Sample records for uterine fibroid treatment

  1. Uterine Fibroids: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, Maria Syl D; Buchanan, Edward M

    2017-01-15

    Uterine fibroids are common benign neoplasms, with a higher prevalence in older women and in those of African descent. Many are discovered incidentally on clinical examination or imaging in asymptomatic women. Fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, bowel dysfunction, urinary frequency and urgency, urinary retention, low back pain, constipation, and dyspareunia. Ultrasonography is the preferred initial imaging modality. Expectant management is recommended for asymptomatic patients because most fibroids decrease in size during menopause. Management should be tailored to the size and location of fibroids; the patient's age, symptoms, desire to maintain fertility, and access to treatment; and the experience of the physician. Medical therapy to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding includes hormonal contraceptives, tranexamic acid, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or selective progesterone receptor modulators are an option for patients who need symptom relief preoperatively or who are approaching menopause. Surgical treatment includes hysterectomy, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery.

  2. The Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial. Part 2. Uterine fibroid reduction and symptom relief after uterine artery embolization for fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Bennett, John; Common, Andrew; Wall, Jane; Asch, Murray; Sniderman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate fibroid uterine volume reduction, symptom relief, and patient satisfaction with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred thirty-eight patients undergoing bilateral UAE. Bilateral UAE performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 355-500 microm. Three-month follow-up evaluations including fibroid uterine volume reductions, patient reported symptom improvement (7-point scale), symptom life-impact (10-point scale) reduction, and treatment satisfaction (6-point scale). Median uterine and dominant fibroid volume reductions were 35% and 42%, respectively. Significant improvements were reported for menorrhagia (83%), dysmenorrhea (77%), and urinary frequency/urgency (86%). Mean menstrual duration was significantly reduced after UAE (7.6 to 5.4 days). Improvements in menorrhagia were unrelated to pre-UAE uterine size or post-UAE uterine volume reduction. Amenorrhea occurring after the procedure was highly age dependent, ranging from 3% (1%-7%) in women under age 40 to 41% (26%-58%) in women age 50 or older. Median fibroid life-impact scores were significantly reduced after UAE (8.0 to 3.0). The majority (91%) expressed satisfaction with UAE treatment. UAE reduced fibroid uterine volume and provided significant relief of menorrhagia that was unrelated to initial fibroid uterine size or volume reduction. Patient satisfaction with short-term UAE treatment outcomes was high.

  3. Uterine fibroids: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

  4. Modern management of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barbara S

    2008-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumor of the reproductive tract in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign tumors that are often asymptomatic, uterine fibroids may cause debilitating symptoms in many women, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain, increased abdominal girth, urinary frequency, constipation, pregnancy loss, dyspareunia, and in some cases infertility. Several approaches are available for the treatment of uterine fibroids. These include pharmacologic options, such as hormonal therapies and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists; surgical approaches, such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, myolysis, laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and uterine artery embolization. The choice of approach may be dictated by factors such as the patient's desire to become pregnant in the future, the importance of uterine preservation, symptom severity, and tumor characteristics. New treatment options for uterine fibroids would be minimally invasive, have long-term data demonstrating efficacy and safety, have minimal or no incidence of fibroid recurrence, be easy to perform, preserve fertility, and be cost effective. New treatment approaches are under investigation, with the goals of being effective, safe, and less invasive.

  5. Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  6. Role of vitamin D in uterine fibroid biology.

    PubMed

    Brakta, Soumia; Diamond, Justin S; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P; Halder, Sunil K

    2015-09-01

    To provide a detailed summary of current scientific knowledge on uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) in vitro and in in vivo animal models, as well as to postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 as an effective, inexpensive, safe, long-term treatment option for uterine fibroids. PubMed search articles were used to identify the most relevant studies on uterine fibroids, as well as effects of vitamin D3 on uterine fibroid cells and fibroid tumor growth in in vivo animal models. University research laboratory. Not applicable. None. Not applicable. Despite numerous publications available on uterine fibroids, information about the role that vitamin D3 plays in the regulation of uterine fibroids is limited. Most of the recent vitamin D3-related studies on uterine fibroids were published from our group. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids. Our recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 reduces leiomyoma cell proliferation in vitro and leiomyoma tumor growth in in vivo animal models. These results postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 for an effective, safe, nonsurgical medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. This article reviews human and animal studies and uncovers new possibilities for understanding the vitamin D-based therapeutic option for an effective, safe, long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. On the basis of these results, a clinical trial with vitamin D3 or a hypocalcemic analog, paricalcitol, may be warranted for nonsurgical medical treatment of uterine fibroids. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Vitamin D in Uterine Fibroid Biology

    PubMed Central

    Brakta, Soumia; Diamond, Justin S.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P.; Halder, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a detailed summary of current scientific knowledge on uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) in vitro and in in vivo animal models, as well as to postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 as an effective, inexpensive, safe long-term treatment option for uterine fibroids. Design PubMed search articles were used to identify the most relevant studies on uterine fibroids as well as effects of vitamin D3 on uterine fibroid cells and fibroid tumor growth in in vivo animal models. Setting University research laboratory - affiliated infertility clinic. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) Not applicable. Results Despite numerous publications available on uterine fibroids, information about the role that vitamin D3 plays in the regulation of uterine fibroids are limited. Most of the recent vitamin D3-related studies on uterine fibroids were published from our group. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids. Our recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 reduces leiomyoma cell proliferation in vitro, and leiomyoma tumor growth in in vivo animal models. These results postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 for an effective, safe non-surgical medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. Conclusions This article reviews human and animal studies and uncover new possibilities for understanding the vitamin D-based therapeutic option for an effective, safe long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. Based on these results, a clinical trial with vitamin D3 or a hypocalcemic analog, paricalcitol may be warranted for non-surgical medical treatment of uterine fibroids. PMID:26079694

  8. Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment. PMID:19358440

  9. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids.

  10. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in Uterine Fibroid Treatment: Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mustafa Z.; Alkhorayef, Mohammed; Alzimami, Khalid S.; Aljuhani, Manal Saud; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a highly precise medical procedure used locally to heat and destroy diseased tissue through ablation. This study intended to review HIFU in uterine fibroid therapy, to evaluate the role of HIFU in the therapy of leiomyomas as well as to review the actual clinical activities in this field including efficacy and safety measures beside the published clinical literature. Material/Methods An inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation, and how it resulted in the development of extracorporeal distinct devices. Studies addressing HIFU in leiomyomas were identified from a search of the Internet scientific databases. The analysis of literature was limited to journal articles written in English and published between 2000 and 2013. Results In current gynecologic oncology, HIFU is used clinically in the treatment of leiomyomas. Clinical research on HIFU therapy for leiomyomas began in the 1990s, and the majority of patients with leiomyomas were treated predominantly with HIFUNIT 9000 and prototype single focus ultrasound devices. HIFU is a non-invasive and highly effective standard treatment with a large indication range for all sizes of leiomyomas, associated with high efficacy, low operative morbidity and no systemic side effects. Conclusions Uterine fibroid treatment using HIFU was effective and safe in treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. Few studies are available in the literature regarding uterine artery embolization (UAE). HIFU provides an excellent option to treat uterine fibroids. PMID:25371765

  11. Uterine fibroids: clinical manifestations and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Leo; Mutlu, Levent; Sinclair, Donna; Taylor, Hugh

    2014-09-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are extremely common lesions that are associated with detrimental effects including infertility and abnormal uterine bleeding. Fibroids cause molecular changes at the level of endometrium. Abnormal regulation of growth factors and cytokines in fibroid cells may contribute to negative endometrial effects. Understanding of fibroid biology has greatly increased over the last decade. Although the current armamentarium of Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapies is limited, there are medications approved for use in heavy menstrual bleeding that can be used for the medical management of fibroids. Emergence of the role of growth factors in pathophysiology of fibroids has led researchers to develop novel therapeutics. Despite advances in medical therapies, surgical management remains a mainstay of fibroid treatment. Destruction of fibroids by interventional radiological procedures provides other effective treatments. Further experimental studies and clinical trials are required to determine which therapies will provide the greatest benefits to patients with fibroids. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Dealing with uterine fibroids in reproductive medicine.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, P

    2012-04-01

    Women who wish to conceive are nowadays more likely to present with uterine fibroids, mainly because of the delay in childbearing in our society. The relationship between uterine fibroids and human reproduction is still controversial and counselling patients might sometimes be challenging. This paper is to assist those involved in the management of patients of reproductive age presenting with uterine fibroids. The interference of fibroids on fertility largely depends on their location. Submucous fibroids interfere with fertility and should be removed in infertile patients, regardless of the size or the presence of symptoms. Intramural fibroids distorting the cavity reduce the chances of conception, while investigations on intramural fibroids not distorting the cavity have so far given controversial results. No evidence supports the systematic removal of subserosal fibroids in asymptomatic, infertile patients. Myomectomy is still the 'gold standard' in fibroid treatment for fertility-wishing patients. In experienced hands, hysteroscopic myomectomy is minimally invasive, safe, and effective. Abdominal and laparoscopic myomectomy might be challenging, but potential risks could be reduced by new strategies and techniques.

  13. Uterine fibroid management: from the present to the future

    PubMed Central

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common form of benign uterine tumors. Clinical presentations include abnormal bleeding, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, infertility, bulk symptoms and obstetric complications. Almost a third of women with leiomyomas will request treatment due to symptoms. Current management strategies mainly involve surgical interventions, but the choice of treatment is guided by patient's age and desire to preserve fertility or avoid ‘radical’ surgery such as hysterectomy. The management of uterine fibroids also depends on the number, size and location of the fibroids. Other surgical and non-surgical approaches include myomectomy by hysteroscopy, myomectomy by laparotomy or laparoscopy, uterine artery embolization and interventions performed under radiologic or ultrasound guidance to induce thermal ablation of the uterine fibroids. There are only a few randomized trials comparing various therapies for fibroids. Further investigations are required as there is a lack of concrete evidence of effectiveness and areas of uncertainty surrounding correct management according to symptoms. The economic impact of uterine fibroid management is significant and it is imperative that new treatments be developed to provide alternatives to surgical intervention. There is growing evidence of the crucial role of progesterone pathways in the pathophysiology of uterine fibroids due to the use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) such as ulipristal acetate (UPA). The efficacy of long-term intermittent use of UPA was recently demonstrated by randomized controlled studies. The need for alternatives to surgical intervention is very real, especially for women seeking to preserve their fertility. These options now exist, with SPRMs which are proven to treat fibroid symptoms effectively. Gynecologists now have new tools in their armamentarium, opening up novel strategies for the management of uterine fibroids. PMID

  14. Expulsion of Fibroids to the Endometrial Cavity after Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) Treatment of Intramural Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Hyeok; Hong, Gil Pyo; Kim, Yu-Ri; Hong, Da Gyo; Ha, Jae-Eun; Yeom, Jung In; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This report seeks to introduce some cases of the patients who received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery (MRgFUS)-based intramural uterine fibroids treatment where the post-MRgFUS intramural uterine fibroids decreased in its volume and protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be expelled by hysteroscopy. Methods Of the 157 patients who had received MRgFUS treatment in the Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital from March, 2015 to February, 2016; this study examined 6 of the cases where, after high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, intramural uterine fibroids protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be removed by hysteroscopic myomectomy. The high intensity focused ultrasound utilized in the cases were Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. Results The volume of fibroids ranged from 26.0 cm3 to 199.5 cm3, averaging 95.6 cm3. The major axis length ranged from 4.0 cm to 8.2 cm, averaging 6.3 cm. Fibroid location in all of the patients was in intramural uterine before treatment but after the high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, the fibroids were observed to protrude towards the endometrial cavity in at least Day 5 or up to Day 73 to allow hysteroscopic myomectomy. Conclusions In some cases, after an intramural uterine fibroid is treated with MRgFUS, fibroid volume is decreased and the fibroid protrudes towards the endometrial cavity. In this case, hysteroscopic myomectomy can be a useful solution. PMID:28119893

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Geraci, Laura; Napoli, Alessandro; Catalano, Carlo; Midiri, Massimo; Gagliardo, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, the most common benign tumor in women of childbearing age, may cause symptoms including pelvic pain, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, pressure, urinary symptoms, and infertility. Various approaches are available to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) represents a recently introduced noninvasive safe and effective technique that can be performed without general anesthesia, in an outpatient setting. We review the principles of MRgFUS, describing patient selection criteria for the treatments performed at our center and we present a series of five selected patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with this not yet widely known technique, showing its efficacy in symptom improvement and fibroid volume reduction.

  16. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Evidence-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a noninvasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas (fibroids). Uterine fibroids commonly occur, have a broad impact on women's health and lifestyle, continue to be the main indication for hysterectomy, and represent a costly public health burden. The objectives of the analysis were to evaluate patients' eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and the technical success, safety, effectiveness, and durability of this treatment. The review also compared the safety and effectiveness of MRgHIFU with other minimally invasive uterine-preserving treatments and surgeries for uterine fibroids. A literature search was performed on March 27, 2014, using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2000, to March 27, 2014. The evidence review identified 2 systematic reviews, 2 RCTs, 45 cohort study reports, and 19 case reports involving HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment was variable, ranging from 14% to 74%. In clinical cohort studies involving 1,594 patients, 26 major complications (1.6%) were reported. MRgHIFU resulted in statistically and clinically significant reductions in fibroid-related symptoms in studies conducted in 10 countries, although few involved follow-up longer than 1 year. Retreatment rates following MRgHIFU were higher in early clinical studies involving regulated restrictions in the extent of fibroid ablation than in later reports involving near-complete ablation. Emergent interventions, however, were rare. Although a desire for fertility was an exclusion criteria for treatment, spontaneous term pregnancies did occur following HIFU. There were no randomized trials comparing MRgHIFU and

  17. Uterine fibroid management: from the present to the future.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine

    2016-11-01

    Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common form of benign uterine tumors. Clinical presentations include abnormal bleeding, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, infertility, bulk symptoms and obstetric complications.Almost a third of women with leiomyomas will request treatment due to symptoms. Current management strategies mainly involve surgical interventions, but the choice of treatment is guided by patient's age and desire to preserve fertility or avoid 'radical' surgery such as hysterectomy. The management of uterine fibroids also depends on the number, size and location of the fibroids. Other surgical and non-surgical approaches include myomectomy by hysteroscopy, myomectomy by laparotomy or laparoscopy, uterine artery embolization and interventions performed under radiologic or ultrasound guidance to induce thermal ablation of the uterine fibroids.There are only a few randomized trials comparing various therapies for fibroids. Further investigations are required as there is a lack of concrete evidence of effectiveness and areas of uncertainty surrounding correct management according to symptoms. The economic impact of uterine fibroid management is significant and it is imperative that new treatments be developed to provide alternatives to surgical intervention.There is growing evidence of the crucial role of progesterone pathways in the pathophysiology of uterine fibroids due to the use of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) such as ulipristal acetate (UPA). The efficacy of long-term intermittent use of UPA was recently demonstrated by randomized controlled studies.The need for alternatives to surgical intervention is very real, especially for women seeking to preserve their fertility. These options now exist, with SPRMs which are proven to treat fibroid symptoms effectively. Gynecologists now have new tools in their armamentarium, opening up novel strategies for the management of uterine fibroids. © The Author 2016

  18. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid.

  19. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid. PMID:26664240

  20. Impact of periodic health examination on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Yun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Shan

    2010-12-07

    During the past 2 decades, there has been a rapid proliferation of "health examination center (HEC)" across China. The effects of their services on public's health have not been systemically investigated. This study aimed to assess the impact of periodic health examination (PHE) at HEC on surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in Beijing residents. We identified 224 patients with a primary diagnosis of uterine fibroids who had surgical treatment at four Level-1 general hospitals in Beijing, from June 1, 2009 to October 20, 2009. Controls were women who did not have surgery for uterine fibroids, matched (1:1 ratio) for age (within 2 years). A standard questionnaire was used to inquire about whether participants had PHE at HEC during the previous 2 years. PHE at HEC within 2 years were associated with surgical treatment for uterine fibroids. Odds ratios was 4.05 (95% CI, 2.61-6.29 P < 0.001), after adjustment for marital status, whether have children, annual family income, health insurance, education level and self-rated uterine fibroids-related symptom severity. Our study showed PHE currently provided at HEC in China were associated with significantly increased use of surgical treatment for uterine fibroids in women. Further studies are needed to assess the effects of PHE on clinical as well as on broad societal outcomes in Chinese in contemporary medical settings.

  1. The electrical conductivity of in vivo human uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    DeLonzor, Russ; Spero, Richard K; Williams, Joseph J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of electrical conductivity that can be used for numerical modelling in vivo radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatments of human uterine fibroids. No experimental electrical conductivity data have previously been reported for human uterine fibroids. In this study electrical data (voltage) from selected in vivo clinical procedures on human uterine fibroids were used to numerically model the treatments. Measured versus calculated power dissipation profiles were compared to determine uterine fibroid electrical conductivity. Numerical simulations were conducted utilising a wide range of values for tissue thermal conductivity, heat capacity and blood perfusion coefficient. The simulations demonstrated that power dissipation was insensitive to the exact values of these parameters for the simulated geometry, treatment duration, and power level. Consequently, it was possible to determine tissue electrical conductivity without precise knowledge of the values for these parameters. Results of this study showed that an electrical conductivity for uterine fibroids of 0.305 S/m at 37°C and a temperature coefficient of 0.2%/°C can be used for modelling Radio Frequency Ablation of human uterine fibroids at a frequency of 460 kHz for temperatures from 37°C to 100°C.

  2. An Altered Perception of Normal: Understanding Causes for Treatment Delay in Women with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Ghant, Marissa S; Sengoba, Katherine S; Vogelzang, Robert; Lawson, Angela K; Marsh, Erica E

    2016-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that are the leading cause of hysterectomy in the United States. Despite their high prevalence and associated morbidity, there are little qualitative data characterizing what drives women's treatment-seeking behavior for their fibroids. Women with symptomatic or recently treated uterine fibroids completed in-depth interviews and demographic surveys. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and uploaded to NVivo version 10 for data management and thematic coding. Coders identified major themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews. Sixty women (n = 60) completed the interviews. The kappa among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8. 61.7% of participants self-identified as African American, 25.0% as Caucasian, 8.3% as Hispanic, and 5.0% as Asian. Many women reported obtaining a delayed diagnosis for their uterine fibroids despite experiencing severe symptoms. There were five subthemes that identified why women delayed seeking treatment, which included the perception that their symptoms were "normal," they had a low knowledge of fibroids, they did not perceive themselves to be at risk for fibroids, they engaged in avoidance-based coping strategies, and/or they dissociated themselves from their fibroids. Many women with symptomatic fibroids live with this condition chronically without seeking care. It appears that for some, limited knowledge regarding fibroids and normal menstruation may lead to a distorted view of what is normal with regard to uterine bleeding, resulting in limited treatment seeking behavior. Others know their symptoms are abnormal but simply avoid the problem. There is a need for patient-centered and community-based education to improve women's knowledge of fibroids and symptoms and to promote treatment options.

  3. Magnetic Resonance–Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pron, G

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance–guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) is a noninvasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomas (fibroids). Uterine fibroids commonly occur, have a broad impact on women's health and lifestyle, continue to be the main indication for hysterectomy, and represent a costly public health burden. Objectives The objectives of the analysis were to evaluate patients’ eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids and the technical success, safety, effectiveness, and durability of this treatment. The review also compared the safety and effectiveness of MRgHIFU with other minimally invasive uterine-preserving treatments and surgeries for uterine fibroids. Methods A literature search was performed on March 27, 2014, using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 2000, to March 27, 2014. Results The evidence review identified 2 systematic reviews, 2 RCTs, 45 cohort study reports, and 19 case reports involving HIFU treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Eligibility for MRgHIFU treatment was variable, ranging from 14% to 74%. In clinical cohort studies involving 1,594 patients, 26 major complications (1.6%) were reported. MRgHIFU resulted in statistically and clinically significant reductions in fibroid-related symptoms in studies conducted in 10 countries, although few involved follow-up longer than 1 year. Retreatment rates following MRgHIFU were higher in early clinical studies involving regulated restrictions in the extent of fibroid ablation than in later reports involving near-complete ablation. Emergent interventions, however, were rare. Although a desire for fertility was an exclusion criteria for treatment, spontaneous term pregnancies did occur following HIFU. There were no

  4. Long-term treatment of uterine fibroids with ulipristal acetate ☆.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Vázquez, Francisco; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Nouri, Kazem; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Barlow, David H; Palacios, Santiago; Donnez, Olivier; Bestel, Elke; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of ulipristal acetate (UPA) for long-term treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Repeated intermittent open-label UPA courses, each followed by randomized double-blind norethisterone acetate (NETA) or placebo. European clinical gynecology centers. Two hundred and nine women with symptomatic fibroids including heavy menstrual bleeding. Patients received up to four 3-month courses of UPA 10 mg daily, immediately followed by 10-day double-blind treatment with NETA (10 mg daily) or placebo. Amenorrhea, fibroid volume, endometrial histology. After the first UPA course, amenorrhea occurred in 79% of women, with median onset (from treatment start) of 4 days (interquartile range, 2-6 days). Median fibroid volume change was -45% (interquartile range, -66%; -25%). Amenorrhea rates were 89%, 88%, and 90% for the 131, 119, and 107 women who received treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median times to amenorrhea were 2, 3, and 3 days for treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Median fibroid volume changes from baseline were -63%, -67%, and -72% after treatment courses 2, 3, and 4, respectively. All endometrial biopsies showed benign histology without hyperplasia; NETA did not affect fibroid volume or endometrial histology. Repeated 3-month UPA courses effectively control bleeding and shrink fibroids in patients with symptomatic fibroids. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) registration numbers NCT01156857 (PEARL III) and NCT01252069 (PEARL III extension). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Uterine fibroids – what’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alistair R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the commonest benign tumours of women and affect all races with a cumulative lifetime risk of around 70%. Despite their high prevalence and the heavy economic burden of treatment, fibroids have received remarkably little attention compared to common female malignant tumours. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the biological nature of fibroids, their life cycle and their molecular genetic origins. Recent progress in surgical and interventional management is briefly reviewed, and medical management options, including treatment with selective progesterone receptor modulators, are also discussed. PMID:29259779

  6. Uterine Fibroid Embolization for Symptomatic Fibroids: Study at a Teaching Hospital in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Mutai, John Kiprop; Vinayak, Sudhir; Stones, William; Hacking, Nigel; Mariara, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Characterization of magnetic (MRI) features in women undergoing uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) and identification of clinical correlates in an African population. Materials and Methods: Patients with symptomatic fibroids who are selected to undergo UFE at the hospital formed the study population. The baseline MRI features, baseline symptom score, short-term imaging outcome, and mid-term symptom scores were analyzed for interval changes. Assessment of potential associations between short-term imaging features and mid-term symptom scores was also done. Results: UFE resulted in statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) of dominant fibroid, uterine volumes, and reduction of symptom severity scores, which were 43.7%, 40.1%, and 37.8%, respectively. Also, 59% of respondents had more than 10 fibroids. The predominant location of the dominant fibroid was intramural. No statistically significant association was found between clinical and radiological outcome. Conclusion: The response of uterine fibroids to embolization in the African population is not different from the findings reported in other studies from the west. The presence of multiple and large fibroids in this study is consistent with the case mix described in other studies of African-American populations. Patient counseling should emphasize the independence of volume reduction and symptom improvement. Though volume changes are of relevance for the radiologist in understanding the evolution of the condition and identifying potential technical treatment failures, it should not be the main basis of evaluation of treatment success. PMID:25883858

  7. Uterine fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of uterine fibroids are: Bleeding between periods Heavy bleeding during your period, sometimes with blood clots ... may include: Birth control pills to help control heavy periods. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones to ...

  8. Clinical Consideration of Treatment to Ablate Uterine Fibroids with Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS): Sonalleve

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jae-Hyeok; Hong, Gil Pyo; Kim, Yu-Ri; Ha, Jae-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) is a newly emerging non-invasive technique for the treatment of uterine fibroids. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical impact of MRgFUS. Methods This study examined 157 patients. The high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilized in this study was Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, the Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. The patients were followed in post-operative Month 1, Month 3, and Month 6 to investigate any change. Then, these were further classified according to the use of uterine stimulant (oxytocin) in parallel, Funaki Type of uterine fibroid, HIFU intensity, and non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio. Results When the uterine stimulant was utilized, the HIFU intensity was measured at significantly lower levels, compared with the group not using uterine stimulant, and treatment duration was significantly. The NPV ratio was found significantly higher in the group using uterine stimulant. Concerning the correlation between Funaki Type of uterine fibroid and average sonication power, it was found that the closer to Type I, the lower the sonication power, the shorter the treatment duration, and the higher the NPV ratio significantly. Conclusions In this study, it was found that the lower the Funaki Types of uterine fibroids, and the higher the NPV ratio immediately after the operation, the larger the uterine fibroid volume decrease and SSS change were. Also, if uterine stimulant was used in parallel in treatment, treatment duration and HIFU intensity could become shorter and lower. PMID:27617244

  9. Laparoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Milic, Andrea; Asch, Murray R.; Hawrylyshyn, Peter A.

    Four patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids measuring less than 6 cm underwent laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using multiprobe-array electrodes. Follow-up of the treated fibroids was performed with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and patients' symptoms were assessed by telephone interviews. The procedure was initially technically successful in 3 of the 4 patients and MRI studies at 1 month demonstrated complete fibroid ablation. Symptom improvement, including a decrease in menstrual bleeding and pain, was achieved in 2 patients at 3 months. At 7 months, 1 of these 2 patients experienced symptom worsening which correlated with recurrent fibroid on MRI. Themore » third, initially technically successfully treated patient did not experience any symptom relief after the procedure and was ultimately diagnosed with adenomyosis. Our preliminary results suggest that RFA is a technically feasible treatment for symptomatic uterine fibroids in appropriately selected patients.« less

  10. A randomized prospective trial of the postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: clinical trial design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Lee, Taek Sang; Jeon, Yong-Tark; Kim, Yong Beom; Jeon, Hye Won; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2009-01-01

    Background Laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy is one of the definite methods for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids with lesser intraoperative bleeding and shorter hospitalization compared with abdominal hysterectomy. However, laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy cannot preserve uterus and can show postoperative complications by the change of pelvic structure. Thus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation has been introduced for relieving the symptoms caused by uterine fibroids in place of hysterectomy. The current study was designed to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic uterine artery ligation which can treat symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus. Methods and design Patients enrolled the current study are randomized to laparoscopic uterine artery ligation or laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The primary outcome is to compare postoperative quality of life between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer patients version 3.0. Secondary outcomes are to evaluate the volume reduction of uterus, uterine fibroids and ovaries by the 2 treatments, to compare the improvement of subjective symptoms using 11-point symptom score and postoperative clinical outcomes between laparoscopic uterine artery ligation and laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and to investigate the improvement of postoperative vaginal bleeding by laparoscopic uterine artery ligation. Discussion Among treatment methods for symptomatic uterine fibroids with the preservation of uterus, laparoscopic uterine artery ligation is expected to have the efficacy like uterine artery embolization, which appeared to be safe for routine use with symptomatic relief. The

  11. MR-guided Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z MR-guided Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound ( ... are the limitations of MRgFUS? What is Focused Ultrasound of Uterine Fibroids? Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound ( ...

  12. Induced and Spontaneous Abortion and Risk of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Mandiwa, Chrispin; Yang, Siyi; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between abortion and uterine fibroids has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 14,595 retired female employees from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included in our analysis. Information on induced and spontaneous abortions was collected by trained interviewers through face-to-face interviews. Diagnosis of uterine fibroids was based on ultrasound or self-reported physician diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The prevalence of uterine fibroids was 15.1% among all participants. Higher number of induced abortions was associated with an increased risk of uterine fibroids (1 induced abortion: odds ratios [ORs] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48; 2 induced abortions: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64; and ≥3 induced abortions: OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.39-1.90). Compared with women without induced abortion, ORs for women with 1, 2, and ≥3 were 1.17 (95% CI 1.03-1.32), 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.39), and 1.36 (95% CI 1.15-1.61), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. No association was observed between the number of spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The findings of this study showed that induced abortion may be an independent risk factor for uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women.

  13. Scaled signal intensity of uterine fibroids based on T2-weighted MR images: a potential objective method to determine the suitability for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Wook; Sokolov, Amit

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) is a non-invasive method to treat uterine fibroids. To help determine the patient suitability for MRgFUS, we propose a new objective measure: the scaled signal intensity (SSI) of uterine fibroids in T2 weighted MR images (T2WI). Forty three uterine fibroids in 40 premenopausal women were included in this retrospective study. SSI of each fibroid was measured from the screening T2WI by standardizing its mean signal intensity to a 0-100 scale, using reference intensities of rectus abdominis muscle (0) and subcutaneous fat (100). Correlation between the SSI and the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio (a measure for treatment success) was calculated. Pre-treatment SSI showed a significant inverse-correlation with post treatment NPV ratio (p < 0.05). When dichotomizing NPV ratio at 45 %, the optimal cut off value of the SSI was found to be 16.0. A fibroid with SSI value 16.0 or less can be expected to have optimal responses. The SSI of uterine fibroids in T2WI can be suggested as an objective parameter to help in patient selection for MRgFUS. • Signal intensity of fibroid in MR images predicts treatment response to MRgFUS. • Signal intensity is standardized into scaled form using adjacent tissues as references. • Fibroids with SSI less than 16.0 are expected to have optimal responses.

  14. Use of Ulipristal Acetate for the Management of Fibroid-Related Acute Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Arendas, Kristina; Leyland, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of acute abnormal uterine bleeding related to uterine fibroids can cause significant morbidity. Traditional management with high-dose hormonal regimens may not be as effective when used in women with fibroids. A 32-year-old woman with a 12 cm uterine fibroid presented with an episode of acute abnormal uterine bleeding requiring blood transfusion. In lieu of using a hormonal maintenance regimen after the bleeding had stabilized, the patient was treated with ulipristal acetate 5 mg daily for three months. Amenorrhea was induced rapidly and the patient had no further episodes of acute excessive uterine bleeding. She subsequently underwent a laparoscopic myomectomy with a satisfactory outcome. Ulipristal acetate has been shown to induce amenorrhea rapidly in women with uterine fibroids, and it can be a useful treatment in the emergency management of fibroid-related acute abnormal uterine bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The management of uterine fibroids in women with otherwise unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Havelock, Jon; Hemmings, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To provide recommendations regarding the best management of fibroids in couples who present with infertility. Usual and novel treatment options for fibroids will be reviewed with emphasis on their applicability in women who wish to conceive. Management of fibroids in women wishing to conceive first involves documentation of the presence of the fibroid and determination of likelihood of the fibroid impacting on the ability to conceive. Treatment of fibroids in this instance is primarily surgical, but must be weighed against the evidence of surgical management improving clinical outcomes, and risks specific to surgical management and approach. The outcomes of primary concern are the improvement in pregnancy rates and outcomes with management of fibroids in women with infertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library in November 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., leiomyoma, infertility, uterine artery embolization, fertilization in vitro) and key words (e.g., fibroid, myomectomy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English and French. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to November 2013. Grey (unpublished literature) was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). These recommendations are expected to allow adequate management of women with fibroids and infertility, maximizing their chances of pregnancy by minimizing risks introduced by unnecessary myomectomies. Reducing complications and

  16. Uterine artery embolization for treatment of leiomyomata: long-term outcomes from the FIBROID Registry.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Scott C; Spies, James B; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert; Peterson, Eric; Pron, Gaylene; Li, Shuang; Myers, Evan R

    2008-01-01

    To assess long-term clinical outcomes of uterine artery embolization across a wide variety of practice settings in a large patient cohort. The Fibroid Registry for Outcomes Data (FIBROID) for Uterine Embolization was a 3-year, single-arm, prospective, multi-center longitudinal study of the short- and long-term outcomes of uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata. Two thousand one hundred twelve patients with symptomatic leiomyomata were eligible for long-term follow-up at 27 sites representing a geographically diverse set of practices, including academic centers, community hospitals, and closed-panel health maintenance organizations. At 36 months after treatment, 1,916 patients remained in the study, and of these, 1,278 patients completed the survey. The primary measures of outcome were the symptom and health-related quality-of-life scores from the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire. Mean symptom scores improved 41.41 points (P<.001), and the quality of life scores improved 41.47 points (P<.001), both moving into the normal range for this questionnaire. The improvements were independent of practice setting. During the 3 years of the study, Kaplan-Meier estimates of hysterectomy, myomectomy, or repeat uterine artery embolization were 9.79%, 2.82%, and 1.83% of the patients, respectively. Uterine artery embolization results in a durable improvement in quality of life. These results are achievable when the procedure is performed in any experienced community or academic interventional radiology practice. III.

  17. Degenerated uterine fibroid mimicking hydrometra: fallacy in CT

    PubMed Central

    Tok, CH; Bux, SI; Mohamed, SI; Lim, BK

    2006-01-01

    Fibroids are the commonest uterine neoplasms, occurring in 20% - 30% of women of reproductive age. In women who have pelvic masses of unknown cause, unusual manifestations of fibroids such as necrosis or degeneration may simulate a carcinoma or hydrometra resulting in problems with image interpretation. We report a case of an unsuspected large degenerated uterine fibroid in a lady mistakenly diagnosed as hydrometra on computed tomography scanning. PMID:21614328

  18. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound is better than magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating the short-term results of microwave ablation treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meiwu; Fan, Xiaoxiang; Mao, Dafeng

    2017-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compared in evaluating the short-term effects of microwave ablation (MWA) on uterine fibroids. A total of 60 patients with uterine fibroids treated by MWA were enrolled in the experimental group during their two-year follow-up period according to the inclusion criteria. Conventional two-dimensional US, MRI and CEUS were performed to determine the volume reduction and the fibroid residue by displaying the size, echo and signal intensity of fibroids prior to and after MWA treatment. As the control group, 60 consecutive patients were recruited on their follow-up visit at least two years after MWA treatment of uterine fibroids. Significant differences were observed in the wash-in rate (WiR) of the fibroid tissue, start time difference, rise time ratio (RTR) and WiR ratio between the experimental and control groups (P<0.05). However, the WiR of fibroid vessel, total area under the curve of fibroid vessel and tissue, and rise time difference (RTD) between fibroid vessel and tissue did not display any significant differences between the two groups. Fibroids were either reduced in volume or cured by MWA therapy in patients with uterine fibroids. The reductions in volume of hypointense, isointense and hyperintense fibroids were 62.42±18.13, 53.27±10.05 and 47.43±9.56%, respectively, on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI). On T2WI, the corresponding reductions were 67.32±32.63, 59.36±19.36 and 42.63±10.37%, respectively. The higher the signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, the lower the reduction in volume. It is indicative that different blood supply to fibroids results in different ablation. CEUS was proved to be more effective than MRI in evaluating the effects of MWA on uterine fibroids during the first postoperative year.

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yongshuo; Hu, Kaimeng; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Lijun; Zhu, Junqiu; Zhu, Linglin; Zhu, Yanfei; Zhao, Hong

    2017-12-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive uterine-preserving treatment alternative to hysterectomy for women with fibroids. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy of HIFU in the treatment of women with symptomatic fibroids comparing it to other approaches including medical treatment with mifepristone (Mife), traditional surgery with myomectomy or hysterectomy (MYC/HRM), and radiofrequency ablation (RF). 16 studies with 1725 women were included. The pooled data of HIFU comparing it to other methods in terms of complete or partial response rate (CR/PR) was not significantly better, but in subgroup analysis, the response rate was significantly higher than Mife, significantly lower than RF and comparable to MYC/HRM, respectively. For the endpoints of safety, the superiority of HIFU compared to MYC/HMR or Mife was found to be significant in terms of pain/discomfort, fever, transfusion, genital tract, gastrointestinal tract, and anesthesia-related complications, while no superiority was identified for skin burn, urinary tract, and nervous system complications. These results suggest that HIFU treatment of uterine leiomyomas leads to clinical improvement with few significant clinical complications and adverse events.

  20. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  1. Electromagnetic image guidance in gynecology: prospective study of a new laparoscopic imaging and targeting technique for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Galen, Donald I

    2015-10-15

    Uterine fibroids occur singly or as multiple benign tumors originating in the myometrium. Because they vary in size and location, the approach and technique for their identification and surgical management vary. Reference images, such as ultrasound images, magnetic resonance images, and sonohystograms, do not provide real-time intraoperative findings. Electromagnetic image guidance, as incorporated in the Acessa Guidance System, has been cleared by the FDA to facilitate targeting and ablation of uterine fibroids during laparoscopic surgery. This is the first feasibility study to verify the features and usefulness of the guidance system in targeting symptomatic uterine fibroids-particularly hard-to-reach intramural fibroids and those abutting the endometrium. One gynecologic surgeon, who had extensive prior experience in laparoscopic ultrasound-guided identification of fibroids, treated five women with symptomatic uterine fibroids using the Acessa Guidance System. The surgeon evaluated the system and its features in terms of responses to prescribed statements; the responses were analyzed prospectively. The surgeon strongly agreed (96 %) or agreed (4 %) with statements describing the helpfulness of the transducer and handpiece's dynamic animation in targeting each fibroid, reaching the fibroid quickly, visualizing the positions of the transducer and handpiece within the pelvic cavity, and providing the surgeon with confidence when targeting the fibroid even during "out-of-plane" positioning of the handpiece. The surgeon's positive user experience was evident in the guidance system's facilitation of accurate handpiece tip placement during targeting and ablation of uterine fibroids. Continued study of electromagnetic image guidance in the laparoscopic identification and treatment of fibroids is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01842789.

  2. Living with uterine fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider for uterine fibroids. They can cause: Heavy menstrual bleeding and long periods Bleeding between periods ... effects, including: Birth control pills to help with heavy periods. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release hormones to ...

  3. Uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, or myomectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    You, Joyce H S; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Yuen, Pong Mo

    2009-02-01

    To compare the cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of hysterectomy, myomectomy, and uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic control of uterine fibroids. A cost-utility analysis conducted by using Markov modeling. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of Hong Kong society. A hypothetical cohort of patients presenting with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Hysterectomy, myomectomy, or UAE. Health-care resource use and QALYs over 5 years. The base-case analysis showed that hysterectomy was the most effective treatment (4.368 QALYs), followed by myomectomy (4.273 QALYs) and UAE (4.245 QALYs) over 5 years. Hysterectomy was less costly (USD8418) (1USD = 7.8HKD) than UAE (USD8847) and myomectomy (USD9036). Monte Carlo 10,000 simulations showed that the hysterectomy group was less costly than the UAE and myomectomy groups 84.1% and 79.1% of the time, and it also gained higher number of QALYs than the UAE and myomectomy groups over 97% of the time. Hysterectomy appears to be more cost-effective than myomectomy and UAE for management of symptomatic uterine fibroids over a 5-year period among patients who do not have a preference for uterus-conserving interventions.

  4. Incarceration of a pedunculated uterine fibroid in an umbilical hernia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ju; Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Seong, Won Joon

    2017-05-01

    Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that may cause an umbilical hernia in patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy, obesity, ascites, and intra-abdominal tumors. However, the simultaneous occurrence of uterine fibroids and umbilical hernias, or fibroids and an associated umbilical hernia, during pregnancy has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a fibroid presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia in a menopausal patient.

  5. Incarceration of a pedunculated uterine fibroid in an umbilical hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Ju; Seong, Won Joon

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are common benign tumors that may cause an umbilical hernia in patients with increased intra-abdominal pressure due to pregnancy, obesity, ascites, and intra-abdominal tumors. However, the simultaneous occurrence of uterine fibroids and umbilical hernias, or fibroids and an associated umbilical hernia, during pregnancy has rarely been reported. Here, we present the case of a fibroid presenting as an incarcerated umbilical hernia in a menopausal patient. PMID:28534020

  6. MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroid Treatment: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chung Y.; Omer, Zehra B.; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Swan, J. Shannon; Srouji, Serene; Gazelle, G. Scott; Fennessy, Fiona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment strategy for symptomatic uterine fibroids that employs Magnetic Resonance guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS) as a first-line therapy relative to uterine artery embolization (UAE) or abdominal hysterectomy (HYST). Materials and Methods We developed a decision-analytic model to compare the cost-effectiveness of three treatment strategies: MRgFUS, UAE and HYST. Short and long-term utilities specific to each treatment were incorporated, allowing us to account for differences in quality of life across the strategies considered. Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated for each strategy. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed, using a societal willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000 per QALY to designate a strategy as cost-effective. Sensitivity analysis was performed on all key model parameters. Results In the base-case analysis, in which treatment for symptomatic fibroids started at age 40, UAE was the most effective and expensive strategy (22.81 QALYs, $22,164), followed by MRgFUS (22.80 QALYs, $19,796) and HYST (22.60 QALYs, $13,291). MRgFUS was cost-effective relative to HYST, with an associated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $33,110/QALY. MRgFUS was also cost-effective relative to UAE – the ICER of UAE relative to MRgFUS ($270,057) far exceeded the WTP threshold of $50,000/QALY. In sensitivity analysis, results were robust to changes in most parameters, but were sensitive to changes in probabilities of recurrence and symptom relief following certain procedures, and quality of life associated with symptomatic fibroids. Conclusions MRgFUS is cost-effective relative to both UAE and hysterectomy for the treatment of women with symptomatic fibroids. PMID:25055272

  7. Paricalcitol, a Vitamin D Receptor Activator, Inhibits Tumor Formation in a Murine Model of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We examined the antitumor and therapeutic potentials of paricalcitol, an analog of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 with lower calcemic activity, against uterine fibroids using in vitro and in vivo evaluations in appropriate uterine fibroid cells and animal models. We found that paricalcitol has potential to reduce the proliferation of the immortalized human uterine fibroid cells. For the in vivo study, we generated subcutaneous tumors by injecting the Eker rat-derived uterine leiomyoma cell line (ELT-3) rat uterine fibroid-derived cell line in athymic nude mice supplemented with estrogen pellets. These mice were administered with vehicle versus paricalcitol (300 ng/kg/d) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (500 ng/kg/d) for 4 consecutive weeks, and the data were analyzed. We found that while both paricalcitol and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced fibroid tumor size, the shrinkage was slightly higher in the paricalcitol-treated group. Together, our results suggest that paricalcitol may be a potential candidate for effective, safe, and noninvasive medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. PMID:24925855

  8. Radiofrequency Ablation of Uterine Fibroids: a Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce B; Yu, Steve P

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic, ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a new, FDA-cleared uterine sparing, outpatient procedure for uterine fibroids. The procedure utilizes recent technological advancements in instrumentation and imaging, allowing surgeons to treat numerous fibroids of varying size and location in a minimally invasive fashion. Early and mid-term data from multi-center clinical trials have demonstrated safety and efficacy, with resolution or improvement of symptoms and significant volume reduction. Re-intervention rates for fibroid symptoms have been low. The procedure is well tolerated with a typically uneventful and rapid recovery requiring NSAIDs only for postoperative pain. While post RFA pregnancy data are limited, the results are promising.

  9. Factors influencing the dosimetry for high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Song; Zhang, Lian; Hu, Liang; Chen, Jinyun; Ju, Jin; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhibiao; Chen, Wenzhi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze factors affecting sonication dose and build a dosimetry model of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for uterine fibroids. Four hundred and three patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent HIFU were retrospectively analyzed. The energy efficiency factor (EEF) was set as dependent variable, and the factors possibly affecting sonication dose included age, body mass index, size of uterine fibroid, abdominal wall thickness, the distance from uterine fibroid dorsal side to sacrum, the distance from uterine fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, abdominal wall scar, signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and enhancement type on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) were set as predictors to build a multiple regression model. The size of uterine fibroid, distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, location of uterus, location of uterine fibroids, type of uterine fibroids, signal intensity on T2WI, and enhancement type on T1WI had a linear correlation with EEF. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI were eventually incorporated into the dosimetry model. The distance from fibroid ventral side to skin, enhancement type on T1WI, size of uterine fibroid, and signal intensity on T2WI can be used as dosimetric predictors for HIFU for uterine fibroids.

  10. ERα inhibited myocardin-induced differentiation in uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Li, Jun-Yan; Dong, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Xiuhong; Xiang, Yuan; Li, Hui; Yu, Cheng-Xi; Li, Jia-Peng; Yuan, Bai-Yin; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas, are a benign tumor of the human uterus and the commonest estrogen-dependent benign tumor found in women. Myocardin is an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. The role of myocardin and its relationship with ERα in uterine fibroids have barely been addressed. We noticed that the expression of myocardin was markedly reduced in human uterine fibroid tissue compared with corresponding normal or adjacent myometrium tissue. Here we reported that myocardin induced the transcription and expression of differentiation markers SM22α and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rat primary uterine smooth muscle cells (USMCs) and this effect was inhibited by ERα. Notably, we showed that, ERα induced expression of proliferation markers PCNA and ki-67 in rat primary USMCs. We also found ERα interacted with myocardin and formed complex to bind to CArG box and inhibit the SM22α promoter activity. Furthermore, ERα inhibited the transcription and expression of myocardin, and reduced the levels of transcription and expression of downstream target SM22α, a SMC differentiation marker. Our data thus provided important and novel insights into how ERα and myocardin interact to control the cell differentiation and proliferation of USMCs. Thus, it may provide potential therapeutic target for uterine fibroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ERα inhibited myocardin-induced differentiation in uterine fibroids

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liao, Xing-Hua, E-mail: xinghualiao@hotmail.com; Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology, Ministry of Education and Tianjin, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457; Li, Jun-Yan

    Uterine fibroids, also known as uterine leiomyomas, are a benign tumor of the human uterus and the commonest estrogen-dependent benign tumor found in women. Myocardin is an important transcriptional regulator in smooth and cardiac muscle development. The role of myocardin and its relationship with ERα in uterine fibroids have barely been addressed. We noticed that the expression of myocardin was markedly reduced in human uterine fibroid tissue compared with corresponding normal or adjacent myometrium tissue. Here we reported that myocardin induced the transcription and expression of differentiation markers SM22α and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in rat primary uterine smoothmore » muscle cells (USMCs) and this effect was inhibited by ERα. Notably, we showed that, ERα induced expression of proliferation markers PCNA and ki-67 in rat primary USMCs. We also found ERα interacted with myocardin and formed complex to bind to CArG box and inhibit the SM22α promoter activity. Furthermore, ERα inhibited the transcription and expression of myocardin, and reduced the levels of transcription and expression of downstream target SM22α, a SMC differentiation marker. Our data thus provided important and novel insights into how ERα and myocardin interact to control the cell differentiation and proliferation of USMCs. Thus, it may provide potential therapeutic target for uterine fibroids.« less

  12. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Das, Raj, E-mail: rajdas@nhs.net; Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction,more » presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.« less

  13. Surgical Treatment of Fibroids in Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids can cause abnormal uterine bleeding and their removal is beneficial in the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding associated with fibroids for women who would like to preserve their uterus and fertility. Endoscopic (hysteroscopic and laparoscopic) approaches are the preferred methods of fibroid removal when appropriate. In the presence of submucosal fibroids, hysteroscopic resection is a simple, safe and effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and reduces the need for more major surgery, such as hysterectomy. When abdominal myomectomy is required, laparoscopic myomectomy is the preferred choice in selected cases due to its advantages over open myomectomy. PMID:26693796

  14. Surgical Management of Neurovascular Bundle in Uterine Fibroid Pseudocapsule

    PubMed Central

    Malvasi, Antonio; Hurst, Brad S.; Tsin, Daniel A.; Davila, Fausto; Dominguez, Guillermo; Dell'edera, Domenico; Cavallotti, Carlo; Negro, Roberto; Gustapane, Sarah; Teigland, Chris M.; Mettler, Liselotte

    2012-01-01

    The uterine fibroid pseudocapsule is a fibro-neurovascular structure surrounding a leiomyoma, separating it from normal peripheral myometrium. The fibroid pseudocapsule is composed of a neurovascular network rich in neurofibers similar to the neurovascular bundle surrounding a prostate. The nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy has several intriguing parallels to myomectomy. It may serve either as a useful model in modern fibroid surgical removal, or it may accelerate our understanding of the role of the fibrovascular bundle and neurotransmitters in the healing and restoration of reproductive potential after intracapsular myomectomy. Surgical innovations, such as laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy applied to the intracapsular technique with magnification of the fibroid pseudocapsule surrounding a leiomyoma, originated from the radical prostatectomy method that highlighted a careful dissection of the neurovascular bundle to preserve sexual functioning after prostatectomy. Gentle uterine leiomyoma detachment from the pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle has allowed a reduction in uterine bleeding and uterine musculature trauma with sparing of the pseudocapsule neuropeptide fibers. This technique has had a favorable impact on functionality in reproduction and has improved fertility outcomes. Further research should determine the role of the myoma pseudocapsule neurovascular bundle in the formation, growth, and pathophysiological consequences of fibroids, including pain, infertility, and reproductive outcomes. PMID:22906340

  15. Optimizing research in symptomatic uterine fibroids with development of a computable phenotype for use with electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Vines, Anissa I; Halladay, Jacqueline R; Pfaff, Emily; Schiff, Lauren; Westreich, Daniel; Sundaresan, Aditi; Johnson, La-Shell; Nicholson, Wanda K

    2018-06-01

    Women with symptomatic uterine fibroids can report a myriad of symptoms, including pain, bleeding, infertility, and psychosocial sequelae. Optimizing fibroid research requires the ability to enroll populations of women with image-confirmed symptomatic uterine fibroids. Our objective was to develop an electronic health record-based algorithm to identify women with symptomatic uterine fibroids for a comparative effectiveness study of medical or surgical treatments on quality-of-life measures. Using an iterative process and text-mining techniques, an effective computable phenotype algorithm, composed of demographics, and clinical and laboratory characteristics, was developed with reasonable performance. Such algorithms provide a feasible, efficient way to identify populations of women with symptomatic uterine fibroids for the conduct of large traditional or pragmatic trials and observational comparative effectiveness studies. Symptomatic uterine fibroids, due to menorrhagia, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, or infertility, are a source of substantial morbidity for reproductive-age women. Comparing Treatment Options for Uterine Fibroids is a multisite registry study to compare the effectiveness of hormonal or surgical fibroid treatments on women's perceptions of their quality of life. Electronic health record-based algorithms are able to identify large numbers of women with fibroids, but additional work is needed to develop electronic health record algorithms that can identify women with symptomatic fibroids to optimize fibroid research. We sought to develop an efficient electronic health record-based algorithm that can identify women with symptomatic uterine fibroids in a large health care system for recruitment into large-scale observational and interventional research in fibroid management. We developed and assessed the accuracy of 3 algorithms to identify patients with symptomatic fibroids using an iterative approach. The data source was the Carolina Data Warehouse for

  16. Prevalence of endometrial polyps coexisting with uterine fibroids and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Kınay, Tuğba; Öztürk Başarır, Zehra; Fırtına Tuncer, Serap; Akpınar, Funda; Kayıkçıoğlu, Fulya; Koç, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of endometrial polyps in patients with uterine fibroids and associated factors of coexistence of these two pathologies. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 772 patients who underwent hysterectomy because of uterine fibroids were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of endometrial polyps in the histopathologic examination. Demographic, clinical and histopathologic findings of the patients with and without endometrial polyps were compared. Student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson’s Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of the endometrial polyps in uterine fibroid cases was found 20.1% (n=155). Age ≥45 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.06-2.44]; p=0.014), presence of hypertension (23.9% vs. 17.5%; p=0.047), endometrial hyperplasia (OR 4.00; 95% CI: [1.92-8.33]; p<0.001) and cervical polyps (OR 3.13; 95% CI: [1.69-5.88]; p<0.001) were significantly associated with the coexistence of endometrial polyps and uterine fibroids. Endometrial polyps were more common in patients with ≥2 fibroids (p=0.023) and largest fibroid <8 cm (p=0.009). A negative correlation was found between condom use and endometrial polyps (8.1% vs. 3.9%; p=0.044). Conclusions: The prevalence of the endometrial polyps coexisting with uterine fibroids was 20.1%. Age, hypertension, endometrial hyperplasia, cervical polyps, and number of fibroids were positively correlated; condom use and size of largest fibroid were negatively correlated with the coexistence of these two pathologies. PMID:28913086

  17. Uterine Artery Embolization in 101 Cases of Uterine Fibroids: Do Size, Location, and Number of Fibroids Affect Therapeutic Success and Complications?

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Firouznia, Kavous, E-mail: k_firouznia@yahoo.com; Ghanaati, Hossein; Sanaati, Mina

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the size, location, or number of fibroids affects therapeutic efficacy or complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE). Patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (n = 101) were treated by selective bilateral UAE using 500- to 710-{mu}m polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles. Baseline measures of clinical symptoms, sonography, and MRI taken before the procedure were compared to those taken 1, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Complications and outcomes were analyzed for associations with fibroid size, location, and number. Reductions in mean fibroid volume were similar in patients with single (66.6 {+-} 21.5%) andmore » multiple (67.4 {+-} 25.0%) fibroids (p-value = 0.83). Menstrual improvement occurred in patients with single (93.3%) and multiple (72.2%) fibroids (p = 0.18). Changes in submucosal and other fibroids were not significantly different between the two groups (p's > 0.56). Linear regression analysis between primary fibroid volume as independent variable and percentage reduction of fibroid volume after 1 year yielded an R{sup 2} of 0.083 and the model coefficient was not statistically significant (p = 0.072). Multivariate regression models revealed no statistically or clinically significant coefficients or odds ratios for three independent variables (primary fibroid size, total number, and fibroid location) and all outcome variables (percent reduction of uterus and fibroid volumes in 1 year, improvement of clinical symptoms [menstrual, bulk related, and urinary] in 1 year, and complications after UAE). In conclusion, neither the success rate nor the probability of complications was affected by the primary fibroid size, location, or total number of fibroids.« less

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of Fibroid Location in Women Achieving Pregnancy After Uterine Artery Embolization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Walker, Woodruff J.; Bratby, Mark John

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fibroid morphology in a cohort of women achieving pregnancy following treatment with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. A retrospective review of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the uterus was performed to assess pre-embolization fibroid morphology. Data were collected on fibroid size, type, and number and included analysis of follow-up imaging to assess response. There have been 67 pregnancies in 51 women, with 40 live births. Intramural fibroids were seen in 62.7% of the women (32/48). Of these the fibroids were multiple in 16. A further 12 women hadmore » submucosal fibroids, with equal numbers of types 1 and 2. Two of these women had coexistent intramural fibroids. In six women the fibroids could not be individually delineated and formed a complex mass. All subtypes of fibroid were represented in those subgroups of women achieving a live birth versus those who did not. These results demonstrate that the location of uterine fibroids did not adversely affect subsequent pregnancy in the patient population investigated. Although this is only a small qualitative study, it does suggest that all types of fibroids treated with UAE have the potential for future fertility.« less

  19. Association of uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination for unexplained infertility.

    PubMed

    Styer, Aaron K; Jin, Susan; Liu, Dan; Wang, Baisong; Polotsky, Alex J; Christianson, Mindy S; Vitek, Wendy; Engmann, Lawrence; Hansen, Karl; Wild, Robert; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter; Christman, Gregory M; Christy, Alicia; Diamond, Michael P; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping; Santoro, Nanette

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the association of non-cavity-distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility. Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes after OS-IUI. Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites. Nine hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins), and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved. Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates. A total of 102/900 participants (11.3%) had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum antimüllerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss before 12 weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared with non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids. No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity-distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity-distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility. NCT01044862. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy and safety of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Jacobson, H; Ngobese, Z E; Setzen, R

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) treatment on symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. A feasibility study. Gynaecological department in a teaching hospital in South Africa. Premenopausal women with uterus fibroids. Twenty-six patients with 53 fibroids who underwent USgHIFU treatment were enrolled. The USgHIFU treatment information was recorded, including treatment time, sonication time and total energy. Adverse events were also observed and recorded during and after treatment. Safety and efficacy of USgHIFU for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. The median volume of fibroids was 52.7 (interquartile range, 18.6-177.4) cm 3 . According to USgHIFU treatment plan, total energy of 298.6 ± 169.3 kJ (range, 76.0-889.2) within treatment time of 90.3 ± 43.3 minutes (range, 14.0-208.0), in which sonication time of 774.0 ± 432.9 seconds (range, 190.0-2224.0) was used to ablate fibroids. The average ablation rate was 80.6 ± 9.7% (range, 46.5-94.5%). During the procedure, 69.2% of the patients reported lower abdominal pain, 57.7% sciatic/buttock pain, 38.5% burning skin, and 34.6% transient leg pain. No severe complications were observed. USgHIFU is feasible and safe to use to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids in Black women. Multiple uterine fibroids are more frequently detected in Black women. USgHIFU is feasible and safe for the treatment of uterine fibroids in Black women. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. The conservative and interventional treatment of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Boosz, Alexander Stephan; Reimer, Peter; Matzko, Matthias; Römer, Thomas; Müller, Andreas

    2014-12-22

    Fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women. One-third of all women of reproductive age undergo treatment for symptomatic fibroids. In recent years, the spectrum of available treatments has been widened by the introduction of new drugs and interventional procedures. Selective literature review on the treatment of uterine fibroids, including consideration of several Cochrane Reviews. Fibroids can be treated with drugs, interventional procedures (uterine artery embolization [UAE] and focused ultrasound treatment [FUS]), and surgery. The evidence regarding the various available treatments is mixed. All methods improve symptoms, but only a few comparative studies have been performed. A meta-analysis revealed that recovery within 15 days is more common after laparoscopic enucleation than after open surgery (odds ratio [OR], 3.2). A minimally invasive hysterectomy, or one performed by the vaginal route, is associated with a shorter hospital stay and a more rapid recovery than open transabdominal hysterectomy. UAE is an alternative to hysterectomy for selected patients. The re-intervention rates after fibroid enucleation, hysterectomy, and UAE are 8.9-9%, 1.8-10.7%, and 7-34.6%, respectively. The main drugs used to treat fibroids are gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and selective progesterone receptor modulators. Multiple treatment options are available and enable individualized therapy for symptomatic fibroids. The most important considerations in the choice of treatment are the question of family planning and, in some cases, the technical limitations of the treatments themselves.

