Science.gov

Sample records for uso energetico della

  1. Binding of GID1 to DELLAs promotes dissociation of GAF1 from DELLA in GA dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Fukazawa, Jutarou; Ito, Takeshi; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Takahashi, Yohsuke

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are important phytohormones for plant growth and development. DELLAs are members of the plant-specific GRAS protein family and act as repressors of GA signaling. DELLAs are rapidly degraded in the presence of GAs. GA-GID1-DELLA complexes are recognized and ubiquitinated by the SCFSLY complex. The sleepy1 (sly1) F-box mutant exhibits dwarfism and low-germination phenotypes due to high accumulation of DELLAs. Overexpression of GID1 in the sly1 mutant partially rescues these phenotypes without degradation of DELLAs suggesting that proteolysis independent regulation of DELLAs exists in GA signaling. But the molecular mechanisms of non-proteolytic regulation of DELLA are largely unknown. Recently we identified a DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 also interacts with co-repressor TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) in nuclei. DELLAs and TPR act as coactivator and corepressor of GAF1, respectively. GAs converts the GAF1 complex from transcriptional activator to repressor via degradation of DELLAs. The overexpression of ΔPAM, lacking of DELLAs binding region of GAF1, partially rescue dwarf phenotypes of GA deficient or GA insensitive mutant. In this study, we investigate the relationship between non-proteolytic regulation of DELLAs and GA signaling via DELLA-GAF1 complex using modified yeast two-hybrid system. PMID:26237582

  2. Fruit growth in Arabidopsis occurs via DELLA-dependent and DELLA-independent gibberellin responses.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-10-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1-mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction. PMID:23064323

  3. Silencing of DELLA induces facultative parthenocarpy in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Martí, Cristina; Orzáez, Diego; Ellul, Philippe; Moreno, Vicente; Carbonell, Juan; Granell, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    DELLA proteins are plant nuclear factors that restrain growth and proliferation in response to hormonal signals. The effects of the manipulation of the DELLA pathway in the making of a berry-like fruit were investigated. The expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana gain-of-function DELLA allele Atgai (del) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) produced partially sterile dwarf plants and compacted influorescences, as expected for a constitutively activated growth repressor. In contrast, antisense silencing of the single endogenous tomato DELLA gene homologue (SlDELLA) produced slender-like plants with elongated flower trusses. Interestingly, the depletion of SlDELLA in tomato was sufficient to overcome the growth arrest normally imposed on the ovary at anthesis, resulting in parthenocarpic fruits in the absence of pollination. Antisense SlDELLA-engineered fruits were smaller in size and elongated in shape compared with wild type. Cell number estimations showed that fruit set, resulting from reduced SlDELLA expression, arose from activated cell elongation at the longitudinal and lateral axes of the fruit pericarp, bypassing phase-II (post-pollination) cell divisions. Parthenocarpy caused by SlDELLA depletion is facultative, as hand pollination restored wild-type fruit phenotype. This indicates that fertilization-associated SlDELLA-independent signals are operational in ovary-fruit transitions. SlDELLA was also found to restrain growth in other reproductive structures, affecting style elongation, stylar hair primordial growth and stigma development. PMID:17883372

  4. Cloning and characterization of DELLA genes in Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Shen, Q; Cui, J; Fu, X Q; Yan, T X; Tang, K X

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA) are some of the most important phytohormones involved in plant development. DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA signaling in many plants. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of three DELLA genes were cloned from Artemisia annua. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that AaDELLA1 and AaDELLA2 were located in the same cluster, but AaDELLA3 was not. Subcellular localization analysis suggested that AaDELLAs can be targeted to the nucleus and/or cytoplasm. Real-time PCR indicated that all three AaDELLA genes exhibited the highest expression in seeds. Expression of all AaDELLA genes was enhanced by exogenous MeJA treatment but inhibited by GA3 treatment. Yeast two-hybrid assay showed that AaDELLAs could interact with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AaMYC2, suggesting that GA and JA signaling may be involved in cross-talk via DELLA and MYC2 interaction in A. annua. PMID:26345940

  5. Regulation of the gibberellin pathway by auxin and DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Damian P; Davidson, Sandra E; Clarke, Victoria C; Yamauchi, Yukika; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Kamiya, Yuji; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2010-10-01

    The synthesis and deactivation of bioactive gibberellins (GA) are regulated by auxin and by GA signalling. The effect of GA on its own pathway is mediated by DELLA proteins. Like auxin, the DELLAs promote GA synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. Here, we investigate the relationships between auxin and DELLA regulation of the GA pathway in stems, using a pea double mutant that is deficient in DELLA proteins. In general terms our results demonstrate that auxin and DELLAs independently regulate the GA pathway, contrary to some previous suggestions. The extent to which DELLA regulation was able to counteract the effects of auxin regulation varied from gene to gene. For Mendel's LE gene (PsGA3ox1) no counteraction was observed. However, for another synthesis gene, a GA 20-oxidase, the effect of auxin was weak and in WT plants appeared to be completely over-ridden by DELLA regulation. For a key GA deactivation (2-oxidase) gene, PsGA2ox1, the up-regulation induced by auxin deficiency was reduced to some extent by DELLA regulation. A second pea 2-oxidase gene, PsGA2ox2, was up-regulated by auxin, in a DELLA-independent manner. In Arabidopsis also, one 2-oxidase gene was down-regulated by auxin while another was up-regulated. Monitoring the metabolism pattern of GA(20) showed that in Arabidopsis, as in pea, auxin can promote the accumulation of bioactive GA. PMID:20706734

  6. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:24297892

  7. DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Levy, Julien G; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J

    2013-12-17

    Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-Δ18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-Δ18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  8. The Life and Times of Victor Karlovich Della-Vos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, John P.; And Others

    Viktor Karlovich Della-Vos is created as being the director and chief architect of Russian manual training. Born in 1829, Della-Vos received a degree in physical and mathematical sciences from Moscow University in 1853. He began his teaching career in 1854 as a teacher of Russian and eventually began teaching advanced mathematics in 1858. In 1860…

  9. Removal of DELLA repression promotes leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxun; Maodzeka, Antony; Zhou, Longhua; Ali, Essa; Wang, Zhong; Jiang, Lixi

    2014-04-01

    Leaf senescence is an integrated response of leaf cells to developmental age and various internal and environmental signals. However, the role of gibberellins (GA) in leaf senescence is not clear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of DELLA on leaf senescence. Compared with the wild type (WT), leaf senescence occurred earlier in the mutant ga1-3 gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 (abbreviated as Q-DELLA/ga1-3) whose DELLA repression was removed, whereas leaf senescence was retarded in the mutant ga1-3 whose GA biosynthesis was blocked and whose DELLA proteins accumulated abnormally. During leaf senescence, SAG12 and SAG29 were upregulated in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 and downregulated in ga1-3 plants. The Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves contained more sugar but less chlorophyll and fatty acids (FAs) than those of ga1-3 and WT. Both absolute and relative contents of C18:3 in Q-DELLA/ga1-3 senescent leaves were lower compared with those of the WT and ga1-3 leaves. The genes regulating FA β-oxidation in Q-DELLA/ga1-3, such as KAT2, LACS6, LACS7, ACX1, ACX2 and MAP2, were significantly upregulated. The removal of DELLA repression highly upregulated certain genes on various hormone pathways, suggesting that GA signaling acts upstream of the jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene pathways in regulating leaf senescence. PMID:24576761

  10. Fruit Growth in Arabidopsis Occurs via DELLA-Dependent and DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Sara; Ljung, Karin; Sorefan, Karim; Alvey, Elizabeth; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Østergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Fruit growth and development depend on highly coordinated hormonal activities. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes growth by inducing degradation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the extent to which DELLA proteins contribute to GA-mediated gynoecium and fruit development remains to be clarified. Here, we provide an in-depth characterization of the role of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana fruit growth. We show that DELLA proteins are key regulators of reproductive organ size and important for ensuring optimal fertilization. We demonstrate that the seedless fruit growth (parthenocarpy) observed in della mutants can be directly attributed to the constitutive activation of GA signaling. It has been known for >75 years that another hormone, auxin, can induce formation of seedless fruits. Using mutants with complete lack of DELLA activity, we show here that auxin-induced parthenocarpy occurs entirely through GA signaling in Arabidopsis. Finally, we uncover the existence of a DELLA-independent GA response that promotes fruit growth. This response requires GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1–mediated GA perception and a functional 26S proteasome and involves the basic helix-loop-helix protein SPATULA as a key component. Taken together, our results describe additional complexities in GA signaling during fruit development, which may be particularly important to optimize the conditions for successful reproduction. PMID:23064323

  11. L'uso della metafora nell'educazione linguistica (Use of the Metaphor in Language Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mininni, Giuseppe

    1986-01-01

    Urges educators to utilize metaphors in language instruction. Two experiments support this position. The results of the first experiment reveal that students learn lexical items more efficiently if presented in metaphors. The results of the second experiment indicate the usefulness of metaphors in developing students' critical thinking. (CFM)

  12. Lifting DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DELLA repression of Arabidopsis seed germination can be lifted through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and proteolysis-independent GA signaling. GA-binding to the GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) GA receptors stimulates GID1-GA-DELLA complex formation which in turn triggers DELLA protein ubiq...

  13. DELLA-mediated PIF degradation contributes to coordination of light and gibberellin signalling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Kunlun; Yu, Renbo; Fan, Liu-Min; Wei, Ning; Chen, Haodong; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Light and gibberellins (GAs) antagonistically regulate hypocotyl elongation in plants. It has been demonstrated that DELLAs, which are negative regulators of GA signalling, inhibit phytochrome-interacting factors 3 and 4 (PIF3 and PIF4) by sequestering their DNA-recognition domains. However, it is unclear whether there are other mechanisms of regulatory crosstalk between DELLAs and PIFs. Here, we demonstrate that DELLAs negatively regulate the abundance of four PIF proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Reduction of PIF3 protein abundance by DELLAs correlates closely with reduced hypocotyl elongation. Both sequestration and degradation of PIF3 by DELLAs contribute to a reduction in PIF3 binding to its target genes. Thus, we show that promotion of PIF degradation by DELLAs is required to coordinate light and GA signals, and the dual regulation of transcription factors by DELLAs by both sequestration and degradation may be a general mechanism. PMID:27282989

  14. DELLA-mediated PIF degradation contributes to coordination of light and gibberellin signalling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kunlun; Yu, Renbo; Fan, Liu-Min; Wei, Ning; Chen, Haodong; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Light and gibberellins (GAs) antagonistically regulate hypocotyl elongation in plants. It has been demonstrated that DELLAs, which are negative regulators of GA signalling, inhibit phytochrome-interacting factors 3 and 4 (PIF3 and PIF4) by sequestering their DNA-recognition domains. However, it is unclear whether there are other mechanisms of regulatory crosstalk between DELLAs and PIFs. Here, we demonstrate that DELLAs negatively regulate the abundance of four PIF proteins through the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Reduction of PIF3 protein abundance by DELLAs correlates closely with reduced hypocotyl elongation. Both sequestration and degradation of PIF3 by DELLAs contribute to a reduction in PIF3 binding to its target genes. Thus, we show that promotion of PIF degradation by DELLAs is required to coordinate light and GA signals, and the dual regulation of transcription factors by DELLAs by both sequestration and degradation may be a general mechanism. PMID:27282989

  15. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a Venetian who…

  16. Global analysis of della direct targets in early gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Park, Mehea; Thomas, Stephen G; Endo, Akira; Murase, Kohji; Fleet, Christine M; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Nambara, Eiji; Kamiya, Yuji; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2007-10-01

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development throughout the life cycle of plants. DELLA proteins are conserved growth repressors that modulate all aspects of GA responses. These GA-signaling repressors are nuclear localized and likely function as transcriptional regulators. Recent studies demonstrated that GA, upon binding to its receptor, derepresses its signaling pathway by binding directly to DELLA proteins and targeting them for rapid degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, elucidating the signaling events immediately downstream of DELLA is key to our understanding of how GA controls plant development. Two sets of microarray studies followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis allowed us to identify 14 early GA-responsive genes that are also early DELLA-responsive in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Chromatin immunoprecipitation provided evidence for in vivo association of DELLA with promoters of eight of these putative DELLA target genes. Expression of all 14 genes was downregulated by GA and upregulated by DELLA. Our study reveals that DELLA proteins play two important roles in GA signaling: (1) they help establish GA homeostasis by direct feedback regulation on the expression of GA biosynthetic and GA receptor genes, and (2) they promote the expression of downstream negative components that are putative transcription factors/regulators or ubiquitin E2/E3 enzymes. In addition, one of the putative DELLA targets, XERICO, promotes accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) that antagonizes GA effects. Therefore, DELLA may restrict GA-promoted processes by modulating both GA and ABA pathways.

  17. Ethylene regulates arabidopsis development via the modulation of DELLA protein growth repressor function.

    PubMed

    Achard, Patrick; Vriezen, Wim H; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2003-12-01

    Phytohormones regulate plant development via a poorly understood signal response network. Here, we show that the phytohormone ethylene regulates plant development at least in part via alteration of the properties of DELLA protein nuclear growth repressors, a family of proteins first identified as gibberellin (GA) signaling components. This conclusion is based on the following experimental observations. First, ethylene inhibited Arabidopsis root growth in a DELLA-dependent manner. Second, ethylene delayed the GA-induced disappearance of the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 from root cell nuclei via a constitutive triple response-dependent signaling pathway. Third, the ethylene-promoted "apical hook" structure of etiolated seedling hypocotyls was dependent on the relief of DELLA-mediated growth restraint. Ethylene, auxin, and GA responses now can be attributed to effects on DELLA function, suggesting that DELLA plays a key integrative role in the phytohormone signal response network.

  18. A Pivotal Role of DELLAs in Regulating Multiple Hormone Signals.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Achard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Plant phenotypic plasticity is controlled by diverse hormone pathways, which integrate and convey information from multiple developmental and environmental signals. Moreover, in plants many processes such as growth, development, and defense are regulated in similar ways by multiple hormones. Among them, gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones with pleiotropic actions, regulating various growth processes throughout the plant life cycle. Previous work has revealed extensive interplay between GAs and other hormones, but the molecular mechanism became apparent only recently. Molecular and physiological studies have demonstrated that DELLA proteins, considered as master negative regulators of GA signaling, integrate multiple hormone signaling pathways through physical interactions with transcription factors or regulatory proteins from different families. In this review, we summarize the latest progress in GA signaling and its direct crosstalk with the main phytohormone signaling, emphasizing the multifaceted role of DELLA proteins with key components of major hormone signaling pathways.

  19. DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Plackett, Andrew R G; Ferguson, Alison C; Powers, Stephen J; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Phillips, Andrew L; Wilson, Zoe A; Hedden, Peter; Thomas, Stephen G

    2014-02-01

    Excessive gibberellin (GA) signalling, mediated through the DELLA proteins, has a negative impact on plant fertility. Loss of DELLA activity in the monocot rice (Oryza sativa) causes complete male sterility, but not in the dicot model Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Landsberg erecta (Ler), in which DELLA function has been studied most extensively, leading to the assumption that DELLA activity is not essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. A novel DELLA fertility phenotype was identified in the Columbia (Col-0) ecotype that necessitates re-evaluation of the general conclusions drawn from Ler. Fertility phenotypes were compared between the Col-0 and Ler ecotypes under conditions of chemical and genetic GA overdose, including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment. Col-0 rga gai mutants, in contrast with the equivalent Ler phenotype, were entirely male sterile, caused by post-meiotic defects in pollen development, which were rescued by the reintroduction of DELLA into either the tapetum or developing pollen. We conclude that DELLA activity is essential for Arabidopsis pollen development. Differences between the fertility responses of Col-0 and Ler might be caused by differences in downstream signalling pathways or altered DELLA expression.

  20. Molecular cloning, expression analysis and subcellular localization of four DELLA genes from hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sian; Xuan, Lei; Xu, Li-An; Huang, Minren; Xu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA) signaling regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The DELLA repressors of GA signaling are named for an N-terminal conserved DELLA domain. In this study, four genes encoding DELLA proteins, PeRGA1, PeRGA2, PeGAI1 and PeGAI2, were isolated and characterized in poplar. A gene structural analysis revealed that the DELLA genes were all intron-free. Multiple protein sequence alignments revealed that these proteins contained seven highly conserved domains: the DELLA domain, the TVHYNP domain, leucine heptad repeat I (LHR I), the VHIID domain, leucine heptad repeat II (LHR II), the PFYRE domain, and the SAM domain. Temporal expression patterns of these genes were profiled during the adventitious root development of poplar. The four DELLA genes were expressed in root, stem and leaf in a dynamic manner. The subcellular localization demonstrated that these DELLA genes were mainly localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the four DELLA genes may play diverse regulatory roles in the adventitious root, stem and leaf development of poplar, and contribute to improving our understanding of conserved and divergent aspects of DELLA proteins that restrain GA signaling in various species. PMID:27478746

  1. [The Istituto di Storia della Medicina archive and video collection].

    PubMed

    Aruta, Alessandro; De Angelis, Elio

    2006-01-01

    The Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University was to a certain extent a one-man achievement. Founded by Adalberto Pazzini in 1937, its collections comprehended books, objects, as well as photographs, movies, and other didactic video. The Istituto was also a center for publications, conferences and meetings. The archival sources that document its activity have been re-evaluated and restored in recent years, together with the collections housed in the Library and in the Museum.

  2. Auxin acts independently of DELLA proteins in regulating gibberellin levels.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Davidson, Sandra E; Ross, John J

    2011-03-01

    Shoot elongation is a vital process for plant development and productivity, in both ecological and economic contexts. Auxin and bioactive gibberellins (GAs), such as GA1, play critical roles in the control of elongation, along with environmental and endogenous factors, including other hormones such as the brassinosteroids. The effect of auxins, such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), is at least in part mediated by its effect on GA metabolism, since auxin up-regulates biosynthesis genes such as GA 3-oxidase and GA 20-oxidase and down regulates GA catabolism genes such as GA 2-oxidases, leading to elevated levels of bioactive GA 1. In our recent paper, we have provided evidence that this action of IAA is largely independent of DELLA proteins, the negative regulators of GA action, since the auxin effects are still present in the DELLA-deficient la cry-s genotype of pea. This was a crucial issue to resolve, since like auxin, the DELLAs also promote GA 1 synthesis and inhibit its deactivation. DELLAs are deactivated by GA, and thereby mediate a feedback system by which bioactive GA regulates its own level. However, our recent results, in themselves, do not show the generality of the auxin-GA relationship across species and phylogenetic groups or across different tissue types and responses. Further, they do not touch on the ecological benefits of the auxin-GA interaction. These issues are discussed below as well as the need for the development of suitable experimental systems to allow this process to be examined. PMID:21358281

  3. Melatonin mediates the stabilization of DELLA proteins to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; Wang, Qiannan; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2016-04-01

    Precise floral transition from vegetative growth phase to reproductive growth phase is very important in plant life cycle. In flowering genetic pathways, DELLA proteins are master transcriptional regulators of gibberelic acid (GA) pathway, and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a core repressor of vernalization pathway as well as downstream of DELLAs. As a crucial messenger in plants, the possible involvement of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in flowering and underlying molecular mechanism are unknown in Arabidopsis. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin treatment delayed floral transition in Arabidopsis. Exogenous melatonin treatment conferred protein stabilizations of DELLAs [REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3)], without regulating the transcripts of DELLAs and endogenous GA level. Notably, exogenous melatonin delayed plant flowering and DELLA-activated transcripts of FLC were alleviated in della mutants, and those were exacerbated in DELLA overexpressing plants. Taken together, this study provides direct link between melatonin and floral transition, and indicates the novel involvement of DELLAs-activated FLC in melatonin-mediated flowering in Arabidopsis.

  4. Spatial control of flowering by DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Vinicius C; Horrer, Daniel; Küttner, Frank; Schmid, Markus

    2012-11-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a central event in the plant life cycle. To time the induction of flowering correctly, plants integrate environmental and endogenous signals such as photoperiod, temperature and hormonal status. The hormone gibberellic acid (GA) has long been known to regulate flowering. However, the spatial contribution of GA signaling in flowering time control is poorly understood. Here we have analyzed the effect of tissue-specific misexpression of wild-type and GA-insensitive (dellaΔ17) DELLA proteins on the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. We demonstrate that under long days, GA affects the floral transition by promoting the expression of flowering time integrator genes such as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in leaves independently of CONSTANS (CO) and GIGANTEA (GI). In addition, GA signaling promotes flowering independently of photoperiod through the regulation of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) genes in both the leaves and at the shoot meristem. Our data suggest that GA regulates flowering by controlling the spatial expression of floral regulatory genes throughout the plant in a day-length-specific manner. PMID:22992955

  5. Uncovering DELLA-Independent Gibberellin Responses by Characterizing New Tomato procera Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Livne, Sivan; Lor, Vai S.; Nir, Ido; Eliaz, Natanella; Aharoni, Asaph; Olszewski, Neil E.; Eshed, Yuval; Weiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) regulates plant development primarily by triggering the degradation/deactivation of the DELLA proteins. However, it remains unclear whether all GA responses are regulated by DELLAs. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) has a single DELLA gene named PROCERA (PRO), and its recessive pro allele exhibits constitutive GA activity but retains responsiveness to external GA. In the loss-of-function mutant proΔGRAS, all examined GA developmental responses were considerably enhanced relative to pro and a defect in seed desiccation tolerance was uncovered. As pro, but not proΔGRAS, elongation was promoted by GA treatment, pro may retain residual DELLA activity. In agreement with homeostatic feedback regulation of the GA biosynthetic pathway, we found that GA20oxidase1 expression was suppressed in proΔGRAS and was not affected by exogenous GA3. In contrast, expression of GA2oxidase4 was not affected by the elevated GA signaling in proΔGRAS but was strongly induced by exogenous GA3. Since a similar response was found in Arabidopsis thaliana plants with impaired activity of all five DELLA genes, we suggest that homeostatic GA responses are regulated by both DELLA-dependent and -independent pathways. Transcriptome analysis of GA-treated proΔGRAS leaves suggests that 5% of all GA-regulated genes in tomato are DELLA independent. PMID:26036254

  6. Prime linee-guida per l'uso della webcam bidirezionale con bambini affetti da patologia oncologica in fase avanzata.

    PubMed

    Giacon, B; Biassoni, V; Clerici, C A; Spreafico, F; Meazza, C; Veneroni, L; Massimino, M

    2014-07-14

    AIM:The paper presents guidelines for school staff on the use of two-way webcam for the sake of school-continuity with school children suffering from malignant tumors. The proposed guidelines are designed to prepare school staff about the interests of those involved in the interaction (sick child,classmates, teachers).

  7. Prime linee-guida per l'uso della webcam bidirezionale con bambini affetti da patologia oncologica in fase avanzata.

    PubMed

    Giacon, B; Biassoni, V; Clerici, C A; Spreafico, F; Meazza, C; Veneroni, L; Massimino, M

    2014-07-14

    AIM:The paper presents guidelines for school staff on the use of two-way webcam for the sake of school-continuity with school children suffering from malignant tumors. The proposed guidelines are designed to prepare school staff about the interests of those involved in the interaction (sick child,classmates, teachers). PMID:25018083

  8. DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS to regulate flowering under long days in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Li, Ting; Xu, Peng-Bo; Li, Ling; Du, Sha-Sha; Lian, Hong-Li; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Proper timing of flowering is essential for reproduction of plants. Although it is well known that both light and gibberellin (GA) signaling play critical roles in promoting flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, whether and how they are integrated to regulate flowering remain largely unknown. Here, we show through biochemical studies that DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS (CO). Furthermore, the interaction of CO with NF-YB2 is inhibited by the DELLA protein, RGA. Our findings suggest that regulation of flowering by GA signaling in leaves under long days is mediated, at least in part, through repression of DELLA proteins on CO, providing a molecular link between DELLA proteins, key components in GA signaling pathway, and CO, a critical flowering activator in photoperiod signaling pathway.

  9. Genome Wide Binding Site Analysis Reveals Transcriptional Coactivation of Cytokinin-Responsive Genes by DELLA Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Pfeiffer, Anne; Hill, Kristine; Locascio, Antonella; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Miskolczi, Pal; Grønlund, Anne L.; Wanchoo-Kohli, Aakriti; Thomas, Stephen G.; Bennett, Malcolm J.; Lohmann, Jan U.; Blázquez, Miguel A.; Alabadí, David

    2015-01-01

    The ability of plants to provide a plastic response to environmental cues relies on the connectivity between signaling pathways. DELLA proteins act as hubs that relay environmental information to the multiple transcriptional circuits that control growth and development through physical interaction with transcription factors from different families. We have analyzed the presence of one DELLA protein at the Arabidopsis genome by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to large-scale sequencing and we find that it binds at the promoters of multiple genes. Enrichment analysis shows a strong preference for cis elements recognized by specific transcription factor families. In particular, we demonstrate that DELLA proteins are recruited by type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS (ARR) to the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, where they act as transcriptional co-activators. The biological relevance of this mechanism is underpinned by the necessity of simultaneous presence of DELLAs and ARRs to restrict root meristem growth and to promote photomorphogenesis. PMID:26134422

  10. ["Notte della Taranta": new competences of the Disaster Manager Nurse].

    PubMed

    Zinnari, Elena M; Germinal, Francesco; Natalia, Barbara; Brienza, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The disaster manager nurse is a new professional figure working in the field of rescue in environments struck by natural disasters, of land management, of contingency plans for the healthcare, of the setting up of Advanced Medical Posts and the management of events in which are foreseen a great influx of people. Analyzing the Advanced Medical Post set up during the "Notte della Taranta", a folk music festival that sees every years a large attendance, over 100.000 people we have predicted required human and logistic resources to health coverage of this event and to value criticality assessment of the scenario. A organized and precautionary response is basic to reduce consequences duty by the imbalance between required and available resources.

  11. ["Notte della Taranta": new competences of the Disaster Manager Nurse].

    PubMed

    Zinnari, Elena M; Germinal, Francesco; Natalia, Barbara; Brienza, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The disaster manager nurse is a new professional figure working in the field of rescue in environments struck by natural disasters, of land management, of contingency plans for the healthcare, of the setting up of Advanced Medical Posts and the management of events in which are foreseen a great influx of people. Analyzing the Advanced Medical Post set up during the "Notte della Taranta", a folk music festival that sees every years a large attendance, over 100.000 people we have predicted required human and logistic resources to health coverage of this event and to value criticality assessment of the scenario. A organized and precautionary response is basic to reduce consequences duty by the imbalance between required and available resources. PMID:25837477

  12. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    The hormones gibberellins (GAs) control a wide variety of processes in plants, including stress and developmental responses. This task largely relies on the activity of the DELLA proteins, nuclear-localized transcriptional regulators that do not seem to have DNA binding capacity. The identification of early target genes of DELLA action is key not only to understand how GAs regulate physiological responses, but also to get clues about the molecular mechanisms by which DELLAs regulate gene expression. Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs. Our results show that the induction of GAI activity has an almost immediate effect on gene expression. Although this transcriptional regulation is largely mediated by the PIFs and HY5 transcription factors based on target meta-analysis, additional evidence points to other transcription factors that would be directly involved in DELLA regulation of gene expression. First, we have identified cis elements recognized by Dofs and type-B ARRs among the sequences enriched in the promoters of GAI targets; and second, an enrichment in additional cis elements appeared when this analysis was extended to a dataset of early targets of the DELLA protein RGA: CArG boxes, bound by MADS-box proteins, and the E-box CACATG that links the activity of DELLAs to circadian transcriptional regulation. Finally, Gene Ontology analysis highlights the impact of DELLA regulation upon the homeostasis of the GA, auxin, and ethylene pathways, as well as upon pre-existing transcriptional networks.

  13. DELLA proteins modulate Arabidopsis defences induced in response to caterpillar herbivory.

    PubMed

    Lan, Zhiyi; Krosse, Sebastian; Achard, Patrick; van Dam, Nicole M; Bede, Jacqueline C

    2014-02-01

    Upon insect herbivory, many plant species change the direction of metabolic flux from growth into defence. Two key pathways modulating these processes are the gibberellin (GA)/DELLA pathway and the jasmonate pathway. In this study, the effect of caterpillar herbivory on plant-induced responses was compared between wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and quad-della mutants that have constitutively elevated GA responses. The labial saliva (LS) of caterpillars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is known to influence induced plant defence responses. To determine the role of this herbivore cue in determining metabolic shifts, plants were subject to herbivory by caterpillars with intact or impaired LS secretions. In both wild-type and quad-della plants, a jasmonate burst is an early response to caterpillar herbivory. Negative growth regulator DELLA proteins are required for the LS-mediated suppression of hormone levels. Jasmonate-dependent marker genes are induced in response to herbivory independently of LS, with the exception of AtPDF1.2 that showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. Early expression of the salicylic acid (SA)-marker gene, AtPR1, was not affected by herbivory which also reflected SA hormone levels; however, this gene showed LS-dependent expression in the quad-della mutant. DELLA proteins may positively regulate glucosinolate levels and suppress laccase-like multicopper oxidase activity in response to herbivory. The present results show a link between DELLA proteins and early, induced plant defences in response to insect herbivory; in particular, these proteins are necessary for caterpillar LS-associated attenuation of defence hormones. PMID:24399173

  14. Arabidopsis DELLA Protein Degradation Is Controlled by a Type-One Protein Phosphatase, TOPP4

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Yue, Jing; Huang, Yan; Xu, Xiufei; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of important phytohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes during normal plant growth and development. One of the major events during GA-mediated growth is the degradation of DELLA proteins, key negative regulators of GA signaling pathway. The stability of DELLA proteins is thought to be controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Up to date, no phosphatase involved in this process has been identified. We have identified a dwarfed dominant-negative Arabidopsis mutant, named topp4-1. Reduced expression of TOPP4 using an artificial microRNA strategy also resulted in a dwarfed phenotype. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that TOPP4 regulates GA signal transduction mainly via promoting DELLA protein degradation. The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4. Both RGA and GAI were greatly accumulated in topp4-1 but significantly decreased in 35S-TOPP4 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. Further analyses demonstrated that TOPP4 is able to directly bind and dephosphorylate RGA and GAI, confirming that the TOPP4-controlled phosphorylation status of DELLAs is associated with their stability. These studies provide direct evidence for a crucial role of protein dephosphorylation mediated by TOPP4 in the GA signaling pathway. PMID:25010794

  15. Arabidopsis DELLA protein degradation is controlled by a type-one protein phosphatase, TOPP4.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Yue, Jing; Huang, Yan; Xu, Xiufei; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

    2014-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of important phytohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes during normal plant growth and development. One of the major events during GA-mediated growth is the degradation of DELLA proteins, key negative regulators of GA signaling pathway. The stability of DELLA proteins is thought to be controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Up to date, no phosphatase involved in this process has been identified. We have identified a dwarfed dominant-negative Arabidopsis mutant, named topp4-1. Reduced expression of TOPP4 using an artificial microRNA strategy also resulted in a dwarfed phenotype. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that TOPP4 regulates GA signal transduction mainly via promoting DELLA protein degradation. The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4. Both RGA and GAI were greatly accumulated in topp4-1 but significantly decreased in 35S-TOPP4 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. Further analyses demonstrated that TOPP4 is able to directly bind and dephosphorylate RGA and GAI, confirming that the TOPP4-controlled phosphorylation status of DELLAs is associated with their stability. These studies provide direct evidence for a crucial role of protein dephosphorylation mediated by TOPP4 in the GA signaling pathway.

  16. Inter- and intra-molecular interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana DELLA protein RGL1

    PubMed Central

    Sheerin, David J.; Buchanan, Jeremy; Kirk, Chris; Harvey, Dawn; Sun, Xiaolin; Spagnuolo, Julian; Li, Sheng; Liu, Tong; Woods, Virgil A.; Foster, Toshi; Jones, William T.; Rakonjac, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin and the DELLA proteins act together to control key aspects of plant development. Gibberellin induces degradation of DELLA proteins by recruitment of an F-box protein using a molecular switch: a gibberellin-bound nuclear receptor interacts with the N-terminal domain of DELLA proteins, and this event primes the DELLA C-terminal domain for interaction with the F-box protein. However, the mechanism of signalling between the N- and C-terminal domains of DELLA proteins is unresolved. In the present study, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to characterize di- and tri-partite interactions of the DELLA protein RGL1 (REPRESSOR OF GA1-3-LIKE 1) of Arabidopsis thaliana with the gibberellin receptor GID1A (GIBBERELLIC ACID-INSENSITIVE DWARF-1A) and the F-box protein SLY1 (SLEEPY1). Deuterium-exchange MS unequivocally showed that the entire N-terminal domain of RGL1 is disordered prior to interaction with the GID1A; furthermore, association/dissociation kinetics, determined by surface plasmon resonance, predicts a two-state conformational change of the RGL1 N-terminal domain upon interaction with GID1A. Additionally, competition assays with monoclonal antibodies revealed that contacts mediated by the short helix Asp-Glu-Leu-Leu of the hallmark DELLA motif are not essential for the GID1A–RGL1 N-terminal domain interaction. Finally, yeast two- and three-hybrid experiments determined that unabated communication between N- and C-terminal domains of RGL1 is required for recruitment of the F-box protein SLY1. PMID:21323638

  17. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino.

  18. Mysteries of attraction: Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, astrology and desire.

    PubMed

    Rutkin, H Darrel

    2010-06-01

    Although in his later years Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) vehemently rejected astrology, he earlier used it in a variety of ways, but primarily to provide further evidence for positions to which he had arrived by other means. One such early use appears in his commentary on his friend Girolamo Benivieni's love poetry, the Canzone d'amore, of 1486-1487. In the passages discussed here, Pico presents an intensive Platonic natural philosophical analysis based on a deep astrologically informed understanding of human nature as he attempts to explain a perennial question, namely, why one person is attracted to a certain person (or people), and another to others. I will place this discussion of the mysteries of attraction and desire in historical perspective by tracing Pico's changing relationship to astrology during the course of his short but passionate life, and in historiographic perspective by revising Frances Yates's still influential views concerning Pico's contribution to Renaissance thought and his relationship with Marsilio Ficino. PMID:20513623

  19. DELLA proteins regulate expression of a subset of AM symbiosis-induced genes in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Floss, Daniela S.; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Park, Hee-Jin; Harrison, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus.1 The association develops in the roots and requires substantial remodeling of the root cortical cells where branched fungal hyphae, called arbuscules, are housed in a new membrane-bound apoplastic compartment.2 Nutrient exchange between the symbionts occurs over this interface and its development and maintenance is critical for symbiosis. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development.3 Furthermore, constitutive overexpression of a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) is sufficient to induce transcripts of several AM symbiosis-induced genes, even in the absence of the fungal symbiont.4 Here we further extend this approach and identify AM symbiosis genes that respond transcriptionally to constitutive expression of a dominant DELLA protein and also genes that do respond to this treatment. Additionally, we demonstrate that DELLAs interact with REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULE DEVELOPMENT 1 (RAD1) which further extends our knowledge of GRAS factor complexes that have the potential to regulate gene expression during AM symbiosis. PMID:26984507

  20. DELLA proteins regulate expression of a subset of AM symbiosis-induced genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Floss, Daniela S; Lévesque-Tremblay, Véronique; Park, Hee-Jin; Harrison, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the vascular flowering plants form symbiotic associations with fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota through which both partners gain access to nutrients, either mineral nutrients in the case of the plant, or carbon, in the case of the fungus. (1) The association develops in the roots and requires substantial remodeling of the root cortical cells where branched fungal hyphae, called arbuscules, are housed in a new membrane-bound apoplastic compartment. (2) Nutrient exchange between the symbionts occurs over this interface and its development and maintenance is critical for symbiosis. Previously, we showed that DELLA proteins, which are well known as repressors of gibberellic acid signaling, also regulate development of AM symbiosis and are necessary to enable arbuscule development. (3) Furthermore, constitutive overexpression of a dominant DELLA protein (della1-Δ18) is sufficient to induce transcripts of several AM symbiosis-induced genes, even in the absence of the fungal symbiont. (4) Here we further extend this approach and identify AM symbiosis genes that respond transcriptionally to constitutive expression of a dominant DELLA protein and also genes that do respond to this treatment. Additionally, we demonstrate that DELLAs interact with REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULE DEVELOPMENT 1 (RAD1) which further extends our knowledge of GRAS factor complexes that have the potential to regulate gene expression during AM symbiosis.

  1. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)–IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK–IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2–NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  2. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection

    PubMed Central

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  3. DELLA proteins are common components of symbiotic rhizobial and mycorrhizal signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yue; Liu, Huan; Luo, Dexian; Yu, Nan; Dong, Wentao; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Dai, Huiling; Yang, Jun; Wang, Ertao

    2016-01-01

    Legumes form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Formation of these two symbioses is regulated by a common set of signalling components that act downstream of recognition of rhizobia or mycorrhizae by host plants. Central to these pathways is the calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK)-IPD3 complex which initiates nodule organogenesis following calcium oscillations in the host nucleus. However, downstream signalling events are not fully understood. Here we show that Medicago truncatula DELLA proteins, which are the central regulators of gibberellic acid signalling, positively regulate rhizobial symbiosis. Rhizobia colonization is impaired in della mutants and we provide evidence that DELLAs can promote CCaMK-IPD3 complex formation and increase the phosphorylation state of IPD3. DELLAs can also interact with NSP2-NSP1 and enhance the expression of Nod-factor-inducible genes in protoplasts. We show that DELLA is able to bridge a protein complex containing IPD3 and NSP2. Our results suggest a transcriptional framework for regulation of root nodule symbiosis. PMID:27514472

  4. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Wild, Michael; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Eisler, Herfried; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Regulation of plant height, one of the most important agronomic traits, is the focus of intensive research for improving crop performance. Stem elongation takes place as a result of repeated cell divisions and subsequent elongation of cells produced by apical and intercalary meristems. The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have long been known to control stem and internodal elongation by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the mechanism allowing GA-responsive growth is only slowly emerging. Here, we show that DELLAs directly regulate the activity of the plant-specific class I TCP transcription factor family, key regulators of cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that class I TCP factors directly bind the promoters of core cell-cycle genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence shoot apices while DELLAs block TCP function by binding to their DNA-recognition domain. GAs antagonize such repression by promoting DELLA destruction and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of TCP factors on promoters of cell-cycle genes. Consistent with this model, the quadruple mutant tcp8 tcp14 tcp15 tcp22 exhibits severe dwarfism and reduced responsiveness to GA action. Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height.

  5. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection.

    PubMed

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  6. The effects of DELLAs on growth change with developmental stage and brassinosteroid levels.

    PubMed

    Stewart Lilley, Jodi L; Gan, Yinbo; Graham, Ian A; Nemhauser, Jennifer L

    2013-10-01

    There are two stages in photomorphogenesis. First, seedlings detect light and open their cotyledons. Second, seedlings optimize their light environment by controlled elongation of the seedling stem or hypocotyl. In this study, we used time-lapse imaging to investigate the relationship between the brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) hormones across both stages of photomorphogenesis. During the transition between one stage and the other, growth promotion by BRs and GAs switched from an additive to a synergistic relationship. Molecular genetic analysis revealed unexpected roles for known participants in the GA pathway during this period. Members of the DELLA family could either repress or enhance BR growth responses, depending on developmental stage. At the transition point for seedling growth dynamics, the BR and GA pathways had opposite effects on DELLA protein levels. In contrast to GA-induced DELLA degradation, BR treatments increased the levels of REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and mimicked the molecular effects of stabilizing DELLAs. In addition, DELLAs showed complex regulation of genes involved in BR biosynthesis, implicating them in BR homeostasis. Growth promotion by GA alone depended on the PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family of master growth regulators. The effects of BR, including the synergistic effects with GA, were largely independent of PIFs. These results point to a multi-level, dynamic relationship between the BR and GA pathways.

  7. JUB1 suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-induced defense responses through accumulation of DELLA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Nobmann, Barbara; Devi Allu, Annapurna; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phytohormones act in concert to coordinate plant growth and the response to environmental cues. Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting hormones that recently emerged as modulators of plant immune signaling. By regulating the stability of DELLA proteins, GAs intersect with the signaling pathways of the classical primary defense hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), thereby altering the final outcome of the immune response. DELLA proteins confer resistance to necrotrophic pathogens by potentiating JA signaling and raise the susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens by attenuating the SA pathway. Here, we show that JUB1, a core element of the GA - brassinosteroid (BR) - DELLA regulatory module, functions as a negative regulator of defense responses against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and mediates the crosstalk between growth and immunity. PMID:27159137

  8. Piero della Francesca's Sky in The Dream of Constantine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valerio, V.

    2011-06-01

    The recent restoration of the frescoes by Piero della Francesca in the Church of San Francesco in Arezzo has made to appear on the background of the scene of Constantine's dream a number of stars. They are clearly painted with the intention to illustrate a sort of "natural" sky. In 2001 Anna Maria Maetzke recognized in a group of stars the constellation of the Ursa Minor, but so far no further study has been carried on to find any relation between the painted and the true sky. In this paper I show the existence of more constellations in the fresco, which are hardly detectable due to the mirror representation of the starry sky. Such a mirror image, as the Universe was seen from the outside, has a Greek origin and this kind of representation was introduced in Western Europe not only in celestial globes but also in star maps. This discovery leads to consider that Piero had at his disposal either a globe or a map which he reproduced on the fresco. My hypothesis is that a star map might be supplied to Piero by the astronomer Regiomontanus who was in Italy since 1461 following the Cardinal Bessarion in his journey from Wien to Rome. In 1463, Cardinal Bessarion was named papal legate to Venice and in July of the same year he leaved Rome together with Regiomontanus to reach Ferrara and Venice. The road to Venice crossed Umbria nearby Sansepolcro, Piero's birthplace not far from Arezzo. The trip took more than two weeks due to a stop before crossing the Apennines because the plague in Ferrara. Bessarion and Regiomontanus might have met Piero who was painting the cycle of frescoes in Arezzo and supplied him with a star map. Unfortunately, due to the lack of the horizon and any right line in the scene it is not possible to detect the latitude of the place corresponding to the painted sky.

  9. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  10. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development.

  11. Arabidopsis MYC2 Interacts with DELLA Proteins in Regulating Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene Expression[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Gao-Jie; Xue, Xue-Yi; Mao, Ying-Bo; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana flowers emit volatile terpenes, which may function in plant–insect interactions. Here, we report that Arabidopsis MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, directly binds to promoters of the sesquiterpene synthase genes TPS21 and TPS11 and activates their expression. Expression of TPS21 and TPS11 can be induced by the phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA), and both inductions require MYC2. The induction of TPS21 and TPS11 results in increased emission of sesquiterpene, especially (E)-β-caryophyllene. DELLAs, the GA signaling repressors, negatively affect sesquiterpene biosynthesis, as the sesquiterpene synthase genes were repressed in plants overaccumulating REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA), one of the Arabidopsis DELLAs, and upregulated in a penta DELLA-deficient mutant. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that DELLAs, represented by RGA, directly interact with MYC2. In yeast cells, the N terminus of MYC2 was responsible for binding to RGA. MYC2 has been proposed as a major mediator of JA signaling and crosstalk with abscisic acid, ethylene, and light signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate that MYC2 is also connected to GA signaling in regulating a subset of genes. In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. PMID:22669881

  12. [Adalberto Pazzini and the origins of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina].

    PubMed

    Conforti, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with the Italian tradition of medical history in the 1930s, when Adalberto Pazzini became the most successful medical historian in Italy. Its second part deals with the founding and renovation (1938 and 1954 respectively) of the Istituto di Storia della Medicina at Rome University, with a description of the innovative--and largely utopian--planning of the Library and of the Museum and didactic collections by Pazzini.

  13. The USO's New Look: A Bridge to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Ellen

    1980-01-01

    Since World War II, the USO has developed a new image and created a new "world of services" everywhere. USO programs help military personnel to discover new skills and interests and unveil personal resources which carry lifetime value. (JN)

  14. The Arabidopsis DELLA RGA-LIKE3 is a direct target of MYC2 and modulates jasmonate signaling responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Cheminant, Soizic; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Heintz, Dimitri; Baltz, Rachel; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones involved in the regulation of plant growth in response to endogenous and environmental signals. GA promotes growth by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DELLAs consist of a small family of five proteins that display distinct but also overlapping functions in repressing GA responses. This study reveals that DELLA RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3) protein is essential to fully enhance the jasmonate (JA)-mediated responses. We show that JA rapidly induces RGL3 expression in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1)- and JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1 (JIN1/MYC2)-dependent manner. In addition, we demonstrate that MYC2 binds directly to RGL3 promoter. Furthermore, we show that RGL3 (like the other DELLAs) interacts with JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, key repressors of JA signaling. These findings suggest that JA/MYC2-dependent accumulation of RGL3 represses JAZ activity, which in turn enhances the expression of JA-responsive genes. Accordingly, we show that induction of primary JA-responsive genes is reduced in the rgl3-5 mutant and enhanced in transgenic lines overexpressing RGL3. Hence, RGL3 positively regulates JA-mediated resistance to the necrotroph Botrytis cinerea and susceptibility to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae. We propose that JA-mediated induction of RGL3 expression is of adaptive significance and might represent a recent functional diversification of the DELLAs.

  15. Overexpression of RoDELLA impacts the height, branching, and flowering behaviour of Pelargonium × domesticum transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Hamama, L; Naouar, A; Gala, R; Voisine, L; Pierre, S; Jeauffre, J; Cesbron, D; Leplat, F; Foucher, F; Dorion, N; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, L

    2012-11-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We reported the cloning of a rose DELLA gene. We obtained transgenic Pelargonium lines overexpressing this gene which presented several phenotypes in plant growth, root growth, flowering time and number of inflorescences. Control of development is an important issue for production of ornamental plant. The plant growth regulator, gibberellins (GAs), plays a pivotal role in regulating plant growth and development. DELLA proteins are nuclear negative regulator of GA signalling. Our objective was to study the role of GA in the plant architecture and in the blooming of ornamentals. We cloned a rose DELLA homologous gene, RoDELLA, and studied its function by genetic transformation of pelargonium. Several transgenic pelargonium (Pelargonium × domesticum 'Autum Haze') lines were produced that ectopically expressed RoDELLA under the control of the 35S promoter. These transgenic plants exhibited a range of phenotypes which could be related to the reduction in GA response. Most of transgenic plants showed reduced growth associated to an increase of the node and branch number. Moreover, overexpression of RoDELLA blocked or delayed flowering in transgenic pelargonium and exhibited defects in the root formation. We demonstrated that pelargonium could be used to validate ornamental gene as the rose DELLA gene. RoDELLA overexpression modified many aspects of plant developmental pathways, as the plant growth, the transition of vegetative to floral stage and the ability of rooting.

  16. Nitric oxide regulates DELLA content and PIF expression to promote photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; León, José

    2011-07-01

    The transition from etiolated to green seedlings involves a shift from hypocotyl growth-promoting conditions to growth restraint. These changes occur through a complex light-driven process involving multiple and tightly coordinated hormonal signaling pathways. Nitric oxide (NO) has been lately characterized as a regulator of plant development interacting with hormone signaling. Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NO-deficient mutant hypocotyls are longer than those from wild-type seedlings under red light but not under blue or far-red light. Accordingly, exogenous treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside and mutant plants with increased endogenous NO levels resulted in reduced hypocotyl length. In addition to increased hypocotyl elongation, NO deficiency led to increased anthocyanin levels and reduced PHYB content under red light, all processes governed by phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs). NO-deficient plants accordingly showed an enhanced expression of PIF3, PIF1, and PIF4. Moreover, exogenous NO increased the levels of the gibberellin (GA)-regulated DELLA proteins and shortened hypocotyls, likely through the negative regulation of the GA Insensitive Dwarf1 (GID1)-Sleepy1 (SLY1) module. Consequently, NO-deficient seedlings displayed up-regulation of SLY1, defective DELLA accumulation, and altered GA sensitivity, thus resulting in defective deetiolation under red light. Accumulation of NO in wild-type seedlings undergoing red light-triggered deetiolation and elevated levels of NO in the GA-deficient ga1-3 mutant in darkness suggest a mutual NO-GA antagonism in controlling photomorphogenesis. PHYB-dependent NO production promotes photomorphogenesis by a GID1-GA-SLY1-mediated mechanism based on the coordinated repression of growth-promoting PIF genes and the increase in the content of DELLA proteins.

  17. The Renaissance and the universal surgeon: Giovanni Andrea Della Croce, a master of traumatology.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2013-12-01

    All the medical knowledge of all time in one book, the universal and perfect manual for the Renaissance surgeon, and the man who wrote it. This paper depicts the life and works of Giovanni Andrea della Croce, a 16th Century physician and surgeon, who, endowed with true spirit of Renaissance humanism, wanted to teach and share all his medical knowledge through his opus magnum, titled "Universal Surgery Complete with All the Relevant Parts for the Optimum Surgeon". An extraordinary book which truly represents a defining moment and a founding stone for traumatology, written by a lesser known historical personality, but nonetheless the Renaissance Master of Traumatology.

  18. The altarpieces of Della Robbia atelier in Marche region: investigations on technology and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Barcaioni, S.; Bouquillon, A.; Padeletti, G.; Pallante, P.

    2013-12-01

    Dissemination of Della Robbia glazed terracotta in the Marche (Italy) region started from the third decade of the 16th century. Numerous altarpieces, some of which no longer exist, document this artistic production. The protagonists of this diffusion phase were two of Andrea Della Robbia's sons, Marco (Fra Mattia) and Francesco (Fra Ambrogio). This paper shows the results of the scientific investigations carried out on constitutive materials of different altarpieces located in South Marche belonging to the Fra Mattia's production: the Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, dated back to 1527-1530, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano; the Annunciation, dated back to 1520, placed in the church of S. Maria del Soccorso in Arcevia; the fragmentary Crowned Madonna and saints altarpiece, probably realized after 1531, today preserved in Civic Museum of Ripatransone. The first altarpiece was made in Montecassiano using two different assembling or production techniques: the external part of the lunette and the pillar strips are made of glazed polychrome terracotta, while the altar step and the internal part are an interesting and uncommon example of polychrome painted terracotta. The provenance of the glazed Arcevia altarpiece is not clear yet: some historians hypothesize a local manufacture of Fra Mattia and some others a Roman or Florentine production. The remaining parts of Ripatransone altarpiece are partially glazed and partially not coated perhaps because they were unfinished and not yet painted. Clay body samples collected from the above mentioned altarpieces were investigated using different analytical techniques (OM, XRD, XRF, PIXE) to point out differences in chemical and mineralogical composition and to determine if the altarpieces were made by using local raw clay materials or other clays from Tuscany or Campania as in the Della Robbia previous production. A comparison has also been

  19. TMV-Cg Coat Protein stabilizes DELLA proteins and in turn negatively modulates salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant viral infections disturb defense regulatory networks during tissue invasion. Emerging evidence demonstrates that a significant proportion of these alterations are mediated by hormone imbalances. Although the DELLA proteins have been reported to be central players in hormone cross-talk, their role in the modulation of hormone signaling during virus infections remains unknown. Results This work revealed that TMV-Cg coat protein (CgCP) suppresses the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway without altering defense hormone SA or jasmonic acid (JA) levels in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it was observed that the expression of CgCP reduces plant growth and delays the timing of floral transition. Quantitative RT-qPCR analysis of DELLA target genes showed that CgCP alters relative expression of several target genes, indicating that the DELLA proteins mediate transcriptional changes produced by CgCP expression. Analyses by fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that CgCP stabilizes DELLA proteins accumulation in the presence of gibberellic acid (GA) and that the DELLA proteins are also stabilized during TMV-Cg virus infections. Moreover, DELLA proteins negatively modulated defense transcript profiles during TMV-Cg infection. As a result, TMV-Cg accumulation was significantly reduced in the quadruple-DELLA mutant Arabidopsis plants compared to wild type plants. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that CgCP negatively regulates the salicylic acid-mediated defense pathway by stabilizing the DELLA proteins during Arabidopsis thaliana viral infection, suggesting that CgCP alters the stability of DELLAs as a mechanism of negative modulation of antiviral defense responses. PMID:25084837

  20. Auxin and ethylene regulate elongation responses to neighbor proximity signals independent of gibberellin and della proteins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pierik, Ronald; Djakovic-Petrovic, Tanja; Keuskamp, Diederik H; de Wit, Mieke; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J

    2009-04-01

    Plants modify growth in response to the proximity of neighbors. Among these growth adjustments are shade avoidance responses, such as enhanced elongation of stems and petioles, that help plants to reach the light and outgrow their competitors. Neighbor detection occurs through photoreceptor-mediated detection of light spectral changes (i.e. reduced red:far-red ratio [R:FR] and reduced blue light intensity). We recently showed that physiological regulation of these responses occurs through light-mediated degradation of nuclear, growth-inhibiting DELLA proteins, but this appeared to be only part of the full mechanism. Here, we present how two hormones, auxin and ethylene, coregulate DELLAs but regulate shade avoidance responses through DELLA-independent mechanisms in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Auxin appears to be required for both seedling and mature plant shoot elongation responses to low blue light and low R:FR, respectively. Auxin action is increased upon exposure to low R:FR and low blue light, and auxin inhibition abolishes the elongation responses to these light cues. Ethylene action is increased during the mature plant response to low R:FR, and this growth response is abolished by ethylene insensitivity. However, ethylene is also a direct volatile neighbor detection signal that induces strong elongation in seedlings, possibly in an auxin-dependent manner. We propose that this novel ethylene and auxin control of shade avoidance interacts with DELLA abundance but also controls independent targets to regulate adaptive growth responses to surrounding vegetation.

  1. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) currently provides a Temporary Sleep Station (TeSS) as crew quarters for one crewmember in the Laboratory Module. The Russian Segment provides permanent crew quarters (Kayutas) for two crewmembers in the Service Module. The TeSS provides limited electrical, communication, and ventilation functionality. A new permanent rack sized USOS ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) is being developed. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The new CQs will provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, controllable airflow, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The rack sized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. Providing an acoustically quiet and visually isolated environment, while ensuring crewmember safety, is critical for obtaining crewmember rest and comfort to enable long term crewmember performance. The numerous human factor, engineering, and program considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in the paper.

  2. Lungo le vie di pellegrinaggio: la lezione astronomica di Gerberto a San Michele della Chiusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paladino, Laura C.

    A pilgrim on the trails of the Earth: that's how Gerbertus appears to us in the years preceding his pontificate as well in those, brief and intense, in which he was Pope. An ardent pilgrim of faith moved at the same time by vast intellectual interests that allowed him to come into contact with the most important schools of the time, of any cultural tradition; a pilgrim full of love, willing to transmit the enormous heritage of faith and knowledge of which he was custodian. The presence of the illustrious Benedictine is not explicitly documented in the Abbey of San Michele della Chiusa, but the signs of its cultural and ideological influence are evident both in historical memory as in the artistical vestiges of the Sacra: we investigate here, this presence, authoritative, original and versatile, to outline another aspect, still little investigated, of the lesson of Gerbert, monk, scientist, teacher and pastor.

  3. The DELLA motif is essential for gibberellin-induced degradation of RGA.

    PubMed

    Dill, A; Jung, H S; Sun, T P

    2001-11-20

    RGA and GAI are homologous genes that encode putative transcriptional regulators that repress gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis. Previously we showed that the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-RGA fusion protein is localized to the nucleus in transgenic Arabidopsis, and expression of this fusion protein rescues the rga null mutation. The GA signal seems to derepress the GA response pathway by degrading the repressor protein RGA. The GA-insensitive, semidominant, semidwarf gai-1 mutant encodes a mutant protein with a 17-amino acid deletion within the DELLA domain of GAI. It was hypothesized that this mutation turns the gai protein into a constitutive repressor of GA signaling. Because the sequences missing in gai-1 are identical between GAI and RGA, we tested whether an identical mutation (rga-Delta 17) in the RGA gene would confer a phenotype similar to gai-1. We demonstrated that expression of rga-Delta 17 or GFP-(rga-Delta 17) under the control of the RGA promoter caused a GA-unresponsive severe dwarf phenotype in transgenic Arabidopsis. Analysis of the mRNA levels of a GA biosynthetic gene, GA4, showed that the feedback control of GA biosynthesis in these transgenic plants was less responsive to GA than that in wild type. Immunoblot and confocal microscopy analyses indicated that rga-Delta17 and GFP-(rga-Delta 17) proteins were resistant to degradation after GA application. Our results illustrate that the DELLA domain in RGA plays a regulatory role in GA-induced degradation of RGA. Deletion of this region stabilizes the rga-Delta 17 mutant protein, and regardless of the endogenous GA status rga-Delta 17 becomes a constitutively active repressor of GA signaling.

  4. Yeast and mould dynamics in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese coagulated with an aqueous extract of Carlina acanthifolia All.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Polverigiani, Serena; Garofalo, Cristiana; Foligni, Roberta; Mozzon, Massimo; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is a speciality ewes' milk cheese traditionally manufactured in a foothill area of the Marche region (Central Italy) with a crude extract of fresh young leaves of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia as a coagulating agent. The fungal dynamics and diversity of this speciality cheese were investigated throughout the manufacturing and 20-day ripening process, using a combined PCR-DGGE approach. The fungal biota of a control ewes' milk cheese, manufactured with the same batch of milk coagulated with a commercial animal rennet, was also monitored by PCR-DGGE, in order to investigate the contribution of the peculiar vegetable coagulant to the fungal diversity and dynamics of the cheese. Based on the overall results collected, the raw milk and the dairy environment represented the main sources of fungal contamination, with a marginal or null contribution of thistle rennet to the fungal diversity and dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Yeast and mould dynamics in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese coagulated with an aqueous extract of Carlina acanthifolia All.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Polverigiani, Serena; Garofalo, Cristiana; Foligni, Roberta; Mozzon, Massimo; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is a speciality ewes' milk cheese traditionally manufactured in a foothill area of the Marche region (Central Italy) with a crude extract of fresh young leaves of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia as a coagulating agent. The fungal dynamics and diversity of this speciality cheese were investigated throughout the manufacturing and 20-day ripening process, using a combined PCR-DGGE approach. The fungal biota of a control ewes' milk cheese, manufactured with the same batch of milk coagulated with a commercial animal rennet, was also monitored by PCR-DGGE, in order to investigate the contribution of the peculiar vegetable coagulant to the fungal diversity and dynamics of the cheese. Based on the overall results collected, the raw milk and the dairy environment represented the main sources of fungal contamination, with a marginal or null contribution of thistle rennet to the fungal diversity and dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27121441

  6. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  7. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented in this article from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Redshift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced, spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (Oct. 1989) and Nov. 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in Aug. 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  8. The flight performance of the Galileo orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.; Krisher, T. P.; Asmar, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of radio metric data received by the DSN stations from the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO) as a signal source. These results allow the health and performance of the Galileo USO to be evaluated, and are used to calibrate this Radio Science instrument and the data acquired for Radio Science experiments such as the Red-shift Observation, Solar Conjunction, and Jovian occultations. Estimates for the USO-referenced spacecraft-transmitted frequency and frequency stability were made for 82 data acquisition passes conducted between launch (October 1989) and November 1991. Analyses of the spacecraft-transmitted frequencies show that the USO is behaving as expected. The USO was powered off and then back on in August 1991 with no adverse effect on its performance. The frequency stabilities measured by Allan deviation are consistent with expected values due to thermal wideband noise and the USO itself at the appropriate time intervals. The Galileo USO appears to be healthy and functioning normally in a reasonable manner.

