of a combination of remote sensing, geographical information system and spatial statistics. We use time-series data to explore the potential socio-economic driving forces behind urban sprawl, and spatial models in different scenarios to explore the spatio-temporal interactions. The methodology is applied to the city of Wuhan, China, for the period from 1990 to 2013. The results reveal that the built-up land has expanded and has dispersed in urban clusters. Population growth, and economic and transportation development are still the main causes of urban sprawl; however, when they have developed to certain levels, the area affected by construction in urban areas (Jian Cheng Qu (JCQ)) and the area of cultivated land (ACL) tend to be stable. Spatial regression models are shown to be superior to the traditional models. The interaction among districts with the same administrative status is stronger than if one of those neighbors is in the city center and the other in the suburban area. The expansion of urban built-up land is driven by the socio-economic development at the same period, and greatly influenced by its spatio-temporal neighbors. We conclude that the integration of remote sensing, a geographical information system, and spatial statistics offers an excellent opportunity to explore the spatio-temporal variation and interactions among the districts in the sprawling metropolitan areas. Relevant regulations to control the urban sprawl process are suggested accordingly.

  14. Urban Area Extent Extraction in Spaceborne HR and VHR Data Using Multi-Resolution Features

    PubMed Central

    Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Lisini, Gianni; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Feitosa, Raul Queiroz; da Costa, Gilson Alexandre Ostwald Pedro; Gamba, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of urban area extents by means of remotely sensed data is a difficult task, especially because of the multiple, diverse definitions of what an “urban area” is. The models of urban areas listed in technical literature are based on the combination of spectral information with spatial patterns, possibly at different spatial resolutions. Starting from the same data set, “urban area” extraction may thus lead to multiple outputs. If this is done in a well-structured framework, however, this may be considered as an advantage rather than an issue. This paper proposes a novel framework for urban area extent extraction from multispectral Earth Observation (EO) data. The key is to compute and combine spectral and multi-scale spatial features. By selecting the most adequate features, and combining them with proper logical rules, the approach allows matching multiple urban area models. Experimental results for different locations in Brazil and Kenya using High-Resolution (HR) data prove the usefulness and flexibility of the framework. PMID:25271564

  15. Geochemical provenance of soils in Kerman urban areas, Iran: Implications for the influx of aeolian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbandi, Reza; Aftabi, Alijan

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of the interaction of aeolian dust with residual soils has not been fully explored in the Kerman urban areas, Iran. To assess the geochemical influence of aeolian dust on the residual soils of the Kerman urban areas of Iran, 27 samples were studied petrogeochemically. The arid-semi-arid climate of the area together with the southwest-northeast prevailing wind, have deposited aeolian sands over the residual soils. Residual soils reflect similar mineral compositions to that of the underlying bedrock and include mostly calcite and quartz. However, the minor occurrences of pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, plagioclase and volcanic clasts in urban soils and aeolian dust are attributed to volcanogenic inputs transported by aeolian dust. Urban soils and aeolian dust show different geochemical signatures from the local carbonate rocks. All samples contain trace element concentrations that are higher than the carbonate bedrock. Discrimination diagrams indicate that immobile trace elements have geochemical affinity to the detrital ferromagnesian dust inputs and are different from the local carbonate bedrock. Based on the elemental bivariate and ternary diagrams, the soils and aeolian dust are derived from the interaction of carbonate and volcanic rocks. This highlights that the urban soils in the Kerman urban areas have been formed by interactions of the aeolian dust with the primitive residual soils.

  16. Revisiting the hierarchy of urban areas in the Brazilian Amazon: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sandra; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The Legal Brazilian Amazon, while the largest rainforest in the world, is also a region where most residents are urban. Despite close linkages between rural and urban processes in the region, rural areas have been the predominant focus of Amazon-based population-environment scholarship. Offering a focus on urban areas within the Brazilian Amazon, this paper examines the emergence of urban hierarchies within the region. Using a combination of nationally representative data and community based surveys, applied to a multivariate cluster methodology (Grade of Membership), we observe the emergence of sub-regional urban networks characterized by economic and political inter-dependency, population movement, and provision of services. These networks link rural areas, small towns, and medium and large cities. We also identify the emergence of medium-size cities as important nodes at a sub-regional level. In all, the work provides insight on the proposed model of ‘disarticulated urbanization’ within the Amazon by calling attention to the increasing role of regional and sub-regional urban networks in shaping the future expansion of land use and population distribution in the Amazon. We conclude with a discussion of implications for increasing intra-regional connectivity and fragmentation of conservation areas and ecosystems in the region. PMID:23129877

  17. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks.