  2. Clinical limitations of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Hesley, Gina K; Hopkins, Matthew R; Brandt, Kathleen R; Zhu, Yunxiao; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    To determine the reproducibility of classifying uterine fibroids using the 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. The present retrospective cohort study included patients presenting for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids at the Gynecology Fibroid Clinic at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, USA, between April 1, 2013 and April 1, 2014. Magnetic resonance imaging of fibroid uteri was performed and the images were independently reviewed by two academic gynecologists and two radiologists specializing in fibroid care. Fibroid classifications assigned by each physician were compared and the significance of the variations was graded by whether they would affect surgical planning. There were 42 fibroids from 23 patients; only 6 (14%) fibroids had unanimous classification agreement. The majority (36 [86%]) had at least two unique answers and 4 (10%) fibroids had four unique classifications. Variations in classification were not associated with physician specialty. More than one-third of the classification discrepancies would have impacted surgical planning. FIGO fibroid classification was not consistent among four fibroid specialists. The variation was clinically significant for 36% of the fibroids. Additional validation of the FIGO fibroid classification system is needed. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Prescription patterns of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hung-Rong; Chen, Ying-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Ping; Chang, Tung-Ti; Tsao, Jung-Ying; Chen, Bor-Chyuan; Sun, Mao-Feng

    2015-08-02

    Uterine fibroid (myoma) is one of the most common diseases in women. Although there are several studies on the efficacy of Chinese herbs, there is a lack of large-scale survey on the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of uterine fibroid. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of Chinese herbal products for patients with uterine fibroid, prescribed by licensed TCM doctors in Taiwan. A random sample comprised of one million individuals with newly diagnosed uterine fibroid between 2002 and 2010 from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database was analyzed. Demographic characteristics, TCM usage, the frequency as well as average daily dose of Chinese herbal formulas and the single herbs prescribed for patients with uterine fibroid, were analyzed. Overall, 35,786 newly diagnosed subjects with uterine fibroid were included. Majority of these patients (87.1%; n=31,161) had visited TCM clinics. Among them, 61.8% of their visits used Chinese herbal remedies. Patients less than 45 years of age tended to use TCM more frequently than elder patients. Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan (Cinnamon Twig and Poria Pill) was the most frequently prescribed Chinese herbal formula, while San-Leng (Rhizoma Sparganii) was the most commonly prescribed single herb. Our study identified the characteristics and prescription patterns of TCM for patients with uterine fibroid in Taiwan. Further basic mechanistic studies and clinical trials are needed to confirm the therapeutic effects and mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vegetarian diet and reduced uterine fibroids risk: A case-control study in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Wu, Yanting; Lu, Qing; Ren, Mulan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a vegetarian diet correlates with a potential reduced risk of uterine fibroids. We used data from a case-control study conducted in Southeast University Zhongda Hospital between February 2010 and December 2014. Cases included 600 Chinese Han women with uterine fibroids (case group) whose clinical diagnosis dated back no more than 1 year. Controls were 600 patients without uterine fibroids as well as healthy volunteers (control group). All of the information gathered through the questionnaire survey was analyzed for the risk factors of the uterine fibroids pathogenesis. The multifactor analysis showed that women with uterine fibroids reported a less frequent consumption of broccoli (odds ratio [OR]: 0.552; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.316-0.964), cabbage (OR: 0.446; 95%CI: 0.211-0.943), Chinese cabbage (OR: 0.311; 95%CI: 0.102-0.946), tomato (OR: 0.453; 95%CI: 0.241-0.853), and apple (OR: 0.416; 95%CI: 0.213-0.814) (P < 0.05). The original evidence from this epidemiological investigation shows that a high consumption of broccoli, cabbage, Chinese cabbage, tomato and apple seems to be a protective factor for uterine fibroids. We suggest that greater intake of fresh fruits and cruciferous vegetables may be able to reduce the incidence of uterine fibroids. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. MRI predictors of clinical success in MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids: results from a single centre.

    PubMed

    Mindjuk, Irene; Trumm, Christoph G; Herzog, Peter; Stahl, Robert; Matzko, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    To assess the technical and clinical results of MRgFUS treatment and factors affecting clinical treatment success. A total of 252 women (mean age, 42.1 ± 6.9 years) with uterine fibroids underwent MRgFUS. All patients underwent MRI before treatment. Results were evaluated with respect to post-treatment nonperfused volume (NPV), symptom severity score (SSS), reintervention rate, pregnancy and safety data. NPV ratio was significantly higher in fibroids characterized by low signal intensity in contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat saturated MR images and in fibroids distant from the spine (>3 cm). NPV ratio was lower in fibroids with septations, with subserosal component and in skin-distant fibroids (p < 0.001). NPV ratio was highly correlated with clinical success: NPV of more than 80 % resulted in clinical success in more than 80 % of patients. Reintervention rate was 12.7 % (mean follow-up time, 19.4 ± 8 months; range, 3-38). Expulsion of fibroids (21 %) was significantly correlated with a high clinical success rate. No severe adverse events were reported. Adequate patient selection and correct treatment techniques, based on the learning curve of this technology, combined with technical advances of the system, lead to higher clinical success rates with low complications rate, comparable to other uterine-sparing treatment options. • MRgFUS appears to be a valid alternative to other uterus-preserving therapies • Patient selection is a significant factor in achieving high NPV ratios • MRI screening parameters correlate with the amount of fibroid ablation in MRgFUS • NPV results of more than 80 % correlate with higher clinical success rates.

  6. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRgHIFU) for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Babashov, V; Palimaka, S; Blackhouse, G; O'Reilly, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids, or leiomyomas, are the most common benign tumours in women of childbearing age. Some women experience symptoms (e.g., heavy bleeding) that require aggressive forms of treatment such as uterine artery embolization (UAE), myomectomy, magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU), and even hysterectomy. It is important to note that hysterectomy is not appropriate for women who desire future childbearing. Objectives The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budgetary impact of implementing MRgHIFU as a treatment option for symptomatic uterine fibroids in premenopausal women for whom drugs have been ineffective. Review Methods We performed an original cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the long-term costs and effects of MRgHIFU compared with hysterectomy, myomectomy, and UAE as a strategy for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids in premenopausal women aged 40 to 51 years. We explored a number of scenarios, e.g., comparing MRgHIFU with uterine-preserving procedures only, considering MRgHIFU-eligible patients only, and eliminating UAE as a treatment option. In addition, we performed a one-year budget impact analysis, using data from Ontario administrative sources. Four scenarios were explored in the budgetary impact analysis: MRgHIFU funded at 2 centres MRgHIFU funded at 2 centres and replacing only uterine-preserving procedures MRgHIFU funded at 6 centres MRgHIFU funded at 6 centres and replacing only uterine-preserving procedures Analyses were conducted from the Ontario public payer perspective. Results The base case determined that the uterine artery embolization (UAE) treatment strategy was the cost-effective option at commonly accepted willingness-to-pay values. Compared with hysterectomy, UAE was calculated as having an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $46,480 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The MRgHIFU strategy was extendedly dominated by a

  7. Temporary Anorgasmia Following Uterine Artery Embolization for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Speir, Ethan; Shekhani, Haris; Peters, Gail

    2017-11-01

    We report a rare case of temporary anorgasmia following uterine artery embolization (UAE) performed for symptomatic uterine fibroids. To our knowledge, this is only the second time that this complication has been reported in the literature. We briefly explore the possible pathophysiologic explanations for this complication and review the effects of UAE compared to hysterectomy on sexual functioning in women.

  8. The positive effect of targeted marketing on an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Howard B; Basu, Pat Auveek; Omary, Reed A

    2006-03-01

    Although uterine fibroid embolization is an effective treatment option for symptomatic women, it is unclear what methods can be used to expand referrals in an already established practice. The authors tested the hypothesis that an advertising strategy focused on a defined target market can expand an existing uterine fibroid embolization practice. A market-driven planning sequence was employed. This included a determination of goals, an examination of current competition, determination of target market based on local environment and previous consumer use, pretest of product sample, and implementation of advertisement. Based on the analysis the authors determined that the target audience was professional black women aged 35 to 45. A specific weekly magazine was selected due to readership demographics. An advertisement was run for 8 consecutive weeks. The authors prospectively tracked patient inquiries, clinic visits, cases performed, and revenues generated for 3 months following the initial advertisement. All patients were seen in a fully staffed, preexisting fibroid clinic located within an urban, university-based academic practice performing 250 uterine fibroid embolizations annually. Ninety calls were received directly related to the advertisement. There were 35 clinic visits, which resulted in 17 uterine fibroid embolizations and 52 total MR imaging procedures. Eighteen patients were not considered candidates based on established protocols. The 17 extra cases performed over 3 months represented a 27% increase in case volume. Total professional cash collections for these cases (including MR imaging) were 58,317 US dollars. The cost of advertising was 8,000 US dollars. As a result of existing infrastructure, no additional costs were necessary. This resulted in a net revenue gain 50,317 US dollars and a nonannualized rate of return of approximately 625%. As Interventional Radiologists look to develop and expand existing practices, traditional marketing tools such as

  9. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-08-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70-80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: Promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H.; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70–80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. PMID:24976593

  11. Tolerance, hospital stay, and recovery after uterine artery embolization for fibroids: the Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Mocarski, Eva; Bennett, John; Vilos, George; Common, Andrew; Zaidi, Mukarram; Sniderman, Kenneth; Asch, Murray; Kozak, Roman; Simons, Martin; Tran, Cuong; Kachura, John

    2003-10-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is gaining popularity as an alternative to hysterectomy for the treatment of fibroids. Although minimally invasive treatments such as UAE offer the potential of fewer complications, shorter hospital stay, and quicker recovery than surgery, there have been few published data on tolerance and recovery in patients undergoing UAE. This was a multicenter prospective single-arm clinical treatment trial involving the practices of 11 interventional radiologists in eight Ontario university-affiliated and community hospitals. Between November 1998 and November 2000, 555 women underwent UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Follow-up included ultrasound examinations and telephone interviews. UAE was performed under conscious sedation. Polyvinyl alcohol particles (355-500 micro m) were the primary embolic agent, and the procedural endpoint involved stasis in the uterine arteries. Pain protocols included antiinflammatory medications and narcotics and a planned overnight hospital admission. Tolerance and recovery were measured by patient-reported pain intensity (10-point numeric rating and five-point descriptor scale), hospital length of stay (LOS), and time until return to work. Intraprocedural pain was reported by 30% of patients and postprocedural pain was reported by 92% of patients (mean pain rating +/- SD, 7.0 +/- 2.47). The mean hospital LOS was 1.3 nights. Postprocedural pain was the most common indication for an LOS greater than 1 night (18%) or 2 nights (5%). Return visits to the hospital (10%) and readmissions (3%) were primarily for pain. The overall postprocedural complication rate was 8.0% (95% CI: 5.9%-10.6%). Of the 44 complications, 32 (73%) were pain-related. The mean recovery time after UAE was 13.1 days (median, 10.0 d). The majority of patients had a 1-night LOS after UAE and recovered within 2 weeks. Postprocedural pain varied considerably and was the major indication for extended hospital stay and recovery.

  12. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  13. Unenhanced MR Angiography of Uterine and Ovarian Arteries after Uterine Artery Embolization: Differences between Patients with Incomplete and Complete Fibroid Infarction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mori, Kensaku, E-mail: moriken@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Saida, Tsukasa; Shibuya, Yoko

    Purpose: To compare the status of uterine and ovarian arteries after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with incomplete and complete fibroid infarction via unenhanced 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five consecutive women (mean age 43 years; range 26-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids underwent UAE and MR imaging before and within 2 months after UAE. The patients were divided into incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups on the basis of the postprocedural gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging findings. Two independent observers reviewed unenhanced MR angiography before and after UAE to determine bilateral uterine and ovarian arterial flowmore » scores. The total arterial flow scores were calculated by summing the scores of the 4 arteries. All scores were compared with the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Fourteen and 21 patients were assigned to the incomplete and complete fibroid infarction groups, respectively. The total arterial flow score in the incomplete fibroid infarction group was significantly greater than that in the complete fibroid infarction group (P = 0.019 and P = 0.038 for observers 1 and 2, respectively). In 3 patients, additional therapy was recommended for insufficient fibroid infarction. In 1 of the 3 patients, bilateral ovarian arteries were invisible before UAE but seemed enlarged after UAE. Conclusion: The total arterial flow from bilateral uterine and ovarian arteries in patients with incomplete fibroid infarction is less well reduced than in those with complete fibroid infarction. Postprocedural MR angiography provides useful information to estimate the cause of insufficient fibroid infarction in individual cases.« less

  14. The Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial. Part 1. Baseline patient characteristics, fibroid burden, and impact on life.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Cohen, Marsha; Soucie, Jennifer; Garvin, Greg; Vanderburgh, Leslie; Bell, Stuart

    2003-01-01

    To determine baseline characteristics of women undergoing uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroids. Multicenter, prospective, single-arm clinical treatment trial. Eight Ontario university and community hospitals. Five hundred fifty-five women undergoing UAE for fibroids. Baseline questionnaires completed before UAE. Questionnaires were analyzed for demographic, medical, and gynecologic histories. Fibroid symptoms, impact of symptoms, previous consultations, and treatments were also analyzed. The Ontario cohort (66% white, 23% black, 11% other races) had an average age of 43. Thirty-one percent were under age 40. Most women were university educated (68%) and working outside the home (85%). Women reported heavy menstrual bleeding (80%), urinary urgency/frequency (73%), pain during intercourse (41%), and work absences (40%). They experienced fibroid-related symptoms for an average of 5 years and consulted with on average of three gynecologists before UAE. High fibroid life-impact scores were reported by 58%. Black women were significantly younger (40.7 vs. 44.0 years), more likely to experience symptoms longer (7 vs. 5 years), and more likely to undergo myomectomy before UAE (24% vs. 9%) than white women. Our study illustrates that large numbers of women with highly symptomatic fibroid disease are averse to surgery despite their burden of suffering and are actively seeking alternatives to hysterectomy.

  15. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) of uterine fibroids in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Han, Nian-Lin R; Ong, Chiou Li

    2014-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common type of gynaecologic benign tumours, occurring in 25% to 50% of women during their reproductive lives. About half of the affected women have clinically significant symptoms, including abnormal bleeding, menstrual pain, frequent urination, constipation and abdominal distension. Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS) has been used to treat patients with benign lesions and a variety of malignancies. The objective of this study is to evaluate symptom relief before and after MR-guided ultrasound ablation of fibroids. A total of 37 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated in this study. MRgFUS treatment led to a significant, time-dependent decrease in not only Symptom Severity Scores (SSS), but also the mean fibroid volume. The average reductions in volume were 41.6% and 52.6% at 6 months and 12 months respectively (P <0.05). The mean SSS of the 37 patients was 41.7 ± 2.8 before treatment whereas the average SSS was 26.9 ± 3.6, 20.7 ± 3.4, 18.5 ± 3.6, 16.5 ± 7.1, 9.8 ± 3.6 at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 to 4 years respectively. The decrease in scores was significant at all time points up to 3 to 4 years (P <0.05 and P <0.001). MRgFUS is a safe and effective non-invasive treatment for patients with symptomatic fibroids.

  16. Fertility impairment associated with uterine fibroids - a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Lisiecki, Marek; Paszkowski, Maciej; Woźniak, Sławomir

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common benign tumors affecting reproductive organs in women. They are monoclonal tumors of the uterine smooth muscle, which spring from myometrium. It is estimated that they occur in 50-60% of the female population and rise to 70% by the age of 50. While mostly asymptomatic, myomas can be connected with several conditions, including abnormal bleeding with subsequent anemia, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, unfavorable impact on fertility and obstetric complications. Factors, which predispose the emergence of fibroids are: hormones, Afro-American ethnicity, age, obesity, adverse pregnancy outcome history, early menarche, genetic factors, alcohol, caffeine or eating too much red meat. On the other hand, there are factors, which can decrease this risk: pregnancy, early menopause and tobacco smoking. There are several mechanisms of fertility impairment in females with fibroids: alternations in uterus function (flawed blood supply, increased contractility), changes in the normal uterus anatomy, local hormonal changes induced by fibroids. In this review the connection between fibroids and infertility is analyzed.

  17. Molecular targets of dietary phytochemicals for possible prevention and therapy of uterine fibroids: Focus on fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-11-22

    Uterine fibroids (myomas or leiomyomas) are common benign tumors of reproductive aged women. Fibroids are clinically apparent in 20-50% of women, and cause abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain and discomfort, pregnancy complications and infertility. Unfortunately, limited numbers of medical treatment are available but no effective preventive strategies exist. Moreover, the benefits of medical treatments are tempered by lack of efficacy or serious adverse side effects. Fibrosis has recently been recognized as a key pathological event in leiomyoma development and growth. It is defined by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM plays important role in making bulk structure of leiomyoma, and ECM-rich rigid structure is believed to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain/pressure. Dietary phytochemicals are known to regulate fibrotic process in different biological systems, and being considered as potential tool to manage human health. At present, very few dietary phytochemicals have been studied in uterine leiomyoma, and they are mostly known for their antiproliferative effects. Therefore, in this review, our aim was to introduce some dietary phytochemicals that could target fibrotic processes in leiomyoma. Thus, this review could serve as useful resource to develop antifibrotic drugs for possible prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids.

  18. Prevalence, symptoms and management of uterine fibroids: an international internet-based survey of 21,746 women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2009 the Uterine Bleeding and Pain Women's Research Study (UBP-WRS) was conducted interviewing 21,479 women across 8 countries in order to gain patient-based prevalence data on uterine pain and bleeding indications and investigate uterine symptoms and women's treatment experiences. This article shows relevant results of the study for the indication uterine fibroids providing data on self-reported prevalence, symptomatology and management of uterine fibroids. Methods 2,500 women (USA: 4,500 women) in each country (Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, South Korea, the UK, the USA) completed an online survey. Women included were in their reproductive age (age group 15-49 years; USA: 18-49 years) and had ever experienced menstrual bleedings. Quotas were applied for age, region, level of education and household income of respondents. Variables have been analyzed descriptively and exploratory statistical tests have been performed. Results The self-reported prevalence of uterine fibroids ranged from 4.5% (UK) to 9.8% (Italy), reaching 9.4% (UK) to 17.8% (Italy) in the age group of 40-49 years. Women with a diagnosis of uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about bleeding symptoms than women without a diagnosis: heavy bleedings (59.8% vs. 37.4%), prolonged bleedings (37.3% vs. 15.6%), bleeding between periods (33.3% vs. 13.5%), frequent periods (28.4% vs. 15.2%), irregular and predictable periods (36.3% vs. 23.9%). Furthermore women with diagnosed uterine fibroids reported significantly more often about the following pain symptoms: pressure on the bladder (32.6% vs. 15.0%), chronic pelvic pain (14.5% vs. 2.9%), painful sexual intercourse (23.5% vs. 9.1%) and pain occurring mid-cycle, after and during menstrual bleeding (31.3%, 16.7%, 59.7%, vs. 17.1%, 6.4%, 52.0%). 53.7% of women reported that their symptoms had a negative impact on their life in the last 12 month, influencing their sexual life (42.9%), performance at work (27.7%) and

  19. Progesterone and progesterone receptor modulators in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Talaulikar, Vikram Sinai; Manyonda, Isaac

    2012-12-01

    The majority of symptomatic uterine fibroids are currently treated by surgical interventions (myomectomy or hysterectomy) or radiological treatments (uterine artery embolisation or focussed ultrasound surgery). None of these treatments is a panacea, and what is conspicuous is the lack of an effective long-term medical therapy for a disorder so common among women of reproductive age. It has been known for some time that progesterone and its receptors enhance proliferative activity in fibroids and this has raised the possibility that anti-progestins and (PRMs) could be useful in the medical management of fibroids. Some of the compounds which have produced promising results in recent clinical trials or research studies include mifepristone, CDB-4124 (telapristone), CP-8947, J-867 (asoprisnil) and CDB-2914 (ulipristal acetate or UA). UA has recently completed Phase III clinical trials with very encouraging results, and has now acquired a licence for clinical use in Europe. While considerable research has yet to be done on the long-term safety and efficacy of UA there is nevertheless good reason for optimism on the emergence of effective medical therapy in the form of UA and possibly other PRMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure associated with preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Koizumi, Toshimitsu; Higa, Takeru; Imai, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative uterine artery embolization has been shown to help reduce blood loss, with few complications. Most reports indicated that uterine artery embolization is safe for uterine fibrosis; the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure as complications of preoperative uterine artery embolization has not been reported previously. Here we report the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure after preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure after preoperative uterine artery embolization. A 48-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital complaining of compression in her abdomen and an abdominal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a large uterine fibroid measuring 37.5×27×13.5 cm. Therefore, we planned preoperative uterine artery embolization to help reduce blood loss. However, hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure occurred owing to the development of necrotic tissue after uterine artery embolization; therefore, emergency total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. She experienced 105 g of blood loss intraoperatively. The weight of her uterus was 10.8 kg and the volume was 9964 cm 3 , with extensive necrotic tissue. Her hyperkalemia and kidney failure resolved after the surgery. We reported the occurrence of serious complications, including hyperkalemia and acute kidney failure, after preoperative uterine artery embolization for a large uterine fibroid.

  1. Uterine fibroids at routine second-trimester ultrasound survey and risk of sonographic short cervix.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Matthew J; Rochelson, Burton; Augustine, Stephanie; Greenberg, Meir; Sison, Cristina P; Vohra, Nidhi

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether women with sonographically identified uterine fibroids are at higher risk for a short cervix. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women with singleton gestations who had a routine second-trimester ultrasound at 17-23 weeks gestational age from 2010 to 2013. When fibroids were noted, their presence, number, location and size were recorded. Exclusion criteria included a history of cervical conization or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), uterine anomalies, maternal age greater than 40 years, and a previously placed cerclage. The primary variable of interest was short cervix (<25 mm). Secondary variables of interest included gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, indication for cesarean, malpresentation, birth weight, and Apgar scores. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Fibroids were identified in 522/10 314 patients (5.1%). In the final multivariable logistic regression model, short cervix was increased in women with fibroids (OR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.74). The number of fibroids did not affect the frequency of short cervix. Fibroids were significantly associated with preterm delivery (<37 weeks), primary cesarean, breech presentation, lower birth weight infants, and lower Apgar scores. Women with uterine fibroids may be at higher risk for a short cervix. Fibroids are also associated with several adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  2. Adverse obstetric outcomes in pregnant women with uterine fibroids in China: A multicenter survey involving 112,403 deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rong; Wang, Xin; Zou, Liying; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Yi; Li, Changdong; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between uterine fibroids and adverse obstetric outcomes. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of 112,403 deliveries from 14 provinces and 39 different hospitals in 2011 in mainland China. We compared pregnancy outcomes in women with and without uterine fibroids who underwent detailed second trimester obstetric ultrasonography during 18 to 22 weeks. Obstetric outcomes include cesarean delivery, breech presentation, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes and neonatal birthweight. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results Of 112,403 women who underwent routine obstetric survey, 3,012 (2.68%) women were identified with at least 1 fibroid. By univariate and multivariate analyses, the presence of uterine fibroids was significantly associated with cesarean delivery (Adjusted odds radio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–2.0), breech presentation (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5) and postpartum hemorrhage (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1–1.4). The size of uterine fibroids and location in uterus had important effect on the mode of delivery. The rates of PPH were significantly higher with increasing size of the uterine fibroid (P<0.001). And the location of fibroid (intramural, submucosal or subserosal) also have a statistically significant impact on the risk of PPH (5.6% [subserosal] vs 4.7% [submucosal] vs 8.6% [intramural]). Conclusion Pregnant women with uterine fibroids are at increased risk for cesarean delivery, breech presentation and postpartum hemorrhage. And different characteristics of uterine fibroids affect obstetric outcomes through different ways. Such detailed information may be useful in risk-stratifying pregnant women with fibroids. PMID:29136018

  3. Impact of subserosal and intramural uterine fibroids that do not distort the endometrial cavity on the outcome of in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio Garcia; Abdelmassih, Vicente G; Diamond, Michael P; Dozortsev, Dimitri; Melo, Nilson R; Abdelmassih, Roger

    2004-03-01

    To further evaluate the effects of intramural and subserosal uterine fibroids on the outcome of IVF-ET, when there is no compression of the endometrial cavity. Retrospective, matched-control study from January 2000 to October 2001. Private IVF center. Two hundred forty-five women with subserosal and/or intramural fibroids that did not compress the uterine cavity (fibroid group) and 245 women with no evidence of fibroids anywhere in the uterus (control group). In vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) cycles. The type of fibroid (intramural, subserosal), number, size (cm), and location of intramural leiomyomas (fundal, corpus) were recorded. Outcomes of IVF-ICSI cycles were compared between the two groups. There was no correlation between location and number of uterine fibroids and the outcomes of IVF-ICSI. Patients with subserosal or intramural fibroids <4 cm had IVF-ICSI outcomes (pregnancy, implantation, and abortion rates) similar to those of controls. Patients with intramural fibroids >4.0 cm had lower pregnancy rates than patients with intramural fibroids fibroids and controls. Premature delivery rates for singleton gestations were 10% vs. 8%, respectively, in all patients with fibroid and controls. Patients having subserosal or intramural leiomyomas of <4 cm not encroaching on the uterine cavity have IVF-ICSI outcomes comparable to those of patients without such leiomyomas. Therefore, they might not require myomectomy before being scheduled for assisted reproduction cycles. However, we recommend caution for patients with fibroids >4 cm and that such patients be submitted to treatment before they are enrolled in IVF-ICSI cycles. Whether or not women with fibroids > 4 cm would benefit from fibroid treatment remains to be determined.

  4. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor C Is Upregulated in Human Uterine Fibroids and Regulates Uterine Smooth Muscle Cell Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Guangli; Jiang, Yong; Cowan, Bryan; Wang, Jean Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    Leiomyomata uteri (i.e., uterine fibroids) are benign tumors arising from the abnormal growth of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We show here that the expression of platelet-derived growth factor C (PDGFC) is higher in approximately 80% of uterine fibroids than in adjacent myometrial tissues examined. Increased expression of PDGFC is also observed in fibroid-derived SMCs (fSMCs) relative to myometrial-derived SMCs (mSMCs). Recombinant bioactive PDGFCC homodimer stimulates the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and prolongs the survival of fSMCs in Matrigel plugs implemented subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice. The knockdown of PDGF receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) through lentiviral-mediated RNA interference reduces the growth of fSMCs and mSMCs in ex vivo cultures and in Matrigel implants. Furthermore, two small molecule inhibitors of the PDGFR tyrosine kinase (i.e., imatinib and dasatinib) exerted negative effects on fSMC and mSMC growth in ex vivo cultures, albeit at concentrations that cannot be achieved in vivo. These results suggest that the PDGFCC/PDGFRA signaling module plays an important role in fSMC and mSMC growth, and that the upregulation of PDGFC expression may contribute to the clonal expansion of fSMCs in the development of uterine fibroids. PMID:19553600

  5. Effect of biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effects of the biological characteristics of different types of uterine fibroids, as assessed with T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation. Thirty-five patients with 39 symptomatic uterine fibroids who underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy were enrolled. Before surgery, the uterine fibroids were subdivided into hypo-intense, iso-intense, heterogeneous hyper-intense and homogeneous hyper-intense categories based on signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. Tissue density and moisture content were determined in post-operative samples and normal uterine tissue, the isolated uterine fibroids were subjected to USgHIFU, and the extent of ablation was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining were undertaken to investigate the organizational structure of the uterine fibroids. Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression was assayed via immunohistochemical staining. The mean diameter of uterine fibroids was 6.9 ± 2.8 cm. For all uterine fibroids, the average density and moisture content were 10.7 ± 0.7 mg/mL and 75.7 ± 2.4%, respectively; and for the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids, 10.3 ± 0.5 mg/mL and 76.6 ± 2.3%. The latter subgroup had lower density and higher moisture content compared with the other subgroups. After USgHIFU treatment, the extent of ablation of the hyper-intense fibroids was 102.7 ± 42.1 mm(2), which was significantly less than those of the hypo-intense and heterogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and sirius red staining revealed that the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids had sparse collagen fibers and abundant cells. Immunohistochemistry results revealed that estrogen and progesterone receptors were highly expressed in the homogeneous hyper-intense fibroids. This study revealed that lower density, higher moisture content, sparse collagen

  6. The Research of Feasibility and Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Treating Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xin; Shu, Shan-rong; Ma, Xue-feng; Shuai, Han-lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To explore the feasibility and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in treating uterine fibroids. Ninety patients with multiple uterine fibroids, who had undergone hysterectomy were included in the study. After the uterus was resected, the temperature of 60, 80, 100°C were adopted to ablate the in vitro fibroid with each temperature dealing with 30 patients. Simultaneously, 5 patients were included, whose in vivo fibroid were ablated with the temperature of 100°C before the fibroids were removed after laparotomy. After the fibroids were ablated, the smooth muscle in the ablated center (group A), the ablated edge (group B) and 1 cm away from the ablated edge (group C) were taken. Then, the samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to examine the histopathological changes, and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). After radiofrequency ablation, the ablated lesions were round, toast tan, and dry on gross appearance. There were no obvious tissue carbonization and there were distinct boundary from periphery tissue. In vitro: On automated analysis, the average optical density of ER and PR in group A, B, and C was lower than the control group (P < 0.05), and which were gradually raised with the increased distance to electrode. In the same treatment group, ER optical density was gradually decreased with the increased temperature among 3 different groups. The PR optical density was decreased with the increased temperature under different temperatures in group A and group B, there was significant difference among groups (P < 0.05). But in group C, there was no difference in PR expression among the temperature of 60, 80, and 100°C (P > 0.05). In vivo: Compared with the control group, the average optical density of ER and PR were significantly different among group A, B, and C (P < 0.05), what's more, it was gradually raised with the increased distance to

  7. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  8. Incidence and clinical characteristics of unexpected uterine sarcoma after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids: a retrospective study of 10,248 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan-Cheng; Bi, Fang-Fang; Li, Da; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Uterine fibroids often require a hysterectomy or myomectomy via laparotomy or laparoscopy. Morcellation is often necessary to perform a laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of unexpected uterine sarcomas (UUSs) after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids and to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs by analyzing their characteristics. Women who had a hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine fibroids in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between November 2008 and November 2014 were selected for the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. During the period, 48 UUSs were found in 10,248 cases, and the overall incidence was 0.47%. There was no statistical difference (P=0.449) regarding the incidence (0.50% vs 0.33%) between 42 UUSs in 8,456 cases undergoing laparotomy and six UUSs in 1,792 cases undergoing laparoscopy. Most of the UUSs were stage I (89.58%), which occurred more commonly (56.25%) in women aged 40-49. Abnormal uterine bleeding (39.58%) was the main clinical manifestation. Rapidly growing pelvic masses (12.5%), rich blood flow signals (18.75%), and degeneration of uterine fibroids (18.75%) prompted by ultrasonography may suggest the possibility of UUSs. The margins of most UUSs (93.75%) were regular, which may cause UUSs to be misdiagnosed as uterine fibroids. Fifteen cases underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Approximately 73.33% showed heterogeneous and hypointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and 80% showed intermediate-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with necrosis and hemorrhage in 40% of cases. After contrast administration, 80% presented early heterogeneous enhancement. The incidence of UUSs after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids was low, and their clinical characteristics are atypical. It is necessary and very critical to make a complete and cautious preoperative evaluation to reduce the

  9. Effects of the distance between small intramural uterine fibroids and the endometrium on the pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Na; Wang, Yang; Su, Ying-chun; Sun, Ying-pu; Guo, Yi-hong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of the distance between small intramural uterine fibroids (≤4 cm) and the endometrium on the outcomes of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). We prospectively analyzed pregnancy outcomes in 117 infertile women with small intramural uterine fibroids and 117 infertile women without uterine fibroids who all underwent IVF-ET. The size and number of small intramural uterine fibroids and the shortest distance between the small intramural uterine fibroids and the endometrium were measured by transvaginal three-dimensional ultrasound. The endometrial and subendometrial blood flow parameters, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate and live birth rate were compared between the women with and without small uterine fibroids and among the different shortest distances (≤1, 1-3 and >3 mm). The effects of the size and number of small intramural uterine fibroids on IVF-ET outcomes were observed. The endometrial volume on ET day, the implantation rate and the live birth rate were significantly lower, but the abortion rate was significantly higher, in the women with small intramural uterine fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids (p < 0.05). The endometrial flow index was higher in the shortest distance ≤1-mm group than in the groups with 1-3 and >3 mm, and the implantation rate was higher in ≤1-mm group than in the >3-mm group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between different sizes and numbers of small intramural uterine fibroids. Small intramural uterine fibroids can affect IVF-ET outcomes. Compared with other shortest distances (1-3 and >3 mm), the shortest distance of ≤1 mm has a higher implantation rate. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Assessing the Reliability and Quality of Online Uterine Fibroid Embolization Resources

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kaicker, Jatin; Wu Ke; Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca

    This study was designed to examine the best internet resources about uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) pertinent to medical trainees, radiologists, gynecologists, family physicians, and patients. The terms 'uterine fibroid embolization,' 'uterine fibroid embolization,' and 'uterine artery embolization' were entered into Google, Yahoo, and Bing search engines; the top 20 hits were assessed. The hits were categorized as organizational or nonorganizational. Additionally, 23 radiological and obstetrical organizations were assessed. The DISCERN instrument and Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmarks (authorship, attribution, currency, disclosure) were used to assess the information critically. The scope, strength, weaknesses, and unique features were highlightedmore » for the top five organizational and nonorganizational websites. A total of 203 websites were reviewed; 23 were removed in accordance with the exclusion criteria and 146 were duplicate websites, for a total of 34 unique sites. It was found that 35 % (12/34 websites) were organizational (family medicine, radiology, obstetrics/gynecology) and 65 % (22/34 websites) were nonorganizational (teaching or patient resources). The overall mean DISCERN score was 49.6 (10.7). Two-tailed, unpaired t test demonstrated no statistically significant difference between organizational and nonorganizational websites (p = 0.101). JAMA benchmarks revealed 44 % (15/34 websites) with authorship, 71 % (24/34 websites) with attribution, 68 % (23/34 websites) with disclosure, and 47 % (16/34 websites) with currency. The overall quality of websites for UFE is moderate, with important but not serious shortcomings. The best websites provided relevant information about the procedure, benefits/risks, and were interactive. DISCERN scores were compromised by sites failing to provide resources for shared decision-making, additional support, and discussing consequence of no treatment. JAMA benchmarks revealed lack of

  11. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya–selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid

    PubMed Central

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. PMID:25976198

  12. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya-selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid.

    PubMed

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-05-14

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging using different b-value combinations for the evaluation of treatment results after volumetric MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Ikink, Marlijne E; Voogt, Marianne J; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Nijenhuis, Robbert J; Keserci, Bilgin; Kim, Young-sun; Vincken, Koen L; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2014-09-01

    To assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping using different b-value combinations for treatment evaluation after magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) of uterine fibroids. Fifty-six patients with 67 uterine fibroids were treated with volumetric MR-HIFU. Pre-treatment and post-treatment images were obtained using contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI (CE-T1WI) and DWI using b = 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 s/mm(2). ADC maps were generated using subsets of b-values to investigate the effects of tissue ablation on water diffusion and perfusion in fibroids treated with MR-HIFU. Four combinations of b-values were used: (1) all b-values; (2) b = 0, 200 s/mm(2); (3) b = 400, 600, 800 s/mm(2); and (4) b = 0, 800 s/mm(2). Using the lowest b-values (0 and 200 s/mm(2)), the mean ADC value in the ablated tissue reduced significantly (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. Calculating the ADC value with the highest b-values (400, 600, 800 s/mm(2)), the ADC increased significantly (p < 0.001) post-treatment. ADC maps calculated with the lowest b-values resulted in the best visual agreement of non-perfused fibroid tissue detected on CE images. Other b-value combinations and normal myometrium showed no difference in ADC after MR-HIFU treatment. A decrease in contrast agent uptake within the ablated region on CE-T1WI was correlated to a significantly decreased ADC when b = 0 and 200 s/mm(2) were used. DWI could be useful for treatment evaluation after MR-HIFU of uterine fibroids. The ADC in fibroid tissue is influenced by the choice of b- values. Low b-values seem the best choice to emphasise perfusion effects after MR-HIFU.

  14. Dietary phytochemicals for possible preventive and therapeutic option of uterine fibroids: Signaling pathways as target.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-02-01

    A growing interest has emerged on dietary phytochemicals to control diverse pathological conditions. Unfortunately, dietary phytochemical research in uterine fibroids is still under construction. Uterine fibroids/leiomyomas are benign tumors developing from the myometrium of the uterus in premenopausal women. They may occur in more than 70% of women, and approximately 25% of women show clinically significant symptoms. These include heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure (urinary frequency, incontinence, and difficulty with urination), pelvic pain, pelvic mass, infertility, and reproductive dysfunction. Due to lack of medical treatments surgery has been definitive choice for fibroid management. Moreover, surgery negatively affects women's quality of life, and its associated cost appears to be expensive. The molecular mechanism of fibroids development and growth is not fully elucidated. However, accumulated evidence shows that several signaling pathways, including Smad 2/3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, ERK 1/2 and β-catenin are involved in the leiomyoma pathogenesis, indicating that they could serve as targets for prevention and/or treatment of this tumor. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the involvement of signaling pathways in leiomyoma development and growth, and introduce some potential dietary phytochemicals that could modulate those signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-invasive therapeutic use of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) with 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Łoziński, Tomasz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gurynowicz, Grzegorz; Gabriel, Iwona; Czekierdowski, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Benign uterine fibroids are common female genital tract tumors and if symptomatic often require extensive surgery. When tumors are multiple and large or unusually located, the operative treatment may lead to significant morbidity and compromise quality of life. Recovery period after surgical treatment may be complicated by patient's medical condition and wound healing problems. Currently used other non-surgical treatment modalities usually provide only a temporal symptoms relief and may not be efficient in all affected women. In the last decade, minimally invasive treatment of uterine fibroids called Magnetic Resonance guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MRI HIFU) was introduced. This technique uses thermal ablation simultaneously with MRI imaging of the mass and tissue temperature measurements during the procedure where a focused ultrasound beam is applied externally to destroy tumors located in the human body. Successful application of MRI HIFU has been recently described in patients with various malignancies, such as breast, prostate and hepatocellular cancers as well as soft tissue and bone tumors. This technique is innovative and has been proven to be safe and effective but there are several limitations for treatment. The article highlights the relative advantages and disadvantages of MRI guided HIFU in women with uterine fibroids. The authors also describe high-resolution MRI technique on 3T MRI, along with the approach to interpretation of HIFU results applied to uterine fibroids that has been experienced at one institution.

  16. Economic evaluation of uterine artery embolization versus hysterectomy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: results from the randomized EMMY trial.

    PubMed

    Volkers, Nicole A; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Smit, Patrick; Ankum, Willem M; Reekers, Jim A; Birnie, Erwin

    2008-07-01

    To investigate whether uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a cost-effective alternative to hysterectomy for patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids, the authors performed an economic evaluation alongside the multicenter randomized EMMY (EMbolization versus hysterectoMY) trial. Between February 2002 and February 2004, 177 patients were randomized to undergo UAE (n = 88) or hysterectomy (n = 89) and followed up until 24 months after initial treatment allocation. Conditional on the equivalence of clinical outcome, a cost minimization analysis was performed according to the intention to treat principle. Costs included health care costs inside and outside the hospital as well as costs related to absence from work (societal perspective). Cumulative standardized costs were estimated as volumes multiplied with prices. The nonparametric bootstrap method was used to quantify differences in mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) costs between the strategies. In total, 81 patients underwent UAE and 75 underwent hysterectomy. In the UAE group, 19 patients (23%) underwent secondary hysterectomies. The mean total costs per patient in the UAE group were significantly lower than those in the hysterectomy group ($11,626 vs $18,563; mean difference, -$6,936 [-37%], 95% CI: -$9,548, $4,281). The direct medical in-hospital costs were significantly lower in the UAE group: $6,688 vs $8,313 (mean difference, -$1,624 [-20%], 95% CI: -$2,605, -$586). Direct medical out-of-hospital and direct nonmedical costs were low in both groups (mean cost difference, $156 in favor of hysterectomy). The costs related to absence from work differed significantly between the treatment strategies in favor of UAE (mean difference, -$5,453; 95% CI: -$7,718, -$3,107). The costs of absence from work accounted for 79% of the difference in total costs. The 24-month cumulative cost of UAE is lower than that of hysterectomy. From a societal economic perspective, UAE is the superior treatment strategy in women with

  17. Quality-of-Life Assessment of Fibroid Treatment Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Chung Yin; Tempany, Clare M.; Swan, J. Shannon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain utilities (a unit of measure of a person’s relative preferences for different health states compared with death or worst possible outcome) for uterine fibroids before and after treatment and to measure short-term utilities for the following uterine fibroid treatments: abdominal hysterectomy, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery, and uterine artery embolization (UAE). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. The waiting trade-off (WTO) method, a variation on the time trade-off (TTO) method, is used to obtain utilities for diagnostic procedures on the basis of the fact that people wait longer to avoid noxious tests and/or procedures. The WTO method provides short-term quality of life tolls in terms of quality-adjusted life-weeks by scaling wait times with pre- and posttreatment utilities. Utilities for uterine fibroids before and after treatment were obtained with the TTO method and a visual analog scale (VAS) by using a questionnaire administered by means of a phone interview. WTO wait times were adjusted for quality of life with VAS and TTO utilities and a transformation of VAS. Wait times were compared by using nonparametric tests. The study participants included 62 patients who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy, 74 who had undergone UAE, and 61 who had undergone MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery. Results: Quality of life increased with all treatments. The median WTO wait time was higher for hysterectomy (21.6 weeks) than for UAE or MR imaging–guided focused ultrasound surgery (14.1 weeks for both) (P < .05). Quality-adjusted life-week tolls were smaller when scaled according to TTO than when scaled according to VAS or transformation of VAS. Conclusion: Quality of life increased after all fibroid treatments. WTO is feasible for assessing the quality-adjusted morbidity of treatment procedures. © RSNA, 2011

  18. Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Upson, Kristen; Harmon, Quaker E.; Baird, Donna D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early-life soy phytoestrogen exposure has been shown in Eker rats to increase uterine fibroid incidence in adulthood. Two large epidemiologic cohorts have provided some support for increased fibroid risk with infant soy formula feeding in women, but both cohorts relied on self-report of clinically diagnosed fibroids. Objective: We evaluated the relationship between infant soy formula feeding and ultrasound-detected fibroids. Methods: The Study of Environment, Lifestyle & Fibroids (SELF) is an ongoing cohort study of 1,696 African-American women ages 23–34 years with baseline ultrasound screening to detect and measure fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. Questionnaire data on soy formula feeding during infancy was ascertained for 1,553 participants (89% based on mother’s report), of whom 345 were found to have fibroids. We estimated the association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence and tumor number using log-binomial regression. Among those with fibroids, we compared fibroid size between soy formula-exposed and unexposed women using multivariable linear regression. Results: We did not observe an association between soy formula feeding and fibroid prevalence [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.3]. Nor were exposed women with fibroids more likely to have ≥ 2 tumors than unexposed women with fibroids (aPR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.6). However, exposed women with fibroids had significantly larger fibroids than unexposed women with fibroids. On average, soy formula feeding was associated with a 32% increase in the diameter of the largest fibroid (95% CI: 6%, 65%) and a 127% increase in total tumor volume (95% CI: 12%, 358%). Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. Citation: Upson K, Harmon QE, Baird DD. 2016. Soy-based infant formula feeding and ultrasound

  19. Evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids: an IDEAL prospective exploration study.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Li, Y; Wang, Z; McCulloch, P; Hu, L; Chen, W; Liu, G; Li, J; Lang, J

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and surgery in treating uterine fibroids, and prepare for a definitive randomised trial. Prospective multicentre patient choice cohort study (IDEAL Exploratory study) of HIFU, myomectomy or hysterectomy for treating symptomatic uterine fibroids. 20 Chinese hospitals. 2411 Chinese women with symptomatic fibroids. Prospective non-randomised cohort study with learning curve analysis (IDEAL Stage 2b Prospective Exploration Study). Complications, hospital stay, return to normal activities, and quality of life (measured with UFS-Qol and SF-36 at baseline, 6 and 12 months), and need for further treatment. Quality-of-life outcomes were adjusted using regression modelling. HIFU treatment quality was evaluated using LC-CUSUM to identify operator learning curves. A health economic analysis of costs was performed. 1353 women received HIFU, 472 hysterectomy and 586 myomectomy. HIFU patients were significantly younger (P < 0.001), slimmer (P < 0.001), better educated (P < 0.001), and wealthier (P = 0.002) than surgery patients. Both UFS and QoL improved more rapidly after HIFU than after surgery (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively at 6 months), but absolute differences were small. Major adverse events occurred in 3 (0.2%) of HIFU and in 133 (12.6%) of surgical cases (P < 0.001). Median time for hospital stay was 4 days (interquartile range, 0-5 days), 10 days (interquartile range, 8-12.5 days) and 8 days (interquartile range, 7-10 days). HIFU caused substantially less morbidity than surgery, with similar longer-term QoL. Despite group baseline differences and lack of blinding, these findings support the need for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of HIFU treatment for fibroids. The IDEAL Exploratory design facilitated RCT protocol development. HIFU had much better short-term outcomes than surgery for fibroids in 2411-patient Chinese IDEAL format study. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and

  20. Transcervical, intrauterine ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of uterine fibroids with the VizAblate® System: three- and six-month endpoint results from the FAST-EU study.

    PubMed

    Bongers, Marlies; Brölmann, Hans; Gupta, Janesh; Garza-Leal, José Gerardo; Toub, David

    This was a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter, single-arm controlled trial, using independent core laboratory validation of MRI results, to establish the effectiveness and confirm the safety of the VizAblate® System in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. The VizAblate System is a transcervical device that ablates fibroids with radiofrequency energy, guided by a built-in intrauterine ultrasound probe. Fifty consecutive women with symptomatic uterine fibroids received treatment with the VizAblate System. Patients had a minimum Menstrual Pictogram score of 120, no desire for fertility, and met additional inclusion and exclusion criteria. The VizAblate System was inserted transcervically and individual fibroids were ablated with radiofrequency energy. An integrated intrauterine ultrasound probe was used for fibroid imaging and targeting. Anesthesia was at the discretion of each investigator. The primary study endpoint was the percentage change in perfused fibroid volume, as assessed by contrast-enhanced MRI at 3 months. Secondary endpoints, reached at 6 months, included safety, percentage reductions in the Menstrual Pictogram (MP) score and the Symptom Severity Score (SSS) subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom-Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL), along with the rate of surgical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding and the mean number of days to return to normal activity. Additional assessments included the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) subscale of the UFS-QOL, medical reintervention for abnormal uterine bleeding, and procedure times. Fifty patients were treated, representing 92 fibroids. Perfused fibroid volumes were reduced at 3 months by an average of 68.8 ± 27.8 % ( P  < 0.0001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test). At 6 months, mean MP and SSS scores decreased by 60.8 ± 38.2 and 59.7 ± 30.4 %, respectively; the mean HRQOL score increased by 263 ± 468 %. There were two serious adverse events (overnight

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Parameters in Predicting the Treatment Outcome of High-intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids With an Immediate Nonperfused Volume Ratio of at Least 90.

    PubMed

    Keserci, Bilgin; Duc, Nguyen Minh

    2018-03-07

    We aimed to investigate the role of magnetic resonance imaging parameters in predicting the treatment outcome of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids with a nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio of at least 90%. A total of 120 women who underwent HIFU treatment were divided into groups 1 (n = 72) and 2 (n = 48), comprising patients with an NPV ratio of at least 90% and less than 90%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to investigate the potential predictors of the NPV ratio of at least 90%. The NPV ratios immediately post-treatment, therapeutic efficacy at 6 months' follow-up, and safety in terms of adverse effects and changes in anti-Mullerian hormone level were assessed. By introducing multiple predictors obtained from multivariate analyses into a generalized estimating equation model, the results showed that the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer in the anterior abdominal wall, peak enhancement of fibroid, time to peak of fibroid, and the ratio of area under the curve of fibroid to myometrium were statistically significant, except T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to myometrium, hence predicting an NPV ratio of at least 90%. No serious adverse effects and no significant difference between the anti-Mullerian hormone levels before or 6 months post-treatment were reported. The findings in this study suggest that the achievement of NPV ratio of at least 90% in magnetic resonance imaging-guided HIFU treatment of uterine fibroids based on prediction model appears clinically possible without compromising the safety of patients. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uteroenteric Fistula Resulting From Fibroid Expulsion After Uterine Fibroid Embolization: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gutierrez, Luis B., E-mail: lbgutier@stanford.edu; Bansal, Anshuman K., E-mail: abansal@mednet.ucla.edu; Hovsepian, David M., E-mail: hovsepian@stanford.edu

    A 44-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) for menstrual and bulk-related symptoms in an enlarged, myomatous uterus. After surgery, she spontaneously sloughed a large mass of fibroids that arrested in the cervical canal during passage. Four days after gynecological extraction, she developed copious vaginal discharge that contained enteric contents. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a fistula between the small bowel and the uterus. She subsequently underwent hysterectomy, left oophorectomy, and small-bowel resection. Her postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  3. Intraprocedure contrast enhanced ultrasound: the value in assessing the effect of ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound ablation for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Peng, Song; Hu, Liang; Chen, Wenzhi; Chen, Jinyun; Yang, Caiyong; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhibiao; Zhang, Lian

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the value of microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in evaluating the treatment response of uterine fibroids to HIFU ablation. Sixty-eight patients with a solitary uterine fibroid from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were included and analyzed. All patients underwent pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a standardized protocol, as well as pre-evaluation, intraprocedure, and immediate post-treatment CEUS. CEUS and MRI were compared by different radiologists. In comparison with MRI, CEUS showed that the size of fibroids, volume of fibroids, size of non-perfused regions, non-perfused volume (NPV) or fractional ablation (NPV ratio) was similar to that of MRI. In terms of CEUS examination results, the median volume of fibroids was 75.2 (interquartile range, 34.2-127.3) cm(3), the median non-perfused volume was 54.9 (interquartile range, 28.0-98.1) cm(3), the mean fractional ablation was 83.7±13.6 (range, 30.0-100.0)%. In terms of MRI examination results, the median volume of fibroids was 74.1 (interquartile range, 33.4-116.2) cm(3). On the basis of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images immediately after HIFU treatment, the median non-perfused volume was 58.5 (interquartile range, 27.7-100.0) cm(3), the average fractional ablation was 84.2±14.2 (range, 40.0-100.0)%. CEUS clearly showed the size of fibroids and the non-perfused areas of the fibroid. Results from CEUS correlated well with results obtained from MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The past, present, and future of selective progesterone receptor modulators in the management of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhbir S; Belland, Liane; Leyland, Nicholas; von Riedemann, Sarah; Murji, Ally

    2017-12-21

    Uterine fibroids are common in women of reproductive age and can have a significant impact on quality of life and fertility. Although a number of international obstetrics/gynecology societies have issued evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids, many of these guidelines do not yet reflect the most recent clinical evidence and approved indication for one of the key medical management options: the selective progesterone receptor modulator class. This article aims to share the clinical experience gained with selective progesterone receptor modulators in Europe and Canada by reviewing the historical development of selective progesterone receptor modulators, current best practices for selective progesterone receptor modulator use based on available data, and potential future uses for selective progesterone receptor modulators in uterine fibroids and other gynecologic conditions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. New uterine-preserving therapies raise questions about interdisciplinary management and the role of surgery for symptomatic fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene

    2006-01-01

    Mounting evidence to support the safety and effectiveness of new uterine-preserving fibroid therapies is raising questions not only about changing indications for surgery but also about gynecologists' role in therapies offered by other specialists. New collaborative relationships are needed to provide the best possible treatment; without them, those lag times of 10-15 years often cited as the time it takes for advances in clinical research to diffuse into clinical practice will be even longer for women with symptomatic fibroids.

  6. Cost-effectiveness of uterine-preserving procedures for the treatment of uterine fibroid symptoms in the USA.

    PubMed

    Cain-Nielsen, Anne H; Moriarty, James P; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Borah, Bijan J

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the following three treatments of uterine fibroids in a population of premenopausal women who wish to preserve their uteri: myomectomy, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) and uterine artery embolization (UAE). A decision analytic Markov model was constructed. Cost-effectiveness was calculated in terms of US$ per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) over 5 years. Two types of costs were calculated: direct costs only, and the sum of direct and indirect (productivity) costs. Women in the hypothetical cohort were assessed for treatment type eligibility, were treated based on eligibility, and experienced adequate or inadequate symptom relief. Additional treatment (myomectomy) occurred for inadequate symptom relief or recurrence. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate uncertainty in the model parameters.  In the base case, myomectomy, MRgFUS and UAE had the following combinations of mean cost and mean QALYs, respectively: US$15,459, 3.957; US$15,274, 3.953; and US$18,653, 3.943. When incorporating productivity costs, MRgFUS incurred a mean cost of US$21,232; myomectomy US$22,599; and UAE US$22,819. Using probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and excluding productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at almost every decision threshold. Using PSA and incorporating productivity costs, myomectomy was cost effective at decision thresholds above US$105,000/QALY; MRgFUS was cost effective between US$30,000 and US$105,000/QALY; and UAE was cost effective below US$30,000/QALY. Myomectomy, MRgFUS, and UAE were similarly effective in terms of QALYs gained. Depending on assumptions about costs and willingness to pay for additional QALYs, all three treatments can be deemed cost effective in a 5-year time frame.

  7. Moderate-to-deep sedation technique, using propofol and ketamine, allowing synchronised breathing for magnetic resonance high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, Hermanus H B; Knuttel, F M; van Breugel, J M M; Ikink, M E; Dieleman, J M; van den Bosch, M A A J; Knape, J T A

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) treatment for uterine fibroids is rapidly gaining popularity as a treatment modality. This procedure is generally uncomfortable, painful, and requires minimal or absence of movement and an MR-HIFU synchronised breathing pattern of the patient. Procedural sedation and analgesia protocols have become the standard practice in interventional radiology departments worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore if a sedation regimen with low-dose propofol and ketamine performed by trained non-medical sedation practitioners could result in relief of discomfort for the patient and in adequate working conditions for MR-HIFU treatment for uterine fibroids. In this study, conducted from August 2013 until November 2014, 20 patients were subjected to MR-HIFU treatment of uterine fibroids. Patients were deeply sedated using intravenous propofol and esketamine according to a standardised hospital protocol to allow synchronisation of the breathing pattern to the MR-HIFU. The quality of sedation for MR-HIFU and complications were recorded and analysed. The side effects of the sedation technique, the propofol and esketamine consumption rate, the duration of recovery, and patient satisfaction after 24 h were examined. A total of 20 female patients (mean age 42.4 [range 32-53] years) were enrolled. Mean propofol/esketamine dose was 1309 mg/39.5 mg (range 692-1970 mg/ 23.6-87.9 mg). Mean procedure time was 269 min (range 140-295 min). Application of the sedation protocol resulted in a regular breathing pattern, which could be synchronised with the MR-HIFU procedures without delay. The required treatment was completed in all cases. There were no major adverse events. Hypoxemia (oxygen desaturation <92%) and hallucinations were not observed. The use of a specific combination of IV propofol and esketamine for procedural sedation and analgesia reduced the discomfort and pain during MR-guided HIFU treatments of uterine

  8. The Fibroid Registry for outcomes data (FIBROID) for uterine embolization: short-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Worthington-Kirsch, Robert; Spies, James B; Myers, Evan R; Mulgund, Jyotsna; Mauro, Matthew; Pron, Gaylene; Peterson, Eric D; Goodwin, Scott

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the short-term safety of uterine embolization for leiomyomata in a large cohort of patients treated in a variety of clinical settings. Examining the FIBROID Registry, a multicenter prospective voluntary registry of patients undergoing uterine embolization for leiomyomata, we studied the frequency of adverse events and predictors of adverse events within 30 days of the procedure. We also report on the technical aspects of the procedure, including details of periprocedural care, technique, and short-term recovery. All adverse events were recorded and classified using standard definitions, both in terms of type and severity. Summary statistics were used to describe the data set, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine which factors might influence the incidence of adverse events. Of the 3,160 patients enrolled at 72 contributing sites, major in-hospital complications occurred in 0.66%, and postdischarge major events occurred in 4.8% within the first 30 days. The most common adverse event after discharge was inadequate pain relief requiring additional hospital treatment (2.4%). Thirty-one patients required additional surgical intervention within 30 days after treatment, 3 of whom required hysterectomy (0.1%). There were no deaths. Multivariate analysis showed modest increased odds for an adverse event for African Americans, smokers, and those with prior leiomyoma procedures. There were no differences in outcome based on the practice site experience, practice type, or any procedure-related factors. Uterine embolization for leiomyomata is a low-risk procedure with little variability in short-term outcome based on either patient demographics or practice setting. II-3.

  9. Ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) for the treatment of uterine myomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H., Jr.; Diederich, Chris J.; Simko, Jeff; Juang, Titania; Jacoby, Alison; Burdette, E. C.

    2007-02-01

    Uterine myomas (fibroids) are the most common pelvic tumors occurring in women, and are the leading cause of hysterectomy. Symptoms can be severe, and traditional treatments involve either surgical removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), or the fibroids (myomectomy). Interstitial ultrasound technologies have demonstrated potential for hyperthermia and high temperature thermal therapy in the treatment of benign and malignant tumors. These ultrasound devices offer favorable energy penetration allowing large volumes of tissue to be treated in short periods of time, as well as axial and angular control of heating to conform thermal treatment to a targeted tissue, while protecting surrounding tissues from thermal damage. The goal of this project is to evaluate interstitial ultrasound for controlled thermal coagulation of fibroids. Multi-element applicators were fabricated using tubular transducers, some of which were sectored to produce 180° directional heating patterns, and integrated with water cooling. Human uterine fibroids were obtained after routine myomectomies, and instrumented with thermocouples spaced at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 cm from the applicator. Power levels ranging from 8-15 W per element were applied for up to 15 minute heating periods. Results demonstrated that therapeutic temperatures >50° C and cytotoxic thermal doses (t 43) extended beyond 2 cm radially from the applicator (>4 cm diameter). It is anticipated that this system will make a significant contribution toward the treatment of uterine fibroids.