  9. [Malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami con coinvolgimento della corteccia frontale e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici resistenti: un caso clinico].

    PubMed

    Gramaglia, Carla; Feggi, Alessandro; Vecchi, Camilla; Di Marco, Sarah; Venesia, Alessandra; Delicato, Claudia; Chieppa, Nunzia; De Marchi, Fabiola; Cantello, Roberto; Zeppegno, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Descrivere il management di un paziente con malattia di Marchiafava-Bignami (MBD) associata a lesioni frontali corticali, senza sintomi specifici al primo accesso in Pronto Soccorso, e insorgenza tardiva di sintomi psichiatrici atipici. Metodi. Descriviamo il caso di un paziente di 44 anni con storia di abuso cronico di alcol, a cui è stata diagnosticata la MBD. Risultati. La risonanza magnetica ha evidenziato lesioni nello splenio e corpo del corpo calloso e lesioni bilaterali della corteccia frontale. Il paziente ha sviluppato sintomi psichiatrici atipici a insorgenza tardiva, che sono risultati essere resistenti alle terapie farmacologiche impostate. Discussione. Il caso che descriviamo sembra supportare le attuali, ma ancora scarse evidenze che descrivono il coinvolgimento corticale nella MBD, suggerendone l'associazione con una prognosi peggiore. I sintomi psichiatrici possono risultare difficili da trattare a causa della resistenza alle terapie. Conclusione. Il coinvolgimento di psichiatri, radiologi e neurologi secondo un approccio di consultazione-liaison si è dimostrato di fondamentale importanza per la diagnosi e l'impostazione della terapia adeguata al paziente.

  10. An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Feng; Wang, Chunming; Jiang, Lei; Li, Shuo; Sun, Samuel S M; He, Jun-Xian

    2012-10-02

    Plant growth and development are coordinated by several groups of small-molecule hormones, including brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs). Physiological and molecular studies have suggested the existence of crosstalk between BR and GA signaling. We report that BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analyses of plants with mutations in the genes encoding RGA and BZR1 revealed that RGA suppressed root and hypocotyl elongation of the gain-of-function mutant bzr1-1D. Ectopic expression of proteins of the DELLA family reduced the abundance and transcriptional activity of BZR1. Reporter gene analyses further indicated that BZR1 and RGA antagonize each other's transcriptional activity. Our data indicated that BZR1 and RGA served as positive and negative regulators, respectively, of both the BR and the GA signaling pathways and establish DELLAs as mediators of signaling crosstalk between BRs and GAs in controlling cell elongation and regulation of plant growth.

  11. The Flight Perfomance of the Galileo Orbiter USO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morabito, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Radiometric tracking Doppler measurements of the signal transmitted by the Galileo spacecraft using an Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) as a frequency reference have been acquired by antennas of the NSA Deep Space Network between Dec. 1998 and No. 1991.

  12. [Modello di Management (Mo.Ma) del paziente affetto da schizofrenia: controllo della crisi, mantenimento, prevenzione delle ricadute e recovery con gli antipsicotici LAI].

    PubMed

    Brugnoli, Roberto; Rapinesi, Chiara; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco S; De Filippis, Sergio; Carrus, Dario; Ballerini, Andrea; Francomano, Antonio; Ducci, Giuseppe; Del Casale, Antonio; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. La schizofrenia colpisce circa l'1% della popolazione e rappresenta un grave disturbo mentale con un notevole impatto anche sul funzionamento sociale, lavorativo e sulle attività della vita quotidiana. Le persone con schizofrenia hanno un tasso di mortalità superiore di 2-2,5 rispetto a quello della popolazione generale. La non aderenza ai farmaci antipsicotici è uno dei più importanti fattori di rischio per le ricadute e le ospedalizzazioni, sia nei pazienti con disturbo cronico sia al primo episodio, e conseguentemente contribuisce all'aumento dei costi sanitari. Gli antipsicotici atipici LAI possono migliorare l'aderenza al trattamento contribuendo a diminuire i tassi di ricaduta nei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia fin dall'esordio. Gli obiettivi primari nella gestione dei pazienti schizofrenici sono diretti, non solo alla riduzione dei sintomi nel breve termine, ma anche al mantenimento fisico e della funzionalità mentale, migliorando la qualità della vita e promuovendo il recupero del paziente. Scopo. Proporre un modello integrato, basato sulle evidenze, che fornisca un algoritmo efficace per il recupero del paziente schizofrenico e indagare l'efficacia e la sicurezza degli antipsicotici LAI nel trattamento, nel mantenimento, nella prevenzione delle ricadute e nella recovery dei pazienti affetti da schizofrenia. Metodi. Dopo un'accurata analisi di letteratura abbiamo identificato, raccolto e analizzato gli elementi qualificanti per un'ottimale gestione del paziente schizofrenico, definendo un modello di gestione e selezione delle alternative terapeutiche. Conclusioni. Il modello di gestione della schizofrenia proposto potrebbe consentire un migliore recupero funzionale del paziente grazie alla scelta di iniziare il percorso terapeutico, fin dalle prime fasi del disturbo soprattutto se in giovane età e al primo episodio, con un farmaco atipico LAI. All'interno dei farmaci antipsicotici atipici la formulazione LAI rappresenta una scelta

  13. Chromosomenindividualität or Entmischung? The debate between Paolo Della Valle and Edmund B. Wilson.

    PubMed

    Volpone, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Italian cytologist Paolo Della Valle developed a theory of instable chromosomes (teoria dei cromosomi labili). He radically criticized the so-called Sutton-Boveri hypothesis (Martins and Martins, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 22:261-271, 1999), focusing on numerical constancy in the species and individuality. On the basis of bibliographical review and personal observations, he maintained that the chromosomes were neither stable bodies, nor permanent structures, but transitory cellular materials, resulting from the periodical rearrangement of the chromatin during the cell division. German and English-speaking biologists reacted. The paper shows some content of the argumentations used by Thomas H. Montgomery and especially Edmund B. Wilson. The discussion was characterized by the same data which is interpretedby different scholars in different ways. And the point is that no one of them had the decisive test to demonstrate his own point of view. Wilson simply invoked on his behalf a certain 'common sense', defending at least a 'high degree of constancy'. The debate waned along with the reception of Morgan's chromosome theory of heredity, but only the advent of molecular biology definitively stated the nature of chromosomes as permanent structures of the cell.

  14. A Gibberellin-Mediated DELLA-NAC Signaling Cascade Regulates Cellulose Synthesis in Rice[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Debao; Wang, Shaogan; Zhang, Baocai; Shang-Guan, Keke; Shi, Yanyun; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiangling; Wu, Kun; Xu, Zuopeng; Fu, Xiangdong; Zhou, Yihua

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose, which can be converted into numerous industrial products, has important impacts on the global economy. It has long been known that cellulose synthesis in plants is tightly regulated by various phytohormones. However, the underlying mechanism of cellulose synthesis regulation remains elusive. Here, we show that in rice (Oryza sativa), gibberellin (GA) signals promote cellulose synthesis by relieving the interaction between SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor of GA signaling, and NACs, the top-layer transcription factors for secondary wall formation. Mutations in GA-related genes and physiological treatments altered the transcription of CELLULOSE SYNTHASE genes (CESAs) and the cellulose level. Multiple experiments demonstrated that transcription factors NAC29/31 and MYB61 are CESA regulators in rice; NAC29/31 directly regulates MYB61, which in turn activates CESA expression. This hierarchical regulation pathway is blocked by SLR1-NAC29/31 interactions. Based on the results of anatomical analysis and GA content examination in developing rice internodes, this signaling cascade was found to be modulated by varied endogenous GA levels and to be required for internode development. Genetic and gene expression analyses were further performed in Arabidopsis thaliana GA-related mutants. Altogether, our findings reveal a conserved mechanism by which GA regulates secondary wall cellulose synthesis in land plants and provide a strategy for manipulating cellulose production and plant growth. PMID:26002868

  15. Titian's secret: comparison of Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere's skull with the Uffizi portrait.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Franco; Mascetti, Massimiliano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    The present paper describes the study of a skeleton, kept at the Church of Santa Chiara in Urbino, Italy. Traditionally, this skeleton was thought to be that of the Duchess Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere (1493-1550), but suspicion exists as to whether or not the remains might belong to another important personage of the Urbino Renaissance, Battista Sforza (1447-1472). Here, external observation of the skull and odontological examination of the mandible were conducted in an attempt to clarify the identity. Age estimates of the skeleton were found to be consistent with the age at death of Eleonora but not with that of Battista. Craniofacial superimposition using the portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga by Titian (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence) shows that the face of Eleonora matches the skull fairly closely except for the length of the nose. The historical record and the age matching appear to provide strong evidence that the remains are those of Eleonora, and the discrepancies in the superimposition may suggest that the artist altered the dimension of the Duchess' nose, possibly to make the portrait correspond to his canons of classical beauty. The results highlight the potential of forensic methods as a key to understand the work of earlier painters.

  16. A CCaMK-CYCLOPS-DELLA Complex Activates Transcription of RAM1 to Regulate Arbuscule Branching.

    PubMed

    Pimprikar, Priya; Carbonnel, Samy; Paries, Michael; Katzer, Katja; Klingl, Verena; Bohmer, Monica J; Karl, Leonhard; Floss, Daniela S; Harrison, Maria J; Parniske, Martin; Gutjahr, Caroline

    2016-04-25

    Intracellular arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis between plants and glomeromycotan fungi leads to formation of highly branched fungal arbuscules that release mineral nutrients to the plant host. Their development is regulated in plants by a mechanistically unresolved interplay between symbiosis, nutrient, and hormone (gibberellin) signaling. Using a positional cloning strategy and a retrotransposon insertion line, we identify two novel alleles of Lotus japonicus REDUCED ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA1 (RAM1) encoding a GRAS protein. We confirm that RAM1 is a central regulator of arbuscule development: arbuscule branching is arrested in L. japonicus ram1 mutants, and ectopic expression of RAM1 activates genes critical for arbuscule development in the absence of fungal symbionts. Epistasis analysis places RAM1 downstream of CCaMK, CYCLOPS, and DELLA because ectopic expression of RAM1 restores arbuscule formation in cyclops mutants and in the presence of suppressive gibberellin. The corresponding proteins form a complex that activates RAM1 expression via binding of CYCLOPS to a cis element in the RAM1 promoter. We thus reveal a transcriptional cascade in arbuscule development that employs the promoter of RAM1 as integrator of symbiotic (transmitted via CCaMK and CYCLOPS) and hormonal (gibberellin) signals.

  17. Titian's secret: comparison of Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere's skull with the Uffizi portrait.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Franco; Mascetti, Massimiliano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    The present paper describes the study of a skeleton, kept at the Church of Santa Chiara in Urbino, Italy. Traditionally, this skeleton was thought to be that of the Duchess Eleonora Gonzaga della Rovere (1493-1550), but suspicion exists as to whether or not the remains might belong to another important personage of the Urbino Renaissance, Battista Sforza (1447-1472). Here, external observation of the skull and odontological examination of the mandible were conducted in an attempt to clarify the identity. Age estimates of the skeleton were found to be consistent with the age at death of Eleonora but not with that of Battista. Craniofacial superimposition using the portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga by Titian (Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence) shows that the face of Eleonora matches the skull fairly closely except for the length of the nose. The historical record and the age matching appear to provide strong evidence that the remains are those of Eleonora, and the discrepancies in the superimposition may suggest that the artist altered the dimension of the Duchess' nose, possibly to make the portrait correspond to his canons of classical beauty. The results highlight the potential of forensic methods as a key to understand the work of earlier painters. PMID:15932093

  18. To grow or defend? Low red : far-red ratios reduce jasmonate sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings by promoting DELLA degradation and increasing JAZ10 stability.

    PubMed

    Leone, Melisa; Keller, Mercedes M; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2014-10-01

    How plants balance resource allocation between growth and defense under conditions of competitive stress is a key question in plant biology. Low red : far-red (R : FR) ratios, which signal a high risk of competition in plant canopies, repress jasmonate-induced defense responses. The mechanism of this repression is not well understood. We addressed this problem in Arabidopsis by investigating the role of DELLA and JASMONATE ZIM domain (JAZ) proteins. We showed that a quintuple della mutant and a phyB mutant were insensitive to jasmonate for several physiological readouts. Inactivation of the photoreceptor phyB by low R : FR ratios rapidly reduced DELLA protein abundance, and the inhibitory effect of FR on jasmonate signaling was missing in the gai-1 mutant, which encodes a stable version of the GAI DELLA protein. We also demonstrated that low R : FR ratios and the phyB mutation stabilized the protein JAZ10. Furthermore, we demonstrated that JAZ10 was required for the inhibitory effect of low R : FR on jasmonate responses, and that the jaz10 mutation restored jasmonate sensitivity to the phyB mutant. We conclude that, under conditions of competition for light, plants redirect resource allocation from defense to rapid elongation by promoting DELLA degradation and enhancing JAZ10 stability.

  19. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital. PMID:27071302

  20. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  1. The Megalithic Complex of the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' on the Monte della Stella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polcaro, V. F.; Ienna, D.

    2009-08-01

    The Monte della Stella is a 1131~m high mountain, belonging to the range separating the Alento Valley from the Tyrrhenian Sea, south of the city of Agropoli in Italy. At 1030~m over the sea-level, a large, isolated outcrop of the bedrock is present. This rock is well known to local people and called the ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'', expression meaning in the local dialect ``The Bastard Child Rock''. The ``Preta'' is basically composed by three rocks that were originated along of natural reasons from a single block of arenite in its upper part and of a rough conglomerate in the lower one: between the three rocks, two galleries (thereafter F and G) were thus formed. However, it is easy to see that the ``Preta'' was deeply modified by human intervention: large stones were wedged in exact position between the three original blocks or positioned as a cover. We found that F gallery has an astronomical azimuth of 359 deg and G gallery of 240 deg. Inside the measurement precision (1 deg), the galleries are thus respectively oriented to the meridian and to the sunset of the winter solstice. Furthermore, modern folklore associated to the rock seems to remind very ancient fertility rites. From a statistical analysis of the alignments and an archaeological study of the complex, we conclude that ``Preta 'ru Mulacchio'' is most probably a monument, dated to an epoch presently unknown but possibly preceding the Greek colonization of Cilento, built in order to determine with a high precision the winter solstice because of cerimonial reasons, probably connected with fertility rites.

  2. A Cucumber DELLA Homolog CsGAIP May Inhibit Staminate Development through Transcriptional Repression of B Class Floral Homeotic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Bin; Yang, Sen; An, Jingbo; Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ren, Huazhong

    2014-01-01

    In hermaphroditic Arabidopsis, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) stimulates stamen development by opposing the DELLA repression of B and C classes of floral homeotic genes. GA can promote male flower formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a typical monoecious vegetable with unisexual flowers, and the molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here we characterized a DELLA homolog CsGAIP in cucumber, and we found that CsGAIP is highly expressed in stem and male flower buds. In situ hybridization showed that CsGAIP is greatly enriched in the stamen primordia, especially during the hermaphrodite stage of flower development. Further, CsGAIP protein is located in nucleus. CsGAIP can partially rescue the plant height, stamen development and fertility phenotypes of Arabidopsis rga-24/gai-t6 mutant, and ectopic expression of CsGAIP in wide-type Arabidopsis results in reduced number of stamens and decreased transcription of B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI). Our data suggest that monoecious CsGAIP may inhibit staminate development through transcriptional repression of B class floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24632777

  3. The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

    2014-11-01

    Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival.

  4. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The

  5. The Montessori System of Education: An Examination of Characteristic Features Set Forth in Il Metodo Della Pedagogica Scientifica. Bulletin, 1912, No. 17. Whole Number 489

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anna Tolman

    1912-01-01

    The publication of "Il metodo della pedagogica scientifica," by Dr. Maria Montessori, docent in the University of Rome, giving a full account of the inception and development of the system of education of which she is the author and the simultaneous translation of the work into English and German are events so unusual as to challenge attention.…

  6. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired

  7. The growth history of the Lago Della Vacca (Southern Adamello Massive, Italy) intrusion from field observations, thermal and rheological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Annen, C.; Blundy, J. D.; Caricchi, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Lago Della Vacca granitoid is an intrusive body emplaced at about 4-6 km in up to 1 My. The core of the body is characterised by the presence of dyke-like structures, enclave-swarms and randomly distributed enclaves, which appear undeformed. Enclaves become oblate with the short axis perpendicular to the foliation, which, in turn follows the margin of the plutonic body (John and Blundy, 1993). Geothermometry and experimental data have been used to constrain the temperature of injection of the mafic component (1273-1323 K), the temperature of the host granitic magma (1173-1223), and to characterise the evolution of crystallinity with temperature for both magmas (Blundy and Sparks, 1992). Based on these data thermal and rheological modelling have been combined to interpret the growth and deformation history of the Lago della Vacca intrusive body. The pluton was modeled as a series of incrementally emplaced nested cylinders with 1D-cylindrical conductive heat transfer. The evolution of temperature and melt fraction distribution in the pluton and country rock were determined and used as input parameters for the rheological modelling. The rheology of each magma depends on the viscosity of the melt and, more importantly, on crystallinity. Field observations suggest that the mafic magma was injected as dykes. Their partial or total disaggregation produced mafic enclaves. The presence of randomly distributed enclaves in the core of Lago Della Vacca body indicates that convection was active in this portion of the intrusion. The undeformed nature of the enclaves in this region also implies that the contrast in temperature between host magma and mafic material produced a sudden (hours) rheological inversion with the mafic magma becoming more viscous than the felsic end-member. In these conditions, the enclaves would be transported passively by the felsic-host without suffering any substantial deformation. Thermal modelling indicates that to maintain the core of the pluton

  8. The Palazzo della Ragione in Padua: Representation and Communication of Art, Architecture, and Astrology of a Civic Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgherini, M.; Garbin, E.

    2011-06-01

    Eight centuries of the history of art and of Padua's scientific and technological culture deposited on the stones and frescoes of its Palace of Law ("Palazzo della Ragione") make this great work of urban architecture a part of the city's collective identity. This "palimpsest", legible only to a restricted circle of specialists, should be accessible to a vaster public interested in understanding this object symbol of local culture. The project planned for interactive exploration on the web is a series of digital models, employing tomographic-endoscopic visualizations and, in future, multi-resolution images. The various models devised allow the visitor to superimpose the Palace's current conditions on the various transformations undergone over the centuries. Similarly, comparisons can be made between the astrological fresco cycle with maps of the heavens, cosmological hypotheses, ancient and contemporary astrological treatises, and the related exchange of knowledge between the Orient and the Occident.

  9. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means.

  10. Human impact and Holocene climatic change in the archaeological site 'Piani della Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelle, Teresa; Scarciglia, Fabio; La Russa, Mauro F.; Natali, Elena; Tinè, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    A pedoarchaeological study was carried out in the archaeological site "Piani della Corona", located on a wide terrace at 500 m a.s.l. along the southwestern coast of Calabria, in southern Italy. The archaeological excavations exhumed an extensive settlement related to old to medium Bronze Age phases and traces of late Neolithic human colonization. On the basis of archaeological finds the pedostratigraphic succession can be partly dated. It consists of soils with variable features and andic properties, which include yellowish-brown (in places more reddish), deep argillic (Bt) horizons with variable amounts of clay coatings in pores and dark brown infillings of soil material rich in organic matter, in places overlaid by thin, severely truncated, brown to dark brown, organic-mineral (A) horizons. These layers include late Neolithic ceramic artefacts (Diana style facies) and typical incineration burials found in biconical vases, that can be referred to 6500-5000 years BP. The prehistoric layers are widely overlaid and strongly superimposed by a paleosurface of the early to medium Bronze age. This surface is affected by many pole holes left by large rectangular, apsidal wooden huts (not preserved), ploughed furrows, excavated cisterns, ditches and trenches, often filled by organic-rich dark brown material. Also hearths with charcoal remains, burials, vases and other diagnostic ceramic fragments occur. The upper portion of the pedostratigraphic succession consists of thicker brown A horizons, that appear cyclically ploughed during historical times (archaeologically not well dated as a consequence of their reworking for agricultural practices), with abrupt irregular boundaries often entering the underlying horizons. Micromorphological observations confirmed the presence of clay coatings within pores of Bt horizons, showing that they represent relict features (i.e. related to inactive illuvial processes, at present), as often fragmented and with smooth-banded to grainy

  11. Geophysic data interperetation of Passo della Morte landslide: Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppe', G.; Costa, G.; Marcato, G.; Forte, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Passo della Morte block-slide covers a relative large area in the Carnic Alps, along the left side of the Tagliamento River, between Forni di Sotto and Ampezzo (N-E of Italy). The high seismicity and the presence of the landslide increase the risk associated to the interest area. Moreover the large volume of material involved in the landslide (a few million of cubic meters), the presence of important infrastructure such as the road and two tunnels which cross the landslide, as well as the presence of the Tagliamento River that flow at the foot of the landslide, make the area very vulnerable. This study concerns with the western part of the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD). It focuses on the potential instability of a rock slope (crossed by road tunnels) and its connection with the DSGSD activity. The main objectives of this study are: monitoring the rock mass movement, studying the seismic site effect and defining the stratigraphic and geological characteristics of involved materials. Two vibration sensors have been installed inside the potential landslide: a short-period seismometer and a piezoelectric transducer. The microseismic activity recorded by the sensors has been analyzed, with particular regard to periods characterized by rapid changes in recorded seismic signals, and then correlated with the precipitation trend to evaluate the existence of a possible correlation between these phenomena. The microseismic activity study has highlighted the existence of a close link between microseisms and acoustic emissions recorded respectively by the seismometer and by the piezoelectric transducer. In addition, the comparison with the rainfall pattern has shown a direct relationship between different rainfall events and the sharp increase of microseismic activity detected by the two instruments. The correlation is good, even if acoustic emissions appear to be more sensitive than microseisms to short duration and low intensity rainfall events. The

  12. Unusual morphological features in a presumably Neolithic individual from Riparo della Rossa, Serra San Quirico (Ancona, Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, G; Pacciani, E; Frederic, P; Caramella Crespi, V

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes human skeletal remains from Riparo della Rossa, a rock shelter in the Marche region (Central Italy). The remains consist of a cranial vault and a few non-articulated postcranial bones, possibly belonging to the same adult individual. As the cranial vault showed some morphological features that are unusual for a modern human (marked prominence of the supraorbital region, very prominent nasal bones and rather high thickness of the vault), an accurate anthropological analysis and quantification of the antiquity of the bones were required. The remains were dated with two different absolute dating methods, AMS (14)C and (235)U-(231)Pa non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry (NDGRS), which produced discordant results: the uncalibrated (14)C dating produced 5690 +/- 80 BP for the cranial vault and 6110 +/- 80 BP for the clavicle; the NDGRS dating produced 10,000 +/- 3000 BP for the cranial vault. The sex discriminant morphological characters on the skull are not unequivocal, though the masculine ones appear more evident. The aims of the present paper are: to provide a morphological and metric description of the remains; to interpret their unusual morphological features; to attempt to attribute them to male or female sex and to one of the possible prehistoric cultural groups, according to dating results (Upper Palaeolithic, Mesolithic or Neolithic). The attribution was obtained by a Bayesian procedure taking into account the reliability of the combined information of morphological/metric features and absolute dating results. The results suggest that the Riparo della Rossa remains are best attributed to a male individual of the Neolithic age. PMID:17241630

  13. Molecular interactions of a soluble gibberellin receptor, GID1, with a rice DELLA protein, SLR1, and gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Katoh, Etsuko; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Asano, Kenji; Saji, Shoko; Hongyu, Xiang; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Kitano, Hidemi; Yamaguchi, Isomaro; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) encodes a soluble gibberellin (GA) receptor that shares sequence similarity with a hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Previously, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assay revealed that the GID1-GA complex directly interacts with SLENDER RICE1 (SLR1), a DELLA repressor protein in GA signaling. Here, we demonstrated, by pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) experiments, that the GA-dependent GID1-SLR1 interaction also occurs in planta. GA(4) was found to have the highest affinity to GID1 in Y2H assays and is the most effective form of GA in planta. Domain analyses of SLR1 using Y2H, gel filtration, and BiFC methods revealed that the DELLA and TVHYNP domains of SLR1 are required for the GID1-SLR1 interaction. To identify the important regions of GID1 for GA and SLR1 interactions, we used many different mutant versions of GID1, such as the spontaneous mutant GID1s, N- and C-terminal truncated GID1s, and mutagenized GID1 proteins with conserved amino acids replaced with Ala. The amino acid residues important for SLR1 interaction completely overlapped the residues required for GA binding that were scattered throughout the GID1 molecule. When we plotted these residues on the GID1 structure predicted by analogy with HSL tertiary structure, many residues were located at regions corresponding to the substrate binding pocket and lid. Furthermore, the GA-GID1 interaction was stabilized by SLR1. Based on these observations, we proposed a molecular model for interaction between GA, GID1, and SLR1.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-12-18

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called "King Medicine". Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis.

  15. Dominant and Pleiotropic Effects of a GAI Gene in Wheat Results from a Lack of Interaction between DELLA and GID11[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Wan, Jianmin; Liu, Xueying; Zhang, Xin; Guo, Xiuping; Zhou, Ronghua; Zhao, Guangyao; Jing, Ruilian; Fu, Xiangdong; Jia, Jizeng

    2011-01-01

    Dominance, semidominance, and recessiveness are important modes of Mendelian inheritance. The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates many plant growth and developmental processes. The previously cloned semidominant GA-insensitive (GAI) genes Reduced height1 (Rht1) and Rht2 in wheat (Triticum aestivum) were the basis of the Green Revolution. However, no completely dominant GAI gene has been cloned. Here, we report the molecular characterization of Rht-B1c, a dominant GAI allele in wheat that confers more extreme characteristics than its incompletely dominant alleles. Rht-B1c is caused by a terminal repeat retrotransposons in miniature insertion in the DELLA domain. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that Rht-B1c protein fails to interact with GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), thereby blocking GA responses and resulting in extreme dwarfism and pleiotropic effects. By contrast, Rht-B1b protein only reduces interaction with GID1. Furthermore, we analyzed its functions using near-isogenic lines and examined its molecular mechanisms in transgenic rice. These results indicated that the affinity between GID1 and DELLA proteins is key to regulation of the stability of DELLA proteins, and differential interactions determine dominant and semidominant gene responses to GA. PMID:22010107

  16. GsGASA1 mediated root growth inhibition in response to chronic cold stress is marked by the accumulation of DELLAs.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Lun; Bai, Xi; Li, Yong; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Tang, Li-Li; Wen, Yi-Dong; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-12-15

    Low, but not freezing temperatures are a major factor limiting plant vegetative growth and development. It is not clear what signaling mechanism is used to limit plant growth in response to chronic low temperatures, thus it is important to continue to isolate and characterize genes whose activity/expression correlate well with cold responses. In this study, a novel GASA gene was isolated from Glycine soja and named GsGASA1. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that GsGASA1 expression responded to exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Compared with wild-type plants under long-term cold treatment, the constitutive expression of GsGASA1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced the inhibition of root elongation, while also increasing the transcript levels of RGL2 and RGL3, two of five DELLA genes in Arabidopsis. DELLA is a class of transcriptional regulators in GA signaling pathway restraining plant growth. Our results imply that GsGASA1 participates in chronic cold-induced root growth inhibition with the accumulation of DELLA genes. Lastly, a subcellular localization study using a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion protein indicated that GsGASA1 was localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus.

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in GA-GID1-DELLA Regulatory Module in Symbiotic and Asymbiotic Seed Germination of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Si-Si; Chen, Juan; Li, Shu-Chao; Zeng, Xu; Meng, Zhi-Xia; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant in China, also called “King Medicine”. Due to lacking of sufficient nutrients in dust-like seeds, orchid species depend on mycorrhizal fungi for seed germination in the wild. As part of a conservation plan for the species, research on seed germination is necessary. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination and underlying orchid-fungus interactions during symbiotic germination are poorly understood. In this study, Illumina HiSeq 4000 transcriptome sequencing was performed to generate a substantial sequence dataset of germinating A. roxburghii seed. A mean of 44,214,845 clean reads were obtained from each sample. 173,781 unigenes with a mean length of 653 nt were obtained. A total of 51,514 (29.64%) sequences were annotated, among these, 49 unigenes encoding proteins involved in GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, including 31 unigenes involved in GA metabolism pathway, 5 unigenes encoding GID1, 11 unigenes for DELLA and 2 unigenes for GID2. A total of 11,881 genes showed significant differential expression in the symbiotic germinating seed sample compared with the asymbiotic germinating seed sample, of which six were involved in the GA-GID1-DELLA regulatory module, and suggested that they might be induced or suppressed by fungi. These results will help us understand better the molecular mechanism of orchid seed germination and orchid-fungus symbiosis. PMID:26694378

  18. A scientific approach to the characterization of the painting materials of Fra Mattia della Robbia polychrome terracotta altarpiece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadori, M. L.; Barcelli, S.; Casoli, A.; Mazzeo, R.; Prati, S.

    2013-12-01

    During the last restoration (2008-2011) of the polychrome terracotta altarpiece called Coronation of Virgin between Saints Rocco, Sebastian, Peter martyr and Antonio abbot, located in the collegiate church of S. Maria Assunta in Montecassiano (Macerata, Italy), scientific investigations were carried out to acquire detailed information about the painting technique. The identification of materials allowed a correct restoration. The altarpiece is almost entirely realized by Marco della Robbia (Fra Mattia), dates back to the first half of the XVI century and represents an interesting example of painted terracotta produced by using two different techniques: glazed polychrome terracotta and the "cold painting" technique. The characterization of the samples' material constituents was obtained by analysing the cross-sections and the fragments by different techniques (optical, SEM-EDS and ATR-FTIR microscopy as well as GC-MS), as the real nature of a component is often difficult to assess with one single technique. The optical microscope examination of paint cross-sections shows the presence of many layers, indicating the complexity of the paint stratigraphic morphologies. The original polychromy of della Robbia's masterpiece is constituted of cinnabar, red lake, red lead, orpiment, red ochre, lead white, lead tin yellow, green earth and raw umber. Two different types of gilding technique have been distinguished. The first one presents a glue mordant, and the second one shows an oil mordant composed by a mixture of red lead, red ochre, cinnabar and orpiment. The GC-MS analysis allowed the characterisation of linseed oil and a mixture of animal glue and egg as binding media stratigraphically located by the use of ATR-FTIR mapping microscopy. The analytical results of the painted terracotta integrated investigations show that original technique adopted is characterised by the application of pigments in an oil-binding medium directly applied on the substrates, probably treated

  19. Spectroscopic study of the degradation products in the holy water fonts in Santa Maria della Steccata Church in Parma (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bersani, D; Campani, E; Casoli, A; Lottici, P P; Marino, I-G

    2008-03-01

    Two holy water fonts (dated at the beginning of the XVII century) in the Santa Maria della Steccata Church in Parma (Italy) have recently been restored. Before the intervention, a detailed investigation on their degradation products was carried out to understand the mechanisms of alteration of the materials and to suggest appropriate restoration procedures. The analyses were performed by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopies. Calcite, iron oxides, silicates and sodium chloride (from salted holy water) were found in the red coloured calcarenite. On and under the lead coverings, different lead oxides (mainly massicot), other lead salts (lead basic carbonate, cerussite, plumbonacrite Pb10O(OH)6(CO3)6 and lead-chlorine compounds as laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2CO3Cl2) were identified by Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Haematite alpha-Fe2O3, goethite alpha-FeO(OH) and lepidocrocite gamma-FeO(OH) were found on and around the iron hinges. Lead compounds and sodium chloride, through crystallization and solubilization cycles, were responsible for the stone's degradation, whereas the iron corrosion materials on the hinges produced mechanical stress and cracks in the stone. Various suggestions have been given on how to restore these fonts and to remove the causes of damage.

  20. DELLA Proteins and Their Interacting RING Finger Proteins Repress Gibberellin Responses by Binding to the Promoters of a Subset of Gibberellin-Responsive Genes in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeongmoo; Nguyen, Khoa Thi; Park, Eunae; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Choi, Giltsu

    2013-01-01

    DELLA proteins, consisting of GA INSENSITIVE, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3, are central repressors of gibberellin (GA) responses, but their molecular functions are not fully understood. We isolated four DELLA-interacting RING domain proteins, previously designated as BOTRYTIS SUSCEPTIBLE1 INTERACTOR (BOI), BOI-RELATED GENE1 (BRG1), BRG2, and BRG3 (collectively referred to as BOIs). Single mutants of each BOI gene failed to significantly alter GA responses, but the boi quadruple mutant (boiQ) showed a higher seed germination frequency in the presence of paclobutrazol, precocious juvenile-to-adult phase transition, and early flowering, all of which are consistent with enhanced GA signaling. By contrast, BOI overexpression lines displayed phenotypes consistent with reduced GA signaling. Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses. At the molecular level, BOIs did not significantly alter the stability of a DELLA protein. Instead, BOI and DELLA proteins are targeted to the promoters of a subset of GA-responsive genes and repress their expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the DELLA and BOI proteins inhibit GA responses by interacting with each other, binding to the same promoters of GA-responsive genes, and repressing these genes. PMID:23482857

  1. Solar eruptive filament studies at USO for the COMESEP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, N.; Crosby, N.; Veronig, A.; Robrrecht, E.; Vršnak, B.; Vennerstrom, S.; Malandraki, O.; Dalla, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Hesse, M.; Odstrcil, D.

    The Coronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) project is developing tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms. By analysis of historical solar and interplanetary data, complemented with the extensive data coverage of solar cycle 23, the key ingredients that lead to geomagnetic storms, SEP events and the factors that are responsible for false alarms are being identified. Based on the insights gained, and making use of algorithms for the automated detection of CMEs, forecasting tools for geomagnetic and SEP radiation storms will be developed and optimised. Validation and implementation of the developed tools into an operational Space Weather Alert system will be performed. COMESEP is a unique cross collaboration effort and bridges the gap between the SEP, CME and terrestrial effects scientific communities. The role of the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO) in addressing some of the goals of this project are highlighted in this paper. In particular, USO is engaged in studying the CMEs associated with eruptive filaments. We describe the studies undertaken to understand space weather effects related to these CMEs.

  2. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  3. A missense mutation in the VHYNP motif of a DELLA protein causes a semi-dwarf mutant phenotype in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Jilin; Huang, Tiandai; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Fang; Cheng, Xiaomao; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Shuwen; Wu, Jiangsheng; Liu, Kede

    2010-07-01

    Although dwarf genes have been widely used to improve lodging resistance and enhance harvest index in cereal crops, lodging is still a serious problem in rapeseed (Brassica napus) production. A semi-dwarf B. napus mutant, ds-1, was identified through EMS mutagenesis of a microspore-cultured DH line. The mutant had a significant reduction in height due to a lower first branch position and shorter internodes when compared with wild-type cultivars. This dwarfism was inherited as a single semi-dominant gene, ds-1. DS-1 locus was mapped to chromosome A6, and co-segregated with a microsatellite marker BnEMS1125 derived from the gene BnRGA. BnRGA encodes a DELLA protein that functions as a GA signaling repressor. The expression of a mutant BnRGA allele from ds-1, Bnrga-ds, caused dwarf phenotypes in Arabidopsis. Comparative sequencing of RGA open-reading frames (ORFs) of ds-1 and wild-type cultivars revealed a single proline (P)-to-leucine (L) substitution that may lead to a gain-of-function mutation in GA signaling. The expression of the Arabidopsis homolog, Atrga-ds, bearing this site-directed mutation also rendered dwarf phenotypes in Arabidopsis, which demonstrated that the P-to-L mutation in the VHYNP motif of Bnrga-ds is responsible for the dwarfism. A yeast two-hybrid assay confirmed that this mutation inhibited the interaction between Bnrga-ds/Atrga-ds and the GA receptor, AtGID1A, in the presence of GA(3), suggesting that the conserved proline residue in the VHYNP motif of DELLA protein directly participates in DELLA-GID1 interaction. Identification and characterization of the dwarf gene ds-1 will facilitate its utilization in improving lodging resistance in Brassica breeding.

  4. Phase III of the USO Solar Vector Magnetograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosain, S.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    The solar vector magnetograph (SVM) is a modern imaging spectropolarimeter installed at Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO). Earlier phases saw the development of the instrument using off-the-shelf components with in-house software development. Subsequently, improvements were done in the opto-mechanical design of the sub-systems and the telescope tracking system. The third phase of the instrument development saw three major improvements: (1) installation of a web-camera-based telescope guiding system, developed in-house, (2) high-cadence spectropolarimetry using liquid-crystal variable retarders and a fast CCD camera, and (3) inclusion of the Na I D1 line for chromospheric observations, in addition to the regularly used photospheric Fe I 6302 Å line.

  5. Measurements of Ultra-Stable Oscillator (USO) Allan Deviations in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, William M.; Wang, Rabi T.; Dunn, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have used data from the GRAIL mission to the Moon to make the first in-flight verification of ultra-stable oscillators (USOs) with Allan deviation below 10 13 for 1-to-100-second averaging times. USOs are flown in space to provide stable timing and/or navigation signals for a variety of different science and programmatic missions. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission is flying twin spacecraft, each with its own USO and with a Ka-band crosslink used to measure range fluctuations. Data from this crosslink can be combined in such a way as to give the relative time offsets of the two spacecrafts USOs and to calculate the Allan deviation to describe the USOs combined performance while orbiting the Moon. Researchers find the first direct in-space Allan deviations below 10(exp -13) for 1-to-100-second averaging times comparable to pre-launch data, and better than measurements from ground tracking of an X-band carrier coherent with the USO. Fluctuations in Earth s atmosphere limit measurement performance in direct-to-Earth links. Inflight USO performance verification was also performed for GRAIL s parent mission, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), using both Kband and Ka-band crosslinks.

  6. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate

  7. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Barreda, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment currently provides potable water dispensing capability for crewmember food and beverage rehydration. All ISS crewmembers rehydrate Russian and U.S. style food packages from this location. A new United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) is under development. This unit will provide additional potable water dispensing capability to support an onorbit crew of six. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to U.S. style food packages. It will receive iodinated water from the Fuel Cell Water Bus in the U.S. Laboratory element. The unit will provide potable-quality water, including active removal of biocidal iodine prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit will be able to supply up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity will allow three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. It will be the size of two stacked Shuttle Middeck lockers (approximately the size of two small suitcases) and integrated into a science payload rack in the U.S. Laboratory element. Providing potable-quality water at the proper temperature for food and beverage reconstitution is critical to maintaining crew health and well-being. The numerous engineering challenges as well as human factors and safety considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in this paper.

  8. Relaxing USOS Solar Array Constraints for Russian Vehicle Undocking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkin, Evgeny; Schrock, Mariusz; Schrock, Rita; Zaczek, Mariusz; Gomez, Susan; Lee, Roscoe; Bennet, George

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of Space Shuttle cargo delivery capability and the ten year life extension of the International Space Station (ISS) more emphasis is being put on preservation of the service life of ISS critical components. Current restrictions on the United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Solar Array (SA) positioning during Russian Vehicle (RV) departure from ISS nadir and zenith ports cause SA to be positioned in the plume field of Service Module thrusters and lead to degradation of SAs as well as potential damage to Sun tracking Beta Gimbal Assemblies (BGA). These restrictions are imposed because of the single fault tolerant RV Motion Control System (MCS), which does not meet ISS Safety requirements for catastrophic hazards and dictates 16 degree Solar Array Rotary Joint position, which ensures that ISS and RV relative motion post separation, does lead to collision. The purpose of this paper is to describe a methodology and the analysis that was performed to determine relative motion trajectories of the ISS and separating RV for nominal and contingency cases. Analysis was performed in three phases that included ISS free drift prior to Visiting Vehicle separation, ISS and Visiting Vehicle relative motion analysis and clearance analysis. First, the ISS free drift analysis determined the worst case attitude and attitude rate excursions prior to RV separation based on a series of different configurations and mass properties. Next, the relative motion analysis calculated the separation trajectories while varying the initial conditions, such as docking mechanism performance, Visiting Vehicle MCS failure, departure port location, ISS attitude and attitude rates at the time of separation, etc. The analysis employed both orbital mechanics and rigid body rotation calculations while accounting for various atmospheric conditions and gravity gradient effects. The resulting relative motion trajectories were then used to determine the worst case separation envelopes during

  9. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Ma, Nan; Pei, Haixia; Chen, Jiwei; Li, Jing; Gao, Junping

    2013-11-01

    Ethylene plays an important role in organ growth. In Arabidopsis, ethylene can inhibit root elongation by stabilizing DELLA proteins. In previous work, it was found that ethylene suppressed cell expansion in rose petals, and five unisequences of DELLA genes are induced by ethylene. However, the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of DELLA genes by ethylene is still not clear. The results showed that the expression of RhGAI1 was induced in both ethylene-treated and ETR gene-silenced rose petals, and the promoter activity of RhGAI1 was strongly induced by RhEIN3-3 in Arabidopsis protoplasts. What is more, RhEIN3-3 could bind to the promoter of RhGAI1 directly in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Cell expansion was suppressed in RhGAI1-Δ17-overexpressed Arabidopsis petals and promoted in RhGAI1-silenced rose petals. Moreover, in RhGAI1-silenced petals, the expression of nine cell expansion-related genes was clearly changed, and RhGAI1 can bind to the promoter of RhCesA2 in an EMSA. These results suggested that RhGAI1 was regulated by ethylene at the transcriptional level, and RhGAI1 was a direct target of RhEIN3-3. Also, RhGAI1 was shown to be involved in cell expansion partially through regulating the expression of cell expansion-related genes. Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses.

  10. Characterization of the procera tomato mutant shows novel functions of the SlDELLA protein in the control of flower morphology, cell division and expansion, and the auxin-signaling pathway during fruit-set and development.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-11-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA₃. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA₃ or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA₃ application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

  11. The Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom) Natural Genetic Variation Rg1 and the DELLA Mutant Procera Control the Competence Necessary to Form Adventitious Roots and Shoots

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide use of plant regeneration for biotechnological purposes, the signals that allow cells to become competent to assume different fates remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that the Regeneration1 (Rg1) allele, a natural genetic variation from the tomato wild relative Solanum peruvianum, increases the capacity to form both roots and shoots in vitro; and that the gibberellin constitutive mutant procera (pro) presented the opposite phenotype, reducing organogenesis on either root-inducing medium (RIM) or shoot-inducing medium (SIM). Mutants showing alterations in the formation of specific organs in vitro were the auxin low-sensitivity diageotropica (dgt), the lateral suppresser (ls), and the KNOX-overexpressing Mouse ears (Me). dgt failed to form roots on RIM, Me increased shoot formation on SIM, and the high capacity for in vitro shoot formation of ls contrasted with its recalcitrance to form axillary meristems. Interestingly, Rg1 rescued the in vitro organ formation capacity in proRg1 and dgtRg1 double mutants and the ex vitro low lateral shoot formation in pro and ls. Such epistatic interactions were also confirmed in gene expression and histological analyses conducted in the single and double mutants. Although Me phenocopied the high shoot formation of Rg1 on SIM, it failed to increase rooting on RIM and to rescue the non-branching phenotype of ls. Taken together, these results suggest REGENERATION1 and the DELLA mutant PROCERA as controlling a common competence to assume distinct cell fates, rather than the specific induction of adventitious roots or shoots, which is controlled by DIAGEOTROPICA and MOUSE EARS, respectively. PMID:22915742

  12. Knockdown of a JmjC domain-containing gene JMJ524 confers altered gibberellin responses by transcriptional regulation of GRAS protein lacking the DELLA domain genes in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinhua; Yu, Chuying; Wu, Hua; Luo, Zhidan; Ouyang, Bo; Cui, Long; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Plants integrate responses to independent hormonal and environmental signals to survive adversity. In particular, the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates a variety of developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, the Jumonji-C (JmjC) domain-containing gene JMJ524 was characterized in tomato. JMJ524 responded to circadian rhythms and was upregulated by GA treatment. Knockdown of JMJ524 by RNAi caused a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype with shrunken leaves and shortened internodes. However, in these transgenic plants, higher levels of endogenous GAs were detected. A genome-wide gene expression analysis by RNA-seq indicated that the expression levels of two DELLA-like genes, SlGLD1 (‘GRAS protein Lacking the DELLA domain’) and SlGLD2, were increased in JMJ524-RNAi transgenic plants. Nevertheless, only the overexpression of SlGLD1 in tomato resulted in a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype, suggesting that SlGLD1 acts as a repressor of GA signalling. This study proposes that JMJ524 is required for stem elongation by altering GA responses, at least partially by regulating SlGLD1. PMID:25680796

  13. Application of some integrated non-invasive sensing techniqes for conservation and restoration of the Underground Church and frescoes of S. Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary, Matera (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembo, Filiberto; Marino, Francesco P.; Ambrosecchia, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Santa Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary was built in XV century on a pre-existing medioeval crypt, in a splendid landscape situation, on the front looking south of the ravine on which stands Matera, integrating in a wonderful way underground and sub divo building; in fairly following time one important cycle of frescoes renewed decoration of underground church. In the long run, felt the building into decay, structures and frescoes were flooded and damaged; so that from 1980 were executed important restoration works, realizing ventilation canals under the floor of hypogeic church, in which were incorporated heating pipes, joined to solar thermic panels, wanting to determine the thermo-hygrometric optimum conditions for conservation. Almost thirty years after, willing restorate the frescoes, it was necessary to caracterize completely and objectively physical existing conditions. So was used an integrated mix of some non-invasive sensing techniques: - internal and external high resolution Sanctuary's measurement, using laser scanner 3D, in WebGIS ambient, so as to specify, in particular, whether dimensional data of non accessible parts (thickness of rock-bank, morphology and way of lying down of fracture lines), whether consistence state of frescoes; - thermo-hygrometrical sensing of surfaces, using infrared thermography, during a time of two weeks, in correspondence of many storm, so that to establish the relation between eventual atmospherical conditions variations and changes in conditions of surfaces; - continuous sensing of condition of surfaces, by means of thermo-hygrometrical and temperature sounds; - continuous sensing of operating temperature, by means of a globothermometer; all these tools were linked in a net with a data logger, and informations were transmitted using Web to computer in the office of the Society responsible for the procedure. Remote sensing integrated system proved high liability, allowing many important functions : - to georefer all data

  14. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  15. Golgi Disruption and Early Embryonic Lethality in Mice Lacking USO1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Susie; Hill, Adele; Warman, Matthew L.; Smits, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Golgins are a family of long rod-like proteins characterized by the presence of central coiled-coil domains. Members of the golgin family have important roles in membrane trafficking, where they function as tethering factors that capture transport vesicles and facilitate membrane fusion. Golgin family members also have essential roles in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Knockdown of individual golgins in cultured cells resulted in the disruption of the Golgi structure and the dispersal of Golgi marker proteins throughout the cytoplasm. However, these cellular phenotypes have not always been recapitulated in vivo. For example, embryonic development proceeds much further than expected and Golgi disruption was observed in only a subset of cell types in mice lacking the ubiquitously expressed golgin GMAP-210. Cell-type specific functional compensation among golgins may explain the absence of global cell lethality when a ubiquitously expressed golgin is missing. In this study we show that functional compensation does not occur for the golgin USO1. Mice lacking this ubiquitously expressed protein exhibit disruption of Golgi structure and early embryonic lethality, indicating that USO1 is indispensable for early embryonic development. PMID:23185636

  16. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters On-orbit vs Design Performance Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Borrego, Melissa Ann; Bahr, Juergen F.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) received the first two permanent ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) on Utility Logistics Flight Two (ULF2) in November 2008. Up to four CQs can be installed into the Node 2 element to increase the ISS crewmember size to six. The CQs provide private crewmember space with enhanced acoustic noise mitigation, integrated radiation reduction material, communication equipment, redundant electrical systems, and redundant caution and warning systems. The racksized CQ is a system with multiple crewmember restraints, adjustable lighting, controllable ventilation, and interfaces that allow each crewmember to personalize their CQ workspace. The deployment and initial operational checkout during integration of the ISS CQ to the Node is described. Additionally, the comparison of on-orbit to original design performance is outlined for the following key operational parameters: interior acoustic performance, air flow rate, temperature rise, and crewmember feedback on provisioning and restraint layout.

  17. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality vs Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmembers food and drinking packages with one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. The USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) was delivered to ISS on ULF2, Shuttle Mission STS-126, and was subsequently activated in November 2008. The PWD activation on ISS is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six but nominally supplies only half the crew. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US style food packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Laboratory Fuel Cell Water Bus, which is fed from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity supports three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance has been acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there have been several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is outlined for the following key areas: microbiology, PWD to food package water leakage, no-dispense scenarios, under-dispense scenarios, and crewmember feedback on actual on-orbit use.

  18. Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloni, O. I.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

  19. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser On-Orbit Functionality Versus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lovell, Randal W.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides potable water dispensing for rehydrating crewmember food and drinking packages. There is one system located in the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and one system in the Russian Segment. Shuttle mission STS-126 delivered the USOS Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) to ISS on ULF2; subsequent activation occurred on November 2008. The PWD is capable of supporting an ISS crew of six, but nominally supplies only half this crew size. The PWD design provides incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to US food and beverage packages. PWD receives iodinated water from the US Water Recovery System (WRS) Fuel Cell Water Bus, which feeds from the Water Processing Assembly (WPA). The PWD removes the biocidal iodine to make the water potable prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit supplies up to 2.0 L of hot water (65 to 93 ?C) every 30 min. During a single meal, this quantity of water supports three to four crewmembers? food rehydration and beverages. The unit design has a functional life expectancy of 10 years, with replacement of limited life items, such as filters. To date, the PWD on-orbit performance is acceptable. Since activation of the PWD, there were several differences between on-orbit functionality and expected performance of hardware design. The comparison of on-orbit functionality to performance of hardware design is discussed for the following key areas: 1) microbial contamination, 2) no-dispense and water leakage scenarios, and 3) under-dispense scenarios.

  20. One-way return-link Doppler navigation with the Tracking and Data Satellite System (TDRSS) - The ultrastable oscillator (USO) experiment on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.; Nemesure, M.; Teles, J.; Brown-Conwell, E. R.; Jackson, J. A.; Reamy, V. L.; Maher, M. J.; Elrod, B. D.

    1990-01-01

    The principal objectives of the USO experiment on the COBE spacecraft are defined, and results of space qualification studies for the COBE USO experiment are summarized. The principal objectives of the experiment are: (1) to determine flight performance of the USO coupled to the second-generation TDRSS transponder; (2) space qualify TDRSS noncoherent one-way return-link Doppler tracking; and (3) analyze algorithms for one-way navigation with real data. The three objectives of the experiment have been met in the first stage of the experiment analysis.

  1. Optomechanical and thermal design of the Multi-Application Solar Telescope for USO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, Stefan; Coucke, Pierre; Gabriel, Eric; Delrez, Christophe; Venkatakrishnan, Parameshwaran

    2008-07-01

    The Multi-Application Solar Telescope (MAST) is a 50 cm diameter class telescope to be installed on the Udaipur Solar Observatory's Island on the Lake Fatehsagar in Udaipur, India. It is dedicated to solar observation. The telescope is designed, manufactured, assembled and installed on-site by the belgian company AMOS SA for the Udaipur Solar Observatory (USO), an academic division of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in India. Despite its limited size, the telescope is expected to be competitive with respect to worldwide large and costly projects thanks to its versatility regarding science goals and also thanks to its demanding optomechanical and thermal specification. This paper describes the optomechanical and thermal design of this telescope and presents solutions adopted by AMOS to meet the specific requirements. The optical configuration of the telescope is based on an afocal off-axis gregorian combination integrated on an Alt.-Az. mechanical mount, with a suite of flat folding mirrors to provide the required stationary collimated beam.

  2. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  3. Characterization of the procera Tomato Mutant Shows Novel Functions of the SlDELLA Protein in the Control of Flower Morphology, Cell Division and Expansion, and the Auxin-Signaling Pathway during Fruit-Set and Development1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA3. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA3 or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA3 application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

  4. The rise of the hominids as an adaptive shift in fallback foods: plant underground storage organs (USOs) and australopith origins.

    PubMed

    Laden, Greg; Wrangham, Richard

    2005-10-01

    We propose that a key change in the evolution of hominids from the last common ancestor shared with chimpanzees was the substitution of plant underground storage organs (USOs) for herbaceous vegetation as fallback foods. Four kinds of evidence support this hypothesis: (1) dental and masticatory adaptations of hominids in comparison with the African apes; (2) changes in australopith dentition in the fossil record; (3) paleoecological evidence for the expansion of USO-rich habitats in the late Miocene; and (4) the co-occurrence of hominid fossils with root-eating rodents. We suggest that some of the patterning in the early hominid fossil record, such as the existence of gracile and robust australopiths, may be understood in reference to this adaptive shift in the use of fallback foods. Our hypothesis implicates fallback foods as a critical limiting factor with far-reaching evolutionary effects. This complements the more common focus on adaptations to preferred foods, such as fruit and meat, in hominid evolution.

  5. Actitudes de los candidatos y maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca del uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayuelo, Ezequiel

    Este estudio examino y comparo las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros de ciencias y los maestros de ciencias en servicio acerca de la utilizacion de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Tambien identifico y diferencio el uso que ellos dan a estas herramientas en las clases de ciencias. Este estudio presenta un diseno descriptivo exploratorio. Constituyeron la muestra trescientos diez sujetos que fueron candidatos a maestros de ciencias o maestros de ciencias en servicio. Para recoger los datos se construyo y valido un cuestionario de treinta y un itemes. Se utilizaron las pruebas estadisticas no parametricas Kruskal Wallis y Chi-cuadrado (test de homogeneidad) para establecer las diferencias entre las actitudes de los sujetos con relacion al uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. Los hallazgos evidenciaron que son positivas y muy parecidas las actitudes de los candidatos a maestros y maestros en servicio hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas. No hubo diferencias entre los candidatos y maestros en servicio en terminos de las actitudes de confianza y empatia hacia el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en las clases de ciencias. En aspectos como el uso del banco de datos bibliografico Eric y el uso de las herramientas computadorizadas en actividades educativas como explorar conceptos, conceptuar, aplicar lo aprendido y hacer asignaciones hubo diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre los candidatos y los maestros en servicio. Al comparar las frecuencias observadas con las esperadas hubo mas maestros en servicio y menos candidatos que indicaron usar el anterior banco de datos y las herramientas computadorizadas en las mencionadas actividades educativas.

  6. Comparison of frequency, diagnostic and prognostic significance of pericardial involvement in acute myocardial infarction treated with and without thrombolytics. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI).

    PubMed

    Correale, E; Maggioni, A P; Romano, S; Ricciardiello, V; Battista, R; Salvarola, G; Santoro, E; Tognoni, G

    1993-06-15

    Data from the Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico (GISSI) trial were reviewed to describe the epidemiology of pericardial involvement in patients treated with or without thrombolysis, and to establish its role as a marker of the extent of myocardial infarction and its prognostic value. In both GISSI-1 (n = 11,806) and 2 (n = 12,381), a specific item regarding presence/absence of clinically detected pericardial involvement was included in the study forms. In GISSI-1, patients with ST elevation and depression at the onset of myocardial infarction were admitted, whereas GISSI-2 included only those with ST elevation. Results of univariate analysis are presented as Mantel-Haenszel-Peto odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the independent prognostic significance of pericardial involvement for in-hospital and long-term mortality. The main results indicate that: (1) the incidence of pericardial involvement in patients treated with thrombolytic agents is approximately half of that in the control group (6.7 vs 12.0%); (2) the earlier is the treatment, the lower is the incidence of pericardial involvement; (3) pericardial involvement is strongly associated with infarction size, evaluated by electrocardiograms, creatine kinase peak and echo assessments; and (4) pericardial involvement is associated with a higher long-term mortality, but is not an independent prognostic factor (RR 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.82-1.26). Pericardial involvement is a reliable bedside, cost-free marker of myocardial infarction size and poorer outcome. Because it may elude detection owing to its transitory and often short duration, it should be given greater attention.

  7. Modification of the International Space Station USOS to Support Installation and Activation of the Node 3 Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Williams, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program is nearing an assembly complete configuration with the addition of the final resource node module in early 2010. The Node 3 module will provide critical functionality in support of permanent long duration crews aboard ISS. The new module will permanently house the regenerative Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and will also provide important habitability functions such as waste management and exercise facilities. The ISS program has selected the Port side of the Node 1 "Unity" module as the permanent location for Node 3 which will necessitate architecture changes to provide the required interfaces. The USOS ECLSS fluid and ventilation systems, Internal Thermal Control Systems, and Avionics Systems require significant modifications in order to support Node 3 interfaces at the Node 1 Port location since it was not initially designed for that configuration. This paper outlines the design, development, certification, and implementation of these changes in support of ISS assembly complete.

  8. Reflexión bioética sobre el uso de organismos genéticamente modificados

    PubMed Central

    Yunta, Eduardo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    El presente artículo reflexiona desde los 4 principios de la bioética el uso comercial de organismos genéticamente modificados. Se cuestiona fundamentalmente la falta de transferencia de tecnología entre el mundo desarrollado y en desarrollo y el que el presente sistema de patentamiento de organismos vivos modificados fomenta intereses comerciales y no da debida importancia al desarrollo sostenible de la agricultura y ganadería en los países en desarrollo, donde más se necesita. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia que tiene evaluar los riesgos antes de introducirse en el mercado organismos genéticamente modificados y la necesidad de regulación en los países. PMID:21927675

  9. Enhancement in mineralization of a number of natural refractory organic compounds by the combined process of sonolysis and ozonolysis (US/O3).