  18. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks. PMID:25858761

  19. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  20. Urban geochemistry: research strategies to assist risk assessment and remediation of brownfield sites in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Thornton, I; Farago, M E; Thums, C R; Parrish, R R; McGill, R A R; Breward, N; Fortey, N J; Simpson, P; Young, S D; Tye, A M; Crout, N M J; Hough, R L; Watt, J

    2008-12-01

    Urban geochemical maps of Wolverhampton and Nottingham, based on multielement analysis of surface soils, have shown distribution patterns of "total" metals concentrations relating to past and present industrial and domestic land use and transport systems. Several methods have been used to estimate the solubility and potential bioavailability of metals, their mineral forms and potential risks to urban population groups. These include sequential chemical extraction, soil pore water extraction and analysis, mineralogical analysis by scanning electron microscopy, source apportionment by lead isotope analysis and the development of models to predict metal uptake by homegrown vegetables to provide an estimate of risk from metal consumption and exposure. The results from these research strategies have been integrated with a geographical information system (GIS) to provide data for future land-use planning. PMID:18584292

  1. An alternative explanation of the semiarid urban area “oasis effect”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.; Moustaoui, M.; Mahalov, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2011-12-01

    This research evaluates the climatic summertime representation of the diurnal cycle of near-surface temperature using the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) over the rapidly urbanizing and water-vulnerable Phoenix metropolitan area. A suite of monthly, high-resolution (2 km grid spacing) simulations are conducted during the month of July with both a contemporary landscape and a hypothetical presettlement scenario. WRF demonstrates excellent agreement in the representation of the daily to monthly diurnal cycle of near-surface temperatures, including the accurate simulation of maximum daytime temperature timing. Thermal sensitivity to anthropogenic land use and land cover change (LULCC), assessed via replacement of the modern-day landscape with natural shrubland, is small on the regional scale. The WRF-simulated characterization of the diurnal cycle, supported by previous observational analyses, illustrates two distinct and opposing impacts on the urbanized diurnal cycle of the Phoenix metro area, with evening and nighttime warming partially offset by daytime cooling. The simulated nighttime urban heat island (UHI) over this semiarid urban complex is explained by well-known mechanisms (slow release of heat from within the urban fabric stored during daytime and increased emission of longwave radiation from the urban canopy toward the surface). During daylight hours, the limited vegetation and dry semidesert region surrounding metro Phoenix warms at greater rates than the urban complex. Although prior work has suggested that daytime temperatures are lower within the urban complex owing to the addition of residential and agricultural irrigation (i.e., "oasis effect") we show that modification of Phoenix's surrounding environment to a biome more representative of temperate regions eliminates the daytime urban cooling. Our results indicate that surrounding environmental conditions, including land cover and availability of soil moisture, play a principal role in

  2. Importance of farmland in urbanized areas as a landscape component for barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) nesting on concrete buildings.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas. PMID:25813627

  3. Importance of Farmland in Urbanized Areas as a Landscape Component for Barn Swallows ( Hirundo rustica) Nesting on Concrete Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Urbanization is one of the key factors in the population declines of many species. Conversely, some species may favor urbanized areas. The barn swallow Hirundo rustica is well known to breed in urban areas of Japan, and uses both urban and farmland areas as habitat during the breeding season. Specifically, this species often nests on concrete buildings and feeds in surrounding farmland. Therefore, it was hypothesized that H. rustica is not strongly influenced by heavy urbanization and benefits from farmland areas, even if they are not near its nests. In this study, I evaluated the landscape components around H. rustica nests situated on concrete buildings, focusing on both urbanized and farmland areas. In particular, I explored the occurrence of H. rustica nests at train stations in the Kinki region of Japan. Assisted by 124 citizen scientists, I analyzed the landscape components around the train stations at multiple spatial scales. Results showed that the occurrence of H. rustica nests was negatively influenced by both urbanized land area and road density, whereas nest occurrence was positively influenced by farmland area and river density. These results suggest that H. rustica does not prefer urbanized areas overall, but can rather utilize urbanized areas primarily as nesting spots. Therefore, H. rustica cannot breed in heavily urbanized areas without feeding sites such as farmland or riparian areas.