  10. Cost comparison between uterine-sparing fibroid treatments one year following treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare one-year all-cause and uterine fibroid (UF)-related direct costs in patients treated with one of the following three uterine-sparing procedures: magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), uterine artery embolization (UAE) and myomectomy. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study used healthcare claims for several million individuals with healthcare coverage from employers in the MarketScan Database for the period 2003–2010. UF patients aged 25–54 on their first UF procedure (index) date with 366-day baseline experience, 366-day follow-up period, continuous health plan enrollment during baseline and follow-up, and absence of any baseline UF procedures were included in the final sample. Cost outcomes were measured by allowed charges (sum of insurer-paid and patient-paid amounts). UF-related cost was defined as difference in mean cost between study cohorts and propensity-score-matched control cohorts without UF. Multivariate adjustment of cost outcomes was conducted using generalized linear models. Results The study sample comprised 14,426 patients (MRgFUS = 14; UAE = 4,092; myomectomy = 10,320) with a higher percent of older patients in MRgFUS cohort (71% vs. 50% vs. 12% in age-group 45–54, P < 0.001). Adjusted all-cause mean cost was lowest for MRgFUS ($19,763; 95% CI: $10,425-$38,694) followed by myomectomy ($20,407; 95% CI: $19,483-$21,381) and UAE ($25,019; 95% CI: $23,738-$26,376) but without statistical significance. Adjusted UF-related costs were also not significantly different between the three procedures. Conclusions Adjusted all-cause and UF-related costs at one year were not significantly different between patients undergoing MRgFUS, myomectomy and UAE. PMID:25512868

  11. The management of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Allaire, Catherine; Laberge, Philippe-Yves; Leyland, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide clinicians with an understanding of the pathophysiology, prevalence, and clinical significance of myomata and the best evidence available on treatment modalities. The areas of clinical practice considered in formulating this guideline were assessment, medical treatments, conservative treatments of myolysis, selective uterine artery occlusion, and surgical alternatives including myomectomy and hysterectomy. The risk-to-benefit ratio must be examined individually by the woman and her health care provider. Implementation of this guideline should optimize the decision-making process of women and their health care providers in proceeding with further investigation or therapy for uterine leiomyomas, having considered the disease process and available treatment options, and reviewed the risks and anticipated benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Systematic Reviews in February 2013, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (uterine fibroids, myoma, leiomyoma, myomectomy, myolysis, heavy menstrual bleeding, and menorrhagia) and key words (myoma, leiomyoma, fibroid, myomectomy, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy, heavy menstrual bleeding, menorrhagia). The reference lists of articles identified were also searched for other relevant publications. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to January 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The majority of fibroids are asymptomatic and require no intervention or further

  12. In-office rapid volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids under ultrasound imaging guidance: Preclinical and early clinical experience with the Mirabilis transabdominal HIFU treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, José G. Garza; León, Ivan Hernandez; Sáenz, Lorena Castillo; Aguirre, Juan M. Aguilar; Lagos, Joel J. Islas; Parsons, Jessica E.; Darlington, Gregory P.; Lau, Michael P. H.

    2017-03-01

    Mirabilis Medica, Inc. (Bothell, WA, USA) has developed a high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) system for producing rapid transabdominal volumetric ablation of uterine fibroids in an office-based setting. The Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System utilizes integrated ultrasound imaging guidance and short treatment times under 15 minutes. Treatment with the Mirabilis system is generally well tolerated using only oral analgesia without anesthesia or sedation. This paper summarizes certain technical aspects of the Mirabilis HIFU technology, the preclinical development process, and the results of the first in-human clinical study using the Mirabilis system. During preclinical studies, an in vivo transcutaneous porcine lower extremity model was used in a total of 180 adult swine to develop the HIFU treatment regimen parameters. Additionally, 108 excised human uteri with fibroids obtained from scheduled hysterectomies were treated in an ex vivo experimental setup and evaluated. These preclinical activities resulted in a HIFU treatment technique referred to as Mirabilis Shell Ablation, which enables rapid volumetric fibroid ablation by directing the HIFU energy to the outer perimeter of the target volume (the `shell') without insonating its core. This method results in efficient fibroid treatment through a synergistic combination of direct tissue ablation, cooperative heating effects, and indirect ischemic necrosis in the interior of the volume. After refining this technique and performing safety testing in the in vivo porcine model, a clinical pilot study was conducted to assess the initial safety and performance of the Mirabilis HIFU Treatment System for transabdominal treatment of uterine fibroids in eligible women who were scheduled to undergo hysterectomy following treatment with the device. A total of 37 women meeting certain eligibility criteria were treated at two clinical sites in Mexico. Twenty-nine (29) of these 37 women received only prophylactic sublingual

  13. Infarction of Uterine Fibroids After Embolization: Relationship Between Postprocedural Enhanced MRI Findings and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko

    2008-01-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the degree of infarction of uterine fibroids on enhanced MRI after embolization and long-term clinical outcomes. Methods. During 92 months, 290 consecutive patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated with embolization; 221 who underwent enhanced MRI before embolization and 1 week after embolization were included in this study. The infarction rates of all fibroid tissue were assessed using enhanced MRI after embolization. Patients were divided into three groups according to the infarction rates: group A (100% infarction, n 142), group B (90-99% infarction, n = 74), group C (<90% infarction, n = 5).more » The cumulative rates of clinical outcomes were compared among groups using the Kaplan-Meier limited method. Results. Group A had a significantly higher rate of symptom control than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of symptom control at 5 years were 93%, 71%, and 60% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Group A had a significantly lower rate of gynecologic intervention after embolization than groups B and C. The cumulative rates of additional gynecologic intervention at 5 years were 3%, 15%, and 20% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of infarction of uterine fibroids after embolization on enhanced MRI was related to long-term clinical outcomes. Complete infarction of all fibroid tissue can induce a higher rate of symptom control, with a lower rate of additional gynecologic intervention in the long term compared with incomplete infarction of fibroid tissue.« less

  14. Uterine fibroids: semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging parameters associated with the intraprocedural and immediate postprocedural treatment efficiencies of MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Rhim, Hyunchul; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Tae-Joong; Choi, Chel Hun; Lee, Yoo-Young; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-11-01

    To determine whether semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters are associated with therapeutic effectiveness of MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ( HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ) ablation of uterine fibroids and which semiquantitative perfusion parameters are significant with regard to treatment efficiency. This study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Seventy-seven women (mean age, 43.3 years) with 119 fibroids (mean diameter, 7.5 cm) treated with MR imaging-guided HIFU high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation were analyzed. The correlation between semiquantitative perfusion MR parameters (peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, washout rate) and heating and ablation efficiencies (lethal thermal dose volume based on MR thermometry and nonperfused volume based on immediate contrast-enhanced image divided by intended treatment volume) were evaluated by using a linear mixed model on a per-fibroid basis. The specific value of the significant parameter that had a substantial effect on treatment efficiency was determined. The mean peak enhancement, relative peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in rate, and washout rate of the fibroids were 1293.1 ± 472.8 (range, 570.2-2477.8), 171.4% ± 57.2 (range, 0.6%-370.2%), 137.2 seconds ± 119.8 (range, 20.0-300.0 seconds), 79.5 per second ± 48.2 (range, 12.5-236.7 per second), and 11.4 per second ± 10.1 (range, 0-39.3 per second), respectively. Relative peak enhancement was found to be independently significant for both heating and ablation efficiencies (B = -0.002, P < .001 and B = -0.003, P = .050, respectively). The washout rate was significantly associated with ablation efficiency (B = -0.018, P = .043). Both efficiencies showed the most abrupt transitions at 220% of relative peak enhancement. Relative peak enhancement at semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging was

  15. Screening Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Prediction Model for Assessing Immediate Therapeutic Response to Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Park, Min Jung; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Sohn, Insuk; Kim, Tae-Joong; Keserci, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to fit and validate screening magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation. Informed consent from all subjects was obtained for our institutional review board-approved study. A total of 240 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 6.9 cm) in 152 women (mean age, 43.3 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analyzed (160 fibroids for training, 80 fibroids for validation). Screening MRI parameters (subcutaneous fat thickness [mm], x1; relative peak enhancement [%] in semiquantitative perfusion MRI, x2; T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroid to skeletal muscle, x3) were used to fit prediction models with regard to ablation efficiency (nonperfused volume/treatment cell volume, y1) and ablation quality (grade 1-5, poor to excellent, y2), respectively, using the generalized estimating equation method. Cutoff values for achievement of treatment intent (efficiency >1.0; quality grade 4/5) were determined based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Prediction performances were validated by calculating positive and negative predictive values. Generalized estimating equation analyses yielded models of y1 = 2.2637 - 0.0415x1 - 0.0011x2 - 0.0772x3 and y2 = 6.8148 - 0.1070x1 - 0.0050x2 - 0.2163x3. Cutoff values were 1.312 for ablation efficiency (area under the curve, 0.7236; sensitivity, 0.6882; specificity, 0.6866) and 4.019 for ablation quality (0.8794; 0.7156; 0.9020). Positive and negative predictive values were 0.917 and 0.500 for ablation efficiency and 0.978 and 0.600 for ablation quality, respectively. Screening MRI-based prediction models for assessing immediate therapeutic responses of uterine fibroids to MR-HIFU ablation were fitted and validated, which may reduce the risk of unsuccessful treatment.

  16. Impaired work performance among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Debra; Mirza, Fadi G; Mirza, Fadi; Chang, Hong; Renzulli, Karen; Perch, Katherine; Chelmow, David

    2008-10-01

    To assess the work impact of symptomatic uterine fibroids (UFs). A cohort study compared 58 employed women with symptomatic UFs to 56 healthy controls. Data sources included a self-administered mail questionnaire and medical charts. At-work performance limitations and productivity loss were measured with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate case-control group differences were tested. Based on adjusted mean scores, the UF group had significantly more at-work limitations and productivity loss than controls, while absence rates were similar. The UF group's performance was impaired 18% of the time on average versus 8% for controls (P-values, 0.005-0.040). At-work limitations were explained by depression symptoms, Non-White race/ethnicity, and poorer health-related quality of life. Fibroids and related symptoms impose a burden on the working lives' of women, their employers, and the economy.

  17. Ulipristal acetate for pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands: cost minimization analysis and budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Zakiyah, N; van Asselt, A D I; Postma, M J

    2017-03-01

    Ulipristal acetate has been found to be non-inferior to other pre-operative treatments of uterine fibroids, particularly leuprolide. The objective of this study was to assess the pharmacoeconomic profile of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide for the pre-operative treatment of moderate-to-severe uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age in The Netherlands. The analysis was performed and applied within the framework of the ulipristal acetate submission for reimbursement in 2012. A decision model was developed to compare the total costs of ulipristal acetate compared to leuprolide, the standard care in The Netherlands. The target population of this study corresponded to the type of patients included in the PEARL II clinical trial; i.e. women of reproductive age requiring pre-operative treatment for uterine fibroids. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to assess uncertainties. Data regarding costs, effects, and other input parameters were obtained from relevant published literatures, the Dutch Healthcare Insurance Board, and expert opinion obtained by means of a panel of experts from several medical centers in The Netherlands. In The Netherlands, the total costs of ulipristal acetate and leuprolide were estimated at €4,216,027 and €4,218,095, respectively. The annual savings of ulipristal acetate were, therefore, estimated at €2,068. The major driver of this cost difference was the cost of administration for leuprolide. Sensitivity analyses showed that ulipristal acetate mostly remained cost-saving over a range of assumptions. The budget impact analysis indicated that the introduction of ulipristal acetate was estimated to result in cost savings in the first 3 years following the introduction. The results of this study were used in the decision on reimbursement of ulipristal acetate according to the Dutch Reference Pricing system in 2012. Ulipristal acetate was cost saving compared to leuprolide and has the potential to provide substantial savings on

  18. Uterine fibroids: postsonication temperature decay rate enables prediction of therapeutic responses to MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Park, Min Jung; Keserci, Bilgin; Nurmilaukas, Kirsi; Köhler, Max O; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-02-01

    To determine whether intraprocedural thermal parameters as measured with magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry can be used to predict immediate or delayed therapeutic response after MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Institutional review board approval and subject informed consent were obtained. A total of 105 symptomatic uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 8.0 cm; mean volume, 251.8 mL) in 71 women (mean age, 43.3 years; age range, 25-52 years) who underwent volumetric MR HIFU ablation were analyzed. Correlations between tumor-averaged intraprocedural thermal parameters (peak temperature, thermal dose efficiency [estimated volume of 240 equivalent minutes at 43°C divided by volume of treatment cells], and temperature decay rate after sonication) and the immediate ablation efficiency (ratio of nonperfused volume [NPV] at immediate follow-up to treatment cell volume) or ablation sustainability (ratio of NPV at 3-month follow-up to NPV at immediate follow-up) were assessed with linear regression analysis. A total of 2818 therapeutic sonications were analyzed. At immediate follow-up with MR imaging (n = 105), mean NPV-to-fibroid volume ratio and ablation efficiency were 0.68 ± 0.26 (standard deviation) and 1.35 ± 0.75, respectively. A greater thermal dose efficiency (B = 1.894, P < .001) and slower temperature decay rate (B = -1.589, P = .044) were independently significant factors that indicated better immediate ablation efficiency. At 3-month follow-up (n = 81), NPV had decreased to 43.1% ± 21.0 of the original volume, and only slower temperature decay rate was significantly associated with better ablation sustainability (B = -0.826, P = .041). The postsonication temperature decay rate enables prediction of both immediate and delayed therapeutic responses, whereas thermal dose efficiency enables prediction of immediate therapeutic response to MR HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids. © RSNA, 2013.

  19. A prospective controlled study of the effect of intramural uterine fibroids on the outcome of assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Hart, R; Khalaf, Y; Yeong, C T; Seed, P; Taylor, A; Braude, P

    2001-11-01

    Although uterine fibroids occur in 30% of women and are associated with a degree of subfertility, the effect of intramural fibroids on the outcome of IVF or ICSI treatment has not been prospectively studied. Data were prospectively collected on 434 women undergoing IVF/ICSI in the assisted conception unit of an inner London teaching hospital. Patients were assessed for the presence of fibroids by transvaginal ultrasound and hysterosonography or hysteroscopy where appropriate. During the study period, 112 women with (study), and 322 women without (controls), intramural fibroids were treated. Patients were similar regarding the cause and duration of their infertility, number of previous treatments, and basal serum FSH concentration. Women in the study group were on average 2 years older (36.4 versus 34.6 years; P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the duration of ovarian stimulation or gonadotrophin requirement, number of follicles developed, oocytes collected, embryos available for transfer or replaced. When analysing only women with intramural fibroids of < or =5 cm in size (n = 106) pregnancy, implantation and ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly reduced: 23.3, 11.9 and 15.1 respectively compared with 34.1, 20.2 and 28.3% in the control group (P = 0.016, P = 0.018 and P = 0.003). The mean size of the largest fibroids was 2.3 cm (90% range 2.1-2.5 cm). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of intramural fibroids was one of the significant variables affecting the chance of an ongoing pregnancy, even after controlling for the number of embryos available for replacement and increasing age, particularly age > or =40 years, odds ratio 0.46 (CI 0.24-0.88; P = 0.019). This study demonstrated that an intramural fibroid halves the chances of an ongoing pregnancy following assisted conception.

  20. African genetic ancestry interacts with body mass index to modify risk for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Katherine E.; Torstenson, Eric S.; Wellons, Melissa; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.

    2017-01-01

    Race, specifically African ancestry, and obesity are important risk factors for uterine fibroids, and likely interact to provide the right conditions for fibroid growth. However, existing studies largely focus on the main-effects rather than their interaction. Here, we firstly provide evidence for interaction between categories of body mass index (BMI) and reported-race in relation to uterine fibroids. We then investigate whether the association between inferred local European ancestry and fibroid risk is modified by BMI in African American (AA) women in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center bio-repository (BioVU) (539 cases and 794 controls) and the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA, 264 cases and 173 controls). We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate interactions between local European ancestry and BMI in relation to fibroid risk, then performed fixed effects meta-analysis. Statistical significance threshold for local-ancestry and BMI interactions was empirically estimated with 10,000 permutations (p-value = 1.18x10-4). Admixture mapping detected an association between European ancestry and fibroid risk which was modified by BMI (continuous-interaction p-value = 3.75x10-5) around ADTRP (chromosome 6p24); the strongest association was found in the obese category (ancestry odds ratio (AOR) = 0.51, p-value = 2.23x10-5). Evaluation of interaction between genotyped/imputed variants and BMI in this targeted region suggested race-specific interaction, present in AAs only; strongest evidence was found for insertion/deletion variant (6:11946435), again in the obese category (OR = 1.66, p-value = 1.72x10-6). We found nominal evidence for interaction between local ancestry and BMI at a previously reported region in chromosome 2q31-32, which includes COL5A2, and TFPI, an immediate downstream target of ADTRP. Interactions between BMI and SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) found in this region in AA women were also detected in an

  1. Progesterone Action in Endometrial Cancer, Endometriosis, Uterine Fibroids, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J. Julie; Kurita, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) mediates the actions of the ovarian steroid progesterone, which together with estradiol regulates gonadotropin secretion, prepares the endometrium for implantation, maintains pregnancy, and differentiates breast tissue. Separation of estrogen and progesterone actions in hormone-responsive tissues remains a challenge. Pathologies of the uterus and breast, including endometrial cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer, are highly associated with estrogen, considered to be the mitogenic factor. Emerging evidence supports distinct roles of progesterone and its influence on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Progesterone antagonizes estrogen-driven growth in the endometrium, and insufficient progesterone action strikingly increases the risk of endometrial cancer. In endometriosis, eutopic and ectopic tissues do not respond sufficiently to progesterone and are considered to be progesterone-resistant, which contributes to proliferation and survival. In uterine fibroids, progesterone promotes growth by increasing proliferation, cellular hypertrophy, and deposition of extracellular matrix. In normal mammary tissue and breast cancer, progesterone is pro-proliferative and carcinogenic. A key difference between these tissues that could explain the diverse effects of progesterone is the paracrine interactions of PR-expressing stroma and epithelium. Normal endometrium is a mucosa containing large quantities of distinct stromal cells with abundant PR, which influences epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and protects against carcinogenic transformation. In contrast, the primary target cells of progesterone in the breast and fibroids are the mammary epithelial cells and the leiomyoma cells, which lack specifically organized stromal components with significant PR expression. This review provides a unifying perspective for the diverse effects of progesterone across human tissues and diseases. PMID:23303565

  2. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  3. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... through the hysteroscope. The resectoscope destroys fibroids with electricity or a laser beam. Although it cannot remove ... the body. Resectoscope: A slender telescope with an electrical wire loop or rollerball tip used to remove ...

  4. Sexuality and Body Image After Uterine Artery Embolization and Hysterectomy in the Treatment of Uterine Fibroids: A Randomized Comparison

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.; Volkers, Nicole A.; Bartholomeus, Wouter

    In this paper the effect of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on sexual functioning and body image is investigated in a randomized comparison to hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids. The EMbolization versus hysterectoMY (EMMY) trial is a randomized controlled study, conducted at 28 Dutch hospitals. Patients were allocated hysterectomy (n = 89) or UAE (n 88). Two validated questionnaires (the Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ] and the Body Image Scale [BIS]) were completed by all patients at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measurements on SAQ scores revealed no differences between the groups. There wasmore » a trend toward improved sexual function in both groups at 2 years, although this failed to reach statistical significance except for the dimensions discomfort and habit in the UAE arm. Overall quality of sexual life deteriorated in a minority of cases at all time points, with no significant differences between the groups (at 24 months: UAE, 29.3%, versus hysterectomy, 23.5%; p = 0.32). At 24 months the BIS score had improved in both groups compared to baseline, but the change was only significant in the UAE group (p = 0.009). In conclusion, at 24 months no differences in sexuality and body image were observed between the UAE and the hysterectomy group. On average, both after UAE and hysterectomy sexual functioning and body image scores improved, but significantly so only after UAE.« less

  5. Ulipristal acetate prior to in vitro fertilization in a female patient affected by uterine fibroids: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, G; Piva, I; Graziano, A; Engl, B; Marci, R

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomatosis and especially submucosal myomas hamper the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART). Even though surgical treatment eliminates gross anatomical anomalies, medical treatment should be encouraged to improve the overall structure of the uterus, thereby enabling ART. We report the case of an infertile female patient suffering from symptomatic uterine fibromatosis, who received 5 mg/day ulipristal acetate (UPA), a selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRMs), for three months before and after hysteroscopic myomectomy. Uterine bleeding reduced on the eight days of treatment, with a subsequent improvement of pelvic pain. Under transvaginal ultrasound the uterus appeared globally enlarged with a diffuse leiomyomatosis of the myometrial layer. Saline infusion showed a markedly distorted cavity due two submucosal myomas (sized 31 × 24 mm and 21 × 19 mm, respectively) and one intramural myoma (37 × 34 mm). After three months the size of the myomas was reduced by 30-40%, allowing the hysteroscopic removal of the submucosal fibroids and the bigger intramural one. The smaller fibroids involving the myometrial layer were instead too diffused to be removed. At the conclusion of the subsequent cycle of UPA, the overall appearance of the cavity had improved, and the endometrial layer was regular, allowing the patient to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). There was no adverse effect related to treatment, and the endometrial biopsy did not reveal any histologic change. UPA seems to have a triple effect: it ensures prompt symptom relief, it reduces the size of the myomas enabling surgery and it improves the morphology of the uterus.

  6. [Epidemiological data for uterine fibroids in France in 2010-2012 in medical center--analysis from the French DRG-based information system (PMSI)].

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Chabbert-Buffet, N; Koskas, M; Nazac, A

    2014-10-01

    Uterine fibroids are a common disorder, responsible for menorrhagia/metrorrhagia and pelvic pain and remain the leading reason for hysterectomy in France. Although it is common disorder, French epidemiological data are locking. The objective of this study was to realize an epidemiological analysis from the medicalized information system program (PMSI). The diagnosis codes were selected from 10th version of the International Classification Disease. The medical procedures concerning uterine fibroids were selected (so called: procedures listed). A descriptive analysis was performed from hospitals stays, patients' characteristics and medical procedures (mean, standard distribution, median, range, quartile). In 2012, 46,126 patients (median age: 46 years old) were admitted in hospital (public or private hospitals) due to uterine fibroid corresponding to 47,690 hospital stays (hospital stays for surgery: 32,397). Diagnosis of anemia was reported in approximately 8% of patients and 7.1% of patients hospitalized in 2012 had already been hospitalized between 2004-2012. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days. In 2012, 16,070 hospital stays were reported for total or subtotal hysterectomy, 16,384 hospitals stays for myomectomy and 1376 hospital stays for embolization. In terms of management care, among 46,126 patients with uterine fibroids (principal or related diagnosis), 31,846 patients received a procedure listed in a surgical diagnostic related groups (DRG). To conclude, the study permits to update the epidemiological data concerning uterine fibroid management between 2010-2011-2012 in final. Because the PMSI collects partially information regarding epidemiological data, a clear epidemiological study is needed either with database from health insurance or with dedicated study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Women's Experiences with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: a Qualitative Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sengoba, Katherine S; Ghant, Marissa S; Okeigwe, Ijeoma; Mendoza, Gricelda; Marsh, Erica E

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine racial/ethnic differences in treatment experiences and expectations among women with fibroids. Sixty women with symptomatic uterine fibroids completed semi-structured interviews, demographic surveys, and a health literacy assessment. Participants were recruited from community-based organizations and health care organizations. Data from interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Three coders identified major themes and subthemes. The kappa (κ) among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD). A total of 61.7 % of subjects were African-American (AAW), 25.0 % were non-Hispanic White (WW), 8.3 % were Hispanic (HW), and 5.0 % were Asian (ASW). When considering treatment options, AAW were more likely to want a permanent intervention. They were also more likely to demonstrate an aversion toward conventional treatments. Of the women who received a surgical intervention, AAW were also more likely to have had a difficult recovery and to be dissatisfied with their treatment. Finally, AAW disproportionately expressed concern regarding financial challenges. AAW have high treatment expectations, have more financial obstacles, and are less satisfied with their treatment outcomes than women of other racial/ethnic groups. Our findings suggest a need to create targeted patient interventions and education to ameliorate these disparities in experience.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: impact of technology advancement on ablation volumes in 115 patients.

    PubMed

    Trumm, Christoph G; Stahl, Robert; Clevert, Dirk-André; Herzog, Peter; Mindjuk, Irene; Kornprobst, Sabine; Schwarz, Christina; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten; Reiser, Maximilian F; Matzko, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the advanced technology of the new ExAblate 2100 system (Insightec Ltd, Haifa, Israel) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided focused ultrasound surgery on treatment outcomes in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids, as measured by the nonperfused volume ratio. This is a retrospective analysis of 115 women (mean age, 42 years; range, 27-54 years) with symptomatic fibroids who consecutively underwent MRI-guided focused ultrasound treatment in a single center with the new generation ExAblate 2100 system from November 2010 to June 2011. Mean ± SD total volume and number of treated fibroids (per patient) were 89 ± 94 cm and 2.2 ± 1.7, respectively. Patient baseline characteristics were analyzed regarding their impact on the resulting nonperfused volume ratio. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound treatment was technically successful in 115 of 123 patients (93.5%). In 8 patients, treatment was not possible because of bowel loops in the beam pathway that could not be mitigated (n = 6), patient movement (n = 1), and system malfunction (n = 1). Mean nonperfused volume ratio was 88% ± 15% (range, 38%-100%). Mean applied energy level was 5400 ± 1200 J, and mean number of sonications was 74 ± 27. No major complications occurred. Two cases of first-degree skin burn resolved within 1 week after the intervention. Of the baseline characteristics analyzed, only the planned treatment volume had a statistically significant impact on nonperfused volume ratio. With technological advancement, the outcome of MRI-guided focused ultrasound treatment in terms of the nonperfused volume ratio can be enhanced with a high safety profile, markedly exceeding results reported in previous clinical trials.

  9. Beyond the physical: a qualitative assessment of the burden of symptomatic uterine fibroids on women's emotional and psychosocial health.

    PubMed

    Ghant, Marissa S; Sengoba, Katherine S; Recht, Hannah; Cameron, Kenzie A; Lawson, Angela K; Marsh, Erica E

    2015-05-01

    To qualitatively assess the burden of uterine fibroids on women's emotional health. Sixty women (n = 60) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were recruited from an urban academic medical center and community-based organizations. Women completed qualitative, semi-structured interviews and demographic surveys. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Using a grounded theory approach, three coders independently identified major themes and subthemes that emerged from the interviews. The kappa among coders was 0.94. The mean age of participants was 43.0 ± 6.8. 61.7% of participants self-identified as African-American, 25.0% as Caucasian, 8.3% as Hispanic and 5.0% as Asian. Most participants exhibited a significant emotional response to their fibroids, including fear, anxiety, anger, and depression. Half of the women felt helpless and believed that they had no control over their fibroids. Many women possessed a negative self-image and cited concern over appearing less attractive, which led to difficulties becoming intimate. Several women felt that they lacked substantial support to help them deal with these issues. In addition to the known high prevalence and severe physical impact of uterine fibroids, there is a significant psychological impact on women. Many women lack support to help them deal with these issues and very few seek help from a mental health professional. There is an opportunity and a need for the mental health community to address the concerns in this population, in order to improve psychological health and quality of life in patients living with this chronic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) Registry: Rationale and Design.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth A; Lytle, Barbara L; Thomas, Laine; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Jacoby, Vanessa; Diamond, Michael P; Nicholson, Wanda K; Anchan, Raymond M; Venable, Sateria; Wallace, Kedra; Marsh, Erica E; Maxwell, George L; Borah, Bijan J; Catherino, William H; Myers, Evan R

    2018-05-08

    To design and establish a uterine fibroid (UF) registry based in the United States (US) to provide comparative effectiveness data regarding UF treatment. We report here the design and initial recruitment for the Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) registry (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02260752), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in collaboration with the-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). COMPARE-UF is designed to help answer critical questions about treatment options for women with symptomatic UF. Women undergoing a procedure for UF (hysterectomy, myomectomy [abdominal, hysteroscopic, vaginal and laparoscopic/robotic], endometrial ablation, radiofrequency fibroid ablation, uterine artery embolization, magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound or progestin-releasing intrauterine device insertion) at one of the COMPARE-UF sites are invited to participate in a prospective registry with three years follow-up for post-procedural outcomes. Enrolled participants provide annual follow-up through an online portal or through traditional phone contact. A central data abstraction center provides information obtained from imaging, operative or procedural notes and pathology reports. Women with uterine fibroids and other stakeholders are a key part of the COMPARE-UF registry and participate at all points from study design to dissemination of results. We built a network of nine clinical sites across the US with expertise in the care of women with UF to capture geographic, racial, ethnic and procedural diversity. Of the initial 2031 women enrolled in COMPARE-UF, 42% are self-identified as Black or African-American and 40% are age 40 years or younger with 16% of participants under age 35. Women undergoing myomectomy comprise the largest treatment group at 46% of all procedures with laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy comprising the largest subset of myomectomies at 19% of all

  11. Uterine Fibroids: Correlation of T2 Signal Intensity with Semiquantitative Perfusion MR Parameters in Patients Screened for MR-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the relationships between T2 signal intensity and semiquantitative perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) parameters of uterine fibroids in patients who were screened for MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Institutional review board approval was granted, and informed consents were waived. One hundred seventy most symptom-relevant, nondegenerated uterine fibroids (mean diameter, 7.3 cm; range, 3.0-17.2 cm) in 170 women (mean age, 43.5 years; range, 24-56 years) undergoing screening MR examinations for MR-guided HIFU ablation from October 2009 to April 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Fibroid signal intensity was assessed as the ratio of the fibroid T2 signal intensity to that of skeletal muscle. Parameters of semiquantitative perfusion MR imaging obtained during screening MR examination (peak enhancement, percentage of relative peak enhancement, time to peak [in seconds], wash-in rate [per seconds], and washout rate [per seconds]) were investigated to assess their relationships with T2 signal ratio by using multiple linear regression analysis. Correlations between T2 signal intensity and independently significant perfusion parameters were then evaluated according to fibroid type by using Spearman correlation test. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that relative peak enhancement showed an independently significant correlation with T2 signal ratio (Β = 0.004, P < .001). Submucosal intracavitary (n = 20, ρ = 0.275, P = .240) and type III (n = 18, ρ = 0.082, P = .748) fibroids failed to show significant correlations between perfusion and T2 signal intensity, while significant correlations were found for all other fibroid types (ρ = 0.411-0.629, P < .05). In possible candidates for MR-guided HIFU ablation, the T2 signal intensity of nondegenerated uterine fibroids showed an independently significant positive correlation with relative peak enhancement in most cases, except those of submucosal intracavitary or type III

  12. A comprehensive approach to the treatment of uterine leiomyomata.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen; Ascher-Walsh, Charles

    2009-12-01

    Leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common tumors in women, with a prevalence between 30% and 50%. They affect women primarily during their reproductive years, spontaneously regressing after menopause in most women. They may cause significant symptoms of pain, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, and infertility. Because leiomyomas are so common, treatment should be reserved for those patients with symptoms. Treatment options have recently expanded beyond hysterectomy. Medical therapies, including gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and progesterone modulators, have become more widely used. Less invasive options such as uterine fibroid embolization, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound, and radiofrequency ablation are being used to avoid more invasive surgery. Because of limited and negative information regarding these alternatives to surgery, they are not recommended for women desiring future fertility. If surgery is desired or required, often less invasive approaches via hysteroscopy for intracavitary lesions or robot-assisted laparoscopy for patients with a small number of myomas have become preferred options. Treatment should be tailored to the patient. Copyright 2009 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  13. Technical results and effects of operator experience on uterine artery embolization for fibroids: the Ontario Uterine Fibroid Embolization Trial.

    PubMed

    Pron, Gaylene; Bennett, John; Common, Andrew; Sniderman, Kenneth; Asch, Murray; Bell, Stuart; Kozak, Roman; Vanderburgh, Leslie; Garvin, Greg; Simons, Martin; Tran, Cuong; Kachura, John

    2003-05-01

    To document the technical results and spectrum of practice of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for fibroids in the health care setting in Canada. The effects of interventional radiologist's (IR's) experience with UAE on procedure and fluoroscopy time were also investigated. The study involved a multicenter prospective single-arm clinical treatment trial and included the practices of 11 IRs at eight university-affiliated teaching and community hospitals. Vascular access with percutaneous femoral artery approach was followed by transcatheter delivery of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles into uterine arteries with fluoroscopic guidance. Technical success, complications, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and effects of operator experience were outcomes analyzed. Between November 1998 and November 2000, 570 embolization procedures were performed in 555 patients. UAE was bilaterally successful in 97% (95% CI: 95%-98%). Variant anatomy was the most common reason for failure to embolize bilaterally. The procedural complication rate was 5.3% (95% CI: 3.6%-7.4%). Of the 30 events, three involved major complications (one seizure and two allergic reactions) that resulted in additional care or extended hospital stay. Procedure time and fluoroscopy time averaged 61 minutes (95% CI; 58-63 minutes) and 18.9 minutes (95% CI; 18-19.8) and varied significantly among IRs (P <.001; P <.001). The average 27% reduction in procedure time (20 minutes; P <.001) and 24% reduction in fluoroscopy time (5.1 minutes; P <.001) with increasing UAE experience were significant. A high level of technical success with few complications was obtained with a variety of operators in diverse practice settings. Increased experience in UAE significantly reduced procedure and fluoroscopy time.

  14. The role of angiogenic factors in fibroid pathogenesis: potential implications for future therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Reshef; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well established that tumors are dependent on angiogenesis for their growth and survival. Although uterine fibroids are known to be benign tumors with reduced vascularization, recent work demonstrates that the vasculature of fibroids is grossly and microscopically abnormal. Accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenic growth factor dysregulation may be implicated in these vascular and other features of fibroid pathophysiology. Methods Literature searches were performed in PubMed and Google Scholar for articles with content related to angiogenic growth factors and myometrium/leiomyoma. The findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. Results Multiple growth factors involved in angiogenesis are differentially expressed in leiomyoma compared with myometrium. These include epidermal growth factor (EGF), heparin-binding-EGF, vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-β and adrenomedullin. An important paradox is that although leiomyoma tissues are hypoxic, leiomyoma feature down-regulation of key molecular regulators of the hypoxia response. Furthermore, the hypoxic milieu of leiomyoma may contribute to fibroid development and growth. Notably, common treatments for fibroids such as GnRH agonists and uterine artery embolization (UAE) are shown to work at least partly via anti-angiogenic mechanisms. Conclusions Angiogenic growth factors play an important role in mechanisms of fibroid pathophysiology, including abnormal vasculature and fibroid growth and survival. Moreover, the fibroid's abnormal vasculature together with its aberrant hypoxic and angiogenic response may make it especially vulnerable to disruption of its vascular supply, a feature which could be exploited for treatment. Further experimental studies are required in order to gain a better understanding of the growth factors that are involved in normal and pathological myometrial angiogenesis, and to assess

  15. Quantitative Serial MRI of the Treated Fibroid Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Alistair R. W.; McKillop, Graham; Walker, Jane; Horne, Andrew W.; Newby, David E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Semple, Scott I.; Marshall, Ian; Lewis, Steff C.; Millar, Robert P.; Bastin, Mark E.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are no long-term medical treatments for uterine fibroids, and non-invasive biomarkers are needed to evaluate novel therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to determine whether serial dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and magnetization transfer MRI (MT-MRI) are able to detect changes that accompany volume reduction in patients administered GnRH analogue drugs, a treatment which is known to reduce fibroid volume and perfusion. Our secondary aim was to determine whether rapid suppression of ovarian activity by combining GnRH agonist and antagonist therapies results in faster volume reduction. Methods Forty women were assessed for eligibility at gynaecology clinics in the region, of whom thirty premenopausal women scheduled for hysterectomy due to symptomatic fibroids were randomized to three groups, receiving (1) GnRH agonist (Goserelin), (2) GnRH agonist+GnRH antagonist (Goserelin and Cetrorelix) or (3) no treatment. Patients were monitored by serial structural, DCE-MRI and MT-MRI, as well as by ultrasound and serum oestradiol concentration measurements from enrolment to hysterectomy (approximately 3 months). Results A volumetric treatment effect assessed by structural MRI occurred by day 14 of treatment (9% median reduction versus 9% increase in untreated women; P = 0.022) and persisted throughout. Reduced fibroid perfusion and permeability assessed by DCE-MRI occurred later and was demonstrable by 2–3 months (43% median reduction versus 20% increase respectively; P = 0.0093). There was no apparent treatment effect by MT-MRI. Effective suppression of oestradiol was associated with early volume reduction at days 14 (P = 0.041) and 28 (P = 0.0061). Conclusion DCE-MRI is sensitive to the vascular changes thought to accompany successful GnRH analogue treatment of uterine fibroids and should be considered for use in future mechanism/efficacy studies of proposed fibroid drug therapies. GnRH antagonist administration

  16. The natural history of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Mavrelos, D; Ben-Nagi, J; Holland, T; Hoo, W; Naftalin, J; Jurkovic, D

    2010-02-01

    Fibroids are common, hormone-dependent, benign uterine tumors. They can cause significant morbidity and the symptoms depend largely on their size. The aim of this study was to describe the natural history of fibroids and identify factors that may influence their growth. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of premenopausal women who were diagnosed with uterine fibroids on ultrasound examination. All women underwent at least two transvaginal ultrasound scans, which were all performed by a single operator. Fibroids were measured in three perpendicular planes and the mean diameter was calculated. The size and position of every individual fibroid was assessed and recorded on a computerized database. The volume of each fibroid was calculated using the formula for a sphere. A total of 122 women were included in the study. Their median age at the initial examination was 40 (range, 27-45) years. Seventy-two (59.0%) were nulliparous and 74 (60.7%) had multiple fibroids. The median interval between the initial and final examination was 21.5 (range, 8-90) months. The median fibroid volume increased by 35.2% per year. Small fibroids (< 20 mm mean diameter) grew significantly faster than larger fibroids (P = 0.007). The median increase in size was significantly higher in cases of intramural fibroids (53.2 (interquartile range (IQR), 11.2-217)%) than in subserous fibroids (25.1 (IQR, 1.1-87.1)%) and submucous fibroids (22.8 (IQR, - 11.7 to 48.3)%) (P = 0.012). Multivariate analysis retained only fibroid size at presentation as an independent predictor of fibroid growth. The growth of fibroids in premenopausal women is influenced by the tumor's size at presentation.

  17. Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail. PMID:22378865

  18. Administration of goserelin acetate after uterine artery embolization does not change the reduction rate and volume of uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Vilos, Angelos G; Abu-Rafea, Basim; Pron, Gaylene; Kozak, Roman; Garvin, Greg

    2006-05-01

    To determine if goserelin immediately after uterine artery embolization (UAE) affected myoma reduction. Randomized pilot study (level 1). Teaching hospital. Twenty-six women. All patients underwent UAE, and then 12 patients received 10.8 mg of goserelin 24 hours later. The treatment group was 5 years older: 43 versus 37.7 years. Uterine and myoma volumes were measured by ultrasound 2 weeks before UAE and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Uterine and fibroid volumes. Pretreatment uterine volume was 477 versus 556 cm3, and dominant fibroid volume was 257 versus 225 cm3 in the control versus goserelin groups. Analysis of variance measurements indicated that the change over time did not significantly differ between the two groups. By 12 months, the control group had a mean uterine volume reduction of 58%, while the goserelin group had a reduction of 45%. Dominant fibroid changes over time did not differ between the two groups. At 12 months, the mean fibroid volume had decreased by 86% and 58% in the control and goserelin groups, respectively. The addition of goserelin therapy to UAE did not alter the reduction rate or volume of uterine myomas.

  19. Clinical Long-Term Outcome and Reinterventional Rate After Uterine Fibroid Embolization with Nonspherical Versus Spherical Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duvnjak, Stevo, E-mail: stevo.duvnjak@rsyd.dk; Ravn, Pernille; Green, Anders

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome and frequency of reinterventions in patients with uterine fibroids treated with embolization at a single center using polyvinyl alcohol microparticles.MethodsThe study included all patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids treated with uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with spherical (s-PVA) and nonspherical (ns-PVA) polyvinyl alcohol microparticles during the period January 2001 to January 2011. Clinical success and secondary interventions were examined. Hospital records were reviewed during follow-up, and symptom-specific questionnaires were sent to all patients.ResultsIn total, 515 patients were treated with UFE and 350 patients (67 %) were available for long-term clinical follow-up. Medianmore » time of follow-up was 93 (range 76–120.2) months. Eighty-five patients (72 %) had no reinterventions during follow-up in the group embolized with ns-PVA compared with 134 patients (58 %) treated with s-PVA. Thirty-three patients (28 %) underwent secondary interventions in the ns-PVA group compared with 98 patients (42 %) in s-PVA group (χ{sup 2} test, p < 0.01).ConclusionsSpherical PVA particles 500–700 µm showed high reintervention rate at long-term follow-up, and almost one quarter of the patients underwent secondary interventions, suggesting that this type of particle is inappropriate for UFE.« less

  20. Uterine fibroids: Influence of "T2-Rim sign" on immediate therapeutic responses to magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sin Yuin; Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Hwang, Na Young

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the influence of a high-signal-intensity peripheral rim on T2-weighted MR images (i.e., T2-rim sign) on the immediate therapeutic responses of MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and patient informed consent was obtained for MR-HIFU ablation. In total, 196 fibroids (diameter 6.2±2.6cm) in 123 women (age 43.4±5.0 years) who underwent MR-HIFU ablation from January 2013 to April 2016 were included. The effects of a T2-rim sign on the immediate therapeutic responses (non-perfused volume [NPV] ratio, ablation efficiency [NPV/treatment cell volume], ablation quality [grade 1-5, poor to excellent]) were investigated with univariable and multivariable analyses using generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. In multivariable analysis, T2 signal intensity ratio of fibroids-to-skeletal muscle, relative peak enhancement of fibroids, and subcutaneous fat thickness were also considered. The presence of a T2-rim sign significantly lowered the NPV ratio (54.0±28.0% vs. 83.7±17.7%), ablation efficiency (0.6±0.5 vs. 1.3±0.6), ablation quality (3.1±1.2 vs. 4.2±0.8), (P<0.0001). GEE analysis showed that the presence of a T2-rim sign was independently significant for ablation efficiency and ablation quality (P<0.05). Uterine fibroids with a T2-rim sign showed significantly poorer immediate therapeutic responses to MR-HIFU ablation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings from the Third National Institutes of Health International Congress on Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: comprehensive review, conference summary and future recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Segars, James H.; Parrott, Estella C.; Nagel, Joan D.; Guo, Xiaoxiao Catherine; Gao, Xiaohua; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pinn, Vivian W.; Dixon, Darlene

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors in women of reproductive age yet the etiology and pathogenesis of these lesions remain poorly understood. Age, African ancestry, nulliparity and obesity have been identified as predisposing factors for uterine fibroids. Symptomatic tumors can cause excessive uterine bleeding, bladder dysfunction and pelvic pain, as well as associated reproductive disorders such as infertility, miscarriage and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Currently, there are limited noninvasive therapies for fibroids and no early intervention or prevention strategies are readily available. This review summarizes the advances in basic, applied and translational uterine fibroid research, in addition to current and proposed approaches to clinical management as presented at the ‘Advances in Uterine Leiomyoma Research: 3rd NIH International Congress’. Congress recommendations and a review of the fibroid literature are also reported. METHODS This review is a report of meeting proceedings, the resulting recommendations and a literature review of the subject. RESULTS The research data presented highlights the complexity of uterine fibroids and the convergence of ethnicity, race, genetics, epigenetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle and possible socioeconomic parameters on disease manifestation. The data presented suggest it is likely that the majority of women with uterine fibroids will have normal pregnancy outcomes; however, additional research is warranted. As an alternative to surgery, an effective long-term medical treatment for uterine fibroids should reduce heavy uterine bleeding and fibroid/uterine volume without excessive side effects. This goal has not been achieved and current treatments reduce symptoms only temporarily; however, a multi-disciplined approach to understanding the molecular origins and pathogenesis of uterine fibroids, as presented in this report, makes our quest for identifying novel

  2. Repeated intermittent ulipristal acetate in the treatment of uterine fibroids: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Geale, Kirk; Saridogan, Ertan; Lehmann, Matthieu; Arriagada, Pablo; Hultberg, Marcus; Henriksson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    There are limited treatment options available for women with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids (UFs) who wish to avoid surgery. For these women, treatment with standard pharmaceuticals such as contraceptives is often insufficient to relieve symptoms, and patients may require surgery despite their wish to avoid it. Clinical trials demonstrate that ulipristal acetate 5 mg (UPA) is an effective treatment for this patient group, but its cost-effectiveness has not been assessed in this population. A decision-analytic model was developed to simulate a cohort of patients in this population under treatment with UPA followed by surgery as needed compared to treatment with iron and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) followed by surgery as needed (best supportive care, BSC). The analysis took the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England, UK, and was based on the published UPA clinical trials. Results were calculated for the long-term costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each treatment arm and combined into an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as the primary outcome. The impact of parameter uncertainty on the results was assessed using scenario, deterministic, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The results show that treating patients with the UPA strategy, instead of the BSC strategy, results in an additional cost of £1,115 and a gain of 0.087 QALYs, resulting in an ICER of £12,850. Given commonly accepted cost-effectiveness thresholds in England, the use of UPA as a repeated, intermittent treatment for women with moderate to severe symptoms of UF wishing to avoid surgery is likely to be a cost-effective intervention when compared to BSC.

  3. Gyejibongneyong-hwan, a herbal medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea with uterine fibroids: a protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jeeyoun; Lee, Ju Ah; Ko, Mi Mi; You, Sooseong; Lee, Eunhee; Choi, Jiae; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-11-24

    Gyejibongneyong-hwan (GBH), or the Guizhi Fuling Formula in Chinese, is widely used to treat uterine fibroids in East Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan. This study will assess the efficacy and safety of the GBH formula for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea. This study will be a randomised double-blind controlled trial with two parallel arms: the GBH group and the placebo group. This trial will recruit 38 women between 18 and 45 years of age with secondary dysmenorrhoea with uterine fibroids. The investigational drugs, either GBH or placebo, will be administered to the participants three times per day for two menstrual periods (8 weeks). The participants will be followed up for three menstrual cycles after administration of the drugs. The primary outcome will be the Numeric Rating Scale score of average menstrual pain. All analyses will be performed with SAS (V.9.1.3; SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina, USA) by a statistician blinded to the allocation of the groups. Statistical analysis will be undertaken on the intent-to-treat (ITT) basis with a 95% CI using the last observation carried forward for missing values. The ITT analysis will include all randomised patients. This research protocol has been reviewed and approved by the institutional review boards of the trial centre (number WSOH IRB 1606-03). Written informed consent will be obtained from all study participants prior to enrolment in the study. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print. KCT0001967. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. A single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid presence and size is strongly predictive of future uterine procedure: 8-year follow-up of randomly sampled premenopausal women aged 35-49 years.

    PubMed

    Baird, D D; Saldana, T M; Shore, D L; Hill, M C; Schectman, J M

    2015-12-01

    How well can a single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid burden (presence or absence of fibroids and size of largest, if present) predict future probability of having a major uterine procedure? During an 8-year follow-up period, the risk of having a major uterine procedure was 2% for those without fibroids and increased with fibroid size for those with fibroids, reaching 47% for those with fibroids ≥ 4 cm in diameter at baseline. Uterine fibroids are a leading indication for hysterectomy. However, when fibroids are found, there are few available data to help clinicians advise patients about disease progression. Women who were 35-49 years old were randomly selected from the membership of a large urban health plan; 80% of those determined to be eligible were enrolled and screened with ultrasound for fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. African-American and white premenopausal participants who responded to at least one follow-up interview (N = 964, 85% of those eligible) constituted the study cohort. During follow-up (5822 person-years), participants self-reported any major uterine procedure (67% hysterectomies). Life-table analyses and Cox regression (with censoring for menopause) were used to estimate the risk of having a uterine procedure for women with no fibroids, small (<2 cm in diameter), medium (2-3.9 cm), and large fibroids (≥ 4 cm). Differences between African-American and white women, importance of a clinical diagnosis of fibroids prior to study enrollment, and the impact of submucosal fibroids on risk were investigated. There was a greater loss to follow-up for African-Americans than whites (19 versus 11%). For those with follow-up data, 64% had fibroids at baseline, 33% of whom had had a prior diagnosis. Of those with fibroids, 27% had small fibroids (<2 cm in diameter), 46% had medium (largest fibroid 2-3.9 cm in diameter), and 27% had large fibroids (largest ≥ 4 cm in diameter). Twenty-one percent had at least one submucosal fibroid. Major

  5. A Method of Time-Intensity Curve Calculation for Vascular Perfusion of Uterine Fibroids Based on Subtraction Imaging with Motion Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xinjian; Wu, Ruoyu; Li, Tao; Zhao, Dawei; Shan, Xin; Wang, Puling; Peng, Song; Li, Faqi; Wu, Baoming

    2016-12-01

    The time-intensity curve (TIC) from contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) image sequence of uterine fibroids provides important parameter information for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of efficacy of treatment such as high-intensity focused ultrasound surgery. However, respiration and other physiological movements inevitably affect the process of CEUS imaging, and this reduces the accuracy of TIC calculation. In this study, a method of TIC calculation for vascular perfusion of uterine fibroids based on subtraction imaging with motion correction is proposed. First, the fibroid CEUS recording video was decoded into frame images based on the record frame rate. Next, the Brox optical flow algorithm was used to estimate the displacement field and correct the motion between two frames based on warp technique. Then, subtraction imaging was performed to extract the positional distribution of vascular perfusion (PDOVP). Finally, the average gray of all pixels in the PDOVP from each image was determined, and this was considered the TIC of CEUS image sequence. Both the correlation coefficient and mutual information of the results with proposed method were larger than those determined using the original method. PDOVP extraction results have been improved significantly after motion correction. The variance reduction rates were all positive, indicating that the fluctuations of TIC had become less pronounced, and the calculation accuracy has been improved after motion correction. This proposed method can effectively overcome the influence of motion mainly caused by respiration and allows precise calculation of TIC.

  6. Perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy compared with total abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Walawalkar, R; Seshadri, S; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically review and summarise existing evidence related to the perioperative morbidity associated with abdominal myomectomy in comparison with abdominal hysterectomy for uterine fibroids. A review of MEDLINE and EMBASE was carried out. The primary outcome was the major morbidity rate and secondary outcomes were uterine size, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion, operating time and duration of hospital stay. The results identified six observational studies including 1520 participants. All studies scored moderately on the N-OQA scale and were limited to a uterine size of up to 18 weeks. There was no significant difference in the rate of major morbidity (RR 0.94; 95% CI = 0.31, 2.81; p = 0.91) between the two operations. It was concluded that based on variable quality data from retrospective cohort studies, abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy appear to have similar major morbidity rates for the uterine size up to 16-18 weeks. Well-designed trials with a standardised morbidity outcome and including uterine size greater than 18 weeks are required.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids: Effect of Bowel Interposition on Procedure Feasibility and a Unique Bowel Displacement Technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bowel interposition on assessing procedure feasibility, and the usefulness and limiting conditions of bowel displacement techniques in magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of uterine fibroids. Institutional review board approved this study. A total of 375 screening MR exams and 206 MR-HIFU ablations for symptomatic uterine fibroids performed between August 2010 and March 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The effect of bowel interposition on procedure feasibility was assessed by comparing pass rates in periods before and after adopting a unique bowel displacement technique (bladder filling, rectal filling and subsequent bladder emptying; BRB maneuver). Risk factors for BRB failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. Overall pass rates of pre- and post-BRB periods were 59.0% (98/166) and 71.7% (150/209), and in bowel-interposed cases they were 14.6% (7/48) and 76.4% (55/72), respectively. BRB maneuver was technically successful in 81.7% (49/60). Through-the-bladder sonication was effective in eight of eleven BRB failure cases, thus MR-HIFU could be initiated in 95.0% (57/60). A small uterus on treatment day was the only significant risk factor for BRB failure (B = 0.111, P = 0.017). The BRB maneuver greatly reduces the fraction of patients deemed ineligible for MR-HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids due to interposed bowels, although care is needed when the uterus is small.

  8. Perforation of transverse colon: a catastrophic complication of uterine artery embolization for fibroids.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Jyotsna; Bancroft, Karen; Lay, James

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for a symptomatic large fibroid uterus and had spontaneous perforation of the transverse colon 3 months after embolisation with near-fatal consequences. We believe this is the first reported case in the literature of this serious complication of UAE. We briefly review the literature on bowel complications after UAE and discuss lessons to be learned regarding patient selection and postprocedure follow-up.

  9. Tranexamic acid for the management of uterine fibroid tumors: A systematic review of the current evidence

    PubMed Central

    Peitsidis, Panagiotis; Koukoulomati, Anna

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a detailed systematic review of the current evidence on the administration and efficacy of tranexamic acid in patients with menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search on the following databases PubMed and Medline (1950-2013); (1980-2013); Cochrane library (1993-2013). RESULTS: A total of 36 articles were retrieved after the initial electronic search. Careful assessment of the retrieved studies led to the final selection of 5 articles for inclusion in the review. CONCLUSION: Tranexamic acid may reduce blood loss perioperatively in myomectomies. It may reduce the menorrhagia in patients with fibroids, however a stratification of fibroids by size and location is required to define the responses. It is safe in general, with mild adverse effects observed in some cases. More studies with a double-blind randomized design and larger numbers of participants are necessary to reach more precise and safe conclusions. PMID:25516866

  10. [Embolization of the uterine artery in the treatment of uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Simonetti, G; Romanini, C; Pocek, M; Piccione, E; Guazzaroni, M; Zupi, E; Gandini, R; Gabriele, A; Vaquero, E

    2001-03-01

    months and a 75% reduction at 1 year. All patients reported a marked decrease in symptoms. No major complications were observed. The appearance of pelvic pain in the 24-48 hours after the procedure required sedation by analgesic pump; transitorial amenorrhea was observed in 3 patients. As for term complications, 2 patients have eliminated necrotic material through the vagina four weeks after procedure. The patients reported great satisfaction with the procedure. Many treatment options are currently available for symptomatic uterine myomas. One is surgical myomectomy which is associated with increased blood loss, pain and post operative morbidity and requires an additional surgical procedure for fibroma recurrence in 20-25% of patients. Another alternative treatment is hormonal therapy, which drammatically improves symptoms and reduces fibroid size although leiomyomas regrow to their original size within a few months of discontinuing treatment. Uterine embolization is a relatively new treatment for uterine fibroids that can be considered as an alternative to surgical and medical procedures. The radiation exposure adsorbed by the patient is reduced by using pulsed fluoroscopy and taking all the precautionary measures required to minimize the dose. The technical success, the patient' satisfation, the short hospitalization time and preservation of fertility confer to uterine artery embolization the role of a new alternative therapy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine myomas.

  11. The Estimated Annual Cost of Uterine Leiomyomata in the United States

    PubMed Central

    CARDOZO, Eden R.; CLARK, Andrew D.; BANKS, Nicole K.; HENNE, Melinda B.; STEGMANN, Barbara J.; SEGARS, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To estimate the total annual societal cost of uterine fibroids in the United States, based on direct and indirect costs, including associated obstetric complications. Study Design A systematic review of the literature was conducted to estimate the number of women seeking treatment for symptomatic fibroids annually, the costs of medical and surgical treatment, work lost and obstetric complications attributable to fibroids. Total annual costs were converted to 2010 U.S. dollars. A sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated annual direct costs (surgery, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, medications) were $4.1 to $9.4 billion. Estimated lost work costs ranged from $1.55 to $17.2 billion annually. Obstetric outcomes attributed to fibroids resulted in a cost of $238 million to $7.76 billion annually. Uterine fibroids were estimated to cost the US $5.9 to $34.4 billion annually. Conclusions Obstetric complications associated with fibroids contributed significantly to their economic burden. Lost work costs may account for the largest proportion of societal costs due to fibroids. PMID:22244472

  12. Fertility after uterine artery embolization for symptomatic multiple fibroids with no other infertility factors.

    PubMed

    Torre, Antoine; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Kahn, Vanessa; Limot, Olivier; Bussierres, Laurence; Pelage, Jean Pierre

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the fertility of women eligible for surgical multiple myomectomy, but who carefully elected a fertility-sparing uterine artery embolization (UAE). Non-comparative open-label trial, on women ≤40 years, presenting with multiple symptomatic fibroids (at least 3, ≥3 cm), immediate pregnancy wish, and no associated infertility factor. Women had a bilateral limited UAE using tris-acryl gelatin microspheres ≥500 μm. Fertility, ovarian reserve, uterus and fibroid sizes, and quality of life questionnaires (UFS-QoL) were prospectively followed. Fifteen patients, aged 34.8 years (95%CI 32.2-37.5, median 36.0, q1-q3 29.4-39.5) were included from November 2008 to May 2012. During the year following UAE, 9 women actively attempting to conceive experienced 5 live-births (intention-to-treat fertility rate 33.3%, 95%CI 11.8%-61.6%). Markers of ovarian reserve remained stable. The symptoms score was reduced by 66% (95%CI 48%-85%) and the quality of life score was improved by 112% (95%CI 21%-204%). Uterine volume was reduced by 38% (95%CI 24%-52%). Women were followed for 43.1 months (95%CI 32.4-53.9), 10 live-births occurred in 8 patients, and 5 patients required secondary surgeries for fibroids. Women without associated infertility factors demonstrated an encouraging capacity to deliver after UAE. Further randomized controlled trials comparing UAE and myomectomy are warranted. • Women without infertility factors showed an encouraging delivery rate after UAE. • For women choosing UAE over abdominal myomectomy, childbearing may not be impaired. • Data are insufficient to definitively recommend UAE as comparable to myomectomy. • Further randomized trials comparing fertility after UAE or myomectomy are warranted.

  13. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonancemore » imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.« less

  14. Pregnancy following uterine artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles for patients with uterine fibroid or adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy. Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 mum. Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively. Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  15. Uterine fibroids with positive 18F-FDG PET/CT image and significantly increased CA19-9: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Shao, Xiaonan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common pelvic solid tumors and common to 25% of women. F-fluorodexyglucose (F-FDG) is an energy metabolism tracer. Although FDG is generally concentrated in malignant lesions with high glucose metabolism, it can also accumulate in normal tissues, benign lesions, and inflammatory sites. The exact mechanism of FDG uptake by uterine fibroids is not clear. Here, we report a case of uterine fibroids with positive F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and significantly increased CA19-9. The patient was a 43-year-old woman and admitted to our hospital because of "1-year-extended menstrual periods." At admission, she had normal CA125, AFP, and CEA level and CA19-9>1000.00 U/mL. Gynecological transvaginal ultrasound found enlarged uterus with an anterior hypoechoic area of 3.9 × 4.2 cm. CT and contrast-enhanced CT showed significantly enhanced mass shadow on the left anterior wall of uterus. F-FDG PET/CT showed increased FDG metabolism of tumor in the anterior wall of the uterus. Laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Pathological examination demonstrated subserosal leiomyoma. Her CA19-9 level dropped to 91.50 U/mL 1 day after surgery. Significantly elevated CA19-9 was positioned in the uterus by PET/CT imaging, which not only avoided unnecessary gastrointestinal endoscopy and reduced the suffering of patients, but also strengthened the operation confidence in gynecologists. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uterine leiomyomas and their effect on in vitro fertilization outcome: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Jun, S H; Ginsburg, E S; Racowsky, C; Wise, L A; Hornstein, M D

    2001-03-01

    The effect of uterine leiomyomas on the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment has been controversial. This study was undertaken to clarify influence of fibroids on IVF success, in a large population with age and other potential confounding variables controlled for in the analysis. A population of 141 patients with and 406 without leiomyomata undergoing their first IVF cycle was studied. The association between uterine leiomyomas and assisted reproduction treatment outcome was not statistically significant (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.49-1.19, p = 0.21) after controlling for age and other risk factors. Also, fibroids neither affected the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.44-2.60) nor the risk of ectopic pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.08-8.02). Location of fibroids (intramural vs. submucosal/subserosal) and their size had no significant effect on pregnancy outcome. Results from our analyses indicated that in vitro fertilization outcome was not affected by the presence of uterine leiomyomas. Therefore, in patients with normal uterine cavities and fibroids less than a certain size (i.e., < 7 cm), undergoing myomectomies as a prerequisite for assisted reproduction treatment is seriously questionable.