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Elena, David; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2011-05-01

    As an advanced oxidation process, the combination of sonolysis (US)/ozonolysis (O(3)) was investigated on the treatment of tannic acid (TA) and humic acid (HA). In this study, biodegradable chemicals were found by the molecular weight and GC-MS analysis method, and mineralization rate and synergetic effects were also studied. For the water samples prior to the treatment of US/O(3), ratios of molecular size higher than 5000 and 2000 Da for HA and TA, detected by the ultra filtration method, were 90.25% and 89.53%, respectively. However, after 0.5h of reacting, this ratio rapidly reduced to 3% and 4%, and the ratios of molecules for HA and TA less than 500 Da rapidly increased from 0.8% to 41% and from 0.65% to 39%, respectively. In the results of chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)) and total organic carbon (TOC) reductions, the US/O(3) process also showed synergetic effect by US/O(3) for COD(Cr) of HA and TA were 19% and 11%, and those for TOC of HA and TA were 0% and 1%, respectively. The major by-products of the oxidation process included formaldehyde, acetone, hydroxylamine, etc. Biological decomposable materials could be indirectly inferred by measuring the molecular weights and intermediates.

  10. p115 is a general vesicular transport factor related to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport factor Uso1p.

    PubMed Central

    Sapperstein, S K; Walter, D M; Grosvenor, A R; Heuser, J E; Waters, M G

    1995-01-01

    A recently discovered vesicular transport factor, termed p115, is required along with N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and soluble NSF attachment proteins for in vitro Golgi transport. p115 is a peripheral membrane protein found predominantly on the Golgi. Biochemical and electron microscopic analyses indicate that p115 is an elongated homodimer with two globular "heads" and an extended "tail" reminiscent of myosin II. We have cloned and sequenced cDNAs for bovine and rat p115. The predicted translation products are 90% identical, and each can be divided into three domains. The predicted 108-kDa bovine protein consists of an N-terminal 73-kDa globular domain followed by a 29-kDa coiled-coil dimerization domain, a linker segment of 4 kDa, and a highly acidic domain of 3 kDa. p115 is related to Uso1p, a protein required for endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi vesicular transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which has a similar "head-coil-acid" domain structure. The p115 and Uso1p heads are similar in size, have approximately 25% sequence identity, and possess two highly homologous regions (62% and 60% identity over 34 and 53 residues, respectively). There is a third region of homology (50% identity over 28 residues) between the coiled-coil and acidic domains. Although the acidic nature of the p115 and Uso1p C termini is conserved, the primary sequence is not. We discuss these results in light of the proposed function of p115 in membrane targeting and/or fusion. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7831323

  11. Modelizacion, control e implementacion de un procesador energetico paralelo para aplicacion en sistemas multisalida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreres Sabater, Agustin

    Cualquier sistema electronico que incluya un procesado o tratamiento de la senal, y ademas, algun tipo de actuador mecanico generalmente necesita, como minimo, dos tensiones diferentes de alimentacion. Excluyendo los sistemas de alimentacion distribuida, la solucion tecnica mas utilizada para proporcionar dos o mas tensiones consiste en las fuentes de alimentacion multisalida. En una fuente de alimentacion multisalida los diferentes circuitos que conforman cada salida comparten un mismo transformador de potencia optimizando coste, masa, y volumen. Las ventajas obtenidas con este procedimiento tienen en su contra el efecto que sobre cada salida individual provocan las demas en su conjunto debido, principalmente, a los efectos de los elementos parasitos de los componentes. Un cambio de carga en una de las salidas produce un transitorio que es visto por todas las demas como un efecto de impedancia cruzada, y al final del transitorio, la tension de cada salida es diferente respecto a la que tenian antes del transitorio. Este ultimo resultado se conoce como regulacion cruzada. La disminucion de los efectos de la regulacion cruzada ha sido objeto de estudio durante los ultimos anos. El objetivo ha sido el desarrollo de distintas estrategias que permiten, desde disminuir los efectos de la regulacion cruzada hasta los niveles deseables, a eliminarla completamente. El resultado final suele suponer una penalizacion sobre el diseno del sistema directamente proporcional al grado de regulacion a conseguir en las distintas salidas. Entre las soluciones propuestas para eliminar la regulacion cruzada las tecnicas de post-regulacion se han consolidado como la opcion mas aceptada ya que, pueden aplicarse a cualquier convertidor y no suponen ninguna complejidad adicional a la hora de plantear el diseno. En esta Tesis Doctoral se abordara el estudio de la tecnica conocida como postregulacion mediante transformador controlado, que si bien se ha empleado en convertidores resonantes, su modelizacion, y aplicacion en convertidores PWM, esta aun por estudiar y valorar. El primer Capitulo consiste en una breve introduccion al problema de la regulacion cruzada y la impedancia cruzada para posteriormente describir las tecnicas de post-regulacion actualmente mas empleadas, con especial atencion al post-regulador con transformador controlado. El Capitulo segundo trata del estudio de las caracteristicas estaticas del postregulador con transformador controlado. Partiendo de los estudios disponibles sobre el postregulador se plantean mejoras en su modo de actuacion y se discuten tres alternativas diferentes para controlar el transformador. Las dos primeras consisten en emplear un convertidor auxiliar Boost en sus dos modos de funcionamiento, continuo y discontinuo. La tercera consiste en controlar el transformador con una tension PWM directamente, sin filtrado. Finalmente se comprueba experimentalmente, para el estado estacionario, el funcionamiento del post-regulador para cada uno de los tres metodos de control. El Capitulo tercero trata de la dinamica de la salida controlada con el post-regulador cuando este emplea un convertidor auxiliar tipo Boost. Mediante la tecnica de promediado de variables de estado se propone el modelo de pequena senal, tanto para el modo continuo como para el modo discontinuo de funcionamiento del convertidor auxiliar. Los resultados mas significativos de esta seccion son las expresiones analiticas de las impedancias cruzadas y de la impedancia de la salida post-regulada. Como complemento al modelo de pequena senal se plantea un modelo de gran senal implementado sobre el simulador Pspice. Con este nuevo modelo se reproducen los resultados obtenidos con el modelo de pequena senal y ademas es posible simular los transitorios en las tensiones de salida ante cambios de carga. La modelizacion del convertidor cuando el transformador se controla con una tension PWM sin filtrar es el objetivo del Capitulo 4. En las secciones siguientes del Capitulo se plantea el correspondiente modelo de gran senal aplicado a un nuevo prototipo experimental, de mayor tension de entrada y mayores corrientes de salida. El final del Capitulo contrasta los resultados experimentales con los teoricos confirmando la utilidad del modelo de gran senal como una herramienta basica de diseno. Finalmente, en el Capitulo 5, se presentan las conclusiones y la valoracion de los diferentes estudios plateados a lo largo de la Tesis Doctoral.

  12. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  13. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown.

  14. Red blood cell oleic acid levels reflect olive oil intake while omega-3 levels reflect fish intake and the use of omega-3 acid ethyl esters: The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, William S; Masson, Serge; Barlera, Simona; Milani, Valentina; Pileggi, Silvana; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Tavazzi, Luigi; Latini, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto Miocardico-Heart Failure (GISSI-HF) study reported benefits of n-3 fatty acid (FA) treatment on cardiovascular (CV) events, but the effects of treatment on a putative CV disease risk factor, the red blood cell (RBC) n-3 FA level (the omega-3 index), have not been examined in this context. We hypothesized that treatment with prescription omega-3 acid ethyl esters (O3AEE) would increase the omega-3 index to the proposed cardioprotective value of 8%. RBCs were collected from a subset of patients participating in the GISSI-HF study (n=461 out of 6975 randomized), at baseline and after 3 months of treatment with either an olive oil placebo or O3AEE (1 g/d). RBC FA levels were expressed as a percentage of total FA. Patients also reported their typical olive oil and fish intakes. RBC oleic acid levels were directly correlated with reported frequency of olive oil consumption, and the omega-3 index was correlated with reported fish intake (P for trends <0.001 for both). After treatment, the omega-3 index increased from 4.8±1.7% to 6.7±1.9% but was unchanged in the placebo group (4.7±1.7 to 4.8±1.5%) (P<.0001 for changes between groups). At 3 months, more patients reached the proposed target omega-3 index level of 8%-12% in the treated vs placebo group (22.6% vs. 1.3%, P<.0001), however, what omega-3 index levels were ultimately achieved after four years in this trial are unknown. PMID:27632919

  15. Gibberellins and DELLAs: central nodes in growth regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Hannes; De Bodt, Stefanie; Inzé, Dirk

    2014-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are growth-promoting phytohormones that were crucial in breeding improved semi-dwarf varieties during the green revolution. However, the molecular basis for GA-induced growth stimulation is poorly understood. In this review, we use light-regulated hypocotyl elongation as a case study, combined with a meta-analysis of available transcriptome data, to discuss the role of GAs as central nodes in networks connecting environmental inputs to growth. These networks are highly tissue-specific, with dynamic and rapid regulation that mostly occurs at the protein level, directly affecting the activity and transcription of effectors. New systems biology approaches addressing the role of GAs in growth should take these properties into account, combining tissue-specific interactomics, transcriptomics and modeling, to provide essential knowledge to fuel a second green revolution.

  16. Opera in Kindergarten: "La Principessa della sacco di carta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeck, Ellen; Jones, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    When designing curriculum, the unique characteristics of young, gifted students must be carefully considered. Many have a highly defined sense of justice or fairness, a precocious ability to manipulate language or number systems, a need to see the connections between learning experiences, a heightened curiosity, and an ability to conceive a…

  17. Il fenomeno della "goccia nera" e l'astigmatismo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn D'Arturo, Guido

    2004-03-01

    The Venus transit on the Solar disc was for the first time observed in 1639, using "modern" instruments, by Gassendi. Yet since the following transit, an effect was perceived which modified Venus and Sun profiles at the moments of the first and second visual contact between the two celestial bodies. This effect was called "gutta nigra", i.e. black drop. Horn d'Arturo was widely interested in studies on the vision and on its effects on astronomical observations. In the following paper, he suggested what probably was the first correct explanation of the black drop effect. As stated on the Dictionary of Scientific Biography (ad vocem), Horn "clarified the effect on vision, especially in the astigmatic eye, of the suture of the eye lens and the formation of the so-called black drop".

  18. Algoritmi per il calcolo dell'epatta della Luna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    On the sides of the chair of St. Hyppolitus in the Vatican Libray there is a series of 112 epacts, used for calculating the date of Christian Easter valid for 112 years from 222 AD. The algorithm of octaëteris or 8 civil (julian) years=99 lunar months and a correction of three days each 16 years or one day each 5, 5, 6 years are discussed. Four complete solar cycles (28 years), after which the sequence of the day of the week are repeating, are included in 112 years as well as 7 groups of 16 years; 112 is the minimum common multiple between the double octaëteris (16 years) and the solar cycle (28).

  19. Misura dell'azimut della Piramide Cestia col Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The Pyramid of Caius Cestius in Rome has been built in 330 days in 12 b.C. The instants when the Sun rays are grazing to the East face of the Pyramid have been observed in different days, writing a table of solar azimut and altitudes. Extrapolating for zero altitude, the azimut 201.8°±1.4° of the Pyramid is obtained; it corresponds to the azimut 204.27° of the Sun when the shadow of the lightning rod divides in two equal parts the North face.

  20. The fabbrica della penicillina in postwar Italy: an institutionalist approach.

    PubMed

    Taroni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the motives and long-term effects of the momentous decision to build a world-class biomedical research laboratory, the International Center for Chemical Microbiology, at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in Rome, rather than develop domestic production of penicillin to meet the needs of a destitute postwar Italy. An institutionalist approach will provide a richer vision of the intersections of scientific and national political history in postwar Italy and the Cold War. The Center failed in its modernising mission due to an insular mentality producing an 'enclosure effect' against the State, the healthcare system and the pharmaceutical industry. The absence of a scientific base together with an economic policy of 'liberal protectionism' that placed premiums on import tariffs and the licensing of foreign products explains the path dependency of the pharmaceutical industry during the postwar years and its demise in the 1960s. PMID:26054217

  1. Il volto della Luna da Plutarco a Newton. Storia di una teoria ellenistica della gravità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappi, Alberto

    2013-03-01

    In his dialogue "De Facie quae in Orbe Lunae apparet", Plutarch includes a discussion on a non-Aristotelian theory of gravity. I describe how this theory could be developed during the Hellenistic period and its influence on the cosmological debate along the centuries until the beginning of modern science. (Text in Italian)

  2. Quadrantectomy with oxidized regenerated cellulose ("QUORC"): an innovative oncoplastic technique in breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Gianluca; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Visconti, Giuseppe; Di Leone, Alba; Salgarello, Marzia; Masetti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    La chirurgia oncoplastica della mammella ha generato grande entusiasmo negli ultimi anni ed è diventata una componente integrante ed essenziale del trattamento chirurgico dei tumori del seno. Le tecniche oncoplastiche associano i migliori principi della chirurgia oncologica con i migliori principi della chirurgia plastica per ottenere margini indenni da malattia ed al tempo stesso ottimizzare i risultati estetici. Grazie a queste procedure, il trattamento conservativo della mammella è stato esteso ad includere un gruppo di pazienti che altrimenti richiederebbero una mastectomia per ottenere radicalità oncologica. Tuttavia, anche con l’uso delle procedure oncoplastiche, gli esiti cosmetici possono risultare insoddisfacenti nei tumori di voluminose dimensioni in cui è necessario eseguire ampie exeresi parenchimali in particolare in seni di medio-piccole dimensioni. Recentemente, è stato quindi proposto l’uso di Cellulosa Ossidata Rigenerata come biomateriale ricostruttivo per ottimizzare i risultati estetici dopo chirurgia oncoplastica. Lo scopo di questo articolo è quello di descrivere il modello standard di una innovativa tecnica oncoplastica con cellulose ossidata, che abbiamo denominato “QUORC“ (QUadrantectomy with Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose), grazie alla quale sembra possibile migliorare i risultati estetici e ridurre al minimo le possibili complicanze post-operatorie.

  3. Usos de "quien" (Uses of "Quien").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veciana, R.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the uses of "quien" as an interrogative and a relative pronoun with numerous examples from standard spoken Spanish. Emphasizes syntactic and contextual factors, as well as stylistic variations, and explains the contrast between "quien" and "que" as subjects of a relative clause. (MES)

  4. Employment-generating projects for the energy and minerals sectors of Honduras. Proyectos generadores de empleos para los sectores energetico y minero de Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    A mission to Honduras invited by the Government of Honduras and sponsored by the Organization of American States addressed the generation of employment in various areas of interest to the country. The mission was made up of experts from numerous countries and international agencies. In the energy sector, the mission recommended consolidating the sector under a coordinating body; carrying out projects to promote reforestation, tree farms, and rational forest utilization; encouraging industrial energy conservation; developing alternative energy sources; and promoting rural electrification and expansion of the electrical grid. In the mining sector, the mission supported promotion and technical assistance for small gold-leaching and placer operations, the national mineral inventory, detailed exploration of promising sites, and the development of a mining school. 13 refs., 7 tabs.

  5. La Verifica della Qualita' dell' Apprendimento della Lingua Straniera nella Scuola Elementare (Verification of the Quality of Learning of Foreign Languages in the Elementary School).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braccini, Fabrizio; Gemignani, Chiara

    1995-01-01

    This article reports research with 80 children in 4 English-as-a-Foreign-Language classes in an elementary school in Lucca, Italy, discusses the teaching methods, and analyzes the results of the teaching. (CFM)

  6. Compilação de dados atômicos e moleculares do UV ao IV próximo para uso em síntese espectral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, P.; Barbuy, B.; Melendez, J.; Allen, D. M.; Castilho, B.

    2003-08-01

    Espectros sintéticos são utéis em uma grande variedade de aplicações, desde análise de abundâncias em espectros estelares de alta resolução ao estudo de populações estelares em espectros integrados. A confiabilidade de um espectro sintético depende do modelo de atmosfera adotado, do código de formação de linhas e da qualidade dos dados atômicos e moleculares que são determinantes no cálculo das opacidades da fotosfera. O nosso grupo no departamento de Astronomia no IAG tem utilizado espectros sintéticos há mais de 15 anos, em aplicações voltadas principalmente para a análise de abundâncias de estrelas G, K e M e populações estelares velhas. Ao longo desse tempo, as listas de linhas vieram sendo construídas e atualizadas continuamente, e alguns acréscimos recentes podem ser citados: Castilho (1999, átomos e moléculas no UV), Schiavon (1998, bandas moleculares de TiO) e Melendez (2001, átomos e moléculas no IV próximo). Com o intuito de calcular uma grade de espectros do UV ao IV próximo para uso no estudo de populações estelares velhas, se fazia necessário compilar e homogeneizar as diversas listas em apenas uma lista atômica e uma molecular. Nesse processo, a nova lista compilada foi correlacionada com outras bases de dados (NIST, Kurucz Database, O' Brian et al. 1991) para atualização dos parâmetros que caracterizam a transição atômica (comprimento de onda, log gf e potencial de excitação). Adicionalmente as constantes de interação C6 foram calculadas segundo a teoria de Anstee & O'Mara (1995) e artigos posteriores. As bandas moleculares de CH e CN foram recalculadas com o programa LIFBASE (Luque & Crosley 1999). Nesse poster estão detalhados os procedimentos citados acima, as comparações entre espectros calculados com as novas listas e espectros observados em alta resolução do Sol e de Arcturus, e uma análise do impacto decorrente da utilização de diferentes modelos de atmosfera no espectro sintético. Ao

  7. Influence of fear of movement on total knee arthroplasty outcome.

    PubMed

    Kocic, Mirjana; Stankovic, Anita; Lazovic, Milica; Dimitrijevic, Lidija; Stankovic, Ivona; Spalevic, Marija; Stojiljkovic, Predrag; Milenkovic, Marina; Stojanovic, Zorica; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    RiassuntoLo scopo dello studio è quello di verificare l’incidenza del timore postoperatorio ai movimenti nei pazienti sottoposti ad artroplastica totale del ginocchio (TKA) e di determinare l’associazione di questo timore con i provvedimenti da adottare. Lo studio prospettico riguarda 78 pazienti sottoposti ad TKA primaria per osteoartrite. L’incidenza di timore al movimento è stata detenninata con l’uso della Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK). I pazienti sono stati valutati in tre fasi temporali: 2 settimane. 4 settimane e 6 mesi dopo l’intervento chirurgico. In tutte e tre le fasi sono stati valutati il dolore e l’entità della flessione, mentre l’aspetto funzionale è stato preso in considerazione soltanto sei mesi dopo l’intervento, secondo la Oxford knee score 1. Il timore al movimento è stato registrato in 17 pazienti (21,8%). Quelli con maggiore entità di timore hanno dimostrato di conseguire risultati significativamente meno buoni in termini di dolore, grado di flessione e funzionalità rispetto a quelli con limitata paura. Miglioramento del dolore e della flessione sono stati progressivamente conseguiti nel tempo in entrambi i gruppi, ma i risultati migliori vengono raggiunti nel gruppo con minore paura al movimento. Lo studio ha dimostrato che la paura postoperatoria alla motilità si associa significativamente con il dolore, l’entità della flessione e la funzionalità del ginocchio. Altri Autori haImo rilevato che il timore preoperatorio alla motilità del ginocchio fa prevedere limitazioni funzionali postoperatorie. In conclusione il timore della motilità si rileva in una significativa proporzione dei pazienti dopo TKA e si associa con gonalgia, e minore flessione e funzionalità, e dunaue questa paura rappresenta un richio di scarsi risultati dopo artroplastica totale del ginocchio.

  8. Controllo remoto del Dho's Observatory. III - La montatura, lo stazionamento, il problema della condensa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dho, Mario

    2002-09-01

    We continue the study of an automated, self-built observatory. Some improvements the pier, the mounting, the instrument, and an anti-dew device will be the target of this third article. Besides, a very precise method to control and finely adjust the polar alignment of a telescope is discussed.

  9. Gibberellin hormone signal perception: down-regulating DELLA repressors of plant growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gibberellin (GA) hormone signal is perceived by a receptor with homology to hormone sensitive lipases, GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1). This leads to GA-stimulated responses including stem elongation, seed germination, and the transition to flowering. GA-binding enables GID1 to interact with and ...

  10. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  11. PROCERA encodes a DELLA protein that mediates control of dissected leaf form in tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaves of seed plants can be described as simple, where the leaf blade is entire, or dissected, where the blade is divided into distinct leaflets. Mechanisms that define leaflet number and position are poorly understood and their elucidation presents an attractive opportunity to understand mechanism...

  12. Medicean telescopes. The collection of the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miniati, Mara

    The Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence preserves an important collection of 17th telescopes coming from the Medicean heritage. The paper will introduce these instruments and their connection with the contemporary astronomical and optical debate.

  13. Per una pedagogia della comprensione interculturale (A Method for Teaching Intercultural Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1986-01-01

    Defines true bilingualism as biculturalism, explains what "understanding" another culture means, and describes how to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching methods for students from different cultures. Ideally, individuals learning a second language will acquire a "metacultural" consciousness that permits them to be comfortable in any cultural…

  14. 78 FR 5555 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Piero della Francesca in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE...'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27,...

  15. Osservare le eclisse solari dal bordo della fascia di totalità

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Oliva, Pietro

    2006-06-01

    Observing Solar eclipses at the totality path limits allows to measure solar diameter variations and lunar ephemerides corrections with an accuracy of a few hundredths of arcsecond. After a review of secular variations of solar diameter, presenting the eclipses of Rome 1567, London 1715, and New York City 1925, we present the current research on this topic and the phenomena occurring on the edges of the totality path. For the forthcoming eclipses, the location of observers must be chosen after calculations of limits and simulations of bead appearances and timings. We present our example in Valoria La Buena (Spain) for the 3 October, 2005 eclipse. Small unfiltered refracting telescopes, equipped with projection screen are recommended for standard observations, in order to avoid artificial reduction in the observed solar diameter due to filtering effects. Preliminary data reductions on eclipses of 1995 India and 1998 Caribbean, and on 2004 Venus Transit are also presented.

  16. Singing in "La Voce Della Luna" Italian Women's Choir in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane; Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Australia is a country of ongoing migration that embraces diversity, creative expression and cultural activity. Membership of community music groups by older people can enhance life quality, and may provide a space through which cultural and linguistic identity may be shared and celebrated. This qualitative phenomenological case study explores…

  17. Loss-of-function of DELLA protein SLN1 activates GA signaling in barley aleurone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gibberellic acid (GA) is a key phytohormone regulating seed germination and seedling growth. In cereal species, GA is synthesized in embyros and then translocated to aleurone tissues where it induces production of hydrolytic enzymes for mobolization of seed storage reserve. De-embyronated barley a...

  18. Il dolore in ambito urologico: aspetti fisiopatologici del dolore e della cronicità

    PubMed

    Bonezzi, Cesare; Demartini, Laura; Angelini, Lucia; Armiento, Luciana; Jallous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Pain in urology: pathophysiological aspects of pain and chronicityChronic pain has been traditionally defined by pain duration, but this approach has limited empirical support and does not account for chronic pain multidimensionality. Defining chronic pain solely by duration is based on the view that acute pain signals potential tissue damage, whereas chronic pain results from central sensitization in which pain is sustained after nociceptive inputs have diminished. Chronic urological pain is a prevalent condition, which can represent a major challenge to health care providers due to its complex aetiology and poor response to therapy. In most cases, clear signs of on-going tissue trauma, inflammation or infection are not present. Despite this, more underhanded pathophysiological mechanisms, affecting the urinary system or other pelvic organ systems (musculoskeletal, neurologic, urologic, gynaecologic) and some psychological aspects may be present. In this article, some pathophysiological aspects of visceral pain are discussed; the definition of 'chronic pain', the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of pain and the rationale for association therapy are also reviewed. PMID:25451874

  19. Il Calcolo della Pasqua: Vittorio d'Aquitania Dionigi il Piccolo e Abbone di Fleury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    The Easter calculus is a story of ephemerides approximations, with appropriate algorithms, as well as the reformations of the calendar dealed with tropical year's approximations. The calculus made by Victorius of Aquitania, Dyonisius Exiguus and Abbo of Fleury, based on 532 years Easter period in Julian calendar are discussed, including the corrections ad hoc of the algorithms, like the saltus lunae.

  20. I termini di Cassini e Laplace della rifrazione atmosferica misurati alla Meridiana Clementina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    The measures of the atmospheric refraction terms of Cassini and Laplace are made at the Clementine Meridian Line of S. Maria degli Angeli in Rome by comparing the observed positions of the center of the Sun with the ones calculated without atmosphere. Three linear systems with the data of 21 Dec 2015; 18 Jan and 6 Feb 2016 give the refraction terms of tan(z) and tan3(z).

  1. Il dolore in ambito urologico: aspetti fisiopatologici del dolore e della cronicità

    PubMed

    Bonezzi, Cesare; Demartini, Laura; Angelini, Lucia; Armiento, Luciana; Jallous, Hussein

    2014-12-01

    Pain in urology: pathophysiological aspects of pain and chronicityChronic pain has been traditionally defined by pain duration, but this approach has limited empirical support and does not account for chronic pain multidimensionality. Defining chronic pain solely by duration is based on the view that acute pain signals potential tissue damage, whereas chronic pain results from central sensitization in which pain is sustained after nociceptive inputs have diminished. Chronic urological pain is a prevalent condition, which can represent a major challenge to health care providers due to its complex aetiology and poor response to therapy. In most cases, clear signs of on-going tissue trauma, inflammation or infection are not present. Despite this, more underhanded pathophysiological mechanisms, affecting the urinary system or other pelvic organ systems (musculoskeletal, neurologic, urologic, gynaecologic) and some psychological aspects may be present. In this article, some pathophysiological aspects of visceral pain are discussed; the definition of 'chronic pain', the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of pain and the rationale for association therapy are also reviewed.

  2. Innovative technique for large septal perforation repair and radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mocella, S; Muia, F; Giacomini, P G; Bertossi, D; Residori, E; Sgroi, S

    2013-06-01

    La perforazione del setto nasale ha cause molteplici: traumatiche, iatrogene, infettive, degenerative, da abuso di vasocostrittori, da uso di cocaina e di recente anche da chemioterapici antineoplastici. Le perforazioni sono altresì classificate in funzione delle dimensioni e della tipologia del deficit cartilagineo o osteocartilagineo e della sede anteriore, mediana e posteriore. Molteplici tecniche di riparazione chirurgica del danno sono state proposte nel tempo e vengono riassunte nel presente lavoro per tipologia di approccio; i risultati conseguiti, sono soddisfacenti per le perforazioni di piccole e medie dimensioni, ma nelle grandi perforazioni non garantiscono sempre la permanente obliterazione del difetto. Spesso si rende necessario l'utilizzo di tessuti prelevati all'interno delle fosse nasali come i turbinati o il prelievo di cartilagine da altre sedi donatrici come l'orecchio o la costa; le varie tecniche vengono illustrate alla luce della più recente letteratura. Gli Autori hanno valutato i pazienti osservati negli ultimi 8 anni e i risultati chirurgici conseguiti in particolare considerando, gli approcci chirurgici effettuati in approccio aperto o chiuso, endoscopico ed i materiali impiegati. Gli autori propongono tra le varie tecniche impiegate in questa serie di pazienti, una tecnica innovativa utilizzabile con successo in molti dei casi considerati di perforazione settale iatrogena che prevede l'utilizzo del gibbo osteocartilagineo quale sede donatrice, nonché la rinosettoplastica riduttiva quale scelta mirata per ottenere agevolmente lembi di scorrimento mucopericondrale e talora produrre anche un miglioramento estetico morfologico.

  3. Varicose veins: new trends in treatment in a Vascular Surgery Unit.

    PubMed

    Mazzaccaro, Daniela P; Stegher, Silvia; Occhiuto, Maria Teresa; Muzzarelli, Lorenzo; Malacrida, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    La recente introduzione di tecniche meno invasive in alternativa al tradizionale stripping safenico ha rivoluzionato il trattamento delle vene varicose (VV), soprattutto nelle Unità Operative a prevalente indirizzo flebologico, ove la scleroterapia con mousse, il laser o la termoablazione con radiofrequenza (RFA) vengono applicate sempre più frequentemente con parallela riduzione del ricorso alle tecniche di chirurgia open. Nella nostra Unità Operativa Complessa di Chirurgia Vascolare, la patologia venosa viene affrontata da sempre, parallelamente a quella arteriosa; in particolare dal 2013, superata la prima fase di apprendimento, anche nella nostra Unità Operativa è stato introdotto l’uso sistematico della RFA per il trattamento dell’incontinenza della vena grande safena (VGS). Abbiamo dunque retrospettivamente esaminato la nostra esperienza nel trattamento delle VV con particolare analisi del modo in cui il nostro approccio terapeutico è cambiato nel corso degli ultimi anni. I dati di tutti i pazienti trattati consecutivamente dal 1 settembre 2013 al 31 Luglio 2015 per VV essenziali e recidive sono stati pertanto retrospettivamente raccolti e analizzati. L’analisi statistica è stata effettuata utilizzando il software JMP 5.1.2 (SAS Institute). Sono state trattate in totale 409 gambe in 378 pazienti. La percentuale di stripping della VGS per VV essenziali è diminuita nel corso degli anni (67% nel 2013 contro il 15.2% nel 2015), a differenza di quello che è successo alla percentuale della RFA della VGS (14.3% vs. 31.5% rispettivamente nel 2013 e nel 2015) e alla percentuale di gambe trattate con la tecnica ASVAL (8.7% vs 31.5%, rispettivamente, nel 2013 e nel 2015). Analogamente, nel 2013 la maggior parte delle procedure è stata eseguita utilizzando l’anestesia spinale (77.5%), mentre nel 2015 le tecniche anestesiologiche più utilizzate sono state l’anestesia locale e l’anestesia locale con sedazione (rispettivamente 35.9% e 29.3%). Il

  4. Multimodality imaging of bilateral pheochromocytoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Paladino, Nunzia Cinzia; Lowery, Aoife; Guérin, Carole; Taïeb, David; Sebag, Frédéric

    2015-06-22

    . La TEP alla 18 FDG, grazie all’uso della metodica qualitativa e quantitativa nell’analisi della lesione, è stata molto utile nello svelarne la natura. Veniva pertanto eseguita una surrenalectomia sinistra per via laparoscopica. L’esame istologico per entrambe le lesioni era in favore di feocromocitoma, Pass score 0. Nella fase post-operatoria la paziente veniva trattata con idrocortisone a dosi decrescenti fino ad un dosaggio giornaliero di 30 mg in associazione a 50 mg di fludrocortisone. Questo caso clinico dimostra ancora una volta la possibilità di falsi negativi da parte di tecniche di imaging funzionale specifiche. In questa esperienza, la TEP alla 18 FDG è stata molto utile. La RMN ha senza dubbio mostrato un valore incontestabile. In questa paziente non è stata trovata nessuna mutazione germinale a carico dei geni RET, VHL, SDHx.

  5. Duplex Doppler ultrasound study of the temporomandibular joint.

    PubMed

    Stagnitti, A; Marini, A; Impara, L; Drudi, F M; Lo Mele, L; Lillo Odoardi, G

    2012-06-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: La fisiologia articolare dell’articolazione temporo-mandibolare (ATM) può essere esaminata sia dal punto di vista clinico che strumentale. La diagnostica per immagini ha da tempo contribuito con la risonanza magnetica (RM) e anche con la radiografia (Rx) e la tomografia computerizzata (TC) all’analisi della morfologia dei capi articolari e della cinetica condilare. L’esame duplex-ecodoppler è una metodica di largo impiego nello studio delle strutture in movimento in particolar modo a livello delle strutture del sistema vascolare. MATERIALI E METODI: È stata utilizzata un’apparecchiatura Toshiba APLIO SSA-770A, con l’uso di tecnica duplex-ecodoppler multi display, che consente la visualizzazione contemporanea dell’immagine ecografica e dei segnali Doppler utilizzando una sonda lineare del tipo phased array con cristalli trasduttori funzionanti ad una frequenza fondamentale di 6 MHz per gli spettri Doppler pulsati e 7.5 MHz per l’imaging ecografico. Sono stati esaminati nel Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Oncologiche e Anatomo-patologiche dell’Università “Sapienza” di Roma, 30 pazienti del reparto di Ortognatodonzia dell’Istituto di Odontoiatria della stessa Università. RISULTATI: Nei pazienti normali si è ottenuta un’alternanza regolare degli spettri Doppler, mentre nei soggetti con disfunzioni del complesso condilo-meniscale, si è persa la regolarità della sommatoria degli spettri di Fourier, con altezze incostanti in relazione a spostamenti irregolari del complesso condilo-meniscale. CONCLUSIONI: L’esame ecodoppler si è dimostrato, in tutti i pazienti, capace di discriminare quelli normali dai patologici e tra questi ultimi ha permesso di identificare gli aspetti più significativi delle patologie disfunzionali.

  6. Usos de "quien" (Uses of "Quien" - Part 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veciana, R.

    1981-01-01

    Illustrates with numerous examples and analyses the various uses of "quien." Discusses alternation between "quien" and the groups "el cual"/"el que," variation in the verb agreement, the function of "quien" as an indefinite pronoun, as well as questions of stylistic preference and correctness. (MES)

  7. Materials Data on USO (SG:129) by Materials Project

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kristin Persson

    2016-04-22

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. Overview of the NSI User Support Office (NSI USO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Lenore A.

    1991-01-01

    Overview of the NSI User Support Office is presented in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: hot line for user questions; NSI data base updates; on-line services via NSI NIC; and toolkit distribution.

  9. Esercitazioni Matematiche: Una Rivista Ad uso Degli Studenti Universitari.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micale, Biagio

    1992-01-01

    The history of the journal "Esercitazioni Matematiche" (1921-43) edited by the "Circolo Matematico di Catania" for university students is described. A selection of proposed problems with some of their solutions is reported. (Author)

  10. Attivita del Centro di Linguistica Applicata nel campo della lingua e della cultura italiana all'estero (Activities of the Italian Center for Applied Linguistics concerning Italian Language and Culture Abroad).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boriosi Katerinov, Maria Clotilde

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the activities of a recently created section of the Italian Center for Applied Linguistics (CILA), dealing with "Teaching Italian Abroad." Describes these activities as encompassing four areas: research, teaching methodology, consultation, teachers' training and bibliographical information. Lists statistical surveys, research papers, and…

  11. L'Astronomia del Venerdí Santo, l'eclissi di Luna e l'ora della Sindone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Dating the crucifixion on friday 3 April 33, when, at sunset a partially eclipsed Moon rised allows to interprete the speech of Saint Peter (Acts 2:20=Joel 3:4) on the day of Pentecost as including an account of this eclipse, as fulfillment of the Scriptures. Few minutes later the apparition of a third star of medium magnitude stated the beginning of the sabbatical rest: before that time Jesus has been buried, wrapped into the shroud. The observations of the equinoctial moonrise from the Mount of Olives on September 2013 are strongly in favour of the hypotehsis of possible observation of the lunar eclipse of 33 AD by Jewish people, as well as the sunrises observed from the Temple Institute terrace in Southern-East Jerusalem demonstrated that this eclipse could have been seen from Jerusalem. The depression of the horizon and the refraction allow to see Sun and Moon more than 1 degree below the geometrical horizon in the azimuthal direction ranging from 90 to 116, prologing to 16 minutes the duration of the partial lunar eclipse observed in 33AD. Texts of Matthew, Mark and Cyrillus of Jerusalem are also commented.

  12. Azimut e altezza della Piramide Cestia in una sola osservazione del Sole e dell'ombra proiettata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-07-01

    The astronomical azimut and heigth of the Cestia Pyramid in Rome have been measured as 205° and 36 m by observing the alignment of the Sun with the axis and the grazing shadow of the Pyramid on July 22nd.

  13. Radio Map of the Milky Way at 1420 Mhz. (Italian Title: Mappa Radio della Via Lattea a 1420 MHz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, M.; Bettelli, E.; Grandi, E.; Fedrizzi, R.; Fellin, R.; Larcher, M.; Ziller, M.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to obtain the curve of rotation of the Milky Way, to map the spiral structure of the Galaxy and to determine its integral mass. This is done through the study of the galactic neutral hydrogen concentration. We used the radio telescope Salsa Onsala Vale',a 2.3 m diameter parabolic dish, built by the Onsala Space Observatory at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Theutilized data are referred to several observations performed between December 22nd 2011 and January 6th 2012. For the data processing, the software SalsaJ was used. The result of this study confirms that the rotation velocity of the Galaxy, far away from the galactic center, does not decrease, but remains almost the same. The distribution of the neutral hydrogen is not uniform: it is concentrated in filamentary structures which are considered an evidence of the Milky Way spiral structure.

  14. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  15. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  16. Catholicism, Fascism and Italian Education from the Riforma Gentile to the Carta Della Scuola, 1922-1939.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Examines church-state relations in educational matters in Italy from 1922 to the outbreak of World War II. Unlike Nazi Germany which could boast of nazified schools, Fascist Italy was compelled to recognize the considerable influence of Catholicism on education. (Author/KC)

  17. Attitudine Linguistica e Acquisizione della Competenza. Un Progetto di Ricerca (Linguistic Aptitude and Acquisition of Competence. A Research Project).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorace, Antonella

    1982-01-01

    Subjects were 45 Italians who were studying English as a second language. They were administered the Modern Language Aptitude Test and a cloze test and were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their language study. The researcher then analyzed the interrelationships among the subjects' linguistic aptitude, language study history, and level…

  18. L'influenza dell'attenzione, della memoria e della discriminazione fonetica nell'apprendimento della seconda lingua nella scuola elementare: Risultati di alcuni test (Influence of Attention, Memory, and Phonetic Discrimination in Second Language Learning in Elementary School: Results of Several Tests).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colonna-Preti, Paola; Taeschner, Traute

    1987-01-01

    Using a new method, 48 children in an elementary school in Rome, Italy, were taught a foreign language (26 English, 22 German) and tested after three years. The authors attempt to explain the variation in test results in terms of the students' attention, memory, and phonetic discrimination. (CFM)

  19. 78 FR 66990 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    .... INMOBILIARIA PROMINENTE, S.A. DE C.V., Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico; Folio Mercantil No. 12354-1 (Mexico) . 11... ENERGETICOS, S.A. DE C.V.; Linked To: ENERGETICOS VAGO, S.A. DE C.V.; Linked To: INMOBILIARIA PROMINENTE, S.A...: INMOBILIARIA PROMINENTE, S.A. DE C.V.; Linked To: NUEVA TERRA, S. DE R.L. DE C.V.; Linked To: OPERADORA ENGO,...

  20. Role of adipose-derived stem cells in chronic cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Giorgia; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Boschi, Elena; Pio Grieco, Michele; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Raposio, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    Le ulcere cutanee croniche colpiscono circa l’1% della popolazione adulta e il 3.6% della popolazione con più di sessantacinque anni di età. Per quanto riguarda l’impegno finanziario per la terapia delle ulcere cutanee, questo è pari a sette miliardi di euro annui a livello mondiale. Le cellule staminali mesenchimali prelevate da lipoaspirato (ASCs) rappresentano una delle frontiere più promettenti della medicina rigenerativa. Diversi studi hanno, infatti, dimostrato l’efficacia terapeutica di questa popolazione di cellule staminali nel trattamento delle ulcere cutanee croniche. Le ASCs hanno caratteristiche morfologiche e funzionali paragonabili alle cellule staminali del midollo osseo (BMSCs), tuttavia se ne differenziano per la maggiore facilità di prelievo e isolamento, e per il loro più cospicuo numero. È, infatti, sufficiente eseguire una liposuzione tradizionale e in seguito utilizzare metodiche d’isolamento appropriate per ottenere un pellet di ASCs pronte per essere innestate nel fondo e nel margine dell’ulcera cutanea, al fine di promuoverne la guarigione. Diversi sono i protocolli d’isolamento; i più diffusi prevedono complicati e lunghi procedimenti, caratterizzati dal susseguirsi di differenti prodotti sia chimici sia biologici, i quali sono non solo costosi ma anche potenzialmente pericolosi. Il nostro protocollo d’isolamento richiede solo 15’ e prevede che il lipoaspirato sia prima sistemato in uno shaker cellulare e successivamente in una centrifuga così da ottenere le ASCs richieste per la terapia. L’uso delle ASCs si è rivelato una risorsa preziosa per la terapia delle ulcere cutanee croniche, accelerando significativamente il processo di guarigione e la rigenerazione dei tessuti; con protocolli d’isolamento efficaci e semplificati, il loro utilizzo routinario risulta essere facilitato.

  1. Successful use of rFVIIa for major breast surgery prophylaxis in congenital factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, Antonio; Schettino, Michela; Ciampa, Antonio; Iannace, Carlo; Lo Conte, Domenico; Donnarumma, Bernadette; Vigorito, Raffaella; Lepore, Mariolina

    2014-06-24

    emorragiche. In questo articolo descriviamo un caso di una paziente di 46 anni con deficit congenito del fattore VII che si è sottoposta a trattamento chirurgico con successo grazie al trattamento con Novoseven prima della procedura. È stato utilizzato il modello riportato sotto per valutare i livelli di PTT e aPTT nel paziente. Per il prelievo ematico il sangue venoso della paziente è stato raccolto in provette di plastica (0.129 M di citrato di sodio, con sistema Vacutainer). Il tempo di protrombina è stato misurato con Recombiplastin (IL, Milano Italy), l’aPTT è stato misurato con l’APTT-SP (IL, Milano Italy). Come primo approccio profilattico alla paziente è stata utilizzata la vitamina K intramuscolo ma con scarsi risultati, poi si è valutato l’uso del Prothromplex, senza però ottenere un effetto significativo. L’ultimo step è stata la somministrazione di una terapia con Novoseven ® 15μg/kg somministrato 30 minuti prima dell’intervento and 4-5 h dopo la prima infusione. L’infusione del farmaco ha risolto i problemi di coagulazione permettendo il trattamento chirurgico, senza rischio nè emorragico nè trombotico per la paziente.

  2. [Uniform and ornaments of hands of Healthcare workers: a point prevalence survey in Ausl of Rimini].

    PubMed

    Santullo, Antonietta; Fabbri, Lorella; Curzi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Introduzione: Il dibattito sulla divisa e gli ornamenti indossati dal personale infermieristico, tecnico e di supporto ruota intorno a due temi chiave: il rischio infettivo e l'impatto sull'immagine percepita dall’utente. Obiettivo: Obiettivo primario: descrivere i comportamenti del personale sanitario non medico sulla tenuta della divisa. Obiettivo secondario: descrivere l’uso di ornamenti delle mani durante il turno di lavoro. Metodo: l'indagine, su campo condotta da 7 rilevatori, si è svolta in 67 contesti lavorativi nell’arco di 14 giornate su un campione di 503 operatori. Lo strumento di rilevazione è composto da 5 item che descrivono i comportamenti sulla tenuta della divisa (item 1-2) e sulla presenza di ornamenti delle mani (item 3-5). Risultati: Il 17.3% degli operatori non indossa la divisa completa o il cartellino identificativo; il 16.1% indossa ornamenti delle mani. Discussione: Nonostante i rappresentanti dei pazienti, attraverso i Comitati Consultivi Misti, segnalino la necessità di individuare gli operatori attraverso la divisa ed il cartellino, il livello di adesione a queste indicazioni non è ritenuto soddisfacente dalla Direzione Aziendale. La presenza di ornamenti che interferiscono con l’igiene delle mani e aumentano il rischio di contamina- zione rappresenta un fattore critico che dovrà essere periodicamente monitorato.

  3. Lo Gnomone Clementino Astronomia Meridiana in Basilica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    Costruito per chiara volontà del papa 70 anni dopo il caso Galileo, lo Gnomone Clementino è un grande telescopio solare che non fa uso di lenti a 92 anni dall’invenzione del cannocchiale. Queste due caratteristiche basterebbero da sole a giustificare l’interesse verso questo strumento. L’astronomia meridiana è alla base dell’astrometria e dell’astrofisica moderna. Lo Gnomone Clementino sta oggi all’astronomia, come il veliero “Amerigo Vespucci” sta alla Marina Italiana. E’ possibile svolgere ogni genere di osservazione e studio su questo strumento, e dal 2002 vi tengo lezioni teorico-pratiche del corso di Storia dell’Astronomia e La Terra nel Sistema Solare della Sapienza, Università di Roma, Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia. Questo testo aggiunge alcuni tasselli alla ricerca storica sulla meridiana, appoggiandosi, com’è naturale, sulle spalle di giganti che mi hanno preceduto in questi studi. In particolare la misura dell’azimut della meridiana, ed il suo inquadramento tra gli strumenti simili ed alcuni studi di astrometria sui dati del 1701-1703 di Bianchini, che sono apparsi fin’ora soltanto su riviste specializzate ed in Inglese vengono qui proposti in Italiano e semplificati, per valorizzare sempre più questa straordinaria opera d’arte e di scienza.

  4. Sintassi e tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1986-01-01

    Briefly discusses the concepts of "subject,""complement,""transitivity," and "intransitivity," contrasts the classes of complements in German and Italian based on identical criteria of classification, justifies such a classification for complements, and suggests didactic implications for the theory of valence. (CFM)

  5. Guida Didattica per l'Insegnamento della Matematica. Livelli G, H = Mathematics Curriculum Guide for Italian-Speaking Students, Levels G and H. Working Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The curriculum guide is for levels G and H of the mathematics segment of Chicago's bilingual education program for limited-English-speaking native Italian-speaking students. It includes specific instructional objectives and worksheets for teaching the mathematical concepts of place value, whole numbers, rational numbers, measurement, geometry, and…

  6. L'Insegnamento della Lingua Straniera per Scopi Speciali: Proposte per un Syllabus Funzionale (Teaching a Foreign Language for Specific Purposes: Ideas for a Functional Syllabus).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertocchi, Daniela; Lugarini, Edoardo

    1982-01-01

    The authors stress the importance of using a "science-oriented" syllabus when teaching a second language for specific purposes and identify the linguistic concepts which must be incorporated into such a syllabus. They discuss their experience in teaching Italian for specific Purposes at the National University in Somalia. (CFM)

  7. The "Convitti Scuola della Rinascita" (The Boarding Schools of Rebirth): An Innovative Pedagogy for Democracy in Post-War Italy (1945-1955)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruneri, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    In 1945, Italian society was in crisis. Twenty years of fascism and the aerial bombing and military offensives of the Second World War had left the civilian population suffering and the nation in need of reinvention. In this difficult context, certain anti-fascist intellectuals devised the interesting pedagogical experiment of the 11 Convitti…

  8. [Medical prescription from "Libro de' segreti cavato da molti mastri di cristali et da altri hominij literati" Danzica 1645 (MS.5461 della Biblioteca Casanatense di Roma].

    PubMed

    Moretti, Cesare; Lucarini, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    In the Casanatense Library - Rome, few years ago, a manuscript was found, written in Danzig in 1645, containing a great number of glass recipes but also recipes of alchemic and metallurgical subject and about forty recipes of practical medicine. If the generality of recipes were published in 2004, the medical recipes are here transcribed and commented with the help of experts in pharmaceutical chemistry and in medicine history. The medicine recipes of the manuscript are typical of the therapeutic technique in use in the 17th century, deriving from an empirical knowledge and from a magic-popular heritage that accompanied the medical doctrine till modern era. PMID:19569417

  9. Prime osservazioni astrometriche fotografiche della cometa periodica di Halley (1982i) fatte dagli astrofili dell'Osservatorio S. Vittore aBologna.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, E.

    The author reports the results of the first photographic astrometric observations of periodic comet Halley (1982i) made by amateur astronomers of Osservatorio S. Vittore at Bologna (Italy) during the international program of observations organized by the Astrometry Net of the International Halley Watch.

  10. Clinical-pathological changes in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) over time (1997-2010): data from the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità" in Novara.

    PubMed

    Pagano, L; Caputo, M; Samà, M T; Garbaccio, V; Zavattaro, M; Mauri, M G; Prodam, F; Marzullo, P; Boldorini, R; Valente, G; Aimaretti, G

    2012-10-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is an important clinical entity in our population (Novara, Piedmont, Italy) which is characterized by important environmental influences, as iodine deficiency (ID) and subsequent supplementation, thyroiditis and occupational exposure. To evaluate the features of DTC in our population 20 years after the iodine-prophylaxis pondering the effects of the introduction of the new guidelines for diagnosis and management of DTC after 2005. 322 patients [244 females, age: mean (±SD) 53.8 ± 15.8 years] treated for DTC in a tertiary care center between 1997 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. Medical history, demographics, and pathological features were considered. Patients were subdivided into two groups: A (n = 139, diagnosis 1997–2005) and B (n = 183, diagnosis 2006–2010). The population of group A showed a mild ID, while normal iodine status was recorded in group B. A significant increase in histological tumor-associated thyroiditis was found from group A to B (p = 0.021). Recurrent or persistent diseases were found to be correlated with lymph nodes metastases and/or a distant disease at diagnosis, stimulated thyroglobulin levels at the first follow-up and an additional radioiodine therapy. Twenty percent of our patients were females employed in textile industries. The tumor-related inflammation and the occupational exposure should be considered as important factors in the pathogenesis of DTC. Further studies are required in order to confirm our findings.

  11. Normal behaviour of circulatory parameters during exercise. Reference values for heart rate and systemic blood pressure. The ECCIS Project data. Epidemiologia e Clinica della Cardiopatia Ischemica Silente.

    PubMed

    Menghini, F; Dally, L; Fazzini, P F; Menotti, A; Prati, P L; Rovelli, F; Antoniucci, D; Seccareccia, F

    1995-08-01

    The study of simultaneous variations in heart rate (HR) and systemic blood pressure is of great interest in ergometric practice complementing the analysis of the ST segment by ECG. This paper examines data proceeding from 500 consecutive, normal, exercise stress tests with the aim of offering reference values on the step-by-step behaviour of HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) during exercise in a normal population. The sample comes from a large epidemiological study (ECCIS Project) conducted on 4842 healthy, working men, aged 40-59, which proposes to identify, by a 3 stage procedure, subjects with totally asymptomatic coronary artery disease (type I silent ischemia). A further aim of our paper is to examine the influence of some physiological variables (age, height, weight, body mass index, resting HR, SBP and DBP) on the response to effort of HR, SBP and DBP; reciprocal HR/SBP adjustment during exercise; maximal attained workload and recovery time. Due to a preliminary observation that the rate of step-by-step increase in HR and SBP is inversely related to total duration, the population was split into 4 groups according to exercise tolerance (defined by maximal attained workload) to elaborate reference values. Furthermore our data demonstrate that: 1) SBP increases more rapidly with respect to HR for older and heavier subjects; 2) Exercise tolerance is inversely related to age, baseline HR and SBP, and directly related to weight and height; 3) return to baseline conditions, during recovery, is quicker for subjects with better exercise tolerance and lower baseline HR, SBP and weight.

  12. Sull' Applicazione di Paradigmi della Linguistica alla Theoria dei Testi Letterari (On the Application of Linguistic Paradigms to Literary Text Theory).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasoli, Paolo

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes trends over the last century of analyzing literature (poetry and prose) through the aid of linguistic theory. The contributions and shortcomings of various schools (Structuralist, Danish, Formalist, Transformationalist, Generativist) to the evaluation of literature are briefly outlined. (LET)

  13. [Medical prescription from "Libro de' segreti cavato da molti mastri di cristali et da altri hominij literati" Danzica 1645 (MS.5461 della Biblioteca Casanatense di Roma].

    PubMed

    Moretti, Cesare; Lucarini, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    In the Casanatense Library - Rome, few years ago, a manuscript was found, written in Danzig in 1645, containing a great number of glass recipes but also recipes of alchemic and metallurgical subject and about forty recipes of practical medicine. If the generality of recipes were published in 2004, the medical recipes are here transcribed and commented with the help of experts in pharmaceutical chemistry and in medicine history. The medicine recipes of the manuscript are typical of the therapeutic technique in use in the 17th century, deriving from an empirical knowledge and from a magic-popular heritage that accompanied the medical doctrine till modern era.

  14. El Uso De Alcohol; A Resource Book for Spanish Speaking Communities. (The Use of Alcohol).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert T., II, Ed.; Chavira, Juan Antonio, Ed.

    This monograph addresses the issue of alcohol use and abuse in Spanish-speaking communities of the United States. Two annotated bibliographies are included. The first covers cross-cultural research about alcohol use and abuse and works specifically relating to Latin America. The second bibliography contains articles on Mexican American, Puerto…

  15. El Uso de Pronombres Personales en La Oralidad Mexicoamericana de Houston, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richarte, Itzel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the +/- presence of Spanish subject personal pronouns ("yo," "el/ella," "nosotros/nosotras," and "ellos/ellas" ) in sociolinguistic interviews of 36 Mexican-Americans from Houston, Texas (16 of 2nd generation and 20 of 3rd generation), and 20 Mexicans (control group) from Heroica…

  16. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  17. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  18. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA. In... mariners and the public transiting the Atlantic Ocean immediately below the air show from...

  19. Nuevas Perspectivas en la Efficiencia del Uso Nirogeno en Vaca Lecheras

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed crude protein (CP) with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more nitrogen (N) in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rume...

  20. Validacion de Una Version Preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su Uso en Argentina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringiotti, Maria Ines; Barbich, Alejandra; De Paul, Joaquin

    1998-01-01

    The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 40 child physical abusers and 40 nonabusers in Argentina. More than 97% of subjects were correctly classified as abusing or nonabusing individuals. The article is in Spanish. (CR)

  1. Modelizacion, simulacion y caracterizacion acustica de materiales para su uso en acustica arquitectonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia Sanchis, Ernesto

    The global objective of this thesis consists on evaluating the viability of applying new sound absorbent materials that attempt, on one hand, to be an alternative to those materials classically used (as mineral wools) and, on the other hand, to offer a solution to one of the most important problems: the use of waste products of the textile industries by means of the recycled. For carrying out this study, some of the parameters that allow to characterize the acoustic behaviour of sound absorbent materials (such as the acoustic impedance, the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity, among other) have been studied. Different experimental methods used to obtain these acoustic parameters have also been described. Among the methods presented in this work, the attention has been focused in those based on the acoustic impedance tube (Kundt tube). This technique presents advantages, for example, that only a small space in the laboratory is required as well as the samples of the testing materials are of small dimensions. The study has settled on three fundamental pillars: mathematical modelization, acoustic characterization of materials and numerical simulation. In the first place, after reviewing the main models and theories used in the acoustic evaluation of the porous and fibrous sound absorbent materials, a new mathematical model has been proposed and its validity is demonstrated for the type of studied materials. With regard to the acoustic characterization, diverse campaigns of measurements have been carried out with the purpose of obtaining the acoustic absorption coefficient and the flow resistivity of different type of materials. Finally, by means of a computer program based on the finite element method, the technique of the numerical simulation has been applied with the purpose of contrasting the obtained results experimentally, as well as for the evaluation of one of the most significant industrial applications from the acoustic point of view: the acoustic filters, that are devices designed to reduce the acoustic emission in a tube (as the expansion chambers in the exhaust pipes of the combustion engines). In a first phase of the study, it is observed that the obtained results agree with the experience and, in a second phase, a parametric study to evaluate the efficiency of this type of components is carried out. The numerical simulation presents the advantage of carrying out these studies without necessity of building the real models, with the saving in cost and time that this supposes. In this work, it has been sought to contribute to the knowledge of the acoustic behaviour of different type of materials and devices that are used to improve the acoustic isolation and acoustic conditioning.

  2. ESTRATEGIAS PARA HACER EL MEJOR USO DE LA PROTEINA EN RACIONES PARA VACAS LECHERAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy cows utilize feed CP with greater efficiency than other ruminants, but still excrete about 2 to 3 times more N in manure than they secrete in milk. This increases milk production costs plus environmental N pollution. Optimizing microbial protein formation in the rumen is the most effective way...

  3. Amplificadores en bandas para receptores de uso radioastronómicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bava, A. J.; Sanz, A. J.

    Está en curso de realización en el IAR un cabezal de receptor, en la frecuencia de 3.3 GHz. Este receptor, conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamientos actuales del IAR y con los futuros proyectos de procesamientos, permitirán las observaciones de las líneas de la molécula de CH, de gran interés astrofísico, y las observaciones en el continuo que complementarán las realizadas en 1420 MHz. En este trabajo, se presentan el diseño de los amplificadores de bajo ruido, que van a conformar las primeras etapas del receptor de 3.3 GHz. El desarrollo de los mismos se realizó teniendo en cuenta que la temperatura del sistema, según consideraciones observacionales, deberá ser de 60oK. Por tal motivo se realizó un diseño de bajo ruido utilizando como elemento activo un HEMT. Tanto los métodos de diseño, como el circuito final, fueron realizados y comprobados con programas de simulación, permitiendo de esta forma obtener el amplificador deseado.

  4. Welding Fundamentals. U.S.O.E. 17.23 16. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Wayne

    This two-part publication covers the fundamentals for the beginning welder. The student's manual includes many illustrations to acquaint the student with tools and materials used in the welding trade. The manual is self-contained and is written for use in all types of trade and industrial classes. The manual contains 10 lessons, each of which…

  5. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  6. [Assessing the effectiveness of Gelclair® in the prevention and therapy of stomatitis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a randomized trial].

    PubMed

    Rasero, Laura; Marsullo, Mauro; Dal Molin, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione: La stomatite da farmaci chemioterapici è un importante effetto collaterale del trattamento. I protocolli per la cura del cavo orale, si basano su due livelli di intervento: senza e con uso di medicamenti . La letteratura descrive numerosi interventi di profilassi e terapia ma ad oggi non esiste ancora un intervento considerato gold standard. Obiettivo: Valutare l’efficacia del Gelclair® nella prevenzione e trattamento di pazienti sottoposti a trapianto di cellule staminali emopoietiche. Materiale metodi: 57 pazienti (28 gruppo di controllo e 29 gruppo sperimentale ) hanno utilizzato i colluttori 3 volte al giorno, la valutazione è stata effettuata con i seguenti strumenti: scala di valutazione della stomatite (WHO), scala VAS per dolore e Likert per gradimento. I pazienti sono stati osservati mediamente per 17 giorni. Risultati: 38/57 pazienti osservati (61%) hanno manifestato stomatiti .Non è stata rilevata differenza tra i due gruppi in termine di grado di stomatite p= 0.75 in tutto il periodo di osservazione. Il dolore è stato registrato in 31 soggetti su 57 (54%). Non si sono registrate differenze tra i due gruppi per quanto riguarda il valore medio di dolore riferito prima dell’utilizzo dei colluttori per tutti i giorni di osservazione p=0,06, gli utenti del gruppo sperimentale hanno dimostrato una riduzione del grado di dolore dopo l’utilizzo del collutorio p=0,04. Conclusioni: Gelclair® non influenza i tempi di insorgenza e l’andamento della stomatite. E’ in grado di ridurre il dolore, sono necessari però ulteriori studi multicentrici per confermare la reale utilità di utilizzo nei pazienti sottoposti a Trapianto.