  4. Probabilistic modelling of sea surges in coastal urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, Stylianos; Jomo Danielsen Sørup, Hjalte; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2016-04-01

    Urban floods are a major issue for coastal cities with severe impacts on economy, society and environment. A main cause for floods are sea surges stemming from extreme weather conditions. In the context of urban flooding, certain standards have to be met by critical infrastructures in order to protect them from floods. These standards can be so strict that no empirical data is available. For instance, protection plans for sub-surface railways against floods are established with 10,000 years return levels. Furthermore, the long technical lifetime of such infrastructures is a critical issue that should be considered, along with the associated climate change effects in this lifetime. We present a case study of Copenhagen where the metro system is being expanded at present with several stations close to the sea. The current critical sea levels for the metro have never been exceeded and Copenhagen has only been severely flooded from pluvial events in the time where measurements have been conducted. However, due to the very high return period that the metro has to be able to withstand and due to the expectations to sea-level rise due to climate change, reliable estimates of the occurrence rate and magnitude of sea surges have to be established as the current protection is expected to be insufficient at some point within the technical lifetime of the metro. The objective of this study is to probabilistically model sea level in Copenhagen as opposed to extrapolating the extreme statistics as is the practice often used. A better understanding and more realistic description of the phenomena leading to sea surges can then be given. The application of hidden Markov models to high-resolution data of sea level for different meteorological stations in and around Copenhagen is an effective tool to address uncertainty. For sea surge studies, the hidden states of the model may reflect the hydrological processes that contribute to coastal floods. Also, the states of the hidden Markov

  5. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  6. Mapping forest structure, species gradients and growth in an urban area using lidar and hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Huan

    Urban forests play an important role in the urban ecosystem by providing a range of ecosystem services. Characterization of forest structure, species variation and growth in urban forests is critical for understanding the status, function and process of urban ecosystems, and helping maximize the benefits of urban ecosystems through management. The development of methods and applications to quantify urban forests using remote sensing data has lagged the study of natural forests due to the heterogeneity and complexity of urban ecosystems. In this dissertation, I quantify and map forest structure, species gradients and forest growth in an urban area using discrete-return lidar, airborne imaging spectroscopy and thermal infrared data. Specific objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the utility of leaf-off lidar originally collected for topographic mapping to characterize and map forest structure and associated uncertainties, including aboveground biomass, basal area, diameter, height and crown size; (2) to map species gradients using forest structural variables estimated from lidar and foliar functional traits, vegetation indices derived from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with field-measured species data; and (3) to identify factors related to relative growth rates in aboveground biomass in the urban forests, and assess forest growth patterns across areas with varying degree of human interactions. The findings from this dissertation are: (1) leaf-off lidar originally acquired for topographic mapping provides a robust, potentially low-cost approach to quantify spatial patterns of forest structure and carbon stock in urban areas; (2) foliar functional traits and vegetation indices from hyperspectral data capture gradients of species distributions in the heterogeneous urban landscape; (3) species gradients, stand structure, foliar functional traits and temperature are strongly related to forest growth in the urban forests; and (4) high uncertainties in our

  7. Accidental hypothermia and death from cold in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tokudome, Shogo

    1991-12-01

    Hypothermia is considered a sericus problem in big cities. In order to clarify factors contributing to urban hypothermia and death from cold which will continue to be an issue in cities in the future, we analyzed autopsy reports recorded in the Tokyo Medical Examiner's Office from 1974 to 1983. In a total of 18346 autopsy reports 157 deaths had been diagnosed as due to exposure to cold. Of these cases, the greatest number were males in their forties and fifties, and most of these were inebriated and/or homeless. Eighty-four perent of urban hypothermia cases occurred when the outdoor temperature was below 5°C, and 50% of deaths from cold occurred when the outdoor temperature was between 0° and 5°C. There were no incidences of death from cold when the minimum outdoor temperature had remained above 16°C. Seventy-four percent of deaths from cold occurred during the winter months of December, January and February, and most of the remaining deaths occurred in March and November. There were no deaths from cold from June to August. More than half of all deaths from cold occurred from 3.00 a.m. to 9.00 a.m., with the peak occurring at 5.00 a.m. A blood alcohol concentration of over 2.5 mg/ml had often been found in those in their forties and fifties who had died from hypothermia, and autopsy had often revealed disorders of the liver, digestive system, and circulatory system. Chronic lesions of the liver, probably due to alcoholism, were found in many cases; few cases showed no evidence of alcoholism and these were significantly different from the former group.