  17. Workflow in interventional radiology: uterine fibroid embolization (UFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindisch, David; Neumuth, Thomas; Burgert, Oliver; Spies, James; Cleary, Kevin

    2008-03-01

    Workflow analysis can be used to record the steps taken during clinical interventions with the goal of identifying bottlenecks and streamlining the procedure efficiency. In this study, we recorded the workflow for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) procedures in the interventional radiology suite at Georgetown University Hospital in Washington, DC, USA. We employed a custom client/server software architecture developed by the Innovation Center for Computer Assisted Surgery (ICCAS) at the University of Leipzig, Germany. This software runs in a JAVA environment and enables an observer to record the actions taken by the physician and surgical team during these interventions. The data recorded is stored as an XML document, which can then be further processed. We recorded data from 30 patients and found a mean intervention time of 01:49:46 (+/- 16:04) minutes. The critical intervention step, the embolization, had a mean time of 00:15:42 (+/- 05:49) minutes, which was only 15% of the total intervention time.

  18. The predictive value of quantitative DCE metrics for immediate therapeutic response of high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation (HIFU) of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao; Fang, Xin; Wang, Chuan-Bin; Chen, Yu; Xu, Xiao; Dong, Jiang-Ning

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the value of quantitative DCE-MRI parameters for predicting the immediate non-perfused volume ratio (NPVR) of HIFU therapy in the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. A total of 78 symptomatic uterine fibroids in 65 female patients were treated with US-HIFU therapy. All patients underwent conventional MRI and DCE-MRI scans 1 day before and 3 days after HIFU treatment. Permeability parameters K trans , K ep , V e , and V p and T1 perfusion parameters BF and BV of pretreatment were measured as a baseline, while NPVR was used to assess immediate ablation efficiency. Data were assigned to NPVR ≧ 70% and NPVR < 70% groups. Then, the predictive performances of different parameters for ablation efficacy were studied to seek the optimal cut-off value, and the length of time to calculate the variable parameters in each case was recorded. (1) It was observed that the pretreatment K trans , K ep , V e , and BF values of the NPVR ≧ 70% group were significantly lower compared to the NPVR < 70% group (p < 0.05). (2) The immediate NPVR was negatively correlated with the K trans , BF, and BV values before HIFU treatment (r = - 0.561, - 0.712, and - 0.528, respectively, p < 0.05 for all). (3) The AUCs of pretreatment K trans , BF, BV values, and K trans combined with BF used to predict the immediate NPVR were 0.810, 0.909, 0.795, and 0.922, respectively (p < 0.05 for all). (4) The mean time to calculate the variable parameters in each case was 7.5 min. Higher K trans , BF, and BV values at baseline DCE-MRI suggested a poor ablation efficacy of HIFU therapy for symptomatic uterine fibroids, while the pretreatment DCE-MRI parameters could be useful biomarkers for predicting the ablation efficacy in select cases. The software used to calculate DCE-MRI parameters was simpler, quicker, and easier to incorporate into clinical practice.

  19. Fibroids and in-vitro fertilization: which comes first?

    PubMed

    Rackow, Beth W; Arici, Aydin

    2005-06-01

    There is no consensus about the impact of uterine fibroids on fertility. This review explores past and recent studies that investigated the effects of submucosal, intramural, and subserosal fibroids on in-vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. We discuss the importance of proper evaluation of the uterus and endometrial cavity, and current options for optimal fibroid management in patients desiring fertility. Several studies have reviewed the data on fibroids and infertility, further exploring this potential relationship. Two recent studies investigated reproductive outcomes before and after myomectomy, and IVF outcomes based on fibroid size and location. Both studies concluded that fibroids can impair reproductive outcomes. Several papers thoroughly reviewed medical and surgical management options for patients with fibroids and desired fertility. Although several medical therapies may reduce fibroid volume or decrease menorrhagia, myomectomy remains the standard of care for future fertility. Recent data identified an increased rate of pregnancy complications after uterine artery embolization compared with laparoscopic myomectomy. A new procedure, magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation, shows promise for the management of symptomatic fibroids, and possibly for the management of fibroids prior to pregnancy. As with embolization, more data are needed to evaluate postprocedure fertility and pregnancy outcomes. Fibroid location, followed by size, is the most important factor determining the impact of fibroids on IVF outcomes. Any distortion of the endometrial cavity seriously affects IVF outcomes, and myomectomy is indicated in this situation. Myomectomy should also be considered for patients with large fibroids, and for patients with unexplained unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  20. Hysteroscopy and the treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Mark Hans

    2015-10-01

    Fibroids or (leio)myomas are benign tumours that very commonly derive from smooth muscle cells of the myometrium. They are the most common indication for a hysterectomy. However, in women desirous of preservation of their uterus or of their fertility, a myomectomy may be a more appropriate form of surgical therapy. The submucous variant is often associated with heavy menstrual bleeding or subfertility. It can be removed with hysteroscopic surgery. Refinements of hysteroscopic surgical techniques have resulted in a better ability to remove submucous myomas. The state of the art of such hysteroscopical techniques and instrumentation to treat submucous myomas and what has been proven is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Uterine leiomyomas during pregnancy and its impact on obstetric outcome].

    PubMed

    Morgan Ortiz, Fred; Piña Romero, Brizna; Elorriaga García, Enrique; Báez Barraza, Josefina; Quevedo Castro, Everardo; Peraza Garay, Felipe de Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The association of uterine leiomyoma and pregnancy is increasing due to the tendency of couples to delay first pregnancy after age 30. The risk of uterine fibroids is greater with advancing age of the woman. To evaluate the impact of fibroids on the incidence of complications during pregnancy, labor and delivery. We observed 65 pregnant patients with uterine fibroids and 165 pregnant patients without fibroids. Follow-up ultrasound was performed at weeks 20 to 24, 30 to 32 and 36 to 40. We analyzed the following variables: threatened abortion, pregnancy loss, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, abnormal fetal presentation, mode of termination of pregnancy, uterine atony, postpartum hemorrhage and perinatal outcome. The frequency of threatened abortion, risk of pregnancy loss in the second trimester, preterm births, premature rupture of membranes and abnormal fetal presentation was significantly higher in patients with uterine fibroids compared to patients without fibroids. It was not demonstrated that fibroids grow during follow-up even, there was a trend toward reduction in size as pregnancy progressed and until its completion. No significant differences in the frequency of cesarean section between groups (52.3 vs. 47.9%, RR 1.09; 95% CI 0.82-1.45, p = 0.646). Uterine atony was more frequent in patients with fibroids than in patients without fibroids (12.3 vs 4.2%, RR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.6, p = 0.036). There were no differences in perinatal outcomes between the groups. Uterine fibroids increase the risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Could not be demonstrated an increased risk of caesarean section.

  2. Examining the Relationship Between Symptomatic Burden and Self-reported Productivity Losses Among Patients With Uterine Fibroids in the United States.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Anand, Savita Bakhshi; Coyne, Karin S; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Snabes, Michael; Owens, Charlotte D

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of uterine fibroid symptoms on employment and household productivity. An online survey of US women between 18 and 54 was conducted. Productivity was assessed using the health related productivity questionnaire (HRPQ). Descriptive statistics and logistic multivariable regressions examined the relationship between uterine fibroids (UF) symptom experience and employment and household productivity. Of 1365 eligible women, 873 (64.0%) were employed. Women lost an average of 0.8 hours to employment-related absenteeism and 4.4 hours due to employment-related presenteeism for 5.1 hours of employment productivity lost/week. Women lost an average of 1.4 hours due to household-related absenteeism and 1.6 hours due to household-related presenteeism for a total of 3.0 hours of household lost productivity. Productivity losses increased with increases in symptom burden. UF has a substantial impact on employment-related and household-related productivity.

  3. VI. Uterine fibroid embolization: developing a clinical service.

    PubMed

    Chrisman, Howard B; Smith, Steven J; Sterling, Keith M; Vogelzang, Robert; Bonn, Joseph; Andrews, Robert T; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert L; Goodwin, Scott C; Lipman, John C; Siskin, Gary P; Hovsepian, David M

    2002-03-01

    Building a uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) practice can be a complex process. Choices must be made regarding whether to align oneself with a gynecologist or to accept direct referrals. For the interventional radiologist, the responsibilities of evaluation and patient care pose unique and time-consuming administrative and clinical challenges. Physician extenders, either nurse practitioners or physician's assistants, play key roles as clinical coordinators by guiding the patient through the medical system and making certain that she is cleared for the procedure medically and logistically. In some settings, they may also assist in many of the technical aspects of the procedure and postoperative care. Interventional radiologists must be prepared for battles with insurance companies and be willing to go through the appeals process. Business officers must also be trained to properly code for the procedures to insure optimal reimbursement. The success of building a UFE practice may also be bolstered by directly marketing to patients and by providing them with access via the Internet. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles as a new approach to improve the efficacy of gene therapy against differentiated human uterine fibroid cells and tumor-initiating stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Shahinaz Mahmood; Khater, Mostafa K; Mas Perucho, Aymara; Mohamed, Sara A; Helwa, Inas; Laknaur, Archana; Lebedyeva, Iryna; Liu, Yutao; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman A

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroid(s) (UF/UFs) are benign tumors commonly found in women of reproductive age. The long-term outcomes of myomectomies are often hampered by high rates of recurrence (up to 60%). Objective To study whether efficient transduction and subsequent elimination of fibroid tumor initiating stem cells during debulking of tumor cells will aid in completely eradicating the tumor as well as decreasing the likelihood of recurrence. Design We have developed a localized non-surgical adenovirus-based alternative for the treatment of UFs. Combining viral based gene delivery with nanotechnology provides an opportunity to develop more efficient targeted viral gene therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) complexed to adenovirus, in the presence of an external magnetic field, accelerate adenovirus transduction. Setting Research laboratory located in Georgia Regents University, an academic research institution. Patients N/A Interventions MNPs complexed to adenovirus (AD GFP) or (AD LacZ) were used to transfect differentiated human fibroid cells in vitro. Main Outcome Measures rate of transduction and tumor growth inhibition. Results We observed a significant increase in transduction efficiency among differentiated human fibroid cells at 2 different multiplicities of infection (MOI); 1 and 10 respectively, with MNPs as compared to adenovirus-alone. Human fibroid stem cells transfected with AD-LacZ expressed β-Galactosidaze at (MOI) of 1, 10, and 50 at percentages of 19%, 62%, and 90%, respectively, which were significantly enhanced with MNPs. Conclusion When applied with adenovirus herpes simplex thymidine kinase, magnetofection significantly suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in both cell types. Through the use of magnetofection, we will prove that a lower viral dose will effectively increase the overall safety profile of suicide gene therapy against fibroid tumors. PMID:27020169

  5. Intraoperative ultrasound-assisted enucleation of residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Li, Si-Jing; Zheng, Ping; Wu, Xia; Sheng, Jie; Yuan, Dong-Lan; Zhou, Qi; Wei, Wei; Duan, Ai-Hong; Wu, Qing-Qing; Lu, Dan

    2018-05-25

    To investigate if intraoperative ultrasounds by laparoscopic and transvaginal ultrasonography (LUS and TVS) could improve enucleating the residual fibroids following laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). From March to December 2016, 78 women with uterine fibroids underwent LM, LUS and TVS were applied to detect residual fibroids and to guide surgeons to enucleate them after the visible fibroids were removed during LM operation. The total number of residual fibroids found by LUS was 140, and the total number found by TVS was 127 following LM (P = 0.03). LUS is statistically superior to TVS in the detection of residual fibroids in the anterior wall (P = 0.004), in the detection of intramural fibroids (P = 0.002), and in the detection of fibroids with a diameter ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm (P = 0.002). According to the total number of enucleated fibroids by LM, patients were divided into three groups (Group 1: 2 to 4, Group 2: 5 to 7 and Group 3: ≥8 fibroid counts). The percentages of patients in each group with residual fibroids at the end of surgery were 22.2%, 51.9% and 66.7% respectively. Both LUS and TVS are beneficial to surgical treatment of fibroids by assisting enucleation of residual fibroids following LM, while LUS is more effective in localizing residual fibroids than TVS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulation study of the effects of near- and far-field heating during focused ultrasound uterine fibroid ablation using an electronically focused phased array: A theoretical analysis of patient safety

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ellens, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.ellens@utoronto.ca; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Assess the feasibility of using large-aperture, flat ultrasonic transducer arrays with 6500 small elements operating at 500 kHz without the use of any mechanical components for the thermal coagulation of uterine fibroids. This study examines the benefits and detriments of using a frequency that is significantly lower than that used in clinical systems (1–1.5 MHz). Methods: Ultrasound simulations were performed using the anatomies of five fibroid patients derived from 3D MRI. Using electronic steering solely, the ultrasound focus from a flat, 6500-element phased array was translated around the volume of the fibroids in various patterns to assess the feasibilitymore » of completing full treatments from fixed physical locations. Successive temperature maps were generated by numerically solving the bioheat equation. Using a thermal dose model, the bioeffects of these simulations were quantified and analyzed. Results: The simulations indicate that such an array could be used to perform fibroid treatments to 18 EM{sub 43} at an average rate of 90 ± 20 cm{sup 3}/h without physically moving the transducer array. On average, the maximum near-field thermal dose for each patient was below 4 EM{sub 43}. Fibroid tissue could be treated as close as 40 mm to the spine without reaching temperatures expected to cause pain or damage. Conclusions: Fibroids were successfully targeted and treated from a single transducer position to acceptable extents and without causing damage in the near- or far-field. Compared to clinical systems, treatment rates were good. The proposed treatment paradigm is a promising alternative to existing systems and warrants further investigation.« less

  7. Preservation of the endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lim, Hyo Keun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Jung, Sin-Ho; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the integrity of endometrial enhancement after magnetic resonance imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) ablation of submucosal uterine fibroids based on contrast-enhanced MRI findings, and to identify the risk factors for endometrial impairment. In total, 117 submucosal fibroids (diameter: 5.9 ± 3.0 cm) in 101 women (age: 43.6 ± 4.4 years) treated with MR-HIFU ablation were retrospectively analysed. Endometrial integrity was assessed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images at immediate (n = 101), 3-month (n = 62) and 12-month (n = 15) follow-ups. Endometrial impairment was classified into grades 0 (continuous endometrium), 1 (pin-point, full-thickness discontinuity), 2 (between grade 1 and 3), or 3 (full-thickness discontinuity >1 cm). Risk factors were assessed with generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis. Among 117 fibroids, grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 endometrial impairments were observed at initial examination in 56.4%, 24.8%, 13.7% and 4.3%, respectively. Among 37 fibroid cases of endometrial impairment for which follow-ups were conducted, 30 showed improvements at 3- and/or 12-month follow-up. GEE analysis revealed the degree of endometrial protrusion was significantly associated with severity of endometrial injury (P < 0.0001). After MR-HIFU ablation of submucosal fibroids, endometrial enhancement was preserved intact or minimally impaired in most cases. Impaired endometrium, which is more common after treating endometrially-protruded fibroids, may recover spontaneously. • After MR-HIFU ablation for submucosal fibroid, endometrium is mostly preserved/minimally impaired. • Endometrial-protruded submucosal fibroid is susceptible to more severe endometrial impairment. • The impaired endometrium may recover spontaneously at follow-up MR exams.

  8. Uterine Fibroid Embolisation – Potential Impact on Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome

    PubMed Central

    David, M.; Kröncke, T.

    2013-01-01

    The current standard therapy to treat myomas in women wishing to have children consists of minimally invasive surgical myomectomy. Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has also been discussed as another minimally invasive treatment option to treat myomas. This review evaluates the literature of the past 10 years on fibroid embolisation and its impact on fertility and pregnancy. Potential problems associated with UAE such as radiation exposure of the ovaries, impairment of ovarian function and the impact on pregnancy and child birth are discussed in detail. Previously published reports of at least 337 pregnancies after UAE were evaluated. The review concludes that UAE to treat myomas can only be recommended in women with fertility problems due to myomas who refuse surgery or women with an unacceptably high surgical risk, because the evaluated case reports and studies show that UAE significantly increases the risk of spontaneous abortion; there is also evidence of pathologically increased levels for other obstetric outcome parameters. There are still very few prospective studies which provide sufficient evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of UAE therapy on fertility rates and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26633901

  9. MR thermometry analysis of sonication accuracy and safety margin of volumetric MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-sun; Trillaud, Hervé; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K; Mali, Willem; Voogt, Marianne; Barkhausen, Jörg; Eckey, Thomas; Köhler, Max O; Keserci, Bilgin; Mougenot, Charles; Sokka, Shunmugavelu D; Soini, Jouko; Nieminen, Heikki J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the size and location of the ablation zone produced by volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids on the basis of MR thermometric analysis and to assess the effects of a feedback control technique. This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained. Thirty-three women with 38 uterine fibroids were treated with an MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound system capable of volumetric feedback ablation. Size (diameter times length) and location (three-dimensional displacements) of each ablation zone induced by 527 sonications (with [n=471] and without [n=56] feedback) were analyzed according to the thermal dose obtained with MR thermometry. Prospectively defined acceptance ranges of targeting accuracy were ±5 mm in left-right (LR) and craniocaudal (CC) directions and ±12 mm in anteroposterior (AP) direction. Effects of feedback control in 8- and 12-mm treatment cells were evaluated by using a mixed model with repeated observations within patients. Overall mean sizes of ablation zones produced by 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16-mm treatment cells (with and without feedback) were 4.6 mm±1.4 (standard deviation)×4.4 mm±4.8 (n=13), 8.9 mm±1.9×20.2 mm±6.5 (n=248), 13.0 mm±1.2×29.1 mm±5.6 (n=234), and 18.1 mm±1.4×38.2 mm±7.6 (n=32), respectively. Targeting accuracy values (displacements in absolute values) were 0.9 mm±0.7, 1.2 mm±0.9, and 2.8 mm±2.2 in LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Of 527 sonications, 99.8% (526 of 527) were within acceptance ranges. Feedback control had no statistically significant effect on targeting accuracy or ablation zone size. However, variations in ablation zone size were smaller in the feedback control group. Sonication accuracy of volumetric MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids appears clinically acceptable and may be

  10. An Evidence-based Approach to the Medical Management of Fibroids: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Chantal B; Cayton, Kamaria C; Chuong, Farah S; Holthouser, Kristine; Arian, Sara E; Abraham, Tara; Segars, James H

    2016-03-01

    Fibroids are the most common tumor of the female reproductive tract, but approved medical treatments are limited. Patients demand uterine-sparing treatments which preserve fertility and avoid surgery. We systematically reviewed PubMed and Cochrane databases from January 1985 to November 2015 for evidence-based medical therapies for fibroids in the context of disease prevention, treatment of early disease, treatment of symptomatic disease, and preoperative management. We identified 2182 studies, of which 52 studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Published data affirm the efficacy of multiple agents, which are promising avenues for the development of medical alternatives to surgery.

  11. Uterine Artery Embolization for Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jonathan; Christie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a treatment option for fibroids was first reported by Ravina in 1995. Although rapidly adopted by enthusiasts, many were skeptical and its introduction varied widely across the globe. It was not until randomized controlled trials and registries were published and national guidance statements issued that UAE was accepted as a safe and proven treatment for fibroids. The technique is now established as one of the treatment options to be discussed with patients as an alternative to surgery for fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding. Research is on-going to evaluate the relative merits of UAE compared with other medical and surgical treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women wishing to maintain their fertility. PMID:26756068

  12. Successful operative treatment of uterine leiomyoma with extensive intravenous extension to the IVC, right heart, and pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Brar, Ranjeet; Skervin, Alicia; El-Sakka, Karim; Fish, Andrew; Lewis, Michael

    2018-01-17

    Intravenous extension of benign uterine leiomyomata ('fibroids'), in the absence of discrete metastatic disease has rarely been reported. 'Fibroids' remain one of the most common premenopausal uterine pathologies. We report the diagnosis and multidisciplinary led operative management of a 52-year-old woman with a histologically benign, but biologically aggressive, uterine leiomyoma with intravenous extension to the inferior vena cava (IVC), right heart and pulmonary arteries. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy combined with exploration of the sub-hepatic IVC and heart under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest achieved its successful macroscopic clearance.

  13. Labial necrosis after uterine artery embolization for leiomyomata.

    PubMed

    Yeagley, Thomas J; Goldberg, Jay; Klein, Thomas A; Bonn, Joseph

    2002-11-01

    Uterine artery embolization is increasingly used as an alternative to myomectomy, hysterectomy, and medical treatment for the management of symptomatic leiomyomata. A woman with an 18-week-size fibroid uterus who underwent uterine artery embolization developed a 3-cm, exquisitely tender, hypopigmented, necrotic-appearing area on the right labium minus. Spontaneous resolution occurred over 4 weeks. Labial necrosis is a possible complication of uterine artery embolization and may be successfully managed with conservative therapy.

  14. Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life questionnaire translation and validation into Brazilian Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rita Oliveira da; Gomes, Mariano Tamura Vieira; Castro, Rodrigo de Aquino; Bonduki, Cláudio Emílio; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2016-10-01

    Purpose  To translate into Portuguese, culturally adapt and validate the Uterine Fibroid Symptom - Quality of Life (UFS-QoL) questionnaire for Brazilian women with uterine leiomyoma. Methods  Initially, the UFS-QoL questionnaire was translated into Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international standards, with subsequent cultural, structural, conceptual and semantic adaptations, so that patients were able to properly answer the questionnaire. Fifty patients with uterine leiomyoma and 19 patients without the disease, confirmed by abdominal pelvic examination and/or transvaginal ultrasound, were selected at the outpatient clinics of the Department of Gynecology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp). The UFS-QoL questionnaire was administered to all women twice on the same day, with two different interviewers, with an interval of 15 minutes between interviews. After 15 days, the questionnaire was re-administered by the first interviewer. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), construct and discriminative validity were tested to ratify the questionnaire. Results  The reliability of the instrument was assessed by Cronbach's α coefficient with an overall result of 0.97, indicating high reliability. The survey results showed a high correlation ( p  = 0.94; p  ≤ 0.001). Conclusion  The UFS-QoL questionnaire was successfully adapted to the Brazilian Portuguese language and Brazilian culture, showing reliability and validity. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Rationale and design of ASTEROID 2, a randomized, placebo- and active comparator-controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of vilaprisan in patients with uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Christian; Bumbuliene, Žana; Costa, Ana Rosa; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Heweker, Andrea; Hudeček, Robert; Jacquemyn, Yves; Melis, Gian Benedetto; Parashar, Pooja; Rechberger, Tomasz; Sánchez, Antonio Cano; van Aken, Bart; Zatik, János; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-04-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) may be treated with progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs), which have been shown to reduce heavy menstrual bleeding and the size of UFs. To date, one PRM (ulipristal acetate) has received regulatory approval for the treatment of UFs; therapy comprises intermittent treatment courses of up to 3months each, followed by a break to allow two menstruations to occur. We report the design of ASTEROID (Assess Safety and efficacy of vilaprisan in patients with uTERine fibrOIDs) 2, a phase 2 study examining the efficacy and safety of a novel PRM, vilaprisan, in women with UFs. In this randomized multi-arm study, vilaprisan (2mg daily) will be administered in different regimens: continuous treatment for 12 or 24weeks, or two 12-week treatment periods separated by a break to allow one menstruation to occur. Efficacy and safety will be compared with that of ulipristal acetate (5mg daily) and placebo. Patients randomized to receive placebo for 12weeks will also be given active treatment for 12weeks. The primary measure of efficacy will be amenorrhoea rate; secondary measures include time to normalized menstrual bleeding and percentage change in UF volume. Endometrial changes will be monitored throughout the study. The placebo- and active comparator-controlled trial ASTEROID 2 is the first study to evaluate systematically the efficacy and safety of different treatment regimens of PRMs in women with UFs. The findings of this study will direct the planning of future clinical trials of vilaprisan. Copyright © 2017 Bayer AG. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mifepristone versus placebo to treat uterine myoma: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Josep Lluis Carbonell; Acosta, Rita; Pérez, Yasmirian; Rodriguez, Barbara; Seigler, Isabel; Sanchez, Carlos; Tomasi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and quality of life of 5 mg mifepristone per day compared with a placebo in treating uterine fibroids. Design Randomized, double-blind clinical study. Location Eusebio Hernández Gynecology and Obstetrics Teaching Hospital, Havana, Cuba. Subjects One hundred twenty-four subjects with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Treatment One daily capsule of 5 mg mifepristone or a mifepristone placebo over 3 months. Variables in evaluating safety Changes in fibroid and uterine volumes, changes in symptom prevalence and intensity, and changes in quality of life. Results Three months into treatment, fibroid volume was reduced by 28.5% in the mifepristone group with an increase of 1.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.031). There were significant differences between the groups with respect to pelvic pain prevalence (P = 0.006), pelvic pressure (P = 0.027), rectal pain (P = 0.013), hypermenorrhea (P < 0.001), and metrorrhagia (P = 0.002) at the end of treatment. Amenorrhea was 93.1% and 4.3% in the mifepristone and placebo groups, respectively (P < 0.001). Treatment side effects were significantly greater in the mifepristone group. Estradiol levels did not differ significantly between the placebo and mifepristone groups at the end of treatment. Improvement in quality of life was significantly greater in the categories of “symptoms” (P = 0.004) and “activity” (P = 0.045) in the mifepristone group. Conclusion The 5 mg dosage of mifepristone presented significantly superior efficacy compared to the placebo. PMID:23843709

  17. Epidural Analgesia Versus Patient-Controlled Analgesia for Pain Relief in Uterine Artery Embolization for Uterine Fibroids: A Decision Analysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kooij, Sanne M. van der, E-mail: s.m.vanderkooij@amc.uva.nl; Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Ankum, Willem M.

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the costs and effects of epidural analgesia (EDA) to those of patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) for postintervention pain relief in women having uterine artery embolization (UAE) for systematic uterine fibroids. Methods: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) based on data from the literature by constructing a decision tree to model the clinical pathways for estimating the effects and costs of treatment with EDA and PCA. Literature on EDA for pain-relief after UAE was missing, and therefore, data on EDA for abdominal surgery were used. Outcome measures were compared costs to reduce one point in visual analoguemore » score (VAS) or numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain 6 and 24 h after UAE and risk for complications. Results: Six hours after the intervention, the VAS was 3.56 when using PCA and 2.0 when using EDA. The costs for pain relief in women undergoing UAE with PCA and EDA were Euro-Sign 191 and Euro-Sign 355, respectively. The costs for EDA to reduce the VAS score 6 h after the intervention with one point compared with PCA were Euro-Sign 105 and Euro-Sign 179 after 24 h. The risk of having a complication was 2.45 times higher when using EDA. Conclusions: The results of this indirect comparison of EDA for abdominal surgery with PCA for UAE show that EDA would provide superior analgesia for post UAE pain at 6 and 24 h but with higher costs and an increased risk of complications.« less

  18. Incarcerated giant uterine leiomyoma within an incisional hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, Georgios; Vlahos, Nikolaos; Dellaportas, Dionysios; Metaxa, Linda; Theodosopoulos, Theodosios

    2017-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas presenting as incarcerated or strangulated hernias in surgical emergencies are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with known uterine fibroids and an irreducible ventral abdominal wall hernia. Detailed history and multidisciplinary approach optimize the diagnosis and decision making toward surgical treatment.

  19. Expression Profiling of Nuclear Receptors Identifies Key Roles of NR4A Subfamily in Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hanwei; Lo, Jay H.; Kim, Ji-Young; Marsh, Erica E.; Kim, J. Julie; Ghosh, Asish K.; Bulun, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs), also known as uterine leiomyomas, are benign, fibrotic smooth muscle tumors. Although the GnRH analog leuprolide acetate that suppresses gonadal steroid hormones is used as a treatment, it has significant side effects, thereby limiting its use. Availability of more effective therapy is limited because of a lack of understanding of molecular underpinnings of the disease. Although ovarian steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone and their receptors are clearly involved, the role of other nuclear receptors (NRs) in UFs is not well defined. We used quantitative real-time PCR to systematically profile the expression of 48 NRs and identified several NRs that were aberrantly expressed in UFs. Among others, expression of NR4A subfamily members including NGFIB (NR4A1), NURR1 (NR4A2), and NOR1 (NR4A3) were dramatically suppressed in leiomyoma compared with the matched myometrium. Restoration of expression of each of these NR4A members in the primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells decreased cell proliferation. Importantly, NR4As regulate expressions of the profibrotic factors including TGFβ3 and SMAD3, and several collagens that are key components of the extracellular matrix. Finally, we identify NR4A members as targets of leuprolide acetate treatment. Together, our results implicate several NRs including the NR4A subfamily in leiomyoma etiology and identify NR4As as potential therapeutic targets for treating fibrotic diseases. PMID:23550059

  20. The role of T1 perfusion-based classification in magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Keserci, Bilgin; Duc, Nguyen Minh

    2017-12-01

    To comparatively evaluate the role of magnetic resonance (MR) T1 perfusion-based time-signal intensity (SI) curves of fibroid tissue and the myometrium in classification of fibroids for predicting treatment outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. The fibroids of 74 women who underwent MR-HIFU treatment were classified into group A (time-SI curve of fibroid lower than that of the myometrium) and group B (time-SI curve of fibroid equal to or higher than that of the myometrium). Non-perfused volume (NPV) ratios immediately after treatment and fibroid volume reduction ratios and symptom severity scores (SSS) at the 6-month follow-up were retrospectively assessed. The immediate NPV ratios in groups A and B were 95.3 ± 6.3% (n = 62) and 63.8 ± 11% (n = 12), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the fibroid volume reduction ratios in groups A and B were 0.52 ± 0.14 (n = 50) and 0.07 ± 0.14 (n = 11), with the corresponding improvement in mean transformed SSS being 0.86 ± 0.14 and 0.19 ± 0.3, respectively. No serious adverse effects were reported. Our novel classification method could play an important role in classifying fibroids for predicting the immediate outcomes of HIFU treatment. • MRI is an important modality for outcome prediction in HIFU treatment • Patient selection is a significant factor for achieving high NPV ratio • NPV ratio is very strongly correlated with T1 perfusion-based classification • T1 perfusion-based classification is a strong predictor of treatment outcome.

  1. From the RSNA refresher courses: Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Tempany, Clare M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most recent additions to the methods for image-guided therapy is magnetic resonance (MR)-guided focused ultrasound. This method represents a unique closed-loop therapy, with planning, guidance, control, and direct feedback (called MR thermometry), which work together to ensure an effective therapy. The focused ultrasound induces focal tissue destruction by thermocoagulation in a noninvasive manner. MR also enables real-time thermometry to be performed during each and every sonication. These characteristics make MR-guided focused ultrasound an exciting new approach for treating fibroids. Fibroids are diagnosed based on findings from the patient's physical examination supplemented by imaging results. MR imaging is preferred to other imaging modalities because it enables the fibroids and the entire pelvis to be fully examined. After individual fibroids are identified and the target area is defined by the radiologist, the target volume is analyzed in a three-dimensional assessment to ensure the patient's safety. The procedure begins with the delivery of low-power sonication, and the power is gradually increased until the therapeutic dose is reached. After the procedure, postcontrast images are acquired; these should demonstrate tissue necrosis. The results of clinical trials have shown that the treatment is safe, effective, and highly acceptable to patients. RSNA, 2007

  2. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth

    PubMed Central

    Commandeur, Arno E.; Styer, Aaron K.; Teixeira, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are not successful in every patient. There is a clear racial disparity in the disease; African-American women are estimated to be three times more likely to develop uterine leiomyomas and generally develop more severe symptoms. There is also familial clustering between first-degree relatives and twins, and multiple inherited syndromes in which fibroid development occurs. Leiomyomas have been described as clonal and hormonally regulated, but despite the healthcare burden imposed by the disease, the etiology of uterine leiomyomas remains largely unknown. The mechanisms involved in their growth are also essentially unknown, which has contributed to the slow progress in development of effective treatment options. METHODS A comprehensive PubMed search for and critical assessment of articles related to the epidemiological, biological and genetic clues for uterine leiomyoma development was performed. The individual functions of some of the best candidate genes are explained to provide more insight into their biological function and to interconnect and organize genes and pathways in one overarching figure that represents the current state of knowledge about uterine leiomyoma development and growth. RESULTS In this review, the widely recognized roles of estrogen and progesterone in uterine leiomyoma pathobiology on the basis of clinical and experimental data are presented. This is followed by fundamental aspects and concepts including the possible cellular origin of uterine fibroids. The central themes in the subsequent parts are cytogenetic aberrations in leiomyomas and the racial/ethnic disparities in uterine fibroid biology. Then, the attributes of various in vitro and

  3. The direct and indirect cost burden of clinically significant and symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Carls, Ginger Smith; Wang, Shaohung; Gibson, Teresa B; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2007-05-01

    To estimate direct medical costs and indirect (productivity related) for women age 25 to 54 who had clinically significant and symptomatic uterine fibroids (UF). We compared direct medical expenditures among 30,659 women who had clinically significant and symptomatic UF to expenditures among an equal number of matched controls who did not. We also compared indirect costs for a sub-sample of 910 employed women in each group. Regression analyses controlled for demographic and casemix factors. Mean 12-month direct medical costs for women with UF were $11,720 versus $3257 for controls, and mean 12-month indirect costs for women with UF were $11,752 versus $8083 for controls. Differences were statistically significant (P<0.0001). UF is a costly disorder and merits thought as interventions are considered to improve women's health and productivity.

  4. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids-An Up-to-Date Review.

    PubMed

    Ciebiera, Michał; Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Męczekalski, Błażej; Ciebiera, Magdalena; Wojtyła, Cezary; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs). Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of) surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs), carried out by successive phases.

  5. Complications of Uterine Fibroids and Their Management, Surgical Management of Fibroids, Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy versus Hysterectomy, Haemorrhage, Adhesions, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Liselotte; Schollmeyer, Thoralf; Tinelli, Andrea; Malvasi, Antonio; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    A critical analysis of the surgical treatment of fibroids compares all available techniques of myomectomy. Different statistical analyses reveal the advantages of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic approach. Complications can arise from the location of the fibroids. They range from intermittent bleedings to continuous bleedings over several weeks, from single pain episodes to severe pain, from dysuria and constipation to chronic bladder and bowel spasms. Very seldom does peritonitis occur. Infertility may result from continuous metro and menorrhagia. The difficulty of the laparoscopic and hysteroscopic myomectomy lies in achieving satisfactory haemostasis using the appropriate sutures. The hysteroscopic myomectomy requires an operative hysteroscope and a well-experienced gynaecologic surgeon. PMID:22619681

  6. Laparoscopic power morcellation of presumed fibroids.

    PubMed

    Brolmann, Hans A; Sizzi, Ornella; Hehenkamp, Wouter J; Rossetti, Alfonso

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a highly prevalent benign gynecologic neoplasm that affects women of reproductive age. Surgical procedures commonly employed to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids include myomectomy or total or sub-total hysterectomy. These procedures, when performed using minimally invasive techniques, reduce the risks of intraoperative and postoperative morbidity and mortality; however, in order to remove bulky lesions from the abdominal cavity through laparoscopic ports, a laparoscopic power morcellator must be used, a device with rapidly spinning blades to cut the uterine tissue into fragments so that it can be removed through a small incision. Although the minimal invasive approach in gynecological surgery has been firmly established now in terms of recovery and quality of life, morcellation is associated with rare but sometimes serious adverse events. Parts of the morcellated specimen may be spread into the abdominal cavity and enable implantation of cells on the peritoneum. In case of unexpected sarcoma the dissemination may upstage disease and affect survival. Myoma cells may give rise to 'parasitic' fibroids, but also implantation of adenomyotic cells and endometriosis has been reported. Finally the morcellation device may cause inadvertent injury to internal structures, such as bowel and vessels, with its rotating circular knife. In this article it is described how to estimate the risk of sarcoma in a presumed fibroid based on epidemiologic, imaging and laboratory data. Furthermore the first literature results of the in-bag morcellation are reviewed. With this procedure the specimen is contained in an insufflated sterile bag while being morcellated, potentially preventing spillage of tissue but also making direct morcellation injuries unlikely to happen.

  7. Epidemiological and genetic clues for molecular mechanisms involved in uterine leiomyoma development and growth.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Arno E; Styer, Aaron K; Teixeira, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are highly prevalent benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. In the USA, the lifetime risk for women developing uterine leiomyomas is estimated as up to 75%. Except for hysterectomy, most therapies or treatments often provide only partial or temporary relief and are not successful in every patient. There is a clear racial disparity in the disease; African-American women are estimated to be three times more likely to develop uterine leiomyomas and generally develop more severe symptoms. There is also familial clustering between first-degree relatives and twins, and multiple inherited syndromes in which fibroid development occurs. Leiomyomas have been described as clonal and hormonally regulated, but despite the healthcare burden imposed by the disease, the etiology of uterine leiomyomas remains largely unknown. The mechanisms involved in their growth are also essentially unknown, which has contributed to the slow progress in development of effective treatment options. A comprehensive PubMed search for and critical assessment of articles related to the epidemiological, biological and genetic clues for uterine leiomyoma development was performed. The individual functions of some of the best candidate genes are explained to provide more insight into their biological function and to interconnect and organize genes and pathways in one overarching figure that represents the current state of knowledge about uterine leiomyoma development and growth. In this review, the widely recognized roles of estrogen and progesterone in uterine leiomyoma pathobiology on the basis of clinical and experimental data are presented. This is followed by fundamental aspects and concepts including the possible cellular origin of uterine fibroids. The central themes in the subsequent parts are cytogenetic aberrations in leiomyomas and the racial/ethnic disparities in uterine fibroid biology. Then, the attributes of various in vitro and in vivo, human syndrome

  8. Uterine fibroid treatment patterns in a population of insured women.

    PubMed

    Lee, David W; Gibson, Teresa B; Carls, Ginger S; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Wang, Shaohung; Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2009-02-01

    To profile women treated for uterine leiomyomas who are covered by commercial insurance from large, self-insured employers in the United States. Retrospective, observational study. Inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drug experience of women with employer-sponsored insurance in the United States. Data were obtained from the MarketScan insurance databases for 1999 through 2004 and weighted to represent the population of women with employer-sponsored health insurance in the United States. None. The proportion of women with clinically significant leiomyomas was determined in each year, based on inpatient and outpatient medical claims with diagnostic codes indicating leiomyoma. Patient characteristics, comorbidities, prescription drug treatments, and surgical interventions were profiled in 2004. Approximately 1% of women had clinically significant leiomyomas. Comorbid genital or menstrual conditions were common and much more prevalent for women with leiomyomas. Of women with leiomyomas, 18.4% received no surgical or prescription drug treatment, whereas 16.8% received only surgical treatment, 22.4% received only prescription drug treatment, and 42.4% received both. Hysterectomy was the most common surgical treatment. Generalizing from this sample, we estimate that 443,445 women with employer-sponsored insurance in the United States had clinically significant leiomyomas in 2004.

  9. A Preliminary Study: Human Fibroid Stro-1+/CD44+ Stem Cells Isolated From Uterine Fibroids Demonstrate Decreased DNA Repair and Genomic Integrity Compared to Adjacent Myometrial Stro-1+/CD44+ Cells.

    PubMed

    Prusinski Fernung, Lauren E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Yang, Qiwei

    2018-01-01

    Although uterine fibroids (UFs) continue to place a major burden on female reproductive health, the mechanisms behind their origin remain undetermined. Normal myometrial stem cells may be transformed into tumor-initiating stem cells, causing UFs, due to unknown causes of somatic mutations in MED12, found in up to 85% of sporadically formed UFs. It is well established in other tumor types that defective DNA repair increases the risk of such tumorigenic somatic mutations, mechanisms not yet studied in UFs. To examine the putative cause(s) of this stem cell transformation, we analyzed DNA repair within stem cells from human UFs compared to those from adjacent myometrium to determine whether DNA repair in fibroid stem cells is compromised. Human fibroid (F) and adjacent myometrial (Myo) stem cells were isolated from fresh tissues, and gene expression relating to DNA repair was analyzed. Fibroid stem cells differentially expressed DNA repair genes related to DNA double- (DSBs) and single-strand breaks. DNA damage was measured using alkaline comet assay. Additionally, DNA DSBs were induced in these stem cells and DNA DSB repair evaluated (1) by determining changes in phosphorylation of DNA DSB-related proteins and (2) by determining differences in γ-H2AX foci formation and relative DNA repair protein RAD50 expression. Overall, F stem cells demonstrated increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair gene expression and signaling, suggesting that human F stem cells demonstrate impaired DNA repair. Compromised F stem cell DNA repair may contribute to further mutagenesis and, consequently, further growth and propagation of UF tumors.

  10. Real world data of 1473 patients treated with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids: Premya study results.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Hervé; Schmidt, Torsten; Powell, Martin; Costa, Ana Patrícia Freitas; Arriagada, Pablo; Thaler, Christian

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and describe treatment with Ulipristal acetate (UPA) in a pre-operative setting and to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) outcomes in a population treated according to standard clinical practice in the EU. Multi-centre, prospective, non-interventional study (PREMYA) of patients diagnosed with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids and undergoing a pre-operative treatment with UPA (Esmya ® ) at 73 clinical practice sites within the EU. Patients were followed during UPA treatment and for 12 months after treatment discontinuation for a total of 15 months follow-up. Data was collected every 3 months in accordance with standard care visits. A total of 1568 women were enrolled, of whom 1473 were found to be eligible for data analysis. Only 38.8% of patients underwent surgery, of which the majority were of a conservative/minimally invasive nature. Physicians' assessments of patients' overall symptomatic change, as measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, indicated that 60% of patients were much improved or very much improved at 3 months. Pain and quality of life after treatment cessation remain lower than baseline during the entire period of follow-up CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients do not undergo surgery immediately after treatment cessation. Quality of life and pain are highly improved by Esmya ® treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Annular phased-array high-intensity focused ultrasound device for image-guided therapy of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Held, Robert Thomas; Zderic, Vesna; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Vaezy, Shahram

    2006-02-01

    An ultrasound (US), image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device was developed for noninvasive ablation of uterine fibroids. The HIFU device was an annular phased array, with a focal depth range of 30-60 mm, a natural focus of 50 mm, and a resonant frequency of 3 MHz. The in-house control software was developed to operate the HIFU electronics drive system for inducing tissue coagulation at different distances from the array. A novel imaging algorithm was developed to minimize the HIFU-induced noise in the US images. The device was able to produce lesions in bovine serum albumin-embedded polyacrylamide gels and excised pig liver. The lesions could be seen on the US images as hyperechoic regions. Depths ranging from 30 to 60 mm were sonicated at acoustic intensities of 4100 and 6100 W/cm2 for 15 s each, with the latter producing average lesion volumes at least 63% larger than the former. Tissue sonication patterns that began distal to the transducer produced longer lesions than those that began proximally. The variation in lesion dimensions indicates the possible development of HIFU protocols that increase HIFU throughput and shorten tumor treatment times.

  12. Automatic segmentation for detecting uterine fibroid regions treated with MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU).

    PubMed

    Antila, Kari; Nieminen, Heikki J; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco; Ehnholm, Gösta

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of women suffer from uterine fibroids (UF) that cause infertility, pain, and discomfort. MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is an emerging technique for noninvasive, computer-guided thermal ablation of UFs. The volume of induced necrosis is a predictor of the success of the treatment. However, accurate volume assessment by hand can be time consuming, and quick tools produce biased results. Therefore, fast and reliable tools are required in order to estimate the technical treatment outcome during the therapy event so as to predict symptom relief. A novel technique has been developed for the segmentation and volume assessment of the treated region. Conventional algorithms typically require user interaction ora priori knowledge of the target. The developed algorithm exploits the treatment plan, the coordinates of the intended ablation, for fully automatic segmentation with no user input. A good similarity to an expert-segmented manual reference was achieved (Dice similarity coefficient = 0.880 ± 0.074). The average automatic segmentation time was 1.6 ± 0.7 min per patient against an order of tens of minutes when done manually. The results suggest that the segmentation algorithm developed, requiring no user-input, provides a feasible and practical approach for the automatic evaluation of the boundary and volume of the HIFU-treated region.

  13. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF UTERINE LESIONS IN TWO CAPTIVE ORANGUTANS ( PONGO SPP.).

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara N; Bowman, Michelle R; Ramer, Jan C; Fayette, Melissa A; Greer, Leah L; Stadler, Cynthia K; Garner, Michael M; Proudfoot, Jeffry S

    2018-03-01

    Uterine lesions in two orangutans were effectively managed with surgical intervention. A 26-year-old hybrid orangutan ( Pongo spp.) was diagnosed with uterine adenomyosis based on advanced imaging. Histologic evaluation identified multifocal myometrial endometriosis, a variant of adenomyosis. A 27-year-old Bornean orangutan ( Pongo pygmaeus) was diagnosed with a focal uterine fibroid based on histologic examination. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Both animals were treated intermittently for episodes of dysmenorrhea, with recurrence of clinical signs after each treatment. Due to the lack of consistent response to medical management, an ovariohysterectomy in the hybrid orangutan and a myomectomy in the Bornean orangutan were performed and resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs. Surgical management of adenomyosis and neoplasia has previously been reported in nonhuman primates. These cases are the first known documentation of surgical management of multifocal myometrial endometriosis and a fibroid in orangutans.

  14. Endovascular uterine artery interventions

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J; Rathinam, Deepak; Manchanda, Smita; Srivastava, D N

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous vascular embolization plays an important role in the management of various gynecologic and obstetric abnormalities. Transcatheter embolization is a minimally invasive alternative procedure to surgery with reduced morbidity and mortality, and preserves the patient's future fertility potential. The clinical indications for transcatheter embolization are much broader and include many benign gynecologic conditions, such as fibroid, adenomyosis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), as well as intractable bleeding due to inoperable advanced-stage malignancies. The most well-known and well-studied indication is uterine fibroid embolization. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) may be performed to prevent or treat bleeding associated with various obstetric conditions, including postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), placental implantation abnormality, and ectopic pregnancy. Embolization of the uterine artery or the internal iliac artery also may be performed to control pelvic bleeding due to coagulopathy or iatrogenic injury. This article discusses these gynecologic and obstetric indications for transcatheter embolization and reviews procedural techniques and outcomes. PMID:29379246

  15. A single institution's 1-year experience with uterine fibroid embolization marketing.

    PubMed

    Ciacci, Joseph; Taussig, Jacob; Kouri, Brian; Bettmann, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To assess the impact of various marketing techniques on the referral pattern for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) at an academic interventional radiology practice over a 1-year period. All referrals to the interventional radiology clinic for UFE from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. A standard intake sheet was completed by the interventional clinic secretary at the time of initial patient contact that included the source of the referral (radio, television, newspaper, mailing, Internet, physician, friend, other). All patients who proceeded to consultation were seen in the interventional radiology clinic by attending interventional radiologists in a university-based academic center. The referral pattern was analyzed with respect to the number of patients who contacted the clinic, the number of actual clinic visits, the number of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations performed before and after the procedure, the total number of embolization cases performed, and the subsequent downstream revenue. During the 1-year period, 344 patients contacted the interventional radiology clinic regarding UFE resulting in 171 consultations and 100 pelvic MR imaging examinations performed before the procedure. Sixty-two patients proceeded to UFE, and 32 patients underwent follow-up pelvic MR imaging. These results show a significant increase from eight cases the previous year and are presumably attributable almost entirely to the directed marketing campaign. The marketing initiative consisted primarily of print and radio advertisements, with the latter being the most effective. The total advertising cost for the year was approximately $24,706, of which $20,520 was for radio advertisements. The radio advertisements generated 69% (237 of 344) of the referrals and 69% (43 of 62) of the UFE procedures. Using Medicare reimbursement rates, the radio advertisements generated $281,994 in UFE technical fees and $50,329 in MR imaging technical fees

  16. Inactivation of AKT Induces Cellular Senescence in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaofei; Lu, Zhenxiao; Qiang, Wenan; Vidimar, Vania; Kong, Beihua

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are a major public health problem. Current medical treatments with GnRH analogs do not provide long-term benefit. Thus, permanent shrinkage or inhibition of fibroid growth via medical means remains a challenge. The AKT pathway is a major growth and survival pathway for fibroids. We propose that AKT inhibition results in a transient regulation of specific mechanisms that ultimately drive cells into cellular senescence or cell death. In this study, we investigated specific mechanisms of AKT inhibition that resulted in senescence. We observed that administration of MK-2206, an allosteric AKT inhibitor, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated the microRNA miR-182 and several senescence-associated genes (including p16, p53, p21, and β-galactosidase), and drove leiomyoma cells into stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). Moreover, induction of SIPS was mediated by HMGA2, which colocalized to senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. This study provides a conceivable molecular mechanism of SIPS by AKT inhibition in fibroids. PMID:24476133

  17. Ulipristal Acetate for Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Leiomyomas: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A; Catherino, William; Segars, James H; Blakesley, Rick E; Chan, Anna; Sniukiene, Vilma; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2018-03-01

    To assess efficacy and tolerability of ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomas. This phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled premenopausal women (aged 18-50 years) with abnormal uterine bleeding, one or more discrete leiomyomas, and uterine size 20 weeks of gestation or less. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to 5 mg ulipristal, 10 mg ulipristal, or placebo once daily for 12 weeks followed by 12-week drug-free follow-up. Coprimary endpoints were rate of and time to amenorrhea, defined as no bleeding for the last 35 consecutive days of treatment. Secondary endpoints included rates of amenorrhea from day 11 and change from baseline to endpoint in the Revised Activities subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire, which includes questions pertaining to physical and social activities. Safety assessments included adverse event monitoring and endometrial biopsies. A sample size of 150 was planned to compare separately each dose of ulipristal with placebo. From March 2014 to March 2016, 157 patients were randomized. Demographics were similar across treatment groups. Amenorrhea was achieved by 25 of 53 (47.2% [97.5% CI 31.6-63.2]) and 28 of 48 (58.3% [97.5% CI 41.2-74.1]) patients treated with 5 mg and 10 mg ulipristal, respectively, compared with 1 of 56 (1.8% [97.5% CI 0.0-10.9]) placebo-treated patients (both P<.001). Time to amenorrhea was shorter for both ulipristal doses compared with placebo (P<.001), and both doses of ulipristal resulted in improved quality of life compared with placebo (P<.001). Common adverse events (5% or greater in either ulipristal group during treatment) were hypertension, elevated blood creatinine phosphokinase, and hot flushes. Serious adverse events occurred in four patients, but none was considered related to treatment. Endometrial biopsies were benign. Ulipristal at 5 mg and 10 mg were well tolerated and superior to

  18. Focal adenomyosis (intramural endometriotic cyst) in a very young patient - differential diagnosis with uterine fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Manta, L; Suciu, N; Constantin, A; Toader, O; Popa, F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Adenomyosis is a widespread disease usually affecting the late reproductive years of the women’s life, which has a great impact on their fertility. The most common form is diffuse adenomyosis, while focal adenomyosis, a cystic variant, is very rare, particularly in patients younger than 30 years old. Materials and methods. We reported a rare case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with cystic adenomyosis who was admitted in our service with severe chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, who had received conservative surgical treatment to preserve fertility and improve her obstetrical prognosis. Results and Discussions. Although the necrobiosis of a uterine fibroid was suspected preoperatively, the extemporaneous histopathological exam revealed adenomyosis associated with fibroleiomyoma with hyaline dystrophy and multiple foci of endometriosis of cystic formation in the wall of a young woman without any risk factors. Conclusion. Although a rare lesion in young patients, cystic adenomyosis should be considered when chronic pelvic pain is exacerbated during menstruation and is associated with a uterine tumor. In young patients, the differential diagnosis should be made with uterine malformations (hematometra), necrobiosis of uterine fibroids, pelvic endometriosis. The surgical treatment should be conservative with the excision of the lesion, always taking into account fertility preservation in young patients. PMID:27453751

  19. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of complete or near-complete ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors by MR imaging-guided high-intensity focused US therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Jung; Kim, Young-sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the safety and therapeutic efficacy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (US) ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors with an immediate nonperfused volume (NPV) ratio of 80% or more. A total of 79 women with 117 uterine tumors were treated with MR-guided high-intensity focused US ablation. Immediate NPV, complications, and therapeutic efficacy (tumor volume reduction ratio and symptom severity score [SSS] decrease at 3-mo follow-up) were retrospectively assessed. Statistical comparisons of the frequency of complications and therapeutic efficacy were performed between patients with NPV ratios of at least 80% and less than 80%. Technical success was achieved in 93.7% of cases (n = 74) of cases, and the immediate NPV ratio was 62.7% ± 25.5. Twenty-four patients exhibited an NPV ratio of at least 80% (89.7% ± 5.8), and 50 patients showed an NPV ratio of less than 80% (49.8% ± 20.7). All complications were minor in severity, and the incidences were not significantly different between groups (P > .05). The 3-month volume reduction ratio was significantly greater in patients with an NPV ratio of at least 80% (0.43 ± 0.17) than in those with an NPV ratio of less than 80% (0.20 ± 0.26; P = .002), although the decreases in SSS were not significantly different (20.9 ± 19.6 vs 12.1 ± 10.1; P = .097). In MR-guided high-intensity focused US ablation of symptomatic uterine fibroid tumors, achievement of an immediate NPV ratio of at least 80% is safe, with greater tumor volume shrinkage compared with cases with a lower NPV ratio. © 2014 SIR Published by SIR All rights reserved.

  20. Real-world data of 197 patients treated with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids: PREMYA study French population main outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, H; Descamps, P; Koskas, M; Lopès, P; Brun, J L; Darai, E; Agostini, A

    2017-09-01

    To characterize and describe treatment with ulipristal acetate (UPA) in a preoperative setting and to evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) outcomes in a French population treated according to standard clinical practice. Multicentre, prospective, non-interventional study (PREMYA) of patients diagnosed with moderate to severe symptoms of uterine fibroids and undergoing a preoperative treatment with UPA 5mg (Esmya ® ). Patients were followed for a total of 15months (3months UPA treatment and 12months after). Data were collected approximatively every 3months according to centre usual visit schedule. A total of 206 women were enrolled in France, of whom 197 were found to be eligible for data analysis. Physicians' assessments of patients' overall symptomatic changes, as measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale, indicated that 83.7% of patients were improved at end of treatment (month 3). On the patients' treatment benefit scale (PTBS), 94.7% of patients reported an improvement. These 2 measurements, pain and quality of life, remained improved after treatment cessation and during the entire period of follow-up. Only 58.4% of patients underwent surgery within the timeframe of the study follow-up of which the majority were of a conservative/minimal invasive nature. Many patients did not undergo surgery during the planned 12months follow-up period after treatment whereas all patients had an indication of surgery. All measurements of treatment outcome were markedly improved by 3 months of UPA 5mg treatment. NCT01635452. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [Uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Belghiti, J; Tassin, M; Raiffort, C; Zappa, M; Poujade, O; Bout, H; Mandelbrot, L

    2014-02-01

    Radiologic embolization of the uterine arteries is increasingly used to treat severe postpartum hemorrhage, as an alternative to surgical procedures. Guidelines have been published in order to standardize the indications as well as the technique. An important objective was to limit severe complications such as uterine necrosis. We report a case of a uterine necrosis after arterial embolization for severe postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony on a uterus with fibroids. This complication occurred despite the use of the recommended technique. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonography of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Andrzej; Woźniak, Sławomir

    2017-12-01

    Uterine leiomyomas or uterine fibroids are the most common gynaecological tumours and occur in about 20-50% of women around the world. Ultrasonography (USG) is the first-line imaging examination in suspected fibroids and shows high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing this condition. Ultrasound scans can be performed transvaginally (transvaginal scan - TVS) or transabdominally (transabdominal scan - TAS); both scans have advantages and limitations, but, in general, transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. Whether a leiomyoma is symptomatic or not depends primarily on its size and location. During ultrasound examination, leiomyomas usually appear as well-defined, solid, concentric, hypoechoic masses that cause a variable amount of acoustic shadowing. During the examination of leiomyomas differential diagnosis is important. Some of the most common misdiagnosed pathologies are adenomyosis, solid tumours of adnexa, and endometrial polyps. Misdiagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma has the most negative consequences, presenting symptoms are very similar to benign leiomyoma, and there is no pelvic imaging technique that can reliably differentiate between those pathologies. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography might be helpful in the diagnostics of uterine leiomyoma; however, ultrasound examination is the basic imaging test confirming the existence of leiomyomas, allowing the differentiation of myomas with adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, ovarian tumours, and pregnant uterus.

  3. Ultrasonography of uterine leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Woźniak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas or uterine fibroids are the most common gynaecological tumours and occur in about 20-50% of women around the world. Ultrasonography (USG) is the first-line imaging examination in suspected fibroids and shows high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing this condition. Ultrasound scans can be performed transvaginally (transvaginal scan – TVS) or transabdominally (transabdominal scan – TAS); both scans have advantages and limitations, but, in general, transvaginal sonography is superior to transabdominal sonography in most cases of pelvic pathology. Whether a leiomyoma is symptomatic or not depends primarily on its size and location. During ultrasound examination, leiomyomas usually appear as well-defined, solid, concentric, hypoechoic masses that cause a variable amount of acoustic shadowing. During the examination of leiomyomas differential diagnosis is important. Some of the most common misdiagnosed pathologies are adenomyosis, solid tumours of adnexa, and endometrial polyps. Misdiagnosis of a leiomyosarcoma has the most negative consequences, presenting symptoms are very similar to benign leiomyoma, and there is no pelvic imaging technique that can reliably differentiate between those pathologies. Magnetic resonance and computer tomography might be helpful in the diagnostics of uterine leiomyoma; however, ultrasound examination is the basic imaging test confirming the existence of leiomyomas, allowing the differentiation of myomas with adenomyosis, endometrial polyps, ovarian tumours, and pregnant uterus. PMID:29483851

  4. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Marwa; Wagih, Mohamed; Kilic, Gokhan S; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R; Baraka, Mohamed A; Salama, Salama A

    2017-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterine fibroids (UF) has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH) and lysyl oxidases (LOX)], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl) and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b) and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker ( α -SMA), growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAK pY397 ; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1), and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF.