  7. Ciencia, Sociedad, Soluciones: Una Introduccion al USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    El USGS sirve a la nacion de los Estados Unidos proveyendo informacion fidedigna para ? Describir y comprender la Tierra; ? Minimizar la perdida de vidas y propiedades por desastres naturales; ? Manejar los recursos hidrologicos, biologicos, energeticos y minerales; y ? Mejorar y proteger nuestra calidad de vida.

  8. Meningococco B: controllo di due focolai epidemici mediante vaccinazione

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Riassunto La problematica di un efficace approccio vaccinale nei confronti del Meningococco B (MenB) è stata superata identificando con la metodica della "reverse vaccinology" alcuni antigeni capaci di indurre una risposta verso la maggior parte dei ceppi di MenB circolanti nel mondo. Il nuovo vaccino MenB a 4 componenti (4CMenB) è stato autorizzato in Europa, Australia e Canada, ed è entrato nei calendari di immunizzazione pediatrica internazionali: Australia, Canada, UK. In Italia, le prime regioni che hanno raccomandato la vaccinazione contro il MenB sono state Basilicata e Puglia. La gestione di epidemie/focolai epidemici richiede la messa in atto di una risposta rapida da parte delle autorità sanitarie nei confronti di una emergenza sanitaria ad elevato impatto, anche emotivo, sulla popolazione, come recentemente dimostrato in due università americane. Alla dichiarazione di focolaio epidemico in atto, in entrambi i contesti si è attivata una procedura per l'uso del vaccino 4CMenB non ancora autorizzato negli USA. È stato così possibile organizzare gli interventi di profilassi attiva nei due campus universitari, adottando il primo impiego su larga scala del nuovo vaccino 4CMenB e conseguendo, in tempi relativamente brevi, elevati tassi di copertura vaccinale. A fronte di circa 14000 studenti immunizzati con almeno una dose, non è stata segnalata alcuna problematica di eventi avversi conseguenti all'immunizzazione; ad oggi non si sono verificati casi nei soggetti che hanno ricevuto il vaccino. Come conseguenza dei due focolai descritti, è oggi in corso la valutazione da parte dell'FDA per l'estensione dell'uso del vaccino 4CMenB negli Stati Uniti negli adolescenti e giovani adulti. PMID:25916017

  9. Rare case of isolated osteochondroma of the zygomatic bone: an endoscopic-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Antonio; Dell'Aversana, Giovanni; Corvino, Raffaele; Abbate, Vincenzo; Iaconetta, Giorgio; Califano, Luigi

    2015-11-03

    L’osteocondroma è una neoplasia benigna che nel distretto cranio-facciale colpisce spesso il corpo ed il ramo mandibolare e soltanto di rado può interessare il processo coronoide e l’arco zygomatico. In questo articolo descriviamo un raro caso di osteocondroma isolato dell’osso zygomatico trattato mediante approccio chirurgico intraorale endoscopicamente assistito ed in letteratura non sono riportati altri casi di questa patologia trattati con procedure endoscopicamente assistite. Una donna caucasica di cinquantadue anni, è stata osservata nel nostro reparto nel mese di marzo del 2012, la paziente lamentava dolore in regione zygomatica destra. La tomografia computerizzata (TC) del distretto osseo interessato mostrava una lesione sessile non definita. Il sospetto diagnostico è stato di osteocondroma. L’intervento è stato realizzato in anestesia generale mediante approccio intraorale endoscopicamente assistito. All’esame istologico del campione operatorio è stata confermata la diagnosi di osteocondroma. Nell’immediato post operatorio la paziente non ha presentato edema, dolore o febbre. L’uso dell’endoscopia nel trattamento chirurgico di questa patologia quindi ha consentito di ottenere una maggiore precisione e una maggiore rispetto delle strutture anatomiche. L’approccio intraorale ci garantisce l’assenza di cicatrici visibili e l’ausilio dell’endoscopia ci consente di avere una migliore visione di tutte le strutture anatomiche, una buona gestione della patologia riducendo quindi il rischio di complicanze intraoperatorie quali: fratture patologiche e lesioni del VII nervo cranico.

  10. Partnership to Advance Alternative Fuel Vehicles; Ciudades Limpias: Alianza Para Promover El Uso De Vehiculos De Combustibles Alternativos

    SciTech Connect

    LaRocque, T.

    2001-10-01

    This fact sheet provides a question and answer overview of the Clean Cities program including what it is, how it works, the program's accomplishments, and a map of Clean Cities throughout the United States.

  11. L'Uso dei Materiali Video nei Test Linguistici (The Use of Video Materials in Language Tests).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diadori, Pierangela

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that a communicative language course must have communicative exams. It explains how to choose and use material to test students' listening comprehension and socio-cultural knowledge. Transcripts of a commercial, a talk show, a film, a TV news show, and a documentary are included accompanied by exercises. (CFM)

  12. Errores fotométricos debido al uso del filtro anular de mediana en imágenes CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada, M.; Noel, N.

    El filtro anular de mediana tiene la importante propiedad de tener una escala claramente definida, lo que permite remover de una imagen CCD todos los objetos con tamaños menores a esta escala, independientemente de su morfología particular, y reemplazarlos por el correspondiente ``background" local. Este filtro es de gran utilidad para remover gradientes de fondo, ``fringing" y halos de objetos extendidos mediante el simple procedimiento de restar a la imagen original una imagen filtrada, repitiendo el proceso las veces que sea necesario. En este trabajo se presentan resultados sobre los errores que introduce este filtro en la fotometría de objetos con diferente relación S/N y su aplicación a imágenes con gradientes de fondo y ``fringing".

  13. Controle orbital de satélites artificiais com propulsão e uso de gravidade lunar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, K. S.; de Almeida Prado, A. F. B.

    2003-08-01

    A redução do custo de combustível de uma manobra é atualmente a grande prioridade de todos os programas espaciais existentes no mundo. As manobras assistidas pela gravidade são uma ótima forma de se contornar o problema pois proporcionam economias com vasto impacto no custo final da missão. Neste trabalho é feito um estudo particular do controle orbital de um satélite artificial da Terra usando a gravidade da Lua. O objetivo é estudar uma técnica econômica para uma mudança de plano de um satélite que está em órbita em volta da Terra. A idéia principal desta abordagem é enviar primeiramente o veículo espacial em direção à Lua usando uma manobra mono-impulsiva para que assim o campo gravitacional da Lua possa fazer a mudança de plano desejada (sem custo de combustível) e só então retornar o veículo aos valores iniciais de semi-eixo e excentricidade usando uma manobra bi-impulsiva tipo Hohmann. Para tanto, é assumido que a espaçonave inicia em uma órbita circular coplanar à órbita da lua em torno da Terra e a meta é colocá-la em uma órbita similar que difere da órbita inicial somente pela inclinação. São usadas equações analíticas baseadas na abordagem Patched Conics para se calcular a variação na velocidade, momento angular, energia e inclinação do veículo espacial que realiza esta manobra. Várias simulações são feitas para se avaliar as economias de combustível envolvidas.

  14. DHEW/USOE Task Force on Management of Student Assistance Programs: Preliminary Report to the Deputy Commissioner for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John; And Others

    This document reviews the management of ten student assistance programs, including: the Basic Educational Opportunity Grants (BEOG), the State Student Incentive Grants (SSIG), the Supplementary Educational Opportunity Grants program (SEOG), the College Work Study program (CWSP), the National Direct Student Loan program (NDSL), the Guaranteed…

  15. Studiar L'inglese dalle elementari--Problema europeo: Una proposta nuova della pedagogia cibernetica (Beginning the Study of English in the Elementary School Grades--A European Problem: A New Proposal from Cibernetic Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiti-Batelli, Andrea

    1986-01-01

    Warns the European community of the dangers of accepting English as the international language and urges the adoption of Esperanto, a neutral language without its own cultural tradition, as the international lingua franca. (CFM)

  16. Sintassi e Tassonomia: Teoria della valenza e lessico-grammatica in tedesco e in italiano (III) (Syntax and Taxonomy: Theory of Valence and Lexical Grammar in German and Italian, Part 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Maria Teresa

    1987-01-01

    In this article, the author concludes a three-part series in which she analyzes verb complements in German and Italian. Parts 1 and 2 of the series appear in volume 18, numbers 2 and 3, respectively. (CFM)

  17. La teoria dell'attivita verbale nella fase attuale e il suo significato nell'insegnamento della lingua russa agli stranieri (The Theory of Verbal Activity in its Present Stage and its Significance in the Teaching of Russian to Foreigners)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leont'ev, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the evolution of thought in the field of psycholinguistics ("theory of verbal activity" in Russia) and discusses current research being done in the United States, Europe, and the Soviet Union. A valid method of teaching language cannot be developed without a theory of language acquisition. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  18. Presupposti teorici per un progetto di insegnamento della traduzione dalla lingua straniera basato sull'analisi testuale (Theoretical Presuppositions for a Project to Teach Translation from a Foreign Language Based on Textual Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1987-01-01

    Discusses an approach to translation based on textual linguistics. The student/translator first looks at the foreign language text as a whole, then analyzes its parts, and finally arrives at a new synthesis (the translation) that is comparable to the original text. (CFM)

  19. New ephemeris for the first Cepheid variable observed by Edwin P. Hubble in M31. (Italian Title: Nuova effemeride della prima Cefeide osservata da Edwin P. Hubble in M31)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campestrin, M.; Ceriani, S.; Colombo, M.; Ercole, L.; Favero, G.

    2011-08-01

    The first Cepheid discovered in M31 by E. P. Hubble around the end of 1923, has been re-observed with the 0.8 m Akiuz Mattei Telescope of Celado Observatory in order to update its photometric elements. They resulted: Max = JD 2455461.3 + 31.4d E, R max = 18.1, R min = 19.6, (B-V) = 0.7 (mean), (V-R) = 0.4 (mean). Based on a small sample of galactic Cepheids having known R magnitudes and parallaxes, the distance of M31 was estimated 780 kpc, or 2.5 Mly, accounting for the reddening.

  20. L'istituzione della funzione pragmatica esterna nel modello traduttivo in tre fasi a trasferimento indiretto (Supplying an External Pragmatic Purpose to a Three-Stage Translation Model with Indirect Transfer).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a didactic model for translation based on textual linguistics that incorporates a model second external reader in the translation process. Although translation is necessarily sentence oriented, this method considers the entire text that must eventually satisfy a pragmatic external purpose. (51 references) (CFM)

  1. [The evolution of hospital mortality due to acute myocardial infarct in the first 2 GISSI studies. Participants in the GISSI 1 and GISSI 2 studies. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarto Miocardico].

    PubMed

    Mauri, F; De Vita, C; Staszewsky, L; Piantadosi, F R; Bosi, S; Mantini, L; Matta, F; Negrini, M; Valente, S; Martini L [corrected to Mantini, L

    1994-12-01

    During the short while of 5 years, between 1984 and 1985, two large clinical trials have been performed in Italy concerning fibrinolytic therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: GISSI 1 and GISSI 2. They made possible to evaluate the evolution of demographic and clinical features, the in-hospital mortality rate, and the causes of death of a huge number of patients admitted to CCU throughout the whole country. Out of 31,826 patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 176 CCU participating to the GISSI 1 16.9% were 75 years old and 24.7% were females; 21.8% and 26.4% were the percentages in the 38,086 patients admitted to the 223 CCU participating in the GISSI 2. Despite the higher prevalence of the two demographic characteristic with the worse prognosis, the in-hospital mortality rates were respectively 12.2% in the GISSI 1 and 10.0% in the GISSI 2 studies, with a statistically significant decrease (RR 0.84; C.L. 0.80-0.88). The significant decrease in the in-hospital mortality concerns also the patients populations selected according to the same criteria of inclusion in the two trials (within 6 hours from the onset of symptoms and with only ST elevation at the ECG of admission) and to the treatment with fibrinolytic drug (SK or rtPA). As a matter of fact 468 patients died of the 4,696 (10.0%) treated with SK in the GISSI 1 against 1,092 patients of 12,381 (8.8%) enrolled in the GISSI 2 and treated with SK or rtPA (RR 0.87; L.C. 0.78-0.98). The reduction of in-hospital mortality may be explained by some differences in the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. "Una Communita" Poco Nota della Communicazione non Verbale: Come Communicano il Direttore e l'Orchestra (A Little Known "Community" of Nonverbal Communication: How the Conductor and Orchestra Communicate).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardi, Magda Farago

    1992-01-01

    Examines how conductors and orchestras communicate. Communication is essentially nonverbal. Conductors use gestures, gaze, facial expression, nods and posture to deliver their message. Norbert Weiner's Cybernetic Theory of human communication is seen as a means of analyzing precisely how this musical communication takes place. (16 references) (LET)

  3. Frequency of consumption of selected indicator foods and serum cholesterol. GISSI-EFRIM investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto--Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Nobili, A; La Vecchia, C

    1995-06-01

    The relationship between frequency of consumption of eleven indicator foods (milk, meat, liver, carrots, green vegetables, fruit, eggs, ham, fish, cheese and alcohol) and serum cholesterol was investigated in the comparison group of a case-control study of acute myocardial infarction conducted in Italy. Data were collected on 792 subjects from various Italian regions, admitted to hospital for acute conditions unrelated to any known or potential risk factor for myocardial infarction or to long-term modifications in diet. No statistically or epidemiologically meaningful relationship emerged between serum cholesterol level and frequency of consumption of any of these foods. Cholesterol levels rose according to increasing consumption tertiles for most of the indicator foods considered. Higher values for the higher tertile of consumption were observed for meat, ham and eggs, but also for fruit, carrots and green vegetables. However, correlation coefficients between frequency of consumption of various food items and serum cholesterol level were uniformly low for all food items considered, ranging between -0.09 (for milk) and 0.19 (for ham). Although a more comprehensive diet history may lead to different indications, the present data are not suggestive of any major influence of long-term frequency of consumption of a few selected indicator foods on serum cholesterol levels.

  4. Physical activity and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto-Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, B; Santoro, L; La Vecchia, C; Maggioni, A; Nobili, A; Iacuitti, G; Franceschi, S

    1993-11-01

    The relationship between physical activity and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was examined in a case-control study conducted in Italy in 1988 to 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial of streptokinase versus alteplase and heparin versus no heparin in the treatment of AMI. A total of 916 case patients admitted to coronary care units from various Italian regions for AMI were interviewed. Control subjects were 1106 patients admitted to the same network of hospitals for a broad spectrum of acute diseases not related to known or potential risk factors for myocardial infarction. Among various types of physical activity (occupational activity, walking, stair climbing, and sport and leisure-time physical activity), occupational physical exercise emerged as the most protective. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were 1.4 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 2.0) and 1.6 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.1) for the two lowest levels of occupational physical activity. The trends of increasing risk with decreasing activity were consistent, although less strong, when other types of activity were considered. The protection conveyed by occupational physical activity was similar across various strata of sex, age, education, smoking habits, and diabetes, and was not explained by serum cholesterol, body weight, or hypertension. This study therefore confirms that low physical activity is an indicator of subsequent risk of AMI.

  5. Cigarette smoking and acute myocardial infarction. A case-control study from the GISSI-2 trial. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto--Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'infarto Miocardioco.

    PubMed

    Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Nobili, A; D'Avanzo, B; Bechi, S

    1994-08-01

    To make a further quantitative assessment of the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction, a multicentric case-control study was conducted in Italy between September 1988 and June 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial. Ninety hospitals in various Italian Regions participated. 916 cases of acute myocardial infarction with no history of ischaemic heart disease and 1106 controls admitted to hospital for acute conditions not related to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease were studied. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of myocardial infarction according to various measures of tobacco smoking, were adjusted for identified potential confounding factors using multiple logistic regression. Compared to lifelong non-smokers, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9) for ex-smokers, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.9) for current smokers of less than 15 cigarettes per day, 3.1 (95% CI 2.2 to 4.2) for 15-24 cigarettes per day and 4.9 (95% CI 3.4 to 7.1) for 25 or more cigarettes per day. No trend in risk was evident for the duration, the RR being around 3 for subsequent categories. There was a significant interaction between smoking and age. Below the age 45, smokers of 25 or more cigarettes per day had a 33 times higher risk than non-smokers, compared to 7.5 at in the age group 45-54, 4.4 between the ages 55-64 and 2.5 at the age of 65 or over. The risk estimates were higher in women (RR for > or = 25 cigarettes per day = 10.1), in subjects in the lowest cholesterol tertile (RR = 11.9), with no history of diabetes (RR = 6.8), hypertension (RR = 9.5), no family history ischaemic heart disease (RR = 9.1) and low body mass index (RR = 9.3). The importance of smoking is confirmed as a cause of acute myocardial infarction: about 50% of all nonfatal infarctions in this Italian population could be attributable to cigarette smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Coffee consumption and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italian males. GISSI-EFRIM. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto, Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio del'Infarto Miocardico.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, B; La Vecchia, C; Tognoni, G; Franceschi, S; Franzosi, M G; Nobili, A; Santoro, L; Scarsi, G

    1993-11-01

    The relationship between coffee consumption and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was analyzed using data from a case-control study conducted in 1988 to 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 trial on streptokinase versus alteplase and heparin versus no heparin in the treatment of AMI. A total of 801 male patients with AMI and 792 control subjects who were hospitalized in several Italian regions for diseases unrelated to known or potential risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were included. Compared with coffee nondrinkers, the multivariate relative risks (RRs), after allowance for age, education, body mass index, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, family history of AMI, cholesterol level, history of diabetes, and hypertension, were 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5 to 1.2) for consumption of one cup/d, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.9 to 2.0) for two cups/d, 1.8 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7) for three cups, 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 4.1) for four cups, and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.6 to 4.2) for five cups or more. The trend in risk with dose was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Duration of coffee consumption was not associated with the risk of AMI. The RRs for daily coffee consumption were elevated across strata of various covariates, including age, smoking habits, cholesterol level, diabetes, and hypertension, with a particularly elevated (although not significantly heterogeneous) estimate in patients younger than 50 years (RR, 5.7; 95% CI, 3.0 to 10.9 for four or more cups/d). The RR in patients who drank four or more cups of coffee per day and were current smokers was 8.1 (95% CI, 5.1 to 13.0), suggesting an unfavorable effect on the combination of cigarette smoking and high coffee intake on the risk of AMI.

  7. Geographical epidemiology of antibacterials in the preschool age

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    activities. Moreover, the competent authorities should increasing their efforts to limit unnecessary prescriptions and increase appropriateness of prescribing. Riassunto Introduzione Le mappe tematiche consentono una più rapida ed immediata lettura delle differenze geografiche nella distribuzione di dati riferiti ad un territorio specifico. Lo scopo dello studio è mostrare, per la prima volta, l’applicazione di alcuni strumenti statistici e cartografici, nell’analisi dell’uso dei farmaci nella popolazione pediatrica di una regione italiana e valutare le differenze intra-regionali. Metodi Per valutare il tipo di distribuzione geografica delle prescrizioni, sono stati calcolati i tassi di prevalenza standardizzati (punteggi-z) a livello di ASL, Distretti Sanitari e Comuni. Per valutare la correlazione con le ospedalizzazioni è stato usato il coefficiente di correlazione di Pearson; per valutare l’esistenza di autocorrelazione spaziale è stato usato l’indice I di Moran. Tramite l’uso della statistica G di Getis-Ord sono stati identificati cluster di aree ad alto e basso livello di prevalenza. Infine con un modello di regressione logistica è stata stimata la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione nel corso dell’anno per tutti i pazienti inclusi nello studio. Risultati Con l’uso delle mappe è possibile vedere che le prescrizioni non sono correlate con lo stato di salute della popolazione, ma sono correlate con l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra. Questo è confermato anche dal modello di regressione logistica costruito per stimare la probabilità di ricevere almeno una prescrizione considerando come variabili indipendenti l’età, il sesso, la prevalenza di ricoveri nel distretto di residenza, l’attitudine prescrittiva del pediatra, la classe di età del pediatra e la durata della convenzione del pediatra con l’Azienda Sanitaria Locale (ASL). Conclusioni Gli interventi primari per razionalizzare l’uso degli antibiotici in et

  8. Functional characterization and developmental expression profiling of gibberellin signalling components in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Acheampong, Atiako Kwame; Hu, Jianhong; Rotman, Ariel; Zheng, Chuanlin; Halaly, Tamar; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Lichter, Amnon; Sun, Tai-Ping; Or, Etti

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate numerous developmental processes in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) such as rachis elongation, fruit set, and fruitlet abscission. The ability of GA to promote berry enlargement has led to its indispensable use in the sternospermocarpic (‘seedless’) table grape industry worldwide. However, apart from VvGAI1 (VvDELLA1), which regulates internode elongation and fruitfulness, but not berry size of seeded cultivars, little was known about GA signalling in grapevine. We have identified and characterized two additional DELLAs (VvDELLA2 and VvDELLA3), two GA receptors (VvGID1a and VvGID1b), and two GA-specific F-box proteins (VvSLY1a and VvSLY1b), in cv. Thompson seedless. With the exception of VvDELLA3-VvGID1b, all VvDELLAs interacted with the VvGID1s in a GA-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. Additionally, expression of these grape genes in corresponding Arabidopsis mutants confirmed their functions in planta. Spatiotemporal analysis of VvDELLAs showed that both VvDELLA1 and VvDELLA2 are abundant in most tissues, except in developing fruit where VvDELLA2 is uniquely expressed at high levels, suggesting a key role in fruit development. Our results further suggest that differential organ responses to exogenous GA depend on the levels of VvDELLA proteins and endogenous bioactive GAs. Understanding this interaction will allow better manipulation of GA signalling in grapevine. PMID:25588745

  9. GA signalling and cross-talk with other signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lor, Vai S; Olszewski, Neil E

    2015-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development. DELLA proteins repress GA responses. GA binding to its receptor triggers a series of events that culminate in the destruction of DELLA proteins by the 26S proteasome, which removes the repression of GA signalling. DELLA proteins are transcription co-activators that induce the expression of genes which encode products that inhibit GA responses. In addition to repressing GA responses, DELLA proteins influence the activity of other signalling pathways and serve as a central hub from which other pathways influence GA signalling. In this role, DELLA proteins bind to and inhibit proteins, including transcription factors that act in the signalling pathways of other hormones and light. The binding of these proteins to DELLA proteins also inhibits DELLA activity. GA signalling is subject to homoeostatic regulation through GA-induced repression of GA biosynthesis gene expression, and increased production of the GA receptor and enzymes that catabolize bioactive GAs. This review also discusses the nature of mutant DELLA alleles that are used to produce high-yielding 'Green Revolution' cereal varieties, and highlights important gaps in our knowledge of GA signalling. PMID:26374886

  10. Diffusion and practice of ultrasound in emergency medicine departments in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sofia, S; Angelini, F; Cianci, V; Copetti, R; Farina, R; Scuderi, M

    2009-09-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Riportiamo i dati di un'indagine conoscitiva sulla diffusione, pratica e organizzazione dell'ecografia (US) nei dipartimenti di emergenza (EMDs) in Italia. Questo studio è stato condotto dalla Sezione di Ecografia di Urgenza Emergenza della Società Italiana di Ecografia in Medicina e Biologia (SIUMB) in collaborazione con la Società Italiana di Medicina di Emergenza e Urgenza (SIMEU). METODI: Abbiamo creato un questionario con 10 campi, relativi a 4 aree tematiche. I questionari sono stati somministrati nel periodo settembre 2007-febbraio 2008, via e-mail, telefono o posta ordinaria. I dati sono stati analizzati con metodi statistici non parametrici nell'Agosto 2008. RISULTATI: Abbiamo analizzato 170 questionari provenienti dagli EMDs di tutte le regioni italiane. Un ecografo è presente nel 64,7% dei Pronto Soccorso, l'ecografia d'emergenza (E-US) è praticata solo nel 47,6% dei Pronto Soccorso, e solo nel 24% di questi più del 60% dei membri dell'èquipe è formata in ecografia. La diffusione degli US in altre Unità Operative degli EMDs va dall'8,2% al 26,5%. DISCUSSIONE: La presenza di un ecografo in Pronto Soccorso è essenziale per la pratica e la formazione e è correlata al livello del Dipartimento di Emergenza (I o II). L'uso dell'Ecografia sembra essere minore negli ospedali meno attrezzati, indipendentemente dalla grandezza del Pronto Soccorso e dalla disponibilità di Servizi di Radiologia. Si auspica una maggiore diffusione dell'ecografia e una maggiore integrazione con altri servizi quanto all'allocazione delle risorse richieste.

  11. Gibberellin Perception by the Gibberellin Receptor and its Effector Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakoshima, Toshio; Murase, Kohji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Sun, Tai-Ping

    Gibberellins control a diverse range of growth and developmental processes in higher plants and have been widely utilized in the agricultural industry. By binding to a nuclear receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1), gibberellins regulate gene expression by promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins. The precise manner in which GID1 discriminates and becomes activated by bioactive gibberellins for specific binding to DELLA proteins remains unclear. We present the crystal structure of a ternary complex of Arabidopsis thaliana GID1A, a bioactive gibberellin and the N-terminal DELLA domain of GAI. In this complex, GID1a occludes gibberellin in a deep binding pocket covered by its N-terminal helical switch region, which in turn interacts with the DELLA domain containing DELLA, VHYNP and LExLE motifs. Our results establish a structural model of a plant hormone receptor which is distinct from the hormone-perception mechanism and effector recognition of the known auxin receptors.

  12. Previniendo el Uso de Drogas entre Ninos y Adolescentes: Una Guia Basada en Investigaciones (Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents: A Research-Based Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.

    This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…

  13. El uso de escritos ensayisticos en clases de lengua espanola a nivel intermedio y superior (The Use of Written Essays in Intermediate and Advanced Level Spanish Language Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Hans Jorg

    1994-01-01

    Presents as an alternative to the traditional Spanish textbook a modular approach that consists of activities based on essay reading and grammar exercises. Students liked this form of instruction, and most indicated that they had learned material previously unknown to them. (seven references) (Author/CK)

  14. Del uso sociolinguistico de las oclusivas posnucleares en el espanol peninsular norteno (On the Sociolinguistic Use of Post-Nuclear Occlusives in North Peninsular Spanish).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta M.

    1998-01-01

    A sociolinguistic analysis of pronunciation patterns of postnuclear occlusive consonants in northern peninsular Spanish resulted in (1) understanding of the vitality of the use of distinct allophonic variations; (2) characterization of sociolinguistic usage tendencies in relation to speakers' demographic characteristics; and (3) identification of…

  15. El uso periodistico de las formas -ra y -se del imperfecto de subjunctivo. (The Use and Frequency of the -ra and -se Forms of the Imperfect Subjunctive.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ford, Pilar; Georgalas, Sotiri

    1983-01-01

    Results of a statistical study of the two imperfect subjunctive endings in Spanish and Latin American journalism show the use of "-se" to be decreasing, although usage is slightly higher in Spain. Use of the imperfect subjuntive with an indicative meaning is also slightly more common in Spain. (MSE)

  16. Uso de exámenes de detección como oportunidad para ayudar a fumadores a dejar el tabaco

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI ha publicado un anuncio de financiamiento para ayudar a estimular la investigación sobre métodos óptimos para dejar de fumar cigarrillos que se entreguen junto con los exámenes de detección.

  17. Mesa redonda: Argentina en proyectos globales de investigaciones espaciales y astronómicas. Uso científico de la Antena de Espacio Profundo DSA 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colazo, M.

    2016-08-01

    Argentine has 10 percent of the operative time available for the DSA 3 Antenna of the European Space Agency, installed in Malargüe, Mendoza. Here we present the history of the project and the current activities for the scientific use of the antenna.

  18. El uso de las simulaciones educativas en la ensenanza de conceptos de ciencias y su importancia desde la perspectiva de los estudiantes candidatos a maestros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Ramos, Edwin O.

    This research was aimed at establishing the differences, if any, between traditional direct teaching and constructive teaching through the use of computer simulations and their effect on pre-service teachers. It's also intended to gain feedback on the users of these simulations as providers of constructive teaching and learning experiences. The experimental framework used a quantitative method with a descriptive focus. The research was guided by two hypothesis and five inquiries. The data was obtained from a group composed of twenty-nine students from a private Metropolitan University in Puerto Rico and elementary school pre-service teachers. They were divided into two sub-groups: experimental and control. Two means were used to collect data: tests and surveys. Quantitative data was analyzed through test "t" for paired samples and the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. The results of the pre and post tests do not provide enough evidence to conclude that using the simulations as learning tools was more effective than traditional teaching. However, the quantitative results obtained were not enough to reject or dismiss the hypothesis Ho1. On the other hand, an overall positive attitude towards these simulations was obtained from the surveys. The importance of including hands-on activities in daily lesson planning was proven and well recognized among practice teachers. After participating and working with these simulations, the practice teachers expressed being convinced that they would definitely use them as teaching tools in the classroom. Due to these results, hypothesis Ho2 was rejected. Evidence also proved that practice teachers need further professional development to improve their skills in the application of these simulations in the classroom environment. The majority of these practice teachers showed concern about not being instructed on important aspects of the use of simulation as part of their college education curriculum towards becoming teachers.

  19. Using Web-Based Activities to Promote Reading: An Exploratory Study with Teenagers (Uso de actividades en la red para promover la lectura: un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rátiva Velandia, Marlén; Pedreros Torres, Andrés Leonardo; Núñez Alí, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    It is considered valuable to take advantage of web activities to improve and qualify the English teaching and learning processes, especially in the promotion of reading comprehension. In this article we share the process and results of a study that focused on some activities based on web materials that were designed and used with 10th grade…

  20. Uso de modelos mecânicos em curso informal de astronomia para deficientes visuais. Resgate de uma experiência

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, E. T., Jr.; Klafke, J. C.

    2003-08-01

    O presente trabalho propõe-se a resgatar uma experiência que teve lugar no Planetário de São Paulo nos anos 60. Em 1962, o Sr. Acácio, então com 37 anos, deficiente visual desde os 27, passou a assistir às aulas ministradas pelo Prof. Aristóteles Orsini aos integrantes do corpo de servidores do Planetário. O Sr. Acácio era o único deficiente da turma e, embora possuísse conhecimentos básicos e relativamente avançados de matemática, enfrentava dificuldades na compreensão e acompanhamento da exposição, como também em estudos posteriores. Com o intuito de auxiliá-lo na superação desses problemas, o Prof. Orsini solicitou a construção de modelos mecânicos que, através do sentido do tato, permitissem o acompanhamento das aulas e a transposição do modelo para o "constructo" mental. Essa prática mostrou-se tão eficaz que facilitou sobejamente o aprendizado da matéria pelo sujeito. O Sr. Acácio passou a integrar o corpo de professores do Planetário/Escola Municipal de Astrofísica, tendo ficado responsável pelo curso de "Introdução à Astronomia" por vários anos. Além disso, a experiência foi tão bem sucedida que alguns dos modelos tiveram seus elementos constitutivos pintados diferencialmente para serem utilizados em cursos regulares do Planetário, tornando-se parte integrante do conjunto de recursos didáticos da instituição. É pensando nessa eficácia, tanto em seu objetivo original permitir o aprendizado de um deficiente visual quanto no subsidiário recurso didático sistemático da instituição que decidimos resgatar essa experiência. Estribados nela, acreditamos ser extremamente produtivo, em termos educacionais, o aperfeiçoamento dos modelos originais, agora resgatados e restaurados, e a criação de outros que pudessem ser utilizados no ensino dessa ciência a deficientes visuais.

  1. Uso de simulações na determinação de cores intrínsecas de estrelas no infravermelho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembold, S. B.; Ribeiro, D.; Ducati, J. R.; Bevilacqua, C.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos o método e alguns resultados preliminares da aplicação de simulações na determinação das cores intrínsecas de estrelas no infravermelho. A simulação consiste em gerar diagramas cor versus temperatura efetiva de estrelas sinteticas, para uma faixa de valores iniciais da cor intrínseca para cada tipo espectral. Os diagramas gerados sinteticamente são comparados com diagramas gerados a partir de observacoes e, com isso, extrai-se a cor intrínseca que melhor descreve as observações. Mostramos tabelas preliminares de cores intrínsecas e comparamos seu comportamento com determinações prévias e de outros autores.

  2. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  3. Charge It Right. FDIC Money Smart Financial Education Curriculum = Uso Correcto de su Tarjeta de Credito. FDIC Money Smart Plan de Education para Capacitacion en Finanzas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., Washington, DC.

    This module on managing a credit card is one of ten in the Money Smart curriculum, and includes an instructor guide and a take-home guide. It was developed to help adults outside the financial mainstream enhance their money skills and create positive banking relationships. It is designed to enable participants to describe the costs and benefits of…

  4. Servicio de Informacion para la Orientacion Educativa. Guia para su Interpretacion y Uso. (Information Service for Educational Counseling. Guide for Its Interpretation and Use.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Hato Rey, PR. Puerto Rico Office.

    In 1974, the College Board in Puerto Rico initiated a program on educational counseling for high school-bound students. The program was designed to help students define their educational goals and career interests before entering the ninth grade where they would be required to make specific curriculum choices. The program calls for the…

  5. Uso de Cebos para el Control de la Termita de Formosa, Coptotermes formosanus, en Zonas Arboladas en la Ciudad de Nuevo Orleáns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 220 underground termite stations were installed 1 meter away from the base of trees located in the median area of seven blocks of Esplanade Avenue, New Orleans, LA. Aspen wood was used to monitor termite populations. A nutritionally based bait matrix developed by United States Department ...

  6. Uso de los Datos de Biomonitoreo para Informar sobre la Evaluacion Infantil (American translation is: USING BIOMONITORING DATA TO INFORM EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT IN CHILDREN)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  7. Pesticide Safety for Non-Certified Mixers, Loaders and Applicators = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para Mezcladores, Cargadores y Aplicadores no Certificados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    Written in English and Spanish and completely illustrated, this manual provides basic safety information for pesticide workers. Mixers, loaders, and applicators work with pesticides at their greatest strength and have the highest risk of poisoning. Understanding the pesticide label is the first step to pesticide safety. The words…

  8. A novel dwarfing mutation in a green revolution gene from Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Muangprom, Amorntip; Thomas, Stephen G; Sun, Tai-Ping; Osborn, Thomas C

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the biosynthesis or signaling pathways of gibberellin (GA) can cause dwarfing phenotypes in plants, and the use of such mutations in plant breeding was a major factor in the success of the Green Revolution. DELLA proteins are GA signaling repressors whose functions are conserved in different plant species. Recent studies show that GA promotes stem growth by causing degradation of DELLA proteins via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The most widely utilized dwarfing alleles in wheat (Triticum aestivum; e.g. Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b) encode GA-resistant forms of a DELLA protein that function as dominant and constitutively active repressors of stem growth. All of the previously identified dominant DELLA repressors from several plant species contain N-terminal mutations. Here we report on a novel dwarf mutant from Brassica rapa (Brrga1-d) that is caused by substitution of a conserved amino acid in the C-terminal domain of a DELLA protein. Brrga1-d, like N-terminal DELLA mutants, retains its repressor function and accumulates to high levels, even in the presence of GA. However, unlike wild-type and N-terminal DELLA mutants, Brrga1-d does not interact with a protein component required for degradation, suggesting that the mutated amino acid causes dwarfism by preventing an interaction needed for its degradation. This novel mutation confers nondeleterious dwarf phenotypes when transferred to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and oilseed rape (Brassica napus), indicating its potential usefulness in other crop species.

  9. The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation.

    PubMed

    Dill, Alyssa; Thomas, Stephen G; Hu, Jianhong; Steber, Camille M; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2004-06-01

    The nuclear DELLA proteins are highly conserved repressors of hormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, GA derepresses its signaling pathway by inducing proteolysis of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). SLEEPY1 (SLY1) encodes an F-box-containing protein, and the loss-of-function sly1 mutant has a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype and accumulates a high level of RGA. These findings suggested that SLY1 recruits RGA to the SCFSLY1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. In this report, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism of how SLY1 interacts with the DELLA proteins for controlling GA response. By yeast two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays, we demonstrated that SLY1 interacts directly with RGA and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a closely related DELLA protein) via their C-terminal GRAS domain. The rga and gai null mutations additively suppressed the recessive sly1 mutant phenotype, further supporting the model that SCFSLY1 targets both RGA and GAI for degradation. The N-terminal DELLA domain of RGA previously was shown to be essential for GA-induced degradation. However, we found that this DELLA domain is not required for protein-protein interaction with SLY1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), suggesting that its role is in a GA-triggered conformational change of the DELLA proteins. We also identified a novel gain-of-function sly1-d mutation that increased GA signaling by reducing the levels of the DELLA protein in plants. This effect of sly1-d appears to be caused by an enhanced interaction between sly1-d and the DELLA proteins. PMID:15155881

  10. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    El gasto energetico (GE) puede disminuir en sujetos sometidos a dietas hipocaloricas, en una magnitud que excede la reduccion explicada por los cambios en la composicion corporal; dificultando la mantencion del peso perdido. Objetivo: verificar si el Gasto Energetico en Reposo (GER) y Total (GET) experimentan una disminucion mayor a lo atribuible a cambios en la composicion corporal y dependen de la adherencia al tratamiento dietario. Metodología: veintidos mujeres (23-44 anos) con Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) entre 25 y 32 kg/m2 fueron sometidas a tres meses de restriccion calorica (20 kcal/kg de peso inicial) y motivadas a aumentar su actividad fisica. Al inicio y al final se evaluo: peso, masa grasa (MG) y masa libre de grasa (MLG) con DEXA, GER (calorimetria indirecta), Gasto Energetico por Actividad Fisica (GEAF) y GET (actigrafia). Las participantes que perdieron ≥ 5% del peso inicial fueron consideradas como adherentes a la dieta. Resultados: el grupo adherente tuvo una disminucion significativa del GER absoluto [-164 } 168 kcal/dia (10,6%) y -4,3 } 4,6 kcal/kg MLG (10,5%)]. Esta disminucion fue significativamente mayor que la observada en el grupo no adherente [-6,2 } 1.42 kcal/dia (0.16%) y -0,5 } 3,4/kg FFM (0.96%)]. La MLG no cambio en ninguno de los dos grupos. Existio asociacion significativa entre MLG y GER (r = 0,56; p < 0,05) solo al inicio en el grupo total. Conclusiones: las mujeres adherentes a la restriccion calorica mostraron una reduccion en el GER tanto absoluto como ajustado por la MLG, lo cual, junto con la perdida de correlacion entre el GER y la MLG al final de la intervencion, sugieren adaptacion metabolica.

  11. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A.; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  12. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Nicolas; Girin, Thomas; Sorefan, Karim; Fuentes, Sara; Wood, Thomas A; Lawrenson, Tom; Sablowski, Robert; Østergaard, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT (IND) and ALCATRAZ (ALC) specify tissues required for fruit opening that have major roles in seed dispersal and plant domestication. Here, we show that synthesis of the phytohormone gibberellin is a direct and necessary target of IND, and that ALC interacts directly with DELLA repressors, which antagonize ALC function but are destabilized by gibberellin. Thus, the gibberellin/DELLA pathway has a key role in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit, and the interaction between DELLA and bHLH proteins, previously shown to connect gibberellin and light responses, is a versatile regulatory module also used in tissue patterning. PMID:20889713

  13. A panchromatic view of the evolution of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2008-10-01

    Verranno presentati i risultati preliminari di uno studio sistematico delle distribuzioni di energia spettrale (SED) di un campione statisticamente significativo di alcune centinaia di AGN (sia di tipo 1 che di tipo 2) selezionati dalla survey XMM-COSMOS. La vasta mole di dati disponibili sull'intero spettro elettromagnetico permette di calcolare le SED medie per diversi intervalli di redshift e luminosita'. Una stima affidabile della SED e' di fondamentale importanza per il calcolo della luminosita' bolometrica e quindi per lo studio della fisica dei processi di accrescimento su SMBH, per la loro evoluzione con il tempo cosmico.

  14. Using a Blog to Guide Beginner Students to Use Adjectives Appropriately When Writing Descriptions in English (El uso de una bitácora o "blog" para guiar a estudiantes principiantes en el uso apropiado de los adjetivos cuando escriben descripciones en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lizarazo Jara, Omar Yesid

    2012-01-01

    Beginner students often have difficulties using adjectives when they write descriptions in English. This article focuses on the procedures used to help my sixth grade students understand and use adjectives in the correct order by using a blog. To achieve the objective of the project I decided to implement an innovation in and out of class…

  15. La relatività debole. La fisica dello spazio e del tempo senza paradossi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selleri, Franco

    2011-06-01

    Secondo Einstein e Poincaré la simultaneità di eventi che hanno luogo in punti diversi dello spazio può essere definita solo per convenzione. Dal punto di vista matematico si dimostra, quindi, che due diverse definizioni di simultaneità corrispondono a due diversi valori del coefficiente e1 della variabile spaziale x presente nelle trasformazioni di Lorentz. A partire da premesse normalmente accettate otterremo diverse dimostrazioni della necessità di reintrodurre il concetto di simultaneità assoluta. Le conseguenze cosmologiche della nuova struttura dello spazio e del tempo andranno contro la cosmologia del Big Bang. Inoltre, dopo questi risultati, il relativismo sopravviverà in una forma meno aspra ("relatività debole") perché risulter privo di quel campionario di paradossi portato dalla teoria della Relatività Speciale.

  16. [Breve commento sull'importanza spesso sottovalutata degli approcci psicologici e riabilitativi nella gestione del dolore oncologico].

    PubMed

    Cascella, Marco; Simonds Thompson, Nicholas; Muzio, Maria Rosaria; Forte, Cira Antonietta; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. L'approccio farmacologico personalizzato (tailored) rappresenta la terapia standard per i pazienti affetti da dolore oncologico, consentendo il controllo della sintomatologia in circa il 90% dei casi. Qualora tale strategia risulti inefficace è possibile ricorrere a più complesse tecniche, invasive o mini-invasive. Tuttavia, sia da parte dei pazienti sia degli operatori viene sottostimato il disagio psicologico sotteso al dolore oncologico e non si considerano i potenziali benefici dei trattamenti di supporto psicologico e riabilitativi nella gestione del dolore da cancro. Queste strategie non farmacologiche dovrebbero essere parte integrante di un più globale approccio multidisciplinare alla terapia del dolore, affiancando e amplificando gli effetti della terapia farmacologica. Tale breve rassegna narrativa ha la finalità di offrire una panoramica sul ruolo dei possibili interventi psicologici e riabilitativi atti al miglioramento della qualità della vita in pazienti affetti da dolore oncologico.

  17. Deep burn of hand and forearm treated by abdominal wall flap. A case report.

    PubMed

    Chiummariello, Stefano; Del Torto, Giuseppe; Maffia, Romano; Pataia, Elisabetta; Alfano, Carmine

    2015-06-24

    Le ustioni della mano sono sempre state uno dei maggiori problemi per i chirurghi ricostruttori a causa della sua particolare anatomia e delle sue complesse funzioni. Una guarigione spontanea di lesioni profonde in queste aree può portare a risultati catastrofici: una copertura cutanea adeguata è fondamentale per tutte le funzioni. La copertura precoce dei tessuti molli residuanti è fondamentale al fine di evitare la formazione di contratture disabilitanti che con il tempo potrebbero determinare anchilosi articolare e retrazione tendinea. Escissione precoce e innesti cutanei rappresentano la terapia standard per le ustioni della mano; in alcuni casi quest’approccio è inapplicabile e, pertanto, il ricorso ai lembi diventa inevitabile. In questo articolo riportiamo un caso di ustione complessa del dorso della mano trattata in prima istanza con innesti cutanei e, quindi, con un lembo addominale, riuscendo ad ottenere un’ottima copertura ed un buon recupero delle funzioni.

  18. Flexible control of plant architecture and yield via switchable expression of Arabidopsis gai.

    PubMed

    Ait-ali, Tahar; Rands, Carley; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2003-09-01

    The growth of plants is repressed by DELLA proteins, nuclear regulators whose activities are opposed by the growth-promoting phytohormone gibberellin (GA). Mutations affecting DELLA protein function were previously used by plant breeders to create the high-yielding semidwarf wheat varieties of the green revolution. gai is an Arabidopsis mutant DELLA protein-encoding orthologue of the wheat semidwarfing genes. Here we describe the development of a transgene that confers ethanol-inducible gai expression. Transient induction of gai causes transient growth repression: growth prior to and after treatment is unaffected. Appropriate ethanol treatments result in dwarf plants that produce the same numbers of seeds as untreated controls. This new technology represents a substantial advance in the applicability of genes encoding mutant DELLA proteins to agricultural and horticultural improvement, enhancing the flexibity with which these genes can be used for the sustainable achievement of increased crop plant yields. PMID:17166132

  19. Flexible control of plant architecture and yield via switchable expression of Arabidopsis gai.

    PubMed

    Ait-ali, Tahar; Rands, Carley; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2003-09-01

    The growth of plants is repressed by DELLA proteins, nuclear regulators whose activities are opposed by the growth-promoting phytohormone gibberellin (GA). Mutations affecting DELLA protein function were previously used by plant breeders to create the high-yielding semidwarf wheat varieties of the green revolution. gai is an Arabidopsis mutant DELLA protein-encoding orthologue of the wheat semidwarfing genes. Here we describe the development of a transgene that confers ethanol-inducible gai expression. Transient induction of gai causes transient growth repression: growth prior to and after treatment is unaffected. Appropriate ethanol treatments result in dwarf plants that produce the same numbers of seeds as untreated controls. This new technology represents a substantial advance in the applicability of genes encoding mutant DELLA proteins to agricultural and horticultural improvement, enhancing the flexibity with which these genes can be used for the sustainable achievement of increased crop plant yields.

  20. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  1. Spatial patterns in optical parametric oscillators with spherical mirrors: classical and quantum effects: errata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marte, M.; Ritsch, H.; Petsas, K. I.; Gatti, A.; Lugiato, L. A.; Fabre, C.; Leduc, D.

    1998-11-01

    The correct author affiliation for K. I. Petsas, A. Gatti and L. A. Lugiato is: Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Universita di Milano, Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, Via Celoria 16, Milano 20133, Italy.

  2. Modello di Sviluppo dei Fattori Cognitivo-Linguistici della Tautologia, Sinonimia et Antonimia nei Bambini dei 3 a 6 Anni di Eta (Developmental Models of Tautology, Synonymy, and Antonymy as Cognitive-Linguistic Factors in Children from 3 to 6 Years of Age).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprile, Luigi

    1992-01-01

    Tests and confirms hypothesis that a four-stage process exists in the understanding and use of synonyms, antonyms, and tautologies in children ages three to six. The results of this study challenge widely held theories on cognitive development. (45 references) (LET)

  3. Redescription of two European species of Acerentomidae (Protura) belonging to the Italian fauna.

    PubMed

    Galli, Loris; Capurro, Matteo; Costa, Fabio; Stadio, Gabriele Di; Sarà, Antonio; Zinni, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Acerentulus apuliacus Rusek & Stumpp, 1988 is redescribed based on new specimens collected in Apulia and Basilicata (S-Italy) and deposited in the collection of Geneva Natural History Museum. Podolinella ruseki (Nosek, 1967) new combination is redescribed, based on the holotype from Austria and additional specimens collected in Liguria, NW Italy. The new material is deposited in the collection of the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita, University of Genoa. PMID:27615841

  4. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a RGA-like gene responsive to plant hormones in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Chen, Jianmin; Zhao, Yun; Li, Tingting; Wang, Maolin

    2012-02-01

    DELLA proteins are negative regulators of GA-induced growth. DELLA protein family is characterized by a DELLA domain essential for GA-dependent proteasomal degradation of DELLA repressors. A full-length cDNA encoding a putative DELLA protein with high sequence homology to Arabidopsis thaliana RGA (AtRGA), designated as BnRGA, was isolated from Brassica napus. The full-length cDNA of BnRGA contained a 1,740 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a precursor protein of 579 amino acid residues. Comparative and bioinformatics analyses revealed that BnRGA showed a high degree of homology with DELLA proteins and contained the DELLA domain, TVHYNP domain, VHIID domain and RVER domain. Using real-time PCR, the expression patterns of BnRGA and two our previously isolated genes, BnGID1a and BnSLY1 in B. napus, were analyzed by adding exogenous gibberellins acid-3 (GA(3)), GA biosynthetic inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC) and abscisic acid (ABA). The results showed that the expression of BnGID1a and BnSLY1 was down-regulated after treated by GA(3) and induced by PAC and ABA. These results suggest that the expression of BnGID1a and BnSLY1 may be negatively regulated by the level of endogenous GA in B. napus. Moreover, BnRGA was not significantly regulated by GA(3), PAC and ABA in the low concentrations. These suggest that GA-GID1-SCF-DELLA complex may have a mechanism of self-regulation, thereby preserving the stability of the expression level of BnRGA in B. napus.

  5. Appendix stump closure with endoloop in laparoscopic appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Caglià, Pietro; Tracia, Angelo; Spataro, Daniele; Borzì, Laura; Lucifora, Bibiana; Tracia, Luciano; Amodeo, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    L’appendicite acuta rappresenta la più comune patologia infiammatoria della cavità adddominale. Mc Burney ne ha per primo descritto il trattamento chirurgico utilizzando la classica incisione nel quadrante addominale inferiore destro. Tale approccio è stato considerato il trattamento standard della patologia appendicolare per più di un secolo, fino all’inizio dell’era video laparoscopica. I rapidi cambiamenti tecnici e gli innegabili vantaggi della procedura videolaparoscopica ha portato ad una ampia diffusione della metodica in ambito clinico. La chiusura del moncone appendicolare, durante l’appendicectomia video laparoscopica, rappresenta uno degli aspetti tecnici fondamentali della procedura per le gravi potenziali complicanze che possono derivare da un suo non appropriato trattamento. Gravi complicanze sono infatti rappresentate da deiscenza, fistole stercoracee e peritonite. La chiusura con endostapler, hem-o-look e legatura intracorporea rappresentano le metodiche più comunemente utilizzate. Tutte le alternative descritte presentano vantaggi e svantaggi e vanno rapportate ai diversi stadi clinici della patologia appendicolare. Va inoltre notato che le differenti metodiche di trattamento del moncone appendicolare non sono state testate in studi randomizzati. In base alla nostra esperienza si può affermare che il trattamento del moncone appendicolare con endoloop può essere utilizzato con sicurezza e dovrebbe essere considerata la metodica di scelta anche in relazione al rapporto costo-beneficio. Metodi alternativi di chiusura del moncone appendicolare andrebbero utilizzati in caso di appendicite flemmonosa o gangrenosa, ascesso peritiflitico e/o contemporaneo trattamento di diverticolo di Meckel.

  6. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA. PMID:27183510

  7. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability.

  8. High-resolution, three-dimensional, and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic findings in diseases of the eye().

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, L M; Lacelli, F; Ardemagni, A; Perrone, N; Bertolotto, M; Padolecchia, R; Serafini, G

    2010-12-01

    Sommario OBIETTIVI: Illustrare i reperti ecocontrastografici (CEUS) e di ecografia in tre dimensioni (3D) di un ampio spettro di patologie del globo oculare, confrontandole con l’ecografia ad alta risoluzione (HRUS). INTRODUZIONE: La CEUS è un valido strumento nella valutazione di numerosi distretti corporei. Nella patologia del bulbo oculare esistono una serie di situazioni in cui la CEUS può essere dirimente o molto utile. IMAGING: In questo lavoro presentiamo uno spettro di lesioni traumatiche (distacchi di retina e della coroide) e di patologia maligna del bulbo oculare (melanoma della coroide, tumori intra- ed extra conali) valutate con CEUS ed ecografia 3D. I risultati sono stati confrontati con HRUS. L’orbitopatiadistiroidea è stata esclusa dal presente studio. CONCLUSIONE: CEUS gioca un ruolo centrale nella diagnosi differenziale tra distacchi di retina (vascolari) e membrane vitreali (avascolari). Inoltre CEUS è molto utile nella valutazione dei tumori bulbari, nel percorso terapeutico del melanoma della coroide e nella valutazione della neovascolarizzazione delle lesioni orbitarie. HRUS è molto efficace nel riconoscimento di lesioni traumatiche e non traumatiche, ma non è utile nella valutazione delle lesioni della parete dell’orbita. L’utilizzo delle ricostruzioni 3D ha aumentato la confidenza diagnostica della CEUS. Infine, CEUS ha un ottimo rapporto costo-beneficio e può essere utilizzata quando la TC e la RM non possono essere eseguite.

  9. [Food Addiction: definizione, misurazione e prevalenza in soggetti sani e in pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare].

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta; Vumbaca, Viviana; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Farina, Benedetto

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Il costrutto della "Food Addiction" (FA) è stato introdotto negli ultimi anni per meglio comprendere i pattern alimentari disfunzionali osservati nei pazienti obesi e in sovrappeso e nei pazienti con disturbi del comportamento alimentare (DCA). Nonostante i numerosi parallelismi tra la dipendenza da sostanze e la FA, non c'è ancora accordo nel considerare la FA come un indipendente DCA né un concetto utile. L'obiettivo della presente rassegna è stato quello di riassumere i dati disponibili al fine di aumentare le conoscenze su: 1) definizione, misurazione e caratteristiche generali della FA; 2) prevalenza della FA in campioni clinici e non clinici. I dati disponibili suggeriscono che la FA sia un costrutto transnosografico presente in tutti i DCA, con una prevalenza più elevata nella bulimia nervosa. Nonostante il dibattito sull'autonomia della FA come DCA rimanga aperto, gli studi riportati suggeriscono che la comorbilità tra FA e DCA sia associata con peggiori outcome clinici, giustificando di conseguenza l'assessment e il trattamento della FA.

  10. University Spin-Offs in Sweden: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowegren, Marie; Bengtsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    There have been few studies on the long-term performance of university spin-offs (USOs). This paper builds on previous empirical research into the performance of USOs and on the resource- based model of USOs. Several research issues are addressed including, in particular, the long-term performance of Swedish USOs, the distribution of the main…

  11. Oncoplastic breast-conserving surgery in breast cancer treatment Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Joannis G

    2016-01-01

    Il trattamento chirurgico del carcinoma della mammella ha subito profondi cambiamenti negli ultimi anni. Vari studi hanno dimostrato l’equivalenza in termini di risultati oncologici tra mastectomia e chirurgia conservativa della mammella seguita da radioterapia. La chirurgia conservativa della mammella offre nella maggior parte dei casi risultati favorevoli dal un punto di vista estetico. Ciononostante, in un 10-30% dei casi, i risultati estetici sono deludenti. In questi casi, la chirurgia oncoplastica della mammella che coniuga tecniche di chirurgia oncologica con quelle proprie della chirurgia plastica ha permesso di superare il conflitto tra estensione della resezione tumorale e risultato estetico finale. Varie tecniche di chirurgia oncoplastica sono state proposte e sono sempre più adottate per facilitare la conservazione e preservare l’estetica della mammella. Questa revisione sistematica si propone di valutare i risultati oncologici e cosmetici di chirurgia oncoplastica conservativa conservativa della mammella. Questo lavoro è stata condotto usando dei criteri ben definiti di inclusione ed esclusione, per gli articoli pubblicati fino al 31 luglio 2015. Un totale di 106 articoli sono stati identificati per potenziale inclusione ed esaminati in dettaglio. Dopo una selezione adeguata, 11 articoli hanno formato la base di questo lavoro. Questo studio è stato inizialmente progettato per identificare e poi revisionare dopo un processo di selezione rigoroso, gli articoli pubblicati con il più alto livello di evidenza su chirurgia oncoplastica della mammella. Revisioni sistematiche e metanalisi, non sono stati inclusi per ragioni metodologiche. I risultati di questo lavoro dimostrano che le ricadute locali adoperando la chirurgia oncoplastica non superano il 7%. Margini liberi sono stati recuperati nel 86% dei casi. Buoni risultati cosmetici sono stati ottenuti in 86% dei casi. Ciononostante, si deve riferire che la maggior parte degli studi pubblicati hanno

  12. Update on the surgical management of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Gianluca; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Di Leone, Alba; Magno, Stefano; Moschella, Francesca; Accetta, Cristina; Natale, Maria; Di Giorgio, Danilo; Scaldaferri, Assunta; D'Archi, Sabatino; Scardina, Lorenzo; Masetti, Riccardo

    2015-02-20

    Il trattamento chirurgico dei tumori della mammella ha subito continui e profondi cambiamenti negli ultimi 30 anni. La chirurgia conservativa ha progressivamente e definitivamente sostituito la mastectomia nel trattamento dei tumori in stadio iniziale; associata alla radioterapia, essa è in grado di garantire alle pazienti le stesse percentuali di sopravvivenza globale e migliori risultati estetici con un accettabile rischio di recidiva locale. Grazie alla diffusione dei programmi di screening ed al perfezionamento delle indagini diagnostiche si è assistito ad un progressivo incremento della diagnosi dei tumori infraclinici ed all’elaborazione di sempre più accurate tecniche di localizzazione e trattamento mini-invasivo dei tumori non palpabili. Nell’ambito della chirurgia conservativa, l’introduzione della chirurgia oncoplastica, coniugando tecniche di chirurgia generale con quelle proprie della chirurgia plastica, ha consentito di superare il conflitto tra estensione della resezione chirurgica e risultato estetico finale, contribuendo in maniera importante a migliorare la qualità di vita delle pazienti. La mastectomia resta una valida alternativa chirurgica in casi selezionati ed è associata preferibilmente a procedure ricostruttive immediate che minimizzano l’impatto psicologico negativo dell’atto demolitivo. La tecnica del linfonodo sentinella per i tumori in stadio iniziale ha permesso di evitare in casi selezionati la dissezione ascellare di principio senza rinunciare alle importanti informazioni prognostiche dei linfonodi locoregionali. L’obiettivo di questo lavoro è di riassumere le recenti evoluzioni nella terapia chirurgica dei tumori della mammella e di mettere in evidenza i vantaggi e le questioni irrisolte delle diverse opzioni chirurgiche di trattamento.