  8. Overweight, Obesity, and Perception of Body Image Among Slum Residents in Nairobi, Kenya, 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    Van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Sam; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increase in cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa has been attributed in part to the changes in lifestyle, and the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease is higher among urban populations than among nonurban populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine perceptions of body size differentiated by sex and other determinants among slum dwellers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods Analysis included 4,934 adults randomly selected from the Korogocho and Viwandani slums of Nairobi. Height and weight were measured during interviews; body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Perceptions of current and ideal body image were determined by using 18 silhouette drawings of body sizes ranging from very thin to very obese. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of underestimation of body weight among overweight and obese respondents. Results Overall, 43.4% of women and 17.3% of men in the study population were overweight or obese. More than half (53%) of those who were overweight or obese underestimated their weight; 34.6% of women and 16.9% of men did so. In all BMI categories, more than one-third of women and men preferred body sizes classified as overweight or obese. Conclusion This study highlights the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the strong preference for larger body size among adults in the slums of Nairobi. Interventions to educate residents on the health risks associated with excess body weight are necessary as a part of strategies to reduce the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in these settlements. PMID:24355105

  9. Assessing Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Observed and Predicted Ozone in Multiple Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Heather; Wells, Benjamin; Baker, Kirk R.; Hubbell, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ambient monitoring data show spatial gradients in ozone (O3) across urban areas. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reductions will likely alter these gradients. Epidemiological studies often use exposure surrogates that may not fully account for the impacts of spatially and temporally changing concentrations on population exposure. Objectives: We examined the impact of large NOx decreases on spatial and temporal O3 patterns and the implications on exposure. Methods: We used a photochemical model to estimate O3 response to large NOx reductions. We derived time series of 2006–2008 O3 concentrations consistent with 50% and 75% NOx emissions reduction scenarios in three urban areas (Atlanta, Philadelphia, and Chicago) at each monitor location and spatially interpolated O3 to census-tract centroids. Results: We predicted that low O3 concentrations would increase and high O3 concentrations would decrease in response to NOx reductions within an urban area. O3 increases occurred across larger areas for the seasonal mean metric than for the regulatory metric (annual 4th highest daily 8-hr maximum) and were located only in urban core areas. O3 always decreased outside the urban core (e.g., at locations of maximum local ozone concentration) for both metrics and decreased within the urban core in some instances. NOx reductions led to more uniform spatial gradients and diurnal and seasonal patterns and caused seasonal peaks in midrange O3 concentrations to shift from midsummer to earlier in the year. Conclusions: These changes have implications for how O3 exposure may change in response to NOx reductions and are informative for the design of future epidemiology studies and risk assessments. Citation: Simon H, Wells B, Baker KR, Hubbell B. 2016. Assessing temporal and spatial patterns of observed and predicted ozone in multiple urban areas. Environ Health Perspect 124:1443–1452; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP190 PMID:27153213