  5. Overhydroxylation of Lysine of Collagen Increases Uterine Fibroids Proliferation: Roles of Lysyl Hydroxylases, Lysyl Oxidases, and Matrix Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Marwa; Wagih, Mohamed; Diaz-Arrastia, Concepcion R.; Baraka, Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in uterine fibroids (UF) has recently been appreciated. Overhydroxylation of lysine residues and the subsequent formation of hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP) and lysylpyridinoline (LP) cross-links underlie the ECM stiffness and profoundly affect tumor progression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between ECM of UF, collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes [lysyl hydroxylases (LH) and lysyl oxidases (LOX)], and the development and progression of UF. Our results indicated that hydroxyl lysine (Hyl) and HP cross-links are significantly higher in UF compared to the normal myometrial tissues accompanied by increased expression of LH (LH2b) and LOX. Also, increased resistance to matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) proteolytic degradation activity was observed. Furthermore, the extent of collagen cross-links was positively correlated with the expression of myofibroblast marker (α-SMA), growth-promoting markers (PCNA; pERK1/2; FAKpY397; Ki-67; and Cyclin D1), and the size of UF. In conclusion, our study defines the role of overhydroxylation of collagen and collagen cross-linking enzymes in modulating UF cell proliferation, differentiation, and resistance to MMP. These effects can establish microenvironment conducive for UF progression and thus represent potential target treatment options of UF. PMID:29082249

  6. Growth factors and myometrium: biological effects in uterine fibroid and possible clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Islam, Md. Soriful; Reis, Fernando M.; Gray, Peter C.; Bloise, Enrrico; Petraglia, Felice; Vale, Wylie; Castellucci, Mario

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Growth factors are proteins secreted by a number of cell types that are capable of modulating cellular growth, proliferation and cellular differentiation. It is well accepted that uterine cellular events such as proliferation and differentiation are regulated by sex steroids and their actions in target tissues are mediated by local production of growth factors acting through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. Myometrial mass is ultimately modified in pregnancy as well as in tumour conditions such as leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are benign tumours of the uterus, considered to be one of the most frequent causes of infertility in reproductive years in women. METHODS For this review, we searched the database MEDLINE and Google Scholar for articles with content related to growth factors acting on myometrium; the findings are hereby reviewed and discussed. RESULTS Different growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and TGF-β perform actions in myometrium and in leiomyomas. In addition to these growth factors, activin and myostatin have been recently identified in myometrium and leiomyoma. CONCLUSIONS Growth factors play an important role in the mechanisms involved in myometrial patho-physiology. PMID:21788281

  7. Comparison of Two Endovascular Steerable Robotic Catheters for Percutaneous Robot-Assisted Fibroid Embolization.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, C; Pellerin, O; Nouri Neville, M; Amouyal, G; Fitton, I; Leré-Déan, C; Sapoval, M

    2018-03-01

    To compare outcomes of percutaneous robot-assisted uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) using two different endovascular robotic catheters. Twenty-one patients with a symptomatic uterine fibroid were prospectively enrolled in a single-center study to be treated with a percutaneous robot-assisted embolization using the Magellan system. Fourteen patients were treated using a first generation steerable robotic catheter, version 1.0 (group 1), and seven were treated using the new version 1.1 (group 2). Demographic, pathologic, and procedural variables were recorded. Dose Area Product (DAP) and physician equivalent doses were registered for each procedure. Procedural related complications and clinical midterm outcomes were also evaluated. Successful robot-assisted UFE was obtained in eight patients (57.1%) in group 1 and 7 patients (100%) in group 2 (p = 0.01). A successful robot-assisted catheterization of the internal iliac artery anterior branch was performed in all patients of both groups. Median selective target vessel catheterization time was 21.0 ± 12.8 vs 13.4 ± 7 min (p = 0.04) and total fluoroscopy time was 30.3 ± 11.2 vs 19.3 ± 5.9 min, respectively, in group 1 and 2. Mean DAP decreased from 18472.6 ± 15622 to 5469.1 ± 4461.0 cGy·cm 2 (p = 0.04). All patients obtained a symptoms relief at 6 months follow-up. Robot-assisted uterine fibroid embolization is safe and effective. New version of steerable robotic catheter allows performing a faster procedure without related adverse events compared to old version.

  8. Cost and Distribution of Hysterectomy and Uterine Artery Embolization in the United States: Regional/Rural/Urban Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Glass Lewis, Marquisette; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T.

    2017-01-01

    Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cost of UAE and classical abdominal hysterectomy with regard to race/ethnicity, region, and location. Data from National Hospital Discharge for 2004 through 2008 were accessed and analyzed for uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy. Frequency analyses were performed to determine distribution of variables by race/ethnicity, location, region, insurance coverage, cost and procedure. Based on frequency distributions of cost and length of stay, outliers were trimmed and categorized. Crosstabs were used to determine cost distributions by region, place/location, procedure, race, and primary payer. For abdominal hysterectomy, 9.8% of the sample were performed in rural locations accross the country. However, for UAE, only seven procedures were performed nationally in the same period. Therefore, all inferential analyses and associations for UAE were assumed for urban locations only. The pattern differed from region to region, regarding the volume of care (numbers of cases by location) and care cost. Comparing hysterectomy and UAE, the patterns indicate generally higher costs for UAE with a mean cost difference of $4223.52. Of the hysterectomies performed for fibroids on Black women in the rural setting, 92.08% were in the south. Overall, data analyzed in this examination indicated a significant disparity between rural and urban residence in both data

  9. Cost and Distribution of Hysterectomy and Uterine Artery Embolization in the United States: Regional/Rural/Urban Disparities.

    PubMed

    Glass Lewis, Marquisette; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2017-05-16

    Hysterectomy, the driving force for symptomatic uterine fibroids since 1895, has decreased over the years, but it is still the number one choice for many women. Since 1995, uterine artery embolization (UAE) has been proven by many researchers to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroids while allowing women to keep their uteri. The preponderance of data collection and research has focused on care quality in terms of efficiency and effectiveness, with little on location and viability related to care utilization, accessibility and physical availability. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the cost of UAE and classical abdominal hysterectomy with regard to race/ethnicity, region, and location. Data from National Hospital Discharge for 2004 through 2008 were accessed and analyzed for uterine artery embolization and hysterectomy. Frequency analyses were performed to determine distribution of variables by race/ethnicity, location, region, insurance coverage, cost and procedure. Based on frequency distributions of cost and length of stay, outliers were trimmed and categorized. Crosstabs were used to determine cost distributions by region, place/location, procedure, race, and primary payer. For abdominal hysterectomy, 9.8% of the sample were performed in rural locations accross the country. However, for UAE, only seven procedures were performed nationally in the same period. Therefore, all inferential analyses and associations for UAE were assumed for urban locations only. The pattern differed from region to region, regarding the volume of care (numbers of cases by location) and care cost. Comparing hysterectomy and UAE, the patterns indicate generally higher costs for UAE with a mean cost difference of $4223.52. Of the hysterectomies performed for fibroids on Black women in the rural setting, 92.08% were in the south. Overall, data analyzed in this examination indicated a significant disparity between rural and urban residence in both data

  10. Uterine length and fertility outcomes: a cohort study in the IVF population.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, L K; Correia, K F; Srouji, S S; Hornstein, M D; Missmer, S A

    2013-11-01

    What is the relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and IVF outcome (chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion and live birth)? Women at extremes of uterine length (<7.0 or >9.0 cm) were less likely to achieve live birth and women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were also more likely to experience spontaneous abortion. A prospective study of 807 women published in 2000 found that implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were highest in women with uterine lengths between 7.0 and 9.0 cm, though the difference was not significant. The relationship between pre-cycle uterine length and live birth has not been evaluated. A retrospective cohort study of all cycles performed after uterine length measurement at an academic hospital IVF clinic from 2001 to 2012. A total of 8981 fresh cycles were performed in 5120 adult women with normal uterine anatomy. Women with uterine anomalies (unicornuate, bicornuate, septate or uterus exposed to diethylstilbestrol) were excluded and women with fibroids were identified for subanalysis. Uterine length was measured by uterine sounding. Cycles were divided by uterine length into groups: <6.0 cm (very short, n = 76), 6.0-6.9 cm (short, n = 2014), 7.0-7.9 cm (referent, n = 4984), 8.0-8.9 cm (long, n = 1664) and ≥9 cm (very long, n = 243). Multivariate logistic regression (first-cycle analyses) and generalized estimating equations (all-cycle analyses) were adjusted for age, fibroids and ART treatment (assisted hatching, intracytoplasmic sperm injection) to generate relative risk (RR) of cycle outcomes by uterine length. Median uterine length in the IVF population was 7.0 cm (interquartile range 7.0-7.8) and was positively associated with BMI (P < 0.001) and fibroids (P = 0.02). Compared with the referent group, women with uterine lengths <6.0 cm were half as likely to achieve live birth (RR: 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.35-0.81) and women with lengths of 6.0-6.9 cm were also less likely (RR: 0.91; CI: 0

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Treatment Shrinks Uterine Leiomyoma Tumors in the Eker Rat Model1

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Sunil K.; Sharan, Chakradhari; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women of reproductive age. These tumors are three to four times more prevalent in African American women, who also have a 10 times higher incidence of hypovitaminosis D than white women. Recent studies have demonstrated the antitumor effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on several cancers, but its effects on uterine leiomyomas are still unknown. To determine the antitumor and therapeutic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on uterine leiomyomas, female Eker rats (14–16 mo old) harboring uterine leiomyomas were randomized into control and experimental groups and were given vehicle versus 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.5 μg/kg per day) subcutaneously for 3 wk, respectively. At the end of the experiment, the rats were euthanized, and the leiomyoma tumors were analyzed. Treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 significantly reduced leiomyoma tumor size in Eker rats. It also reduced leiomyoma size by suppressing cell growth and proliferation-related genes (Pcna, cyclin D1 [Ccnd1], Myc, Cdk1, Cdk2, and Cdk4), antiapoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Bcl2l1 [Bcl-x]), and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of PCNA and MKI67 (a marker of proliferation) and increased expression of caspase 3 in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated Eker rat leiomyomas. Toxicity analyses using serum samples showed similar levels of SGOT, SGPT, calcium, and total bilirubin in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated and vehicle-treated control Eker rats. These results support that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is an antitumor agent that may be a potential safe, nonsurgical therapeutic option for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:22302692

  12. Fibroid Tumors in Women: A Hidden Epidemic?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that lower progesterone levels could cause fibroids to shrink. That could help relieve pain and other symptoms ... estrogen alone. In theory, such a treatment could shrink fibroids but spare women from hot flashes and ...

  13. Selective progesterone receptor modulators for fertility preservation in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids†

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Uterine fibroids (UFs, AKA leiomyoma) are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health, with costs up to hundreds of billions of health care dollars worldwide. Uterine fibroids caused morbidities exert a tremendous health toll, impacting the quality of life of women of all ethnicities, especially women of color. Clinical presentations include heavy vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, bulk symptoms, subfertility, and obstetric complications. Current management strategies heavily lean toward surgical procedures; nonetheless, the choice of treatment is generally subject to patient's age and her desire to preserve future fertility. Women with UF who desire to maintain future fertility potential face a dilemma because of the limited treatment choices that are currently available to help them achieve that goal. Recently, ulipristal acetate the first of the promising family of oral selective progesterone receptor modulators has been approved for UF treatment in Europe, Canada, and several other countries and is under review for possible approval in the USA. In this review article, we discuss recent advances in the management options against UF with a bend toward oral effective long-term treatment alternatives who are particularly suited for those seeking to preserve their future fertility potential. We also explore the transformative concept of primary and secondary UF prevention using these new anti-UF agents. We envision a remarkable shift in the management of UF in future years from surgical/invasive treatment to orally administrated options; clearly, this potential shift will require additional intense clinical research. PMID:29025038

  14. Increased Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Lemaréchal, Herve; Leconte, Mahaut; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites) in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital. Fifty-nine women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma and ninety-two leiomyoma-free control women have been enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from all study participants to assay serum thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites. Concentrations of serum protein carbonyl groups and AOPP were higher in leiomyoma patients than in the control group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively). By contrast, serum thiol levels were lower in leiomyoma patients (p<0.001). We found positive correlations between serum AOPP concentrations and total fibroids weight (r=0.339; p=0.028), serum AOPP and serum protein carbonyls with duration of infertility (r=0.762; p=0.006 and r=0.683; p=0.021, respectively). Conclusions/Significance This study, for the first time, reveals a significant increase of protein oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from women with uterine leiomyoma. PMID:23951284

  15. Clinical outcomes and health care utilization pre- and post-laparoscopic radiofrequency ablation of symptomatic fibroids and laparoscopic myomectomy: a randomized trial of uterine-sparing techniques (TRUST) in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rattray, Darrien D; Weins, Laura; Regush, Lexy C; Bowen, James M; O'Reilly, Daria; Thiel, John A

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare laparoscopic ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of fibroids (Lap-RFA) and laparoscopic myomectomy in terms of 1) health care utilization and 2) serious complication rates. The secondary objectives were comparison of subject responses to validated symptom and quality-of-life questionnaires. We hypothesized that Lap-RFA health care utilization and clinical outcomes would not be worse than those of laparoscopic myomectomy in the aggregate. Post-market, randomized, prospective, multicenter, longitudinal, non-inferiority interventional comparative evaluation of health care utilization and clinical outcomes in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who desired uterine conservation was conducted. Both procedures were planned as outpatient day surgeries. Health care resource utilization was measured during the procedure day and at 1 week, 1 and 3 months post-surgery. Symptom severity and quality of life were based on patients' responses to the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Severity and Quality-of-Life Questionnaire, EuroQol-5D-visual analog scale general health status and menstrual impact questionnaires, and time from work. Forty-five participants provided written informed consent and were enrolled (Lap-RFA, n=23; myomectomy, n=22) in Canada. Hospitalization time (primary endpoint) was 6.7±3.0 hours for the Lap-RFA group and 9.9±10.7 hours for the myomectomy group (Wilcoxon, p =0.0004). Intraoperative blood loss was lesser for Lap-RFA subjects: 25.2±21.6 versus 82.4±62.5 mL ( p =0.0002). Lap-RFA procedures took lesser time than myomectomy procedures: 70.0 versus 86.5 minutes ( p =0.018), and Lap-RFA required -34.9% (130 fewer) units of surgical equipment. At 3 months, both cohorts reported the same significant symptom severity reduction (-44.8%; p <0.0001). Lap-RFA subjects also took lesser time from work: 11.1±7.6 versus 18.5±10.6 days ( p =0.0193). One myomectomy subject was hospitalized overnight after

  16. Proportion of Uterine Malignant Tumors in Patients with Laparoscopic Myomectomy: A National Multicenter Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hua; Li, Xiao-Chuan; Yao, Chen; Lang, Jing-He; Jin, Hang-Mei; Xi, Ming-Rong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Lu-Wen; Hao, Min; Ding, Yan; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Han, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xiu; Xue, Xiang; Li, Yan; Zheng, Jian-Hua; Cui, Man-Hua; Li, Huai-Fang; Tao, Guang-Shi; Chen, Long; Wang, Su-Min; Lu, An-Wei; Huang, Ze-Hua; Liu, Qing; Zhuang, Ya-Li; Huang, Xiang-Hua; Zhu, Gen-Hai; Huang, Ou-Ping; Hu, Li-Na; Li, Mu-Jun; Zhou, Hong-Lin; Song, Jing-Hui; Zhu, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Food and Drug Administration recently announced that the use of morcellation may cause fibroids or pelvic dissemination and metastasis of uterine sarcoma; therefore, the use of morcellation is limited in the USA. A large sample study is necessary to assess the proportion of uterine malignant tumors found in patients with laparoscopic myomectomy. Methods: A national multicenter study was performed in China. From 2002 to 2014, 33,723 cases were retrospectively selected. We calculated the prevalence and recorded the clinical characteristics of the patients with malignancy after morcellation application. A total of 62 cases were finally pathologically confirmed as malignant postoperatively. Additionally, the medical records of the 62 patients were analyzed in details. Results: The proportion of postoperative malignancy after morcellation application was 0.18% (62/33,723) for patients who underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Nearly 62.9% (39/62) of patients had demonstrated blood flow signals in the uterine fibroids before surgery. And, 23 (37.1%) patients showed rapid growth at the final preoperative ultrasound. With respect to the pathological types, 38 (61.3%) patients had detectable endometrial stromal sarcoma, 13 (21.0%) had detectable uterine leiomyosarcoma, only 3 (3.2%) had detectable carcinosarcoma, and 5 (8.1%) patients with leiomyoma had an undetermined malignant potential. Conclusions: The proportion of malignancy is low after using morcellation in patients who undergo laparoscopic myomectomy. Patients with fast-growing uterine fibroids and abnormal ultrasonic tumor blood flow should be considered for malignant potential, and morcellation should be avoided. PMID:29133752

  17. Gene therapy of uterine leiomyomas: adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant negative estrogen receptor inhibits tumor growth in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hendy, Ayman; Lee, Eun J; Wang, Hui Q; Copland, John A

    2004-11-01

    Leiomyomas (fibroids) are common estrogen-dependent uterine tumors with no effective medicinal treatment; hysterectomy is the mainstay of management. This study was undertaken to investigate a potential therapy for leiomyoma; we used a mutated dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene delivered via an adenoviral vector (Ad-ER-DN). Ad-ER-DN transduction, in both human and rat leiomyoma cell lines, induced an increase in both caspase-3 levels and BAX/Bcl-2 ratio with evident apoptosis in the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay. In nude mice, rat leiomyoma cells ex vivo transduced with Ad-ER-DN supported significantly smaller tumors compared with Ad-LacZ-treated cells 5 weeks after implantation. In mice treated by direct intratumor injection into preexisting lesions, Ad-ER-DN caused immediate overall arrest of tumor growth. The Ad-ER-DN-treated tumors demonstrated severely inhibited cell proliferation (BrdU index) and a marked increase in the number of apoptotic cells (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling index). Dominant-negative estrogen receptor gene therapy may provide a nonsurgical treatment option for women with symptomatic uterine fibroids who want to preserve their uteri.

  18. New approaches to the management of fibroids.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R W

    1991-12-01

    It is clear that gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have potential as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of fibroids. They are effective in decreasing the size of most fibroids but, on ceasing treatment, regrowth does occur. Because of their effect on calcium homeostasis, long-term unopposed use of these agonists is not recommended. However, sequential addback therapies could be useful in both counterbalancing the hypoestrogenic side effects and in protecting bone mineral density. Although surgery is likely to remain the primary therapy for fibroids, pretreatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for 3 to 4 months before myomectomy or before hysteroscopic resection offer many advantages in facilitating these procedures and reducing peroperative blood loss. Further studies are required to establish the most satisfactory treatment regimens with this exciting group of drugs for a condition whose etiology is still poorly understood.

  19. Prospective data collection of a new procedure by a specialty society: the FIBROID registry.

    PubMed

    Myers, Evan R; Goodwin, Scott; Landow, Wendy; Mauro, Matthew; Peterson, Eric; Pron, Gaylene; Spies, James B; Worthington-Kirsch, Robert

    2005-07-01

    To describe registry methods and baseline patient demographics from a national sample of women undergoing uterine artery embolization for uterine leiomyomata. Interventional radiology practices were recruited to submit data by a secure Web site on women undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomata. Baseline data included patient demographics, prior medical, surgical, and obstetrical history, uterine anatomy, and quality-of-life measures. Subsequent data collected included details of the uterine artery embolization procedure and hospital stay and outcomes at 30 days; patients were also offered the opportunity to participate in longer-term follow-up. Characteristics of white and African-American women were compared using t tests, chi(2), or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests as appropriate. As of December 31, 2002, 3,319 uterine artery embolization cases had been entered into the registry by 72 sites; number of patients entered by individual sites ranged from 1 to 514. Of these patients, 95.4% consented to participation in the short-term outcomes registry. Forty-eight percent of patients were African American, and 44.4% were white and non-Hispanic. Heavy menstrual bleeding was the single most bothersome symptom in 64.3% of patients. Compared with white non-Hispanic women, African-American women were significantly younger, more likely to be obese, had larger uteri and more numerous leiomyomata, more severe symptoms, and poorer quality-of-life scores before treatment. It is feasible to collect prospective data on new technologies. The FIBROID Registry prospectively collected data on more than 3,000 women undergoing uterine artery embolization for symptomatic leiomyomata. Baseline patient characteristics of this patient population seem to be similar to those of women undergoing other procedures for leiomyomata. III.

  20. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Indicates Silencing of Tumor Suppressor Genes in Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Monsivais, Diana; Lin, Simon M.; Du, Pan; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumor of the female reproductive tract. Fibroids become symptomatic in 30% of all women and up to 70% of African American women of reproductive age. Epigenetic dysregulation of individual genes has been demonstrated in leiomyoma cells; however, the in vivo genome-wide distribution of such epigenetic abnormalities remains unknown. Principal Findings We characterized and compared genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiles in uterine leiomyoma and matched adjacent normal myometrial tissues from 18 African American women. We found 55 genes with differential promoter methylation and concominant differences in mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma versus normal myometrium. Eighty percent of the identified genes showed an inverse relationship between DNA methylation status and mRNA expression in uterine leiomyoma tissues, and the majority of genes (62%) displayed hypermethylation associated with gene silencing. We selected three genes, the known tumor suppressors KLF11, DLEC1, and KRT19 and verified promoter hypermethylation, mRNA repression and protein expression using bisulfite sequencing, real-time PCR and western blot. Incubation of primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restored KLF11, DLEC1 and KRT19 mRNA levels. Conclusions These results suggest a possible functional role of promoter DNA methylation-mediated gene silencing in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma in African American women. PMID:22428009

  1. Radiographic imaging techniques for the diagnosis of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bradley, L D; Falcone, T; Magen, A B

    2000-06-01

    The introduction of SIS has been a significant advance in TVUS evaluation of the endometrial cavity in the 1990s. SIS provides an unparalleled, clear, enhanced view of the endomyometrial complex that cannot be obtained with TVUS alone. Focal and global endometrial pathology can be differentiated with SIS. Saline infusion improves the sensitivity for the detection of endometrial abnormalities. The continuing challenge for gynecologists is to provide patients with cost-effective, minimally invasive evaluation and directed therapy for menstrual dysfunction. SIS targets patients needing biopsy, directs the surgical approach, and minimizes office diagnostic hysteroscopy--all with a quick office procedure. For patients, the benefits include minimal and brief discomfort and a better understanding of intrauterine pathology through viewing the ultrasound monitor. Patients also appreciate the ease of scheduling, the minimal time away from work, and that no escort is needed after the procedure. SIS provides an extension of the pelvic gynecologic examination. SIS is the most important imaging modality for evaluating endometrial pathology. Although there is no perfect test to evaluate the endometrium, overall, SIS is superior to other imaging and diagnostic procedures. It is less expensive than D&C or hysteroscopy. It is a safe, efficient, convenient, and well-tolerated procedure. In some instances, however, neither TVUS nor SIS is definitive in determining the location of fibroids or able to discern adenomyosis. In these instances, MR imaging triage is helpful. MR imaging is gaining widespread acceptance and, in many instances, is a cost-effective tool in the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding. It is noninvasive, differentiates uterine anatomy in response to exogenous hormones or the normal menstrual cycle, and reliably localizes pelvic pathology and size of lesions. When uterine conservation is desired in women with fibroids and TVUS or SIS is indeterminate in localizing

  2. Reproductive outcome following abdominal myomectomy for a very large fibroid uterus.

    PubMed

    Pundir, J; Kopeika, J; Harris, L; Krishnan, N; Uwins, C; Siozos, A; Khalaf, Y; El-Toukhy, T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term reproductive outcome following abdominal myomectomy in women with very large fibroid uteri. It is a retrospective study of 90 subfertile women with the main outcome measure of live-birth rate following spontaneous and assisted conception. Mean age of the study population was 37 ± 5 years and mean uterine size was 21 ± 6 weeks. During follow-up (mean 50 ± 10 months), 28 (31%) pregnancies occurred; 18 spontaneous and 10 following IVF. The live-birth rate was 20% and the miscarriage rate was 32%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the chance of live birth was significantly reduced with increasing female age at the time of surgery (OR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.51-0.86, p = 0.002). The perioperative blood transfusion rate was 30% and the incidence of major complications was 6%. Fertility after abdominal myomectomy for very large fibroid uteri is possible, and its major determinant is female age at the time of surgery.

  3. Effect of abdominal liposuction on sonographically guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Peng; Chen, Jin-Yun; Chen, Wen-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of abdominal liposuction on sonographically guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. A total of 10 women with uterine fibroids or adenomyosis who had received abdominal liposuction were analyzed after sonographically guided HIFU ablation. Of the 10 women, 6 had a diagnosis of uterine fibroids, and 4 had a diagnosis of uterine adenomyosis. All of them had a history of a horizontal-margin split-cesarean delivery. In addition, 26 women with a history of a single horizontal-margin split-cesarean delivery who had a diagnosis of uterine fibroids or adenomyosis but had not received liposuction were analyzed together as a control group. Of the 10 women, 1 woman with uterine fibroids developed local skin erythema after treatment; 1 women with uterine adenomyosis developed a skin burn after treatment; and the remaining women had obvious skin-burning pain during treatment. All women who had not received liposuction finished the treatment with no serious adverse events during or after treatment. The pain scores and incidence of skin-burning pain were significantly higher in the liposuction group than the control group (P= .021 and .038, respectively). Abdominal liposuction may increase the risk of skin burns during sonographically guided HIFU ablation. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. [Hysteroscopic polypectomy, treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    de Los Rios, P José F; López, R Claudia; Cifuentes, P Carolina; Angulo, C Mónica; Palacios-Barahona, Arlex U

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the hysteroscopic polypectomy in terms of the decrease of the abnormal uterine bleeding. A cross-sectional and analytical study was done with patients to whom a hysteroscopic polypectomy was done for treating the abnormal uterine bleeding, between January 2009 and December 2013. The response to the treatment was evaluated via a survey given to the patients about the behavior of the abnormal uterine bleeding after the procedure and about overall satisfaction. The results were obtained after a hysteroscopic polypectomy done to 128 patients and were as follows. The average time from the polypectomy applied until the survey was 30.5 months, with a standard deviation of 18 months. 67.2% of the patients reported decreased abnormal uterine bleeding and the 32.8% reported a persistence of symptoms. On average 82.8% of the. patients were satisfied with the treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed no association between the variables studied and no improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding after surgery (polypectomy). There were no complications. Hysteroscopic polypectomy is a safe surgical treatment, which decreases on two of three patients the abnormal uterine bleeding in the presence of endometrial polyps, with an acceptable level of satisfaction.

  5. A patient-preference cohort study of office versus inpatient uterine polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Natalie A M; Middleton, Lee; Smith, Paul; Denny, Elaine; Stobert, Lynda; Daniels, Jane; Clark, T Justin

    2016-01-01

    Uterine polyps can cause abnormal bleeding in women. Conventional practise is to remove them under general anaesthesia but advances in technology have made it possible to perform polypectomy in the office setting. We conducted a patient-preference study to explore women's preferences for treatment setting and to evaluate the effectiveness and treatment experience of women undergoing uterine polypectomy. Three hundred ninety-nine women with abnormal uterine bleeding who were found to have uterine polyps at diagnostic hysteroscopy were recruited. Office polypectomies were performed in office hysteroscopy clinics, and inpatient procedures were undertaken in operating theatres. Three hundred twenty-four of 399 (81 %) expressed a preference for office treatment. There was no difference found between office treatment and inpatient treatment in terms of alleviating abnormal uterine bleeding as assessed by patients and in improving disease-specific quality of life. Acceptability was lower and patient pain scores were significantly higher in the office group. When offered a choice of treatment setting for uterine polypectomy, patients have a preference for office over inpatient treatment. Ambulatory gynaecology services should be available within healthcare systems to meet patient demand.

  6. Does nonylphenol promote the growth of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Ren, Mu-Lan; Feng, Xu; Gao, Yong-Xing; Xu, Qian; Cai, Yun-Lang

    2014-07-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of action of nonylphenol (NP), an environmental oestrogen, on uterine leiomyoma (UL) cells. Primary culture and subculture of human UL cells, identified as smooth muscle cells by immunocytochemical staining with a monoclonal anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody, were performed. The viability of cells treated with various concentrations of NP for 24, 48 and 72h was determined by CCK-8 assay. mRNA expression of oestrogen receptor α (ERα), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression was detected using Western blot analysis for all groups. NP promoted the growth of UL cells and expression of ERα, IGF-1 and VEGF; this was positively correlated with the concentration and duration of NP treatment. NP promotes the growth of UL cells. The mechanism of action appears to be over-expression of IGF-1 and VEGF, up-regulated by ERα, resulting in the growth of UL cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Uterine sarcoma treatment is primarily surgery, with or without radiation or chemotherapy. Get detailed information about the treatment options for newly diagnosed or recurrent uterine sarcoma cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  8. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, O; Lew, S; Witz, M; Reiss, R; Griffel, B

    1979-01-01

    A case of inflammatory fibroid polyp of the sigmoid colon is presented. This is the eight case of this type of polyp in the colon and, to the best of our knowledge, the first one involving the sigmoid and producing intussusception. Symptomatology of the inflamed fibroid polyp in this part of the gut closely simulates gastrointestinal malignancy. The treatment is surgical excision of the polyp, or colonoscopic resection when it is possible. Intraoperative colonoscopy helps the surgeon to localize the lesion and to role out the existence of other lesions.

  9. A non-surgical uterine lavage technique in large cats intended for treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Göritz, F; Boardman, W; Strike, T; Strauss, G; Jewgenow, K

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the successful use of a non-surgical, transcervical uterine lavage technique for the treatment of uterine infection-induced infertility in three female large cats. We developed a non-surgical uterine lavage technique, which allowed repeated flushing of the uterine lumen and installation of therapeutic antibiotics. The entire procedure was performed under general anaesthesia (duration of anesthesia ranged from 40 to 70 min). It was successfully applied in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a Corbett tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti) and an Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). The tigers were treated only once, whereas the leopard received four uterine treatments, due to re-infection after mating. Decisions to conduct uterine treatments were based on detection of uterine fluid during previous transrectal ultrasound examinations. The catheter was guided into the vagina, with the aid of an endoscope, passing the urethra, and then into the uterus, with the aid of transrectal ultrasonography. Both uterine horns were separately flushed with approximately 300 mL of cell medium M199, followed by an antibiotic infusion. Upon ultrasonographic re-examination, the topical uterine treatments resulted in an apparent decline in the inflammatory and/or degenerative processes. The Corbett tiger had the most severe uterine alterations, in addition to an aseptic pyometra. As a result, she was treated 1 month prior to ovariohysterectomy (in order to reduce the surgical risk). The Sumatran tiger was artificially inseminated twice after hormone-induced estrus, and the Amur leopard expressed a spontaneous estrus and re-initiated mating behaviour.

  10. The potential role of elastography in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids are common causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and less commonly infertility. The prevalence of such intrauterine lesions increases with age during the reproductive years, and usually decreases after menopause. The first-line imaging examination in the diagnosis of endometrial polyps as well as submucosal fibroidsis ultrasound, but its accuracy is not obvious. Elastography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that is used to assess the stiffness of examined tissues. Considering the fact that endometrial polyps derive from soft endometrial tissue and submucosal fibroids are made of hard muscle tissue, elastography seems a perfect tool to differentiate between such lesions. I present two groups of patients with AUB and intrauterine lesions suspected on ultrasound. In the first group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the endometrium and softer than the myometrium. During hysteroscopies endometrial polyps were removed. In the second group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the myometrium and harder than the endometrium. During hysteroscopies submucosal fibroids were removed. In both groups, the diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination in all cases. It was demonstrated that with the use of elastography it is possible to assess the stiffness of intrauterine lesions, which may be useful in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids. PMID:26327901

  11. The potential role of elastography in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids are common causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and less commonly infertility. The prevalence of such intrauterine lesions increases with age during the reproductive years, and usually decreases after menopause. The first-line imaging examination in the diagnosis of endometrial polyps as well as submucosal fibroidsis ultrasound, but its accuracy is not obvious. Elastography is an ultrasound-based imaging modality that is used to assess the stiffness of examined tissues. Considering the fact that endometrial polyps derive from soft endometrial tissue and submucosal fibroids are made of hard muscle tissue, elastography seems a perfect tool to differentiate between such lesions. I present two groups of patients with AUB and intrauterine lesions suspected on ultrasound. In the first group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the endometrium and softer than the myometrium. During hysteroscopies endometrial polyps were removed. In the second group of patients, elastography showed that the stiffness of the lesion was similar to the myometrium and harder than the endometrium. During hysteroscopies submucosal fibroids were removed. In both groups, the diagnosis was confirmed by the pathological examination in all cases. It was demonstrated that with the use of elastography it is possible to assess the stiffness of intrauterine lesions, which may be useful in differentiating between endometrial polyps and submucosal fibroids.

  12. Focal myometrial defect and partial placenta accreta in a pregnancy following bilateral uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    El-Miligy, Magdy; Gordon, Adam; Houston, Graeme

    2007-06-01

    A 29-year-old nulliparous patient was treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) for a large symptomatic uterine fibroid, resulting in a marked reduction of the tumor volume. She subsequently conceived and progressed through pregnancy uneventfully. At cesarean section for breech presentation at term, a large fundal myometrial defect was encountered. In addition, the patient presented with unexpected partial placenta accreta, which resulted in massive atonic uterine bleeding. It is suggested that UAE was implicated in the pathogenesis of myometrial damage and abnormal placentation. It is proposed that the antenatal care of pregnancies after UAE include careful imaging of the placenta, its vasculature, and the thickness of overlying uterine wall so peripartum management can be appropriately planned.

  13. Incidental Finding of Metastatic Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma at Uterine Leiomyoma, A Thai University Hospital Experience: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chanthasenanont, Athita; Nantakomon, Tongta; Kintarak, Jutatip; Vithisuvanakul, Nophadol; Pongrojpaw, Densak; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic malignant melanomas to the uterus are extremely rare; to our knowledge, no more than 13 cases have been reported to date. A 44-years-old multigravida woman presented with a black and irregular surface mass at medial aspect of left thigh. There was also an enlarged left groin node. Wide excision with lymph node dissection revealed malignant melanoma. Further examination found a huge pelvic mass with left deep vein thrombosis consequent by pressure effect. Chest and complete abdominal computed tomography revealed an enlarged, fibroid uterus with pressure effect at left common iliac vein. A total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed. Intra-operative finding was scattered hyperpigment spots at surface of the uterus and its tumor Histopathological report showed metastatic malignant melanoma involving myometrium and uterine serosa. Diagnosis of stage IV malignant melanoma (uterine metastasis) was achieved. The patient was counseled about her diagnosis, stage, prognosis and further treatment. Uterine metastatic malignant melanoma was a rare condition. This report represents the first case of a cutaneous malignant melanoma involving a uterine leiomyoma in Thailand.

  14. Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sweet, Mary Gayle; Schmidt-Dalton, Tarin A; Weiss, Patrice M; Madsen, Keith P

    2012-01-01

    Up to 14 percent of women experience irregular or excessively heavy menstrual bleeding. This abnormal uterine bleeding generally can be divided into anovulatory and ovulatory patterns. Chronic anovulation can lead to irregular bleeding, prolonged unopposed estrogen stimulation of the endometrium, and increased risk of endometrial cancer. Causes include polycystic ovary syndrome, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hyperprolactinemia, and use of antipsychotics or antiepileptics. Women 35 years or older with recurrent anovulation, women younger than 35 years with risk factors for endometrial cancer, and women with excessive bleeding unresponsive to medical therapy should undergo endometrial biopsy. Treatment with combination oral contraceptives or progestins may regulate menstrual cycles. Histologic findings of hyperplasia without atypia may be treated with cyclic or continuous progestin. Women who have hyperplasia with atypia or adenocarcinoma should be referred to a gynecologist or gynecologic oncologist, respectively. Ovulatory abnormal uterine bleeding, or menorrhagia, may be caused by thyroid dysfunction, coagulation defects (most commonly von Willebrand disease), endometrial polyps, and submucosal fibroids. Transvaginal ultrasonography or saline infusion sonohysterography may be used to evaluate menorrhagia. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system is an effective treatment for menorrhagia. Oral progesterone for 21 days per month and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are also effective. Tranexamic acid is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of ovulatory bleeding, but is expensive. When clear structural causes are identified or medical management is ineffective, polypectomy, fibroidectomy, uterine artery embolization, and endometrial ablation may be considered. Hysterectomy is the most definitive treatment.

  15. The Mechanism and Function of Epigenetics in Uterine Leiomyoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei; Mas, Aymara; Diamond, Michael P.; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, also known as uterine fibroids, are the most common pelvic tumors, occurring in nearly 70% of all reproductive-aged women and are the leading indication for hysterectomy worldwide. The development of uterine leiomyomas involve a complex and heterogeneous constellation of hormones, growth factors, stem cells, genetic, and epigenetic abnormalities. An increasing body of evidence emphasizes the important contribution of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of leiomyomas. Genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrates that a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) response genes exhibit abnormal hypermethylation levels that are inversely correlated with their RNA expression. Several tumor suppressor genes, including Kruppel-like factor 11 (KLF11), deleted in lung and esophageal cancer 1 (DLEC1), keratin 19 (KRT19), and death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) also display higher hypermethylation levels in leiomyomas when compared to adjacent normal tissues. The important role of active DNA demethylation was recently identified with regard to the ten-eleven translocation protein 1 and ten-eleven translocation protein 3-mediated elevated levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in leiomyoma. In addition, both histone deacetylase and histone methyltransferase are reported to be involved in the biology of leiomyomas. A number of deregulated microRNAs have been identified in leiomyomas, leading to an altered expression of their targets. More recently, the existence of side population (SP) cells with characteristics of tumor-initiating cells have been characterized in leiomyomas. These SP cells exhibit a tumorigenic capacity in immunodeficient mice when exposed to 17β-estradiol and progesterone, giving rise to fibroid-like tissue in vivo. These new findings will likely enhance our understanding of the crucial role epigenetics plays in the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas as well as point the way to novel therapeutic options. PMID:25922306

  16. Does fertility treatment increase the risk of uterine cancer? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Saso, Srdjan; Louis, Louay S; Doctor, Farah; Hamed, Ali Hassan; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Yazbek, Joseph; Bora, Shabana; Abdalla, Hossam; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Thum, Meen-Yau

    2015-12-01

    An ongoing debate over the last two decades has focused on whether fertility treatment in women may lead to an increased risk of developing uterine cancer over a period of time. Uterine cancer (including mainly endometrial carcinoma and the less common uterine sarcoma) is the commonest reproductive tract cancer and the fourth commonest cancer in women in the UK. Our objective was to assess the association between fertility drugs used in the treatment of female infertility (both as an independent therapy and during in vitro fertilization cycles) and the development of uterine cancer. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases for comparative studies until December 2014 to investigate a clinical significance of fertility treatment on the incidence of developing uterine cancer. General and MESH search headings, as well as the 'related articles' function were applied. All comparative studies of 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' reporting the incidence of uterine cancer as an outcome were included. Uterine cancer incorporated the following terms: uterine cancer, uterine body tumours, uterine sarcomas and endometrial cancers. The primary outcome of interest was the uterine cancer incidence in all 'fertility treatment' versus 'non-fertility treatment' patient groups. Secondary outcomes of interest were: (a) uterine cancer incidence in 'IVF' versus 'non-IVF' patient groups; and (b) uterine cancer incidence according to type of fertility drug used. Odds ratio was the summary statistic. Random-effects modelling, graphical exploration and sensitivity analysis were used to evaluate the consistency of the calculated treatment effect. We included six studies in our final analysis, which comprised 776,224 patients in total. Of these, 103,758 had undergone fertility treatment and 672,466 had not. There was 100% agreement between the two reviewers regarding the data extraction. All the studies

  17. Role of MR imaging of uterine leiomyomas before and after embolization.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Gonsalves, Carin F; Guglielmo, Flavius F; Mitchell, Donald G

    2012-10-01

    Leiomyoma, the most common uterine neoplasm, is composed of smooth muscle with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Most leiomyomas are asymptomatic, but patients may present with abnormal uterine bleeding or bulk-related symptoms. Over the past decade, uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) has been an effective minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic patients. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate imaging technique for detection and evaluation of leiomyomas and therefore has become the imaging modality of choice before and after UFE. As leiomyomas enlarge, they may outgrow their blood supply, resulting in various forms of degeneration that change their appearance. Leiomyomas are classified as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal. Submucosal and subserosal leiomyomas may be pedunculated, thus simulating other conditions. Understanding the MR imaging appearance of leiomyomas allows differentiation from other entities. The superior tissue contrast of MR imaging allows diagnosis of leiomyomas with a high level of confidence, ultimately leading to a decrease in the number of surgeries performed and thus reducing healthcare expenditures. MR imaging findings that influence the planning of UFE include the location, size, number, and vascular supply of leiomyomas. In addition, MR imaging can be used to assess the success of UFE and evaluate for potential complications. © RSNA, 2012.

  18. CDB-4124 does not cause apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Hilary; Jayes, Friederike; Feng, Liping; Leppert, Phyllis C

    2011-09-01

    Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs), such as asoprisnil (J867) and ulipristal (CDB-2914), have been shown to reduce fibroid volume in vivo and to induce apoptosis in vitro. CDB-4124 (telapristone), a SPRM with different side groups, also reduced fibroid volume in vivo, and we hypothesized that this SPRM would also cause apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells. Immortalized, progesterone receptor-positive fibroid cells, known to be capable of apoptosis, were grown to 80% confluence in serum-containing media. Cells were then treated for 48 hours in serum-free media with 0, 10, 100, or 1000 nmol/L CDB-4124. Actinomycin-D and staurosporine were used as positive controls to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was quantified using a TUNEL-fluorescein kit. Images were captured with a widefield-fluorescence microscope and analyzed using MetaMorph image analysis software. To validate results, Western blots of total cell lysates were probed for cleaved caspase-3 (c-CASP3). Experiments were repeated 3 times using independent cell batches. Analysis of 19 712 nuclei indicated 14.8% ± 10.9% (mean ± SEM), 8.4% ± 4.6%, 8.2% ± 4.7%, and 9.3% ± 6.3% apoptosis in 0, 10, 100, and 1000 nmol/L CDB-4124-treated cells, respectively. There was no evidence of elevated c-CASP3 over vehicle control after treatment with CDB-4124. CDB-4124 did not significantly induce apoptosis in cultured fibroid cells under the conditions described suggesting apoptosis may not be the main pathway responsible for CDB-4124-induced fibroid shrinkage. Variations in SPRM biological effects may be due to differences in fibroid source cells, binding kinetics, or extracellular matrix characteristics, and can be exploited in further investigations of the mechanisms of action of SPRMs in fibroid biology.

  19. Uterine Artery Embolization: An Analysis of Online Patient Information Quality and Readability with Historical Comparison.

    PubMed

    Murray, Timothy E; Mansoor, Tayyaub; Bowden, Dermot J; O'Neill, Damien C; Lee, Michael J

    2018-05-01

    Investigators aimed to assess online information describing uterine artery embolization (UAE) to examine the quality and readability of websites patients are accessing. A list of applicable, commonly used searchable terms was generated, including "Uterine Artery Embolization," "Fibroid Embolization," "Uterine Fibroid Embolization," and "Uterine Artery Embolisation." Each possible term was assessed across the five most-used English language search engines to determine the most commonly used term. The most common term was then investigated across each search engine, with the first 25 pages returned by each engine included for analysis. Duplicate pages, nontext content such as video or audio, and pages behind paywalls were excluded. Pages were analyzed for quality and readability using validated tools including DISCERN score, JAMA Benchmark Criteria, HONcode Certification, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, and Gunning-Fog Index. Secondary features such as age, rank, author, and publisher were recorded. The most common applicable term was "Uterine Artery Embolization" (492,900 results). Mean DISCERN quality of information provided by UAE websites is "fair"; however, it has declined since comparative 2012 studies. Adherence to JAMA Benchmark Criteria has reduced to 6.7%. UAE website readability remains more difficult than the World Health Organization-recommended 7-8th grade reading levels. HONcode-certified websites (35.6%) demonstrated significantly higher quality than noncertified websites. Quality of online UAE information remains "fair." Adherence to JAMA benchmark criteria is poor. Readability is above recommended 7-8th grade levels. HONcode certification was predictive of higher website quality, a useful guide to patients requesting additional information. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of fibroids not distorting the endometrial cavity on the outcome of in vitro fertilization treatment: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lei; Ding, Lingling; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yu; Tang, Rong; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of fibroids that do not distort the endometrial cavity on IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and to identify certain fibroid subgroups that may be deleterious to fertility outcomes. Retrospective cohort study. University-based reproductive medicine center. A total of 10,268 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI between 2009 and 2011 in our unit. Transvaginal ultrasound and hysteroscopy; controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and IVF/ICSI; strict matching criteria. Cycle cancellation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and delivery rates. We included 249 patients with fibroids who underwent IVF/ICSI. Higher day 3 FSH levels were found in women with fibroids compared with in control subjects. No significant differences were found in IVF/ICSI outcomes between the two groups. Patients with intramural fibroids with the largest diameter <2.85 cm or the sum of reported diameters <2.95 cm had a significantly higher delivery rate than patients with larger fibroids. A significant negative effect on delivery rate was noted when intramural fibroids with the largest diameter greater than 2.85 cm were considered, compared with matched controls without fibroids. Our results suggest that although non-cavity-distorting fibroids do not affect IVF/ICSI outcomes, intramural fibroids greater than 2.85 cm in size significantly impair the delivery rate of patients undergoing IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Uterine Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  2. The benefit of myomectomy in women aged 40 years and above: Experience in an urban teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obed, Jesse Y; Bako, Babagana; Kadas, Saidu; Usman, Joshua D; Kullima, Abubakar A; Moruppa, Joel Y

    2011-07-01

    Abdominal myomectomy remains the mainstay of surgical management of uterine fibroids in our environment. However, its benefit in women aged 40 years and above remains debatable. An 11-year prospective study was conducted involving 98 women, aged 40 years and above, who had abdominal myomectomy for the treatment of uterine fibroid at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri. They were followed up regularly for 1-6 years to detect conception, resolution of symptoms and obstetrics performance. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. The mean age of the patients was 42.6±2.9 years and 77 (78.6%) of them were nulliparous. Lower abdominal swelling was the commonest clinical presentation and the mean uterine size was 18.6±8.5 weeks. Infertility with uterine fibroids was the indication for myomectomy in majority of the cases [48 (48.9%)], while pregnancy complications accounted for 11.2% (11) of the cases Fertility restoration was 10.4% among the infertile patients. There was complete resolution of symptoms in 35.9% of those who required symptomatic relief, and term pregnancies were recorded in 72.7% of patients with pregnancy complications. Myomectomy is the recommended treatment of uterine fibroids in women aged 40 years and above with infertility and who wish to become pregnant. If there is no need for further fertility preservation, hysterectomy should be offered.

  3. High intensity focused ultrasound ablation for submucosal fibroids: A comparison between type I and type II.

    PubMed

    Xie, Bin; Zhang, Cai; Xiong, Chunyan; He, Jia; Huang, Guohua; Zhang, Lian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for type I and type II submucosal fibroids. From October 2011 to October 2013, 55 patients with submucosal fibroids were enrolled in this study. Based on submucosal fibroid classification, 27 patients were grouped as type I submucosal fibroids, and 28 patients were classified as type II submucosal fibroids. All patients received HIFU treatment and completed 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Adverse effects were recorded. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the two groups (p > 0.05). Using similar sonication power, sonication time, and acoustic energy, the non-perfused volume (NPV) ratio was 83.0 ± 17.3% in the type I group, and 92.0 ± 9.5% in the type II group. All the patients tolerated the procedure well, and no serious adverse events occurred. During the follow-up intervals, the treated fibroids shrank and fibroid-related symptoms were relieved. No other reinterventional procedures were performed during the follow-up period. Based on our results with a small number of subjects, HIFU is suitable for both type I and type II submucosal fibroids. It seems that type II submucosal fibroids are more sensitive to HIFU ablation. Future studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times to investigate the long-term results, including long-term symptom relief, pregnancy outcomes, and the recurrence rate as well as the reintervention rate are needed.

  4. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Promotes Proliferation of Human Uterine Leiomyoma: A Biological Link to a New Epigenetic Modification in Benign Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Antonia; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Monsivais, Diana; Moravek, Molly B.; Coon, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Context: Uterine leiomyoma, or fibroids, represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. A newly discovered epigenetic modification, 5-hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), and its regulators, the TET (Ten Eleven Translocation) enzymes, were implicated in the pathology of malignant tumors; however, their roles in benign tumors, including uterine fibroids, remain unknown. Objective: To determine the role of 5-hmC and TET proteins in the pathogenesis of leiomyoma using human uterine leiomyoma and normal matched myometrial tissues and primary cells. Design: 5-hmC levels were determined by ELISA and immunofluorescent staining in matched myometrial and leiomyoma tissues. TET expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. TET1 or TET3 were silenced or inhibited by small interfering RNA or 2-hydroxyglutarate to study their effects on 5-hmC content and cell proliferation. Results: We demonstrated significantly higher 5-hmC levels in the genomic DNA of leiomyoma tissue compared to normal myometrial tissue. The increase in 5-hmC levels was associated with the up-regulation of TET1 or TET3 mRNA and protein expression in leiomyoma tissue. TET1 or TET3 knockdown significantly reduced 5-hmC levels in leiomyoma cells and decreased cell proliferation. Treatment with 2-hydroxyglutarate, a competitive TET enzyme inhibitor, significantly decreased both 5-hmC content and cell proliferation of leiomyoma cells. Conclusion: An epigenetic imbalance in the 5-hmC content of leiomyoma tissue, caused by up-regulation of the TET1 and TET3 enzymes, might lead to discovery of new therapeutic targets in leiomyoma. PMID:25057885

  5. Removal of uterine fibroids by mini-laparotomy technique in women who wish to preserve their uterus and fertility.

    PubMed

    Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Żyła, Monika; Wilczyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The minilaparotomy is considered to be a safe and effective alternative to laparoscopy and abdominal laparotomy in myomectomy cases. To perform a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical assessment, surgical course and post-operational parameters in women wishing to preserve their uterus and fertility who underwent myomectomy by minilaparotomy in the Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute in Lodz in the years 2008-2014. A total of 76 patients were qualified for minilaparotomy due to a benign gynecological pathology. Only 21 patients with uterine fibroids who wanted to preserve their uterus and fertility were appropriate for this study. Patients' records were analyzed in terms of: epidemiological history, surgical course, postoperative stay and pathological data. All studied patients were asked in 2014 about conception and pregnancy after minilaparotomy. The median age was 35.7 years. The median patient body mass index (BMI) was 24 kg/m(2). The average decrease of hemoglobin was 1.5 g/dl. The size of the myoma was between 1.5 and 15 cm. There were no serious post-surgical complications. The size of the myoma did not correlate significantly with operation time, BMI or blood loss. There was no statistically significant dependence between operation time and average hematocrit and hemoglobin decrease. In our group 7 patients who had undergone myomectomy tried to achieve conception. Four of them succeeded in pregnancy and gave birth to healthy infants. Myomectomy performed via minilaparotomy is a safe procedure for patients willing to preserve their uterus and fertility, and it combines some advantages of both laparotomy and laparoscopy.

  6. Post-uterine artery embolization pain and clinical outcomes for symptomatic myomas using gelfoam pledgets alone versus embospheres plus gelfoam pledgets: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vilos, Angelos G; Vilos, George A; Hollett-Caines, Jackie; Garvin, Greg; Kozak, Roman; Abu-Rafea, Basim

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and post-procedural pain associated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) using Gelfoam alone versus Embospheres plus Gelfoam in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. We conducted a prospective, non-randomized pilot study. Fluoroscopy-guided trans-femoral artery UAE was performed using Gelfoam pledgets alone or Embospheres (500 to 700 mg) plus Gelfoam under conscious sedation and local anaesthesia. This was followed by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) using a morphine pump overnight. Post-procedural pain was assessed by the mean amount of self-administered morphine delivered by PCA pump (mL) from 0 to 19 hours in each group. The mean volumes of the uterus and the dominant fibroid were calculated by ultrasound at baseline, three months, six months, and 12 months. A total of 17 women participated in the study. Bilateral uterine artery occlusion was performed in eight women using Gelfoam alone, and in nine women using Embosphere + Gelfoam. One woman in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group developed a puncture-site hematoma requiring further intervention one week later. The mean (SD) amount of morphine self-administered by PCA pump at time 0, 1, and 2 hours was 3.4 mg (3.1), 2.9 mg (2.2), and 2.4 mg (3.3) in the Gelfoam-only group and 6.1 mg (3.0), 9.6 mg (7.1), and 5.3 mg (4.4) in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group, respectively. After three hours, the amount of morphine used was equal in both groups. The mean (SD) total dose of morphine used was 29.5 mg (18.6) in the Gelfoam group and 41.1 mg (19.3) in the Embosphere + Gelfoam group (P = 0.228). At 12 months, the reduction in median total uterine volume and median dominant fibroid volume in each group was equal. Clinical outcomes were equivalent after uterine artery embolization using Gelfoam alone versus Gelfoam + Embospheres. Although the amount of immediate post-procedure pain may be less with Gelfoam alone, we could not demonstrate this objectively using morphine use as a measure of pain.

  7. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids – From Menarche to Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, and childbearing history. The main challenge in studying UL is that a large proportion of tumors are asymptomatic. Herein, we review the epidemiology of UL from published studies to date. We highlight the advantages of ultrasound screening studies and the ways in which their innovative methods have helped clarify the etiology of disease. We conclude with a discussion of promising new hypotheses. PMID:26744813

  8. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parthipun, A. A., E-mail: aneeta@hotmail.co.uk; Taylor, J.; Manyonda, I.

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between large uterine fibroid diameter, uterine volume, number of vials of embolic agent used and risk of complications from uterine artery embolisation (UAE). This was a prospective study involving 121 patients undergoing UAE embolisation for symptomatic uterine fibroids at a single institution. Patients were grouped according to diameter of largest fibroid and uterine volume. Results were also stratified according to the number of vials of embolic agent used and rate of complications. No statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated between the two groups according to diametermore » of the largest fibroid (large fibroids were classified as {>=}10 cm; Fisher's exact test P = 1.00), and no statistical difference in complication rate was demonstrated according to uterine volume (large uterine volume was defined as {>=}750 cm{sup 3}; Fisher's exact test P = 0.70). 84 of the 121 patients had documentation of the number of vials used during the procedure. Patients were divided into two groups, with {>=}4 used defined as a large number of embolic agent. There was no statistical difference between these two groups and no associated increased risk of developing complications. This study showed no increased incidence of complications in women with large-diameter fibroids or uterine volumes as defined. In addition, there was no evidence of increased complications according to quantity of embolic material used. Therefore, UAE should be offered to women with large fibroids and uterine volumes.« less

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Uterine Sarcoma)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  10. Ultrasound assessment of endometrial cavity in perimenopausal women on oral progesterone for abnormal uterine bleeding: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of imaging with hysteroscopy-guided biopsy.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Subhankar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Sharma, Partha Pratim; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Ghosh, Tarun Kumar

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oral progesterone on the accuracy of imaging studies performed to detect endometrial pathology in comparison to hysteroscopy-guided biopsy in perimenopausal women on progesterone treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. The study population comprised of women aged 40-55 years with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding who were also undergoing oral progesterone therapy. Women with a uterus ≥ 12 weeks' gestation size, previous abnormal endometrial biopsy, cervical lesion on speculum examination, abnormal Pap smear, active pelvic infection, adnexal mass on clinical examination or during ultrasound scan and a positive pregnancy test were excluded. A transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonography were done. On the following day, a hysteroscopy followed by a guided biopsy of the endometrium or any endometrial lesion was performed. Comparison between the results of the imaging study with the hysteroscopy and guided biopsy was done. The final analysis included 83 patients. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid transvaginal ultrasound had a positive likelihood ratio of 1.65, 5.45 and 5.4, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47, 0.6 and 0.43, respectively. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid saline infusion sonography had a positive likelihood ratio of 4.4, 5.35 and 11.8, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. In perimenopausal women on oral progesterone therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding, imaging studies cannot be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing endometrial pathology when compared to hysteroscopy and guided biopsy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Impact of uterine fibroid symptoms on health-related quality of life of US women: evidence from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Margolis, Mary Kay; Castelli-Haley, Jane; Fuldeore, Mahesh J; Owens, Charlotte D; Coyne, Karin S

    2017-11-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are associated with significant health-related quality of life (HRQL) impact. This study examined the impact of UF symptoms on HRQL. An online cross-sectional survey of 18 to 49 year old US women was conducted and collected demographics, UF prevalence, symptoms, and HRQL using the UFS-QOL. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the impact of symptom presence, severity, bothersomeness, and number of UF symptoms on HRQL. Analyses were weighted to match the US female population distribution. Multivariate regressions were performed with each subscale as a dependent variable to examine the impact of individual UF symptoms on HRQL. A total of 59,411 (15.5%) panel members completed the prevalence screener; 4848 met inclusion criteria; 955 had UF and no hysterectomy. Mean age was 40.3; 58% were white; 63% were married/civil union. Common UF symptoms were: lower back pain (65%), fatigue/weariness (63%), bloating (61%), pelvic pain/cramping during menses (63%), and heavy bleeding during menses (54%). Mean UFS-QoL subscale scores were significantly (p < .05) worse among women with a UF symptom versus women without the symptom. Women who rated their UF symptoms as severe had significantly (p < .001) worse UFS-QoL scores than women with mild or moderate symptoms. UFS-QoL subscale scores worsened as the number of symptoms increased. In the regressions, the presence of bleeding and non-bleeding symptoms were related to worse UFS-QoL subscale scores. HRQL among women with UF was significantly impacted by UF-related symptoms. Greater impact was observed as the number and severity of symptoms increased.