  13. Reduction mammoplasty using oxidized regenerated cellulose as a filler in breast conservation surgery.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Gianluca; Sanchez, Alejandro Martin; Visconti, Giuseppe; Di Leone, Alba; D'Archi, Sabatino; Mulè, Antonino; Santoro, Angela; Salgarello, Marzia; Masetti, Riccardo

    La chirurgia oncoplastica della mammella ha suscitato grande interesse negli ultimi anni ed è progressivamente divenuta una componente integrante ed essenziale del trattamento chirurgico conservativo dei tumori del seno. Le tecniche di chirurgia oncoplastica combinano i migliori principi della chirurgia oncologica con in migliori principi della chirurgia plastica con lo scopo di ottenere margini indenni da malattia ed al tempo stesso ottimizzare i risultati estetici. In particolare le tecniche di mastoplastica riduttiva sono state applicate in pazienti con seni medio-grandi e ptosici per ottimizzare i risultati oncologici ed estetici. Grazie a queste procedure il trattamento conservativo della mammella è stato esteso ad includere un gruppo di pazienti che altrimenti avrebbero richiesto una mastectomia associata a complessi interventi di ricostruzione mammaria. Tuttavia anche con l’applicazione delle tecniche di mastoplastica riduttiva gli esiti cosmetici possono risultare insoddisfacenti, in particolar modo in pazienti con seni medi che richiedono ampie resezioni parenchimali per tumori di voluminose dimensioni, localizzati nei quadranti supero-interni o inferiori. Recentemente è stato quindi proposto l’utilizzo della cellulosa ossidata rigenerata come biomateriale ricostruttivo per ottimizzare i risultati estetici nella chirurgia oncoplastica. Lo scopo di questo articolo è quello di descrivere il modello standard di una innovativa tecnica oncoplastica con cellulosa ossidata rigenerata che abbiamo denominato “QUORC” (QUadrantectomy with Oxidized Regenerated Cellulose) grazie alla quale sembra possibile migliorare i risultati estetici e ridurre al minimo le possibile complicanze post-operatorie, come infezioni ed ematomi, nella chirurgia oncoplastica con tecnica di mastoplastica riduttiva.

  14. The 'Green Revolution' dwarfing genes play a role in disease resistance in Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Saville, R J; Gosman, N; Burt, C J; Makepeace, J; Steed, A; Corbitt, M; Chandler, E; Brown, J K M; Boulton, M I; Nicholson, P

    2012-02-01

    The Green Revolution dwarfing genes, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, encode mutant forms of DELLA proteins and are present in most modern wheat varieties. DELLA proteins have been implicated in the response to biotic stress in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. Using defined wheat Rht near-isogenic lines and barley Sln1 gain of function (GoF) and loss of function (LoF) lines, the role of DELLA in response to biotic stress was investigated in pathosystems representing contrasting trophic styles (biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic). GoF mutant alleles in wheat and barley confer a resistance trade-off with increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens and increased resistance to necrotrophic pathogens whilst the converse was conferred by a LoF mutant allele. The polyploid nature of the wheat genome buffered the effect of single Rht GoF mutations relative to barley (diploid), particularly in respect of increased susceptibility to biotrophic pathogens. A role for DELLA in controlling cell death responses is proposed. Similar to Arabidopsis, a resistance trade-off to pathogens with contrasting pathogenic lifestyles has been identified in monocotyledonous cereal species. Appreciation of the pleiotropic role of DELLA in biotic stress responses in cereals has implications for plant breeding.

  15. Vulvar endometriosis and Nuck canal.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Carmelo; Gammeri, Emanuele; Foti, Agata; Rossitto, Maurizio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    L’endometriosi è una patologia non ancora del tutto conosciuta che colpisce il 6-10% della popolazione femminile generare e il 35-50% della popolazione femminile affetta da dolore pelvico e infertilità. La sede più frequente di malattia è rappresentata dall’ovaio e ciò sostiene l’ipotesi patogenetica della mestruazione retrograda. Viene descritto un caso di non comune localizzazione vulvare di endometriosi riscontrata in una paziente precedentemente operata per una cisti di Nuck. La donna aveva notato da qualche mese l’insorgenza di una tumefazione nella regione vulvare che le causava dolore e dispareunia che si accentuavano nel periodo mestruale. Il sospetto clinico di endometriosi non aveva avuto conferma negli esami strumentali preoperatori che non avevano evidenziato alterazioni patognomoniche, nè differenze dei reperti in fase pre mestruale e mestruale. Solo l’esame istologico della neoformazione asportata ha confermato la diagnosi. Inoltre gli Autori con la presente nota desiderano sottolineare come nella patogenesi dell’endometriosi vulvare debba essere tenuta in considerazione la presenza della pervietà del dotto peritoneovaginale o dotto di Nuck. Nel caso clinico descritto, infatti, la paziente era stata sottoposta due anni prima ad asportazione di una cisti di Nuck con obliterazione del dotto peritoneovaginale. Tuttavia già in quella fase clinica poteva essersi determinato un impianto endometriosico, che si era poi evidenziato con la formazione del nodulo in sede vulvare asportato chirurgicamente.

  16. Positive Prevention: Successful Approaches To Preventing Youthful Drug and Alcohol Use [and] La Prevencion Positiva: Metodos que han tenido exito en la prevencion del uso de drogas y alcohol entre la juventud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    The United States has the highest rate of youthful drug abuse of any industrialized country in the world. There is a growing awareness that drug and alcohol use are closely connected to other problems such as teenage suicide, adolescent pregnancy, traffic fatalities, juvenile delinquency, poor school performance, runaways, and dropouts. Youthful…

  17. When Students Say Far Too Much: Examining Gushing in the ELT Classroom (Cuando los alumnos dicen demasiado: análisis del uso excesivo de palabras en clases de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugford, Gerrard; Cuevas, Oscar Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    English foreign-language users often overuse words when faced with difficult situations. Called gushing, such excessive use of words is often legitimately employed by native speakers to express, for instance, gratitude and apologies when a simple "thank you" or "sorry" does not sufficiently convey an interlocutor's feelings.…

  18. Understanding Beliefs, Teachers' Beliefs and Their Impact on the Use of Computer Technology (Hacia la compresión de las creencias, convicciones del educador y su impacto en el uso de la tecnología)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvis, Héctor Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This theoretical review addresses the construct of beliefs in education and English as a foreign language, and their impact when integrating technology. A thorough definition and categorization of teachers' beliefs will be provided. In addition, studies conducted in various educational settings examining the effects of teachers' beliefs…

  19. Using the Dictionary for Improving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension of Short Scientific Texts (Uso del diccionario para mejorar la comprensión lectora de textos científicos cortos en inglés con adolescentes)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra Cortés, Ximena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an innovative and action research project which focused on the use of the dictionary and the prior knowledge of Colombian high school students to improve their reading comprehension of short scientific texts. Data collection instruments included students' work gathered during two workshops, field notes, and a questionnaire.…

  20. Developing Mathematical Resilience: Students' Voice about the Use of ICT in Classroom (El desarrollo de la capacidad de resiliencia matemática: La voz de los estudiantes sobre el uso de las TIC en la aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Ana Isabel; Oliveira, Hélia; Henriques, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mathematical resilience is assumed as one of the most important areas in school context and whose focus should be given priority, due to the distress exhibited by students when learning and understanding basic knowledge in mathematics year after year. The main goal of this research was to study how students attending middle schools…

  1. Fashion Merchandising Module. An Advanced-Level Option for Distribution and Marketing. For the U.S.O.E. Occupational Cluster of 04.02 Apparel and Accessories Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clis, Pat; And Others

    This instructional module on fashion merchandising is designed as a guide for secondary education teachers who are helping twelfth grade students develop occupational competency for entry-level positions in fashion-related jobs. An introductory section covers module goals, career opportunities and employment demands, administrative considerations,…

  2. Validacion de una Version Espanola del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para Su Uso en Espana (Validation of a Spanish Version of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Use in Spain).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Spanish translation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory was administrated to 66 perpetrators of child maltreatment and physical abuse and a demographically representative sample (n=829) of the general population of the Pais Vasco in Spain. The measure correctly identified 98.3 percent of the physical child abuse perpetrators. (Author/DB)

  3. First Year University Students' Use of Formulaic Sequences in Oral and Written Descriptions (El uso de secuencias formulaicas de estudiantes de primer año en descripciones orales y escritas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Burgos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The present article investigates the use of first year university students' formulaic sequences in written and oral texts in an English as a foreign language context. The corpus of the study consists of eight descriptive texts--four written and four oral--which were composed of four students of English Pedagogy at a university in Santiago,…

  4. The Use of Blogs in English Language Learning: A Study of Student Perceptions (El uso de bitácoras o "blogs" en el aprendizaje del idioma inglés: un estudio sobre las percepciones del estudiante)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahluwalia, Gurleen; Gupta, Deepti; Aggarwal, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present an investigation that focused on the students' perception of using Blogs as a means to supplement in-class language learning activities. Blogs are easy to manage and enable students to publish their work in a chronological manner. They help students to engage in online exchanges and promote learner autonomy. This…

  5. Bricklayer and Stonemason. U.S.O.E. 46.0102 D.O.T. 861.381, 861.781, 861.884. Student's Manual [and] Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, L. A., Jr.

    The student's manual in this two-part instructional kit is designed to help students in individualized courses in bricklaying and stone masonry to tie together classroom learning and on-the-job practice. The manual includes assignments, technical information, objectives that tell what the student is to learn from each assignment, and exercise…

  6. Needed Research on PEM Aspects of Child Development. A Special Report of the USOE-Sponsored Grant Study: Critical Appraisal of Research in the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. IBR Report No. 73-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, William J.; And Others

    The task group report presented in this publication is one of a series prepared by eminent psychologists who have served as consultants in the U.S.O.E.-sponsored grant study to conduct a Critical Appraisal of the Personality-Emotions-Motivation Domain. In order to achieve the goal of identifying important problems and areas for new research and…

  7. Using Songs to Encourage Sixth Graders to Develop English Speaking Skills (Uso de canciones para motivar a los estudiantes de grado sexto a desarrollar habilidades orales en inglés)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte Romero, Mónica Duarte; Tinjacá Bernal, Luz Mery; Carrero Olivares, Marilú

    2012-01-01

    This article contains the procedures and findings of an investigation carried out by a team of teachers with the purpose of motivating students to speak English. We observed students' lack confidence to talk and that they had little motivation toward learning English. Thus, we used songs as a main resource in conjunction with different kind…

  8. Mechanisms of signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Feng; He, Jun-Xian

    2013-07-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and Gibberellins (GAs) are two principal groups of growth-promoting phytohormones. Accumulating evidence supports that there are crosstalks between BR and GA signaling pathways. However, a molecular mechanism for direct signaling crosstalk between BRs and GAs was not revealed until recently. Works from three different groups demonstrated that an interaction between BZR1/BES1 and DELLAs, two groups of key transcriptional regulators from the BR and GA signaling pathways, respectively, mediates the direct signaling crosstalk between BRs and GAs in controlling cell elongation in Arabidopsis. It was shown that DELLA proteins not only affect the protein stability but also inhibit the transcriptional activity of BZR1. Thus, GAs promote cell elongation, at least in part, through releasing DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1. This review aims to introduce these recent advances in our understanding of how BRs and GAs coordinate to regulate plant growth and development at the molecular level.

  9. 77 FR 12339 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ...\\ \\8\\ See Securities Exchange Act Release No. 66349 (February 7, 2012), 77 FR 7637 (February 13, 2012... United States Oil Fund (``USO'' or ``USO Fund'') at $0.50 strike price intervals where the strike...

  10. [Nursing students' satisfaction and perception of their first clinical placement: observational study].

    PubMed

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Tomietto, Marco; Galli, Francesco; Fiorani, Catia; Di Labio, Luisa; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Gli ambienti di apprendimento clinico sono definiti come una rete di fattori interagenti nel contesto, in grado di influenzare gli esiti dell’apprendimento degli studenti. La soddisfazione degli studenti è considerata un indicatore del raggiungimento degli esiti dell’apprendimento ed è determinante a partire dalla prima esperienza di tirocinio. Scopo. Analizzare l’esperienza di apprendimento clinico degli studenti infermieri del primo anno di corso dopo il primo tirocinio clinico ed identificare i principali determinanti della soddisfazione degli studenti. Metodo. Lo studio osservazionale è stato realizzato in cinque sedi universitarie italiane del Corso di Laurea in Infermieristica. 420 studenti hanno compilato la versione italiana della “Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and plus Nurse Teacher (CLES+T) scale” al termine del primo tirocinio clinico. Risultati. I punteggi medi assegnati alle dimensioni della scala variano da 4.02 (clima di apprendimento) a 3.30 (relazione di tutorato). La maggior parte degli studenti è soddisfatto della propria esperienza di tirocinio (75.6%), ma sono emerse differenze in relazione alle diverse sedi di tirocinio clinico. Discussione. I principali determinanti della soddisfazione sono lo stile di leadership del coordinatore infermieristico e l’integrazione teoria-pratica nella relazione fra tutor clinico, universitario e studente. Conclusioni. I risultati dello studio contribuiscono alla comprensione della prima esperienza di tirocinio degli studenti. Tuttavia, sono necessarie ulteriori ricerche per determinare le variabili organizzative specifiche e i modelli tutoriali in grado di aumentare la soddisfazione degli studenti, per sviluppare strategie formative basate sull’integrazione tra tutor universitari e guide di tirocinio.

  11. Laparoscopic surgery in pregnant patients with acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Kocael, Pinar Cigdem; Simsek, Osman; Saribeyoglu, Kaya; Pekmezci, Salih; Goksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    Nonostante i significativi vantaggi della chirurgia laparoscopica rispetto a quella laparotomica, essa era considerata controindicata per le donne gestanti. Attualmente si confrontano opinioni contrastanti riguardo alla sicurezza durante la gestazione della chirurgia laparoscopica, specie se nell’ultimo trimestre. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare la fattibilità della chirurgia laparoscopica in donne gestanti in caso di addome acuto analizzando retrospettivamente la casistica della pazienti ricoverate tra il gennaio 1995 ed il gennaio 2013 presso l’Emergency Department della Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty. Sono stati pertanto analizzati tutti i dati clinici riguardanti le gestanti sottoposte a chirurgia laparoscopica, comprese le cartelle cliniche, gli interventi eseguiti, i reperti anatomopatologici, e le informazioni riguardanti il parto. Nella casistica sono rientrate 14 donne gravide (in media alla 19,2° settimana di gestazione, distribuite tra 9 e 33 settimane), di cui 11 sottoposte ad appendicectomia laparoscopica, 2 a colecistectomia laparoscopica ed 1 per scopi diagnostici. In media il parto si è espletato alla 37,4° settimana di gestazione (tra la 35° e la 40° settimana). Due pazienti hanno avuto un parto prematuro, ma in nessune dei casi si sono verificate complicazioni durante le manovre laparoscopiche, e cioè danni all’utero, morti fetali o mortalità materna. Si conclude che la chirurgia laparoscopica può essere effettuata nel corso di tutti i trimestri della gravidanza, con il possibile vantaggio di una utile diagnosi differenziale in caso di dolori addominali acuti durante la gravidanza, e diminuzioni delle morti fetali dovute a ritardi diagnostici, e che tempi chirurgici più brevi riducono gli effetti negativi sulla madre e sul feto.

  12. Three-dimensional sonohysterography for examination of the uterine cavity in women with abnormal uterine bleeding: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, L M; Lacelli, F; Caldiera, V; Perrone, N; Piscopo, F; Gandolfo, N; Serafini, G

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Valutare l'impatto diagnostico della Isterosonografia Tridimensionale (ISG 3D) nello studio della cavità uterina in donne con sanguinamento anomalo (SUA) rispetto all'ecografia transvaginale (ETV) e all'isterosonografia bidimensionale (ISG 2D), particolarmente per l'identificazione di neoformazioni a sviluppo endocavitario della superficie endometriale e della parete uterina. MATERIALI E METODI: Ventiquattro pazienti affette da SUA sono state incluse nello studio. Ciascuna di esse é stata sottoposta ad ETV, ISG e ISG 3D durante la medesima seduta. Le acquisizioni 3D sono state ottenute con tecnica free-hand in fase di massima replezione idrica della cavità. Tutte le pazienti sono state valutate con isteroscopia entro 10 giorni dall'ecografia. Considerando l'esame isteroscopico come reference standard, sono stati calcolati i valori di sensibilità, specificità, valore predittivo positivo (VPP), valore predittivo negativo (VPN) ed accuratezza delle tre metodiche. RISULTATI: L'isteroscopia ha dimostrato la presenza di lesioni endocavitarie in 21/24 pazienti (87,5%). Nelle restanti pazienti l'esame isteroscopico è risultato negativo. ETV, ISG 2D ed ISG 3D hanno mostrato rispettivamente sensibilità del 76% (16/21), 90% (19/21), 100% (21/21); specificità del 100% (3/3), 100% (19/19), 100% (21/21); VPP del 100%, 100%, 100%; VPN del 37%, 60%, 100%; accuratezza 76%, 90%, 100%. L'ISG 3D ha consentito una completa identificazione dei rapporti delle lesioni con la cavità uterina e con la parete endometriale. CONCLUSIONI: L'ISG 3D è una metodica con maggiore sensibilità nella definizione delle lesioni della cavità uterina rispetto all'ISG 2D ed all'ETV. Se questi dati preliminari saranno confermati da studi piú ampi, ISG 3D potrebbe essere proposta come alternativa all'isteroscopia eseguita a soli fini diagnostici.

  13. Hypogenic contribution to speleogenesis in a predominant epigenic karst system: A case study from the Venetian Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bruijn, Rolf H. C.; De Waele, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Buso della Rana and Buso della Pisatela are two karstic caves located in north-east Italy. They are part of the same karst system and are developed in the Castelgomberto calcarenitic marine sediments, which were deposited in a shallow Caribbean-type sea during the Eocene. The Buso della Rana-Pisatela system developed mostly at the contact between the Castelgomberto calcarenite and underlying volcanic rocks. The system of caves is ~ 37 km long and has only three entrances, two of which are semi-artificial. The overlying karst plateau is not directly connected to the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system and, with the exception of one deep abyss, exhibits a rather poorly developed karst. This is unexpected considering the presence at depth of such a large and long cave. Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has locally been observed on the walls of the Buso della Pisatela cave. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), reveals the presence of sulfur-bearing minerals within the host rock. Gypsum was formed by oxidation of these minerals as indicated by negative δ34S values. The oxidation of sulfide minerals forms a sulfuric-acid solution that dissolves the Castelgomberto calcarenite and, once it is oversaturated in calcium, precipitates as gypsum. The lack of well-developed karst on top of the plateau and the analyses suggest that the formation mechanisms for the Buso della Rana-Pisatela system differ from classical epigenic speleogenesis. The "pyrite-effect" has been recognized in other caves and described in literature. In our case pyrite is responsible of two hypo-speleogenetic processes: i) the dissolution of a portion of the host rock and ii) the enlargement of the karst voids as a consequence of the haloclastic effect.

  14. A SIMPLIFIED EQUATION FOR TOTAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN MECHANICALLY VENTILATED CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Raurich, Joan Maria; Llompart-Pou, Juan Antonio; Ferreruela, Mireia; Riera, Maria; Homar, Javier; Marsé, Pere; Colomar, Asunción; Ayestarán, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: el concepto de “control calorico estricto” surgio para evitar la excesiva y la deficiente nutricion de los pacientes. Objetivo: describir y validar una ecuacion simplificada para el calculo del gasto energetico total (GET) en pacientes criticos con ventilacion mecanica. Métodos: analisis secundario de las mediciones de GET por calorimetria indirecta en pacientes criticos. Los pacientes fueron asignados de forma 2:1 por un paquete estadistico; el primer grupo se empleo para desarrollar la nueva ecuacion predictiva del GET (grupo predictivo) y el segundo para validarla (grupo validacion). La calorimetria indirecta se realizo con tres calorimetros diferentes: la bolsa de Douglas, un computador metabolico y el equipo CalorimetR. Hemos desarrollado la nueva ecuacion predictiva del GET utilizando el GET medido (en kcal/kg/d), como variable dependiente, y como variables independientes los diferentes factores que influyen en el gasto energetico: edad, genero, indice de masa corporal (IMC) y tipo de lesion. Resultados: el grupo de prediccion incluyo 179 pacientes y el de validacion 91 pacientes. La ecuacion predictiva fue: GETEP = 33 - (3 x E) - (3 x IMC) - (1 x G). Donde: E (edad en anos): ≤ 50 = 0; > 50 = 1. IMC (kg / m2): 18,5- 24,9 = 0; 25-29,9 = 1; 30-34,9 = 2; 35-39,9 = 3. G (genero): hombre = 0; mujer = 1. El sesgo (IC del 95%) entre el GET medido y el predicho fue de -0,1 (-1,0 a 0,7) kcal/ kg/dia y los limites de acuerdo (} 2SD) fueron -8,0 a 7,8 kcal/kg/d. El GET por la ecuacion predictiva fue preciso (entre el 85% y el 115%) en el 73,6% de los pacientes. Conclusiones: La nueva ecuacion predictiva fue aceptable para predecir el GET de la mayoria de pacientes criticos con ventilacion mecanica en la practica clinica.

  15. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating that... USO will not be notified in such cases in order to preclude the possibility of any adverse...

  16. 7 CFR 1767.13 - Departures from the prescribed RUS Uniform System of Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (a) No departures are to be made to the prescribed Rural Development USoA without the prior written approval of Rural Development. Requests for departures from the Rural Development USoA shall be addressed... prescribed RUS USoA. (1) If, due to extenuating circumstances, RUS is unable to reach a decision within...

  17. 7 CFR 1767.13 - Departures from the prescribed RUS Uniform System of Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (a) No departures are to be made to the prescribed Rural Development USoA without the prior written approval of Rural Development. Requests for departures from the Rural Development USoA shall be addressed... prescribed RUS USoA. (1) If, due to extenuating circumstances, RUS is unable to reach a decision within...

  18. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating that... USO will not be notified in such cases in order to preclude the possibility of any adverse...

  19. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating that... USO will not be notified in such cases in order to preclude the possibility of any adverse...

  20. 7 CFR 1767.13 - Departures from the prescribed RUS Uniform System of Accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (a) No departures are to be made to the prescribed Rural Development USoA without the prior written approval of Rural Development. Requests for departures from the Rural Development USoA shall be addressed... prescribed RUS USoA. (1) If, due to extenuating circumstances, RUS is unable to reach a decision within...

  1. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating that... USO will not be notified in such cases in order to preclude the possibility of any adverse...

  2. 32 CFR 253.6 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a statement to that effect to the Red Cross or the USO. If the DISCO is unable to make a favorable... apply. (f) Whenever any DoD Component or the Red Cross or the USO receives information indicating that... USO will not be notified in such cases in order to preclude the possibility of any adverse...

  3. The Urban Complex in Cattolica, Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Italian city of Cattolica has developed an urban complex, the Piazza della Repubblica, that offers a wide range of public services. In renovated facilities it provides a modern architectural setting based on the idea of a traditional town square. It houses a primary school, cultural center (including a library), and theater, and it is an…

  4. [Valutare le esperienze positive e negative: la validazione di una nuova misura del benessere in una popolazione italiana].

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Lo scopo del presente studio è quello di esplorare le proprietà psicometriche di uno strumento di misurazione dell'affetto, la Scala di Esperienze Positive e Negative (SPANE), all'interno di una popolazione italiana. Gli esiti dell'analisi fattoriale confermativa comprovano l'attesa struttura a due fattori, sentimenti positivi e negativi. Le correlazioni con altre dimensioni (per es., ansia, depressione, affetto, aspettative future) confermano i risultati ottenuti con le precedenti versioni della scala: affetto negativo, ansia, depressione e aspettative future negative correlano positivamente con la subscala di esperienze negative e negativamente con la subscala di esperienze positive dello SPANE. In conclusione, i risultati del nostro studio dimostrano che la versione italiana dello SPANE presenta caratteristiche psicometriche simili a quelle mostrate dalla versione orginale e da successive validazioni dello strumento in altre lingue. La scala presenta, inoltre, affidabilità e validità fattoriale. Lo SPANE è un indice utile dal punto di vista clinico che può fornire informazioni rilevanti circa l'esperienza emotiva e il benessere della persona. Nonostante ulteriori studi siano necessari per confermare le caratteristiche psicometriche della scala, la presente validazione della versione italiana dello SPANE può contribuire ad ampliare la ricerca nell'ambito del benessere in una popolazione Italiana. PMID:27362822

  5. A primary subcutaneous hydatid cyst in the thigh A case report.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Giuseppe; Licari, Leo; Randisi, Brenda; Di Carlo, Paola; Tutino, Roberta; Falco, Nicolò; Augello, Giuseppe; Raspanti, Cristina; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2016-04-08

    L’Echinococcus spp. rappresenta il movente eziopatogenetico della malattia idatidea, patologia a carattere endemico in diverse parti del mondo, con tipica localizzazione della cisti da echinococco, prodotto del ciclo vitale del parassita, in sede polmonare od epatica. Ciononostante le localizzazioni atipiche della malattia esistono e rappresentano circa il 1,6% dei casi, la più comune delle quali certamente quella sottocutanea. I dati a disposizione circa la diagnosi ed il trattamento delle rare forme a localizzazione atipica risultano disomogenei e pochi dirimenti circa uno standard diagnostico-terapeutico da adottare. Si è voluto presentare dunque il caso di una donna di 68 anni che lamentava la comparsa di una tumefazione al terzo prossimale della coscia dx che tendeva ad incrementarsi volumetricamente nel tempo. Dopo diverse indagini cliniche, oltre che una accurata anamnesi, il sospetto di cisti idatidea è stato confermato. La patologia è stata trattata secondo uno schema terapeutico chirurgico e farmacologico ben dettagliato. La raccolta di questi dati si prefigge lo scopo di pianificare, in accordo con la letteratura scientifica e la review dei case-report esistenti, linee guida nel percorso assistenziale di questa rara manifestazione di una comune malattia.

  6. The Emergence of For-Profit E-learning Providers in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Ross

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Luca Botturi, winner of the 2008 Educational Communication and Technology (ECT) Foundation Robert deKeiffer International Fellowship Award. Dr. Botturi, an Italian originally from the suburbs of Milano, works at the Universita della Svizzera italiana (USI, also called the University of Lugano) in its New…

  7. Nursing diagnoses and theoretical frameworks in neonatal units: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Di Sarra, Luca; D'Agostino, Fabio; Cocchieri, Antonello; Vellone, Ercole; Zega, Maurizio; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Obiettivo: Identificare le diagnosi infermieristiche ed i quadri teorici utilizzati nelle unità neonatali attraverso una revisione della letteratura. Metodo: Per effettuare questo studio sono stati usati database come Cinahl, Medline e Lilacs. I descrittori usati sono: "Diagnosi infermieristica" AND "Modelli, Infermieristici" OR "Teoria infermieristica" AND "Infante" OR "Neonato". La ricerca era limitata agli arti- coli pubblicati dal 2000 al novembre 2013. Venivano selezionati soltanto gli studi scritti in inglese, spagnolo, portoghese e italiano. Risultati: Nella revisione della letteratura sono state identificate due tassonomie e sei impor- tanti quadri teorici. Le diagnosi infermieristiche più frequentemente individuate sono: intol- leranza alle attività, ridotta ventilazione spontanea, modello di respirazione inefficace, rischio di aspirazione, ritardo nella crescita e nello sviluppo, allattamento al seno inefficace, modello di alimentazione infantile inefficace, ipertermia/ipotermia, rischio di infezione, alterazione dell’integrità cutanea, interruzione dei processi familiari, rischio di compromissione della genitorialità, rischio di riduzione dell’attaccamento. Sono state identificate diagnosi appli- cabili alla sfera psico-sociale genitoriale che consentivano una valutazione integrale del neonato, compresa la famiglia. Conclusioni: Le diagnosi infermieristiche consentono agli infermieri che lavorano nelle unità neonatali l’opportunità di gestire efficacemente il processo assistenziale, nonché la disponibilità dei dati necessari per il continuo miglioramento della qualità nella cura infer- mieristica. L'utilizzo di un unico modello o di più modelli di riferimento costituisce un modo per aiutare l'agire professionale.

  8. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD. PMID:27362821

  9. Mutations in the F-box gene SNEEZY result in decreased arabidopsis GA signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that the SLEEPY1 (SLY1) homolog, F-box gene SNEEZY/SLEEPY2 (SNE/SLY2), can partly replace SLY1 in gibberellin (GA) hormone signaling through interaction with DELLAs RGA and GAI. To determine whether SNE normally functions in GA signaling, we characterized the phenotypes of tw...

  10. Fruit development: new directions for an old pathway.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Halliday, Karen J

    2010-12-21

    A recent study investigating the molecular mechanisms of seed pod shattering has shown that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ appear to regulate fruit patterning through gibberellic acid (GA)-DELLA signalling, revealing a central role for bHLH family members in GA response specificity. PMID:21172630

  11. An Imaginative Approach to Teaching Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Carmen Manuel; Carmona, Rodrigo Fernandez

    2012-01-01

    Mindful of the fact that one of the most important ingredients in learning to write in a foreign language is motivation, the authors have experimented in their classes with a wide range of exercises from a very useful source: Gianni Rodari's "Grammatico della Fantasia: lntroduzione all'arte di inventare storie" (Torino: Piccola Biblioteca Einandi,…

  12. Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  13. [Valutare le esperienze positive e negative: la validazione di una nuova misura del benessere in una popolazione italiana].

    PubMed

    Corno, Giulia; Molinari, Guadalupe; Baños, Rosa Maria

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Lo scopo del presente studio è quello di esplorare le proprietà psicometriche di uno strumento di misurazione dell'affetto, la Scala di Esperienze Positive e Negative (SPANE), all'interno di una popolazione italiana. Gli esiti dell'analisi fattoriale confermativa comprovano l'attesa struttura a due fattori, sentimenti positivi e negativi. Le correlazioni con altre dimensioni (per es., ansia, depressione, affetto, aspettative future) confermano i risultati ottenuti con le precedenti versioni della scala: affetto negativo, ansia, depressione e aspettative future negative correlano positivamente con la subscala di esperienze negative e negativamente con la subscala di esperienze positive dello SPANE. In conclusione, i risultati del nostro studio dimostrano che la versione italiana dello SPANE presenta caratteristiche psicometriche simili a quelle mostrate dalla versione orginale e da successive validazioni dello strumento in altre lingue. La scala presenta, inoltre, affidabilità e validità fattoriale. Lo SPANE è un indice utile dal punto di vista clinico che può fornire informazioni rilevanti circa l'esperienza emotiva e il benessere della persona. Nonostante ulteriori studi siano necessari per confermare le caratteristiche psicometriche della scala, la presente validazione della versione italiana dello SPANE può contribuire ad ampliare la ricerca nell'ambito del benessere in una popolazione Italiana.

  14. Multidisciplinary approach to follicular thyroid carcinoma with giant mandibular and multiple sites metastases Case report.

    PubMed

    De Pasquale, Loredana; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Bardazzi, Alessandro; Autelitano, Luca; Moro, Giacomina Pierina; Ghilardi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    I tumori metastatici in genere hanno una cattiva prognosi, con sopravvivenza breve e raramente sono candidabili al trattamento chirurgico. Nel caso dei carcinomi differenziati della tiroide, la prognosi è solitamente migliore, grazie alla possibilità di un approcio multidisciplinare e soprattutto al trattamento radiometabolico dei secodarismi, dopo l’asportazione del tumore primitivo. Il caso presentato riguarda una donna di 65 anni, che è giunta alla nostra osservazione per una tumefazione mandibolare, risultata successivamente una metastasi da carcinoma follicolare della tiroide, a partenza da un voluminoso gozzo cervico-mediastinico normofunzionante, con ulteriori secondarismi a livello polmonare. Dopo un accurato studio pre-operatorio la Paziente è stata sottoposta a resezione della mandibola sinistra con ricostruzione mediante una protesi metallica e a tiroidectomia totale. Successivamente è stata trattata con quattro cicli di terapia radiometabolica con buona risposta. La Paziente è viva, senza ulteriore progressione di malattia a un follow-up di quarantasei mesi. Anche nei casi di tumori differnziati della tiroide in fase metastatica, l’opzione chirurgica va presa in considerazione per consentire alle terapie complementari di migliorare la prognosi in termini di sopravvivenza.

  15. Autologous bone grafting with platelet-rich plasma for alveolar cleft repair in patient with cleft and palate.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Giuseppe; Cutrignelli, Daniela Anna; Leuzzi, Sara; Robusto, Fabio; Sportelli, Pasquale; Nacchiero, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    L’innesto osseo è essenziale nella terapia chirurgica della labiopalatoschisi (LPS), ma i tempi di osteogenesi ed integrazione ossea nella sede ricevente possono procrastinare i successivi interventi di ortodonzia. Nel nostro studio è stata valutata la capacità della PRP (platelet-rich plasma) associata al trapianto osseo nel diminuire il tempo d’attesa e la durata del trattamento ortodontico in una coorte di 8 bambini, confrontandola con 8 controlli sottoposti a semplice innesto osseo. I risultati hanno mostrato come i soggetti sottoposti a trapianto osseo + PRP abbiano avuto la possibilità di essere sottoposti ad un trattamento ortodontico più precoce (155 giorni vs 298) e più breve (295 giorni vs 356) rispetto al gruppo di controllo. Inoltre nel gruppo di controllo si sono verificate con maggiore frequenza complicanze post-chirurgiche (quali fistole oro-nasali, disturbi periodontali, malattie dentali, perdita di spessore, massa o trabecolatura ossea) rispetto al gruppo sottoposto a PRP. Perciò l’associazione della PRP (platelet-rich plasma) al trapianto osseo è una metodica che sembra associarsi ad una diminuzione statisticamente significativa dei tempi di integrazione ossea nei pazienti affetti da LPS, con conseguente anticipazione della ortodonzia e miglioramento degli outcome chirurgici.

  16. Allocation of Attention and Effect of Practice on Persons with and without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oka, Kohei; Miura, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    Persons with mild and moderate mental retardation and CA-matched persons without mental retardation performed a dual-task, "pencil-and-paper task" (Baddeley, Della Sala, Gray, Papagno, & Spinnler (1997). Testing central executive functioning with a pencil-and-paper test. In Rabbit (Ed.), Methodology of Frontal and Executive Function (pp. 61-80).…

  17. Invitation to Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    In this anthology of readings, 28 scholars and educators consider the theoretical and practical forces that shape the concept of lifelong learning. After Ronald Gross's introduction, the first section begins its consideration of the Western tradition in adult learning with Plato's metaphor of the cave and includes Pico della Mirandola's essay on…

  18. [Funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali nel disturbo dello spettro dell'autismo e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività: risultati preliminari].

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Catania, Valentina; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Di Giorgio, Rosa; Zingale, Marinella; Trubia, Grazia; Torrisi, Anna; Elia, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. I deficit delle funzioni esecutive (FE) sono frequentemente osservati nei disturbi dello spettro dell'autismo (ASD) e nel disturbo da deficit di attenzione con iperattività (ADHD). Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare e confrontare le funzioni esecutive metacognitive ed emozionali/motivazionali di bambini con ASD e ADHD, sia fra di loro che con un gruppo di controllo. Metodi. Il campione è costituito da un totale di 58 soggetti, di cui 17 con ASD senza disabilità intellettiva, 18 con ADHD-manifestazione combinata e 23 con sviluppo tipico, abbinati per genere, età cronologica e livello intellettivo. Le valutazioni hanno riguardato alcune aree del funzionamento esecutivo, nello specifico pianificazione, flessibilità mentale, generatività e inibizione della risposta, che rappresentano sia le funzioni esecutive metacognitive sia quelle emozionali/motivazionali. Risultati. I risultati hanno rilevato un'ampia sovrapposizione delle disfunzioni esecutive nei due gruppi clinici con ASD e ADHD, e non sono stati indicativi della presenza di due profili realmente distinti del funzionamento esecutivo. Tuttavia, nell'ADHD è stato trovato un deficit più severo nell'inibizione della risposta prepotente (funzione emozionale/motivazionale). Conclusioni. I risultati del nostro studio sono parzialmente in accordo con quelli della letteratura. Ulteriori ricerche con gruppi più numerosi potranno chiarire più approfonditamente quali punti di forza e debolezza, nell'ampio spettro delle funzioni esecutive, differenzino fra loro le prestazioni di persone con ASD e ADHD.

  19. On the bosonic end perturbative approaches to the study of anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, G.

    1992-07-01

    I examine, in the case of two anyons in a common harmonic well, the validity of the perturbative approaches to the study of ``quasi-bosonic'' anyons which are discussed in the literature. Supported in part by funds provided by the ``Fondazioni Angelo Della Riccia'', Florence, Italy.

  20. Prospective evaluation of interobserver diagnostic agreement for focal urinary bladder wall abnormalities detected by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Francica, G; Scarano, F; Bellini, S A; Miragliuolo, A

    2011-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: È stata valutata prospetticamente la variabilità interosservatore relativamente alla diagnosi di alterazioni focali della parete vescicale tra due operatori con diverso livello di esperienza. MATERIALI E METODI: Due operatori con diverso livello di esperienza in ecografia hanno esaminato indipendentemente nella stessa sessione 87 pazienti consecutivi (età media 68 anni; range 33–80; 75 maschi; 15 donne) sottoposti successivamente a cistoscopia entro 1–2 giorni. Prima dell’inizio dello studio la metodologia di studio è stata standardizzata. Il grado di accordo sulla presenza, sede, dimensioni e numero delle alterazioni parietali della vescica è stato calcolato con il metodo della Kw. RISULTATI: Il grado più elevato di accordo (k = 1) è stato raggiunto relativamente alla presenza delle alterazioni parietali, mentre un accordo sostanziale è stato ottenuto per le dimensioni (k = 0.78), numero (k = 0.72) e sede (k = 0.62). CONCLUSIONI: In questo studio la differenza di esperienza tra due operatori non è emersa nella diagnostica delle alterazioni parietali della vescica anche in ragione di una metodologia standardizzata di studio.

  1. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  2. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-01

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  3. Laparoscopic and ultrasound assisted management of gallstone ileus after biliointestinal bypass Case report and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zago, Mauro; Bozzo, Samantha; Centurelli, Andrea; Giovanelli, Alessandro; Vasino, Michele Ciocca

    2016-05-24

    L’ileo biliare (IB) è una rara urgenza chirurgica, secondaria alla formazione di una fistola colecisto-enterica. È una patologia ancora gravata da una elevata mortalità (15-18%), soprattutto perchè prevalente nella popolazione anziana. L’IB si manifesta con i sintomi aspecifici dell’occlusione intestinale (dolore e distensione addominale, alvo chiuso a feci e gas, vomito) e, per tale ragione, la diagnosi eziologica preoperatoria non è frequente. La triade radiologica di Rigler (pneumobilia, presenza di un calcolo ectopico, livelli idro-aerei) è patognomonica, ma identificabile solo in circa il 15% dei casi alla radiografia dell’addome. A motivo della rarità della patologia, non vi è unanime consenso circa il trattamento dell’IB. In letteratura sono pochi i lavori che riportano l’insorgenza di IB in pazienti precedentemente sottoposti a chirurgia bariatrica. La revisione della letteratura ha permesso di reperire tre casi di ileo biliare successivi a chirurgia bariatrica, di cui due conseguenti a bypass biliodigestivo. Viene presentato un ulteriore caso di una paziente di 41 anni che ha sviluppato un ileo biliare otto anni dopo un intervento bariatrico di bypass bilio-intestinale laparoscopico. Nei pazienti sottoposti a intervento di bypass bilio-digestivo per obesità patologica, viene confezionata una anastomosi tra la colecisti ed il digiuno in modo da conservare la circolazione enteropatica, riducendo le conseguenze del malassorbimento. L’analisi della letteratura relativa ai casi di ileo biliare post-bariatrici pubblicati e di quella più generale sull’ileo biliare, permette di elaborare considerazioni di pratica utilità inerenti la diagnosi pre-operatoria, il ruolo dell’ecografia nella pianificazione della strategia chirurgica e il trattamento chirurgico laparoscopico a cui è stata sottoposta la paziente.

  4. Coordinated regulation of apical hook development by gibberellins and ethylene in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings

    PubMed Central

    An, Fengying; Zhang, Xing; Zhu, Ziqiang; Ji, Yusi; He, Wenrong; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Li, Mingzhe; Guo, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    Dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings develop an apical hook when germinating in soil, which protects the cotyledons and apical meristematic tissues when protruding through the soil. Several hormones are reported to distinctly modulate this process. Previous studies have shown that ethylene and gibberellins (GAs) coordinately regulate the hook development, although the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here we showed that GA3 enhanced while paclobutrazol repressed ethylene- and EIN3-overexpression (EIN3ox)-induced hook curvature, and della mutant exhibited exaggerated hook curvature, which required an intact ethylene signaling pathway. Genetic study revealed that GA-enhanced hook development was dependent on HOOKLESS 1 (HLS1), a central regulator mediating the input of the multiple signaling pathways during apical hook development. We further found that GA3 induced (and DELLA proteins repressed) HLS1 expression in an ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3/EIN3-LIKE 1 (EIN3/EIL1)-dependent manner, whereby EIN3/EIL1 activated HLS1 transcription by directly binding to its promoter. Additionally, DELLA proteins were found to interact with the DNA-binding domains of EIN3/EIL1 and repress EIN3/EIL1-regulated HLS1 expression. Treatment with naphthylphthalamic acid, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, repressed the constitutively exaggerated hook curvature of EIN3ox line and della mutant, supporting that auxin functions downstream of the ethylene and GA pathways in hook development. Taken together, our results identify EIN3/EIL1 as a new class of DELLA-associated transcription factors and demonstrate that GA promotes apical hook formation in cooperation with ethylene partly by inducing the expression of HLS1 via derepression of EIN3/EIL1 functions. PMID:22349459

  5. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of rice aleurone cells: probing the existence of an alternative gibberellin receptor.

    PubMed

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells.

  6. Comprehensive Gene Expression Analysis of Rice Aleurone Cells: Probing the Existence of an Alternative Gibberellin Receptor1

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Kenji; Aya, Koichiro; Hirano, Ko; Ordonio, Reynante Lacsamana; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Current gibberellin (GA) research indicates that GA must be perceived in plant nuclei by its cognate receptor, GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1). Recognition of GA by GID1 relieves the repression mediated by the DELLA protein, a model known as the GID1-DELLA GA perception system. There have been reports of potential GA-binding proteins in the plasma membrane that perceive GA and induce α-amylase expression in cereal aleurone cells, which is mechanistically different from the GID1-DELLA system. Therefore, we examined the expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) α-amylase genes in rice mutants impaired in the GA receptor (gid1) and the DELLA repressor (slender rice1; slr1) and confirmed their lack of response to GA in gid1 mutants and constitutive expression in slr1 mutants. We also examined the expression of GA-regulated genes by genome-wide microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses and confirmed that all GA-regulated genes are modulated by the GID1-DELLA system. Furthermore, we studied the regulatory network involved in GA signaling by using a set of mutants defective in genes involved in GA perception and gene expression, namely gid1, slr1, gid2 (a GA-related F-box protein mutant), and gamyb (a GA-related trans-acting factor mutant). Almost all GA up-regulated genes were regulated by the four named GA-signaling components. On the other hand, GA down-regulated genes showed different expression patterns with respect to GID2 and GAMYB (e.g. a considerable number of genes are not controlled by GAMYB or GID2 and GAMYB). Based on these observations, we present a comprehensive discussion of the intricate network of GA-regulated genes in rice aleurone cells. PMID:25511432

  7. Choledochal cysts in pregnancy A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Annunziata; Carbotta, Giuseppe; Prestera, Antonio; Laforgia, Rita; Volpi, Annalisa; Sallustio, Pierluca

    2016-04-19

    La paziente, 30 anni, primipara (36 settimane), giunge alla nostra osservazione per algie addominali localizzate maggiormente a livello epigastrico e subittero. Anamnesi remota negativa. Per l’accentuarsi della addominalgia, si decide per parto cesareo. In seconda giornata post-partum, mostra ittero franco ed incremento di transaminasi e gGT aumentate, pertanto esegue RMN che descrive notevole dilatazione delle VBE e VBI e formazione cistica della VBP delle dimensioni di 10 x 7 cm. Dopo valutazione mediante ERCP e per il persistere di ittero elevato, si sottopone la paziente ad intervento chirurgico con resezione della via biliare contenente il coledococele, colecistectomia, confezionamento di poliduttodigiunostomia su ansa defunzionalizzata. Si esegue follow-up mediante controlli ecografici ed ematochimici e RMN ogni 3 mesi. A distanza di 6 mesi, la RMN evidenzia dilatazione delle VB soprattutto dell’emisistema sinistro e difetti di riempimento riferibili a presenza di aerobilia. Alla luce del quadro radiologico e scintigrafico e, dopo ricorrenti angiocoliti, si decide per re-intervento con coledocoscopia e colangiografia, dilatazione pneumatica dell’anastomosi biliodigestiva e conseguente clearance biliare. Il decorso post-operatorio è stato buono senza complicanze. Nell’arco di 2 anni il follow up è sempre risultato negativo. Ultima RM documenta riduzione della dilatazione delle VB dell’emisistema di sinistra. Questo caso dimostra le difficoltà nella gestione e nel trattamento del coledococele in una paziente gravida e soprattutto nella valutazione del rischio di insorgenza di colangiti ricorrenti e di un’eventuale degenerazione maligna. Per prevenire queste condizioni, è importante effettuare una diagnosi differenziale e soprattutto attuare una strategia chirurgica che porti ad una completa resezione della dilatazione, ristabilendo un corretto sistema biliare.

  8. Sonographic evaluation of the temporomandibular joints in juvenile idiopathic arthritis().

    PubMed

    Melchiorre, D; Falcini, F; Kaloudi, O; Bandinelli, F; Nacci, F; Matucci Cerinic, M

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: L'artrite Idiopatica giovanile (AIG) determina alterazioni a carico della testa condilare dell'articolazione temporomandibolare (ATM). Nell'esordio oligo-articolare (OA) l'interessamento dell'ATM viene spesso trascurato perchè può essere asintomatico. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare la presenza di versamento intrarticolare (V) dell'ATM, mediante esame ecografico (US), nelle fasi precoci di malattia. MATERIALE E METODI: Sono stati studiati 68 bambini (57 bambine e 11 bambini, di età compresa tra 9,1 e 16, anni, età media: 11,02 ± 4,2 mesi) con AIG ad esordio OA. I pazienti (pz) erano sintomatici quando uno dei quattro sintomi seguenti era presente: 1) dolore ricorrente (a riposo o durante il movimento di apertura della bocca); 2) presenza di scrosci articolari; 3) presenza di limitazione nell'apertura della bocca; 4) locking intermittente. US è stato eseguito su entrambe le ATM sia in fase statica che dinamica, mediante ecografo General Electric (LOGIQ7) con sonda lineare (8,5 MHz) posizionata lungo l'asse maggiore del ramo condilare. Il V era presente quando lo spessore della capsula articolare era ≥1,5 mm. RISULTATI: 46/68 (68%) hanno presentato V a carico delle ATM; in 16 (35%) il V era bilaterale. 2/46 con V erano sintomatici, mentre in 44 non erano presenti sintomi. CONCLUSIONI: Questi dati suggeriscono che un'alta percentuale di bambini e giovani adulti con AIG ad esordio OA, nella fase iniziale della malattia, presenta un interessamento flogistico delle ATM anche in assenza di sintomi. L'US, non invasivo e facilmente ripetibile, ci offre importanti informazioni sul coinvolgimento articolare delle ATM ed è risultato utile nella diagnosi all'esordio.

  9. The pedagogic evolution in Surgery: the University at the centre of a training which becomes territorialized The model of the region Marche.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Andrea; Tranà, Cristian; Baldoni, Andrea; Coletta, Pietro; Marmorale, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    La formazione in Chirurgia è un tema di grande interesse in un’epoca di crisi, ma anche di grandi cambiamenti mossi dalla spinta della Comunità Europea di uniformare i Percorsi Formativi di tutti i suoi Stati Membri. I punti principali delle riforme attuate per uniformarci al contesto Comunitario, vertevano sulla riduzione dei tempi e sulla implementazione della multidisciplinarietà della formazione specialistica, con il rischio di adombrare quelli che sono i punti di forza del nostro Sistema Sanitario, tra cui l’alto livello assistenziale dei nostri ospedali territoriali. La Scuola di Specializzazione di Chirurgia Generale dell’UNIVPM da alcuni anni punta su un progetto che vede la Clinica Universitaria al Centro di una Formazione Specialistica che si sviluppa sempre più sul territorio, avvicinando il mondo Ospedaliero a quello Universitario. Questo nuovo modello organizzativo prevede una prima fase all’interno della Clinica Universitaria ed una seconda nella Rete Formativa, nella quale rientrano Centri a differente impatto specialistico, all’interno di Strutture Ospedaliere Italiane ed Estere, e la possibilità di poter collaborare con l’Organizzazione di Emergency. Per testare questa nuova organizzazione del Corso Specialistico, abbiamo preso in analisi l’attività chirurgica svolta dagli specializzandi del nostro Ateneo, che hanno terminato il loro percorso formativo in Chirurgia Generale a Marzo 2014, essendo loro i primi ad aver beneficiato di questo modello. L’attività operatoria è stata, per ciascuno, mediamente di 400 interventi da primo operatore (237-476) distribuiti in chirurgia maggiore 44 (13-80), media 172 (129-268) e minore 209 (70-378), rapportando i loro risultati con gli standard complessivi di addestramento professionalizzante previsti dallo Statuto Nazionale si osserva il buon rendimento di questo sistema, che vede i suoi punti di forza nell’EQUITA dell’offerta, in quanto standardizzabile; nel concetto di RETE

  10. Malignant rectal melanoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Morlino, Andrea; La Torre, Giuseppe; Vitagliano, Giulia; Cammarota, Aldo

    2015-03-26

    Il Melanoma Anorettale è una malattia rara e aggressiva ed è il terzo tipo più comune di melanoma maligno dopo quello della cute e della retina. Il sintomo più comune è il sanguinamento rettale, che è spesso scambiato per sanguinamento associato a emorroidi. La diagnosi è molto difficile, e quella iniziale può essere corretta solo in circa 80% dei casi. Il caso clinico che proponiamo riguarda un uomo di 71 anni giunto alla nostra osservazione per dolore anale, tenesmo rettale, sanguinamento. L’eplorazione rettale ci ha mostrato una neofromazione dolorosa, di colorito brunastro nel canale anale. La colonscopia e la endoscopia hanno evidenziato la presenza di una grande massa stenotica interessante il canale anale ed il retto con un diametro di circa 90 mm. La biopsia è positiva per melanoma a cellule maligne pigmentate. La TAC ha mostrato un ispessimento della parete rettale e linfonodi nel tessuto adiposo, nel distretto otturatore bilaterale e metastasi polmonari bilaterali. Il dato di laboratorio del Ca 19-9 è nei livelli normali. Il paziente è stato sottoposto a resezione addomino-perineale con dissezione linfonodale. Non ci sono studi dimostranti che la resezione radicale del melanoma primario ano-rettale è associata ad un miglioramento del controllo locale e della sopravvivenza. I pazienti con malattia localizzata dovrebbero essere sottoposti a escissione locale ogniqualvolta ciò sia tecnicamente fattibile. Il ruolo predominante del trattamento chemio radioterapico preoperatorio è quello di ridurre le recidive locoregionale e della cavità pelvica, e per ottenere un più alto tasso di conservazione dell’apparato sfinteriale. Inoltre facilita la rimozione delle potenziali micrometastasi e riduce le metastasi a distanza.

  11. Adrenal incidentalomas and subclinical Cushing syndrome: indications to surgery and results in a series of 26 laparoscopic adrenalectomies.

    PubMed

    Pisano, Giuseppe; Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Erdas, Enrico; Pigliaru, Francesca; Piras, Stefano; Sanna, Sandro; Manca, Alessandro; Dazzi, Claudio; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Il riscontro di un incidentaloma surrenalico comporta un approfondimento diagnostico rivolto da un lato a chiarire la natura della lesione e nello stesso tempo ad accertare la presenza di una attività endocrina subclinica. Quest’ultima molto spesso è caratterizzata da una sindrome metabolica nella quale sono presenti Ipertensione arteriosa, Diabete Mellito di tipo 2 ed Obesità. Tali manifestazioni cliniche, indotte da una alterata secrezione cortisolica, configurano quindi una Sindrome di Cushing subclinica (SCS) nella quale, con il passare del tempo può verificarsi una compromissione della funzione cardiaca nonché un aggravamento del DM e dell’obesità. L’attuale orientamento di fronte ad una SCS, pur oggetto di dibattito, è a favore della surrenectomia laparoscopica (SL), anche in rapporto ai favorevoli risultati della terapia chirurgica nei confronti del trattamento medico. Gli Autori alla luce dell’esperienza personale su 26 casi di SL effettuati in un periodo di 6 anni, riportano i loro risultati in merito alla casistica generale e in particolare nei casi in cui era riconoscibile una SCS. Scopo del lavoro: verificare nel tempo se la SL ha comportato una normalizzazione dell’alterata secrezione cortisolica e un miglioramento della sindrome metabolica associata. Nell’arco temporale gennaio 2009-gennaio 2015 presso il Reparto di Chirurgia Generale A del Policlinico Universitario di Monserrato sono state effettuate 26 SL in 5 maschi e 21 femmine di età media di 53 anni. Le indicazioni alla SL comprendevano 11 incidentalomi, 7 sindromi di Cushing, 5 lesioni sospette per metastasi e 3 sindromi di Conn. Le SL sono state portate a termine in 22 casi (percentuale di conversione 15%), la durata media dell’intervento è stata di 162 minuti (range 65- 225) Nessuna mortalità e complicanze pari all’11%. Degenza media postoperatoria 5,6 giorni. L’esame istologico definitivo ha evidenziato 20 adenomi corticali, 2 iperplasie nodulari, 2 cisti, 1

  12. Melena as presentation of primary small intestine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an adult woman. A case report.

    PubMed

    Alloni, Rossana; Ancona, Gianluca; Gallo, Ida; Crescenzi, Anna; Coppola, Roberto

    2015-07-29

    È il caso di una paziente di 32 anni affetta da Miofibroblastoma non noto, trasferita da altra struttura sanitaria presso il nostro reparto perché affetta da melena da fonte non determinata. All’anamnesi risultava un precedente ricovero in altro Pronto Soccorso per un quadro clinico caratterizzato da dispnea, cefalea, tachicardia e astenia profonda., oltre a profonda anemia (Hg 5.8 g/dl). La gastroscopia non aveva evidenziato alcun motivo di sanguinamento e l’ecografia addomino-pelvica era risultata negativa. Dopo ripetute emotrasfusioni la tentata rettosigmoidoscopia era stata interrotto per intolleranza della paziente. Una volta stabilizzata si era proceduto al trasferimento presso la nostra struttura, e qui alla Risonanza Magnetica dell’addome veniva evidenziato, un ispessimento parietale esteso per 8 cm a del digiuno medio distale, in corrispondenza del fianco destro, antero – lateralmente al duodeno, ed adiacente ad esso una formazione ipervascolare solida di 20 mm. In prima ipotesi poteva trattarsi di un tratto invaginato del piccolo intestino con all’apice una lesione parietale solida, verosimile causa del sanguinamento. Persistendo il quadro anemico e avendo localizzato una lesione sospetta, la paziente è stata sottoposta ad intervento chirurgico, che portava alla conferma dell’esistenza di una lesione nodulare parietale del piccolo intestino, per cui si procedeva ad una sua resezione segmentaria comprendente la suddetta massa, sottoponendo il pezzo operatorio ad esame istologico definitivo. L’anatomo-patologo formulava la diagnosi isto-immunologica di pseudotumore infiammatorio (c.d. Tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio) responsabile di invaginazione digiuno-digiunale. I margini di resezione risultavano indenni. Dimessa dopo un decorso postoperatorio senza complicanze, al follow-up di 6 mesi non si è ripresentato alcun sintomo di nuovo sanguinamento. Il sanguinamento della neoformazione responsabile della melena da fonte ignota era

  13. Minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy a one year record.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, Nicola; Mascioli, Federico; Ciampaglia, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Negli ultimi anni, alcuni chirurghi hanno cercato di rendere sempre meno invasiva la procedura della colecistectomia videolaparoscopica, riducendo il calibro degli strumenti. Nel nostro studio si vogliono dimostrare i vantaggi nell’utilizzo di strumenti miniaturizzati (con diametro di 3mm), comparandoli con la colecistectomia laparoscopica realizzata con strumenti da 5mm. I parametri analizzati nello studio sono: la durata dell’intervento, la durata della degenza, il dolore postoperatorio, le complicanze ed il risultato estetico. Lo studio si basa su una casistica personale di 114 pazienti trattati in un periodo di 12 mesi. Tutti i pazienti sono stati trattati per calcolosi sintomatica della colecisti o per poliposi della colecisti. In 102 pazienti si è trattato di colecistectomia minilaparoscopica e in 12 colecistectomia laparoscopica con strumenti da 5mm o perchè presentavano un eccessivo spessore delle pareti della colecisti che rendeva difficoltosa la presa sull’organo con strumenti di 3mm, o perchè presentavano calcoli lungo la via biliare principale e si rendeva quindi necessario eseguire una colangiografia intraoperatoria. L’esecuzione della tecnica minilaparoscopica richiede particolari accorgimenti per superare piccole difficoltà tecniche in rapporto alla maggiore flessibilità degli stumenti di ridotto calibro e all’impossibilità di applicare clips metalliche con i trocars da 3mm. E’ necessario legare con filo di sutura il dotto cistico mediante nodi intracorporei e coagulare l’arteria cistica con corrente monopolare. La durata dell’intervento risulta in media di 47 minuti per la colecistectomia con strumenti da 5mm e di 50 minuti per la colecistectomia minilaparoscopica. La degenza media è stata di 49 ore per la colecistectomia con strumenti da 5mm e di 18 ore per la colecistectomia minilaparoscopica; 73 pazienti sono stati dimessi lo stesso giorno dell’intervento. Il dolore post operatorio è risultato inferiore nei pazienti

  14. A Micro-Ultrastable Oscillator (micro-US0) for Micro/Nano Sciencecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Syntonics LLC developed a prototype micro-Ultra Stable Oscillator (micro-USO) under a Space Base Technology Grant (NAGS-10395). Syntonics conducted the micro-USO Program in two phases. In Phase I, we developed a set of verified analytical models (including thermal, electrical, and control models) for a baseline USO, conducted a series of six technology studies, and built three approx.9OOg prototype units. These prototypes provided a tool for evaluating competing design topologies. In Phase II we prepared the conceptual design of a approx.100-15Og micro-USO.