  10. Demographic and Psychosocial Characteristics of Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage among Youth Living in the Slums of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Swahn, Monica H.; Braunstein, Sarah; Kasirye, Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of mobile phones and other technology for improving health through research and practice is growing quickly, in particular in areas with difficult-to-reach population or where the research infrastructure is less developed. In Sub-Saharan Africa, there appears to be a dramatic increase in mobile phone ownership and new initiatives that capitalize on this technology to support health promotion campaigns to change behavior and to increase health literacy. However, the extent to which difficult-to-reach youth in the slums of Kampala may own and use mobile phones has not been reported despite the burden of injuries, substance use, and HIV that they face. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of mobile phone ownership and use in this high-risk population and to identify psychosocial characteristics that may differentiate those owning and using a phone from those who do not. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the Kampala Youth Survey (N=457). Data collection took place in 2011, and the survey was designed to quantify high-risk behaviors in a convenience sample of urban youth living on the streets or in the slums, 14–24 years of age, who were participating in a Uganda Youth Development Link drop-in center for disadvantaged street youth. We computed chi-square analyses to determine any significant differences in psychosocial characteristics based on phone ownership and use. Results: Overall, 46.9% of youth reported owning a mobile phone and ownership did not vary by sex but was more common among youth older than 18 years of age. Mobile phone ownership was also more common among those who reported taking care of themselves at night, who reported current drug use and who reported trading sex for money, food or other things. Conclusion: Given that nearly half of the youth own and use phones daily, new research is needed to determine next steps for mobile health (mhealth), including the feasibility of using mobile phones for

  11. Cooperative Dispersed Urban Area Manpower Planning for Nonmetropolitan Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Niles M.

    As Federal economic development and manpower policies have seldom been coordinated, this study presents a critical examination of the effects of these policies on nonmetropolitan areas and suggests ways in which policy might be better integrated in the framework of substate planning and development districts. Examining the problems of rural areas,…

  12. Simple Methods of Calculating Dispersion from Urban Area Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Steven R.

    A simple but physically realistic model is shown to be adequate for estimating long-term average pollutant concentrations due to area sources in cities. In this model, the surface concentration is directly proportional to the local area source strength and inversely proportional to the wind speed. The model performs nearly as well as much more…

  13. A Computer Program for Projections of Vehicular Pollutant Emissions in Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauter, G. D.; Ott, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an algorithm for the determination of current and projected annual air pollution emissions from vehicles in any urban area. A computer program based on this algorithm, PAVE, has been developed. Results of applying the program to emissions from automobiles in the San Francisco Bay Area are presented and discussed. (Editor/JR)

  14. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute to direct runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  15. Contribution of directly connected and isolated impervious areas to urban drainage network hydrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Y.; Choi, N.-J.; Schmidt, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    This paper addresses the mass balance error observed in runoff hydrographs in urban watersheds by introducing assumptions regarding the contribution of infiltrated rainfall from pervious areas and isolated impervious area (IIA) to the runoff hydrograph. Rainfall infiltrating into pervious areas has been assumed not to contribute to the runoff hydrograph until Hortonian excess rainfall occurs. However, mass balance analysis in an urban watershed indicates that rainfall infiltrated to pervious areas can contribute directly to the runoff hydrograph, thereby offering an explanation for the long hydrograph tail commonly observed in runoff from urban storm sewers. In this study, a hydrologic analysis based on the width function is introduced, with two types of width functions obtained from both pervious and impervious areas, respectively. The width function can be regarded as the direct interpretation of the network response. These two width functions are derived to obtain distinct response functions for directly connected impervious areas (DCIA), IIA, and pervious areas. The results show significant improvement in the estimation of runoff hydrographs and suggest the need to consider the flow contribution from pervious areas to the runoff hydrograph. It also implies that additional contribution from flow paths through joints and cracks in sewer pipes needs to be taken into account to improve the estimation of runoff hydrographs in urban catchments.

  16. Improvement of health risk factors after reduction of VOC concentrations in industrial and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jorge Esteban Colman; Kohajda, Tibor; Aguilar, Myriam Elisabeth; Massolo, Laura Andrea; Sánchez, Erica Yanina; Porta, Atilio Andrés; Opitz, Philipp; Wichmann, Gunnar; Herbarth, Olf; Mueller, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    After reductions of fugitive and diffuse emissions by an industrial complex, a follow-up study was performed to determine the time variability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the lifetime cancer risk (LCR). Passive samplers (3 M monitors) were placed outdoors (n = 179) and indoors (n = 75) in industrial, urban, and control areas for 4 weeks. Twenty-five compounds including n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and terpenes were determined by GC/MS. The results show a significant decrease of all VOCs, especially in the industrial area and to a lesser extent in the urban area. The median outdoor concentration of benzene in the industrial area declined compared to the former study, around 85% and about 50% in the urban area, which in the past was strongly influenced by industrial emissions. Other carcinogenic compounds like styrene and tetrachloroethylene were reduced to approximately 60%. VOC concentrations in control areas