  12. An economic evaluation of outpatient versus inpatient polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, L; Roberts, T E; Cooper, N A M; Middleton, L; Jowett, S; Daniels, J; Smith, P; Clark, T J

    2016-03-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of outpatient uterine polypectomy compared with standard inpatient treatment under general anaesthesia. Economic evaluation carried out alongside the multi-centre, pragmatic, non-inferiority, randomised controlled Outpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) trial. The UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective was used in the estimation of costs and the interpretation of results. Thirty-one secondary care UK NHS hospitals between April 2008 and July 2011. Five hundred and seven women with abnormal uterine bleeding and hysteroscopically diagnosed endometrial polyps. Outpatient uterine polypectomy versus standard inpatient treatment. Clinicians were free to choose the technique for polypectomy within the allocated setting. Patient-reported effectiveness of the procedure determined by the women's self-assessment of bleeding at 6 months, and QALY gains at 6 and 12 months. Inpatient treatment was slightly more effective but more expensive than outpatient treatment, resulting in relatively high incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Intention-to-treat analysis of the base case at 6 months revealed that it cost an additional £9421 per successfully treated patient in the inpatient group and £ 1,099,167 per additional QALY gained, when compared with outpatient treatment. At 12 months, these costs were £22,293 per additional effectively treated patient and £445,867 per additional QALY gained, respectively. Outpatient treatment of uterine polyps associated with abnormal uterine bleeding appears to be more cost-effective than inpatient treatment at willingness-to-pay thresholds acceptable to the NHS. HTA-funded OPT trial concluded that outpatient uterine polypectomy is cost-effective compared with inpatient polypectomy. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Management of leiomyomas in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano R; Lamanna, Pasquale; Fiorini, Rosamaria; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Christman, Gregory M; Castellucci, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, commonly called fibroids, are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Incidence increases with age from menarche to perimenopause. Regardless of their generally benign neoplastic character, uterine fibroids are responsible for significant morbidity in a large proportion of women of reproductive age. As uterine leiomyomas generally regress after menopause, the general attitude when women are approaching perimenopausal age is to avoid treatment and wait for menopause and a spontaneous resolution. When it is decided that treatment is needed, the choice for peri- and postmenopausal women is often hysterectomy. In the present paper we point out aspects of leiomyoma management that are unique to the perimenopausal period, and address future directions in care. We conclude that the management of uterine leiomyomas should not be overlooked in the perimenopausal period merely on the grounds that the pathology and symptoms are unlikely to persist after the menopause; on the other hand, opting for a quick resolution with total surgical removal of the uterus, as seen at present in many cases, should be avoided. Studies on the impact of therapy for fibroids should be performed not exclusively with premenopausal women but also with perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, both users and non-users of hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Conservative Treatment of a Gossypiboma Causing Uterine Wound Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Usta, Taner A.; Ozyurek, Sefik E.; Gundogdu, Elif C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a rare case with gossypiboma following cesarean section which led to uterine wound dehiscence. A 30-year-old woman had been submitted to an emergency cesarean section 4 months previously at another hospital. Clinical and ultrasound findings revealed a large intra-abdominal mass and diffuse peritonitis. At laparotomy, a gossypiboma causing an abscess and uterine wound dehiscence with necrosis of the margins was detected. We performed repetitive wound debridements under broad-spectrum antibiotic cover and eventually resutured the incision. Although hysterectomy has so far been the choice of treatment in the literature once a uterine wound dehiscence had occurred, it was possible in this case to preserve the uterus. PMID:24106624

  15. Maternal uterine artery VEGF gene therapy for treatment of intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    David, Anna L

    2017-11-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a serious pregnancy complication affecting approximately 8% of all pregnancies. The aetiology is believed to be insufficient maternal uteroplacental perfusion which prevents adequate nutrient and oxygen availability for the fetus. There is no treatment that can improve uteroplacental perfusion and thereby increase fetal growth in the uterus. Maternal uterine artery gene therapy presents a promising treatment strategy for IUGR, with the use of adenoviral vectors encoding for proteins such as Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) demonstrating improvements in fetal growth and neonatal outcome in preclinical studies. Mechanistically, maternal VEGF gene therapy delivered to the uterine arteries increases uterine blood flow and enhances vascular relaxation short term, while reducing vascular contractility long term. It also leads to vascular remodeling with increased endothelial cell proliferation in the perivascular adventitia of uterine arteries. Safety assessments suggest no vector spread to the fetus and no adverse risk to the mother or fetus; a clinical trial is in development. This article assesses research into VEGF maternal uterine artery directed gene therapy for IUGR, investigating the use of transgenes and vectors, their route of administration in obstetrics, and the steps that will be needed to take this treatment modality into the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Factors for Uterine Atony/Postpartum Hemorrhage Requiring Treatment after Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wetta, Luisa A; Szychowski, Jeff M; Seals, Ms. Samantha; Mancuso, Melissa S; Biggio, Joseph R; Tita, Alan TN

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for uterine atony or hemorrhage. Study Design Secondary analysis of a 3-arm double-blind randomized trial of different dose-regimens of oxytocin to prevent uterine atony after vaginal delivery. The primary outcome was uterine atony or hemorrhage requiring treatment. Twenty-one potential risk factors were evaluated. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors using 2 complementary pre-defined model selection strategies. Results Among 1798 women randomized to 10, 40 or 80U prophylactic oxytocin after vaginal delivery, treated uterine atony occurred in 7%. Hispanic (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3–3.4) and non-Hispanic whites (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.0–2.5), preeclampsia (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.0–4.9) and chorioamnionitis (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.6–5.0) were consistent independent risk factors. Other risk factors based on the specified selection strategies were obesity, induction/augmentation of labor, twins, hydramnios, anemia, and arrest of descent. Amnioinfusion appeared to be protective against uterine atony (OR 0.53; 95% CI 0.29–0.98). Conclusion Independent risk factors for uterine atony requiring treatment include Hispanic and non-Hispanic white ethnicity, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis. PMID:23507549

  17. A Systematic Review of Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformations: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Transcatheter Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Daniel J.; Jones, Megan; Taani, Jamal Al; Buhimschi, Catalin; Dowell, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective An acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare cause of vaginal bleeding and, although hysterectomy is the definitive therapy, transcatheter embolization (TCE) provides an alternative treatment option. This systematic review presents the indications, technique, and outcomes for transcatheter treatment of the acquired uterine AVMs. Study Design Literature databases were searched from 2003 to 2013 for eligible clinical studies, including the patient characteristics, procedural indication, results, complications, as well as descriptions on laterality and embolic agents utilized. Results A total of 40 studies were included comprising of 54 patients (average age of 33.4 years). TCE had a primary success rate with symptomatic control of 61% (31 patients) and secondary success rate of 91% after repeated embolization. When combined with medical therapy, symptom resolution was noted in 48 (85%) patients without more invasive surgical procedures. Conclusion Low-level evidence supports the role of TCE, including in the event of persistent bleeding following initial embolization, for the treatment of acquired uterine AVMs. The variety of embolic agents and laterality of approach delineate the importance of refining procedural protocols in the treatment of the acquired uterine AVM. Condensation A review on the management of patients with acquired uterine AVMs. PMID:26929872

  18. Urological complications of uterine leiomyoma: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dagur, Gautam; Suh, Yiji; Warren, Kelly; Singh, Navjot; Fitzgerald, John; Khan, Sardar A

    2016-06-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are common gynecologic tumor in reproductive-aged women, by age 50, diagnosis shared by urologist, gynecologists and radiologists. The goal of this article is to review the current literature, study the impact of leiomyoma on female lower urinary tract, examine the cause female sexual dysfunction and provide a comprehensive review of current diagnostic, imaging studies, and current treatment of leiomyoma. Clinical leiomyoma studies published from 1956 through 2015 were identified using the PubMed search engines and the key words leiomyoma, fibroid in the current literature. Impact of leiomyoma on the lower urinary tract including female sexual dysfunction was reviewed with terms of "urinary retention", "bladder", "urethra", "dyspareunia", "incontinence", "incomplete bladder emptying", "female sexual dysfunction", and "lower urinary tract" to study the urological and sexual effects of leiomyoma. Literature related to leiomyoma was reviewed from 1965 to present. Women with uterine leiomyomata complained of pelvic pain, menstrual irregularities, infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction. Leiomyoma is a common tumor of the uterus that often clinically impacts on the lower urinary tract and results in urological and sexual symptoms. Leiomyoma can compress and grow into and become adherent to the bladder and surrounding pelvic organs or metastasize into peritoneal organs. Leiomyoma can enlarge and compress the urinary bladder, urethra, and lower end of the ureters. Leiomyoma can cause embarrassing sexual dysfunction in females. Current literature of non-surgical and surgical therapy of leiomyoma is described.

  19. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mara, Michal; Kubinova, Kristyna, E-mail: kristyna.kubinova@gmail.com; Maskova, Jana

    Purpose: To compare outcomes of two different types of occlusive therapy of uterine fibroids. Methods: Women with fibroid(s) unsuitable for laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) were treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE) or laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion (LUAO). Results: Before the procedure, patients treated with UAE (n = 100) had a dominant fibroid greater in size (68 vs. 48 mm) and a mean age lower (33.1 vs. 34.9 years) than surgically treated patients (n = 100). After 6 months, mean shrinkage of fibroid volume was 53 % after UAE and 39 % after LUAO (p = 0.063); 82 % of women aftermore » UAE, but only 23 % after LUAO, had complete myoma infarction (p = 0.001). Women treated with UAE had more complications (31 vs. 11 cases, p = 0.006) and greater incidence of hysteroscopically verified intrauterine necrosis (31 vs. 3 %, p = 0.001). Both groups were comparable in markers of ovarian functions and number of nonelective reinterventions. The groups did not differ in pregnancy (69 % after UAE vs. 67 % after LUAO), delivery (50 vs. 46 %), or abortion (34 vs. 33 %) rates. The mean birth weight of neonates was greater (3270 vs. 2768 g, p = 0.013) and the incidence of intrauterine growth restriction lower (13 vs. 38 %, p = 0.046) in post-UAE patients. Conclusion: Both methods are effective in the treatment of women with future reproductive plans and fibroids not suitable for LM. UAE is more effective in causing complete ischemia of fibroids, but it is associated with greater risk of intrauterine necrosis. Both methods have low rate of serious complications (except for a high abortion rate).« less

  20. Non puerperal uterine inversion in a young female- a case report.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Setu; Samal, Sunil Kumar; Pallavee, P; Ghose, Seetesh

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of 28-year-old, primipara who presented with complaints of mass descending per vaginum along with excessive bleeding and foul smelling vaginal discharge for the past six months. Clinical examination revealed an inverted uterus, cervix and vagina with a large submucosal fundal fibroid. A diagnosis of non-puerperal uterine inversion was made. Surgical management included vaginal myomectomy with repositioning of the uterus using an abdomino-vaginal approach and a successful outcome. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of leiomyoma. Hence, we conclude that uterus-sparing surgery should be considered in young females desirous for future pregnancy until the final pathology is known.

  1. Elagolix for the management of heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids: results from a phase 2a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Archer, David F; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Jain, Rita I; Feldman, Robert A; Lukes, Andrea S; North, Janine D; Soliman, Ahmed M; Gao, Jingjing; Ng, Juki W; Chwalisz, Kristof

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of elagolix vs. placebo and elagolix with low-dose E 2 /progestogen add-back therapy. Proof-of-concept, dose-ranging, multiple-cohort study. Clinics. Premenopausal women with fibroids and heavy menstrual bleeding (menstrual blood loss [MBL] >80 mL per cycle). Three months' treatment with elagolix alone: 100 mg twice daily (BID), 200 mg BID, 300 mg BID, 400 mg once daily (QD), or 600 mg QD (all but the 600 mg QD arm were placebo controlled); or elagolix plus add-back therapy: 200 mg BID plus continuous low-dose E 2 0.5 mg/norethindrone acetate 0.1 mg or elagolix 300 mg BID plus E 2 1 mg continuously and cyclical P 200 mg. Least-squares mean percentage change in MBL; adverse events (AEs). Mean age was 41.8 years; 73.8% were black; mean baseline MBL was 267 mL. Of randomized women (elagolix alone, n = 160; placebo, n = 50; elagolix with add-back therapy, n = 61), 228 of 271 completed the 3-month treatment period. The MBL percentage change from baseline to last 28 days was significantly greater with elagolix alone (range, -72% to -98%; dose-dependent reduction was highest with 300 mg BID) vs. placebo (range, -8% to -41%); mean percentage changes with add-back regimens were -80% to -85%. Overall AEs were dose independent (elagolix alone, 70.0%-81.3%) but lower with placebo (56.0%) and add-back regimens (55.6%-70.6%). Hot flush was the most common AE (elagolix alone, 45.5%-62.5%; placebo, 12.0%; add-back regimens, 18.5%-26.5%). Elagolix significantly reduced heavy menstrual bleeding in women with fibroids. Low-dose add-back regimens substantially reduced flushing. NCT01441635. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Uterine Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Uterine cancers can be of two types: endometrial cancer (common) and uterine sarcoma (rare). Endometrial cancer can often be cured. Uterine sarcoma is often more aggressive and harder to treat. Start here to find information on uterine cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  3. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Froeling, V., E-mail: vera.froeling@charite.de; Meckelburg, K., E-mail: katrin.meckelburg@charite.de; Scheurig-Muenkler, C., E-mail: christian.scheurig-muenkler@charite.de

    Purpose: To compare the rate of reintervention and midterm changes in symptom severity (SS) and Total health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores after uterine artery embolization (UAE) and magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-g HIFU) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Eighty women (median age 38.3 years), equally eligible for MR-g HIFU and UAE who underwent one of both treatments between 2002 and 2009 at our institution, were included. The primary end point of the study was defined as the rate of reintervention after both therapies. The secondary outcome was defined as changes in SS and Total HRQoL scores after treatment.more » SS and Total HRQoL scores before treatment and at midterm follow-up (median 13.3 months) were assessed by the uterine fibroid symptom and quality-of-life questionnaire (UFS-QoL) and compared. Results: The rate of reintervention was significantly lower after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.002). After both treatments, SS and Total HRQoL scores improved significantly from baseline to follow-up (UAE: p < 0.001, p < 0.001; MR-g HIFU: p = 0.002, p < 0.001). Total HRQoL scores were significantly higher after UAE than after MR-g HIFU (p = 0.032). Changes in the SS scores did not differ significantly for both treatments (p = 0.061). Conclusion: UAE and MR-g HIFU significantly improved the health-related quality of life of women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. After UAE, the change in Total HRQoL score improvement was significantly better, and a significantly lower rate of reintervention was observed.« less

  4. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy, E-mail: ganapathy.ananthakrishnan@nhs.net; Murray, Lilian, E-mail: Lilian.murray@glasgow.ac.uk; Ritchie, Moira, E-mail: moira.ritchie@ggc.scot.nhs.uk

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention.more » Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.« less

  5. Pharmacokinetic drug evaluation of pazopanib for the treatment of uterine leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Simone; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Aiello, Nicoletta; Barra, Fabio; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Raspagliesi, Francesco; Lorusso, Domenica

    2017-08-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS) represent 1.3% of all uterine malignant tumors. Surgery is the curative treatment for patients with early stage disease. In case of advanced, persistent or recurrent tumor, chemotherapy represents the standard of care, but these patients have a poor prognosis. As the results with available therapies are far from being satisfactory, research is focusing on identification of new compounds. In 2012 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed pazopanib for the treatment of advanced soft-tissue sarcomas failing previous chemotherapy. Areas covered: The aim of this article is to review the literature on the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy and safety of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), pazopanib in the treatment of ULMS. Expert opinion: The discovery of some relevant signalling pathways in LMS cells led to the development of new targeted drugs with promising results in the management of these tumors. Pazopanib is a multi-target second-generation TKI with activity against growth factors involved in angiogenesis. It has shown promising results both in terms of efficacy and safety, as shown in the EORTC 62043 Study and the PALETTE trial. Further studies are awaited to evaluate its efficacy in uterine leiomyosarcomas.

  6. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna; Rosa-E-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Yela, Daniela Angerame; Soares Júnior, José Maria

    2017-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a frequent condition in Gynecology. It may impact physical, emotional sexual and professional aspects of the lives of women, impairing their quality of life. In cases of acute and severe bleeding, women may need urgent treatment with volumetric replacement and prescription of hemostatic substances. In some specific cases with more intense and prolonged bleeding, surgical treatment may be necessary. The objective of this chapter is to describe the main evidence on the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, both acute and chronic. Didactically, the treatment options were based on the current International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification system (PALM-COEIN). The etiologies of PALM-COEIN are: uterine Polyp (P), Adenomyosis (A), Leiomyoma (L), precursor and Malignant lesions of the uterine body (M), Coagulopathies (C), Ovulatory dysfunction (O), Endometrial dysfunction (E), Iatrogenic (I), and Not yet classified (N). The articles were selected according to the recommendation grades of the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, and those in which the main objective was the reduction of uterine menstrual bleeding were included. Only studies written in English were included. All editorial or complete papers that were not consistent with abnormal uterine bleeding, or studies in animal models, were excluded. The main objective of the treatment is the reduction of menstrual flow and morbidity and the improvement of quality of life. It is important to emphasize that the treatment in the acute phase aims to hemodynamically stabilize the patient and stop excessive bleeding, while the treatment in the chronic phase is based on correcting menstrual dysfunction according to its etiology and clinical manifestations. The treatment may be surgical or pharmacological, and the latter is based mainly on hormonal therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs and antifibrinolytics. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro

  7. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD News Videos OUTREACH Safe to Sleep® National Child & Maternal Health Education Program RELATED WEBSITES NIH.gov HHS.gov USA.gov ClinicalTrials.gov WEBSITE POLICIES Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  8. ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOMS FOR ASSESSMENT OF STRAIN IMAGING METHODS INVOLVING SALINE-INFUSED SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Maritza A.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Shi, Hairong; Hall, Timothy J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-01-01

    Two anthropomorphic uterine phantoms were developed which allow assessment and comparison of strain imaging systems adapted for use with saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS). Tissue-mimicking (TM) materials consist of dispersions of safflower oil in gelatin. TM fibroids are stiffer than the TM myometrium/cervix and TM polyps are softer. The first uterine phantom has 3-mm diameter TM fibroids randomly distributed in TM myometrium. The second uterine phantom has a 5-mm and an 8-mm spherical TM fibroid in addition to a 5-mm spherical and a 12.5-mm long (medicine-capsule-shaped) TM endometrial polyp protruding into the endometrial cavity; also, a 10-mm spherical TM fibroid projects from the serosal surface. Strain images using the first phantom show the stiffer 3-mm TM fibroids in the myometrium. Results from the second uterine phantom show that, as expected, parts of inclusions projecting into the uterine cavity will appear very stiff, whether they are stiff or soft. Results from both phantoms show that even though there is a five-fold difference in the Young’s moduli values, there is not a significant difference in the strain in the transition from the TM myometrium to the TM fat. These phantoms allow for realistic comparison and evolution of SIS strain imaging techniques and can aid clinical personnel to develop skills for SIS strain imaging. PMID:18514999

  9. A case of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis who had two successful pregnancies after medical management.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Jay Gopal; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2011-06-01

    To describe a case report of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis who had successful pregnancy twice following conservative management. Retrospective report. Private general hospital. A nulliparous woman 25 years of age presented with menorrhagia and infertility. She had innumerable small fibroids of 4-42 mm size throughout the myometrium. Size of the symmetrically enlarged uterus was 131×80×60 mm, clinically corresponding to that of 12 weeks of gestation. She received a GnRH analogue (GnRHa; leuprolide acetate) 3.75 mg per month for 6 months. Reduction of uterus size, menstrual amount, conception, pregnancy outcome. Enlarged uterus reduced to almost normal size after 3 doses of GnRHa. She did not experience heavy bleeding during menstruation. She conceived spontaneously in the first cycle after discontinuation of GnRHa. Antenatal course was uneventful. A healthy male baby of 2.5 kg was delivered by cesarean section at 39 weeks. The placenta weighed 330 g. There was no postpartum hemorrhage. She conceived spontaneously for the second time in the first cycle after resumption of menses. Antenatal, intranatal (cesarean section), and postnatal courses of the second pregnancy were uneventful. The second neonate weighed 3.0 kg and the placenta 400 g. Conservative treatment may help to achieve successful pregnancy in case of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Uterine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Most uterine cancers start in the endometrium, which is called endometrial cancer. Uterine sarcoma is a form of uterine cancer of the muscle and tissue that support the uterus. Find evidence-based information on uterine cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  11. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mirsadraee, Saeed; Tuite, David; Nicholson, Anthony, E-mail: Tony.Nicholson@leedsth.nhs.u

    This case series examines the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the treatment of obstructive nephropathy caused by large fibroids. Between 2004 and 2007, 10 patients referred with symptomatic uterine fibroids that were found to be causing either unilateral (7 patients) or bilateral (3 patients) hydronephrosis were treated by UAE. Presenting complaints included menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, bulk symptoms, loin pain, postobstructive atrophy, and mild renal impairment. All had posterior intramural dominant fibroids >11 cm in maximum sagittal diameter and uterine volumes between 3776 and 15,625 ml. Outcome measures at between 12 and 36 months included procedural success, repeatmore » intervention, relief of symptoms, resolution of hydronephrosis, stable renal function and size, and avoidance of hysterectomy. In all cases the cause of renal obstruction was confirmed to be a giant fibroid compressing the ureter at the pelvic brim. In all cases UAE was technically successful, though two patients required a repeat procedure. In eight patients hydronephrosis resolved and the obstruction was relieved, though two still had some bulk symptoms not requiring further treatment. Renal function improved or was stable in all cases. Renal size was stable in all cases. Where menorrhagia was part of the symptom complex it was relieved in all cases. Two patients diagnosed as having postobstructive atrophy of one kidney underwent retrograde ureteric stenting on the nonatrophied side prior to UAE. This was unsuccessful in one of the cases due to the distortion caused by the fibroid. Despite improvement in hydronephrosis this patient underwent hysterectomy at 7 months after a renogram demonstrated persistent obstruction at the pelvic brim. In the second patient a double pigtail stent was inserted with difficulty and eventually removed at 8 months. This patient has had stable renal function and size for 3 years post-UAE. We conclude that UAE is safe and effective in

  12. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Macnaught, Gillian, E-mail: gillian.macnaught@ed.ac.uk; Ananthakrishnan, G., E-mail: a.radiology@gmail.com; Hinksman, L., E-mail: laurahinksman@nhs.net

    PurposeAbsence of contrast on contrast enhanced MRI (CEMRI) and reduction in uterine volume at 6 months post-uterine artery embolisation (UAE) currently indicate the successful disruption of the fibroid blood supply by UAE. This study assesses whether {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) can also indicate the success of UAE.Method20 patients with symptomatic fibroids were randomised 1:1 to undergo UAE with either Gelfoam or Embospheres. CEMRI and spectra (1.5 T) were acquired pre-, 24-h and 6 months post-UAE. LCModel was used to detect significant levels of choline, creatine and lactate in fibroid spectra. Uterine volumes were measured and paired t tests (p < 0.05) assessedmore » volume reduction over time. Qualitative assessments of CEMRI were performed.ResultsCholine was detected in 17/18 spectra pre-UAE, 12/14 at 24-h and 6/16 at 6 months post-UAE. Choline was not detected in the 7/7 spectra available for the Embospheres group at 6 months. These fibroids were non-enhancing on CEMRI and associated with a significant reduction in mean uterine volume at 6 months (mean/min/max 396.5/84.1/997.5 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.003). Choline was detected in 6/9 fibroid spectra available for the Gelfoam group at 6 months. Of these fibroids, four demonstrated persistent enhancement on CEMRI and two were non-enhancing. This group did not demonstrate significant uterine volume reduction (mean/min/max 117.2/−230.6/382.6 cm{sup 3}, p = 0.15). The negative minimum value indicates fibroid growth.ConclusionsThis study has demonstrated the potential of {sup 1}H MRS to provide an additional marker of the success of UAE.« less

  13. Uterine Artery Embolisation for Symptomatic Adenomyosis with Polyzene F-Coated Hydrogel Microspheres: Three-Year Clinical Follow-Up Using UFS–QoL Questionnaire

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nijenhuis, R. J., E-mail: nijenhuis@maastrichtuniversity.nl; Smeets, A. J., E-mail: a.smeets@elisabeth.nl; Morpurgo, M., E-mail: m.morpurgo@elisabeth.nl

    PurposeThis study was designed to assess midterm outcome of uterine artery embolisation (UAE) for women with therapy-resistant adenomyosis using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres.MethodsBetween September 2006 and January 2010, 29 consecutive women with adenomyosis (15 in combination with fibroids) were treated with UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres. Junction zone thickness was assessed with MRI at baseline and 3 months. Women filled out the uterine fibroid symptom and quality of life questionnaire at baseline, 3 months and after a mean clinical follow-up of 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months).ResultsAt baseline, symptom severity score of 29 women was mean 67 (median 72, range 23–100). Atmore » 3 months, this score decreased to mean 22 (median 15, range 0–66) and mean 15 (median 17, range 0–34) at final follow-up. At final follow-up of mean 37 months (median 35, range 29–64 months), 22 of 29 (76 %) patients were asymptomatic. Of these 22 women, 3 underwent a second UAE at 6, 7, and 14 months. The remaining seven patients clinically improved but still had symptoms; one underwent a hysterectomy. There was no difference in outcome between women with pure adenomyosis and women with additional fibroids. The junction zone of 4 women with additional therapy was significantly thicker compared with the remaining 25 patients.ConclusionsIn women with therapy resistant adenomyosis, UAE using polyzene F-coated hydrogel microspheres resulted in 3 years preservation of the uterus in 28 of 29 (97 %) with good clinical outcome in the vast majority of patients. Initial thickness of the junction zone is related to additional therapy.« less

  14. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smeets, Albert J., E-mail: radiol@eztilburg.nl; Nijenhuis, Robbert J.; Rooij, Willem Jan van

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with a large fibroid burden is controversial. Anecdotal reports describe serious complications and limited clinical results. We report the long-term clinical and magnetic resonance (MR) results in a large series of women with a dominant fibroid of >10 cm and/or an uterine volume of >700 cm{sup 3}. Seventy-one consecutive patients (mean age, 42.5 years; median, 40 years; range, 25-52 years) with a large fibroid burden were treated by UAE between August 2000 and April 2005. Volume reduction and infarction rate of dominant fibroid and uterus were assessed by comparing the baseline and latest follow-upmore » MRIs. Patients were clinically followed at various time intervals after UAE with standardized questionnaires. There were no serious complications of UAE. During a mean follow-up of 48 months (median, 59 months; range, 6-106 months), 10 of 71 patients (14%) had a hysterectomy. Mean volume reduction of the fibroid and uterus was 44 and 43%. Mean infarction rate of the fibroid and overall fibroid infarction rate was 86 and 87%. In the vast majority of patients there was a substantial improvement of symptoms. Clinical results were similar in patients with a dominant fibroid >10 cm and in patients with large uterine volumes by diffuse fibroid disease. In conclusion, our results indicate that the risk of serious complications after UAE in patients with a large fibroid burden is not increased. Moreover, clinical long-term results are as good as in other patients who are treated with UAE. Therefore, a large fibroid burden should not be considered a contraindication for UAE.« less

  15. Relationship between uterine volume and discontinuation of treatment with levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine devices in patients with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Hwan; Kim, Jang Kew; Lee, Min A; Ko, Young Bok; Yang, Jung Bo; Kang, Byung Hun; Yoo, Heon Jong

    2016-09-01

    This study is to evaluate the relationship between the uterine volume and the failure of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) in patients with adenomyosis. A total of 171 women with adenomysis were treated with LNG-IUD from November 2009 to December 2011. The amount of menorrhagia, degree of dysmenorrhea, and the uterine volume were compared before and after insertion of LNG-IUD, and the treatment failure of LNG-IUD was observed. The mean age of the participants was 42.5 years (range 29-53 years). The mean uterine volume was 158 mL (range 46-769 mL). Among the total participants, 37 (21.6 %) discontinued the treatment prematurely. There were no different characteristics between the ongoing treatment group and treatment failure group with LNG-IUD. However, there was significant difference of uterine volume between two groups (178 ± 14 and 141 ± 7 mL, P = 0.010). Based on the receiver operator characteristic analysis, the optimum cutoff value of uterine volume more than 150 mL was significantly associated with failure of LNG-IUD (area under curve: 0.763, 95 % CI 0.669-0.856). In univariate analysis, the uterine volume more than 150 mL was the only independent factor for the failure of LNG-IUD (odds ratio 6.76, 95 % CI 1.20-38.02, P = 0.030). The rate of treatment failure after LNG-IUD insertion for the patients with adenomyosis was related to the uterine volume. Specifically, the treatment failure rate of large volume uterus (>150 mL) with LNG-IUD was significantly higher than that of small volume uterus.

  16. Are women satisfied when using levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding?

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Nina; Unni, Jyothi; Dua, Meenakshi; Darbari, Reeta; Malik, Sonia; Verma, Sohani; Bathla, Sonal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS) in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) in women over 35 years and to determine satisfaction of users of LNG IUS in case of AUB. Materials and Methods: This was a multicentric, retrospective, and observational study. Case records of patients with AUB from the hospitals in Pune, Delhi, and Gurgaon for the last 6 years were examined. Records of 80 women who had an LNG IUS inserted were included. The chief complaints and their duration were recorded. Investigation results, histopathology reports, and date of LNG IUS insertion were noted. The incidence of spotting, heavy menstrual bleeding, pain, expulsion, and amenorrhea were recorded at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months following treatment. Following this a telephonic interview was conducted to determine the efficacy of LNG IUS in treating the symptoms. Patients’ satisfaction in percentage was also noted and they were asked if they would recommend the LNG IUS to other women. Results: The mean age of women was 42.3 years. 77.5% of the women had menorrhagia as the chief complaint, and the mean duration was 12 months. Fibroids and adenomyosis were the most common pathology, present in 21.3% and 20% of the patients respectively. At 3 months, spotting seemed to be the predominant symptom (59.4%) and only 15% women had heavy bleeding. 49.3% of women were asymptomatic at 6 months. 27.5% had amenorrhea by the end of 18 months. 14 women in whom the device was expelled or removed due to persistent symptoms, underwent hysterectomy at various stages during the study period. Overall patient satisfaction was high at about 80%. Furthermore, 73.8% patients agreed to recommend it to other women. Conclusion: LNG IUS seems to be a viable and effective treatment option for AUB in women after 35 years. There is a high rate of patient satisfaction in appropriately selected patients. PMID:23833531

  17. Comparing the effect of aromatase inhibitor (letrozole) + cabergoline (Dostinex) and letrozole alone on uterine myoma regression,a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sayyah-Melli, M; Mobasseri, M; Gharabaghi, P M; Ouladsahebmadarek, E; Rahmani, V

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of letrozole in combination with cabergoline and letrozole alone on regression of symptomatic uterine myomas in women of reproductive age. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University hospital. Ninety-one women of reproductive age were enrolled in the study and 88 women were eligible. Eight participants were excluded from the study. Eighty women of reproductive age with symptomatic myomas >4cm were evaluated in two groups. Participants in Group 1 received 2.5mg letrozole once daily and cabergoline 0.5mg/week from the first day of the menstrual cycle for 12 weeks, and participants in Group 2 received letrozole alone. Changes in uterine size and volume; myoma size, volume and number; and side effects of treatment. Overall, 76 patients completed the study. Compared with baseline values, mean uterine volume was reduced significantly in both groups (p=0.01), and there was no significant difference between groups (p=0.99). The mean number of dominant myomas was reduced significantly in both groups (p=0.03), with no significant difference between groups (p=0.6). The mean volume of myomas was reduced significantly in both groups (p=0.01), with no significant difference between groups (p=0.45). Although a significant decrease in number and volume of myomas was documented in each group (p<0.05), the intergroup analyses did not reveal significant differences between the two groups in terms of the change in number (p=0.28) and volume (p=0.96) of myomas. Headache was significantly more common in the letrozole+cabergoline group (nine vs two cases, p=0.02), but the two groups were comparable for the remaining minor side effects. This study showed that 12 weeks of treatment with letrozole with and without cabergoline improved the size and volume of the uterus and myomas, led to symptom improvement, and could be used for short-term treatment prior to surgery or fertility programmes. Condensation letrozole in combination with cabergoline in the management

  18. Extracellular matrix in uterine leiomyoma pathogenesis: a potential target for future therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Ciavattini, Andrea; Petraglia, Felice; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2018-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor. Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma. Indeed, ECM plays important role in forming the bulk structure of leiomyoma, and the ECM-rich rigid structure within these tumors is thought to be a cause of abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain. Therefore, a better understanding of ECM accumulation and remodeling is critical for developing new therapeutics for uterine leiomyoma. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for all original and review articles/book chapters related to ECM and medical treatments of uterine leiomyoma published in English until May 2017. This review discusses the involvement of ECM in leiomyoma pathogenesis as well as current and future medical treatments that target ECM directly or indirectly. Uterine leiomyoma is characterized by elevated levels of collagens, fibronectin, laminins and proteoglycans. They can induce the mechanotransduction process, such as activation of the integrin-Rho/p38 MAPK/ERK pathway, resulting in cellular responses that are involved in pathogenesis and altered bidirectional signaling between leiomyoma cells and the ECM. ECM accumulation is affected by growth factors (TGF-β, activin-A and PDGF), cytokines (TNF-α), steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and microRNAs (miR-29 family, miR-200c and miR-93/106b). Among these, TGF-βs (1 and 3) and activin-A have been suggested as key players in the accumulation of excessive ECM (fibrosis) in leiomyoma. The presence of elevated levels of ECM and myofibroblasts in leiomyoma

  19. [Application of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding].

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Zhai, Y; Zhang, Z H; Li, Y; Zhang, Z Y

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy, safety and promotion value of TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding. Methods: Fourty three patients who had received TB type endometrial ablation system for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding from January, 2015 to January, 2016 in theDepartment of gynecology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital were enrolled in this study. The intra-operative and post-operative complications and improvement of abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea were observed. Results: There were nointra-operative complication occurred, such as uterine perforation, massive hemorrhage or surrounding organ damage. At 6 months after operation, 32 patients developed amenorrhea, 6 developed menstrual spotting, 3 developed menstruation with a small volume and 1 had a normal menstruation. No menstruation with an increased volume occurred. The occurrence of amenorrhea was 76.19% and the response rate was 97.62%.At 6 months after operation, 1 case had no response, 2 cases had partial response and 11 cases had complete response among the 14 cases of pre-operative dysmenorrhea; only 3 cases still had anemia among the 23 cases of pre-operative anemia. Compared with before treatment, patients with dysmenorrhea and anemia both significantly reduced with a statistically significant difference( P <0.01). Conclusion: TB type thermal balloon endometrial ablation has a significant efficacy with high safety for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, which could have clinical promotion practice.

  20. Focused Ultrasound Surgery for Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... ultrasound surgery, your doctor may perform a pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan before treatment. Focused ultrasound surgery — also called magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery or focused ultrasound ...

  1. Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines 2013 for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ebina, Yasuhiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka; Mikami, Mikio; Nagase, Satoru; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Udagawa, Yasuhiro; Kato, Hidenori; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Ino, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    The third version of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines for the treatment of uterine body neoplasms was published in 2013. The guidelines comprise nine chapters and nine algorithms. Each chapter includes a clinical question, recommendations, background, objectives, explanations, and references. This revision was intended to collect up-to-date international evidence. The highlights of this revision are to (1) newly specify costs and conflicts of interest; (2) describe the clinical significance of pelvic lymph node dissection and para-aortic lymphadenectomy, including variant histologic types; (3) describe more clearly the indications for laparoscopic surgery as the standard treatment; (4) provide guidelines for post-treatment hormone replacement therapy; (5) clearly differentiate treatment of advanced or recurrent cancer between the initial treatment and the treatment carried out after the primary operation; (6) collectively describe fertility-sparing therapy for both atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (corresponding to G1) and newly describe relapse therapy after fertility-preserving treatment; and (7) newly describe the treatment of trophoblastic disease. Overall, the objective of these guidelines is to clearly delineate the standard of care for uterine body neoplasms in Japan with the goal of ensuring a high standard of care for all Japanese women diagnosed with uterine body neoplasms.

  2. General Information About Uterine Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Uterine Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  3. Laser vaporization in treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.

  4. Ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp causing chronic ileocolic intussusception and mimicking cecal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Naveen; Falzarano, John S; Limm, Whitney ML; Namiki, Thomas S; Tom, Laurie KS

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a rare, idiopathic pseudotumorous lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. While mostly reported as solitary gastric lesions, multiple cases of small bowel IFPs are also reported. It is a documented cause of intussusception in adults. In the case reports of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyps with intussusception, an emergent presentation with small bowel obstruction has been most often described. Here we depict a case of ileal inflammatory fibroid polyp presenting with chronic intermittent ileocolic intussusception, anemia and weight loss with an endoscopic appearance mimicking necrotic cecal carcinoma. PMID:21160780

  5. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. Methods/design: This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1∗107 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. Discussion: This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. Conclusion: This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. Trial registration number: NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/). PMID:29095305

  6. Effects of liver depression and psychological stress on human uterine leiomyoma cells by an AR-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Li, Shuang; Ma, Ruihong; Guan, Sufen; Li, Jiacui; Li, Hongqin; Zhang, Hexin; Lin, Qiu; Zhao, Zhimei; Wang, Baojuan

    2017-06-01

    Based on the emotional theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and combined with the modern medicine theory of psychological stress, a research model of human uterine leiomyoma cells (ULM) was cultured in vitro to determine the effectiveness of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists in human ULM cell growth. In addition, we studied the functional influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on fibroid formation by intervening in the AR-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The intention was to establish a new method to prevent and cure fibroids through "liver depression and psychological stress theory" and provide an experimental basis for the Traditional Chinese Medicine emotional theory. Primary human ULM cells were enriched by collagenase digestion. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were used for cytological identification. Using this model, we studied intervention using specific AR agonists on ULM cells to observe the influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF). Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) are adrenergic receptor agonists. They promoted ULM cell proliferation and increased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. In contrast, isoproterenol (ISO) inhibited ULM cell proliferation and decreased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. The protein expression of cAMP and PKA in ULM cells was reduced and the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF were increased when co-treatment with the α-AR blocker (phentolamine). The β-AR blocker (metoprolol) displayed an opposite effect. AR agonists modulated ER, PR, VEGF and FGF levels in ULM cells in an AR-cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathways to influence fibroid occurrence and development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Uterine leiomyomas: histopathologic features, MR imaging findings, differential diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Murase, E; Siegelman, E S; Outwater, E K; Perez-Jaffe, L A; Tureck, R W

    1999-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common uterine neoplasm and are composed of smooth muscle with varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue. As leiomyomas enlarge, they may outgrow their blood supply, resulting in various types of degeneration: hyaline or myxoid degeneration, calcification, cystic degeneration, and red degeneration. Leiomyomas are classified as submucosal, intramural, or subserosal; the latter may become pedunculated and simulate ovarian neoplasms. Although most leiomyomas are asymptomatic, patients may present with abnormal uterine bleeding, pressure on adjacent organs, pain, infertility, or a palpable abdominalpelvic mass. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate imaging technique for detection and localization of leiomyomas. On T2-weighted images, nondegenerated leiomyomas appear as well-circumscribed masses of decreased signal intensity; however, cellular leiomyomas can have relatively higher signal intensity on T2-weighted images and demonstrate enhancement on contrast material-enhanced images. Degenerated leiomyomas have variable appearances on T2-weighted images and contrast-enhanced images. The differential diagnosis of leiomyomas includes adenomyosis, solid adnexal mass, focal myometrial contraction, and uterine leiomyosarcoma. For patients with symptoms, medical or surgical treatment may be indicated. MR imaging also has a role in treatment of leiomyomas by assisting in surgical planning and monitoring the response to medical therapy.

  8. Alternative Oral Agents in Prophylaxis and Therapy of Uterine Fibroids—An Up-to-Date Review

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszuk, Krzysztof; Męczekalski, Błażej; Ciebiera, Magdalena; Wojtyła, Cezary; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UFs) are the most common tumors of the female genital tract. The effect of UFs on the quality of life and the overall cost of treatment are significant issues worldwide. Tumor size and location are the two specific factors which influence the occurrence of symptoms, the need for, and method of, treatment (some tumors require surgery while some can be treated with selected drugs). Primary prevention and treatment of early UF disease are worthy goals that might have a great impact on health care systems. Several treatments and prophylactic methods can be used in this endeavor. This publication presents current data about lesser-known substances which may have a beneficial effect on the treatment or prophylaxis of UFs and can be administered orally, serving as an alternative to (or complement of) surgery or selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). Early prevention and treatment of UFs in women from high-risk groups should be our priority. Innovative forms of UF management are under intensive investigation and may be promising options in the near future. Many of them evaluated vitamin D, paricalcitol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), elagolix, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and cabergoline and deemed them to be safe and effective. The next step in such projects should be properly constructed randomized control trials (RCTs), carried out by successive phases. PMID:29194370

  9. Uterine atony: definition, prevention, nonsurgical management, and uterine tamponade.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, Fionnuala; Geary, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Uterine atony, or failure of the uterus to contract following delivery, is the most common cause of postpartum hemorrhage. This review serves to examine the prevention and treatment of uterine atony, including risk-factor recognition and active management of the third stage of labor. A range of uterotonic agents will be compared for efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Oxytocin and ergot alkaloids represent the cornerstone of uterotonic therapy, while prostaglandin therapy has been studied more recently as an attractive alternative, particularly for resource-poor settings. Newer supplementary medical therapies, such as recombinant factor VII and hemostatic agents, and adjunctive nonsurgical methods aimed at achieving uterine tamponade will be evaluated.

  10. Huge (9 Kg) Broad Ligament Fibroid Mimicking Sarcoma of Uterus: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Katke, Rajshree Dayanand

    2017-01-01

    Fibroids are most common benign tumors of the uterus, mostly situated in the body of the uterus. Rarely, they arise from extrauterine sites with broad ligament fibroids being uncommon. We present a case of a 47-year-old female, multipara who presented in outpatient department in CAMA hospital with a history of sudden development of dysuria 10 days back. Intraoperatively, uterus was pushed to side and large broad ligament fibroid of 25 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm seen arising from right-sided broad ligament. The fibroid was densely adherent to bowel and bladder. Exploratory laparotomy with excision of broad ligament fibroid of 9 Kg with total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy was done.

  11. Hysteroscopic myomectomy: techniques and preoperative assessment.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Paolo; Guasina, Francesca; Morra, Ciro; Talamo, Maria T; Leggieri, Concetta; Frisoni, Jessica; Seracchioli, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Even if usually asymptomatic, uterine myomas have been associated with a number of clinical issues such as abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB), infertility, recurrent pregnancy loss, especially when these masses are submucous. Golden standard treatment for symptomatic submucous fibroids has long been considered their laparotomic removal or a total hysterectomy. The development of endoscopy has made these fibroids accessible and removable from the inner surface of uterus. Hysteroscopy arose as a diagnostic technique, but then it also became an alternative surgical technique for many diseases, offering therapeutic and irreplaceable possibilities of treatment, avoiding major surgery on the one hand, and allowing the correction of pathologies specifically related to female fertility, on the other hand. Excision by slicing has been described as traditional resectoscopic submucosal myomectomy, but today there are new procedures among which the operator can choose, that allow overcoming the initial limitations of the traditional resectoscopic myomectomy in clinical practice.

  12. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Williams, Petra L., E-mail: Petra.Williams@phnt.swest.nhs.uk; Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F.

    Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifthmore » of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.« less

  13. [Clinical trial on the effectiveness and safety of triptorelin in treatment of uterine leiomyoma].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying-fang; Yang, Dong-zi; Hu, Li-na; Zheng, Shu-rong

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of triptorelin in the treatment of uterine leiomyoma. A multi-center, prospective, randomly controlled clinical trial was carried out from Dec. 2002 to Mar. 2004 in three university hospitals. A total of 125 qualified patients with uterine leiomyoma were randomly divided into either triptorelin group (63 cases) treated with 3.75 mg triptorelin injected intramuscularly or leuprorelin group (62 cases) treated with 3.75 mg leuprorelin injected subcutaneously. Both drugs were injected every 28 days for a total of 3 months. All 125 patients finished the trial. The uterine volumes were similar before treatment between the triptorelin group and the leuprorelin group and were decreased significantly after drug therapy (P < 0.01) in both groups, with a median decrease rate of 51% and 49%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups (P > 0.05). The volumes of the largest leiomyoma decreased significantly after drug therapy (P < 0.01) in both groups, with a median decrease rate of 50% and 48% in the triptorelin and leuprorelin groups, respectively, without significant difference between them (P > 0.05). Patients with serum level of 17beta-estradiol < 183 pmol/L accounted for 94% in both groups. The hemoglobin and serum ferrum levels were both significantly increased in the two groups after treatment (P < 0.05). The amenorrhea rates after 3 months of treatment were 97% in the triptorelin group and 95% in the leuprorelin group (P > 0.05). Dysmenorrhea, noncyclic pelvic pain and pressure-like symptoms were relieved quickly and remarkably in both groups after treatment. The rates of adverse event occurred in 71% of patients in both groups. The main side effects included flare-up effects and hypoestrogenic symptoms. Nine patients in the triptorelin group and 6 in the leuprorelin group received add-back therapy with tibolone 1.25-2.50 mg/d because of remarkable climacteric-like symptoms. Treatment of uterine leiomyoma

  14. Comparison of the CO2 laser and Leep-Loop method in treatment of changes in uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz; Rabiega, Dorota

    2000-11-01

    Electric leep-loop and lasersurgery are modern methods in treatment of diseases of uterine cervix that we can use often exchangeable. Differences first of all relates indications. Lasersurgery we can apply in diseases of uterine cervix channel. Application of electric leep in dysplasia of small grade of uterus cervix channel is possible. Before lasersurgery we should exclude cervical carcinoma, because we don't have histopathological material. Leep-loop conisation we shouldn't apply at young women, who plan pregnancy (risk of cicatristaion and dystokia of uterine cervix.)

  15. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) in Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Myomas

    PubMed Central

    Filipowska, Justyna; Łoziński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Magnetic Resonance-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a noninvasive technique for ablation therapy for uterine myomas, where focused ultrasound energy beam generates localized high temperature in the selected area and coagulates chosen tissue, leaving the skin and tissues in between unharmed. Magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate targeting for HIFU as well as temperature monitoring during treatment. MR guidance with 3D anatomical imaging provides reference data for treatment planning, while real-time temperature monitoring aids in controlling ablation process. This review provides basic information regarding methodology, clinical indications for this kind of treatment, expected outcome and patient management during MR-HIFU procedure. The aim of this work is to introduce a new, noninvasive treatment method for uterine leiomyomas and to present a comparison with other currently used methods. PMID:25469176

  16. Magnetic Resonance-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) in Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Myomas.

    PubMed

    Filipowska, Justyna; Loziński, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance-guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a noninvasive technique for ablation therapy for uterine myomas, where focused ultrasound energy beam generates localized high temperature in the selected area and coagulates chosen tissue, leaving the skin and tissues in between unharmed. Magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate targeting for HIFU as well as temperature monitoring during treatment. MR guidance with 3D anatomical imaging provides reference data for treatment planning, while real-time temperature monitoring aids in controlling ablation process. This review provides basic information regarding methodology, clinical indications for this kind of treatment, expected outcome and patient management during MR-HIFU procedure. The aim of this work is to introduce a new, noninvasive treatment method for uterine leiomyomas and to present a comparison with other currently used methods.

  17. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Oda, Minori

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the safety and effectiveness of uterine artery embolization (UAE) using porous gelatin particle (PGP; Gelpart; Asuterasu, Tokyo, Japan) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Twenty-five consecutive premenopausal women underwent UAE with PGP. The angiographic end point of embolization was near stasis of the ascending uterine artery. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained before and after the procedure. Complications were assessed. The outcomes of technique, infarction rates of all fibroid tissue after UAE with contrast-enhanced MRI, change in symptoms and quality of life using serial Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL)more » questionnaires, and additional interventions were evaluated. Bilateral UAE was successfully performed in all patients. Enhanced MRI 1 week after UAE showed that 100% infarction of all fibroid tissue was achieved in 65% (15 of 23) of patients; 90-99% infarction was achieved in 35% (8 of 23) of patients. Mean follow-up was 12 months (range 1-20). Symptom and QOL scores at baseline were 47.2 and 61.7, respectively. Both scores significantly improved to 26.3 (P < 0.001) and 82.4 (P < 0.001) at 4 months and to 20.4 (P < 0.001) and 77.6 (P < 0.001) at 1 year, respectively. No additional gynecologic interventions were performed in any patient. There were no major complications. Minor complications occurred in two patients. UAE using PGP is a safe and effective procedure and shows that outcomes after UAE, as measured with enhanced MRI and UFS-QOL questionnaires, seem comparable with those of UAE using other embolic agents. PGP is a promising embolic agent used for UAE to treat symptomatic uterine fibroids. Further comparative study between PGP and other established embolic agents is required.« less

  18. [Uterine torsion in cattle: Treatment, risk of injury for the cow and prognosis for the calf].

    PubMed

    Klaus-Halla, Daniela; Mair, Bettina; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Zerbe, Holm

    2018-06-01

    In cows with uterine torsion, clinical parameters and different treatments were evaluated with regards to their success. The aim of the study was to investigate important factors for diagnosis and prognosis of uterine torsion and their consequences for treatment decisions. The study presents 114 cases of uterine torsion documented under field conditions. The cows were examined before retorsion of the uterus and immediately post partum. In cases of good maternal preparation for parturition, neonatal mortality was 14.9 %, while in cases of insufficient preparation, this rose to 58.3% (p= 0.006). When uterine torsion lasted > 12 hours, only 34.8 % of the calves survived, while in cases with a duration of ˂ 6 hours or 6-12 hours, 85.7 % and 92.2 % of the calves survived, respectively (p ˂ 0.001). In 82.5 % of the cases, intravaginal manual rotation of the fetus and uterus was performed, while in 17.5 % of the cases, cows were rolled by simultaneously fixating the uterus and fetus with a plank. No statistically significant differences were found between these two treatment types regarding neonatal mortality (4.7 % vs. 18.2 %; p = 0.139) or lacerations of the dam (31.9 % vs. 42.1 %; p = 0.391). A delayed extraction of the calf after successful retorsion and waiting for widening of the cervical canal is an option in cases of insufficient dilatation of the cervical canal, even when there is a significantly higher risk for lacerations of the dam (57.2 %) compared to an immediate extraction (26.8 %; p = 0.018). As the duration of manipulation increases, the extent of injury to the dam also increases significantly (p ˂ 0.001). The quality of maternal preparation for parturition in cows with uterine torsion can be used as a prognostic factor for calf survival. Under field conditions, most of the cases of uterine torsion can be successfully treated manually. An appropriate and indication-oriented use of the rolling method with the application of a plank can be recommended

  19. Biological and Mechanistic Characterization of Novel Prodrugs of Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Analogs in Human Leiomyoma Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Reda Saber Ibrahim; Liu, Gang; Renzetti, Andrea; Farshi, Pershang; Yang, Huanjie; Soave, Claire; Saed, Ghassan; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf Ahmed; El-Banna, Hossny Awad; Foldes, Robert; Chan, Tak-Hang; Dou, Q Ping

    2016-10-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are very common benign tumors grown on the smooth muscle layer of the uterus, present in up to 75% of reproductive-age women and causing significant morbidity in a subset of this population. Although the etiology and biology of uterine fibroids are unclear, strong evidence supports that cell proliferation, angiogenesis and fibrosis are involved in their formation and growth. Currently the only cure for uterine fibroids is hysterectomy; the available alternative therapies have limitations. Thus, there is an urgent need for developing a novel strategy for treating this condition. The green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibits the growth of uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro and in vivo, and the use of a green tea extract (containing 45% EGCG) has demonstrated clinical activity without side effects in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. However, EGCG has a number of shortcomings, including low stability, poor bioavailability, and high metabolic transformations under physiological conditions, presenting challenges for its development as a therapeutic agent. We developed a prodrug of EGCG (Pro-EGCG or 1) which shows increased stability, bioavailability and biological activity in vivo as compared to EGCG. We also synthesized prodrugs of EGCG analogs, compounds 2a and 4a, in order to potentially reduce their susceptibility to methylation/inhibition by catechol-O-methyltransferase. Here, we determined the effect of EGCG, Pro-EGCG, and 2a and 4a on cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells, and found that 2a and 4a have potent antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and antifibrotic activities. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2357-2369, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Uterine fibroid or ovarian fibroma: importance of comprehensive preoperative consent-taking to include unexpected findings with management implications.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Lee Koon; Wee-Stekly, Wei-Wei; Chern, Su Min Bernard

    2018-02-07

    A 35-year-old woman presented with an abdominal mass found incidentally on an ultrasound scan. On examination, the uterus was mobile and 14 weeks in size. Further imaging showed a large subserosal pedunculated fibroid, and she was counselled for laparoscopic myomectomy, morcellation in a bag, kept in open view. Intraoperatively, the mass was noted to be arising from the right ovarian ligament instead of the uterus, and decision was made to convert to open surgery. This case highlights important issues of consent-taking preoperatively and critical points to note regarding change in operative consent intraoperatively. This also highlights the importance of multidisciplinary cooperation as the decision had to be made with inputs made from gynae-oncology and pathology. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Incidence and burden of gynecologic disorders, active component service women, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Williams, Valerie F; Taubman, Stephen B

    2017-11-01

    This report describes the incidence, burden, and co-occurrence of four common gynecologic disorders among active component service women during 2012-2016. Overall incidence rates were highest for menorrhagia (100.9 per 10,000 person-years [p-yrs]), followed by uterine fibroids (63.2 per 10,000 p-yrs), endometriosis (30.8 per 10,000 p-yrs), and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, 25.3 per 10,000 p-yrs). Annual incidence rates and medical encounters for menorrhagia decreased by roughly 50% from 2012 through 2015, and then increased slightly in 2016. Annual incidence rates of PCOS decreased modestly between 2012 and 2016, whereas rates for endometriosis and uterine fibroids remained relatively stable. Service women in the Army, older service women, and non-Hispanic black service women had overall higher rates of menorrhagia, uterine fibroids, and endometriosis. Incidence of PCOS was highest among women aged 25-29 years, non-Hispanic black service women, and service women in the Air Force. Approximately one-quarter (25.6%) of women with incident endometriosis, one-third (33.6%) of women with incident uterine fibroids, and 7% of women with PCOS had a co-occurring incident diagnosis for menorrhagia during the surveillance period. Additional research focused on the severity of these conditions would allow for a fuller examination of the impact of these disorders on the readiness of the force and on healthcare utilization.

  2. Treatment of Advanced Malignant Uterine Perivascular Epithelioid Cell Tumor with mTOR Inhibitors: Single-institution Experience and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Kristen D; Drake, Richard D; Budd, G Thomas; Rose, Peter G

    2016-11-01

    Uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are rare mesenchymal tumors. Many have malignant behavior, and no successful treatment strategy has been established. Identification of mutations in the tuberous sclerosis 1 (TSC1) and TSC2 genes producing constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway presents an opportunity for targeted therapy. Patients with advanced malignant uterine PEComa treated with mTOR inhibitors were identified and records were retrospectively reviewed for treatment response based on radiographic assessment. Three patients with advanced uterine PEComas underwent debulking surgery followed by mTOR inhibitor therapy; two had a complete response to therapy and disease in one patient progressed. Given the absence of effective therapies for malignant uterine PEComas, targeting the mTOR pathway is a logical strategy to pursue given the known pathobiology involving the Tuberous Sclerosis complex. Treatment of malignant uterine PEComas with mTOR inhibitors was effective in two out of three patients after surgical resection, with durable response. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Opinions and expectations of women in the treatment of cervical and uterine cancer in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María Angeles Prieto; Suess, Astrid; Cerdá, Joan Carles March; Carretero, María Escudero; Danet, Alina

    2011-11-01

    To know the experiences, needs and expectations of women in the treatment of cervical and uterine cancer in the Andalusian Health Service. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with women being treated for cervical-uterine cancer within the Andalusian Health Service. Analysis with Nudist Vivo 1.0 (QSR International Pty Ltd, Doncaster, Victoria, Australia). The needs and expectations detected were: coherence in the promotion strategies and the presence of a proactive approach by health professionals, availability of comprehensive information and understanding, possibility of expressing to health professionals one's doubts and fears, and of participation in decision-making, technical quality, humane treatment and continuity of care and attention to psychosocial aspects. The knowledge of women in the treatment of cancer of the cervix and uterus plays a crucial part in improving the delivery of these services.

  4. A randomised controlled trial of Outpatient versus inpatient Polyp Treatment (OPT) for abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Clark, T Justin; Middleton, Lee J; Cooper, Natalie Am; Diwakar, Lavanya; Denny, Elaine; Smith, Paul; Gennard, Laura; Stobert, Lynda; Roberts, Tracy E; Cheed, Versha; Bingham, Tracey; Jowett, Sue; Brettell, Elizabeth; Connor, Mary; Jones, Sian E; Daniels, Jane P

    2015-07-01

    Uterine polyps cause abnormal bleeding in women and conventional practice is to remove them in hospital under general anaesthetic. Advances in technology make it possible to perform polypectomy in an outpatient setting, yet evidence of effectiveness is limited. To test the hypothesis that in women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) associated with benign uterine polyp(s), outpatient polyp treatment achieved as good, or no more than 25% worse, alleviation of bleeding symptoms at 6 months compared with standard inpatient treatment. The hypothesis that response to uterine polyp treatment differed according to the pattern of AUB, menopausal status and longer-term follow-up was tested. The cost-effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy was examined. A multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial, incorporating a cost-effectiveness analysis and supplemented by a parallel patient preference study. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics and inpatient gynaecology departments within UK NHS hospitals. Women with AUB - defined as heavy menstrual bleeding (formerly known as menorrhagia) (HMB), intermenstrual bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding - and hysteroscopically diagnosed uterine polyps. We randomly assigned 507 women, using a minimisation algorithm, to outpatient polypectomy compared with conventional inpatient polypectomy as a day case in hospital under general anaesthesia. The primary outcome was successful treatment at 6 months, determined by the woman's assessment of her bleeding. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, procedure feasibility, acceptability and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. At 6 months, 73% (166/228) of women who underwent outpatient polypectomy were successfully treated compared with 80% (168/211) following inpatient polypectomy [relative risk (RR) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 1.02]. The lower end of the CIs showed

  5. Levothyroxine treatment generates an abnormal uterine contractility patterns in an in vitro animal model.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Stéphanie; Blouin, Simon; Raiche, Évelyne; Nolin, Marc-Antoine; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal uterine contraction patterns were recently demonstrated in uterine strips from pregnant women treated with Levothyroxine (T4). These abnormalities were correlated with an increased risk of C-section delivery and associated surgical complications. To date, no study has investigated whether uterine contractility is modified by hypothyroidism or T4 treatment. Herein, we analyze the physiological role of T4 on uterine contractions. Female non-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats ( N  = 22) were used and divided into four groups: 1) control, 2) hypothyroidism, 3) hypothyroidism treated with low T4 doses (20 μg/kg/day) and 4) with high T4 doses (100 μg/kg/day). Hypothyroidism was induced by an iodine-deficient diet. Isometric tension measurements were performed in vitro on myometrium tissues in isolated organ baths. Contractile activity parameters were quantified (amplitude, duration, frequency and area under the curve) using pharmacological tools to assess their effect. Screening of thyroid function confirmed a hypothyroid state for all rats under iodine-free diet to which T4 was subsequently administered to counterbalance hypothyroidism. Results demonstrate that hypothyroidism significantly decreased contractile duration (-17%) and increased contractile frequency (+26%), while high doses of T4 increased duration (+200%) and decreased frequency (-51%). These results thus mimic the pattern of abnormal contractions previously observed in uterine tissue from T4-treated hypothyroid pregnant women. Our data suggest that changes in myometrial reactivity are induced by T4 treatment. Thus, in conjunction with our previous observations on human myometrial strips, management of hypothyroidism should be improved to reduce the rate of C-sections in this group of patients.