  15. Students and Teachers' Reasons for Using the First Language within the Foreign Language Classroom (French and English) in Central Mexico (Razones de alumnos y maestros sobre el uso de la primera lengua en el salón de lenguas extranjeras (francés e inglés) en el centro de México)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora Pablo, Irasema; Lengeling, M. Martha; Rubio Zenil, Buenaventura; Crawford, Troy; Goodwin, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the use of the first language in a context of foreign language teaching. This qualitative research presents the classroom practice and points of view of French and English teachers and students within a public educational institute in central Mexico using the techniques of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews.…

  16. Teaching Foreign Trade in English through the Modalities Based on Competences and Using Moodle (Enseñanza del régimen de comercio exterior a través de las modalidades centradas en el desarrollo de competencias y con el uso de Moodle)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa Díaz, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    With the new approach to guide the learning process of students with a model based on the development of competences, and in comparison with the traditional lecture-based learning, it is necessary to start working with the teaching modalities that help to achieve this objective. With that in mind, the aim of the study reported in this article was…

  17. Selective Use of the Mother Tongue to Enhance Students' English Learning Processes…Beyond the Same Assumptions (Uso selectivo de la lengua materna para mejorar el proceso de aprendizaje del inglés de los estudiantes…Más allá de las mismas suposiciones)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuartas Alvarez, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of an action-research project that examines enhancing students' English learning processes through the selective use of their mother tongues with the aim of overcoming their reluctant attitudes toward learning English in the classroom. This study involves forty ninth-graders from an all-girls public school in…

  18. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding while Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning (Nuevos entornos educativos destinados a desarrollar la comprensión intercultural y a reforzar el uso del inglés mediante el aprendizaje basado en experiencias)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruguier, Leonard R.; Greathouse Amador, Louise M.

    2012-01-01

    New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course…

  19. Using Case Study Methodology to Approach the Views of Teachers of English on Classroom Disciplinary Strategies (Uso de la metodología de estudio de casos para aproximarse a las concepciones de profesores de inglés sobre las estrategias disciplinarias en el aula)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Díaz Larenas, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at identifying the disciplinary strategies claimed to be used by a group of five secondary classroom teachers of English in public or semi-public schools in Chile. To conduct this research, a semi-structured interview was applied to participants. The data were analyzed using the principles of semantic content analysis…

  20. Analyzing the Effect of Technology-Based Intervention in Language Laboratory to Improve Listening Skills of First Year Engineering Students (El uso de la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas para el mejoramiento de las habilidades de escucha de estudiantes de ingeniería de primer año)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasupathi, Madhumathi

    2013-01-01

    First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroom lectures in English. This article reports an…

  1. Using the EPOSTL for Dialogic Reflection in EFL Teacher Education (El Uso de EPOSTL para la Reflexión Dialógica en la Educación de los Docentes de Inglés como Lengua Extranjera)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauber, Holli

    2015-01-01

    For many pre-service English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers and their mentors, the theory and practice driven European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages (EPOSTL) occupies a prominent and practical role in their preparation programs as a delivery system of core pedagogical skills and knowledge. Interest in the role that dialogical…

  2. Health promotion and surveillance: the establishment of an IUHPE global working group.

    PubMed

    Campostrini, Stefano; McQueen, David V; Evans, Linnea

    2009-12-01

    Following a series of international meetings on behavioral monitoring and surveillance, in 2007 the Italian Ministry of Health (Ministerio della Salute) and the Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore della Sanità) hosted the 5(th) International Conference on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance (BRFS) in Rome. A key focus of the conference was on how current surveillance systems could be applied to the field of health promotion, particularly in building the evidence base for health promotion practice. As a result of these discussions, the World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS), an IUHPE Global Working Group, was formed to work toward providing knowledge and expertise in surveillance as a tool for advancing health promotion. For those IUHPE members interested in participation, this article provides an overview on the strategic direction of WARFS and the newly formed sub-working groups. PMID:20028670

  3. Galileo's Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2003-05-01

    Most visitors to Florence, Italy, know about the Galleria dell'Accademia, housing Michelangelo's famous statue of David, or the Galleria degli Uffizi with the famous Medici collection. Few visitors know that only two blocks from the Uffizi on the Arno River is one of the world's finest museums featuring historic scientific instruments, the Museo di Storia della Scienza. In the February issue of TPT, Nickell states that the Museo di Storia della Scienza ``is perhaps the best museum on the history of science in the world.''1 This fact is likely true, and the museum is a must for physics teachers visiting Florence. It features a vast collection of authentic ``cutting-edge'' scientific instruments, including one of Galileo's lenses in a magnificent ebony and ivory frame. One of the tragedies is that this museum goes unmarked on many tourist maps and unmentioned in many guidebooks.

  4. Gibberellin Signaling in Plants – The Extended Version

    PubMed Central

    Schwechheimer, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The plant hormone gibberellin (GA) controls major aspects of plant growth such as germination, elongation growth, flower development, and flowering time. In recent years, a number of studies have revealed less apparent roles for GA in a surprisingly broad set of developmental as well as cell biological processes. The identification of GA receptor proteins on the one end of the signaling cascade, DELLA proteins as central repressors of the pathway and transcription regulators such as the phytochrome interacting factors and the GATA-type transcription factors GNC and CGA1/GNL on the current other end of the signaling cascade have extended our knowledge about how GA and DELLAs regulate a diverse set of plant responses. PMID:22645560

  5. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi].

    PubMed

    Mariani Canova, Giordana

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed.

  6. The museum of unnatural form: a visual and tactile experience of fractals.

    PubMed

    Della-Bosca, D; Taylor, R P

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable computer technology is revolutionizing the world of design, allowing intricate patterns to be created with mathematical precision and then 'printed' as physical objects. Contour crafting is a fabrication process capable of assembling physical structures the sizes of houses, firing the imagination of a new generation of architects and artists (Khoshnevisat, 2008). Daniel Della-Bosca has jumped at this opportunity to create the 'Museum of Unnatural Form' at Griffith University. Della-Bosca's museum is populated with fractals sculptures - his own versions of nature's complex objects - that have been printed with the new technology. His sculptures bridge the historical divide in fractal studies between the abstract images of mathematics and the physical objects of Nature (Mandelbrot, 1982). Four of his fractal images will be featured on the cover of NDPLS in 2009.

  7. Gibberellin acts positively then negatively to control onset of flower formation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobutoshi; Winter, Cara M; Wu, Miin-Feng; Kanno, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Seo, Mitsunori; Wagner, Doris

    2014-05-01

    The switch to reproductive development is biphasic in many plants, a feature important for optimal pollination and yield. We show that dual opposite roles of the phytohormone gibberellin underpin this phenomenon in Arabidopsis. Although gibberellin promotes termination of vegetative development, it inhibits flower formation. To overcome this effect, the transcription factor LEAFY induces expression of a gibberellin catabolism gene; consequently, increased LEAFY activity causes reduced gibberellin levels. This allows accumulation of gibberellin-sensitive DELLA proteins. The DELLA proteins are recruited by SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE transcription factors to regulatory regions of the floral commitment gene APETALA1 and promote APETALA1 up-regulation and floral fate synergistically with LEAFY. The two opposing functions of gibberellin may facilitate evolutionary and environmental modulation of plant inflorescence architecture. PMID:24812402

  8. IL TRAPIANTO ORTOTOPICO DEL FEGATO

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, THOMAS E.

    2010-01-01

    E’ormai noto che esiste la possibilità rivoluzionaria di utilizzare il fegato per il trattamento della stadio terminale delle epatopatie. Nel gennaio 1980 si celebra il decimo anna di sopravvivenza con fegato trapiantato (la più lunga della letteratura) di un paziente da noi trattato. Si tratta di uno dei 12 malati sottoposti a trapianto e seguiti per più di 5 anni. La nota positiva di questa tipo di trattamento è rappresentata dall’eccellente tenore di vita che i pazienti conducono e dalla riabilitazione sociale e professionale. La nota negativa è data, invece, dal fatto che i buoni risultati non vengono raggiunti con regolarità e non possono essere previsti con esattezza. In questa breve rassegna considereremo la esperienza da noi fatta presso l’Università di Denver nel Colorado, mettendo in risalto le cause dell’elevata mortalità precoce e le prospettive future di questa mezzo terapeutico. PMID:21572898

  9. [Pietro d'Abano and the astrological and scientific image in Padova during the XIV century: from Giotto to Carraresi].

    PubMed

    Mariani Canova, Giordana

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to prove the incidence that scientific doctrines, mostly Pietro d'Abano's astrological and medical studies, had on Giotto's painting at the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padova and his lost astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione. It is emphasized how in no other painting of his, Giotto displayed as much intellectualism as in the Cappella degli Scrovegni. There we can note the importance of the physical representation of the sky and stars and figures' particular physiognomic characterization referable to Pietro d'Abano's theories presented in his astrological treatises and in his Compilation Phisionomiae. Even the ecceptional botanical realism displayed in the representation of plants can be probably referred to Pietro d'Abano's scientific teaching. An hypotetical reconstruction, according to Ptolomeus' theories and Pietro d'Abano's physiognomic, of Giotto's astrological cycle in the Sala della Ragione is also proposed. PMID:19831240

  10. Introduzione al Laboratorio di Fisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciullo, Giuseppe

    La Fisica (dal greco τὰ ϕυσικὰ: le cose naturali) si pone l'obiettivo di descrivere e prevedere il comportamento dei fenomeni naturali, nonché degli apparati e degli strumenti, che hanno reso e rendono la nostra vita più comoda ed efficiente. Tale obiettivo viene perseguito mediante un'attenta osservazione dei fenomeni, con una conseguente schematizzazione dell'osservazione, per fornire una conoscenza della realtà oggettiva, affidabile, verificabile e condivisibile.

  11. Arabidopsis RGL1 encodes a negative regulator of gibberellin responses.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chi-Kuang; Chang, Caren

    2002-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the DELLA subfamily of GRAS regulatory genes consists of GAI, RGA, RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1), RGL2, and RGL3. GAI and RGA are known to be negative regulators of gibberellin (GA) responses. We found that RGL1 is a similar repressor of GA responses, as revealed by RGL1 gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes. Repression of GA responses in Arabidopsis was conferred by a dominant 35S-rgl1 transgene carrying a DELLA domain deletion analogous to the GA-insensitive gai-1 mutation. As in GA-deficient Arabidopsis, the transgenic plants were dark green dwarfs with underdeveloped trichomes and flowers. Expression levels of GA4, a feedback-regulated GA biosynthetic gene, were increased correspondingly. Conversely, a loss-of-function rgl1 line had reduced GA4 expression and exhibited GA-independent activation of seed germination, leaf expansion, flowering, stem elongation, and floral development, as detected by resistance to the GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. RGL1 plays a greater role in seed germination than do GAI and RGA. The expression profile of RGL1 differed from those of the four other DELLA homologs. RGL1 message levels were predominant in flowers, with transcripts detected in developing ovules and anthers. As with RGA, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged RGL1 protein was localized to the nucleus, but unlike GFP-RGA, there was no degradation after GA treatment. These findings indicate that RGL1 is a partially redundant, but distinct, negative regulator of GA responses and suggest that all DELLA subfamily members might possess separate as well as overlapping roles in GA signaling. PMID:11826301

  12. Abdominal compartment syndrome and open abdomen management with negative pressure devices.

    PubMed

    Surace, Alessandra; Ferrarese, Alessia; Marola, Silvia; Cumbo, Jacopo; Valentina, Gentile; Borello, Alessandro; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter; Nano, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Per sindrome compartimentale addominale (SCA) si intende un incremento della pressione intra-addominale (PIA) a valori superiori a 20 mmHg, associato ad una ridotta perfusione e disfunzione d’organo. La mortalità della SCA è del 50%; la sua incidenza tra i pazienti in RIA è del 30-50%. Il trattamento chirurgico consiste sostanzialmente nella decompressione addominale con apertura dell’addome; attualmente la metodica più utilizzata per la gestione della SCA è la terapia a pressione negativa. Nel 2009 è stata realizzata una classificazione dell’addome aperto, che stratifica i pazienti in base alla cronologia naturale del miglioramento o del deterioramento clinico dei pazienti con addome aperto. Lo scopo del trattamento è mantenere l’addome aperto del paziente al livello più basso ed evitare la progressione ad un livello più complesso. Secondo quanto riportato in letteratura questa metodica consente un tasso di chiusura fasciale tra i 65 e il 100% dei casi, riduce i tassi di mortalità e i tempi di degenza nei reparti di terapia intensiva. La chiusura dell’addome può avvenire progressivamente (per ridurre il rischio di fascite) oppure mediante l’utilizzo di una protesi biologia spessa su cui viene posizionata una copertura in plastica e impostato il lavaggio nel sottocute: la parete addominale deve essere chiusa dopo 24 ore. Se non fosse possibile chiudere tutti gli strati della parete addominale, il tentativo deve riguardare almeno il peritoneo, per ridurre morbilità e mortalità.

  13. Diffuse malignant biphasic peritoneal mesothelioma with cystic areas.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, Daniela; Tutino, Roberta; Salamone, Giuseppe; Cocorullo, Gianfranco; Agrusa, Antonino; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2016-06-20

    Il mesotelioma peritoneale maligno è una patologia rara la cui diagnosi è resa particolarmente difficile dalla molteplicità delle possibili presentazioni cliniche e morfologiche. A differenza della patologia pleurica, questa sembra avere una minore correlazione con l’esposizione all’asbesto. La prognosi è sfavorevole con una sopravvivenza media di 5.4 mesi. Riportiamo un caso di mesotelioma peritoneale in un paziente di 73 anni con esposizione professionale all’asbesto. La diagnosi è verosimilmente avvenuta dopo diversi inquadramenti clinici, che hanno compreso addominalgie attribuite ad IBD, poi non accertate istologicamente, e ad un’appendicite acuta. Per ultimo il paziente è giunto alla nostra osservazione con un quadro subocclusivo che l’indagine TC attribuiva ad una verosimile carcinosi peritoneale a primitivo sconosciuto. La laparoscopia esplorativa, poi convertita in approccio laparotomico, ha mostrato un quadro di peritonite incapsulante che coinvolgeva estesamente l’intestino tenue. È stata eseguita una resezione intestinale del tenue coinvolto ed una asportazione di un’area nodulare peri-splenica. L’esame istologico con l’integrazione di indagini immunoistochimiche ha permesso la diagnosi di mesotelioma peritoneale cistico maligno con istotipo bifasico che risulta essere il primo descritto in letteratura. Le aree cistiche avevano inizialmente fatto propendere per una diagnosi di mesotelioma multicistico benigno o di mesotelioma cistico con secondaria proliferazione miofibroblastica pseudosarcomatosa. Negli ultimi anni la prognosi di questa patologia ha trovato nell’utilizzo della chirurgia citoriduttiva e della chemioterapia intraperitoneale un miglioramento prognostico, queste nuove tecniche sono disponibili in centri di riferimento e trovano ad oggi indicazione solo in casi selezionati e in istotipi poco aggressivi. Il nostro paziente a causa dell’estensione della malattia, dell’istotipo non favorevole e dell

  14. Role of the gibberellin receptors GID1 during fruit-set in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Urbez, Cristina; Gomez, Maria Dolores; Sun, Tai-ping; Perez-Amador, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Gibberellins (GAs) play a critical role in fruit-set and fruit growth. Gibberellin is perceived by its nuclear receptors GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1s (GID1s), which then trigger degradation of downstream repressors DELLAs. To understand the role of the three GA receptor genes (GID1A, GID1B and GID1C) in Arabidopsis during fruit initiation, we have examined their temporal and spatial localization, in combination with analysis of mutant phenotypes. Distinct expression patterns are revealed for each GID1: GID1A is expressed throughout the whole pistil, while GID1B is expressed in ovules, and GID1C is expressed in valves. Functional study of gid1 mutant combinations confirms that GID1A plays a major role during fruit-set and growth, whereas GID1B and GID1C have specific roles in seed development and pod elongation, respectively. Therefore, in ovules, GA perception is mediated by GID1A and GID1B, while GID1A and GID1C are involved in GA perception in valves. To identify tissue-specific interactions between GID1s and DELLAs, we analyzed spatial expression patterns of four DELLA genes that have a role in fruit initiation (GAI, RGA, RGL1 and RGL2). Our data suggest that GID1A can interact with RGA and GAI in all tissues, whereas GID1C–RGL1 and GID1B–RGL2 interactions only occur in valves and ovules, respectively. These results uncover specific functions of each GID1–DELLA in the different GA-dependent processes that occur upon fruit-set. In addition, the distribution of GA receptors in valves along with lack of expression of GA biosynthesis genes in this tissue, strongly suggests transport of GAs from the developing seeds to promote fruit growth. PMID:24961590

  15. Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of prostate tumor.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F S; Scorzelli, A; Megliola, A; Drudi, F M; Trovarelli, S; Ponchietti, R

    2009-03-01

    Sommario SCOPO: Verificare il guadagno diagnostico dell'elastosonografia transrettale real-time (RTE) rispetto alla ecografia transrettale B-mode nel rilievo del tumore prostatico in una popolazione di pazienti con sospetto di neoplasia. MATERIALI E METODI: Ottantaquattro pazienti con sospetto clinico-laboratoristico di tumore prostatico sono stati valutati mediante ecografia transrettale, elastosonografia e biopsia transperineale. RISULTATI: L'esame bioptico è stato considerato lo standard di riferimento. Nella valutazione per paziente, la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 56%; la specificità dell'80%; il valore predittivo positivo (VPP) del 70%, il valore predittivo negativo (VPN) del 67%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici la sensibilità è stata del 33%, la specificità del 92%, il VPP del 69%, il VPN del 73%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti risultati nella valutazione per paziente: sensibilità 51%, specificità 75%, VPP 64% e VPN 64%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici: sensibilità 36%, specificità 93%, VPP 72%, VPN 74%. Confrontando i valori di accuratezza dell'ecografia B-mode e della RTE per i tumori della zona periferica, è stata trovata una differenza significativa. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici della zona periferica la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 48%, la specificità dell'81%, il VPP del 75%, il VPN del 58%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti valori: sensibilità 66%, specificità 78%, VPP 77%, VPN 67%. CONCLUSIONI: La RTE rappresenta un valore aggiunto all'ecografia B-mode. Ha presentato un'accuratezza superiore rispetto all'esame B-mode nella valutazione della prostata periferica e nella possibilità di indirizzare i prelievi bioptici.

  16. [Nursing between ethic and aesthetic. Profession described by media].

    PubMed

    Gradellini, Cinzia; Idamou, Sara; Lusetti, Simona

    2013-01-01

    Da una presa visione del messaggio mediatico, riguardo alla figura infermieristica, il ruolo e l’evoluzione che la professione ha avuto negli anni, restano sconosciuti ai non addetti ai lavori. L’obiettivo della ricerca è definire come l’immagine dell’infermiere è descritta dai media. Metodo: analisi di articoli di due quotidiani (a tiratura locale e nazionale) in merito a numero di articoli riguardante la professione, posizione dell’articolo, argomento (malasanità, truffe/reati, lavoro/tagli, riconoscimenti/elogi). A questo è seguita un’integrazione con analisi di quotidiani on line, utilizzando parole chiave. Analisi dei medical drama televisivi, relativamente a presenza, competenze, relazione con medico e paziente, aspetti sociali, contesto di cura in cui opera, impatto sul benessere della persona ed eventuali aspetti etico-deontologici. Risultati: su circa trecento articoli relativi all’ambito della salute, trentanove parlano di infermieri; cinque di questi hanno rilevanza da prima pagina. Il 39% degli articoli parla di truffe/reati, il 19% lavoro/tagli, il 15% malasanità. Dai quotidiani on line emerge un 66% di articoli relativi a truffe/reati. Nei format televisivi alla figura si porge poca attenzione, con competenze generiche a qualsiasi figura diversa da quella medica; quasi esclusivamente di sesso femminile, rispecchia stereotipi considerati di genere. Discussione: da entrambi i media presi in esame emerge una figura poco professionale; nello specifico della televisione, la figura dell’infermiere non ha una precisa identità ed è relegata a un ruolo di debolezza, riscontrabile nel contesto lavorativo e privato.

  17. Role of the gibberellin receptors GID1 during fruit-set in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Giraldo, Carolina; Hu, Jianhong; Urbez, Cristina; Gomez, Maria Dolores; Sun, Tai-Ping; Perez-Amador, Miguel A

    2014-09-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play a critical role in fruit-set and fruit growth. Gibberellin is perceived by its nuclear receptors GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1s (GID1s), which then trigger degradation of downstream repressors DELLAs. To understand the role of the three GA receptor genes (GID1A, GID1B and GID1C) in Arabidopsis during fruit initiation, we have examined their temporal and spatial localization, in combination with analysis of mutant phenotypes. Distinct expression patterns are revealed for each GID1: GID1A is expressed throughout the whole pistil, while GID1B is expressed in ovules, and GID1C is expressed in valves. Functional study of gid1 mutant combinations confirms that GID1A plays a major role during fruit-set and growth, whereas GID1B and GID1C have specific roles in seed development and pod elongation, respectively. Therefore, in ovules, GA perception is mediated by GID1A and GID1B, while GID1A and GID1C are involved in GA perception in valves. To identify tissue-specific interactions between GID1s and DELLAs, we analyzed spatial expression patterns of four DELLA genes that have a role in fruit initiation (GAI, RGA, RGL1 and RGL2). Our data suggest that GID1A can interact with RGA and GAI in all tissues, whereas GID1C-RGL1 and GID1B-RGL2 interactions only occur in valves and ovules, respectively. These results uncover specific functions of each GID1-DELLA in the different GA-dependent processes that occur upon fruit-set. In addition, the distribution of GA receptors in valves along with lack of expression of GA biosynthesis genes in this tissue, strongly suggests transport of GAs from the developing seeds to promote fruit growth.

  18. Low Voltage Low Light Imager and Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Martin, Chris (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Highly efficient, low energy, low light level imagers and photodetectors are provided. In particular, a novel class of Della-Doped Electron Bombarded Array (DDEBA) photodetectors that will reduce the size, mass, power, complexity, and cost of conventional imaging systems while improving performance by using a thinned imager that is capable of detecting low-energy electrons, has high gain, and is of low noise.

  19. [Waiting time between acute event and rehabilitation: continuity of nursing care and rehabilitation. Analysis and suggestions for a Service of Protected Discharge].

    PubMed

    D'Ilio, Ilaria; Raimondi, Anna Maria; Radice, Laura; Di Mauro, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE. In Italia negli ultimi anni l’aumento della sopravvivenza della popolazione ha comportato il cambiamento dello stato di salute, che vede l’incremento nella prevalenza delle patologie croniche (Osservatorio, 2011). L’ospedale, riservato alla fase acuta delle patologie, si integra necessariamente con le cure primarie. La continuità assume particolare rilevanza per la cura, assistenza e riabilitazione della persona assistita, così come l’appropriato utilizzo delle diverse tipologie di offerta socio sanitaria assistenziale e riabilitativa. OBIETTIVO. Al San Gerardo di Monza, nell’ambito della riabilitazione del paziente post-acuto, si analizza la fase che intercorre tra la dimissione prevista dall’ospedale e la data di accettazione presso gli istituti di riabilitazione. E’ possibile quantificare i tempi di attesa? L’ allocazione delle persone assistite è appropriata? Scopo dello studio osservazionale descrittivo è accertare la distribuzione dei giorni di attesa. Inoltre si ipotizza il ricorso all’Assistenza Domiciliare Integrata e a soluzioni innovative. Obiettivi sono la diminuzione delle giornate di degenza inappropriate e l’utilizzo delle risorse in modo congruo. RISULTATI. Delle 1083 persone in attesa di riabilitazione il 55% (652), a cui sono associate 4505 giornate “inappropriate”, è stato dimesso dall’ospedale oltre i tempi previsti. CONCLUSIONI. L’utilizzo dell’assistenza domiciliare, vantaggiosa per l’ospedale, può essere utilizzata solo per una minoranza di pazienti e in modo diseconomico. Per abbattere la totalità delle giornate, una soluzione innovativa può essere l’istituzione di posti letto a basso costo. E dato che la maggioranza dei casi sono solo ad alta complessità assistenziale ma a bassa intensità clinica potrebbero essere letti gestiti da infermieri.

  20. Elettrodinamica classica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Kurt

    Nella scoperta della Relatività Ristretta l'Elettrodinamica, rappresentando una teoria relativistica per eccellenza, ha giocato un ruolo fondamentale. Il principio di relativit` a einsteiniana, che afferma che tutte le leggi della fisica devono avere la stessa forma in tutti i sistemi di riferimento inerziali, è emerso con forza da questa teoria ed è andato consolidandosi sempre di più, man mano che le nostre conoscenze del mondo microscopico sono diventate più complete: tutte le interazioni fondamentali rispettano infatti tale principio. Il modo più semplice ed elegante per implementarlo — difatti l'unico di un'utilità concreta — è rappresentato dal paradigma della covarianza a vista nell'ambito del calcolo tensoriale. Questo paradigma è stato applicato con successo a tutte le teorie di carattere fondamentale, come le teorie che descrivono le quattro interazioni fondamentali e le più speculative teorie di superstringa, e mantiene la sua piena efficacia anche in teoria quantistica. La nostra esposizione dell'Elettrodinamica classica si baserà dunque a ragione su questo paradigma.

  1. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene.

  2. Plant hormones in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses: an emerging role for gibberellins

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Eloise; Ross, John J.; Jones, William T.; Reid, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses are important for nutrient acquisition in >80 % of terrestrial plants. Recently there have been major breakthroughs in understanding the signals that regulate colonization by the fungus, but the roles of the known plant hormones are still emerging. Here our understanding of the roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, strigolactones, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid is discussed, and the roles of gibberellins and brassinosteroids examined. Methods Pea mutants deficient in gibberellins, DELLA proteins and brassinosteroids are used to determine whether fungal colonization is altered by the level of these hormones or signalling compounds. Expression of genes activated during mycorrhizal colonization is also monitored. Key Results Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of pea roots is substantially increased in gibberellin-deficient na-1 mutants compared with wild-type plants. This is reversed by application of GA3. Mutant la cry-s, which lacks gibberellin signalling DELLA proteins, shows reduced colonization. These changes were parallelled by changes in the expression of genes associated with mycorrhizal colonization. The brassinosteroid-deficient lkb mutant showed no change in colonization. Conclusions Biologically active gibberellins suppress arbuscule formation in pea roots, and DELLA proteins are essential for this response, indicating that this role occurs within the root cells. PMID:23508650

  3. The role of plastic surgeon in complex cephalic malformations. Our experience.

    PubMed

    Chiumariello, Stefano; Del Torto, Giuseppe; Guarro, Giuseppe; Alfano, Carmine

    2014-01-01

    Le malformazioni complesse del distretto cefalico comprendono tutta una serie di anomalie di sviluppo che oltre a presentare una notevole difficoltà classificativa e di inquadramento, comprendono forme che sono talora di stretta pertinenza specialistica. La correzione delle malformazioni craniofacciali fa ricorso ad una disciplina chirurgica particolarmente esigente, che deve associare una formazione chirurgica di base con un apprendimento delle tecniche specifiche per il territorio craniofacciale e una conoscenza della patologia malformativa. L’eziologia malformativa pone il chirurgo davanti a problemi specifici, dominati dallo sviluppo della tecnica chirurgica. Si stabilisce dunque un protocollo terapeutico dopo aver identificato la malformazione, stimato la gravità delle alterazioni tissutali e valutato la capacità di crescita dei territori interessati. E’ fondamentale, oltre che il rimodellamento della morfologia, il recupero delle funzioni ed il trattamento rieducativo. E’ quindi evidente che si tratta di una chirurgia di equipe che può portare risultati positivi solo se realizzata con fiducia reciproca tra i vari operatori.

  4. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy as palliative treatment for malignant ascites A single-center experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Luigina; Marino, Elisabetta; De Angelis, Verena; Rebonato, Alberto; Donini, Annibale

    L’ascite maligna rappresenta il quadro avanzato di anormale accumulo di liquido intraperitoneale in pazienti con carcinosi peritoneale. Questa condizione clinica può rappresentare la condizione terminale di questa patologia a pessima prognosi inficiando inoltre la qualità di vita dei pazienti. Le opzioni terapeutiche includono differenti procedure che hanno tuttavia una limitata efficacia e alcune criticità; diuretici, paracentesi, shunt veno-peritoneali, inibitori delle metallo proteasi, immunomodulatori e agenti biologici rappresentano alcuni esempi di queste procedure. Nessuno di questi approcci terapeutici rappresenta a oggi lo standard of care per questa patologia data la scarsa efficienza e l’alto grado di effetti collaterali. L’introduzione della chirurgia citoriduttiva e della chemio terapia ipertermica intraperitoneale sembra essere un approccio terapeutico valido nel trattamento dell’ascite maligna refrattaria, introdotto nelle ultime due decadi e che tutt’ora necessita di validazione scientifica. In questo lavoro condividiamo la nostra esperienza di tre casi affetti da ascite maligna refrattaria trattati con HIPEC; facciamo inoltre una revisione della letteratura.

  5. Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor JUB1 regulates GA/BR metabolism and signalling.

    PubMed

    Shahnejat-Bushehri, Sara; Tarkowska, Danuse; Sakuraba, Yasuhito; Balazadeh, Salma

    2016-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs) are important phytohormones that control plant development and responses to environmental cues by involving DELLA proteins and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1) respectively as key transcription factors. Here, we reveal a new role for JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a transcriptional regulator of GA/BR signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana. JUB1 directly represses the hormone biosynthesis genes GA3ox1 and DWARF4 (DWF4), leading to reduced levels of GAs and BRs and typical GA/BR deficiency phenotypes exhibiting short hypocotyls, dwarfism, late flowering and male sterility. JUB1 also directly represses PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4), a transcription factor connecting hormonal and environmental stimuli. On the other hand, JUB1 activates the DELLA genes GA INSENSITIVE (GAI) and RGA-LIKE 1 (RGL1). In addition, BZR1 and PIF4 act as direct transcriptional repressors upstream of JUB1, establishing a negative feedback loop. Thus, JUB1 forms the core of a robust regulatory module that triggers DELLA accumulation, thereby restricting cell elongation while concomitantly enhancing stress tolerance. PMID:27249348

  6. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. PMID:25135521

  7. Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Bartolomé, Javier; Minguet, Eugenio G; Grau-Enguix, Federico; Abbas, Mohamad; Locascio, Antonella; Thomas, Stephen G; Alabadí, David; Blázquez, Miguel A

    2012-08-14

    Plant development is modulated by the convergence of multiple environmental and endogenous signals, and the mechanisms that allow the integration of different signaling pathways is currently being unveiled. A paradigmatic case is the concurrence of brassinosteroid (BR) and gibberellin (GA) signaling in the control of cell expansion during photomorphogenesis, which is supported by physiological observations in several plants but for which no molecular mechanism has been proposed. In this work, we show that the integration of these two signaling pathways occurs through the physical interaction between the DELLA protein GAI, which is a major negative regulator of the GA pathway, and BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1), a transcription factor that broadly regulates gene expression in response to BRs. We provide biochemical evidence, both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that GAI inactivates the transcriptional regulatory activity of BZR1 upon their interaction by inhibiting the ability of BZR1 to bind to target promoters. The physiological relevance of this interaction was confirmed by the observation that the dominant gai-1 allele interferes with BR-regulated gene expression, whereas the bzr1-1D allele displays enhanced resistance to DELLA accumulation during hypocotyl elongation. Because DELLA proteins mediate the response to multiple environmental signals, our results provide an initial molecular framework for the integration with BRs of additional pathways that control plant development.

  8. Programmed cell death in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by reactive oxygen species produced in response to gibberellin.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Nozomi; Ishibashi, Yushi; Kai, Kyohei; Tomokiyo, Reisa; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2014-05-01

    The cereal aleurone layer is a secretory tissue that produces enzymes to hydrolyze the starchy endosperm during germination. We recently demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced in response to gibberellins (GA), promoted GAMyb expression, which induces α-amylase expression in barley aleurone cells. On the other hand, ROS levels increase during programmed cell death (PCD) in barley aleurone cells, and GAMyb is involved in PCD of these cells. In this study, we investigated whether the ROS produced in response to GA regulate PCD directly by using mutants of Slender1 (SLN1), a DELLA protein that negatively regulates GA signaling. The wild-type, the sln1c mutant (which exhibits gibberellin-type signaling even in the absence of GA), and the Sln1d mutant (which is gibberellin-insensitive with respect to α-amylase production) all produced ROS in response to GA, suggesting that ROS production in aleurone cells in response to GA is independent of GA signaling through this DELLA protein. Exogenous GA promoted PCD in the wild-type. PCD in sln1c was induced even without exogenous GA (and so without induction of ROS), whereas PCD in Sln1d was not induced in the presence of exogenous GA, even though the ROS content increased significantly in response to GA. These results suggest that PCD in barley aleurone cells is not directly stimulated by ROS produced in response to GA but is regulated by GA signaling through DELLA protein.

  9. Contralateral botulinum injections in patients with residual facial asymmetry and contralateral hyperkinesis after primary facial palsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Davina; Battisti, Andrea; Cassoni, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Della Monaca, Marco; Pagnoni, Mario; Valentini, Valentino; Priore, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Ogni trattamento, medico e chirurgico, della paralisi facciale è finalizzato al recupero della simmetria facciale statica e dinamica. La tossina botulinica di tipo A può essere utilizzata nei pazienti affetti da paralisi del nervo facciale, sottoposti in precedenza a chirurgia primaria, al fine di ridurre la residua asimmetria facciale e le progressive ipercinesie controlaterali al lato affetto, che caratterizzano tali soggetti. Sono stati inclusi nel nostro studio sei pazienti (1 maschio e 5 femmine) affetti da paralisi del nervo facciale monolaterale secondaria a diverse cause, classificata secondo la scala di House-Brackmann in grado III e IV. I pazienti inclusi nello studio sono stati sottoposti in precedenza a trattamento chirurgico riabilitativo specifico per la paralisi facciale stessa; successivamente ciascuno di essi è stato trattato con 50 unità di tossina botulinica di tipo A a livello del lato non affetto del volto, al fine di ridurre le ipercinesie muscolari ed aumentare l’asimmetria e l’abilità muscolare del volto. L’età media dei soggetti era di 44,5 anni. I pazienti sono stati esaminati a 7, 14, 30, 60, 90 e 120 giorni dopo il trattamento con tossina botulinica. Lo studio dimostra la riduzione delle ipercinesie controlaterali alla paralisi facciale ed il miglioramento della simmetria del volto nei pazienti sottoposti precedentemente a trattamento chirurgico primario per la riabilitazione del nervo facciale stesso. Tutti i pazienti si sono dimostrati soddisfatti del trattamento con tossina botulinica di tipo A.

  10. Autotransplantation of pancreatic islets. A single-center first experience.

    PubMed

    Magistri, Paolo; Andreani, Sara; Lo Conte, Domenico; Ferrari, Giovanni Carlo; Forgione, Antonello; Pugliese, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    L’autotrapianto d’isole pancreatiche (IAT) è una procedura ben nota che consente di migliorare il controllo glicemico dopo una pancreasectomia totale (o completamento di pancreasectomia dopo duodenocefalopancreasectomia) rispetto alla sola terapia insulinica. In questo lavoro presentiamo la nostra esperienza nel campo dell’ IAT riportando il caso clinico di una donna di sessanta anni, sottoposta a completamento di pancreasectomia per episodi ricorrenti di acuzie in un quadro di pancreatite cronica. Il trattamento IAT è stato somministrato mediante iniezione trans-epatica intra-portale. Il recupero post-procedurale è stato ottimale, fatta eccezione per un’infezione di ferita che ha richiesto un trattamento con tecnologia a pressione negativa. La paziente è stata dimessa in ventisettesima giornata postoperatoria, in buone condizioni generali, dopo regolare ripresa dell’alimentazione e della canalizzazione. I dati presenti in letteratura dimostrano che la IAT è una procedura sicura, garantendo nel lungo periodo un vantaggio rispetto alla terapia insulinica in termini di rapporto costo-beneficio. Riguardo alla procedura chirurgica, è qui utile ricordare che la mortalità a 30 giorni dopo pancreasectomia totale associata a IAT è del 5%, ed è pertanto sovrapponibile ai risultati della pancreasectomia totale senza IAT. Riportando questa esperienza intendiamo contribuire alla crescita della casistica chirurgica attuale in questo campo, proponendo nel futuro un più ampio sviluppo e una più estesa applicazione di tale approccio.

  11. 75 FR 47662 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ..., SNDK, SPY, T, TBT, TZA, UAUA, UNG, USO, UYG, V, VALE, VZ, WYNN, X, XHB, XLF, XRX and YHOO] * These fees..., SNDK, SPY, T, TBT, TZA, UAUA, UNG, USO, UYG, V, VALE, VZ, WYNN, X, XHB, XLF, XRX and YHOO. \\5\\...

  12. Annual Evaluation Report for 1969-70: ESEA Title I, Public Law 89-10, As Amended.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings Public Schools, MT.

    This evaluation attempts to measure the extent and effectiveness of ESEA Title I programs designed to meet the needs of disadvantaged children and apprizes the public and the legislature of program outcomes. In keeping with USOE requirements for evaluating Title I programs, this document is constructed of (1) responses to USOE probes by…

  13. [State Oversight in Postsecondary Education and the Office of Education's Eligibility Process. Collected Remarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Steven M.; Proffitt, John

    Perspectives on an American Institutes for Research (AIR) study of state oversight in postsecondary education, conducted for the U.S. Office of Education (USOE), are offered by researcher Steven M. Jung. In addition, a list of recommendations by the General Accounting Office concerning USOE's eligibility process and responses by John Proffitt, on…

  14. Research and Development Center in Educational Stimulation. Quarterly Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Research and Development Center in Educational Stimulation.

    Activities in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year 1969-70 concentrated on the USOE site team visit and on implementation of the team's planning recommendations. In a background paper and a preliminary program plan submitted to USOE, the importance of continuing emphasis on developmental psychology was stressed. The center learned in December…

  15. Biopsia de ganglio linfático centinela

    Cancer.gov

    Describe el procedimiento de biopsia de ganglio linfático centinela, su uso para determinar la extensión, o estadio, del cáncer en el cuerpo, y los resultados de investigación sobre el uso de este tipo de biopsia en cáncer de seno y melanoma.

  16. Terapia hormonal para la menopausia y el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa acerca de los resultados de los estudios sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal para la menopausia. Incluye información sobre el efecto de esta terapia en el cuerpo y explica los riesgos y beneficios del uso de hormonas.

  17. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume I--Viability of Packaging. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Marian S.

    The United States Office of Education (USOE) in 1973 commissioned the creation of Project Information Packages (PIPs) that could fulfill USOE's aims for a cost-effective mechanism for disseminating exemplary programs beyond their developers to school districts with less successful compensatory educational projects. Three volumes report the first…

  18. ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, A SUGGESTED 2-YEAR POST HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROOKING, WALTER J.; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS REVISED CURRICULUM GUIDE IS TO AID ADMINISTRATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO PLAN, DEVELOP, AND EVALUATE PROGRAMS. THE BASIC MATERIALS WERE PREPARED BY THE TECHNICAL INSTITUTE DIVISION OF THE OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY PURSUANT TO A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION (USOE) CONTRACT. THE FINAL DRAFT WAS PREPARED BY USOE PERSONNEL.…

  19. [Neuronal communication and synaptic metabolism in childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    García-Cazorla, Àngels; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Duarte, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    Introduccion. Los conocimientos que la neurociencia basica y el neurometabolismo estan aportando en epilepsia pediatrica, y en concreto en mecanismos de comunicacion sinaptica, crecen rapidamente. Existe, no obstante, una desconexion entre estos avances y una vision que los integre de manera global y en la practica clinica y terapeutica. Objetivos. Ofrecer una vision integradora de los diferentes mecanismos moleculares y metabolicos que se conocen y postulan en epilepsia pediatrica, y sugerir conceptos como el de 'metabolismo sinaptico' y 'fenotipos sinapticos' como herramientas utiles para desarrollar este enfoque. Desarrollo. Se revisan los estudios mas destacados que intentan explicar las caracteristicas esenciales de la comunicacion sinaptica en el cerebro en desarrollo, a traves de diferentes moleculas, basicamente proteinas sinapticas, canales ionicos (cotransportadores de cloro, sodio y potasio), la compartimentalizacion pre y postsinaptica, y los principales actores metabolicos (neurotransmisores, metabolismo energetico, factores de crecimiento y lipidos). A partir de esta combinacion de mecanismos biologicos se sugieren ejemplos de 'fenotipos sinapticos' en dos casos concretos de epilepsia genetica (SCN1A) y metabolica (epilepsia con respuesta a la piridoxina). Conclusiones. Una perspectiva holistica, entendiendo la diversidad de elementos relacionados y que suceden en determinados momentos del neurodesarrollo, puede ayudar a delinear fenotipos, vias de metabolismo sinaptico y conectividad cerebral, que faciliten no solo la comprension de la fisiopatologia, sino nuevas aproximaciones terapeuticas en epilepsia pediatrica.

  20. Physically-based quantitative analysis of soil erosion induced by heavy rainfall on steep slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Sala, Maria; Cuomo, Sabatino; Novità, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Heavy rainstorms cause either shallow landslides or soil superficial erosion in steep hillslopes covered by coarse unsaturated soils (Cascini et al., 2013), even over large areas (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013a). The triggering stage of both phenomena is related to ground infiltration, runoff and overland flow (Cuomo and Della Sala, 2013), which are key processes to be investigated. In addition, the mobilization of solid particles deserves a proper physical-based modeling whether a quantitative estimation of solid particles discharge at the outlet of mountain basin is required. In this work, the approaches for soil superficial erosion analysis are firstly reviewed; then, a relevant case study of two medium-sized mountain basins, affected by flow-like phenomena with huge consequences (Cascini et al., 2009) is presented, which motivates a parametric numerical analysis with a physically-based model carried out for a wide class of soil properties and rainfall scenarios (Cuomo et al., 2013b). The achieved results outline that the peak discharge of water and solid particles driven by overland flow depends on rainfall intensity while volumetric solid concentration within the washout is related to the morphometric features of the whole mountain basin. Furthermore, soil suction is outlined as a key factor for the spatial-temporal evolution of infiltration and runoff in the basin, also affecting the discharge of water and solid particles at the outlet of the basin. Based on these insights, selected cases are analyzed aimed to provide a wide class of possible slope erosion scenarios. It is shown that, provided the same amount of cumulated rainfall, the sequence of high and low intensity rainfall events strongly affects the time-discharge at the outlet of the basin without significant variations of the maximum volumetric solid concentration. References Cascini, L., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S., Sorbino, G. (2009). Detection of mechanisms for destructive landslides in Campania region

  1. Late surgical complications of subtotal colectomy with antiperistaltic caeco-rectal anastomosis for slow transit constipation A critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Federico; Rapacchi, Chiara; Cecchini, Stefano; Sarli, Leopoldo; Tartamella, Francesco; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    La stipsi grave da rallentato transito è stata negli ultimi anni definitivamente riconosciuta come una condizione potenzialmente chirurgica, e nuove varianti tecniche sono state proposte in alternativa alla colectomia totale con ileo-retto anastomosi con l’obiettivo di minimizzare il rapporto rischi-benefici per il paziente. In quest’ottica la colectomia subtotale con anastomosi ceco-rettale (SCCRA) rappresenta nella nostra esperienza una valida alternativa, riducendo, a parità di efficacia, l’incontinenza e l’urgency postoperatoria, grazie alla preservazione della valvola ileo-cecale e del reservoir cecale. Tuttavia, a fronte di una buona percentuale di successi, legati soprattutto al miglioramento della selezione dei pazienti, la chirurgia della stipsi da rallentato transito presenta tuttora un non trascurabile numero di insuccessi e di complicanze tardive, spesso imprevedibili, e correlate alle varianti tecniche adottate. Nello specifico caso della SCCRA, la preservazione di un segmento colico verosimilmente malfunzionante (il ceco) è stata imputata come possibile causa di recidiva di stipsi cosiccome origine di complicanze chirurgiche tardive (distensione cecale, volvolo). L’obiettivo di questo studio è di analizzare in maniera critica le complicanze tardive di SCCRA, esaminando i rischi specifici della procedura per identificare possibili misure di prevenzione. A tal fine sono stati valutati i dati di 43 pazienti aderenti al follow-up sottoposti a SCCRA presso il nostro Istituto. Sono stati inclusi i pazienti sottoposti a re-intervento per complicanza tardiva chiaramente correlata a SCCRA presso il nostro centro. Sono state identificate 3 complicanze tardive (7%): una distensione cecale, un volvolo ileo-cecale, un volvolo ileale. Tutti i pazienti sono stati trattati chirurgicamente con successo. Solo nel primo caso è stata identificata una evidente condizione predisponente: la presenza di una defecazione ostruita non risolta associata ad un

  2. Calorimetria nucleare in collisioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.

    2002-07-01

    Nel presente lavoro di tesi ci si e' occupati di uno studio sistematico di misure di temperatura ed energia di eccitazione in sistemi nucleari formati in reazioni tra ioni pesanti ad energie intermedie. La temperatura a stata misurata tramite due diversi metodi: rapporto tra le rese di isotopi che differiscono di uno stesso numero di nucleoni ( d/t-3He/4He , 3He/4He -6Li/7Li) - temperatura isotopica -, e rapporto tra le popolazioni degli stati eccitati in frammenti instabili (5Li e 6Li) che decadono in particelle leggere in coincidenza - temperatura di emissione. Le misure in esame sono state effettuate presso i Laboratori Nazionali del Sud per i sistemi 93Nb+93Nb, 93Nb+116,124Sn, 116,120Sn+116,124Sn e 116Sn+93Nb ad energie comprese tra 17 e 40 A MeV. L'apparato di rivelazione era costituito da un odoscopio ad alta granularite (96 telescopi Si (50micron)-Si(300micron)-CsI(Tl) ) e basse soglie di rivelazione, utilizzato sia per identificare risonanze in frammenti eccitati che per misure di rese di isotopi di frammenti con 2<=Z<=6, e dal multirivelatore FIASCO che, grazie alla misura contemporanea di posizione e tempo di volo dei frammenti provenienti dal proiettile (PLF - Projectile Like Fragments) e dal bersaglio (TLF - Target Like Fragment), e' stato utilizzato per misurare direttamente l'energia di eccitazione del sistema in studio. Analisi precedenti, condotte nell'ambito di varie collaborazioni, hanno messo in evidenza la possible esistenza di una transizione di fase liquido-gas del primo ordine nella materia nucleare. In tale contesto, ci siamo occupati di una verifica della curva calorica nucleare, ovvero della correlazione esistente fra temperatura ed energia di eccitazione del sistema, indagando, nel contempo, sulla sua dipendenza dalla massa del sistema che si frammenta. Si e' effettuato, inoltre, un confronto fra i due diversi metodi di misura della temperatura (temperatura isotopica e di emissione): l'andamento plateau-like della curva calorica e' stato

  3. Shallow-water habitats as sources of fallback foods for hominins.

    PubMed

    Wrangham, Richard; Cheney, Dorothy; Seyfarth, Robert; Sarmiento, Esteban

    2009-12-01

    Underground storage organs (USOs) have been proposed as critical fallback foods for early hominins in savanna, but there has been little discussion as to which habitats would have been important sources of USOs. USOs consumed by hominins could have included both underwater and underground storage organs, i.e., from both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Shallow aquatic habitats tend to offer high plant growth rates, high USO densities, and relatively continuous USO availability throughout the year. Baboons in the Okavango delta use aquatic USOs as a fallback food, and aquatic or semiaquatic USOs support high-density human populations in various parts of the world. As expected given fossilization requisites, the African early- to mid-Pleistocene shows an association of Homo and Paranthropus fossils with shallow-water and flooded habitats where high densities of plant-bearing USOs are likely to have occurred. Given that early hominins in the tropics lived in relatively dry habitats, while others occupied temperate latitudes, ripe, fleshy fruits of the type preferred by African apes would not normally have been available year round. We therefore suggest that water-associated USOs were likely to have been key fallback foods, and that dry-season access to aquatic habitats would have been an important predictor of hominin home range quality. This study differs from traditional savanna chimpanzee models of hominin origins by proposing that access to aquatic habitats was a necessary condition for adaptation to savanna habitats. It also raises the possibility that harvesting efficiency in shallow water promoted adaptations for habitual bipedality in early hominins. PMID:19890871

  4. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    The inclusion of basic education teachers in the survey domain is a controversial issue and fully debated in the academy. The opportunity for a collective work that incorporated school teachers from a public school to a university's group of physics teaching at university allowed us to glimpse the redefinition of the function of a science teacher (a coauthor of this paper) by himself, such that now he includes research on the knowledge construction by students in his teacher practice. The formation of inter-institutional groups for action planning and research in these areas has proved productive for the task of knowledge construction to support educational processes in school, while the university enriches its collection of experiences critically validated, and can consider the results in teachers initial and continued education. The active participation of the teacher in a research group at the university led him to reflect on the possible didactical ways to be described, analyzed and communicated to other teachers. The construction of a pedagogy that took into account the mental models of students on the basic topics of astronomy, and the changes developed resulting from the lessons taught, led to far-reaching consequences on the pedagogy adopted by the teacher, who incorporates now a new vision of science and alternative forms to dialogue with students, essential components for a researcher in Science Education. La inclusión de los maestros de la escuela básica en el universo de la investigación es polémica y está en amplio debate en el mundo académico. La oportunidad de trabajo colectivo de los maestros de una escuela pública en Río de Janeiro con un grupo universitario de enseñanza de la física nos ha permitido vislumbrar la redefinición de la función de un maestro de ciencias (uno de los coautores de este documento) por él mismo, ahora para incluir la investigación sobre la construcción del conocimiento por los alumnos en su práctica como docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e continuada de professores. A participação ativa do professor num grupo de pesquisa na universidade o levou à reflexão sobre caminhos didáticos possíveis de serem descritos, analisados e comunicados a outros professores. A construção de uma pedagogia própria, levando em conta os modelos mentais dos alunos sobre temas básicos de Astronomia, e as mudanças promovidas a partir das aulas dadas, trouxeram amplas conseqüências sobre a pedagogia adotada pelo professor. Hoje a prática desse professor incorpora uma nova visão de ciência e formas alternativas de dialogar com os alunos, elementos indispensáveis a um pesquisador em Educação em Ciências.

  5. Recent developments in human biomonitoring: non-invasive assessment of target tissue dose and effects of pneumotoxic metals

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, A.; Corradi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Tobacco smoke and polluted environments substantially increase the lung burden of pneumotoxic chemicals, particularly pneumotoxic metallic elements. To achieve a better understanding of the early events between exposure to inhaled toxicants and the onset of adverse effects on the lung, the characterization of dose at the target organ would be extremely useful. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC), obtained by cooling exhaled air under conditions of spontaneous breathing, is a novel technique that could provide a non-invasive assessment of pulmonary pathobiology. Considering that EBC is water practically free of interfering solutes, it represents an ideal biological matrix for elemental characterization. Published data show that several toxic metals and trace elements are detectable in EBC, raising the possibility of using this medium to quantify the lung tissue dose of pneumotoxic substances. This novel approach may represent a significant advance over the analysis of alternative media (blood, serum, urine, hair), which are not as reliable (owing to interfering substances in the complex matrix) and reflect systemic rather than lung (target tissue) levels of both toxic metals and essential trace elements. Data obtained among workers occupationally exposed to either hard metals or chromium (VI) and in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are reviewed to show that – together with biomarkers of exposure – EBC also allows the simultaneous quantification of biomarkers of effect directly sampled from the epithelial lining fluid, thus providing novel insights on both kinetic and dynamic aspects of metal toxicology. Riassunto «Recenti sviluppi nel biomonitoraggio umano: valutazione non invasiva della dose a livello dell’organo bersaglio e degli effetti pneumotossici». L’esposizione cronica a fumo di tabacco ed ad altri inquinati ambientali determina un accumulo polmonare di sostanze pneumotossiche, soprattutto metalli. Allo scopo

  6. Explore medicamentos | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Aprenda sobre los medicamentos que lo ayudarán a dejar de fumar, incluso el tratamiento de reemplazo de la nicotina. El uso de estos medicamentos puede duplicar sus probabilidades de dejar de fumar definitivamente.

  7. Nonoperative management for major blunt hepatic trauma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mingoli, Andrea; Saracino, Andrea; Brachini, Gioia; Mariotta, Giovanni; Migliori, Emanuele; Silvestri, Vania

    2015-03-16

    Negli ultimi 20 anni il trattamento del trauma epatico chiuso si è modificato radicalmente passando da una gestione quasi costantemente chirurgica ad una non operativa in tutti i casi in cui non vi siano le condizioni di instabilità emodinamica o di variazione nella clinica del paziente traumatizzato. A tutt’oggi però non è raro osservare un approccio a tale condizione clinica seguendo criteri che la Medicina Basata sull’Evidenza dimostra essere superati. Presentiamo in questo lavoro il caso clinico di una donna di 34 anni che subiva un trauma diretto della regione postero-laterale dell’emitorace destro cadendo accidentalmente da una scala. Nonostante la gravità della lesione evidenziata dalla TC (IV grado secondo AAST Liver Injury Scale), si è optato per un trattamento non operativo data la condizione di stabilità emodinamica ottenuta con un primo bolo di cristalloidi. Una complicanza di tipo respiratorio ha complicato il quadro in terza giornata dal trauma richiedendo una toracentesi e dei cicli di ventilazione non invasiva. A 4 anni di distanza dal trauma la paziente sta bene e non lamenta disturbi. La letteratura mostra che il trattamento conservativo viene impiegato oggi in oltre l’85% dei traumi epatici, indipendentemente dall’entità della lesione. Il successo del trattamento conservativo varia nelle diverse casistiche dall’82% al 100% dei casi, e le sue complicanze, quando si verificano (14% dei traumi maggiori) possono spesso essere trattate con procedure di radiologia interventistica, evitando ancora l’intervento chirurgico. Oggi, in assenza di altre lesioni addominali che richiedano l’esplorazione chirurgica, l’indicazione al trattamento operativo è solo l’instabilità emodinamica del paziente che persiste o si ripresenta subito dopo un corretto trattamento rianimatorio iniziale.

  8. Cotton WRKY1 Mediates the Plant Defense-to-Development Transition during Infection of Cotton by Verticillium dahliae by Activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 Expression1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression. PMID:25301887

  9. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7.

  10. Ethylene Response Factor6 acts as a central regulator of leaf growth under water-limiting conditions in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition.

  11. The undergraduate nursing student evaluation of clinical learning environment: an Italian survey.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria; Bari, Alessia; Pozzi, Samantha; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Ferri, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione: Per divenire dei professionisti qualificati, gli studenti infermieri sperimentano diverse esperienze di tirocinio clinico. L’opinione dello studente può essere considerata un indicatore della qualità dell’insegnamento e una percezione positiva dell’esperienza di tirocinio si correla strettamente ad un apprendimento efficace. La scala CLES+T (Clinical Learning Environment and Supervision plus Nurse Teacher) è lo strumento psicometrico “gold standard” per valutare la qualità dell’ambiente di apprendimento clinico. Scopo: Valutare la qualità dell’ambiente di apprendimento clinico mediante la scala (CLES+T) ed evidenziare significative correlazioni inerenti le caratteristiche degli studenti, del modello tutoriale e dell’ambiente clinico. Metodo: Il 4 marzo 2013, durante una convocazione plenaria, è stata somministrata la scala CLES+T ai 242 studenti del 2° e 3° anno del Corso di Laurea in Infermieristica di Modena (Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia). Tutti i risultati sono stati statisticamente analizzati (Test della mediana). Risultati: Tutti i valori mediani si sono attestati ad un livello “4” (scala di Likert). La valutazione ottenuta dallo studente al termine del tirocinio clinico è l’unica variabile statisticamente correlata ai punteggi della scala, più il voto è basso peggiore risulta la valutazione dell’esperienza di tirocinio. In base all’opinione degli studenti le aree cliniche pediatriche e critiche hanno valutazioni più elevate. Conclusioni: Le valutazioni degli studenti erano uniformemente positive ed erano correlate al voto finale di tirocinio. Un clima di apprendimento positivo è stato considerato molto importante in questo studio. Questi risultati suggeriscono che un ambiente di apprendimento clinico favorevole e non ostile può influenzare gli esiti dell’apprendimento degli studenti. Concludiamo affermando che la scala CLES+T può essere uno strumento utile per esplorare il clima in tutte le

  12. Cotton WRKY1 mediates the plant defense-to-development transition during infection of cotton by Verticillium dahliae by activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-12-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression.

  13. [Empathy in the nurse practitioners of medical area].

    PubMed

    Facco, Simona; Cirio, Luigi; Galante, Jenni; Dimonte, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione. Attualmente sono pochi gli studi che indagano la capacità empatica nella popolazione infermieristica. Obiettivo di questo studio è analizzare la capacità empatica degli infermieri che prestano servizio in area medica in relazione a genere, età, formazione e anzianità di servizio. Materiali e metodi. Lo studio è di tipo descrittivo-osservazionale, su un campione di 60 infermieri. Lo strumento utilizzato per la valutazione dell’empatia è la scala di valutazione JSPE (versione HP) costituita da 20 item, in cui gli intervistati indicano il loro accordo o disaccordo con una scala Likert a 7 punti. Il range di valori possibili è da 20 a 140: il punteggio più alto corrisponde a una maggiore capacità empatica. Il questionario ha dimostrato la validità e l'affidabilità della versione italiana del JSPE con un coefficiente alfa di Cronbach di 0,85. Il punteggio Il livello di significatività statistica accettato è pari a P ≤ 0,05. Risultati. La media della capacità empatica dei professionisti intervistati è risultata di 104/140. Dai dati analizzati, emerge che con l’aumentare degli anni di servizio alla professione si verifica una diminuzione dell’empatia così come il permanere nello stesso reparto provoca una diminuzione empatica. Inoltre è emersa una maggiore empatia degli infermieri della neurologia rispetto alla medicina generale. Conclusioni. Lo studio evidenzia come i professionisti abbiano necessità di incrementare la capacità empatica soprattutto col trascorrere degli anni di esercizio alla professione. Probabilmente come meccanismo di difesa, il professionista tende a proteggersi dal coinvolgimento emotivo, favorendo le attività di natura più tecnico-gestuale, piuttosto che relazionale.