  6. Radiology of benign disorders of menstruation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Yvette; Sudigali, Venkat; Jacques, Audrey

    2010-10-01

    Menstrual complaints are common and include pain, abnormal bleeding, and menstrual irregularity. The etiology is wide-ranging and includes endometriosis, fibroids, adenomyosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, pelvic inflammatory disease, endometrial hyperplasia, and polyps. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and some congenital uterine anomalies may present with menstrual disturbance and have been included in this review. Transvaginal ultrasound is widely used as first-line investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging is used increasingly with high diagnostic accuracy and confidence. Its multiplanar capacity and superior tissue contrast resolution enable accurate presurgical mapping of fibroids, deep pelvic endometriosis, and adenomyosis. Similarly, accurate differentiation of congenital uterine anomalies depends on multiplanar imaging with either 3-dimensional ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. Recent advances in imaging and radiological intervention, combined with an understanding of the underlying causes of menstrual dysfunction, therefore aid in accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment planning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... epilepsy or mental health problems Common causes of heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding include: 2 , 7 Adolescence ( ... ovulation) Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (bleeding irregular but heavy) Uterine fibroids (benign growths of uterine muscle) Endometrial ...

  8. Vaginal Pessary for Uterine Repositioning During High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Pulanic, Tajana Klepac; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Segars, James; Sokka, Sham; Wood, Bradford J.; Stratton, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure safe magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of uterine leiomyomas, ultrasound beam path should be free of intervening scar and bowel. Pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging of a 9cm long and 7.7cm wide leiomyomatous uterus in a 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia and abdominopelvic pain initially demonstrated a focused ultrasound treatment path without bowel between the uterus and abdominal wall. On the day of ablation, however, multiple loops of bowel were observed in the ultrasound beam path by magnetic resonance imaging. Uterine repositioning was accomplished with a 76 mm donut vaginal pessary which anteverted the fundus and successfully displaced bowel. A vaginal pessary may aid in repositioning an axial or retroverted uterus to enable ablation of uterine leiomyomas. PMID:26584482

  9. Vaginal Pessary for Uterine Repositioning during High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Klepac Pulanic, Tajana; Venkatesan, Aradhana M; Segars, James; Sokka, Sham; Wood, Bradford J; Stratton, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure safe magnetic resonance-guided, high-intensity focused, ultrasound ablation of uterine leiomyomas, the ultrasound beam path should be free of intervening scar and bowel. Pre-treatment MRI of a 9-cm long and 7.7-cm wide leiomyomatous uterus in a 39-year-old woman with menorrhagia and abdominopelvic pain initially demonstrated a focused ultrasound treatment path without a bowel between the uterus and the abdominal wall. On the day of ablation, however, multiple loops of bowel were observed in the ultrasound beam path by MRI. Uterine repositioning was accomplished with a 76-mm donut vaginal pessary, which anteverted the fundus and successfully displaced the bowel. A vaginal pessary may aid in repositioning an axial or retroverted uterus to enable ablation of uterine leiomyomas. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Degenrative Fibroid and Sclerosing Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Critchley, Michael; Bagley, John; Iqbal, Pervis

    2012-01-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis is a rare condition characterised by ascites, peritoneal and bowel wall thickening. Causes reported in the literature include luteal ovarian the comas, peritoneal dialysis, peritoneal chemotherapy and liver cirrhosis. We report an interesting case of a woman presenting with diarrhoea, abdominal distension, ascites and pleural effusion. She was subsequently diagnosed with Sclerosing Peritonitis caused by a degenerating fibroid which was successfully treated by Total Abdominal Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingoophrectomy. PMID:22928130

  11. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Is Associated With Increased BMP7 Expression in Human Endometrium.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elliott G; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Schoolmeester, John K; Keeney, Gary L; Mariani, Andrea; Hopkins, Matthew R; Dowdy, Sean C; Daftary, Gaurang S; Famuyide, Abimbola O

    2017-05-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins. Expression analysis was correlated clinically with data abstracted from medical records, including bleeding history, age at procedure, ethnicity, body mass index, hormone treatment, and histological diagnosis of fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hyperplasia, and cancer. Expression of BMP7 ligand was significantly increased in patients with AUB (H-score: 18.0 vs 26.7; P < .0001). Patients reporting heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) as their specific AUB pattern demonstrated significantly higher BMP7 expression. Significantly, no differences in the expression of any other BMP ligands, receptors, or SMAD proteins were observed in this large patient cohort. However, expression of BMPR1A, BMPR1B, and SMAD4 was significantly decreased in cancer compared to benign samples. Our study demonstrates that BMP7 is a promising target for future investigation and pharmacologic treatment of AUB.

  12. Acquired Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation and Retained Placenta Increta.

    PubMed

    Roach, Michelle K; Thomassee, May S

    2015-09-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformations are rare and have been reported to occur after uterine trauma (eg, surgery, gestational trophoblastic disease, malignancy). A 33-year-old woman, gravida 3 para 3, presented 4 weeks post-cesarean delivery with episodic profuse vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left uterine arteriovenous malformation. After consideration of all treatment options, total laparoscopic hysterectomy was performed. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations and placental ingrowth into the myometrium are increasingly reported after surgical uterine procedures. This case of a postpartum patient with both uterine arteriovenous malformation and retained placenta increta suggests a correlation between the two complications.

  13. Role of interventional procedures in obstetrics/gynecology.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge; Suri, Rajeev; Kroma, Ghazwan M; Garza-Berlanga, Andres; Thomas, John

    2013-11-01

    In uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), knowledge of the potential ovarian-uterine anastomoses is important because they provide collateral blood flow that may result in the failure of the UFE or ovarian nontarget embolization. Uterine artery embolization is an alternative treatment of postpartum hemorrhage with 80% to 90% bleeding control and in which fertility can be preserved. Diagnosis of pelvic congestion syndrome on routine sonographic or computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging is often missed. Fallopian tube recanalization allows couples to have unlimited attempts to conceive naturally and avoids the risks (multiple pregnancies, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome), and high cost of in vitro fertilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Non-invasive Treatment With High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU).

    PubMed

    Marinova, M; Rauch, M; Schild, H H; Strunk, H M

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound is not only used for diagnostic purposes but it also can be applied therapeutically so far that nowadays high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) even represents a novel non-invasive treatment modality for various solid tumors. HIFU works by causing selectively deep tissue destruction of target lesions within the body without harming adjacent and overlying structures. In this article, we present an overview on both the mode of action and requirements for a HIFU treatment as well as on the safety and the current status of indications and possible applications with regard to benign and malignant gynecological diseases. Based on numerous studies and original articles, HIFU proved to be an effective and low-risk treatment option particularly for uterine fibroids and adenomyosis, but it also seems to be effective for breast fibroadenomas or even for breast cancer in special cases and other rare entities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Retrospective study of management of uterine sarcomas at Oxford 1990-1998: role of adjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Riddle, P J; Echeta, C B; Manek, S; Lavery, B A; Charnock, F M L; Mackenzie, I; Ganesan, T S

    2002-02-01

    We report a retrospective study of 47 consecutive patients with uterine sarcoma treated at the Churchill Hospital in Oxford between 1990-1998. The mainstay of treatment was surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy reserved for selected patients with early stage disease. Overall 1 and 2 year survival was 49% and 30% respectively compared with 73% and 55% in the group who received adjuvant chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Median survival was 11 months for the group as a whole compared to 32.9 months in the adjuvant therapy group. This is a retrospective review with small numbers and considerable selection bias, however, given the poor survival of patients with this disease, adjuvant treatment should be considered in future trials of patients with uterine sarcoma.

  16. Measuring the volume of uterine fibroids using 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and comparison with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nikica; Zivković, Kreiimir; Despot, Albert; Paić, Josip; Zelić, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was clinical testing of the reliability and usability of three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) technology. The ultimate aim and purpose of this study was to establish ultrasound methods, standards and protocols for determining the volume of any gynecologic organ or tumor. The study included 31 women in reproductive age and postmenopause. All patients were examined with a RIC 5-9 3D-endovaginal probe (4.3-7.5 MHz) on a Voluson 730 Pro ultrasound device. The volume of myomas was measured by using the existing 2D and 3D ultrasound methods on the above mentioned device. All patients underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy due to clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed uterine myomas indicating operative intervention. After the operation, the pathologist determined the volume of removed myomas by measuring them in a gauge bowl containing water, i.e. using Archimedes' principle (lift), serving as the control group with histopathologic diagnosis. A total of 155 myoma volumes were processed on 2D display, 31 myoma volumes were preoperatively measured on 3D display and 31 myoma volumes were measured by the pathologist. The values of US measurements for each US method were expressed as mean value of all measurements of myoma volumes. Statistical processing of the results and Student's t-test for independent samples revealed that the 2nd examined US method (measuring of myoma by using an ellipse and the longer tumor diameter) and 4th examined US method (measuring of myoma by using the longer and shorter tumor diameters together with establishing their mean values) in 2D US technique, as well as the 6th examined US method in 3D US technique showed no significant measurement differences in comparison with control measurement in a gauge bowl containing water (p < 0.05), indicating acceptability of the US methods for verifying tumor volumes. The standard error in determining the volume of myomas by the above US methods varied

  17. [Management of uterine myomas during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Levast, F; Legendre, G; Bouet, P-E; Sentilhes, L

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of myomas on pregnancy and discuss the role of myomectomy during cesarean section. Databases PubMed, Medline and Cochrane were searched until 30 June 2015. The most commonly reported obstetric complications relative to fibroids are: increased rate of spontaneous miscarriage in women with submucosal or intramural fibroids, pain, placentation disorders and malpresentation. A higher cesarean section rate is found among pregnant women with fibroids. The most common postpartum complication is postpartum haemorrhage. For years, risk of haemorrhage led caregivers not to practice myomectomy during cesarean section. Current data are rather reassuring. No study shows significant hemorrhage differences between myomectomy during cesarean section and cesarean section alone or myomectomy alone. The long-term morbidity of myomectomy during cesarean section is not enough studied but does not appear higher than expected for fertility and complications during pregnancy. Therefore, myomectomy during cesarean section is not currently recommended by learned societies. Women with fibroids is a common obstetric situation. Complications are rare. Myomectomy during cesarean section seems to be not associated with higher short-term maternal morbidity. But studies with a longer-term follow-up of patients are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of bevacizumab in uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martineli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Fonatella, Caterina; Sanfilippo, Roberta; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Ferrero, Simone; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    In the recent years, angiogenetic inhibitors have emerged for the treatment of several malignancies. In particular, bevacizumab has proved to be effective in many types of cancers (including sarcoma), but the limitations of antiangiogenic therapy have been shown in practice. Here, we sought to review the current evidence on the role and efficacy of bevacizumab in patients affected by uterine leiomyosarcoma. On April 2017, Literature was searched in order to identify studies reporting outcomes of patients affected either by early stage or advanced/recurred uterine leiomyosarcoma undergoing treatment with bevacizumab, alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic regimens. Searching the literature data of 69 patients affected by metastatic, unresectable uterine leiomyosarcoma were retrieved; on the contrary, no data regarding the use of bevacizumab in patients with early-stage uterine leiomyosarcoma was published. Current evidence suggested that the addiction of bevacizumab to standard treatment modality does not increase grade 3 or worse toxicity (assessed by CTCAE). Pooled data regarding response rate suggested that 35%, 28%, 26% and 11% of patients experienced objective cure (complete + partial response), stable disease, progressive disease and unknown response, respectively. Data from the only one randomized controlled trial suggested that objective cure rate does not differ from standard chemotherapy treatment, thus limiting the indication to add bevacizumab in patients affected by metastatic, unresectable uterine leiomyosarcoma. The current evidence does not justify the use of bevacizumab into clinical practice. Further randomized studies testing the role of bevacizumab are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic Significance of Pre-treatment Serum C-Reactive Protein Level in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Cervix.

    PubMed

    Bodner-Adler, Barbara; Kimberger, Oliver; Schneidinger, Cora; Kölbl, Heinz; Bodner, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate pre-treatment serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level as a prognostic parameter in patients with adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Pre-treatment CRP levels were analyzed to determine potential associations with clinicopathological parameters and to assess prognostic value in 46 patients with sole adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. The mean (±SD) pre-treatment serum CRP level was 5.82 (7.21) mg/l. Serum CRP concentration significantly correlated positively with age at diagnosis (p=0.001), lymphovascular space invasion (p=0.0026), recurrent disease (p=0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p=0.0002). In multivariate Cox regression models with age, FIGO stage, histological grade and lymph node status, elevated CRP and cancer antigen 125 levels were associated with shortened survival (p<0.05). Overall 5-year survival rate of patients with pre-treatment serum CRP level <5.0 mg/l was 100% compared to 46.9% for patients with pre-treatment CRP level ≥5.0 mg/l. Serum CRP level can be seen as an additional independent prognostic parameter in patients with the rare histological subtype adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J.

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

  1. Uterine-sparing Laparoscopic Resection of Accessory Cavitated Uterine Masses.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ann; Rindos, Noah B; Guido, Richard S; Donnellan, Nicole M

    2018-01-01

    endometrial tissue) surrounding low T2/high T1 signal in the dependent aspects (representing blood products). After counseling regarding treatment options including medical management with hormonal contraception, the patient elected for definitive fertility preserving laparoscopic resection. In contrast, case 2 is a 39-year-old, gravida 3, para 3 woman with a 2 month history or left lower quadrant pain following her last vaginal delivery. Transvaginal ultrasonography showed a 23×18×19mm cystic structure within the left uterine wall, which was confirmed to represent an ACUM on MRI. Although she had no desire for fertility preservation, the patient elected for surgical resection of the mass as opposed to a hysterectomy in order to minimize complications and recovery time. Laparoscopic resection of ACUMs in patients desiring uterine preservation. Laparoscopic resection of the ACUMs was performed utilizing 2 different techniques. In both cases, dilute vasopressin was injected with a modified butterfly or spinal needle along the uterine-ACUM serosal interphase to aid with hemostasis. In patients desiring to preserve fertility (case 1) monopolar energy is utilized to make an incision along the ACUM serosa to help facilitate dissection. ACUM enucleation is then commenced in a circumferential manner along the ACUM and uterine myometrial interphase utilizing bipolar energy. In contrast to leiomyomas where dissection advances along the pseudocapsule, ACUM have poorly delineated borders with disorganized muscular fibers making dissection particularly difficult. A variety of instruments can be utilized to help in the sequential circumferential dissection in addition to a bipolar device including a single-tooth tenaculum, myoma hook, suction device or fine-needle grasper. Ultimately, the ACUM is transected off its uterine-myometrial attachment and hemostasis is obtain before closing the uterine defect in at least 2 layers using a 2-0 barbed V-Loc (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN). If

  2. Point of Care 3D Ultrasound for Various Applications: A Pilot Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-30

    Appendicitis; Evidence of Cholecystectomy; Gallstones; Pregnancy, Ectopic; Aortic Aneurysm; Kidney Stones; Intrauterine Pregnancy; Diverticulitis; Abdominal Injuries; Tumors; Pancreatitis; Digestive System Diseases; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Intraabdominal Infections; Intestinal Diseases; Pregnancy; Vascular Disease; Uterine Fibroids; Ovarian Cysts; Uterine Abnominalies; Bladder Abnominalies; Testicular Abnominalies; Polyps

  3. Neonatal Progesterone Programs Adult Uterine Responses to Progesterone and Susceptibility to Uterine Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Rumi, M. A. Karim; Kubota, Kaiyu; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Chien, Jeremy; Roby, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we investigated the consequences of neonatal progesterone exposure on adult rat uterine function. Female pups were subcutaneously injected with vehicle or progesterone from postnatal days 3 to 9. Early progesterone exposure affected endometrial gland biogenesis, puberty, decidualization, and fertility. Because decidualization and pregnancy success are directly linked to progesterone action on the uterus, we investigated the responsiveness of the adult uterus to progesterone. We first identified progesterone-dependent uterine gene expression using RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR in Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats and progesterone-resistant Brown Norway rats. The impact of neonatal progesterone treatment on adult uterine progesterone responsiveness was next investigated using quantitative RT-PCR. Progesterone resistance affected the spectrum and total number of progesterone-responsive genes and the magnitude of uterine responses for a subset of progesterone targets. Several progesterone-responsive genes in adult uterus exhibited significantly dampened responses in neonatally progesterone-treated females compared with those of vehicle-treated controls, whereas other progesterone-responsive transcripts did not differ between female rats exposed to vehicle or progesterone as neonates. The organizational actions of progesterone on the uterus were dependent on signaling through the progesterone receptor but not estrogen receptor 1. To summarize, neonatal progesterone exposure leads to disturbances in endometrial gland biogenesis, progesterone resistance, and uterine dysfunction. Neonatal progesterone effectively programs adult uterine responsiveness to progesterone. PMID:26204463

  4. Preovulatory uterine flushing with saline as a treatment for unexplained infertility: a randomised controlled trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Maheux-Lacroix, Sarah; Dodin, Sylvie; Moore, Lynne; Bujold, Emmanuel; Lefebvre, Jessica; Bergeron, Marie-Ève

    2016-01-06

    In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the treatment of choice for unexplained infertility. Preovulatory uterine flushing could reduce intrauterine debris and inflammatory factors preventing pregnancy and constitute an alternative to IVF. Our objective is to assess the efficacy of preovulatory uterine flushing with physiological saline for the treatment of unexplained infertility. We will perform a randomised controlled trial based on consecutive women aged between 18 and 37 years consulting for unexplained infertility for at least 1 year. On the day of their luteinising hormone surge, 192 participants will be randomised in two equal groups to either receive 20 mL of physiological saline by an intrauterine catheter or 10 mL of saline intravaginally. We will assess relative risk of live birth (primary outcome), as well as pregnancy (secondary outcome) over one cycle of treatment. We will report the side effects, complications and acceptability of the intervention. This project was approved by the Ethics committee of the Centre Hospitatlier Universitaire de Quebec (no 2015-1146). Uterine flushing is usually well tolerated by women and would constitute a simple, affordable and minimally invasive treatment for unexplained infertility. We plan to communicate the results of the review by presenting research abstracts at conferences and by publishing the results in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT02539290; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Bisphenol A Concentrates Preferentially in Human Uterine Leiomyoma and Induces Proliferation in Rat Myometrium.

    PubMed

    Othman, Essam R; Al-Adly, Dina M M; Elgamal, Dalia A; Ghandour, Nagwa; El-Sharkawy, Sawsan

    2016-04-01

    To measure tissue levels of bisphenol A (BPA) in uterine leiomyoma (ULM), adjacent myometrium (Myo-F), and normal myometrium (Myo-N). Also, we tested the effect of BPA treatment on rat myometrium. Uterine leiomyomas and Myo-F tissues were isolated from hysterectomy specimens done to treat symptomatic ULMs (N = 30). Normal myometrium is isolated from hysterectomies done on ULM-free uteri for other benign indications (N = 25). Bisphenol A was measured in 1 g of tissue using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, with fluorescence detectors. Experimentally, adult female rats were fed BPA orally at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d for 90 days. Animals were killed, and their myometrial thickness and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunostaining were evaluated. Tissue concentration of BPA in each of ULM (12.3 ± 2.8 µg/g) and Myo-F (10.1 ± 0.2 µg/g) was significantly higher than that of Myo-N (0.58 ± 0.2 µg/g). There was no statistically significant difference in BPA level between ULM and Myo-F within submucous or interstitial/subserous fibroid groups. Compared to control rats, BPA-treated animals showed significantly higher myometrial thickness (168.67 ± 5.7 µm and 281.6 ± 20.32 µm, respectively, P = .003) and increased myometrial PCNA immunoscores (1.5 ± 0.37 and 10.38 ± 0.67, respectively, P ≤ .001). Bisphenol A concentrates in human ULM tissue and its adjacent Myo-F compared to Myo-N. No significant difference is detected in BPA content of ULM tissue of different subtypes. Bisphenol A increases thickness and induces cellular proliferation in rat myometrium. Taken together, our results support a role of BPA in ULM development/growth. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: apicel@ucsd.edu; Koo, Sonya J.; Roberts, Anne C.

    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatinmore » sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.« less

  7. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

  8. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treating uterine arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Yan, X; Zhao, C; Tian, C; Wen, S; He, X; Zhou, Y

    2017-08-01

    To explore HIFU treatment for uterine arteriovenous malformation. A case report. Gynaecological department in a university teaching hospital of China. A patient with uterine arteriovenous malformation. The diagnosis of uterine arteriovenous malformation was made through MRI. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USgHIFU) ablation was performed. HIFU is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. The patient had reduction of the lesion volume and obvious symptom relief, without significant adverse effects. HIFU can be used as a new treatment option for uterine arteriovenous malformation. Ultrasound-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is effective in treating uterine arteriovenous malformation. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Uterine Fibroids Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media About Us Who we are What we do ... information Stay Connected Blog Contact us Media inquiries Social media Subscribe to receive OWH updates Submit HHS Non- ...

  10. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE)

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the operating room. You will be positioned on the examining table. You may be connected to monitors that track your heart rate, blood pressure and pulse during the procedure. A nurse or technologist will insert an intravenous (IV) line into a ...

  11. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smeets, Albert J.; Lohle, Paul N. M.; Vervest, Harry A. M.

    Purpose. To evaluate the mid-term clinical results and patient satisfaction following uterine artery embolization (UAE) in women with symptomatic fibroids. Methods. Between August 1998 and December 2002, 135 patients had UAE for symptomatic uterine fibroids. All patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Questions were aimed at changes in bleeding, pain, and bulk-related symptoms. Symptoms after UAE were scored as disappeared, improved, unchanged or worsened. Adverse events were noted, such as vaginal dryness and discharge, menopausal complaints or fibroid expulsion. Patient satisfaction after UAE was assessed. Patient satisfaction of women embolized with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles was compared withmore » satisfaction of women embolized with calibrated microspheres. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 110 of 135 women (81%) at a median time interval of 14 months following UAE. In 10 women additional embolization or hysterectomy had been performed. Of the 110 responders, 86 (78%) were satisfied with the result of UAE. The proportion of satisfied women was higher in the group embolized with calibrated microspheres than in women embolized with PVA, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.053). Conclusion. UAE in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids leads to improvement of symptoms and patient satisfaction is good in the vast majority after a median follow-up period of 14 months.« less

  12. Transvaginal ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Endovaginal ultrasound; Ultrasound - transvaginal; Fibroids - transvaginal ultrasound; Vaginal bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Uterine bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; Menstrual bleeding - transvaginal ultrasound; ...

  13. Role of laparoscopy as a minimally invasive procedure in treatment of ruptured uterine scar during second-trimester induction of abortion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanmei; Jiang, Qiaoying; Lv, Ya-Er; Liu, Feng; Yang, Liwei

    2016-04-01

    Uterine rupture is an uncommon complication following termination of pregnancy and is usually accompanied by severe lower abdominal pain and shock caused by intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Laparotomy should be carried out promptly in order to repair the uterus or even to resect the uterus. Here we present a case of uterine rupture of a scarred uterus, which occurred during a second-trimester induced abortion. The patient was successfully treated by laparoscopy with the help of laparoscopic ultrasound. This case suggests an alternative, effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of uterine rupture. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Variations in uterine bleeding, termed abnormal uterine bleeding, occur commonly among women and often are physiologic in nature with no significant consequences. However, abnormal uterine bleeding can cause significant distress to women or may signify an underlying pathologic condition. Most women experience variations in menstrual and perimenstrual bleeding in their lifetimes; therefore, the ability of the midwife to differentiate between normal and abnormal bleeding is a key diagnostic skill. A comprehensive history and use of the PALM-COEIN classification system will provide clear guidelines for clinical management, evidence-based treatment, and an individualized plan of care. The purpose of this Clinical Bulletin is to define and describe classifications of abnormal uterine bleeding, review updated terminology, and identify methods of assessment and treatment using a woman-centered approach. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  15. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Katsumori, Tetsuya, E-mail: katsumo@eurus.dti.ne.jp; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Kin, Yoko

    Purpose. To assess uterine artery recanalization, together with tumor devascularization, after embolization using gelatin sponge particles alone for fibroids. Methods. Twenty-seven patients underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for fibroids using only gelatin sponge particles. The angiographic endpoint of embolization was defined as near stasis of contrast medium in the ascending segment of the uterine artery. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) before and 4 months after UAE, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) before, 1 week after, and 4 months after UAE. The visualization of the uterine arteries before and 4 months after UAE was assessed using MRA.more » The infarction rates of the largest tumor were assessed using CE-MRI 1 week after UAE. Results. MRA 4 months after UAE showed 100% (53/53) of the descending and transverse segments, and 88% (43/49) of the ascending segments that had been noted on baseline MRA. The visualization of the ascending segments on MRA 4 months after UAE was identical to that on baseline MRA in 20 of 27 patients (74%). CE-MRI showed complete infarction of the largest tumor in 22 of 27 patients (81%), and 90-99% infarction of the largest tumor in the remaining 5 of 27 patients (19%). Conclusion. Based on the MR study, in most cases uterine artery recanalization occurred, together with sufficient devascularization of fibroids, after UAE using gelatin sponge particles alone.« less

  16. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... be severe and may last more than 6 hours at a time. Most women recover quickly and are able to return to normal activities within 7 to 10 days. Sometimes portions of the treated fibroid tissue may pass through your vagina.

  17. Uterine Artery Embolization for Retained Products of Conception with Marked Vascularity: A Safe and Efficient First-Line Treatment

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bazeries, Paul, E-mail: paul.bazeries@chu-angers.fr; Paisant-Thouveny, Francine; Yahya, Sultan

    ObjectiveTo report our clinical practice regarding a case series of retained products of conception (RPOC) with marked vascularity (MV) managed with selective uterine artery embolization (UAE) as first-line treatment.MethodsThis was a monocentric, retrospective study of 31 consecutive cases of RPOC with MV diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound in the context of postpartum/postabortal bleeding. The primary outcome was the absence of rebleeding following embolization.ResultsRPOC with MV occurred after abortion in 27 out of 31 patients (87%). The time elapsed between delivery/abortion and UAE ranged from 1 to 210 days (mean 55.7 ± 45 days). Primary clinical success was achieved in 23 women (74.2%) following a singlemore » embolization. In total, 27 out of 31 women (87%) had been exclusively managed by UAE with conservative success. Although procedural success was achieved in this number, six women had a further procedure to evacuate RPOC despite procedural success. Large uterine arteriovenous (AV) shunts associated with RPOC were observed in five cases (16.1%), among which two were successfully treated after a single UAE and one after two UAEs, while hysterectomy was performed in the last two cases despite two and three UAE procedures respectively. RPOC was histologically proven in ten cases (32.2%) including four out of five cases of uterine AV shunt.ConclusionRPOC with MV can present with large uterine AV shunt, particularly in case of late management. Uterine artery embolization is an effective and safe first-line treatment, and should be evaluated for this indication in larger prospective trials.« less

  18. Assessment of uterine luminal pH in mares and the effect of dilute vinegar lavage on uterine luminal pH and endometrial health.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Renee L; Gunn, Allan J; Stephen, Cyril P; Ip, Heather; Brookes, Victoria J

    2018-05-19

    Uterine luminal pH has been demonstrated to be a valid indicator of uterine health in species such as cattle and sheep. However, research regarding uterine luminal pH in equines is lacking. The objectives of this study were to assess uterine luminal pH in mares during the estrous cycle, and evaluate the effect of dilute vinegar lavage on both uterine luminal pH and endometrial health. The study was conducted using a randomized block design in which eight mares (four Thoroughbred and four Standardbred) were aged matched then randomly assigned to two groups. Endometrial biopsies were taken from each mare prior to trial commencement. The treatment group (n = 4; 1 Thoroughbred, 3 Standardbreds) received a uterine lavage of one liter dilute vinegar (20 mL of vinegar in 1 L saline) every second day during each estrus period throughout the trial. Control group mares did not receive a uterine lavage. Uterine luminal pH measurements were recorded in all mares in both groups for a period of up to 10 min immediately prior to lavage (0 h), one hour and 24 h post lavage (same time points in control group mares as if they had been treated). Diestrus uterine luminal pH measurements were recorded once between days 6-10 post-ovulation. Endometrial biopsies were repeated from all mares at trial completion. Mean uterine luminal pH ranged from pH 5.3 to 7.6 and was significantly lower during diestrus compared to estrus (P < 0.001). Regression analysis indicated that this variation in pH was best explained by estrous cycle day, with uterine luminal pH increasing by a mean of 0.03 units each day (P < 0.001) from 6 to 10 days post-ovulation through to ovulation. Uterine lavage with dilute vinegar did not significantly affect uterine luminal pH (P > 0.05). A scoring system to quantify the abundance of cell types in the endometrial biopsies showed that mares in the treatment group had a significant decrease in polymorphonuclear cell abundance between pre- and post

  19. Uterine responses to feeding soy protein isolate and treatment with 17β-estradiol differ in ovariectomized female rats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ronis, Martin J., E-mail: mronis@lsuhsc.edu; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio; Blackburn, Michael L.

    receptor modulator not a weak estrogen. • Soy feeding blocked uterine proliferation after treatment with estradiol and DMBA.« less

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as uterine metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Woo Dae; Kim, Cheol Hong; Cho, Moon Kyung; Kim, Jong Woon; Lee, Ji Shin; Kim, Yoon Ha; Choi, Ho Sun; Kim, Seok Mo

    2008-09-01

    Metastatic extragenital cancer that spreads to the uterus is rare. When it occurs, the extragenital primary disease is often in the breast or gastrointestinal tract. We report here on a case of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that metastasis to the uterus. The patient was admitted for evaluation of a pelvic mass. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was highly elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis showed hepatic and uterine masses. The patient underwent surgical treatment. The histopathologic findings and immunohistochemical staining results of the uterine mass were characteristics of metastatic HCC. The endometrium and both ovaries were free of tumor. Up to now, there have been only two cases of uterine metastasis from HCC reported in the English literature. This case is the first documented instance of a metastatic uterine tumor from HCC that spared both ovaries.

  1. Spontaneous uterine laceration in labor: a type of intrapartum uterine injury different from the classical uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Hishikawa, Kenji; Watanabe, Remi; Onuma, Kazuya; Kusaka, Takeshi; Fukuda, Takanori; Kohata, Yutaka; Inoue, Hiromi

    2018-02-01

    Uterine rupture, a complete disruption of uterine wall, is synonymously used of intrapartum uterine corpus injuries. However, uterine laceration, partial and minor myometrial tear, is not well characterized. A 35-year-old Japanese woman with unscarred uterus was delivered of a baby at 38 gestational weeks. Shortly after delivering the placenta, she complained of severe lower abdominal pain with shock vitals. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a partial and shallow myometrial and serosal tear with massive hemoperitoneum. Despite its shallow and minor nature of the injury, uterine laceration can cause a catastrophic massive hemoperitoneum and should be noted as a type of intrapartum uterine injury in clinical practice.

  2. Abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Michelle L

    2015-03-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common medical condition with several causes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics published guidelines in 2011 to develop universally accepted nomenclature and a classification system. In addition, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recently updated recommendations on evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and indications for endometrial biopsies. This article reviews both medical and surgical treatments, including meta-analysis reviews of the most effective treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uterine Artery Embolization for Leiomyomata: Optimization of the Radiation Dose to the Patient Using a Flat-Panel Detector Angiographic Suite

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: marc.sapoval2@egp.aphp.fr; Pellerin, Olivier; Rehel, Jean-Luc

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography with a flat-panel detector angiographic suite to reduce the dose delivered to patients during uterine fibroid embolization (UFE). A two-step prospective dosimetric study was conducted, with a flat-panel detector angiography suite (Siemens Axiom Artis) integrating automatic exposure control (AEC), during 20 consecutive UFEs. Patient dosimetry was performed using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on the lower posterior pelvis skin. The first step (10 patients; group A) consisted in UFE (bilateral embolization, calibrated microspheres) performed using the following parameters: standard fluoroscopy (15 pulses/s) and angiography (3 frames/s). The secondmore » step (next consecutive 10 patients; group B) used low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy (7.5 pulses/s for catheterization and 3 pulses/s for embolization) and angiography (1 frame/s). We also recorded the total dose-area product (DAP) delivered to the patient and the fluoroscopy time as reported by the manufacturer's dosimetry report. The mean peak skin dose decreased from 2.4 {+-} 1.3 to 0.4 {+-} 0.3 Gy (P = 0.001) for groups A and B, respectively. The DAP values decreased from 43,113 {+-} 27,207 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group A to 9,515 {+-} 4,520 {mu}Gy m{sup 2} for group B (P = 0.003). The dose to ovaries and uterus decreased from 378 {+-} 238 mGy (group A) to 83 {+-} 41 mGy (group B) and from 388 {+-} 246 mGy (group A) to 85 {+-} 39 mGy (group B), respectively. Effective doses decreased from 112 {+-} 71 mSv (group A) to 24 {+-} 12 mSv (group B) (P = 0.003). In conclusion, the use of low-dose/low-frame fluoroscopy/angiography, based on a good understanding of the AEC system and also on the technique during uterine fibroid embolization, allows a significant decrease in the dose exposure to the patient.« less

  4. Delayed hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues and uterine conservation after conservative treatment for placenta accreta.

    PubMed

    Hequet, Delphine; Morel, Olivier; Soyer, Philippe; Gayat, Etienne; Malartic, Cécile; Barranger, Emmanuel

    2013-12-01

    Conservative management of both the uterus and the abnormal placenta, which is left inside the uterus at the time of delivery, is one option of placenta accreta management. Complete elimination of the residual placenta is the main challenge of this procedure. To report the role, efficacy and safety of hysteroscopic resection in women presenting with severe pelvic pain and chronic intra-uterine retention after conservative treatment of placenta accreta. Four consecutive women who were treated with hysteroscopic resection of retained tissues after conservative treatment of placenta accreta or percreta at the time of delivery. Clinical files and surgical procedures were reviewed. All procedures were performed because of chronic pelvic pain and the absence of a complete spontaneous placental elimination. All procedures were successful and uneventful. The uterus was conserved with a complete disappearance of the symptoms in the four women, and two of them became pregnant. Hysteroscopic resection seems effective and safe for shortening the duration of placental elimination after conservative treatment in women with severe pelvic pain due to uterine retention. This approach allows conserving the uterus and future fertility. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Aberrations in uterine contractile patterns in mares with delayed uterine clearance after administration of detomidine and oxytocin.

    PubMed

    von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Callahan, Megan A; Hansen, Peter J; LeBlanc, Michelle M

    2002-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether the uterotonic effects of oxytocin, a drug used to treat mares that have a delay in uterine clearance were affected by the sedative detomidine (an alpha2-agonist), a drug used to treat fractious mares. An additional objective was to identify propagation patterns of uterine contractions and determine whether these patterns differed between normal mares and mares with delayed uterine clearance (DUC). Intrauterine pressure was measured in five reproductively normal mares and four mares with DUC during estrus using an 8-F Milar catheter with two discrete pressure sensors. Mares received one of three treatments in random order: detomidine (0.001 mg/kg; i.v.); detomidine followed in 10 min by oxytocin (10 IU; i.v.); and saline (0.9% NaCl 0.5 ml; i.v.) followed in 10 min by oxytocin. All treatments induced waves of contractions; however, only three mares with DUC exhibited contractions after administration of detomidine. Normal mares experienced more uterine contractions (P < 0.01) that tended to last longer (P < 0.06), and were of greater intensity (P < 0.04) than mares with delayed clearance. Administration of detomidine before oxytocin increased the number of contractions (P < 0.02) and increased the maximum intrauterine pressure in the uterine horn (P < 0.05) in normal mares as compared to response after administration of saline and oxytocin. Detomidine had no effect in mares with delayed clearance. All mares had more propagating than non-propagating uterine contractions (74 +/- 8 versus 25 +/- 8%, respectively). Normal mares exhibited a normal propagation pattern more frequently (P < 0.0001) than mares with DUC. Simultaneous (P < 0.05) and inverted (P < 0.03) contractions occurred more frequently in mares with DUC. Administration of detomidine increased the number (P < 0.01), and tended to increase the percentage (P < 0.07) of normal propagating uterine contractions in normal mares, but did not affect propagation

  6. Stages of Uterine Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat uterine sarcoma, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  7. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Xiao, Xiao; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Can; Zou, Min; Xiong, Yu

    2015-11-01

    Diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis (DUL) is a rare and unique type of uterine leiomyoma which affects women of reproductive age. While treatments like medication, uterine artery embolization (UAE) and hysteroscopic myomectomy show some effectiveness, hysterectomy is currently the only known treatment capable of eliminating the symptoms of this disease. This case report demonstrates that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation may offer these patients a new treatment strategy that could control the symptoms of DUL and spare the uterus from hysterectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Mara, Michal; Maskova, Jana; Fucikova, Zuzana

    The purpose of this study was to compare the midterm results of a radiological and surgical approach to uterine fibroids. One hundred twenty-one women with reproductive plans who presented with an intramural fibroid(s) larger than 4 cm were randomly selected for either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. We compared the efficacy and safety of the two procedures and their impact on patient fertility. Fifty-eight embolizations and 63 myomectomies (42 laparoscopic, 21 open) were performed. One hundred eighteen patients have finished at least a 12-month follow-up; the mean follow-up in the entire study population was 24.9 months. Embolized patients underwentmore » a significantly shorter procedure and required a shorter hospital stay and recovery period. They also presented with a lower CRP concentration on the second day after the procedure (p < 0.0001 for all parameters). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the rate of technical success, symptomatic effectiveness, postprocedural follicle stimulating hormone levels, number of reinterventions for fibroid recurrence or regrowth, or complication rates. Forty women after myomectomy and 26 after UAE have tried to conceive, and of these we registered 50 gestations in 45 women. There were more pregnancies (33) and labors (19) and fewer abortions (6) after surgery than after embolization (17 pregnancies, 5 labors, 9 abortions) (p < 0.05). Obstetrical and perinatal results were similar in both groups, possibly due to the low number of labors after UAE to date. We conclude that UAE is less invasive and as symptomatically effective and safe as myomectomy, but myomectomy appears to have superior reproductive outcomes in the first 2 years after treatment.« less

  9. Treatment for Uterine Isthmocele, A Pouchlike Defect at the Site of a Cesarean Section Scar.

    PubMed

    Setubal, Antonio; Alves, João; Osório, Filipa; Guerra, Adalgisa; Fernandes, Rodrigo; Albornoz, Jaime; Sidiroupoulou, Zacharoula

    2018-01-01

    An isthmocele appears as a fluid pouchlike defect in the anterior uterine wall at the site of a prior cesarean section and ranges in prevalence from 19% to 84%, a direct relation to the increase in cesarean sections performed worldwide. Many definitions have been suggested for the dehiscence resulting from cesarean sections, and we propose standardization with a single term for all cases-isthmocele. Patients are not always symptomatic, but symptoms typically include intermittent abnormal bleeding, pain, and infertility. Pregnancy complications that result from an isthmocele include ectopic pregnancy, low implantation, and uterine rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging and transvaginal ultrasound are the gold standard imaging techniques for diagnosis. Surgical treatment of an isthmocele is still a controversial issue but should be offered to symptomatic women or the asymptomatic patient who desires future pregnancy. When surgery is the treatment choice, laparoscopy guided by hysteroscopy, hysteroscopy alone, or vaginal repair are the best options depending on the isthmocele's characteristics and surgeon expertise. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of tranexamic acid for treatment irregular uterine bleeding secondary to DMPA use.

    PubMed

    Senthong, A-Jaree; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2009-04-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid and placebo for controlling irregular uterine bleeding in depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 100 DMPA users attending the Family Planning Clinic King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. All users had abnormal bleeding. They were randomly divided in two groups; a group of 50 received tranexamic acid, 250 mg four times a day for 5 days and another group of 49 received placebo in the same manner. One subject dropped out from the study. Total day of bleeding/spotting and percentage of women in whom bleeding was stopped were analyzed at the end of weeks 1 and 4. The percentage of subjects in whom bleeding was stopped during the first week after initial treatment was significantly higher in the tranexamic acid group than the placebo group (88% vs. 8.2%, p < 0.001). During the follow-up period (4 weeks after initial treatment), a bleeding-free interval of > 20 days was found in 68% of subjects treated with tranexamic acid and 0% treated with placebo(p < 0.001). The mean number of bleeding/spotting days were also significantly different between the groups (5.7 +/- 2.5 vs. 17.5 +/- 7.2 days, p < 0.05). Tranexamic acid was more effective than placebo in short-term treatment of irregular uterine bleeding/spotting associated with DMPA use.

  11. Chronic levothyroxine and acute T3 treatments enhance the amplitude and time course of uterine contractions in human.

    PubMed

    Corriveau, Stéphanie; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Blouin, Simon; Bellabarba, Diego; Rousseau, Éric

    2013-03-01

    This study compares the functional consequences of levothyroxine (T4) treatment during pregnancy as well as the acute affects of triiodothyronine (T3) on spontaneous uterine contractile activities observed in vitro. Uterine biopsies were obtained from consenting women undergoing elective caesarean at term (n = 28). Spontaneous contractile activities from T4-treated pregnant women (n = 8) were compared with control patients (n = 20) by isometric tension measurements. Effects of acute T3 and T4 on control tissues were also monitored. Area under the curve, amplitude, time to peak, duration, and frequency were quantified. In uterine strips from women treated for hypothyroidism, phasic uterine contractions of larger amplitude (+77%) were observed, with a prolonged duration at 90% relaxation (+138%) and reduced frequency (-55%) compared with values of the control group. The addition of exogenous T3 in vitro on control strips induced a significant increase in the duration of the contractions and a significant decrease in frequency (P < 0.05), which partially mimics the results obtained in strips from T4-treated women. Significant modifications of contractile properties were observed in strips from pregnant women treated with levothyroxine, consistent with those observed with the addition of exogenous T3. Clinical practices of modern obstetrics should take into account the effect of thyroid hormones on uterine contractions' time course to ensure a tighter followup at the end of pregnancy to achieve safer delivery.

  12. Oestrus synchronization treatment induces histomorphological changes on the uterine tube epithelium of the gilt.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Mosqueda, M L; Anzaldúa Arce, S R; Palma Lara, I; García Dalmán, C; Cornejo Cortés, M A; Córdova Izquierdo, A; Villaseñor Gaona, H; Trujillo Ortega, M E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the histomorphological changes that occurred in response to two treatments for oestrus synchronization in three different regions of the gilt's uterine tubes epithelium: the ampulla (AMP), ampulla-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmus (IST). Nine prepuberal gilts were divided into three groups (n = 3): (1) eCG 400 IU and hCG 200 IU (eCG/hCG), (2) progesterone agonist (P4) and (3) control group. The number of secretory cells (stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction or PAS-positive cells) decreased in the AMP in the P4 treated group when compared to the control group, whereas, no difference was observed in the number of PAS-negative cells in the AMP of the three groups. A significant decrease in the number of PAS-positive cells was observed in the AIJ and IST of the P4 treated group when compared to the eCG/hCG and control groups. An increase in the number of PAS-negative cells was observed in the AIJ and IST in the P4 treated group. The epithelium height in the AMP and AIJ was increased in the eCG/hCG group when compared to the control and P4 groups. In this last group, we observed a reduced height compared with the other two groups for the AIJ. In the IST, there were no significant changes in the epithelium height of the control or the other two groups (eCG/hCG and P4). The epithelial cells of the P4 treated group had the least amount of cytoplasmic granules and the lowest intensity of PAS staining in the AMP, AIJ and IST. Animals treated with eCG/hCG showed an intermediate number of cytoplasmic granules and intensity in all regions evaluated. These data show that P4 treatment for synchronization induces a significant (P < 0.001) decrease of PAS-positive cells and staining intensity of cytoplasmic granules in the different regions studied and an increased number of PAS-negative cells in the AIJ and IST epithelium. Moreover, eCG/hCG treatment increased the height of the epithelium in the AMP and AIJ, while in this last

  13. Assessing the risk of laparoscopic morcellation of occult uterine sarcomas during hysterectomy and myomectomy: Literature review and the ISGE recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sizzi, Ornella; Manganaro, Lucia; Rossetti, Alfonso; Saldari, Matteo; Florio, Giuseppe; Loddo, Alessandro; Zurawin, Robert; van Herendael, Bruno; Djokovic, Dusan

    2018-01-01

    This project of the International Society for Gynecologic Endoscopy (ISGE) had the objective to review the literature and provide recommendations on the occult sarcoma risk assessment in patients who are candidates for minimally invasive gynecological surgery involving intra-abdominal electromechanical tissue morcellation. The ISGE Task Force for Estimation of the Risk in Endoscopic Morcellation initially defined key topics and clinical questions which may guide a comprehensive preoperative patient assessment. A literature search within the Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Database was carried out using keywords "morcellation", "uterine fibroids", "uterine sarcoma", "myomectomy" and "hysterectomy". Relevant publications (original studies, meta-analyses and previous reviews), written in English and published until May 30th, 2017, were selected and analyzed. Previously emitted statements of 12 recognized professional societies or government institutions and their supporting literature were also studied. For each topic/clinical question, the available information was graded by the level of evidence. The ISGE recommendations were established in accordance with the evidence quality. In the light of available information, 9 recommendations on preoperative clinical, laboratorial and imaging evaluation of the candidates for intracorporeal uterus/leiomyoma morcellation were formulated, mainly based on consensus and expert opinions. There is a lack of high-quality evidence, which does not allow the establishment of strong recommendations. Electromechanical tissue morcellation may be used in gynecological patients who are considered "low risk" upon appropriate preoperative evaluation; however, further studies and prospective data collection are greatly needed to improve sarcoma risk assessment in women with presumed uterine leiomyomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... abnormal uterine bleeding? Abnormal uterine bleeding is any heavy or unusual bleeding from the uterus (through your ... one symptom of abnormal uterine bleeding. Having extremely heavy bleeding during your period can also be considered ...

  15. Efficacy of ormeloxifene versus oral contraceptive in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding due to uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Kriplani, Alka; Srivastava, Astha; Kulshrestha, Vidushi; Kachhawa, Garima; Agarwal, Nutan; Bhatla, Neerja; Hari, Smriti

    2016-12-01

    To compare ormeloxifene with combined oral contraceptive (COC) in abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) due to leiomyoma (AUB-L). Fifty women with AUB-L were randomized after informed consent and institute ethics clearance. Group I (n = 25) was given ormeloxifene (a SERM i.e. selective estrogen receptor modulator) 60 mg twice per week and group II (n = 25) was given COC (ethinyl estradiol 30 μg with desogestrel 150 μg) on days 1-21 for 6 months. Menstrual blood loss was assessed on pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score and leiomyoma volume was assessed on ultrasound. Fibroids were classified according to FIGO-PALM-COEIN classification for AUB where leiomyomas were further sub-classified as types 0 to 8 according to their location. Follow up was done at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. Mean PBAC score reduced by 81% with ormeloxifene (group I) compared with 43.8% for COC (group II). After 6 months, 18 patients (72%) in group I had PBAC score in the non-menorrhagic range (<100) compared with only two (8%) in group II. In group I, PBAC score in FIGO-PALM-COEIN leiomyoma types 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 reduced by 90.2%, 82.5%, 93.3%, 56.4% and 100%, respectively and 14 (56%) developed amenorrhea; compared with reduction of 64%, 27.5%, 25.9% in types 4, 5 and 6, respectively in group II. Dysmenorrhea visual analog scale score decreased in both groups. Mean leiomyoma volume increased in both groups: by 25.7% with ormeloxifene versus 16.9% with COC; only grade 2 leiomyoma in group I reduced by 44%. One patient in group II with grade 2 leiomyoma discontinued treatment at 3 months. Seven patients (28%) developed ovarian cyst in group I with no other major adverse effect in either group. Ormeloxifene with its convenient twice-weekly dosage schedule was effective in treating AUB-L, with 72% of patients responding to 6-month treatment compared with 8% with COC, even though leiomyoma volume increased insignificantly with both ormeloxifene and COCs. © 2016 Japan Society of

  16. Gynecological conditions and the risk of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ingrid J; Nagle, Christina M; Spurdle, Amanda B; Webb, Penelope M

    2011-12-01

    To examine the association between gynecological conditions (including uterine fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease and infections of the tubes/womb), and risk of endometrial cancer overall and by histological subtype. Data came from a population-based, case-control study, which included 1399 women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2007 and 1539 controls. Women provided detailed risk factor information via interview or self-completed questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gynecological conditions and cancer. A self-reported history of uterine fibroids was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.10-1.74). This association was reduced for women with body-mass index≥35kg/m(2) (OR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.37-1.37), and increased in groups normally thought to be at low risk including women with normal BMI (OR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.14-2.41) and premenopausal women (OR=1.82; 95% CI: 0.99-3.32). After excluding conditions diagnosed in the previous year, we found no association between endometrial cancer and endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, infections of the tubes/womb. There was no evidence that risk varied by tumor subtype. Overall these results suggest that women with uterine fibroids are at increased risk of endometrial cancer, and that greater monitoring of premenopausal and normal weight women with fibroids may be important for the early detection of endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) with the KTP 532 laser for the treatment of uterine adenomyosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana; Chapman, Kenneth

    1997-05-01

    Adenomyosis is a condition in which the myometrium is infiltrated by endometrial glands and stroma. This results in myometrial hyperplasia, uterine enlargement and causes menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia for which there is no known cure other than hysterectomy. The success of LITT in the treatment of uterine leiomyomata suggested that this might also be effective for the treatment of adenomyosis. Initially LITT was carried out on patients with adenomyosis prior to hysterectomy, then on patients who had completed child-bearing and finally on those who desired a family. Not only were symptoms relieved but pregnancies occurred spontaneously. The KTP 532 nm component of the KTP/YAG laser, which is absorbed by red pigment, was used with a 600 micrometer fiber with a bare tip via a needle microstat at laparoscopy. Holes were drilled in the abnormal tissue 3 cm apart and the laser fiber then slowly withdrawn, the object being to coagulate the surrounding blood vessels and adenomyotic tissue. The number of joules required depended on the volume of tissue treated.

  18. How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... the uterus to help create the ultrasound image Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses magnets and radio waves to ...

  19. Imaging for uterine myomas and adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Shwayder, James; Sakhel, Khaled

    2014-01-01

    Uterine myomas and adenomyosis are common findings, in particular in patients with symptoms of abdominal enlargement, pelvic pressure, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia. Diagnosis and differentiation between the 2 entities are critical in establishing treatment options and the operative approach for surgical management. Herein are reviewed diagnostic options, their relative accuracy, and the effect of accurate diagnosis on treatment. A review was performed using PubMed, MdConsult, OVID, and reviews including cross-referenced articles and prospective and retrospective studies published from 1980 to 2013. Also reviewed are use of ultrasound with its various methods, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and positron emission tomography in the diagnosis, pretreatment evaluation, and differentiation of myomas and adenomyosis. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Update on Clinical MR-guided Focused Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    McDannold, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Focused ultrasound (FUS) can be used to thermally ablate tissue. The performance of FUS under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance enables aiming the focus at the target, accurate treatment planning, real-time temperature mapping, and evaluation of the treatment. This review updates several clinical applications of MR-guided FUS. MR-guided FUS has a CE mark and FDA approval for thermal ablation for uterine fibroids and bone metastases related pain management. Thousands of uterine fibroid patients have successfully been treated with minor side effects. Technical improvements, increased experience, and the use of a screening MRI examination should further improve treatment outcome. When used for bone metastases and other bone diseases, thermal ablation leads to pain relief due to denervation, and debulking of the tumor. The use of a hemi-spherical multi-element transducer and phase corrections have enabled application of FUS through the skull. Transcranial MR-guided FUS has received CE certification for ablation of deep, central locations in the brain such as the thalamus. Thermal ablation of specific parts of the thalamus can result in relief of the symptoms in neurological disorders such as essential tremor, Parkinson’s, and neuropathic pain. No CE mark or FDA approval has been obtained as yet for treatment of prostate cancer or breast cancer, but several approaches have been proposed and clinical trials should show the potential of MR-guided FUS for these and other applications. PMID:26499282

  1. Uterine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: more common than expected

    PubMed Central

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Valli, Riccardo; Mastrofilippo, Valentina; Bisagni, Alessandra; Aguzzoli, Lorenzo; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm composed of spindled to epithelioid cells with prominent myxoid stroma and inflammatory infiltrate. It has a low but definite malignant potential. However, its management has never been standardized. Patient Concerns and Diagnosis: We present the first case of uterine IMT laparoscopically treated. Moreover, we reviewed the English literature regarding uterine IMT published between 1987 and June 2017. A total of 72 cases of uterine IMT were included. Clinical and pathological characteristics, treatments and outcomes were recorded. Interventions and Outcomes: A total laparoscopic hysterectomy with opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy was performed. Patient is free of disease at 6 months of follow-up. Lessons: Uterine IMT may be identified by anaplastic lymphoma kinase overexpression, its prognosis is usually good, complete excision seems to be effective to avoid relapse and mini invasive surgery seems to be effective and safe to treat uterine IMT. However, considering the age of women affected by disease, conservative management, or medical therapy could be taken in account to avoid surgical injuries and to preserve fertility. PMID:29310405

  2. [Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: particularities in diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, L; Robert, A-L; Lavoué, V; Foucher, F; Henno, S; Levêque, J

    2013-05-01

    The adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix accounts for 10 to 20% of the premalignant and malignant lesions and is different from the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Recent literature review (from 1985 to 2012) based on the literature available. Adenocarcinoma in situ is an induced HPV lesion (role of HPV 18) of the glandular epithelium: its preferential endocervical situation explains the difficulties in the diagnosis and follow-up after conservative treatment. If the hysterectomy remains the gold standard for treatment, the conservative treatments (resection in sano of the lesions with margins of more than 1cm, meticulous study of the operative specimen, compliance with the follow-up) are possible in the young patients who desire to preserve their fertility. The invasive adenocarcinoma is characterized by a more difficult diagnosis because of its endocervical development, and a prognosis less favorable when compared to squamous cell carcinoma with a greater frequency of the lymphatic node involvement and metastatic diffusion. Its treatment must take into account the particular gravity of the factors of worse prognosis (FIGO stage, tumor size, lymphatic node spreading, adenosquamous histological subtype) in particular in the advanced stages and includes beside the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  4. Endometrial receptivity and implantation are not affected by the presence of uterine intramural leiomyomas: a clinical and functional genomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Horcajadas, José A; Goyri, Eduardo; Higón, María A; Martínez-Conejero, José A; Gambadauro, Pietro; García, Gabriela; Meseguer, Marcos; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most frequent benign tumors during reproductive age. Whether intramural leiomyomas cause infertility and should be removed is controversial because no study has addressed the underlying mechanism of infertility. The objective of the study was to test the effect of intramural leiomyomas on endometrial function by comparing gene during the window of implantation and implantation in an oocyte donation program, in which the quality of the embryos replaced is similar and the endocrine environment of the endometrium is standardized by exogenous steroids. Human endometria of women with single intramural leiomyomas (group A, <5 cm and group B, > or =5 cm) and controls (group C) were collected on day LH+7 and processed for histology and gene expression analysis, using different methods and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. To compare in vitro fertilization outcome, a total of 1035 cases from our oocyte donation database were included, comprising patients with one fibroid less than 5 cm (A1, n = 532); two leiomyomas less than 5 cm (A2, n = 128); three or more leiomyomas less than 5 cm (A3, n = 125); one fibroid 5 cm or greater (B, n = 22); and two control groups: C1 (n = 93), women with previous myomectomy; and C2 (n = 135), women without uterine pathology treated on the same dates as C1. There was a strong positive and negative correlation in the expression profile of 69 genes according to the leiomyomas's size, but only three of the 25 genes related to the window of implantation were dysregulated. Term pregnancy rates after oocyte donation were 36.9, 34.1, 39.0, 36.4, 39.2, and 42.6% (P = 0.769) among the established groups. Similarly, no correlation between implantation and miscarriage with leiomyoma number and size was found. This study provides evidence that intramural leiomyomas not affecting the endometrial cavity alters the expression pattern of some endometrial genes, but the genes involved in implantation are not affected. This is

  5. Uterine artery leptin receptors during the ovarian cycle and pregnancy regulate angiogenesis in ovine uterine artery endothelial cells†

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Vladimir E.; Landeros, Rosalina Villalon; Lopez, Gladys E.; Zheng, Jing; Magness, Ronald R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Leptin regulates body weight, reproductive functions, blood pressure, endothelial function, and fetoplacental angiogenesis. Compared to the luteal phase, the follicular phase and pregnancy are physiological states of elevated estrogen, angiogenesis, and uterine blood flow (UBF). Little is known concerning regulation of uterine artery (UA) angiogenesis by leptin and its receptors. We hypothesized that (1) ex vivo expression of leptin receptors (LEPR) in UA endothelium (UAendo) and UA vascular smooth muscle (UAvsm) is elevated in pregnant versus nonpregnant (Luteal and Follicular) sheep; (2) in vitro leptin treatments differentially modulate mitogenesis in uterine artery endothelial cells from pregnant (P-UAECs) more than in nonpregnant (NP-UAECs) ewes; and (3) LEPR are upregulated in P-UAECs versus NP-UAECs in association with leptin activation of phospho-STAT3 signaling. Local UA adaptations were evaluated using a unilateral pregnant sheep model where prebreeding uterine horn isolation (nongravid) restricted gravidity to one horn. Immunolocalization revealed LEPR in UAendo and UAvsm from pregnant and nonpregnant sheep. Contrary to our hypothesis, western analysis revealed that follicular UAendo and UAvsm LEPR were greater than luteal, nongravid, gravid, and control pregnant. Compared to pregnant groups, LEPR were elevated in renal artery endothelium of follicular and luteal sheep. Leptin treatment significantly increased mitogenesis in follicular phase NP-UAECs and P-UAECs, but not luteal phase NP-UAECs. Although UAEC expression of LEPR was similar between groups, leptin treatment only activated phospho-STAT3 in follicular NP-UAECs and P-UAECs. Thus, leptin may play an angiogenic role particularly in preparation for the increased UBF during the periovulatory period and subsequently to meet the demands of the growing fetus. PMID:28339937

  6. EMMPRIN Is Secreted by Human Uterine Epithelial Cells in Microvesicles and Stimulates Metalloproteinase Production by Human Uterine Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dayger, C. A.; Mehrotra, P.; Belton, R. J.; Nowak, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells with estradiol or phorbyl 12-myristate-13-acetate increased the release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles. The HES CM stimulated MMP-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in human uterine fibroblasts (HUFs) and EMMPRIN immunodepletion from HES-cell concentrated CM reduced MMP stimulation (P < .05). Treatment of HUF cells with low concentrations of IL-1β/α stimulated MMP production (P < .05). These results indicate that HES cells regulate MMP production by HUF cells by secretion of EMMPRIN, in response to ovarian hormones, proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of protein kinase C. PMID:22729071

  7. EMMPRIN is secreted by human uterine epithelial cells in microvesicles and stimulates metalloproteinase production by human uterine fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Braundmeier, A G; Dayger, C A; Mehrotra, P; Belton, R J; Nowak, R A

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial remodeling is a physiological process involved in the gynecological disease, endometriosis. Tissue remodeling is directed by uterine fibroblast production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Several MMPs are regulated directly by the protein extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and also by proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)1-α/β. We hypothesized that human uterine epithelial cells (HESs) secrete intact EMMPRIN to stimulate MMPs. Microvesicles from HES cell-conditioned medium (CM) expressed intact EMMPRIN protein. Treatment of HES cells with estradiol or phorbyl 12-myristate-13-acetate increased the release of EMMPRIN-containing microvesicles. The HES CM stimulated MMP-1, -2, and -3 messenger RNA levels in human uterine fibroblasts (HUFs) and EMMPRIN immunodepletion from HES-cell concentrated CM reduced MMP stimulation (P < .05). Treatment of HUF cells with low concentrations of IL-1β/α stimulated MMP production (P < .05). These results indicate that HES cells regulate MMP production by HUF cells by secretion of EMMPRIN, in response to ovarian hormones, proinflammatory cytokines as well as activation of protein kinase C.

  8. A Comparative Observational Study of the Use of Saline Uterine Hydrosonography for the Diagnosis and Assessment of Uterine Cavity Lesions in Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of saline hydrosonography (HSGM) (also known as saline infusion sonography (SIS)) against transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cavity lesions. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy is considered as the “gold standard” to diagnose intrauterine abnormalities. The introduction of HSGM has improved the diagnostic capability of ultrasound. It is important to establish the efficacy and safety of HSGM before it is widely recommended for use. This retrospective observational data was collected from all 223 patients who underwent TVS, HSGM, and hysteroscopy as part of their gynaecological investigations from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 at Central Middlesex Hospital, London. Endometrial Polyps. TVS: sensitivity 60.53%, specificity 97.06%, positive predictive value (PPV) 95.83%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 68.75% and HSGM: sensitivity 95%, specificity 97.14%, PPV 97.44%, and NPV 94.44%. Submucous Leiomyoma. TVS: sensitivity 57.14%, specificity 93.48%, PPV 84.21%, and NPV 78.18% and HSGM: sensitivity 96.55%, specificity 100.00%, PPV 100.00%, and NPV 97.92%. Diagnostic efficacy of HSGM is superior to TVS for the diagnosis of endometrial polyps and submucous fibroids. HSGM should be considered as an intermediate investigation after TVS to assess intracavity pathology and to confirm the diagnosis; hysteroscopy should become a therapeutic intervention. PMID:27597989

  9. Extensive uterine arteriovenous malformation with hemodynamic instability: Embolization for whole myometrium affection.

    PubMed

    El Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Elshafei, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Patients typically present with vaginal bleeding which may be life-threatening. Treatment depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, localization and size of the lesion. Embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients in the reproductive age. We report a case of acquired AVM with an extensive lesion on ultrasound and MRI, which was successfully treated with uterine artery embolization for severe bleeding (UAE). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  11. Prognostic factors and treatment outcomes in surgically-staged non-invasive uterine clear cell carcinoma: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the prognosis of surgically-staged non-invasive uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC), and to determine the role of adjuvant therapy. Methods A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with UCCC who underwent surgical treatment between 1997 and 2016 at 8 Gynecologic Oncology Centers. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected. Results A total of 232 women with UCCC were identified. Of these, 53 (22.8%) had surgically-staged non-invasive UCCC. Twelve patients (22.6%) were upstaged at surgical assessment, including a 5.6% rate of lymphatic dissemination (3/53). Of those, 1 had stage IIIA, 1 had stage IIIC1, 1 had stage IIIC2, and 9 had stage IVB disease. Of the 9 women with stage IVB disease, 5 had isolated omental involvement indicating omentum as the most common metastatic site. UCCC limited only to the endometrium with no extra-uterine disease was confirmed in 41 women (73.3%) after surgical staging. Of those, 13 women (32%) were observed without adjuvant treatment whereas 28 patients (68%) underwent adjuvant therapy. The 5-year disease-free survival rates for patients with and without adjuvant treatment were 100.0% vs. 74.1%, respectively (p=0.060). Conclusion Extra-uterine disease may occur in the absence of myometrial invasion (MMI), therefore comprehensive surgical staging including omentectomy should be the standard of care for women with UCCC regardless of the depth of MMI. Larger cohorts are needed in order to clarify the necessity of adjuvant treatment for women with UCCC truly confined to the endometrium. PMID:28541637

  12. [Influencing factors of reproduction status of patients undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy].

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-hui; Zhang, Song-ying; Li, Bai-jia; Wei, Wei; Huang, Dong; Lin, Xiao-na; Lou, Hong-ying

    2013-09-17

    To explore the influencing factors of reproduction status in women undergoing laparoscopic myomectomy (LM). A total of 278 LM patients were recruited.We retrospectively reviewed the reproduction status of 87 pregnant cases after LM. The correlations of their pregnancy outcomes and such clinical profiles as age, operative techniques, biological characteristics of fibroids (number, type, size and location) were analyzed.No uterine rupture occurred during the gestation period. None of them switched to open surgery due to laparoscopic difficulties. However, one patient had a laparoscopic suture for secondary bleeding of uterine incision. At 3 months post-operation, sonography showed no heterogeneous echo, effusion and hematoma in uterine incision.Incision through uterine cavity occurred intraoperatively in 8 cases, but no intrauterine adhesion was found on hysteroscopy 3 months later. And 87 women became pregnant and the postoperative fertilization time was from 2 months to 5 years. Age influenced the postoperative pregnancy rate.Other factors such as location, number and size of fibroid had no impact on fertility. For achieving a high conception rate and guaranteeing the safety of pregnant women, a clinician should select reasonable surgical approaches, perform accurate anatomical restoration, apply strict hemostasis and choose a right time of conception.

  13. [Research of gestrinone-related abnormal uterine bleeding and the intervention in the treatment: a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Duan, H; Wang, S; Hao, M; Chen, L; Tang, J; Wang, X; Peng, Y Z; Zhang, S C; Cao, L R; Yu, J J

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the incidence, influencing factors and intervention of gestrinone-related abnormal uterine bleeding at different dosage of gestrinone in the clinical treatment. This was a multicenter, randomized, control study of 195 Chinese women with endometriosis or adenomyosis from June 2011 to November 2013. The subjects were randomized into three groups with oral administration of gestrinone, 2.5 mg dose at one time; twice a week group: 67 cases with oral administration twice a week last three months; double dose first month group: 67 cases with oral administration triple times a week at first month, then twice a week for two months; three times a week group: 61 cases with oral administration three times a week last three months. The improvement of the abnormal uterine bleeding, the changes in estrogen, liver function and blood coagulation were evaluated. At the same time, B-ultrasound examination evaluation were performed. (1) Three months later, the incidence of abnormal uterine bleeding in twice a week group was 30% (20/67), in double dose first month group and three times a week group were 7%(5/67) and 16% (10/61) respectively, there were significant difference between three groups (P<0.05). The incidence in double dose first month group was the most lower. (2) Univariate analysis showed that the dosage and ovarian size were the significant factors for abnormal uterine bleeding (OR=0.461,P= 0.003;OR=0.303,P=0.016); logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of abnormal uterine bleeding in double dose first month group was the lowest when compared with twice a week group and three times a week group, the risk in twice a week group was 5-fold higher than that in double dose first month group (OR=0.211,P=0.011). The incidence of abnormal uterine bleeding in participants with abnormal ovarian volume results from ovarian cyst or ovarian surgery was significantly lower than those with normal ovarian volume (OR=0.304,P=0.018). (3) After the treatment

  14. Use of Non-invasive Uterine Electromyography in the Diagnosis of Preterm Labour

    PubMed Central

    Lucovnik, M.; Novak-Antolic, Z.; Garfield, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive values of methods currently used in the clinics to diagnose preterm labour are low. This leads to missed opportunities to improve neonatal outcomes and, on the other hand, to unnecessary hospitalizations and treatments. In addition, research of new and potentially more effective preterm labour treatments is hindered by the inability to include only patients in true preterm labour into studies. Uterine electromyography (EMG) detects changes in cell excitability and coupling required for labour and has higher predictive values for preterm delivery than currently available methods. This methodology could also provide a better means to evaluate various therapeutic interventions for preterm labour. Our manuscript presents a review of uterine EMG studies examining the potential clinical value that this technology possesses over what is available to physicians currently. We also evaluated the impact that uterine EMG could have on investigation of preterm labour treatments by calculating sample sizes for studies using EMG vs. current methods to enrol women. Besides helping clinicians to make safer and more cost-effective decisions when managing patients with preterm contractions, implementation of uterine EMG for diagnosis of preterm labour would also greatly reduce sample sizes required for studies of treatments. PMID:24753891

  15. Laparoscopic uterine surgery as a risk factor for uterine rupture during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chao, Angel; Chang, Wei-Yang; Su, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Chin-Jung

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of uterine rupture through a previous cesarean scar (CS) is declining as a result of a lower parity and fewer options for vaginal birth after cesarean. However, uterine ruptures attributable to other causes that traumatize the myometrium are on the rise. To determine whether changes in the causes of uterine rupture had occurred in recent years, we retrospective retrieved the clinical records of all singletons with uterine rupture observed in the delivery room of a Taiwanese tertiary obstetric center over a 15-year period. The overall uterine rupture rate was 3.8 per 10,000 deliveries. A total of 22 cases in 20 women (with two of them experiencing two episodes). Seven uterine ruptures occurred through a previous cesarean scar (CS ruptures, 32%), 13 through a non-cesarean scar (non-CS ruptures, 59%), whereas the remaining two (9%) were in women who did not previously undergo any surgery. All of the 13 non-CS ruptures were identified in women with a history of laparoscopic procedures to the uterus. Specifically, 10 (76%) occurred after a previous laparoscopic myomectomy, one (8%) following a hysteroscopic myomectomy, and two (16%) after a laparoscopic wedge resection of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Severe bleeding (blood loss >1500 mL) requiring transfusions was more frequent in women who experienced non-CS compared with CS ruptures (10 versus 1 case, respectively, P = 0.024). Patients with a history of endoscopic uterine surgery should be aware of uterine rupture during pregnancy.

  16. Laparoscopic uterine surgery as a risk factor for uterine rupture during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chao, An-Shine; Chang, Yao-Lung; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chao, Angel; Chang, Wei-Yang; Su, Sheng-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of uterine rupture through a previous cesarean scar (CS) is declining as a result of a lower parity and fewer options for vaginal birth after cesarean. However, uterine ruptures attributable to other causes that traumatize the myometrium are on the rise. To determine whether changes in the causes of uterine rupture had occurred in recent years, we retrospective retrieved the clinical records of all singletons with uterine rupture observed in the delivery room of a Taiwanese tertiary obstetric center over a 15-year period. The overall uterine rupture rate was 3.8 per 10,000 deliveries. A total of 22 cases in 20 women (with two of them experiencing two episodes). Seven uterine ruptures occurred through a previous cesarean scar (CS ruptures, 32%), 13 through a non-cesarean scar (non-CS ruptures, 59%), whereas the remaining two (9%) were in women who did not previously undergo any surgery. All of the 13 non-CS ruptures were identified in women with a history of laparoscopic procedures to the uterus. Specifically, 10 (76%) occurred after a previous laparoscopic myomectomy, one (8%) following a hysteroscopic myomectomy, and two (16%) after a laparoscopic wedge resection of cornual ectopic pregnancy. Severe bleeding (blood loss >1500 mL) requiring transfusions was more frequent in women who experienced non-CS compared with CS ruptures (10 versus 1 case, respectively, P = 0.024). Patients with a history of endoscopic uterine surgery should be aware of uterine rupture during pregnancy. PMID:29787604

  17. Umbilical cord mesenchyme stem cell local intramuscular injection for treatment of uterine niche: Protocol for a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping

    2017-11-01

    Uterine niche is defined as a triangular anechoic structure at the site of the scar or a gap in the myometrium at the site of a previous caesarean section. The main clinical manifestations are postmenstrual spotting and intrauterine infection, which may seriously affect the daily life of nonpregnant women. Trials have shown an excellent safety and efficacy for the potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a therapeutic option for scar reconstruction. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of using MSCs in the treatment for the uterine niche. This phase II clinical trial is a single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled with 2 arms. One hundred twenty primiparous participants will be randomly (1:1 ratio) assigned to receive direct intramuscular injection of MSCs (a dose of 1*10 cells in 1 mL of 0.9% saline) (MSCs group) or an identical-appearing 1 mL of 0.9% saline (placebo-controlled group) near the uterine incision. The primary outcome of this trial is to evaluate the proportion of participants at 6 months who is found uterine niche in the uterus by transvaginal utrasonography. Adverse events will be documented in a case report form. The study will be conducted at the Department of Obstetric of Southern Medical University Affiliated Maternal & Child Health Hospital of Foshan. This trial is the first investigation of the potential for therapeutic use of MSCs for the management of uterine niche after cesarean delivery. This protocol will help to determine the efficacy and safety of MSCs treatment in uterine niche and bridge the gap with regards to the current preclinical and clinical evidence. NCT02968459 (Clinical Trials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/).

  18. Doppler sonography of the uterine arteries during a superovulatory regime in cattle. Uterine blood flow in superovulated cattle.

    PubMed

    Honnens, A; Niemann, H; Paul, V; Meyer, H H D; Bollwein, H

    2008-09-15

    Transrectal color Doppler sonography was used to investigate the effects of a gonadotropin treatment to induce superovulation on uterine blood flow and its relationship with steroid hormone levels, ovarian response and embryo yield in dairy cows. The estrous cycle of 42 cows was synchronized by using PGF(2alpha) during diestrus and GnRH 48 h later (Day 0). Cows were examined on the day of eCG (2750 IU)-administration (Day 10), 3 days after eCG (Day 13) and 7 days after artificial insemination (Day 22), including the determination of total estrogens (E) and progesterone (P(4)) in peripheral plasma. Eight days after insemination (Day 23) the uterus was flushed and the number of total ova and embryos as well as transferable embryos was determined. The ovarian response was defined by the number of follicles>5.0mm in diameter on Day 13 and the number of corpora lutea on Day 22. Uterine blood flow was reflected by the blood flow volume (BFV) and the pulsatility index (PI) in the uterine arteries. Both variables showed distinct changes throughout the superovulatory cycle: BFV increased by 94% and PI decreased by 30% between Days 10 and 22 (P<0.0001). On Day 13, BFV but not PI correlated with follicle numbers (r=0.35; P<0.05); no correlation was found with E and P(4) (P>0.05). On Day 22, BFV correlated positively and PI correlated negatively with the number of corpora lutea (r=0.45 and r=-0.37; P<0.05) and P(4) (r=0.39 and r=-0.30; P<0.05). The number of transferable embryos was solely related to BFV measured on Day 13 (r=0.32; P<0.05). Our results show for the first time that in cows a superovulatory treatment is associated with a marked increase in BFV and a marked decrease in PI in the uterine arteries, concurrent with the development of multiple follicles and corpora lutea. However, transrectal color Doppler sonography of the uterine arteries does not facilitate the prediction of embryo yields following superovulatory treatment.

  19. Myomectomy for retained placenta due to incarcerated fibroid mass.

    PubMed

    Mbamara, S U; Daniyan, Abc; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, I C

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy.

  20. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin as a Possible Mediator of Leiomyoma Growth during Pregnancy: Molecular Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sarais, Veronica; Cermisoni, Greta Chiara; Schimberni, Matteo; Alteri, Alessandra; Papaleo, Enrico; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vigano', Paola

    2017-09-20

    Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy. Fibroid growth during initial pregnancy seems to correlate to the similar increase of serum hCG levels until 12 weeks of gestation. The presence of functional Luteinizing Hormone/human Chorionic Gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptors was demonstrated on leiomyomas. In vitro treatment of leiomyoma cells with hCG determines an up to 500% increase in cell number after three days. Expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was significantly increased in leiomyoma cells by hCG treatment. Moreover, upon binding to the receptor, hCG stimulates prolactin secretion in leiomyoma cells, promoting cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Fibroid enlargement during initial pregnancy may be regulated by serum hCG.

  1. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin as a Possible Mediator of Leiomyoma Growth during Pregnancy: Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Sarais, Veronica; Cermisoni, Greta Chiara; Schimberni, Matteo; Alteri, Alessandra; Papaleo, Enrico; Somigliana, Edgardo; Vigano’, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic benign tumors. Studies supporting a strong pregnancy-related growth of leiomyomas generally claimed a crucial role of sex steroid hormones. However, sex steroids are unlikely the unique actors involved as estrogen and progesterone achieve a pick serum concentration in the last trimester while leiomyomas show a typical increase during the first trimester. Given the rapid exponential raise in serum human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG) at the beginning of gestation, we conducted a review to assess the potential role of hCG in the striking growth of leiomyomas during initial pregnancy. Fibroid growth during initial pregnancy seems to correlate to the similar increase of serum hCG levels until 12 weeks of gestation. The presence of functional Luteinizing Hormone/human Chorionic Gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptors was demonstrated on leiomyomas. In vitro treatment of leiomyoma cells with hCG determines an up to 500% increase in cell number after three days. Expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 was significantly increased in leiomyoma cells by hCG treatment. Moreover, upon binding to the receptor, hCG stimulates prolactin secretion in leiomyoma cells, promoting cell proliferation via the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Fibroid enlargement during initial pregnancy may be regulated by serum hCG. PMID:28930160

  2. Control of Postpartum Hemorrhage Using Vacuum-Induced Uterine Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Purwosunu, Yuditiya; Sarkoen, Widyastuti; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Segnitz, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade is a possible alternative approach to balloon tamponade systems for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage resulting from atony. In a prospective proof-of-concept investigation of 10 women with vaginal deliveries in a hospital setting who failed first-line therapies for postpartum hemorrhage, tamponade was used. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade was created through a device inserted transvaginally into the uterine cavity. An occlusion balloon built into the device shaft was inflated at the level of the external cervical os to create a uterine seal. Negative pressure was created by attaching a self-contained, mobile, electrically powered, pressure-regulated vacuum pump with a sterile graduated canister. In all 10 cases, the suction created an immediate seal at the cervical os, 50-250 mL of residual blood was evacuated from the uterine cavity, the uterus collapsed and regained tone within minutes, and hemorrhaging was controlled. The device remained in place for a minimum of 1 hour and up to 6.5 hours in one case while vaginal and perineal lacerations were easily repaired. This preliminary investigation suggests that a device designed to create vacuum-induced uterine tamponade may be a reasonable alternative to other devices used to treat atonic postpartum hemorrhage.

  3. [Recurrence of a rudimentary uterine horn rupture at 25 weeks of gestation: a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmied, R; Sentilhes, L; Baron, M; Grzegorczyk, V; Resch, B; Marpeau, L

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn is a rare event which can be revealed by uterine rupture. Following the fetal extraction, some authors recommend the ablation of the rudimentary horn, in order to limit the risk of uterine rupture in case of subsequent pregnancy in the same horn. We report the obstetrical outcome of a patient with a history of rudimentary uterine horn rupture the treatment of which was conservative.

  4. Pregnancy outcome following myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Begum, N; Anwary, S A; Alfazzaman, M; Sultana, P; Banu, J; Deeba, F; Mahzabin, Z; Nahar, K N

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, abdominal myomectomy is still a modality of treatment for large and symptomatic uterine fibroid in women who wish to retain their fertility and preserve uterus. In order to assess the outcome of pregnancies after myomectomy, a prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 1999 and June 2011. Study included 40 married women of reproductive age, suffering either from primary or secondary subfertility, and who had uterine fibroid and strongly wished to conceive shortly after myomectomy using microsurgical procedure with no existence of other male and female subfertility factor. These women were followed up at 3, 6, 12 and 24 month intervals over telephone and outdoor visits. Data were recorded on preformed questionnaires. Post myomectomy hysterosalpingography was done at about 16 weeks after myomectomy. Patients were advised to try for pregnancy after 16 weeks of operation. Maximum number of women belonged to age group 31-35 years (n=14, 35%); primary subfertility was 67.5% and secondary 32.5%; in maximum number of cases duration of subfertility was 2-5 years (n=22, 55%); type of fibroid were solitary (52.5%) and multiple (47.5%); type of myoma were intramural (75%), submucous (2.5%) and combined (22.5%); location of myoma were fundal (5%), anterior wall (25%), posterior wall (20%) and combined (50%); diameter of removed myoma were <5cm (2.5%), 5-8cm (67.5%), >8-10(20%) and >10cm (10%); uterine size before myomectomy were (in weeks) <12(22.5%), 12-14 (27.5%), 15-20 (32.5%), 21-25 (15%) and >25 (2.5%). Hysterosalpingography was done in 16(40%) cases, and the findings were both tube patent (62.5%), unilateral tubal block (31.2%) and bilateral tubal block (6.2%). Menorrhagia after myomectomy was present only in 5% cases. After uterine myomectomy, 14(35%) women conceived, common time interval between myomectomy and

  5. Uterine torsion in a full-term pregnant cat.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kohei; Osaki, Tomohiro; Harada, Kazuki; Yamashita, Masamichi; Murahata, Yusuke; Azuma, Kazuo; Tsuka, Takeshi; Ito, Norihiko; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2017-01-01

    A 5-year-old intact female Maine Coon cat presented with a 2 day history of lethargy, anorexia and anaemia. The cat had bred 60 days previously and jumped from a height 3 days earlier, which was followed by a worsening of its condition. Ultrasonography revealed that two fetuses had died and one remained alive. Urgent surgical intervention was deemed necessary, and the cat underwent a blood transfusion and laparotomy. The right uterine horn was dark red in appearance and had rotated 360° in the clockwise direction at its base. Subsequently, an ovariohysterectomy and caesarean section were performed, and the fetus in the left uterine horn initially survived. Although the cat appeared to recover from anaemia and physical injury, the kitten died on postoperative day 1. In cases involving only one twisted uterine horn, the fetuses located in the contralateral horn could potentially survive; however, many such fetuses do not survive, and only a few reports have described fetal survival in a pregnant cat with uterine torsion. In the present case, early surgical intervention and blood transfusion allowed us to save the cat. Our findings demonstrate the life-saving abilities of initial support treatment and early surgical intervention for both the pregnant cat and fetuses in cases of acute abdomen caused by uterine torsion.

  6. Myomectomy for Retained Placenta Due to Incarcerated Fibroid Mass

    PubMed Central

    Mbamara, SU; Daniyan, ABC; Osaro, Ejenobo; Mbah, IC

    2015-01-01

    Retained placenta is one of the most common complications of preterm delivery and/or mid-trimester miscarriage. It is an important cause of increased maternal morbidity and sometimes mortality especially in developing countries. It is associated with several complications that could be tasking to the facility and of great challenge to the obstetrician. Here we present a very rare event in obstetrics which is retained placenta due to incarcerated, posteriorly-sited fibroid that was successfully managed with myomectomy. PMID:25861539

  7. A comparison between electrical uterine monitor, tocodynamometer and intra uterine pressure catheter for uterine activity in labor.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Eran; Biron-Shental, Tal; Gavish, Oz; Raban, Oded; Yogev, Yariv

    2015-08-01

    We aimed to evaluate the performance of a non-invasive EMG electrical uterine monitor (EUM) versus tocodynamometry (TOCO) by comparing both to internal uterine pressure catheter (IUPC). Prospective observational trial. Uterine activity was recorded continuously and simultaneously, in women during active term labor, with TOCO, EUM and IUPC. Uterine activity tracings were analyzed by three blinded physicians. Overall, 385 tracings from 43 women were analyzed. A similar rate of interpretable tracings between physicians was demonstrated for EUM (87%; 95% CI 80.9-92.7%) and IUPC (94.8%; 95% CI 83.4-96.3%), with a significantly lower rate for TOCO (67.5%; 95% CI 59.4-76.8%, p < 0.001). There is a significant difference in the contraction frequency for EUM versus IUPC (0.77 ± 2.3) compared to TOCO versus IUPC (-3.34 ± 4.97). There is a high variability between the timing of TOCO contractions as compared to IUPC (4.74 ± 10.03 seconds), while a gap of 8.46 ± 4.24 seconds was detected for EUM. The sensitivity, positive predictive value and false positive rate for individual contraction identification by TOCO and EUM are 54.0%, 84.4%, 15.6% and 94.2%, 87.6%, 12.4%, respectively. EUM is efficient as IUPC for uterine activity assessment and both techniques are superior in comparison to external tocodynamometry. Our results support the use of non-invasive EMG technology to monitor uterine activity.

  8. Pelvic Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a routine physical exam to find possible signs of ovarian cysts, sexually transmitted infections, uterine fibroids or early-stage cancer. Pelvic exams are also commonly performed during pregnancy. There is a lot of debate among experts ...

  9. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system use in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenxiao; Shen, Qi; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xuejie; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2014-08-01

    A systematic review is done to determine the efficacy and safety of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems as a treatment using in premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyoma. We searched the Medline, Central and ICTRP databases for all articles published from inception through July 2013 that examined the following outcomes: uterine volume, uterine leiomyoma volume, endometrial thickness, then menstrual blood loss, blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels, treatment failure rate, device expulsion rate, hysterectomy rate and side effects. From 645 studies, a total of 11 studies met our inclusion criteria with sample sizes ranging from 10 to 104. Evidence suggested that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems could decrease uterine volume and endometrial thickness, significantly reduce menstrual blood loss, and increase blood haemoglobin, ferritin and hematocrit levels. There was no evidence for decreasing uterine leiomyoma volume. There were no adverse effects on the ovarian function except for ovarian cysts. Device expulsion rates were low, which associated with leiomyoma size (larger than 3cm) but not with leiomyoma location. Irregular bleeding/spotting was observed at the beginning of the follow-up period and then decreased progressively. Results of this systematic review indicate that levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems may be effective and safe treatment for symptomatic uterine leiomyoma in premenopausal women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acidification of uterine epithelium during embryo implantation in mice†

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Shuo; Li, Rong; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E.; Diao, Honglu; Zhao, Fei; Choi, Yongwon; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is essential for establishing uterine receptivity. Previous microarray analysis revealed upregulation of Atp6v0d2 in gestation day 4.5 (D4.5) LE in mice. Realtime PCR showed upregulation of uterine Atp6v0d2 starting right before embryo attachment ∼D4.0. In situ hybridization demonstrated specific uterine localization of Atp6v0d2 in LE upon embryo implantation. Atp6v0d2 encodes one subunit for vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase), which regulates acidity of intracellular organelles and extracellular environment. LysoSensor Green DND-189 detected acidic signals in LE and glandular epithelium upon embryo implantation, correlating with Atp6v0d2 upregulation in early pregnant uterus. Atp6v0d2−/− females had significantly reduced implantation rate and marginally reduced delivery rate from first mating only, but comparable number of implantation sites and litter size compared to control and comparable fertility to control from subsequent matings, suggesting a nonessential role of Atp6v0d2 subunit in embryo implantation. Successful implantation in both control and Atp6v0d2−/− females was associated with uterine epithelial acidification. No significant compensatory upregulation of Atp6v0d1 mRNA was detected in D4.5 Atp6v0d2−/− uteri. To determine the role of V-ATPase instead of a single subunit in embryo implantation, a specific V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (2.5 μg/kg) was injected via uterine fat pad on D3 18:00 h. This treatment resulted in reduced uterine epithelial acidification, delayed implantation, and reduced number of implantation sites. It also suppressed oil-induced artificial decidualization. These data demonstrate uterine epithelial acidification as a novel phenomenon during embryo implantation and V-ATPase is involved in uterine epithelial acidification and uterine preparation for embryo implantation. PMID:28395338

  12. Value of in vitro acoustic radiation force impulse application on uterine adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Bildaci, Tevfik Berk; Cevik, Halime; Yilmaz, Birnur; Desteli, Guldeniz Aksan

    2017-11-24

    Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial glandular and stromal tissue in the myometrium. This phenomenon can be the cause of excessive bleeding and menstrual pain in premenopausal women. Diagnosis of adenomyosis may present difficulty with conventional methods such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Frequently, diagnosis is accomplished retrospectively based on the hysterectomy specimen. This is a prospective case control study done in vitro on 90 patients' hysterectomy specimens. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) and color elastography were used to determine the elasticity of hysterectomy specimens of patients undergoing indicated surgeries. Based on histopathological examinations, two groups were formed: a study group (n = 28-with adenomyosis) and a control group (n = 62-without adenomyosis). Elasticity measurements of tissue with adenomyosis were observed to be significantly higher than measurements of normal myometrial tissue (p < 0.01). Uterine fibroids were found to have higher values on ARFI study compared to normal myometrial tissues (p < 0.01). The findings lead to the conclusion that adenomyosis tissue is significantly softer than the normal myometrium. ARFI was found to be beneficial in differentiating myometrial tissue with adenomyosis from normal myometrial tissue. It was found to be feasible and beneficial to implement ARFI in daily gynecology practice for diagnosis of adenomyosis.

  13. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk, E-mail: mdkim@yuhs.ac; Lee, Kwang-hun

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  14. The role of lymphadenectomy in uterine leiomyosarcoma: review of the literature and recommendations for the standard surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Dafopoulos, Alexandros; Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Dimitraki, Marina; Galazios, Georgios; Liberis, Vasileios; Maroulis, Georgios; Teichmann, Alexander Tobias

    2010-09-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare and aggressive gynaecologic malignancies with poor prognosis, arising from myometrial or endometrial tissue. These rare cancers can be aggressive, and account for a greatly disproportionate amount of deaths from uterine cancers. The histological uterine sarcomas classification includes carcinosarcomas (malignant mesodermal mixed tumors), accounting for 40% of cases, leiomyosarcomas (40%) and endometrial stromal sarcomas (10-15%). Each group of these tumors presents differences in diagnosis, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcome. Uterine leiomyosarcomas typically affects women in their sixth decade of life, presenting with atypical symptoms such as abnormal uterine bleeding and abdominal pain. The optimal treatment of uterine leiomyosarcomas is surgery, including total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the standard surgical procedure of uterine leiomyosarcomas and investigate whether lymphadenectomy affects the 5-year DSS, as well as other relevant clinical outcomes, in women with uterine leiomyosarcomas. For this purpose, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases were reviewed, and a critical account of the management strategies of these tumors is presented.

  15. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Godin, Richard; Marcoux, Violaine; Tagalakis, Vicky

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common complication of anticoagulant therapy in premenopausal women affected with acute venous thromboembolism. AUB impacts quality of life, and can lead to premature cessation of anticoagulation. There is increasing data to suggest that the direct oral anticoagulants when used for the treatment of venous thromboembolism differ in their menstrual bleeding profile. This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Developmental Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol Alters Uterine Gene Expression That May Be Associated With Uterine Neoplasia Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Grissom, Sherry F.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Snyder, Ryan J.; Lobenhofer, Edward K.

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen with estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment. Tumor incidence was dose-dependent reaching >90% by 18 mo following neonatal treatment with 1000 μg/kg/d of DES. These tumors followed the initiation/promotion model of hormonal carcinogenesis with developmental exposure as initiator, and exposure to ovarian hormones at puberty as the promoter. To identify molecular pathways involved in DES-initiation events, uterine gene expression profiles were examined in prepubertal mice exposed to DES (1, 10, or 1000 μg/kg/d) on days 1–5 and compared to controls. Of more than 20 000 transcripts, approximately 3% were differentially expressed in at least one DES treatment group compared to controls; some transcripts demonstrated dose–responsiveness. Assessment of gene ontology annotation revealed alterations in genes associated with cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion. When expression profiles were compared to published studies of uteri from 5-d-old DES-treated mice, or adult mice treated with 17β estradiol, similarities were seen suggesting persistent differential expression of estrogen responsive genes following developmental DES exposure. Moreover, several altered genes were identified in human uterine adenocarcinomas. Four altered genes [lactotransferrin (Ltf), transforming growth factor beta inducible (Tgfb1), cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4)], selected for real-time RT-PCR analysis, correlated well with the directionality of the microarray data. These data suggested altered gene expression profiles observed 2 wk after treatment ceased, were established at the time of developmental exposure and maybe related to the initiation events resulting in carcinogenesis. PMID:17394237

  17. Developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters uterine gene expression that may be associated with uterine neoplasia later in life.

    PubMed

    Newbold, Retha R; Jefferson, Wendy N; Grissom, Sherry F; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Snyder, Ryan J; Lobenhofer, Edward K

    2007-09-01

    Previously, we described a mouse model where the well-known reproductive carcinogen with estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol (DES), caused uterine adenocarcinoma following neonatal treatment. Tumor incidence was dose-dependent reaching >90% by 18 mo following neonatal treatment with 1000 microg/kg/d of DES. These tumors followed the initiation/promotion model of hormonal carcinogenesis with developmental exposure as initiator, and exposure to ovarian hormones at puberty as the promoter. To identify molecular pathways involved in DES-initiation events, uterine gene expression profiles were examined in prepubertal mice exposed to DES (1, 10, or 1000 microg/kg/d) on days 1-5 and compared to controls. Of more than 20 000 transcripts, approximately 3% were differentially expressed in at least one DES treatment group compared to controls; some transcripts demonstrated dose-responsiveness. Assessment of gene ontology annotation revealed alterations in genes associated with cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion. When expression profiles were compared to published studies of uteri from 5-d-old DES-treated mice, or adult mice treated with 17beta estradiol, similarities were seen suggesting persistent differential expression of estrogen responsive genes following developmental DES exposure. Moreover, several altered genes were identified in human uterine adenocarcinomas. Four altered genes [lactotransferrin (Ltf), transforming growth factor beta inducible (Tgfb1), cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4)], selected for real-time RT-PCR analysis, correlated well with the directionality of the microarray data. These data suggested altered gene expression profiles observed 2 wk after treatment ceased, were established at the time of developmental exposure and maybe related to the initiation events resulting in carcinogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Primary uterine inertia in four labrador bitches.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Autumn P

    2011-01-01

    Uterine inertia is a common cause of dystocia in the bitch and is designated as primary (i.e., uterine contractions fail to ever be initiated) or secondary (i.e., uterine contractions cease after a period of time but before labor is completed). The etiology of primary uterine inertia is not well understood. The accurate diagnosis of primary uterine inertia requires the use of tocodynamometry (uterine monitoring). Primary uterine inertia has been postulated to result from a failure of luteolysis resulting in persistently elevated progesterone concentrations. In this study, primary uterine inertia was diagnosed in a series of four bitches in which luteolysis was documented suggesting some other etiopathogenesis for primary uterine inertia.

  19. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants' opinions on and experiences with the services offered. It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well.

  20. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants’ opinions on and experiences with the services offered. Results It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. Conclusion The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well. PMID:22927768

  1. Successful treatment of acquired uterine arterial venous malformation using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate under balloon occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Go; Ishida, Kenichiro; Fujii, Kaoru; Yamane, Takuro; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Keiji; Inoue, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    We present two cases of acquired uterine arterial venous malformation (AVM) which was diagnosed because of massive genital bleeding successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE), using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) under balloon occlusion. Balloon occlusion at the uterine artery was performed in both patients for diffuse distribution of NBCA in multiple feeding branches, as well as to the pseudoaneurysm, and for the prevention of NBCA reflux. In one of our patients, balloon occlusion of the draining vein was simultaneously performed to prevent NBCA migration through accompanying high-flow arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Doppler ultrasound at 6 months of both patients documented persistent complete occlusion of AVM. Complete and safe obliteration of acquired uterine AVM was accomplished using NBCA as embolic agent, under balloon occlusion at the communicating vessels of acquired uterine AVM. PMID:25346850

  2. The medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding in reproductive-aged women.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Linda D; Gueye, Ndeye-Aicha

    2016-01-01

    In the treatment of women with abnormal uterine bleeding, once a thorough history, physical examination, and indicated imaging studies are performed and all significant structural causes are excluded, medical management is the first-line approach. Determining the acuity of the bleeding, the patient's medical history, assessing risk factors, and establishing a diagnosis will individualize their medical regimen. In acute abnormal uterine bleeding with a normal uterus, parenteral estrogen, a multidose combined oral contraceptive regimen, a multidose progestin-only regimen, and tranexamic acid are all viable options, given the appropriate clinical scenario. Heavy menstrual bleeding can be treated with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system, combined oral contraceptives, continuous oral progestins, and tranexamic acid with high efficacy. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs may be utilized with hormonal methods and tranexamic acid to decrease menstrual bleeding. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are indicated in patients with leiomyoma and abnormal uterine bleeding in preparation for surgical interventions. In women with inherited bleeding disorders all hormonal methods as well as tranexamic acid can be used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding. Women on anticoagulation therapy should consider using progestin-only methods as well as a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist to treat their heavy menstrual bleeding. Given these myriad options for medical treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, many patients may avoid surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie; Lane, Emily

    2009-12-01

    A 7-yr-old African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) multiparous bitch experienced severe dystocia and death one day after the onset of parturition. Necropsy revealed three placental attachments in the right uterine horn and one in the left. A full-thickness rupture of the right horn at the middle placental attachment and an autolysed fetus free in the abdomen were present. Death was attributed to hypovolemic and endotoxemic shock after uterine rupture. Myometrium adjacent to the rupture and in the left uterine horn was subdivided into irregular pseudolobules by fibrous connective tissue tracts containing small endometrial glandular acini suggestive of adenomyosis, which may have facilitated uterine rupture. This is the first reported case of dystocia-induced uterine rupture and of adenomyosis in a wild dog.

  4. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  5. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  6. Analysis of intra-uterine fluid motion induced by uterine contractions.

    PubMed

    Eytan, O; Elad, D

    1999-03-01

    Evaluation of the fluid flow pattern in a non-pregnant uterus is important for understanding embryo transport in the uterus. Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tube and the embryo (fertilized ovum) enters the uterine cavity within 3 days of ovulation. In the uterus, the embryo is conveyed by the uterine fluid for another 3 to 4 days to a successful implantation site at the upper part of the uterus. Fluid movements within the uterus may be induced by several mechanisms, but they seem to be dominated by myometrial contractions. Intra-uterine fluid transport in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus was simulated by a model of wall-induced fluid motion within a two-dimensional channel. The time-dependent fluid pattern was studied by employing the lubrication theory. A comprehensive analysis of peristaltic transport resulting from symmetric and asymmetric contractions is presented for various displacement waves on the channel walls. The results provide information on the flow field and possible trajectories by which an embryo may be transported before implantation at the uterine wall.

  7. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O; Tuncer, Serap F; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors.

  8. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed Central

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O.; Tuncer, Serap F.; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Conclusion: A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors. PMID:27464864

  9. Clinical utility of progesterone receptor modulators and their effect on the endometrium.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Irving M

    2009-08-01

    In view of the spate of recent publications related to mifepristone and some second generation progesterone receptor modulators (PRMs), this appears to be an opportune time to view the clinical status of these compounds. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials have been conducted with mifepristone, CDB-4124 (Proellex), CDB-2914 (VA 2914, Ulipristal) and asoprisnil (J867). All these PRMs are effective in the treatment of uterine fibroids where they are associated with a reduction in pain, bleeding and improvement in quality of life and decrease in fibroid size. CDB-4124 is also efficacious in endometriosis. Long-term treatment with PRMs may be associated with endometrial thickening on ultrasound and there have been reports of endometrial hyperplasia. Several reassuring recent publications have done much to explain the mechanism underlying these endometrial changes. The most common histological finding is cystic glandular dilatation often associated with both admixed estrogen (mitotic) and progestin (secretory) epithelial effects. This histology has not been previously encountered in clinical practice and should not be confused with endometrial hyperplasia. The endometrial thickness is related to this cystic glandular dilatation. At this stage of development, PRMs cannot be administered for longer than 3 or 4 months. Even over this time, there is improvement of symptoms associated with fibroids and endometriosis. Clinicians and pathologists need to be aware that the endometrial thickening and histological appearance do not represent endometrial hyperplasia.

  10. Tumor characteristics and survival outcomes of women with tamoxifen-related uterine carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koji; Ross, Malcolm S; Bush, Stephen H; Yunokawa, Mayu; Blake, Erin A; Takano, Tadao; Ueda, Yutaka; Baba, Tsukasa; Satoh, Shinya; Shida, Masako; Ikeda, Yuji; Adachi, Sosuke; Yokoyama, Takuhei; Takekuma, Munetaka; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masato; Iwasaki, Keita; Yanai, Shiori; Klobocista, Merieme M; Johnson, Marian S; Machida, Hiroko; Hasegawa, Kosei; Miyake, Takahito M; Nagano, Tadayoshi; Pejovic, Tanja; Shahzad, Mian Mk; Im, Dwight D; Omatsu, Kohei; Ueland, Frederick R; Kelley, Joseph L; Roman, Lynda D

    2017-02-01

    To examine tumor characteristics and survival outcome of women with uterine carcinosarcoma who had a history of tamoxifen use. This is a multicenter retrospective study examining stage I-IV uterine carcinosarcoma cases based on history of tamoxifen use. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment pattern, and survival outcomes were compared between tamoxifen users and non-users. Sixty-six cases of tamoxifen-related uterine carcinosarcoma were compared to 1009 cases with no history of tamoxifen use. Tamoxifen users were more likely to be older (mean age, 69 versus 64, P<0.001) and had a past history of malignancy (100% versus 12.7%, P<0.001). Tamoxifen-related uterine carcinosarcoma was significantly associated with a higher proportion of stage IA disease (48.4% versus 29.9%) and a lower risk of stage IVB disease (7.8% versus 16.0%) compared to tamoxifen-unrelated carcinosarcoma (P=0.034). Deep myometrial tumor invasion was less common in uterine carcinosarcoma related to tamoxifen use (28.3% versus 48.8%, P=0.002). On univariate analysis, tamoxifen use was not associated with progression-free survival (5-year rates 44.5% versus 46.8%, P=0.48) and disease-specific survival (64.0% versus 59.1%, P=0.39). After adjusting for age, past history of malignancy, stage, residual disease status at surgery, and postoperative treatment patterns, tamoxifen use was not associated with progression-free survival (adjusted-hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.50, P=0.60) and disease-specific survival (adjusted-hazard ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 1.29, P=0.24). Our study suggests that tamoxifen-related uterine carcinosarcoma may have favorable tumor characteristics but have comparable stage-specific survival outcomes compared to tamoxifen-unrelated uterine carcinosarcoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Uterine transplantation: Review in human research.

    PubMed

    Favre-Inhofer, A; Rafii, A; Carbonnel, M; Revaux, A; Ayoubi, J M

    2018-06-01

    Uterine transplantation is the solution to treat absolute uterine fertility. In this review, we present the historical, medical, technical, psychological and ethical perspectives in human uterine transplantation research. We reviewed the PubMed database following PRISMA guidelines and added data presented by several research teams during the first international congress on uterine transplantation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Long-Term Outcomes With Intraoperative Radiotherapy as a Component of Treatment for Locally Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Barney, Brandon M., E-mail: barney.brandon@mayo.edu; Petersen, Ivy A.; Dowdy, Sean C.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To report our institutional experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) as a component of treatment for women with locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2010, 16 women with primary (n = 3) or locoregionally recurrent (n = 13) uterine sarcoma received IORT as a component of combined modality treatment. Tumor histology studies found leiomyosarcoma (n = 9), endometrial stromal sarcoma (n = 4), and carcinosarcoma (n = 3). Surgery consisted of gross total resection in 2 patients, subtotal resection in 6 patients, and resection with close surgical margins in 8 patients. The median IORTmore » dose was 12.5 Gy (range, 10-20 Gy). All patients received perioperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT; median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 20-62.5 Gy), and 6 patients also received perioperative systemic therapy. Results: Seven of the 16 patients are alive at a median follow-up of 44 months (range, 11-203 months). The 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of local relapse (within the EBRT field) was 7%, and central control (within the IORT field) was 100%. No local failures occurred in any of the 6 patients who underwent subtotal resection. The 3-year freedom from distant relapse was 48%, with failures occurring most frequently in the lungs or mediastinum. Median survival was 18 months, and 3-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of cause-specific and overall survival were 58% and 53%, respectively. Three patients (19%) experienced late Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusions: A combined modality approach with perioperative EBRT, surgery, and IORT for locally advanced or recurrent uterine sarcoma resulted in excellent local disease control with acceptable toxicity, even in patients with positive resection margins. With this approach, some patients were able to experience long-term freedom from recurrence.« less

  14. Disparities in uterine cancer epidemiology, treatment, and survival among African Americans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Long, B; Liu, F W; Bristow, R E

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this article is to comprehensively review the scientific literature and summarize the available data regarding the outcome disparities of African American women with uterine cancer. Literature on disparities in uterine cancer was systematically reviewed using the PubMed search engine. Articles from 1992 to 2012 written in English were reviewed. Search terms included endometrial cancer, uterine cancer, racial disparities, and African American. Twenty-four original research articles with a total of 366,299 cases of endometrial cancer (337,597 Caucasian and 28,702 African American) were included. Compared to Caucasian women, African American women comprise 7% of new endometrial cancer cases, while accounting for approximately 14% of endometrial cancer deaths. They are diagnosed with later stage, higher-grade disease, and poorer prognostic histologic types compared to their Caucasian counterparts. They also suffer worse outcomes at every stage, grade, and for every histologic type. The cause of increased mortality is multifactorial. African American and white women have varying incidence of comorbid conditions, genetic susceptibility to malignancy, access to care and health coverage, and socioeconomic status; however, the most consistent contributors to incidence and mortality disparities are histology and socioeconomics. More robust genetic and molecular profile studies are in development to further explain histologic differences. Current studies suggest that histologic and socioeconomic factors explain much of the disparity in endometrial cancer incidence and mortality between white and African American patients. Treatment factors likely contributed historically to differences in mortality; however, studies suggest most women now receive equal care. Molecular differences may be an important factor to explain the racial inequities. Coupled with a sustained commitment to increasing access to appropriate care, on-going research in biologic mechanisms

  15. Disparities in Uterine Cancer Epidemiology, Treatment, and Survival Among African Americans in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Long, B; Liu, FW; Bristow, RE

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to comprehensively review the scientific literature and summarize the available data regarding the outcome disparities of African American women with uterine cancer. Methods Literature on disparities in uterine cancer was systematically reviewed using the PubMed search engine. Articles from 1992-2012 written in English were reviewed. Search terms included endometrial cancer, uterine cancer, racial disparities, and African American. Results Twenty-four original research articles with a total of 366,299 cases of endometrial cancer (337,597 Caucasian and 28,702 African American) were included. Compared to Caucasian women, African American women comprise 7% of new endometrial cancer cases, while accounting for approximately 14% of endometrial cancer deaths. They are diagnosed with later stage, higher-grade disease, and poorer prognostic histologic types compared to their Caucasian counterparts. They also suffer worse outcomes at every stage, grade, and for every histologic type. The cause of increased mortality is multifactorial. African American and white women have varying incidence of comorbid conditions, genetic susceptibility to malignancy, access to care and health coverage, and socioeconomic status; however, the most consistent contributors to incidence and mortality disparities are histology and socioeconomics. More robust genetic and molecular profile studies are in development to further explain histologic differences. Conclusions Current studies suggest that histologic and socioeconomic factors explain much of the disparity in endometrial cancer incidence and mortality between white and African American patients. Treatment factors likely contributed historically to differences in mortality; however, studies suggest most women now receive equal care. Molecular differences may be an important factor to explain the racial inequities. Coupled with a sustained commitment to increasing access to appropriate care, on

  16. Transvaginal postpartum manual removal of a prolapsed submucous leiomyoma, initially diagnosed hybrid predominantly intramural.

    PubMed

    Elgonaid, Wael; Belkhir, Reem; Boama, Vincent

    2017-08-11

    We present a rare case of a large infarcted submucous fibroid removed manually after a normal vaginal delivery. This patient was known to have a large postero-fundal hybrid predominantly intramural uterine fibroid, measuring 11 x 10 cm in diameter and diagnosed 2 years prior to last conception. Thirty-five days postpartum, she presented with severe lower abdominal pain and foul smell per vaginum. Abdominal examination revealed a very tender bulky uterus at 24 weeks size, and vaginal examination revealed a big fleshy smelly mass with friable surface just bulging from a dilated cervix. Examination under anaesthesia revealed a very foul smelly large pedunculated submucous fibroid that was felt through a dilated cervix. It was deliverable vaginally, so the submucous leiomyoma was removed manually, a procedure similar to manual removal of placenta. Histopathology examination confirmed an infarcted massive fibroid. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Obstetric outcome of women with uterine anomalies in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Yang-yu; Qiao, Jie

    2010-02-20

    Congenital uterine anomalies are associated with the highest incidence of reproductive failure and obstetric complications. This study aimed to summarize the clinical characteristics and prenatal outcome of pregnancy in women with congenital uterine malformations. This retrospective study evaluated the fertility and obstetric outcome of 116 inpatients with uterine malformations with pregnancy in Peking University Third Hospital from June 1998 to June 2009. A total of 270 randomly selected pregnant women with a previously confirmed normally shaped uterus as a control group. Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare means for normally distributed variables. The analysis was carried out using the SPSS. Among 21 961 deliveries in Peking University Third Hospital, 116 (0.45%) were in women with uterine anomalies. A septate uterus was present in 43 (37.1%) and the uterus didelphys in 28 (24.2%) of the 116 women identified. Bicornuate uterus, arcuate and unicomate uterus were observed in 12 (10.3%), 18 (15.5%) and 15 (12.9%) patients, respectively. Patients with uterine anomalies had significantly higher rates of malpresentation (38.8%), preterm delivery (19.8%), and cesarean section (78.5%) compared with the group of women with a normal uterus. Patients with uterine anomalies had significantly lower mean birth-weight neonates and a significantly higher incidence of small for gestationalage (SGA) neonates; women with uterus didelphys more frequently required infertility treatment than patients with other uterine anomalies (P < 0.001). The rate of malpresentation was significantly higher in patients with septated uterus in comparison with patients with uterus unicorns (P < 0.05). Women with congenital uterinemal formation usually have higher incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery. A septate uterus appears to be associated with poorer obstetric outcomes.

  18. [Effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy].

    PubMed

    Qiu-Yan, Jiang; Jin-Ling, Song; Hai-Xia, Mo

    2012-01-01

    To study the molecular biological effects of Guilin Watermelon Frost (GWF) on the mRNA expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in patients with uterine uterine cervical columnar ectopy. One hundred and sixty patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy were assigned to two groups by the random digit table. Patients in the treatment group were treated with local spray of GWF, while those in the control group were local applied with bFGF-collagen sponge. The mRNA expressions of bFGF of the uterine tissue were detected in the two groups before and after treatment using RT-PCR. Before treatment the mRNA expression of bFGF in the uterine cervical columnar ectopy was 0.55 +/- 0.10 in the treatment group and 0.58 +/- 0.13 in the control group, without insignificant difference (P > 0.05). After treatment it significantly increased in the two groups, being 0.82 +/- 0.17 and 0.78 +/- 0.15 respectively, showing statistical difference from before treatment (P < 0.01). But no statistical difference existed between the two groups after treatment (P > 0.05). GWF showed enhancement on the mRNA expressions of bFGF in patients with uterine cervical columnar ectopy.

  19. Primary Uterine Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuefeng; Yang, Panpan; Wang, Li; Jing, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare accounting for <1% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Imaging findings of primary uterine lymphoma have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in a patient with primary uterine peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A 27-year-old female presented with intermittent fever with neutropenia for 7 months. MRI showed an ill-defined mass involved both the uterine corpus and cervix, resulting in diffuse enlargement of the uterus. This mass showed inhomogeneous hypointensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images, hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, relative hypointensity compared to the surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted images and lower enhancement than the surrounding myometrium on enhanced T1-weighted images. FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake in the thickened wall of the uterine corpus and cervix with SUVmax of 26.9. There were multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the pelvis and retroperitoneum. Uterine curettage and CT-guided biopsy of the uterine mass revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. The imaging and pathologic findings were consistent with primary uterine lymphoma. After 3 circles of chemotherapy, follow-up enhanced MRI showed decreased thickness of the uterine wall. Despite its rarity, primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma should be taken into consideration when a uterine tumor shows large size, relative hypointesity on both T2-weighted images and enhanced T1-weighted images compared to the surrounding myometrium, and intense FDG uptake on PET/CT. MRI may be helpful for describing the relationship between the tumor and adjacent structures. FDG PET/CT may be useful for tumor detection and staging. PMID:27124063

  20. Use of progesterone and progestin analogs for inhibition of preterm birth and other uterine contractility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, R.E.; Shi, L.; Shi, S-Q.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on preterm birth as a uterine contractility disorder caused by hypercontractility of the myometrium. We describe changes in uterine function during term and preterm labor and delivery. We also examine the usefulness of measurement of uterine electromyographic (EMG) activity, noninvasively monitored from the abdominal surface of pregnant patients. The use of progesterone treatment for preterm birth is discussed and we conclude that present therapies with progesterone could be improved by changing the route of administration. Finally we show the results of recent studies that show that progesterone injections completely inhibit uterine EMG activity when given several days to hours before normal delivery. These studies illustrate how progesterone suppresses labor at term or preterm, probably through repression of genes which control excitability and conduction of electrical activity. However, direct profusion of soluble progesterone into the uterine cavity has little immediate inhibitory action and this may demonstrate that progesterone has no direct, nongenomic effects, at least in the rat model used. Further studies are required to determine the effects of progesterone on human uterine EMG activity and whether progesterone treatments will prevent preterm birth. PMID:24753915

  1. Initial evaluation of acoustic reflectors for the preservation of sensitive abdominal skin areas during MRgFUS treatment.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Krzysztof R; Chen, Shigao; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J; Hesley, Gina K; Woodrum, David A; Brown, Douglas L; Felmlee, Joel P

    2009-04-21

    During MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids using ExAblate(R)2000 (InSightec, Haifa, Israel), individual tissue ablations are performed extracorporeally through the patient's abdomen using an annular array FUS transducer embedded within the MR table. Ultrasound intensities in the near field are below therapeutic levels and, under normal conditions, heating of the patient skin is minimal. However, increased absorption of ultrasound energy within sensitive skin areas or areas with differing acoustic properties, such as scars, may lead to skin burns and therefore these areas must be kept outside the near field of the FUS beam. Depending on their location and size the sensitive areas may either obstruct parts of the fibroid from being treated or prevent the entire MRgFUS treatment altogether. The purpose of this work is to evaluate acoustic reflector materials that can be applied to protect skin and the underlying sensitive areas. Reflection coefficients of cork (0.88) and foam (0.91) based materials were evaluated with a hydrophone. An ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system was used to simulate clinical treatment with discs of reflector materials placed in a near field underneath a gel phantom. MR thermometry was used to monitor temperature elevations as well as the integrity of the focal spot. The phantom measurements showed acoustic shadow zones behind the reflectors with zone depths changing between 7 and 27 mm, for reflector disc diameters increasing from 10 to 30 mm (40 mm diameter discs completely blocked the FUS beam at the depth evaluated). The effects on thermal lesions due to the presence of the reflectors in the FUS beam were found to diminish with decreasing disc diameter and increasing sonication depth. For a 20 mm diameter disc and beyond 50 mm sonication depth, thermal lesions were minimally affected by the presence of the disc. No heating was observed on the skin side of the foam reflectors, as confirmed by measurements performed

  2. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  3. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-11

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  4. A comparison of uterine peristalsis in women with normal uteri and uterine leiomyoma by cine magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Orisaka, Makoto; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Shukunami, Ken-Ichi; Orisaka, Sanae; Fukuda, Mika T; Shinagawa, Akiko; Fukuda, Shin; Ihara, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroki; Itoh, Harumi; Kotsuji, Fumikazu

    2007-11-01

    The non-pregnant uterus shows wave-like activity (uterine peristalsis). This pilot study was intended to determine: (1) whether uterine peristalsis during the menstrual cycle is detectable by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); (2) the effects of leiomyoma on uterine peristalsis. Mid-sagittal MRI was performed sequentially with T2-weighted single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE) in 3 normal ovulatory volunteers and 19 premenopausal women with uterine leiomyoma. Direction and frequency of movement of the junctional zone were evaluated using a cine mode display. Junctional zone movement was identified in all subjects. Direction of uterine peristalsis in normal volunteers was fundus-to-cervix during menstruation, cervix-to-fundus during the periovulatory phase, and isthmical during the mid- and late-luteal phases. Abnormal peristaltic patterns were detected in three of five patients with uterine leiomyoma during menstruation and in the mid-luteal phase of the cycle, respectively. Cine MRI is a novel method for evaluation of uterine peristalsis. Results of this pilot study suggest that abnormal uterine peristalsis during menstruation and the mid-luteal phase might be one of the causes of hypermenorrhea and infertility associated with uterine leiomyoma.

  5. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  6. Application of Detergents or High Hydrostatic Pressure as Decellularization Processes in Uterine Tissues and Their Subsequent Effects on In Vivo Uterine Regeneration in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Yasushi; Aizawa, Masanori; Yoshino, Osamu; Kishida, Akio; Osuga, Yutaka; Saito, Shigeru; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S.

    2014-01-01

    Infertility caused by ovarian or tubal problems can be treated using In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET); however, this is not possible for women with uterine loss and malformations that require uterine reconstruction for the treatment of their infertility. In this study, we are the first to report the usefulness of decellularized matrices as a scaffold for uterine reconstruction. Uterine tissues were extracted from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and decellularized using either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at optimized conditions. Histological staining and quantitative analysis showed that both SDS and HHP methods effectively removed cells from the tissues with, specifically, a significant reduction of DNA contents for HHP constructs. HHP constructs highly retained the collagen content, the main component of extracellular matrices in uterine tissue, compared to SDS constructs and had similar content levels of collagen to the native tissue. The mechanical strength of the HHP constructs was similar to that of the native tissue, while that of the SDS constructs was significantly elevated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no apparent denaturation of collagen fibers in the HHP constructs compared to the SDS constructs. Transplantation of the decellularized tissues into rat uteri revealed the successful regeneration of the uterine tissues with a 3-layer structure 30 days after the transplantation. Moreover, a lot of epithelial gland tissue and Ki67 positive cells were detected. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the regenerated tissues have a normal response to ovarian hormone for pregnancy. The subsequent pregnancy test after 30 days transplantation revealed successful pregnancy for both the SDS and HHP groups. These findings indicate that the decellularized matrix from the uterine tissue can be a potential scaffold for uterine regeneration. PMID:25057942

  7. Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Reig Castillejo, Anna; Membrive Conejo, Ismael; Foro Arnalot, Palmira; Rodríguez de Dios, Nuria; Algara López, Manuel

    2010-07-01