  14. Molecular characterization of Rht-1 dwarfing genes in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Stephen; Saville, Robert; Vaughan, Simon P; Chandler, Peter M; Wilhelm, Edward P; Sparks, Caroline A; Al-Kaff, Nadia; Korolev, Andrey; Boulton, Margaret I; Phillips, Andrew L; Hedden, Peter; Nicholson, Paul; Thomas, Stephen G

    2011-12-01

    The introduction of the Reduced height (Rht)-B1b and Rht-D1b semidwarfing genes led to impressive increases in wheat (Triticum aestivum) yields during the Green Revolution. The reduction in stem elongation in varieties containing these alleles is caused by a limited response to the phytohormone gibberellin (GA), resulting in improved resistance to stem lodging and yield benefits through an increase in grain number. Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 encode DELLA proteins, which act to repress GA-responsive growth, and their mutant alleles Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b are thought to confer dwarfism by producing more active forms of these growth repressors. While no semidwarfing alleles of Rht-A1 have been identified, we show that this gene is expressed at comparable levels to the other homeologs and represents a potential target for producing novel dwarfing alleles. In this study, we have characterized additional dwarfing mutations in Rht-B1 and Rht-D1. We show that the severe dwarfism conferred by Rht-B1c is caused by an intragenic insertion, which results in an in-frame 90-bp insertion in the transcript and a predicted 30-amino acid insertion within the highly conserved amino-terminal DELLA domain. In contrast, the extreme dwarfism of Rht-D1c is due to overexpression of the semidwarfing Rht-D1b allele, caused by an increase in gene copy number. We show also that the semidwarfing alleles Rht-B1d and Rht-B1e introduce premature stop codons within the amino-terminal coding region. Yeast two-hybrid assays indicate that these newly characterized mutations in Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 confer "GA-insensitive" dwarfism by producing DELLA proteins that do not bind the GA receptor GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1, potentially compromising their targeted degradation. PMID:22013218

  15. Endoscopic forehead surgery for migraine therapy Personal technique.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Giorgia; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Boschi, Elena; Pio Grieco, Michele; Grignaffini, Eugenio; Raposio, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Da recenti studi volti ad investigare la patogenesi dell’emicrania, è emerso come questa possa essere secondaria ad un meccanismo di ipereccitabilità e infiammazione neuronale conseguente alla compressione di alcuni nervi periferici cranio-facciali, i quali, agendo come “trigger point”, possono essere decompressi mediante terapia chirurgica. Scopo di questo studio è stato da un lato quello di valutare i risultati ottenuti, confrontandoli con quelli della letteratura, dall’altro di proporre un approccio personale, endoscopico, mini-invasivo. In base alla localizzazione della cefalea, la tecnica chirurgica è stata differente. In caso di cefalea frontale, la decompressione dei nervi sopraorbitario e sovraclaveare è stata effettuata mediante una personale procedura endoscopica modificata di miotomie selettive frontali del muscolo corrugatore del sopracciglio, depressore del sopracciglio e del muscolo procero. Per quanto riguarda invece l’emicrania occipitale, la decompressione dei nervi piccolo e grande occipitale è ottenuta attraverso miotomie selettive dei muscoli occipitale, trapezio, semispinale della testa e sternocleidomastoideo. Venti pazienti sono stati inclusi nello studio e sottoposti ad almeno una delle precedenti procedure. In seguito al follow-up a 6 mesi si è osservato che: 9 hanno percepito una sensibile riduzione nella frequenza e/o severità degli attacchi (45%), 8 sono guariti completamente (40%) e 3 non hanno tratto alcun beneficio (15%), per un totale di 85% di pazienti che hanno beneficiato dell’intervento. I dati ottenuti evidenziano l’efficacia dell’approccio chirurgico nella terapia dell’emicrania; inoltre si sottolinea come la tecnica endoscopica permetta di acquisire gli stessi risultati, rispetto alle metodiche tradizionali, con una procedura a minor invasività e a minor rischio di effetti collaterali.

  16. Endogenous diterpenes derived from ent-kaurene, a common gibberellin precursor, regulate protonema differentiation of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Horie, Keisuke; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hanada, Atsushi; Nakashima, Tamotsu; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Mander, Lewis N; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a group of diterpene-type plant hormones biosynthesized from ent-kaurene via ent-kaurenoic acid. GAs are ubiquitously present in seed plants. The GA signal is perceived and transduced by the GID1 GA receptor/DELLA repressor pathway. The lycopod Selaginella moellendorffii biosynthesizes GA and has functional GID1-DELLA signaling components. In contrast, no GAs or functionally orthologous GID1-DELLA components have been found in the moss Physcomitrella patens. However, P. patens produces ent-kaurene, a common precursor for GAs, and possesses a functional ent-kaurene synthase, PpCPS/KS. To assess the biological role of ent-kaurene in P. patens, we generated a PpCPS/KS disruption mutant that does not accumulate ent-kaurene. Phenotypic analysis demonstrates that the mutant has a defect in the protonemal differentiation of the chloronemata to caulonemata. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis shows that P. patens produces ent-kaurenoic acid, an ent-kaurene metabolite in the GA biosynthesis pathway. The phenotypic defect of the disruptant was recovered by the application of ent-kaurene or ent-kaurenoic acid, suggesting that ent-kaurenoic acid, or a downstream metabolite, is involved in protonemal differentiation. Treatment with uniconazole, an inhibitor of ent-kaurene oxidase in GA biosynthesis, mimics the protonemal phenotypes of the PpCPS/KS mutant, which were also restored by ent-kaurenoic acid treatment. Interestingly, the GA(9) methyl ester, a fern antheridiogen, rescued the protonemal defect of the disruption mutant, while GA(3) and GA(4), both of which are active GAs in angiosperms, did not. Our results suggest that the moss P. patens utilizes a diterpene metabolite from ent-kaurene as an endogenous developmental regulator and provide insights into the evolution of GA functions in land plants.

  17. Is surgery always the best treatment for severe carotid stenosis in the frail elderly?

    PubMed

    Quarto, Gennaro; Benassai, Giacomo; Gallinoro, Emanuele; Amato, Bruno; Furino, Ermenegildo

    2015-01-01

    Lo stroke è la terza causa di morte nel mondo occidentale dopo l’infarto del miocardio ed il cancro, con il 10-12% di tutti i decessi; l’eziologia ischemica riveste un ruolo preponderante (il 25% è su base embolica), per cui la stenosi aterosclerotica carotidea rappresenta un fattore di rischio. Lo studio NASCET ha provato l’utilità della chirurgia nel trattamento di tale patologia, tuttavia sotto precisi criteri di selezione. Il seguente caso riguarda un paziente affetto da stenosi carotidea che, pur rientrando nei criteri emodinamici di operabilità (percentuale e velocità di flusso), in considerazione delle comorbidità presenti alla diagnosi, non è stato possibile sottoporre a intervento di Trombo-Endo-Arteriectomia (TEA). Il paziente che si era affidato a noi si presentava completamente asintomatico e ciò è stato confermato anche dalla TC cerebrale cui è stato sottoposto dopo la diagnosi di stenosi. Considerando che la neoplasia del paziente, al momento della diagnosi, era al III stadio e che tale staging consente un tasso di sopravvivenza a 5 anni inferiore al 50% e che la TEA non è esente dal rischio di re-stenosi, si è ritenuto che tale procedura non poteva migliorare la prognosi del paziente. L’alternativa presa in considerazione, quindi, è stata l’angioplastica con stent. Tuttavia, se si valuta la non trascurabile possibilità di una recidiva locale della neoplasia, non si può escludere l’utilità di un ulteriore ciclo di radioterapia, con il rischio che questa possa determinare una stenosi in-stent, essendo, la neoplasia omolaterale alla stenosi da trattare. Per questi motivi è stata adottata una terapia conservativa con doppia antiaggregazione (Clopidogrel + Acido Acetil Salicilico). A 8 mesi, il paziente non ha sviluppato accidenti neuro-vascolari.

  18. Inventario mundial de la calidad del carbon mineral (WoCQI) [The world coal quality inventory (WoCQI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Lovern, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Los oficiales encargados de la politica comercial de cada pais requieren informacion clara y precisa sobre el recurso del carbon mineral, particularmente sobre sus propiedades y caracteristicas, para tomar decisiones bien fundamentadas con respecto al mejor uso de los recursos naturales, necesidades de importacion y oportunidades de exportacion, objetivos de politica interna y externa, oportunidades de transferencia tecnologica, posibilidades de inversion externa, estudios ambientales y de salud, y asuntos relacionados con el uso de productos secundarios y su disposicion.

  19. Tone based command system for reception of very weak signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokulic, Robert Steven (Inventor); Jensen, James Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This disclosure presents a communication receiver system for spacecraft that includes an open loop receiver adapted to receive a communication signal. An ultrastable oscillator (USO) and a tone detector are connected to the open loop receiver. The open loop receiver translates the communication signal to an intermediate frequency signal using a highly stable reference frequency from the USO. The tone detector extracts commands from the communication signal by evaluating the difference between tones of the communication signal.

  20. [The botanist and doctor Pietro Andrea Matthioli].

    PubMed

    Daxecker, F

    2005-06-01

    The physician Pietro Andrea Mattioli (1500 - 1577) is known for his Italian translation and commentary of the work of the Greek botanist Pedanios Dioscurides: "Di Pedacio Dioscoride Anazerbeo libri cinque ..." (first published in 1544). The physician broadened Dioscurides' studies by including new medicinal plants and numerous detailed woodcuts. In 1554 the fifth edition had already been published: "I Discorsi di M. Pietro Andrea Matthioli Sanese, Medico Cesareo ... Di Pedacio Dioscuride Anacarbeo della materia Medicinale ...". The book was also translated into Latin, French, Spanish, German and Bohemian. Matthioli describes plants, that can be used to treat eye-diseases.

  1. Plant ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and its role in gibberellin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2011-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in plants, like in other eukaryotes, targets numerous intracellular regulators and thus modulates almost every aspect of growth and development. The well-known and best-characterized outcome of ubiquitination is mediating target protein degradation via the 26S proteasome, which represents the major selective protein degradation pathway conserved among eukaryotes. In this review, we will discuss the molecular composition, regulation and function of plant UPS, with a major focus on how DELLA protein degradation acts as a key in gibberellin signal transduction and its implication in the regulation of plant growth. PMID:21788985

  2. An astrolabe attributed to Gerard Mercator, c. 1570

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gerard L'E.; Dekker, Elly

    The Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Italy, possesses an astrolabe with five latitude plates that is now attributed to the Duisburg workshop of Gerard Mercator. Although it is known that Mercator made instruments, this is the first surviving example to be identified. Another latitude plate is shown to come from the workshop of the Florentine, Giovan Battista Giusti. A seventh plate, possibly engraved by Rumold Mercator, provides the only known Mercatorian polar stereographic projection. The role of Egnazio Danti, cosmographer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the acquisition of the astrolabe in about 1570 is considered.

  3. Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. Observations and astronomical research at Prague and Florence at the end of the 16th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triarico, Carlo

    The paper aims at pointing out the similarities between the astronomical research of Tycho Brahe and Egnazio Danti. The main issue is the comparison between the researches of the two astronomers about the measurement of the ecliptic's obliquity and its possible variation. The books published by the two scientists about the use and building up of the astronomical instruments will be also compared. Finally, will be given some examples of instruments of the Medici Family collection in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza in Florence, which come from Praha and were built by the technicians who worked for Tycho.

  4. Comparison of multiple training models of surgical rotation for third-year medical students A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Magistri, Paolo; Nigri, Giuseppe; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Aurello, Paolo; D'Angelo, Francesco; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Considerata la necessità di elaborare un sistema di rotazione nei reparti di Chirurgia che venga incontro alle necessità degli studenti, abbiamo ideato questo studio prospettico presso la Facoltà di Medicina e Psicologia di “Sapienza, Università di Roma”. Nella nostra Istituzione, gli studenti del terzo anno del corso di laurea di Medicina e Psicologia trascorrono un periodo di 2 mesi presso il reparto di Chirurgia Generale per prepararsi all’esame di Semeiotica Medico-Chirurgica. Spesso i feedback di tale esperienza riportano una certa insoddisfazione, soprattutto per la scarsità dell’attività pratica al letto del paziente. Pertanto, abbiamo deciso di confrontare cinque modelli per stabilire il migliore approccio in termini di apprendimento e soddisfazione degli studenti. 28 studenti sono stati coinvolti nello studio e divisi in cinque gruppi (da A ad E). Il Gruppo A ha eseguito una rotazione standard così come prevista dall’ordine degli studi, 5 accessi in reparto seguiti dal proprio tutor. Gli studenti del gruppo B hanno frequentato il reparto una volta la settimana, arrivando dopo la visita della mattina, trascorrendo un’ora con il tutor ed il resto della mattina con gli specializzandi. Il gruppo C è stato diviso in piccoli gruppi, ciascuno assegnato per 2 volte all’ambulatorio chirurgico, 2 volte in reparto (standard) e 2 volte al servizio di preospedalizzazione. Gli studenti del gruppo D hanno frequentato il reparto una volta la settimana arrivando la mattina presto, trascorrendo 2 ore con il tutor ed il resto della mattina con gli specializzandi. Il gruppo E è stato diviso in 2 gruppi, ciascuno assegnato 3 volte al reparto (standard) e 3 volte alla sala operatoria. Ciascuno studente ha completato un questionario con 20 item di semeiotica all’inizio ed alla fine dello studio per valutare la progressione dell’apprendimento, ed un questionario finale di valutazione della soddisfazione. I risultati hanno dimostrato come tutti i gruppi

  5. Nuclear Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, Ignazio

    2003-04-01

    In this report I will try to illustrate some of the main research themes and "hot topics" in nuclear astrophysics. The particular aim of the present report is to briefly illustrate the research activities, in the field of nuclear astrophysics, performed by the Italian nuclear physicist community within the "Programma di Interesse Nazionale su Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi" (National Research Program on Theoretical Physics of Nuclei and Many Body Systems) supported by the "Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Università e della Ricerca".

  6. Asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham correlation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, D. P.

    2007-07-15

    The density-functional correlation potential of a finite system is shown to asymptotically approach a nonzero constant along a nodal surface of the energetically highest occupied orbital and zero everywhere else. This nonuniform asymptotic form of the correlation potential exactly cancels the nonuniform asymptotic behavior of the exact exchange potential discussed by Della Sala and Goerling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 33003 (2002)]. The sum of the exchange and correlation potentials therefore asymptotically tends to -1/r everywhere, consistent with the asymptotic form of the Kohn-Sham potential as analyzed by Almbladh and von Barth [Phys. Rev. B 31, 3231 (1985)].

  7. Splenic abscess after splenic blunt injury angioembolization.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, Dario; Galatioto, Christian; Lippolis, Piero Vincenzo; Modesti, Matteo; Gianardi, Desirée; Bertolucci, Andrea; Cucinotta, Monica; Zocco, Giuseppe; Seccia, Massimo

    2014-11-03

    L’angioembolizzazione splenica è una efficace procedura nel corso del trattamento non operativo dei pazienti emodinamicamente stabili con traumi splenici di grado OIS III, IV, V. L’ascesso spenico rappresenta una rara complicanza maggiore di questa procedura. Di seguito riportiamo il caso di un paziente di 38 anni, giunto in Pronto Soccorso dopo una caduta accidentale domestica, con contusione del quadrante superiore sinistro dell’addome. La TC addome documentava una frattura del polo inferiore della milza, con pseudoaneurismi intraparenchimali (grado IV OIS). Vista la stabilità emodinamica, il paziente veniva sottoposto a trattamento non operatvo. Successivamente si eseguiva un’angioembolizzazione della parte distale dell’ arteria splenica con spongostan gel e spirali metalliche. Per la comparsa di febbre e per l’evidenza di sepsi agli esami ematochimici, si effettuava un’ ulteriore TC addome che evidenziava la presenza di una voluminosa raccolta di circa 11 cm all’ interno della milza con multiple bolle aree nel suo contesto, con segni di emoperitoneo diffuso nei recessi addominali. Per tale motivo, ad una settimana dalla procedura, il paziente veniva sottoposto ad intervento chirurgico di splenectomia con evacuazione del versamento ematico. Gli esami colturali eseguiti sull’ematoma perisplenico risultavano negativi, ma l’esame istologico della milza documentava multiple aree ascessualizzate ed emorragiche. Dopo un ciclo di terapia antibiotica a largo spettro con Tigeciclina e Teicoplanina, il paziente veniva dimesso in sedicesima giornata post-operatoria. In letteratura, è stato riportato che gli ascessi splenici dopo la procedura di angioembolizzazione splenica nel corso di un trattamento non operativo dei traumi splenici, si verificano nel range dello 0-1,9%. In circa un terzo dei casi richiedono un trattamento chirurgico. Nel caso riportato l’ascesso splenico si è sviluppato nel giro di una settimana dalla procedura. In conclusione

  8. "Miracolo dell'arte" Chi ha inventato il telescopio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodi, Francesca

    2006-02-01

    Who did invent the telescope? It seems a simple-answering question but this is untrue. The article recall the fundamental steps of the first phase in the telescope history between 16th and 17th century, from the first experiences with the lenses made by the Italian opticians to the Della Porta's theories, from the vicissitudes of the Dutch spectacle-makers to the spreading of the new instrument through the European squares. At last we meet the work of Galileo Galilei, the first man to use the telescope for scientific purposes, understanding all its potentialities.

  9. Rare extra-adrenal paraganglioma mimicking a painful Schwannoma: case report.

    PubMed

    Picchetto, Andrea; M Paganini, Alessandro; Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Lezoche, Emanuele

    2014-09-26

    I paragangliomi hanno un’incidenza annuale di circa 1/100000; essi originano dai tessuti cromaffini dei corpi di Zurckerkandl. In questo case report riportiamo il caso di un uomo di 53 anni, già trattato e seguito per un precedente limfoma di Hodkin che è stato sottoposta a RMN dell’addome per una lombalgia cronica che durava da due anni e che non riusciva ad alleviare con i FANS. La RMN ha rivelato un’incidentaloma: una massa in regione para-aortica, a livello della loggia surrenalica sinistra con le caratteristiche di una massa nodulare solida (29*25mm), che non sembrava originare direttamente dal surrene. Il pz ha inoltre eseguito un TC dell’addome che ha mostrato una massa localizzata di fronte al surrene di sinistra; il collega radiologo ha definito questa massa come un tumore maligno delle guaine nervose periferiche (Schwannoma) o come un linfonodo colliquato (essendo nota la patologia linfomatosa già descritta in anamnesi). Il paziente non riferiva cefalea, palpitazioni, picchi ipertensivi ne’ altri sintomi sistemici. Durante il suo ricovero, sono stati dosati i marker tumorali cromogranina e l’enolasi neurono-specifica che sono risultati essere rispettivamente 187.00 ng/mL and 7.7 ng/mL. La lombalgia è stata trattata inizialmente con Ketorolac, senza beneficio alcuno, quindi con Ketorolac più Tramadolo in pompa elastomerica, nuovamente senza beneficio per il paziente, infine con infusione continua di Morfina. Dato che l’esatta natura della neoformazione non era nota e che l’esecuzione di una biopsia TC guidata non era tecnicamente possibile, è stata eseguita un’escissione per via laparoscopica della massa, con approccio anteriore submesocolico trans peritoneale, così come gli Autori sono soliti eseguire per la surrenalectomia sinistra. Sin dai primi giorni postoperatori il paziente non ha più necessitato della morfina. Il decorso postoperatorio è stato del tutto regolare. L’esame istologico è risultato essere paraganglioma. I

  10. Teorie Dinamiche Dell' Ala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, Bruno

    Non è facile rendersi conto del birzarro comportamento dei fluidi poco viscosi, quali l'aria e l'acqua, deducendolo logicamente e matematicamente, come è nello spirito della fisica matematica, da poche proposizioni generali tratte dall'esperienza. Ciò perchè le schematizzazioni più semplici suggerite dal senso comune, in virtù del quale piccole cause non possono produrre che piccoli effetti, e facenti capo a campi cinetici ovunque regolari, portano a risultati paradossali sconcertanti, quali il paradosso di d'Alembert.

  11. Gastric paraganglioma: a case report and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pruiti, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Francesca; Rossitto, Maurizio; Foti, Agata; Macrì, Antonio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    I paragangliomi sono tumori neuroendocrini derivati dalla cresta neurale, provenienti dai paragangli, organi neuroendocrini dispersi e caratterizzati da cellule producenti catecolamine e peptidi. Presentano un’incidenza annuale stimata in 1 / 100.000, rappresentando il 10% dei tumori secernenti catecolamine. Riportiamo il caso di un uomo di 76 anni giunto alla nostra osservazione per la presenza di una lesione polipoide di 4 cm, vegetativaulcerata, tra il corpo e dell’antro gastrico rilevata durante una gastroscopia per la comparsa di anemia. Il paziente è stato sottoposto a gastrectomia subtotale con omentectomia e anastomosi gastrodigiunale. L’esame istologico ha rivelato un carcinoma gastrico polipoide ulcerato con cellule scarsamente aderenti con infiltrazione della parete gastrica muscolare e incidentalmente è stata identificata una lesione della parete gastrica posteriore incidentale che si rilevava essre un paraganglioma con la positività alle indagini di immunocitochimica per NSE e negatività per CD117, S100, CD34 e SMA. Con il termine di feocromocitoma si indica esclusivamente i tumori derivanti dalla midollare del surrene, mentre il paraganglioma extra-surrenalico suggerisce tumori delle cellule cromaffini con altre posizioni. La localizzazione gastrica o perigastrica, come nel nostro caso, è molto rara per queste neoplasie, e in letteratura vi sono solo pochi case report. La predisposizione genetica si osserva nel 30% di questi tumori e può essere responsabile della malattia ereditaria caratterizzata da differenze nella distribuzione del tumore, nella produzione di catecolamine, nel rischio di metastasi, e nell’associazione con altri tipi di tumori. In conclusione, nei pazienti con sintomi di tumore secernente cromaffini o in pazienti con una storia familiare di feocromocitoma-paraganglioma, che portano mutazioni e sottoposti a screening per il tumore asintomatico, la prima indagine diagnostica è determinare i livelli di metanefrina

  12. Malignant transformation in non-recurrent peritoneal cystic mesothelioma Our experience and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Giuseppe; Accardo, Marina; De Vita, Ferdinando; Del Giudice, Santolo; Gallucci, Federica; Fabozzi, Alessio; De Falco, Massimo

    2016-01-29

    Il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico è un tumore raro. Si tratta di un tumore benigno, che tuttavia va incontro a recidive locali post-chirurgiche in oltre il 50% dei casi. È proprio a seguito di recidive ricorrenti che si possono determinare trasformazioni maligne di questa neoplasia, come descritto in Letteratura. Nel Giugno del 2004 un paziente di 73 anni è giunto presso la nostra struttura con una tumefazione addominale causa di dolore gravativo: si trattava di una massa di 16 cm, la cui struttura, agli esami strumentali (ecografia, TC con m.d.c. e RMN), appariva pluricistica. Attraverso una laparotomia mediana si è provveduto alla sua rimozione e il paziente è stato dimesso in VIII giornata post-operatoria senza complicanze. L’esame istologico, corredato da studio immunoistochimico e di microscopia elettronica, ha consentito di porre diagnosi di mesotelioma peritoneale pluricistico in trasformazione maligna. D’accordo con gli oncologi, in considerazione della scarsa efficacia dei trattamenti adiuvanti e della scarsità dei dati riportati in Letteratura sull’argomento, si è deciso di sottoporre il paziente unicamente ad uno stretto follow-up, con esecuzione di ecografia addominale ogni sei mesi e TC addominale ogni anno. Ad oggi, dieci anni dopo il trattamento, il paziente, di 83 anni, gode di un discreto stato di salute e non si sono verificate riprese o recidive di malattia, né locali, né a distanza. Oltre al fatto di essere risultato maligno alla sua prima manifestazione e non dopo ripetute recidive, il caso presenta altre particolarità: il mesotelioma peritoneale cistico, infatti, solitamente colpisce soggetti di sesso femminile (con un rapporto F:M di 4,5:1) ad un’età media di 60 anni, mentre il caso descritto riguarda un soggetto di sesso maschile di 73 anni. La nostra osservazione dimostra la possibilità che il mesotelioma peritoneale vada incontro a trasformazioni maligne già alla sua prima manifestazione e non esclusivamente dopo

  13. Successful surgical resection of solitary plasmacytoma of the liver mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mirarchi, Mariateresa; De Raffele, Emilio; Bacci, Francesco; Cuicchi, Dajana; Lecce, Ferdinando; Cola, Bruno

    Il plasmocitoma extramidollare solitario (SEMP) del fegato è una neoplasia estremamente rara. Viene riferito il caso di un’anziana donna affetta da un voluminoso SEMP con caratteristiche simili a quelle di un carcinoma epatocellulare (HCC). Si tratta di una donna di 89 anni giunta alla nostra osservazione con un dolore addominale piuttosto severo, di recente insorgenza, ed una voluminosa massa situata nell’ipocondrio destro. I dati di laboratorio all’ingresso non evidenziavano alterazioni della funzionalità epatica; i valori di alfa-fetoproteinemia erano nella norma; non erano presenti markers di un’infezione da virus dell’epatite B e C. Una tomografia assiale computerizzata (TC) multifasica documentava la presenza di una voluminosa neoplasia dell’emifegato sinistro, ipodensa alle immagini senza mezzo di contrasto, disomogeneamente iperdensa in fase arteriosa, e con “washout” nelle fasi portale e di equilibrio. Una tomografia ad emissione di positroni con 18F-FDG (18FFDG PET)-TC evidenziava una marcata captazione del radiocomposto da parte della neoplasia, in assenza peraltro di metastasi a distanza. Le caratteristiche cliniche e radiologiche della lesione erano interpretate come compatibili con una diagnosi di HCC scarsamente differenziato con aree di necrosi intralesionale verosimilmente in evoluzione verso la rottura spontanea. La valutazione clinica complessiva ci faceva reputare accettabile il rischio chirurgico e la paziente veniva sottoposta ad un’epatectomia sinistra con resezione parziale dell’emidiaframma destro. Il decorso postoperatorio era sostanzialmente regolare e la paziente veniva dimessa in 12° giornata postoperatoria. L’esame istologico definitivo deponeva per un plasmocitoma extramidollare. L’analisi immunoistochimica dimostrava che le cellule tumorali esprimevano CD45, CD38, IRF4, HTPD52, catene leggere kappa ma non catene leggere lambda; l’indice di proliferazione Mib-1 era del 50%. La successiva valutazione

  14. Savanna chimpanzees use tools to harvest the underground storage organs of plants.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Moore, Jim; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2007-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that plant underground storage organs (USOs) played key roles in the initial hominin colonization of savanna habitats, the development of the distinctive skull and tooth morphology of the genus Australopithecus, and the evolution of the genus Homo by serving as "fallback foods" exploited during periods of food shortage. These hypotheses have been tested mostly by morphological, isotopic, and microwear analyses of hominin bones and teeth. Archaeological evidence of USO digging technology is equivocal. Until now relevant data from studies of chimpanzees, useful in behavioral models of early hominins because of their phylogenetic proximity and anatomical similarities, have been lacking. Here we report on the first evidence of chimpanzees using tools to dig for USOs, suggesting that exploitation of such resources was within the cognitive and technological reach of the earliest hominins. Consistent with scenarios of hominin adaptation to savannas, these data come from Ugalla (Tanzania), one of the driest, most open and seasonal chimpanzee habitats. USOs are, however, exploited during the rainy season, well after the period of most likely food shortage, contradicting the specific prediction of fallback food hypotheses. The discovery that savanna chimpanzees use tools to obtain USOs contradicts yet another claim of human uniqueness and provides a model for the study of variables influencing USO use among early hominins.

  15. Probing and manipulating magnetization at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarth, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    Combining semiconductors with magnetism in hetero- and nano-structured geometries provides a powerful means of exploring the interplay between spin-dependent transport and nanoscale magnetism. We describe two recent studies in this context. First, we use spin-dependent transport in ferromagnetic semiconductor thin films to provide a new window into nanoscale magnetism [1]: here, we exploit the large anomalous Hall effect in a ferromagnetic semiconductor as a nanoscale probe of the reversible elastic behavior of magnetic domain walls and gain insight into regimes of domain wall behavior inaccessible to more conventional optical techniques. Next, we describe novel ways to create self-assembled hybrid semiconductor/ferromagnet core-shell nanowires [2] and show how magnetoresistance measurements in single nanowires, coupled with micromagnetic simulations, can provide detailed insights into the magnetization reversal process in nanoscale ferromagnets [3]. The work described here was carried out in collaboration with Andrew Balk, Jing Liang, Nicholas Dellas, Mark Nowakowski, David Rench, Mark Wilson, Roman Engel-Herbert, Suzanne Mohney, Peter Schiffer and David Awschalom. This work is supported by ONR, NSF and the NSF-MRSEC program.[4pt] [1] A. L. Balk et al., Phys. Rev.Lett. 107, 077205 (2011).[0pt] [2] N. J. Dellas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 072505 (2010).[0pt] [3] J. Liang et al., in preparation.

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from moss, lycophyte and vascular plant lineages reveals that GRAS genes arose and underwent substantial diversification in the ancestral lineage common to bryophytes and vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric M

    2011-06-01

    GRAS genes are a large family of streptophyte specific transcription factors that function in a diverse set of physiological and developmental processes. GRAS proteins of the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) sub-family are required for maintenance of shoot and root indeterminacy. The transcriptional targets of HAM proteins and the signaling inputs regulating HAM activity are completely unknown. Understanding the relationship of HAM proteins to other members of the GRAS family may inform hypotheses relating to cellular level HAM functions. I here report a phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins employing the complete set of known and probable GRAS proteins from the sequenced genomes of the flowering plants Arabidopsis and Rice, the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, and the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. HAM proteins are most closely related to DELLA proteins, key components of gibberellin perception. However, GRAS proteins diversified into a minimum of twelve discreet monophyletic lineages, including the HAM and DELLA subfamilies, prior to divergence of the moss and flowering plant lineages. Substantial diversification of GRAS proteins at so early a point in land plant evolution suggests that relative relatedness sequence homology among GRAS proteins sub-families may not substantially reflect shared protein function. 

  17. Klamath Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 13 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The Klamath Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 47,791 km2 (18,452 mi2) of the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is flanked by the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, the Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion to the south, the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions to the east, and the Willamette Valley Ecoregion to the north. The mild Mediterranean climate of the ecoregion is characterized by hot, dry summers and wet winters; the amount of winter moisture varies within the ecoregion, decreasing from west to east. The Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region is widely recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot (Whittaker, 1960; Kruckeberg, 1984; Wagner, 1997; DellaSala and others, 1999), containing more than 3,500 plant species, more than 200 of which are endemic (Sawyer, 2007). A biological assessment by DellaSala and others (1999) ranked the Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region as the fifth richest coniferous forest in terms of species diversity. In addition, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature considers the region an area of notable botanical importance (Wagner, 1997). Twenty-nine different species of conifers can be found in the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion (Sawyer, 1996).

  18. Heaven and Earth - `Madonne col Bambino' and `Rustiques figulines'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouquillon, A.

    Analyses of the productions of della Robbia and Palissy, two masters of Renaissance ceramics in France and in Italy, have enlightened their contributions to the improvement of the glazed terracotta technique. Della Robbia used very homogeneous materials: marly clay for the bodies, and tin-opacified coloured glazes. The technique is here very robust and very mastered. Palissy used different types of clay with different colours and physical properties, associated with specific productions. So far, we have identified seven pastes. Concerning the glazes, he played with transparency and opacity, with lead glazes and with tin-opacified lead glazes. He added traditional colouring oxides as well as specific pigments (lead-tin yellow, haematite, etc.). The mixed-earth technique is specific to his palette. So, the materials used by both artists are completely different and illustrate their different philosophical approaches. To perform the different analyses, new methodologies have been developed: ICP/AES-MS, petrography and X-ray diffractometry for the bodies, PIXE and micro-PIXE, SEM coupled with EDS and Raman spectrometry for the glazes.

  19. Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Baoini, D.; Conway, S. J.; Dohm, J. M.; Kargel, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Thermokarst, mantling and Late Amazonian Epoch periglacial-revisions in the Argyre region, Mars R.J. Soare(1), D. Baioni(2), S.J. Conway (3), J.M. Dohm(4)and J.S. Kargel (5)(1) Geography Department, Dawson College, Montreal, Canada H3Z 1A4 rsoare@dawsoncollege.qc.ca.(2) Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra,della Vita e Ambiente, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo", Campus SOGESTA, 61029 Urbino (PU) Italy. (3) Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, MK7 6AA. (4) The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-, Japan.(5) Department of Hydrology & Water Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA 85719.1.Introduction Metre to decametre-deep depressions that are rimless, relatively flat-floored, polygonised and scallop-shaped have been widely observed in Utopia Planitia (UP) [e.g. 1-5] and Malea Planum (MP) [6-8]. Although there is some debate about whether the depressions formed by means of sublimation or evaporation, it is commonly believed that the terrain in which the depressions occur is ice-rich.Moreover, most workers assume that this "ice-richness" is derived of a bi-hemispheric, latitudinally-dependent and atmospherically-precipitated mantle that is metres thick [2,4,6-10].

  20. How do the media affect public perception of climate change and geohazards? An Italian case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquaré, Federico A.; Oppizzi, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    This paper uses a combination of a qualitative approach and a quantitative, software-based approach to explore the Italian print media construction of climate change and geohazards between 2007 and 2010. We have broken down our analysis in two sections: the first one deals with the coverage of climate change; the second one focuses on the media representation of hydrogeological hazards and extreme events in Italy. Our software-based, qualitative and quantitative analysis of 1253 storylines from two major Italian broadsheets (the La Repubblica and the Corriere della Sera) has enabled us to assess the presence of typical journalistic frames such as conflict and dramatization, as well as newly-introduced ones such as "prevention vs damages", and "weather vs climate". Our results show that the two newspapers appear to have different "agendas" that might have different impacts on their own readerships: the La Repubblica has been on the forefront of forging a broad public consensus on the need for actions aimed at tackling climate change, whereas the Corriere della Sera has gradually built a journalistic agenda aimed at minimizing the urgency of the climate change problem. As regards the media's representation of hydrogeological hazards, we have confirmed what assessed by previous research, i.e. that Italian journalists still prefer to focus on damages rather than prevention; on a better note, the tendency of the Italian press to confuse weather with climate, blaming climate change for extreme rainfalls causing landslides and floods, has decreased in the last four years.

  1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and concomitant diseases Effectiveness of the single step treatment.

    PubMed

    Caglià, Pietro; Tracia, Angelo; Amodeo, Luca; Tracia, Lucio; Amodeo, Corrado; Veroux, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Con il diffondersi della chirurgia video-laparoscopica si è posto in maniera crescente il problema di dover affrontare più patologie addominali coesistenti. La colecistectomia laparoscopica, in particolare, è stata spesso associata ad altre procedure laparoscopiche quali appendicectomia, splenectomia, ernioplastica o laparoplastica, interventi ginecologici ed altri. Sono stati esaminati retrospettivamente i dati relativi a 23 pazienti sottoposti a colecistectomia video-laparoscopica simultaneamente ad altri interventi. Solo di 19 pazienti è stato possibile raccogliere tutte le notizie cliniche necessarie alla valutazione. La colelitiasi rappresentava la prima patologia in 11 pazienti. La colecistectomia laparoscopica è stata associata a 1 fundoplicatio sec. Nissen, 1 adrenalectomia destra, 6 ernioplasiche inguinali, 2 laparoplastiche, 1 asportazione di cisti ovarica. In altre 8 pazienti (4 appendiciti sub-acute o croniche, 1 cisti endometrioide ovarica, 1 dermoide ovarico, 2 varicoceli sx) la calcolosi della colecisti è stata diagnosticata come patologia concomitante e trattata simultaneamente con il consenso del paziente. Tutti gli interventi sono stati eseguiti in anestesia generale e dallo stesso team. Nonostante il limitato numero di pazienti inclusi nella nostra serie, i risultati sono simili a quelli riportati da altri Autori. Il lieve aumento dei tempi operatori, rilevato durante le procedure chirurgiche associate, viene compensato dall’innegabile vantaggio di una singola esposizione all’anestesia e di una unica degenza ospedaliera. Particolare attenzione va comunque riservata alla valutazione dei fattori di rischio relativi ai singoli pazienti.

  2. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  3. Spreading and autoecology of the invasive species Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta) in the lagoons of the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfriso, A.; Wolf, M. A.; Maistro, S.; Sciuto, K.; Moro, I.

    2012-12-01

    Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss, an invasive Rhodophyta recently recorded in the Po Delta lagoons (May 2008), was also found in the Venice lagoon in March 2009 and successively in Pialassa della Baiona (Emilia-Romagna Region) in May 2009. The species has colonized the eutrophic and confined areas of Venice by pleustophytic tangled populations (5-15 kg fwt m-2), replacing the allochthonous species whereas it is absent in the areas characterized by low nutrient availability and high water exchange. In contrast, in the Po Delta lagoons and in Pialassa della Baiona it is present everywhere, also with high water renewal, because of the eutrophication caused by the Po river and the industrial area of Ravenna. This study presents the autoecology and distribution of G. vermiculophylla in the above environments, according to their different eutrophication status, showing its relationship with physico-chemical parameters and nutrient concentrations in water column, pore-water, surface sediments and particulate matter collected by traps in a station of the Venice lagoon (Teneri) sampled monthly during one year. Furthermore, we give new information on its morphology and the high dimorphism between female and male gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

  4. Extra-anatomic iliac to superior mesenteric artery bypass after bridge endovascular treatment for chronic mesenteric ischemia. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bajardi, Guido; Pakeliani, David; Dinoto, Ettore; Bracale, Umberto M; Pecoraro, Felice

    2015-07-03

    Un uomo di 60 anni con ischemia mesenterica cronica (CMI) è stato trattato con una terapia ‘bridge’ verso una terapia di chirurgia open tradizionale, mediante stenting dell’arteria mesenterica superiore (SMA). Al follow-up a 5 mesi lo stent della SMA è andato incontro ad occlusione. Durante questo periodo ‘bridge’ il paziente ha migliorato le sue condizioni generali e il suo indice di massa corporea (BMI) è incrementato da 18 a 22. Il paziente è stato sottoposto successivamente ad intervento chirurgico di bypass iliaco-SMA in configurazione ‘Cloop’. Al follow-up a 6 mesi il bypass è pervio, il paziente non riferisce sintomatologia di CMI ed il suo BMI è di 25. Il trattamento endovascolare non ha precluso una successiva riparazione chirurgica e può essere impiegato in maniera sicura come terapia ‘bridge’. Un miglioramento delle condizioni cliniche, anche durante un limitato periodo ‘bridge’, può migliorare i risultati della terapia chirurgica tradizionale.

  5. [Risk of hemolysis in blood sampling from peripheral intravenous catheter: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Danielis, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    SCOPO. L’emolisi è uno dei fattori principali in grado di compromettere un campione di sangue. La disponibilità di un accesso venoso già posizionato spinge molti infermieri ad utilizzare questa via per il prelievo ematico, anche se è noto come questa tecnica sia associata a maggior incidenza di emolisi rispetto al prelievo con ago diretto. L’intento di questo lavoro è individuare gli interventi che prevengono il rischio di emolisi qualora il campione di sangue provenga da un ago cannula periferico. METODO. E’ stata condotta una revisione della letteratura attraverso la consultazione delle banche dati MEDLINE, CINAHL e Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews. RISULTATI. Sono stati selezionati 15 articoli. Fattori quali il materiale e il calibro del catetere venoso periferico (CVP), la presenza di ostruzioni, la sede anatomica, la permanenza del laccio emostatico, la difficoltà di posizionamento dell’ago cannula, il volume della provetta utilizzata e le abilità dell’operatore sono determinanti nel rischio di emolisi del campione di sangue ottenuto dalla cannula periferica. In termine di costi e di preferenze del paziente, la tecnica del prelievo ematico da CVP è da preferirsi. CONCLUSIONI. I prelievi di sangue ottenuti da cannula periferica sono associati a maggiore rischio di emolisi. Tuttavia, prelevare un campione di sangue da CVP per effettuare un’analisi e, nel contempo, ridurre il rischio di emolisi è possibile se vengono seguiti alcuni accorgimenti.

  6. Pumping characteristics of metal films in a vacuum glass vessel: Experimental and theoretical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonucci, Antonio; Giannantonio, Roberto; Carretti, Corrado; Longoni, Giorgo; Caterino, Anna Lisa; Urbano, Marco

    2004-07-01

    The evaluation of the pumping characteristics of metallic films deposited onto glass surfaces in a vacuum environment is a very important issue for several industrial and research applications. Many years ago, an optimized experimental setup and method were defined to measure the pumping characteristics of barium films inside cathode ray tubes (CRTs). [P. della Porta and F. Ricca, Advances in Vacuum Science and Technology (Pergamon, New York, 1960), Vol. II, p. 661 and P. della Porta and L. Michon, Vacuum 15, 536 (1965)]. However, some technological limitations, related both to the particular experimental configuration and to the method used, prevented the possibility of extending this approach to a more general case, including adsorbing materials different from barium, deposited onto surfaces having a geometry different from that of a CRT. The progress in vacuum technology makes it possible today to use a large variety of components to assemble an experimental vacuum apparatus. Moreover, the availability of powerful computational tools allows the design of the best experimental configuration for any specific purpose. In this work, an approach to the study of the pumping characteristics of an adsorbing film in a vacuum is discussed. An improved experimental configuration is described and a mathematical method, based on the angular coefficients approach, able to suitable calculate the gas distribution inside a vacuum vessel, is proposed. The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical results obtained in the case of carbon monoxide sorption onto a barium getter surface deposited into spherical glass bulbs having different dimensions is discussed. .

  7. Nurses: advocating, leading, caring!

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    This speech was delivered on 27 October at the 2012 Conference and general meeting of the Italian Nurses Association CNAI (Consociazione nazionale delle Associazioni infermiere/i) held in Rome from 25 to 27 October 2012. The theme of the conference was "No Nurses No Future". The "No Nurses No Future" is a national campaign developed by the nurses of the Italian Nurses Association to fight for the rights of the profession to sustain not only the practice of the nurse, strong nursing education, research and regulation, but more importantly to ensure that in the future there will be enough nurses in the healthcare workforce to advocate, lead and care for the citizens of Italy.Italian nurses took advantage of the presence of prof. Ferguson and, before travelling to Rome, the Region Lombardy IPASVI Colleges (Coordinamento dei Collegi IPASVI della regione Lombardia) invited her to talk on the same topic during a jointed Conference with CNAI at Circolo della Stampa of Milan on 23rd October.

  8. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari. PMID:27183512

  9. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Hu, Jianhong; Yusuke, Jikumaru; Jung, Byunghyuck; Paik, Inyup; Lee, Hee-Seung; Sun, Tai-ping; Kamiya, Yuji; Choi, Giltsu

    2007-04-01

    Previous work showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5 (PIL5), a light-labile basic helix-loop-helix protein, inhibits seed germination by repressing GIBBERELLIN 3beta-HYDROXYLASE1 (GA3ox1) and GA3ox2 and activating a gibberellic acid (GA) catabolic gene (GA2ox2). However, we show persistent light-dependent and PIL5-inhibited germination behavior in the absence of both de novo GA biosynthesis and deactivation by GA2ox2, suggesting that PIL5 regulates not only GA metabolism but also GA responsiveness. PIL5 increases the expression of two GA repressor (DELLA) genes, GA-INSENSITIVE (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA/RGA1), in darkness. The hypersensitivity of gai-t6 rga-28 to red light and the suppression of germination defects of a rga-28 PIL5 overexpression line show the significant role of this transcriptional regulation in seed germination. PIL5 also increases abscisic acid (ABA) levels by activating ABA biosynthetic genes and repressing an ABA catabolic gene. PIL5 binds directly to GAI and RGA promoters but not to GA and ABA metabolic gene promoters. Together, our results show that light signals perceived by phytochromes cause a reduction in the PIL5 protein level, which in turn regulates the transcription of two DELLA genes directly and that of GA and ABA metabolic genes indirectly.

  10. Transgenic modification of gai or rg/1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Busov, V.; Meilan, R; Pearce, D; Rood, s; Ma, C; Strauss, S

    2006-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain. Through transgenic modification, we found that DELLA-less versions of GAI (gai) and RGL1 (rgl1) in a Populus tree have profound, dominant effects on phenotype, producing pleiotropic changes in morphology and metabolic profiles. Shoots were dwarfed, likely via constitutive repression of GA-induced elongation, whereas root growth was promoted two- to threefold in vitro. Applied GA{sub 3} inhibited adventitious root production in wild-type poplar, but gai/rgl1 poplars were unaffected by the inhibition. The concentrations of bioactive GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 4} in leaves of gai- and rgl1-expressing plants increased 12- to 64-fold, while the C{sub 19} precursors of GA{sub 1} (GA{sub 53}, GA{sub 44} and GA{sub 19}) decreased three- to ninefold, consistent with feedback regulation of GA 20-oxidase in the transgenic plants. The transgenic modifications elicited significant metabolic changes. In roots, metabolic profiling suggested increased respiration as a possible mechanism of the increased root growth. In leaves, we found metabolite changes suggesting reduced carbon flux through the lignin biosynthetic pathway and a shift towards allocation of secondary storage and defense metabolites, including various phenols, phenolic glucosides, and phenolic acid conjugates.

  11. Comparison of signaling interactions determining annual and perennial plant growth in response to low temperature

    PubMed Central

    Wingler, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature inhibits plant growth despite the fact that considerable rates of photosynthetic activity can be maintained. Instead of lower rates of photosynthesis, active inhibition of cell division and expansion is primarily responsible for reduced growth. This results in sink limitation and enables plants to accumulate carbohydrates that act as compatible solutes or are stored throughout the winter to enable re-growth in spring. Regulation of growth in response to temperature therefore requires coordination with carbon metabolism, e.g., via the signaling metabolite trehalose-6-phosphate. The phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) play an important role in regulating growth in response to temperature. Growth restriction at low temperature is mainly mediated by DELLA proteins, whose degradation is promoted by GA. For annual plants, it has been shown that the GA/DELLA pathway interacts with JA signaling and C-repeat binding factor dependent cold acclimation, but these interactions have not been explored in detail for perennials. Growth regulation in response to seasonal factors is, however, particularly important in perennials, especially at high latitudes. In autumn, growth cessation in trees is caused by shortening of the daylength in interaction with phytohormone signaling. In perennial grasses seasonal differences in the sensitivity to GA may enable enhanced growth in spring. This review provides an overview of the signaling interactions that determine plant growth at low temperature and highlights gaps in our knowledge, especially concerning the seasonality of signaling responses in perennial plants. PMID:25628637

  12. Three models intercomparison for Quantitative Precipitation Forecast over Calabria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, S.; Avolio, E.; Bellecci, C.; Colacino, M.; Lavagnini, A.; Accadia, C.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.

    2004-11-01

    In the framework of the National Project “Sviluppo di distretti industriali per le Osservazioni della Terra” (Development of Industrial Districts for Earth Observations) funded by MIUR (Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca Scientifica --Italian Ministry of the University and Scientific Research) two operational mesoscale models were set-up for Calabria, the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula. Models are RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and MM5 (Mesoscale Modeling 5) that are run every day at Crati scrl to produce weather forecast over Calabria (http://www.crati.it). This paper reports model intercomparison for Quantitative Precipitation Forecast evaluated for a 20 month period from 1th October 2000 to 31th May 2002. In addition to RAMS and MM5 outputs, QBOLAM rainfall fields are available for the period selected and included in the comparison. This model runs operationally at “Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici”. Forecasts are verified comparing models outputs with raingauge data recorded by the regional meteorological network, which has 75 raingauges. Large-scale forcing is the same for all models considered and differences are due to physical/numerical parameterizations and horizontal resolutions. QPFs show differences between models. Largest differences are for BIA compared to the other considered scores. Performances decrease with increasing forecast time for RAMS and MM5, whilst QBOLAM scores better for second day forecast.

  13. Surgical strategies for cutaneous neoplasm of the scalp. State of art.

    PubMed

    Vitagliano, Tiziana; Greco, Manfredi; Dessy, Luca Andrea; Atzeni, Matteo; Ciriaco, Antonio Greto; Ribuffo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    La ricostruzione dello scalpo è sempre stato un compito arduo ed una sfida, in particolare dopo una demolizione oncologica, e questo articolo offre una visione globale dello stato dell’arte sulle strategie ricostruttive. A questo scopo abbiamo elaborato un algoritmo sistematico per la ricostruzione dello scalpo basato sulla sede e l’estensione del difetto, la presenza o meno del periostio, il coinvolgimento osseo, la qualità dello scalpo circostante, la presenza o meno dei capelli, la localizzazione della linea del capillifero, le comorbilità del paziente e le differenti procedure comunemente usate in chirurgia plastica. Come risultato il nostro algoritmo consente ai chirurghi plastici di procedere alla ricostruzione dello scalpo dopo i difetti più devastanti, ed il successo della ricostruzione richiede una attenta pianificazione preoperatoria ed un approfondita conoscenza dell’anatomia dello scalpo, la fisiologia dei capelli, la varietà dei tessuti localmente disponibili e le procedure di chirurgia plastica, come pure la conoscenza dei sostituiti sintetici e dei prodotti forniti dall’ingegneria tissutale. La sfida attuale è comunque quella di ottenere risultati cosmetici di eccellenza, di cui sono esempio i cinque casi dell’iconografia.

  14. Calibrazioni a terra e prestazioni in volo di spettrometri ad immagine nel visibile e nel vicino infrarosso per l'esplorazione planetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, Gianrico

    2006-10-01

    progettuale e realizzativa dei parametri e de lle prestazioni strumentali; in generale infatti non solo sarà necessario mantenere le dimensioni, il peso, i consumi elettrici ed il data-volume entro i requisiti disponibili del satellite ma anche ottimizzare i disegni ottici, meccanici ed elettronici al fine di ottenere le massime prestazioni possibili in funzione della natura del target osservato e dei parametri orbitali della missione. Questa tesi descrive i metodi utilizzati per caratterizzare il funzionamento di spettrometri ad immagine per l’esplorazione planetaria. L’attività svolta ha riguardato sia la misura in laboratorio dei parametri strumentali fondamentali sia l’analisi dei dati in volo su cui verificarne ed eventualmente correggerne la risposta. Il funzionamento degli strumenti e la metodologia di calibrazione vengono descritti nelle due parti principali e nelle appendici di questa tesi per gli esperimenti Cassini-VIMS-V e Rosetta-VIRTIS-M. La prima parte è dedicata all’esperimento VIMS-V sul satellite Cassini, il cui disegno ottico, originariamente proposto da Francis Reininger, verrà successivamente riutilizzato e perfezionato su VIRTIS-M (Reininger et al., 1994; Miller et al., 1996). Il capitolo 1 contiene una descrizione dei parametri ottici, strutturali, termici ed elettronici di VIMS-V mettendone in risalto gli aspetti più innovativi del progetto. Vengono inoltre descritti la collocazione dell’esperimento sul satellite Cassini, il coallineamento con gli altri strumenti di remote sensing, i possibili modi operativi ed il formato dei dati scientifici. Il capitolo 2 riguarda il processo di calibrazione ed analisi dei dati in volo di VIMS-V. La procedura eseguita per calibrare radiometricamente lo strumento utilizzando i dati della superficie della Luna e per stimare il flat-field mediante i dati dell’atmosfera di Venere viene dettagliatamente descritta assieme agli algoritmi utilizzati per la rimozione di diversi effetti strumentali (read

  15. INFEZIONI VIRALI CONGENITE, PERINATALI E NEONATALI VIRAL INFECTIONS OF THE FETUS AND NEWBORN INFANT

    PubMed Central

    Tremolada, Sara; Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Riassunto Alcuni virus possono essere trasmessi verticalmente da madre a figlio in seguito allo sviluppo, da parte della madre, di un’infezione primaria, ricorrente o cronica. La trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, che può avvenire in utero (infezione congenita), durante il travaglio del parto (infezione perinatale), oppure attraverso l’allattamento (infezione postnatale), può causare aborto spontaneo, morte fetale, ritardo di crescita intrauterino, anomalie congenite e patologie neonatali o postnatali di diversa entità. Alcuni fattori di rischio sembrano influenzare l’incidenza di trasmissione materno-fetale dei virus, come ad esempio la presenza di altre infezioni virali, la carica virale materna, il tipo di infezione (primaria o ricorrente), la durata della rottura delle membrane, la modalità con cui avviene il parto, le condizioni socio-economiche e l’allattamento. Oggi è possibile prevenire la trasmissione materno-fetale di molti virus grazie all’utilizzo di vaccini, immunizzazione passiva e farmaci antivirali. Il rischio di trasmissione delle infezioni perinatali e postnatali, inoltre, può essere diminuito evitando l’allattamento o ricorrendo ad un parto cesareo. PMID:19216201

  16. The LuNa project: experimental didactic modules exploiting portable setups to teach optics in primary and secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondani, Maria; Allevi, Alessia; Nardo, Luca; Favale, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    The "LuNa" (La natura della Luce nella luce della Natura - The nature of Light in the light of Nature) Project is devoted to the experimental teaching of optics in the different school grades. The basic idea of the Project is that the history of optics and the debate about the nature of light are a meaningful example of how science proceeds in the development of a physical model. Moreover optical phenomena can be presented at different levels of complexity in order to be accessible to students of different age. At the core of the Project are several portable setups that support experimental and partially interactive lectures covering all the aspects of optical phenomena, from geometrical optics to single-photon interference passing through atmospheric optics, spectroscopy, holography and theory of perception. When possible, the setups are realized with simple and easy to find materials so as to be reproducible by teachers and students. Of course, for the most complicated setups (interferometers and holography) research materials are used. Each module is calibrated to fit teachers' requirements either to be included in the curricula of their classes or to be used as an expansion of the optics program.

  17. Clinical and diagnostic problems of desmoid-type fibromatosis of the mesentery: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    La Greca, Gaetano; Santangelo, Antonio; Primo, Stefano; Sofia, Maria; Latteri, Saverio; Russello, Domenico; Magro, Gaetano

    2014-12-12

    In accordo con la “World Health Organization”, il tumore desmoide viene definito come una “proliferazione di tipo clonale dei fibroblasti che origina dai tessuti molli posti più in profondità e che risulta essere caratterizzata da una crescita infiltrante con la tendenza a dare delle recidive locali ma con l’incapacità di metastatizzare”. Noi riportiamo il caso di una giovane donna di 33 anni che presentava una sintomatologia aspecifica, con la presenza di una massa palpabile in sede addominale. La prima diagnosi, eseguita in altra Unità Operativa con US, evidenziava una neoformazione classificata come Leiomioma uterino. Il reperto intraoperatorio durante intervento di isterectomia evidenziava, invece, una neoformazione a partenza dal mesentere. L’esecuzione di due esami bioptici estemporanei non ha portato a nessuna diagnosi di certezza. Veniva quindi eseguita una resezione “en bloc”, allargata con criteri oncologici, della massa, comprendendo digiuno, ileo e colon destro. La diagnosi istologica definitiva è stata poi di Tumore Desmoide. La revisione della letteratura condotta con 25 casi di tumore desmoide del mesentere, ha confermato definitivamente come la diagnosi è molto difficile e quasi mai disponibile prima o durante l’intervento chirurgico. Appare quindi chiaro che la prima scelta di trattamento di questa neoplasia rimane quella chirurgica con margini di resezione R0, pur esistendo la possibilità di un trattamento conservativo farmacologico o radioterapico. Il trattamento del Tumore Desmoide rimane comunque difficile e richiede esperienza ed collaborazione interdisciplinare.

  18. Single port VATS resection of a sessile solitary fibrous tumour of the visceral pleura. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mazzella, Antonio; Izzo, Alessandro; Amore, Dario; Cennamo, Antonio; Cerqua, Francesco Saverio; Perrotta, Fabio

    2015-09-24

    Il tumore fibroso solitario della pleura viscerale è una neoplasia rara che deriva dalle cellule mesenchimali adiacenti al tessuto mesoteliali di pleura. La resezione chirurgica è il trattamento di scelta nelle sia nelle lesione benigne che maligne. La recidiva locale può essere il risultato di una chirurgia incompleta o conservatrice, di una mancanza di identificazione dei lembi del tumore durante l’operazione o di crescita di una neoplasia sincrona indipendente da quello rimossa. La resezione chirurgica è anche gravata da qualche difficoltà come la dimensione del tumore, il rapporto con le strutture anatomiche viciniori e la identificazione del peduncolo vascolare. Riportiamo un caso di un uomo di 72 anni con un tumore fibroso solitario sessile della pleura viscerale. Il paziente è stato trattato mediante videotoracoscopia con approccio uniportale. Questo caso, rappresenta una resezione in VATS uniportale di un SFTP sessile con ampia base di impianto. In letteratura, solo due casi di SFTP sono stati trattati mediante approccio uniportale. In tutti i due casi, il tumore era piccolo (4x3 cm nel primo, nel secondo 33 x 22mm) e peduncolato. Nel nostro caso, si parla di un STFP di dimensioni maggiore, sessile e con larga base di impianto. I vantaggi dell’approccio uniportale rispetto alla tradizionale VATS triportale sono la riduzione del dolore post-operatorio, la minore durata di utilizzo dei tubi di drenaggio, la ridotta degenza ospedaliera ed un miglior risultato estetico.

  19. [Correlation between the use of sodium bicarbonate and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterms].

    PubMed

    García-Pasquel, María José; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: nacer prematuro conlleva riesgos, como la posibilidad de sufrir hemorragia intraventricular. El 90 % de los casos se presenta dentro de los primeros 4 a 7 días; Se ha relacionado el uso de bicarbonato de sodio con su aparición. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar si el uso de bicarbonato en infusión continua, en las primeras 24 horas, aumenta el riesgo de hemorragia intraventricular. Métodos: cohorte retrospectiva, se revisaron 160 expedientes formándose 2 grupos: uno sin y otro con uso de bicarbonato. Posteriormente, el grupo con uso se dividió en dos: uso terapéutico y profiláctico. Resultados: Del total de los prematuros, 10 % presentaron hemorragia intraventricular, tenían un peso promedio de 1,500 g y una edad gestacional promedio de 31 semanas. La incidencia fue idéntica entre los grupos, aunque en el grupo con bicarbonato había pacientes más prematuros, y clínicamente más inestables. Se realizó una regresión logística donde se observó asociación entre la incidencia de hemorragia intraventricular y el peso al nacimiento (OR de 0.99); así como en el caso del uso de bicarbonato de sodio con una OR 1.22. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos indican la necesidad de evaluación sistemática del uso de bicarbonato, con el fin de determinar si los beneficios sobrepasan el riesgo de hemorragia intraventricular.

  20. Predictive value of time-intensity curves obtained with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the follow-up of 30 patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Giangregorio, F; Bertone, A; Fanigliulo, L; Comparato, G; Aragona, G; Marinone, M G; Sbolli, G; Tansini, P; Fornari, F

    2009-12-01

    Sommario OBIETTIVI: La CEUS è in grado di quantificare accuratamente la microvascolarizzazione della parete intestinale nel Crohn. IPOTESI: L'infiammazione della parete intestinale non è correlata con la quantità di parete vascolarizzata (studi di pattern di vascolarizzazione - SPV), ma con il grado di flusso di parete durante un periodo di tempo (studi di intensità-tempo - SIT). Obiettivo è stato capire se gli studi SPV o quelli SIT con CEUS fossero espressione dell'infiammazione vascolare della parete intestinale e fossero correlabili con l'attività clinica di malattia (T0) o nel follow-up (tre e sei mesi: T3, T6). MATERIALI E METODI: 30 Crohn (M: 12; F: 18; età media: 41,96; terapia: 8 Pts 5-ASA; 13 steroide; 7 ANTI-TNF; 2 azatioprina) sono stati seguiti per almeno sei mesi e studiati con CEUS SPV e con CEUS SIT. È stato utilizzato come mezzo di contrasto il SonoVue (BR1, Bracco) e un ecografo dedicato (TECHNOS MPX, Esaote) con software per curve di time intensity. Quattro pattern vascolari (1: tutta la parete vascolarizzata; 2: più del 50% di parete con vascolarizzazione; 3: flusso solo all'interno della sottomucosa; 4: nessun segnale). Un'analisi semiquantitativa è stata ottenuta misurando l'area sotto la curva - AUC (cut-off tra attività ed inattività = 15), l'intensità media - MI (cut off = 10). Tutti gli esami sono stati eseguiti per 150 secondi, registrati e analizzati in modo digitale. RISULTATI: T0: cDAI <150 in 22 pts; cDAI > 150 in 8; T3: 22 pts con cDAI <150, 8 con cDAI >150. A T0 sia la CEUS SPV che la SIT hanno ottenuto bassa specificità, accuratezza diagnostica e valore predittivo negativo (p = ns); la CEUS SPV ha dato a T0: 8 VP, 15 VN, 8 FP, 0 FN (sens: 100%; spec: 68,2%; acc diagn: 69,5%; VPP: 100%; VPN: 53,3%); la CEUS SIT ha conseguito a T0: 6 VP, 18 VN, 4 FP, 2 FN (sens: 75%; spec: 81,8%; acc diagn: 75%; VPP: 60%; VPN: 90%). La CEUS SPV ha raggiunto a T3: 8 VP, 12 VN, 7 FP, 3 FN (sens: 72,7%; spec: 63,2%; acc diagn: 50%; VPP

  1. Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Gao, H.; Zârbo, Liviu P.; Výborný, K.; Wang, Xuhui; Garate, Ion; Doǧan, Fatih; Čejchan, A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.; Manchon, Aurélien

    2015-04-01

    Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm ×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm ×(uso×m ) . Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.

  2. COBE navigation with one-way return-link Doppler in the post-helium-venting phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Joan; Nemesure, M.; Samii, M. V.; Maher, M.; Teles, Jerome; Jackson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a navigation experiment with one way return link Doppler tracking measurements for operational orbit determination of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft are presented. The frequency of the tracking signal for the one way measurements was stabilized with an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO), and the signal was relayed by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The study achieved three objectives: space qualification of TDRSS noncoherent one way return link Doppler tracking; determination of flight performance of the USO coupled to the second generation TDRSS compatible user transponder; and verification of algorithms for navigation using actual one way tracking data. Orbit determination and the inflight USO performance evaluation results are presented.

  3. A numerical technique for two-way radio occultations by oblate axisymmetric atmospheres with zonal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schinder, P. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Marouf, E. A.; French, R. G.; Anabtawi, A.; Barbinis, E.; Kliore, A. J.

    2015-07-01

    The Ultra Stable Oscillator aboard the Cassini spacecraft failed in late 2011, which means that all radio occultations after that date have to be done in two-way mode, using a ground-based signal transmitted to the spacecraft as the frequency reference. Here we present the numerical technique we use to analyze the data from the two-way atmospheric radio occultations of both Saturn and Titan that have occurred since the Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) failure, along with the theoretical reasons behind this technique. Since our two-way technique is based upon our earlier one-way technique which used the USO as the frequency reference, we also present our one-way technique which we used for Saturn occultations prior to the loss of the USO.

  4. Less is more: "incision and curettage" as an optimal procedure for recurrent pilonidal disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Uygar; Yazici, Pinar; Bostanci, Ozgur; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Riza Gurhan; T Mihmanli, Mehme

    2015-01-01

    Sebbene il sinus pilonidalis sia una patologia ben conosciuta da più di un secolo, la recidiva dopo trattamento non è per questo diventata rara, ed è in discussione quale sia il miglior trattamento chirurgico in tali casi. Con il presente studio si è cercato di valutare l’efficacia di un trattamento caratterizzato da incisione e curettage. Tra maggio 2009 e maggio 2013 abbiamo sottoposto a trattamento chirurgico 42 pazienti (37 uomini e 5 donne) ad un trattamento chirurgico per sinus pilonidalis recidivo. In tutti i casi è stata eseguita un’incisione chirurgica ed il curettage del tessuto di granulazione, con asportazione dei peli e dei detriti. La documentazione comprende i dati demografici, il punteggio secondo la scala analogica visiva (VAS), la durata della degenza ospedialiera, il ritorno alle attività quotidiane (decubito e stazione seduta normale), il ritorno al lavoro ed il tempo totale di guarigione della ferita. La durata media dell’intervento è stata di 16.6±4.7 minuti (da 10 a 24). Il punteggio medio del dolore è stato di 1.4±1.1 (compreso tra 0 e 5) calcolato con VAS. Il tempo medio per il ritorno alle attività quotidiane come il decubito normale, la stazione seduta ed il ritorno al lavoro è stato rispettivamente di 1.6±0.8 giorni (tra 1 e 4), di 3.3±2.3 giorni (tra 1 e15) e di 10.2±5.4 giorni (tra 5 e 33). Il tempo medio di guarigione della ferita è stato di 19.9±7.8 giorni (tra 7 e 52). Durante i successivi tre anni di follow-up non è stata osservata alcuna recidiva. L’incisione e il curettage può essere utilizzato come trattamento di prima istanza in caso di sinus pilonidalis ricorrente. Non richiede una particolare abilità chirurgica è può essere realizzato in tempi brevi. Questa semplice opzione chirurgica consente una degenza breve, un rapido ritorno alle attività quotidiane, oltre al gradimento ed alla soddisfazione dei pazienti.

  5. Federico di Montefeltro's hyperkyphosis: a visual-historical case report

    PubMed Central

    D'Antoni, Anthony V; Terzulli, Stephanie L

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The literature contains several publications describing the use of visual arts to develop observational skills in medical students. Portraits of individuals of the Italian Renaissance can be used to enhance these skills and stimulate the development of differential diagnoses in medical students. The Duke of Urbino, Federico di Montefeltro (1422–1482), lost his right eye and nasal bridge during a jousting accident in 1450. Consequently, almost every profile of him in existence today depicts his face in a left lateral view. Although some authors have described the Duke's missing nasal bridge, none have described his prominent thoracic hyperkyphosis, which is clearly discernible in two paintings by Piero della Francesca. The purpose of this report is to describe the Duke's hyperkyphosis, develop relevant differential diagnoses, and suggest a possible etiology of the convexity. Case presentation We have examined two paintings of the Duke by Piero della Francesca – the diptych, The Duke and Duchess of Urbino (1465), and the Madonna of the Egg (1472). A MEDLINE search revealed 2 articles that were relevant to this study. This search was complemented by a search of the collection at the library of Seton Hall University, and the first author's experience studying at the University of Urbino. The historical data obtained from these searches were incorporated with the visual analysis to formulate a plausible etiology of the Duke's thoracic hyperkyphosis. Conclusion Differential diagnoses of the Duke's thoracic hyperkyphosis include Scheuermann disease, osteoporosis, and trauma-related spinal changes. Based on the available evidence, the Duke's thoracic hyperkyphosis could have been caused by repetitive trauma to the spine due to numerous hours on horseback with heavy armor. The role that osteoporosis played in the development of the hyperkyphosis is unclear, as is whether the Duke had the convexity during childhood. The hyperkyphosis as a stylistic variant

  6. Impact of nutrition since early life on cardiovascular prevention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease represents the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western countries and it is related to the atherosclerotic process. Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity, accelerate the atherosclerotic process which begins in childhood and progresses throughout the life span. The cardiovascular disease risk factor detection and management through prevention delays the atherosclerotic progression towards clinical cardiovascular disease. Dietary habits, from prenatal nutrition, breastfeeding, complementary feeding to childhood and adolescence nutrition play a basic role for this topic. The metabolic and neuroendocrine environment of the fetus is fundamental in the body’s “metabolic programming”. Further several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of breastfeeding on cardiovascular risk factors reduction. Moreover the introduction of complementary foods represents another important step, with particular regard to protein intake. An adequate distribution between macronutrients (lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) is required for correct growth development from infancy throughout adolescence and for prevention of several cardiovascular disease risk determinants in adulthood. The purpose of this review is to examine the impact of nutrition since early life on disease. La malattia cardiovascolare rappresenta la principale causa di morbilità e mortalità dei paesi occidentali ed è correlata a degenerazione vascolare aterosclerotica. I fattori di rischio cardiovascolari quali dislipidemia, ipertensione, insulino resistenza e obesità accelerano tale processo il cui esordio è noto sin dell’età pediatrica ed evolve nel corso della vita. L’individuazione e la cura dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari mediante la prevenzione dei fattori causali ritardano la progressione dell’aterosclerosi e l’insorgenza dei sintomi cardiovascolari. La nutrizione svolge un ruolo

  7. E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1 positively regulates SLY1-mediated GA signalling and plant development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Il; Park, Bong Soo; Kim, Do Youn; Yeu, Song Yion; Song, Sang Ik; Song, Jong Tae; Seo, Hak Soo

    2015-07-15

    Gibberellins affect various plant development processes including germination, cell division and elongation, and flowering. A large number of studies have been carried out to address the molecular mechanisms that mediate gibberellin signalling effects on plant growth. However, such studies have been limited to DELLA protein degradation; the regulatory mechanisms controlling how the stability and function of SLEEPY1 (SLY1), a protein that interacts with target DELLA proteins as components of the Skp, Cullin, F-box (SCF)(SLY1) complex, are modulated at the post-translational level have not been addressed. In the present study, we show that the E3 SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) ligase AtSIZ1 regulates gibberellic acid signalling in Arabidopsis species by sumoylating SLY1. SLY1 was less abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants, but the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 (RGA) was more abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants. SLY1 also accumulated to a high level in the SUMO protease mutant esd4. Transgenic sly1-13 mutants over-expressing SLY1 were phenotypically similar to wild-type plants; however, sly1-13 plants over-expressing a mutated mSLY1 protein (K122R, a mutation at the sumoylation site) retained the mutant dwarfing phenotype. Over-expression of SLY1 in sly1-13 mutants resulted in a return of RGA levels to wild-type levels, but RGA accumulated to high levels in mutants over-expressing mSLY1. RGA was clearly detected in Arabidopsis co-expressing AtSIZ1 and mSLY1, but not in plants co-expressing AtSIZ1 and SLY1. In addition, sumoylated SLY1 interacted with RGA and SLY1 sumoylation was significantly increased by GA. Taken together, our results indicate that, in Arabidopsis, AtSIZ1 positively controls GA signalling through SLY1 sumoylation.

  8. Post-ERCP pancreatitis. A single center experience and an update on prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Francesco; Tutino, Roberta; Battaglia, Emanuele Onofrio; Orlando, Giuseppina; Salamone, Giuseppe; Licari, Leo; Gulotta, Gaspare

    2015-01-01

    La pancreatite rimane ad oggi la maggiore complicanza dell’ERCP nonostante numerose misure tese alla sua prevenzione siano state proposte negli anni. La sua incidenza è del 3.5% e raggiunge in alcune serie di casi anche il 25%; solitamente è lieve-moderata nel 90%. La stratificazione dei pazienti in base al grado di rischio è necessaria per destinare i casi più complessi a centri di terzo livello presenti nel territorio; per far questo, un’analisi dei possibili fattori di rischio è stata originariamente proposta da Freeman ed è poi stata modificata dall’ESGE sulla base dei contributi dei singoli centri, con importanti modifiche. Il presente studio analizza l’incidenza di pancreatite post- ERCP in un centro di terzo livello analizzando, sulla scorta dei fattori di rischio proposti, l’aderenza dei dati. Negli anni 2012-2013, 492 pazienti sono stati sottoposti ad ERCP da due esperti endoscopisti. Secondo le classificazioni di Freeman e Cotton sono state osservate 14 PEP (2.8%), di cui 6 lievi, 4 moderate e 4 severe. È stata condotta un’analisi multivariata che ha evidenziato come fattori di rischio l’elevato numero di tentativi di incannulamento della via biliare e l’iniezione di mezzo di contrasto nel dotto pancreatico; sono risultati fattori protettivi l’early pre-cut e il fallimento della procedura con la sua interruzione. Nella discussione sono state inoltre brevemente analizzate le varie misure profilattiche, quali il posizionamento di protesi pancreatiche e l’utilizzo dei FANS. È interessante notare come i nostri risultati rafforzino gli ultimi orientamenti nel management dell’ERCP, circa l’utilizzo della tecnica di incannulamento filo-guidato e del pre-cut; questi infatti riducono il numero di tentativi di incannulamento ed il conseguente trauma alla papilla promuovendo un incannulamento biliare selettivo e prevenendo l’iniezione di mezzo di contrasto nel dotto pancreatico. Nonostante la pancreatite sia un

  9. Laparoscopic drainage of a recurrent psoas abscess.

    PubMed

    Neola, Benedetto; D'Ambra, Michele; Capasso, Stefano; Russo, Milena; Ferulano, Giuseppe Paolo

    2014-03-28

    Negli ultimi anni, gli ascessi del muscolo ileopsoas sono stati riportati in letteratura con crescente frequenza, probabilmente a causa del largo impiego della TC nella diagnostica differenziale delle algie lombari. Qui presentiamo il caso di una paziente che ha sviluppato un ascesso dell’ileopsoas post-traumatico. Una donna di 43 anni riferiva febbre da 4 settimane, anoressia, dolore al fianco destro e alla regione lombare e difficoltà alla deambulazione. Tale sintomatologia, insorta per la prima volta 20 anni prima in seguito ad una caduta da cavallo, si ripresentava ciclicamente. Per il controllo della febbre e del dolore, la paziente assumeva una terapia antibiotica empirica. Al momento del ricovero gli esami ematochimici mostravano una moderata leucocitosi. La TC dell’addome evidenziava un grosso ascesso multiloculato dello psoas destro ed una lesione ipodensa del sesto segmento epatico. Considerando la lunga storia di infezioni ricorrenti e l’indicazione ad investigare ulteriormente la lesione epatica, si optava per il drenaggio laparoscopico della lesione: aperta completamente la parete dell’ascesso, venivano drenati 550ml di liquido purulento la cui coltura evidenziava la presenza di Stafilococco aureo. Una ecografia del fegato intraoperatoria con sonda laparoscopica escludeva la presenza di una lesione resecabile del sesto segmento epatico e ne confermava la natura infiammatoria. La paziente veniva dimessa in terza giornata operatoria con terapia antibiotica mirata sull’antibiogramma. Nè febbre, nè dolore sono stati più riferiti ai successivi controlli a 1, 6, 12 e 24 mesi dall’intervento. Molti Autori ritengono che gli ascessi dell’ileopsoas possano essere controllati con terapia antibiotica ed eventualmente attraverso il drenaggio percutaneo, riservando il drenaggio chirurgico ai casi complessi o recidivanti. Tuttavia la letteratura non chiarisce se sia da preferire il drenaggio chirurgico con accesso open o laparoscopico. Nella nostra

  10. Test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.; Anderson, John D.; Campbell, James K.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a test of the gravitational redshift effect at Saturn are reported. Measurements of the redshift were obtained with the Voyager 1 spacecraft during its encounter with Saturn in 1980. Because the spacecraft was equipped with an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO), it is possible to test the redshift effect at an interesting level of accuracy. Assuming that radiation in the Saturn magnetosphere has had a negligible effect on the USO, the prediction of general relativity to an accuracy of 1 percent is verified. This limit could be of interest for constraining possible alternative theories of gravity.

  11. Radiosounding of Jupiters Atmosphere with EJSM-Laplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, M.; Andert, T.; Häusler, B.; Keil, W.; Mai, W.; Schäfer, W.; Schwall, T.; Tellmann, S.; Tyler, G. L.

    2011-10-01

    The feasibility and performance of a radio science experiment on EJSM-Laplace for the sounding of Jupiters atmosphere and ionosphere (occultation experiment) has been studied. The experiment intends to use two downlink frequencies provided by the spacecraft radio subsystem and stabilized by an Ultrastable Oscillator (USO). Opportunities and performance based on the technical provisions and the baseline orbit will be shown. Solutions have been developed for the the hardening and shielding of the USO versus the harsh radiation in Jupiters environment. As an option or alternative an uplink experiment has been studied in parallel which may be of advantage for certain constellations.

  12. The Galileo solar redshift experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisher, Timothy P.; Morabito, David D.; Anderson, John D.

    1993-01-01

    From the October 1989 launch to the first December 1990 earth gravity assist, we regularly obtained frequency measurements of the spacecraft clock - an ultrastable crystal oscillator (USO) supplied by Frequency Electronics, Inc. The solar gravitational redshift in frequency was readily detectable, and because of the unique variations in heliocentric distance we could separate the general relativistic effects from the USO's intrinsic frequency variations. We have verified the total frequency shift predicted by general relativity to 0.5 percent accuracy, and the solar gravitational redshift to 1 percent accuracy.

  13. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  14. A geographically weighted regression model for geothermal potential assessment in mediterranean cultural landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arpa, S.; Zaccarelli, N.; Bruno, D. E.; Leucci, G.; Uricchio, V. F.; Zurlini, G.

    2012-04-01

    plan for the protection of the landscape ("Piano Urbanistico Territoriale Tematico Paesaggio"), the regional plan for the protection of water and groundwater ("Piano di Tutela delle Acque"), the regional plan of hydrogeological risk ("Piano di Assetto Idrogeologico") and the province level master-plan for the development ("Piano Territoriale di Coordinamento Provinciale"). We believe our results can be a substantial contribution for the ongoing regional debate on the exploitation of geothermal potential as well as an important knowledge base for the integration of such topic in the new regional energetic and environmental plan ("Piano Energetico Ambientale Regionale").

  15. Using the Stereotype Content Model to examine group depictions in Fascism: An Archival Approach

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Federica; Volpato, Chiara; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    The Stereotype Content Model (SCM) suggests potentially universal intergroup depictions. If universal, they should apply across history in archival data. Bridging this gap, we examined social groups descriptions during Italy’s Fascist era. In Study 1, articles published in a Fascist magazine— La Difesa della Razza —were content analyzed, and results submitted to correspondence analysis. Admiration prejudice depicted ingroups; envious and contemptuous prejudices depicted specific outgroups, generally in line with SCM predictions. No paternalistic prejudice appeared; historical reasons might explain this finding. Results also fit the recently developed BIAS Map of behavioral consequences. In Study 2, ninety-six undergraduates rated the content-analysis traits on warmth and competence, without knowing their origin. They corroborated SCM’s interpretations of the archival data. PMID:24403646

  16. Image restoration of the office of the Vice President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, John F.

    1994-09-01

    The techniques of digital computer image processing have been employed to investigate the characteristics of paintings by the Italian master, Raphael. In particular spectral histograms have been generated for several of his paintings for individual areas such as hair, face, and garments. It was found that the palette employed by the artist does exhibit regularities. Similarly, spatial frequency histograms of like areas of his different paintings also show certain uniformities. Thus, the first steps have been taken in developing a `fingerprint' for the chromatic tonality and impasta characteristic of this artist's hand. Such information may be of use in trying to attribute controversial paintings where historical data are lacking and chemical data are ambiguous. This trial `fingerprint' has been applied to an unattributed Italian painting known as the `Madonna della Divino Amore.' Although the match to the `Raphael fingerprint' is not perfect it does offer sufficient encouragement to suggest that further investigations into the nature of its materials and its history are warranted.

  17. Policing, collective action and social movement theory: the case of the Northern Ireland civil rights campaign.

    PubMed

    Ellison, G; Martin, G

    2000-12-01

    In this paper we examine the relationship between social movements and the police through an analysis of the Civil Rights Movement (CRM) which emerged in the late 1960s in Northern Ireland. Following della Porta (1995) and Melucci (1996) we argue that the way in which episodes of collective action are policed can affect profoundly both levels of mobilization and the orientation of social movements. We also submit that the symbolic and representational dimensions of policing can be a significant trigger in the stimulation of identification processes and collective action. The paper concludes by questioning some of the assumptions contained within social movement theory, and their applicability to divided societies such as Northern Ireland.

  18. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Barbizzi, S; Calvarese, S; Fico, R; Belli, M; Sansone, U

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e Molise 'G. Caporale' in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella). The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the (137)Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  19. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests? PMID:25807696

  20. Raman lidar/AERI PBL Height Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ferrare, Richard

    2012-12-14

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) heights have been computed using potential temperature profiles derived from Raman lidar and AERI measurements. Raman lidar measurements of the rotational Raman scattering from nitrogen and oxygen are used to derive vertical profiles of potential temperature. AERI measurements of downwelling radiance are used in a physical retrieval approach (Smith et al. 1999, Feltz et al. 1998) to derive profiles of temperature and water vapor. The Raman lidar and AERI potential temperature profiles are merged to create a single potential temperature profile for computing PBL heights. PBL heights were derived from these merged potential temperature profiles using a modified Heffter (1980) technique that was tailored to the SGP site (Della Monache et al., 2004). PBL heights were computed on an hourly basis for the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2011. These heights are provided as meters above ground level.

  1. Appunti sulle osservazioni telescopiche di Galilei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanin, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    The author inspects the telescopic observations performed by Galileo Galilei beginning since 1609. In the first part he examines the attribution to Galileo of the instruments now in Florence in the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza (IMSS). In the second part he considers the observative and optical analyses realized in this century about the telescopes. In the final part he exposes the observations carried out with an instrument very similar to those Galileo had, the "Project STAR" Scope. The author concludes the IMSS instruments represent very well those used by Galileo and, in particular, they are among the best utilized by Italian scientists. The author is also convinced since 1612 Galileo employed a telescope with 5" resolution power.

  2. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups

  3. [Darwin versus Marx? Reflections on a book by Giovanni Jervis].

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Giovanni Jervis'2002 book Individualismo e cooperazione. Psicologia della politica [Individualism and Cooperation: Psychology of Politics] is the outcome of a critical reflection begun by the author at the end of the 1970s in order to explore the manifestations and the problems of cooperation between individuals, and to identify some "universal" psychological factors that could define the role of psychology within politics and constitute an "objective foundation" of any human culture. Although Jervis was, so to speak,favoring Darwin against Marx, it is argued that,from his overall reasoning, several of his arguments actually are in favor of the inevitable "historicity" of individuals, due to the social conditioning they are subjected since birth: too often certain "universalistic" approaches transmit, together with scientific advances (or even without them), well identifiable ideological motives linked to precise and well defined historical and economic interests?

  4. Neutrons and music: Imaging investigation of ancient wind musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, G.; Tardino, G.; Pontecorvo, L.; Mannes, D. C.; Senesi, R.; Gorini, G.; Andreani, C.

    2014-10-01

    A set of seven musical instruments and two instruments cares from the 'Fondo Antico della Biblioteca del Sacro Convento' in Assisi, Italy, were investigated through neutron and X-ray imaging techniques. Historical and scientific interests around ancient musical instruments motivate an intense research effort for their characterization using non-destructive and non-invasive techniques. X-ray and neutron tomography/radiography were applied to the study of composite material samples containing wood, hide and metals. The study was carried out at the NEUTRA beamline, PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland). Results of the measurements provided new information on the composite and multi-scale structure, such as: the internal structure of the samples, position of added materials like metals, wood fiber displays, deformations, presence of adhesives and their spatial distribution and novel insight about construction methods to guide the instruments' restoration process.

  5. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion?

    PubMed

    Ross, H E; Ross, G M

    1976-01-01

    Ptolemy is often wrongly credited with an explanation of the moon illusion based on the size-distance invariance principle. This paper elucidates the two Ptolemaic accounts: one in the Almagest, based on atmospheric refraction, and the other in the Optics, based on the difficulty of looking upwards. It is the latter passage which has been thought to refer to size-distance invariance, but it is more probable that it refers to the idea that the visual rays are diminished by the force of gravity (i.e. that the retinal image is reduced in size). Alhazen was probably the first author to explain the illusion by the size-distance invariance principle, and Roger Bacon the first to explain the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. Della Porta was the first to credit Ptolemy with these explanations, and this mistake was repeated by many subsequent authors.

  6. The Agony of Choice: How Plants Balance Growth and Survival under Water-Limiting Conditions1

    PubMed Central

    Claeys, Hannes; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    When confronted with water limitation, plants actively reprogram their metabolism and growth. Recently, it has become clear that growing tissues show specific and highly dynamic responses to drought, which differ from the well-studied responses in mature tissues. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in understanding shoot growth regulation in water-limiting conditions. Of special interest is the balance between maintained growth and competitiveness on the one hand and ensured survival on the other hand. A number of master regulators controlling this balance have been identified, such as DELLAs and APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR-type transcription factors. The possibilities of engineering or breeding crops that maintain growth in periods of mild drought, while still being able to activate protective tolerance mechanisms, are discussed. PMID:23766368

  7. PREFACE: Young Researcher Meeting in Rome 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Fabio; Cattani, Giordano; Mazzaferro, Luca; Migliaccio, Marina; Pietrobon, Davide; Ricci Pacifici, Daniel; Stellato, Francesco; Veneziani, Marcella

    2012-10-01

    Conference logo At its third edition, the Young Researcher Meeting in Rome (YRMR) proves to be a growing event in the Italian scientific panorama. The high-quality content of the abstracts submitted to the scientific committee resulted in an exciting conference, held, for the second time, at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' on 20 January 2012. A busy schedule covered a large variety of cutting-edge science topics: fundamental interactions, particle physics, cosmology, astrophysics, condensed matter and biomedical physics. The broad range of the subjects discussed is the distinctive feature of the YRMR, a meeting aimed at enhancing the synergy among complementary branches of science by stimulating a fruitful exchange between theoretical, experimental and computational physics. Promoting collaborations between PhD students, postdoctoral fellows and young researchers creates a solid scientific network with an open-minded approach to discovery. In this volume, we collect the contributions that have been presented both in the form of talks and of posters. YRMR Organising and Editorial Committee Fabio Agostini (fabio.agostini@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Giordano Cattani (giordano.cattani@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Luca Mazzaferro (luca.mazzaferro@roma2.infn.it) Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma 'Tor Vergata' INFN sezione di Roma 'Tor Vergata' Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma Italy Marina Migliaccio (migliaccio@ifca.unican.es) Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda, Avenida de los Castros, E-39005 Santander, Cantabria Spain Davide Pietrobon (davide.pietrobon@jpl.nasa.gov) Jet Propulsion Laboratory - California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive 169-237 91109 Pasadena, CA USA Daniel Ricci Pacifici

  8. UV-B detected by the UVR8 photoreceptor antagonizes auxin signaling and plant shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Scott; Velanis, Christos N; Jenkins, Gareth I; Franklin, Keara A

    2014-08-12

    Plants detect different facets of their radiation environment via specific photoreceptors to modulate growth and development. UV-B is perceived by the photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). The molecular mechanisms linking UVR8 activation to plant growth are not fully understood, however. When grown in close proximity to neighboring vegetation, shade-intolerant plants initiate dramatic stem elongation to overtop competitors. Here we show that UV-B, detected by UVR8, provides an unambiguous sunlight signal that inhibits shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis thaliana by antagonizing the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin. UV-B triggers degradation of the transcription factors PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 5 and stabilizes growth-repressing DELLA proteins, inhibiting auxin biosynthesis via a dual mechanism. Our findings show that UVR8 signaling is closely integrated with other photoreceptor pathways to regulate auxin signaling and plant growth in sunlight.

  9. Photoreceptor signaling networks in plant responses to shade.

    PubMed

    Casal, Jorge J

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic light environment of vegetation canopies is perceived by phytochromes, cryptochromes, phototropins, and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8). These receptors control avoidance responses to preclude exposure to limiting or excessive light and acclimation responses to cope with conditions that cannot be avoided. The low red/far-red ratios of shade light reduce phytochrome B activity, which allows PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) to directly activate the transcription of auxin-synthesis genes, leading to shade-avoidance responses. Direct PIF interaction with DELLA proteins links gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling to shade avoidance. Shade avoidance also requires CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 (COP1), a target of cryptochromes, phytochromes, and UVR8. Multiple regulatory loops and the input of the circadian clock create a complex network able to respond even to subtle threats of competition with neighbors while still compensating for major environmental fluctuations such as the day-night cycles.

  10. The Italian registry of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Clemente, C; Orazi, A; Rilke, F

    1988-01-01

    After a review of the incidence data on malignant soft-tissue tumors in Italy (Registro dei Tumori della Regione Lombardia, provincia di Varese), Europe (nine European Cancer Registries considered representative of various geographical areas) and extra-European countries (data of ten World Cancer Registries), the aim and the organization of the Italian Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor Registry are described. The collection system is based on dedicated forms prepared for the computerization of all data. From 1.1.1985 to 31.3.1987, 207 cases of malignant and potentially malignant soft-tissue tumors entered the Registry, with exclusion of those sarcomas arising in viscera. The distribution, categorized by histologic type, sex and site, and the preliminary results on relapses and metastases are reported.

  11. Resilient and Corrosion-Proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Superelastic Ni-Ti Alloys for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical components (bearings, gears, mechanisms) typically utilize hardened construction materials to minimize wear and attain long life. In such components, loaded contact points (e.g., meshing gear teeth, bearing balls-raceway contacts) experience high contact stresses. The combination of high hardness and high elastic modulus often leads to damaging contact stress and denting, particularly during transient overload events such as shock impacts that occur during the launching of space vehicles or the landing of aircraft. In this webinar, Dr. DellaCorte will introduce the results of a research project that employs a superelastic alloy, Ni-Ti for rolling element bearing applications. Bearings and components made from such alloys can alleviate many problems encountered in advanced aerospace applications and may solve many terrestrial applications as well

  12. How do we see art: an eye-tracker study.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject's personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art.

  13. Resilient and Corrosion-proof Rolling Element Bearings Made from Ni-ti Alloys for Aerospace Mechanism Applications and the Ultimate Space Technology Development Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station provides a unique microgravity laboratory environment for research. The ISS also serves as an effective platform for the development of technologies and engineered solutions related to living and working in space. The space environment also challenges our capabilities related to lubrication and tribology. In this seminar, Dr. DellaCorte will review the basics of space mechanism tribology and the challenges of providing good lubrication and long-life in the harsh space environment. He will also discuss recent tribological challenges associated with the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) bearings and life support hardware that must operate under severe conditions that are literally out of this world. Each tribology challenge is unique and their solutions often result in new technologies that benefit the tribology community everywhere, even back on Earth

  14. The NF-YC–RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Mingkun; Tang, Yang; Li, Yuge; Li, Ling; Hou, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic crosstalk between gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of such phytohormone interaction remains largely elusive. Here we show that three Arabidopsis NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y C (NF-YC) homologues NF-YC3, NF-YC4 and NF-YC9 redundantly modulate GA- and ABA-mediated seed germination. These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling. The NF-YC–RGL2 module targets ABI5, a gene encoding a core component of ABA signalling, via specific CCAAT elements and collectively regulates a set of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, thus controlling germination. These results suggest that the NF-YC–RGL2–ABI5 module integrates GA and ABA signalling pathways during seed germination. PMID:27624486

  15. Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion?

    PubMed

    Ross, H E; Ross, G M

    1976-01-01

    Ptolemy is often wrongly credited with an explanation of the moon illusion based on the size-distance invariance principle. This paper elucidates the two Ptolemaic accounts: one in the Almagest, based on atmospheric refraction, and the other in the Optics, based on the difficulty of looking upwards. It is the latter passage which has been thought to refer to size-distance invariance, but it is more probable that it refers to the idea that the visual rays are diminished by the force of gravity (i.e. that the retinal image is reduced in size). Alhazen was probably the first author to explain the illusion by the size-distance invariance principle, and Roger Bacon the first to explain the enlarged apparent distance of the horizon by the presence of intervening objects. Della Porta was the first to credit Ptolemy with these explanations, and this mistake was repeated by many subsequent authors. PMID:794813

  16. Geographical classification of Italian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) based on chemical constituents determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography and by using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Giannitto, Andrea; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four Italian saffron samples produced in the years from 2009 to 2015 in five distinct areas located in four different regions, Abruzzo (L'Aquila), Tuscany (Florence), Umbria (Cascia and Città della Pieve) and Sardinia, have been analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Intensities of the chromatographic peaks attributed to crocins, safranal, picrocrocin and its derivatives and flavonoids were considered as variables in linear discriminant analysis to attempt geographical classification. The results revealed that spices produced at different sites of the Italian territory can be discriminated with good accuracy. The differentiation of saffron cultivated in Sardinia from those produced in Central Italy was mainly attributed to different contents of the most abundant crocins. Good differentiation of spices produced in close sites of Central Italy was also observed, 88% of validation samples being correctly classified; some minor crocins are responsible for such discrimination. PMID:27374513

  17. The Actinobacterial Colonization of Etruscan Paintings

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70′s when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches. PMID:23486535

  18. Geographical classification of Italian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) based on chemical constituents determined by high-performance liquid-chromatography and by using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Giannitto, Andrea; Maggi, Maria Anna; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four Italian saffron samples produced in the years from 2009 to 2015 in five distinct areas located in four different regions, Abruzzo (L'Aquila), Tuscany (Florence), Umbria (Cascia and Città della Pieve) and Sardinia, have been analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. Intensities of the chromatographic peaks attributed to crocins, safranal, picrocrocin and its derivatives and flavonoids were considered as variables in linear discriminant analysis to attempt geographical classification. The results revealed that spices produced at different sites of the Italian territory can be discriminated with good accuracy. The differentiation of saffron cultivated in Sardinia from those produced in Central Italy was mainly attributed to different contents of the most abundant crocins. Good differentiation of spices produced in close sites of Central Italy was also observed, 88% of validation samples being correctly classified; some minor crocins are responsible for such discrimination.

  19. Brief screening indexes for malingering: A confirmation of Vocabulary minus Digit Span from the WAIS-III and the Rarely Missed Index from the WMS-III.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lori J; Ryan, Joseph J; Carruthers, Christine A; Cluff, Richard B

    2004-05-01

    This study investigated the specificity of empirically derived screening measures for the detection of symptom exaggeration in persons with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse (n = 30), polysubstance abuse (n = 43), or head trauma (n = 27). The first measure evaluated was Vocabulary (V) minus Digit Span (DS) (Mittenberg, Theroux-Fichera, Zielinski, & Heilbronner, 1995); the second measure was the Rarely Missed Index (RMI) for the WMS-III Logical Memory subtest (Killgore & Della-Pietra, 2000). V-DS misclassified 0% of individuals in the alcohol abuse group, 2% of those in the polysubstance abuse group, and 0% of head injury cases. RMI misclassification rates were 3%, 5%, and 7% for the alcohol abuse, polysubstance abuse, and head injury groups, respectively. Overall accuracy rates were 99% for V-DS and 95% for RMI.

  20. Some New Reflections on Mr. Palomar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.

    2009-08-01

    The character Mr. Palomar, the alter-ego of the Italian author Italo Calvino, appeared for the first time in 1975 on the pages of the ``Il Corriere della Sera'', and then more or less regularly till its debut as a book in 1983. Through illuminating thoughts and reflections based on observations, for instance, of sea waves, Mr. Palomar discovers that they induce a peaceful and inspirational state of mind that prevents coronary and mental illnesses, and also holds the key to capturing the complexity of the world reducing it into its most elementary mechanisms. In this contribution I will survey some of Mr. Palomar's thoughts while he observes the sky and speculate on others that he might have explored if he shared our contemporary knowledge of the cosmos. I will also discuss the thoughts of other authors on how, cosmological thinking affects the human condition.

  1. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy and germination by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E.; Gilday, Alison D.; Penfield, Steven D.; Graham, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) acts along with abscisic acid to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanistic details of this synergistic interaction remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that OPDA acts through the germination inhibition effects of abscisic acid, the abscisic acid-sensing ABI5 protein, and the gibberellin-sensing RGL2 DELLA protein. We further demonstrate that OPDA also acts through another dormancy-promoting factor, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT). Both abscisic acid and MFT positively feed back into the OPDA pathway by promoting its accumulation. These results confirm the central role of OPDA in regulating seed dormancy and germination in A. thaliana and underline the complexity of interactions between OPDA and other dormancy-promoting factors such as abscisic acid, RGL2, and MFT. PMID:26873978

  2. The NF-YC-RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Mingkun; Tang, Yang; Li, Yuge; Li, Ling; Hou, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic crosstalk between gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of such phytohormone interaction remains largely elusive. Here we show that three Arabidopsis NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y C (NF-YC) homologues NF-YC3, NF-YC4 and NF-YC9 redundantly modulate GA- and ABA-mediated seed germination. These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling. The NF-YC-RGL2 module targets ABI5, a gene encoding a core component of ABA signalling, via specific CCAAT elements and collectively regulates a set of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, thus controlling germination. These results suggest that the NF-YC-RGL2-ABI5 module integrates GA and ABA signalling pathways during seed germination.

  3. Regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana seed dormancy and germination by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Dave, Anuja; Vaistij, Fabián E; Gilday, Alison D; Penfield, Steven D; Graham, Ian A

    2016-04-01

    We previously demonstrated that the oxylipin 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) acts along with abscisic acid to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the mechanistic details of this synergistic interaction remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that OPDA acts through the germination inhibition effects of abscisic acid, the abscisic acid-sensing ABI5 protein, and the gibberellin-sensing RGL2 DELLA protein. We further demonstrate that OPDA also acts through another dormancy-promoting factor, MOTHER-OF-FT-AND-TFL1 (MFT). Both abscisic acid and MFT positively feed back into the OPDA pathway by promoting its accumulation. These results confirm the central role of OPDA in regulating seed dormancy and germination in A. thaliana and underline the complexity of interactions between OPDA and other dormancy-promoting factors such as abscisic acid, RGL2, and MFT.

  4. Development of Inhibitors of Salicylic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kai; Kurimoto, Tetsuya; Seo, Eun-kyung; Miyazaki, Sho; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Hidemitsu; Asami, Tadao

    2015-08-19

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays important roles in the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in plants. Determining the mechanism of SAR will extend our understanding of plant defenses against pathogens. We recently reported that PAMD is an inhibitor of SA signaling, which suppresses the expression of the pathogenesis-related PR genes and is expected to facilitate the understanding of SA signaling. However, PAMD strongly inhibits plant growth. To minimize the side effects of PAMD, we synthesized a number of PAMD derivatives, and identified compound 4 that strongly suppresses the expression of the PR genes with fewer adverse effects on plant growth than PAMD. We further showed that the adverse effects on plant growth were partially caused the stabilization of DELLA, which is also related to the pathogen responses. These results indicate that compound 4 would facilitate our understanding of SA signaling and its cross talk with other plant hormones.

  5. The NF-YC-RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Mingkun; Tang, Yang; Li, Yuge; Li, Ling; Hou, Xingliang

    2016-01-01

    The antagonistic crosstalk between gibberellic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of seed germination. However, the molecular mechanism of such phytohormone interaction remains largely elusive. Here we show that three Arabidopsis NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y C (NF-YC) homologues NF-YC3, NF-YC4 and NF-YC9 redundantly modulate GA- and ABA-mediated seed germination. These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling. The NF-YC-RGL2 module targets ABI5, a gene encoding a core component of ABA signalling, via specific CCAAT elements and collectively regulates a set of GA- and ABA-responsive genes, thus controlling germination. These results suggest that the NF-YC-RGL2-ABI5 module integrates GA and ABA signalling pathways during seed germination. PMID:27624486

  6. [Cross-sectional study on the determinants of work stress for nurses and intention of leaving the profession].

    PubMed

    Romano, Marina; Festini, Filippo; Bronner, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUZIONE. Lo stress occupazionale è una delle principali cause di malattie professionali e di assenze da lavoro e genera costi sanitari e sociali molto elevati; la comprensione del problema è stata l'obiet- tivo di numerosi studi. Monitorare lo stress negli infermieri può essere uno strumento per chi ha la responsabilità della gestione delle risorse umane nel sistema sanitario. La ricerca infermieristica italiana si è occupata solo marginalmente di stress lavorativo infermieristico. Gli obiettivi di questo studio sono dunque: stimare la prevalenza di stress tra gli infermieri di tre ospedali, in modo da disporre di dati epidemiologici per valutare la necessità di interventi di prevenzione e di trattamento del fenomeno; analizzare eventuali fattori di rischio e fattori protettivi in modo da progettare interventi preventivi mirati.

  7. Reservoirs performances under climate variability: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longobardi, A.; Mautone, M.; de Luca, C.

    2014-09-01

    A case study, the Piano della Rocca dam (southern Italy) is discussed here in order to quantify the system performances under climate variability conditions. Different climate scenarios have been stochastically generated according to the tendencies in precipitation and air temperature observed during recent decades for the studied area. Climate variables have then been filtered through an ARMA model to generate, at the monthly scale, time series of reservoir inflow volumes. Controlled release has been computed considering the reservoir is operated following the standard linear operating policy (SLOP) and reservoir performances have been assessed through the calculation of reliability, resilience and vulnerability indices (Hashimoto et al. 1982), comparing current and future scenarios of climate variability. The proposed approach can be suggested as a valuable tool to mitigate the effects of moderate to severe and persistent droughts periods, through the allocation of new water resources or the planning of appropriate operational rules.

  8. Open and closed string vertices for branes with magnetic field and T-duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesando, Igor

    2010-02-01

    We discuss carefully the vertices which describe the dipole open strings and closed strings on a D-brane with magnetic flux on a torus. Translation invariance along closed cycles forces surprisingly closed string vertices written in open string formalism to acquire Chan-Paton like matrices. Moreover the one loop amplitudes have a single trace for the part of gauge group with the magnetic flux. These peculiarities are also required by consistency of the action of T-duality in the open string sector. In this way we can show to all orders in perturbation theory the equivalence of the T-dual open string theories, gravitational interactions included. We provide also a new and direct derivation of the bosonic boundary state in presence of constant magnetic and Kalb-Ramond background based on Sciuto-Della Selva-Saito vertex formalism.

  9. "Galileo's Machine": Late Notes on Free Fall, Projectile Motion, and the Force of Percussion (ca. 1638-1639)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvia, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    My paper focuses upon the problem of determining the nature, establishing the proportionality, and measuring the intensity of the force of percussion of a projected or falling body, as treated in the Sixth Day of Galileo's Discorsi e dimostrazioni matematiche intorno a due nuove scienze (1638). This fragment was written around 1638-1639 as part of two additional Days of the Discorsi, which Galileo never finished and remained unpublished until 1718. Galileo's last works on percussion show a significant step towards a generalization of his own views on uniform and accelerated motion that will later lead to the Newtonian principle of inertia. The experiment with two equal weights hanging on a pulley, performed in Arcetri during the same period, is compared with the Paduan 1604-1608 experience of the "water balance." Both account for more than three decades of inquiries into what Galileo called forza della percossa, which marked the transition from preclassical to classical mechanics.

  10. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

  11. Should we treat white line hernias by laparoscopy? About a prospective study of 42 cases.

    PubMed

    Guirat, Ahmed; Trigui, Ayman; Rejab, Haitham; Yaich, Khalil; Affes, Najmedine; Jdidi, Issam; Boujelben, Salah; Abid, Bassem; Amar, Mohamed Ben; Mzali, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Viene riportato uno studio prospettico su 42 casi di ernia ombelicale ed epigastrica primitive e non complicate trattate per via laparoscopica e seguite in media da un follow up di un anno. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare il contributo della laparoscopia nel trattamento in termini di risultato nel breve e nel medio periodo. La morbilità chirurgica precoce è stata del 14,3%. A sei mesi dall’intervento il 28,5% dei pazienti ha lamentato dolori nell’area ombelicale. Ad un anno dall’intervento 2 pazienti hanno lamentato la cronicizzazione del dolore. Non si è avuto nessun caso di recidiva. In conclusione l’approccio laparoscopico risulta doversi riservare ai casi di ernia di maggiori dimensioni, ed in caso di recidiva o di laparocele.

  12. Spigelian Hernias Treatment and Diagnosis in Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Citgez, Bulent; Yetkin, Gurkan; Uludag, Mehmet; Akgun, Ismail; Karakoc, Sinan

    2014-10-25

    L’ernia di Spiegel (SH) è un’ernia rara della parete addominale con elevato rischio di incercerazione ed occusione intestinale. In questo studio viene presentata l’esperienza degli autori in termine di diagnosi e relativo trattamento riguardante l’esame retrospettivo di 17 pazienti osservati tra il 2000 ed il 2010, con descrizione delle caratteristiche demografiche, i messi diagnositici e le tecniche chirurgiche adottate. Tutti i pazienti mostravano una tumefazione accompagnata da dolore, e tutti sono stati sottoposti ad una riparazione protesica, senza mortalità nè morbilità postoperatoria. Nel periodo in media di media di 73 mesi (da 13 a 115) del follow-up non è stata osservata nessuna recidiva. Questo tipo di rara ernia presenta varibili motivi di difficoltà diagnostica in fase preoperatoria. La riparazione protesica sembra ridurre l’incidenza delle complicanze e delle recidive.

  13. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Dormancy is Associated with Increased Accumulation of the GID1 GA Hormone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauvermale, Amber L; Tuttle, Keiko M; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Seo, Mitsunori; Steber, Camille M

    2015-09-01

    Dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under favorable conditions until they have experienced dormancy-breaking conditions, such as after-ripening through a period of dry storage or cold imbibition. Abscisic acid (ABA) hormone signaling establishes and maintains seed dormancy, whereas gibberellin (GA) signaling stimulates germination. ABA levels decrease and GA levels increase with after-ripening and cold stratification. However, increasing GA sensitivity may also be critical to dormancy loss since increasing seed GA levels are detectable only with long periods of after-ripening and imbibition. After-ripening and cold stratification act additively to enhance GA hormone sensitivity in ga1-3 seeds that cannot synthesize GA. Since the overexpression of the GA receptor GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) enhanced this dormancy loss, and because gid1a gid1b gid1c triple mutants show decreased germination, the effects of dormancy-breaking treatments on GID1 mRNA and protein accumulation were examined. Partial after-ripening resulted in increased GID1b, but not GID1a or GID1c mRNA levels. Cold imbibition stimulated the accumulation of all three GID1 transcripts, but resulted in no increase in GA sensitivity during ga1-3 seed germination unless seeds were also partially after-ripened. This is probably because after-ripening was needed to enhance GID1 protein accumulation, independently of transcript abundance. The rise in GID1b transcript with after-ripening was not associated with decreased ABA levels, suggesting there is ABA-independent GID1b regulation by after-ripening and the 26S proteasome. GA and the DELLA RGL2 repressor of GA responses differentially regulated the three GID1 transcripts. Moreover, DELLA RGL2 appeared to switch between positive and negative regulation of GID1 expression in response to dormancy-breaking treatments.

  14. On the space monitoring of the Sassi and Murgia Park (Matera UNESCO site) using LANDSAT time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Nole, Gabriele; Manzi, Teresa; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    This paper is focused on the preliminary results obtained in the framework of the Great relevance project " Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and Argentina: Earth Observation and pilot projects funded by the Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale --MAE, 17/04/2014, Prot. nr. 0090692, 2014-2016. A temporal series (1999-2011) of the LANDSAT TM data was used to carried out investigation in the Murgia Park enclosed in the Matera UNESCO site . The PCA was adopted to enhance regions of localized change in multi-temporal data sets (Lasaponara 2006). Both naturally vegetated areas (forest, shrub-land, herbaceous cover) and agricultural lands have been investigated in order to extract the most prominent natural and/or man induced alterations affecting soil and vegetation cover. Results from PCA were compared with independent data sets and field survey to evaluate the reliability of the obtained maps of the ongoing land degradation phenomenon. Such analyses can provide valuable information for an operational monitoring of the status of vegetation which is an indicator of the degree of stress namely any disturbance that adversely influences plants in response to natural hazards and/or anthropogenic activities. Our findings suggest that the Landsat TM time series can provide valuable information for environmental management policies involving biodiversity preservation and rational exploitation of natural and agricultural resources. Acknowledgement This research was performed within the framework of the Great relevance project " Smart management of cultural heritage sites in Italy and Argentina: Earth Observation and pilot projects funded by the Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale --MAE, 17/04/2014, Prot. nr. 0090692, 2014-2016

  15. The Arabidopsis C2H2 Zinc Finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS Promotes the Transition to Germination by Regulating Light and Hormonal Signaling during Seed Maturation[W

    PubMed Central

    Feurtado, J. Allan; Huang, Daiqing; Wicki-Stordeur, Leigh; Hemstock, Laura E.; Potentier, Mireille S.; Tsang, Edward W.T.; Cutler, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed development ends with a maturation phase that imparts desiccation tolerance, nutrient reserves, and dormancy degree. Here, we report the functional analysis of an Arabidopsis thaliana C2H2 zinc finger protein INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1 (IDD1)/ENHYDROUS (ENY). Ectopic expression of IDD1/ENY (2x35S:ENY) disrupted seed development, delaying endosperm depletion and testa senescence, resulting in an abbreviated maturation program. Consequently, mature 2x35S:ENY seeds had increased endosperm-specific fatty acids, starch retention, and defective mucilage extrusion. Using RAB18 promoter ENY lines (RAB18:ENY) to confine expression to maturation, when native ENY expression increased and peaked, resulted in mature seed with lower abscisic acid (ABA) content and decreased germination sensitivity to applied ABA. Furthermore, results of far-red and red light treatments of 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY germinating seeds, and of artificial microRNA knockdown lines, suggest that ENY acts to promote germination. After using RAB18:ENY seedlings to induce ENY during ABA application, key genes in gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling were differentially regulated in a manner suggesting negative feedback regulation. Furthermore, GA treatment resulted in a skotomorphogenic-like phenotype in light-grown 2x35S:ENY and RAB18:ENY seedlings. The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. PMID:21571950

  16. Region Emilia Romagna: Primary Health Care Integration/Regione Emilia-Romagna: l’integrazione nel sistema di Cure Primarie

    PubMed Central

    Basenghi, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The politics of Region Emilia-Romagna have been meant to improve social and health care integration through an architecture of local services coherent with this purpose, setting up a Department dedicated to Primary Care inside the Social and Health District. The territorial basis of the Local Health Units (LHU), the resident people, the sustained public spending, the employed human resources and the provided services all delineate the organization of the LHU. The purpose is to grant strong integration among local bodies and LHUs through a governance system (planning, management and administration) that makes a distinction between commissioning and supply. The Committenza (commissioning department), which reports to the Strategic Direction and the District, directs the offer in connection with the need analysis, whereas the Primary Care Department arranges activities and provides services by means of integrated networks which ensure continuity to the care. The main hub in the network is known as the Casa della Salute (House of Health), which works through structured practices, protocols and procedures. LHU professionals and freelancers under contract supply primary, in-home and nursing home care, plus specialist outpatient treatment. The Casa della Salute, whose size will depend on the context (large, medium and small), are reliable reference points for citizens, who can address to them in every moment of the day. On behalf of the Regione Emilia-Romagna, it is the Primary Care Observatory which registers the functions existing in the 42 Houses of Health and their organizational and structural characteristics. The analysis of the obtained data will increase enhance the Houses’ implementation.

  17. A giant inguinoscrotal hernia associated with other abdominal wall defects A case report.

    PubMed

    Iovino, Francesco; Auriemma, Pasquale Pio; Dani, Luca; Giordano, Giovanni; Barbarisi, Alfonso

    2016-04-29

    Le ernie giganti sono rare nei Paesi sviluppati ed ancora più raramente sono associate ad altre ernie della parete addominale, come un’ernia inguinale controlaterale o un’ernia ombelicale. La presenza di più difetti di parete facilità il riposizionamento in addome del contenuto di una voluminosa ernia inguinale senza compromettere la funzionalità cardiorespiratoria, ma il rischio di intasamento o strozzamento intestinale negli altri orifizi erniari aumenta. In letteratura non esistono opinioni convergenti se riparare simultaneamente o in maniera sequenziale, cioè in maniera distanziata nel tempo, le diverse ernie di parete, quando sono associate ad un’ernia gigante. Riportiamo in questo lavoro il caso clinico di un uomo di 60 anni, italiano, che si recò nel nostro ambulatorio di chirurgia lamentando da molti anni la presenza di un’ernia inguinale gigante associata ad un’ernia inguinale controlaterale ed un’ernia ombelicale. Il paziente alla visita presentava difficoltà di deambulazione, ma non riferiva disturbi di canalizzazione. Aveva diverse comorbidità e tra queste quella più importante era una insufficienza respiratoria severa. Dopo un accurato studio cardiologico, respiratorio e metabolico il paziente fu sottoposto a riparazione delle ernie a partire da quella gigante, in maniera sequenziale ed in anestesia spinale secondo la tecnica di Lichtenstein. L’ernia ombelicale fu riparata per ultima con tecnica diretta, senza protesi, ed anch’essa in anestesia spinale. Il decorso operatorio fu regolare dopo i tre interventi e non si ebbe alcuna complicanza respiratoria, cardiologica né di canalizzazione. In conclusione riteniamo che nei pazienti con importanti comorbidità la riparazione di un’ernia gigante associata ad altre ernie di parete debba avvenire in maniera sequenziale, monitorando con attenzione la canalizzazione e soprattutto il progressivo adattamento dei visceri in addome attraverso la palpazione degli orifizi erniari. I dati

  18. Loss of Arabidopsis thaliana Seed Dormancy is Associated with Increased Accumulation of the GID1 GA Hormone Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hauvermale, Amber L; Tuttle, Keiko M; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Seo, Mitsunori; Steber, Camille M

    2015-09-01

    Dormancy prevents seeds from germinating under favorable conditions until they have experienced dormancy-breaking conditions, such as after-ripening through a period of dry storage or cold imbibition. Abscisic acid (ABA) hormone signaling establishes and maintains seed dormancy, whereas gibberellin (GA) signaling stimulates germination. ABA levels decrease and GA levels increase with after-ripening and cold stratification. However, increasing GA sensitivity may also be critical to dormancy loss since increasing seed GA levels are detectable only with long periods of after-ripening and imbibition. After-ripening and cold stratification act additively to enhance GA hormone sensitivity in ga1-3 seeds that cannot synthesize GA. Since the overexpression of the GA receptor GID1 (GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) enhanced this dormancy loss, and because gid1a gid1b gid1c triple mutants show decreased germination, the effects of dormancy-breaking treatments on GID1 mRNA and protein accumulation were examined. Partial after-ripening resulted in increased GID1b, but not GID1a or GID1c mRNA levels. Cold imbibition stimulated the accumulation of all three GID1 transcripts, but resulted in no increase in GA sensitivity during ga1-3 seed germination unless seeds were also partially after-ripened. This is probably because after-ripening was needed to enhance GID1 protein accumulation, independently of transcript abundance. The rise in GID1b transcript with after-ripening was not associated with decreased ABA levels, suggesting there is ABA-independent GID1b regulation by after-ripening and the 26S proteasome. GA and the DELLA RGL2 repressor of GA responses differentially regulated the three GID1 transcripts. Moreover, DELLA RGL2 appeared to switch between positive and negative regulation of GID1 expression in response to dormancy-breaking treatments. PMID:26136598

  19. Functional Analysis of SPINDLY in Gibberellin Signaling in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Silverstone, Aron L.; Tseng, Tong-Seung; Swain, Stephen M.; Dill, Alyssa; Jeong, Sun Yong; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2007-01-01

    The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SPINDLY (SPY) protein negatively regulates the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. SPY is an O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) with a protein-protein interaction domain consisting of 10 tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR). OGTs add a GlcNAc monosaccharide to serine/threonine residues of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. Determination of the molecular defects in 14 new spy alleles reveals that these mutations cluster in three TPRs and the C-terminal catalytic region. Phenotypic characterization of 12 spy alleles indicates that TPRs 6, 8, and 9 and the catalytic domain are crucial for GA-regulated stem elongation, floral induction, and fertility. TPRs 8 and 9 and the catalytic region are also important for modulating trichome morphology and inflorescence phyllotaxy. Consistent with a role for SPY in embryo development, several alleles affect seedling cotyledon number. These results suggest that three of the TPRs and the OGT activity in SPY are required for its function in GA signal transduction. We also examined the effect of spy mutations on another negative regulator of GA signaling, REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA). The DELLA motif in RGA is essential for GA-induced proteolysis of RGA, and deletion of this motif (as in rga-Δ17) causes a GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. Here, we demonstrate that spy partially suppresses the rga-Δ17 phenotype but does not reduce rga-Δ17 or RGA protein levels or alter RGA nuclear localization. We propose that SPY may function as a negative regulator of GA response by increasing the activity of RGA, and presumably other DELLA proteins, by GlcNAc modification. PMID:17142481

  20. The EEE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; An, S.; Antolini, R.; Badala, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Blanco, F.; Bressan, E.; Chiavassa, A.; Chiri, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Coccia, E.; de Pasquale, S.; di Giovanni, A.; d'Incecco, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Frolov, V.; Garbini, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Imponente, G.; Kim, J.; La Rocca, P.; Librizzi, F.; Maggiora, A.; Menghetti, H.; Miozzi, S.; Moro, R.; Panareo, M.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Piragino, G.; Riggi, F.; Romano, F.; Sartorelli, G.; Sbarra, C.; Selvi, M.; Serci, S.; WIlliams, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyenski, R.

    The EEE (/Extreme Energy Event/) Project is an experiment for the study of very high-energy extensive air showers, actually starting in Italy. It is based on the detection of the shower muon component by means of a network of tracking detectors, installed in Italian High Schools. The Project, supported by the Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca (MIUR), Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi” has been conceived by its leader Professor Antonino Zichichi. In its first phase the detector telescopes will be installed in 21 High Schools in 7 piloting cities all over Italy. The network will soon be heavily upgraded by increasing the number of High Schools and cities. The single tracking telescope is composed by 3 large (~ 2 m2 ) Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC), realized with float glass electrodes. The use of particle detectors based on such MRPCs will allow to determine with a very high accuracy the direction of the axis of cosmic ray showers initiated by primaries of ultra-high energy, together with a high temporal resolution. The first MRPC telescope, installed in the Liceo Scientifico “B.Touschek” in Grottaferrata near the LNF-INFN site (nearby Rome), is successfully running. By the end of year 2007, the installation of the other telescopes will open the way for the first search of high-energy cosmic rays distant coincidences. In the future, serving many High Schools scattered all over the Italian territory, the EEE Project will also allow to investigate coincidences between multiple primaries producing distant showers. Here we present the experimental apparatus and its tasks.