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Sample records for uterine structural abnormalities

  1. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  3. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  4. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  5. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Approach to abnormal uterine bleeding in nonpregnant reproductive-age women Differential diagnosis of genital tract bleeding in women Postmenopausal uterine bleeding The following organizations also provide reliable health information. ● National Library of Medicine ( www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  6. [Ultrasonic diagnosis of congenital uterine abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Funk, A; Fendel, H

    1988-01-01

    1-2% of women has abnormal uterine development due to nonunification of the Müllerian ducts in the embryonal period. At the RWTH Aachen, in the department of gynaecology and obstetrics, between January and June 1987, we had searched systematically for maldevelopment of the uterus in 2299 echosonografies. In 13 cases we found maldevelopment of internal genital; 5 of these cases were diagnosed by an echosonografic routine-examination. The echografic criteria of the different grades of uterine malformations have been determined, systematized and discussed in relation to the symptoms. The most frequent malformations as uterus subseptus, uterus septus, uterus bicornis and uterus duplex are subject of a detailed discussion. This work demonstrates that echosonografic is a very efficient instrument to diagnose uterine malformations and gives us a very exact anatomic interpretation of malformations.

  7. Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients without Uterine Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161118.html Tamoxifen OK for Breast Cancer Patients Without Uterine Abnormalities: Study Pretreatment ultrasounds may ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For most women, taking the breast cancer drug tamoxifen doesn't increase their risk of ...

  8. Sonohysterographic evaluation of uterine abnormalities noted on hysterosalpingography.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J M; Falcone, T; Attaran, M

    1997-10-01

    Transvaginal sonohysterography was performed on 40 consecutive patients with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss and uterine abnormalities on hysterosalpingography. The findings were correlated with the hysterosalpingogram and subsequent diagnostic and/or operative hysteroscopy. Hysterosalpingography was incorrect in nine cases. Sonohysterography was more accurate than hysterosalpingography and provided more information about uterine abnormalities. Sonohysterography was in complete agreement with hysteroscopy. Diagnostic hysteroscopy can therefore be avoided if the sonohysterogram is normal. Sonohysterography also provides additional information on the relative proportion of the intracavitary and intramyometrial components of submucus myomas, as well as extracavitary myomas and the adnexae. This may help in planning the surgical procedure.

  9. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system. PMID:26969858

  10. Is a history of cesarean section a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyoma?

    PubMed Central

    Kinay, Tugba; Basarir, Zehra O.; Tuncer, Serap F.; Akpinar, Funda; Kayikcioglu, Fulya; Koc, Sevgi; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether a history of cesarean section was a risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas, and to identify other risk factors for this symptom. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively, the medical records of patients who underwent hysterectomies due to the presence of uterine leiomyomas during a 6-year period (2009 and 2014) at Etlik Zubeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Uterine leiomyoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination of hysterectomy specimens. Demographic characteristics, and laboratory and histopathological findings were compared between patients with uterine leiomyoma with and without abnormal uterine bleeding. Results: In total, 501 (57.9%) patients had abnormal uterine bleeding and 364 (42.1%) patients had other symptoms. A history of cesarean section was more common in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding than in those with other symptoms (17.6% versus 9.3%, p=0.001; odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-3.3). The presence of a submucosal leiomyoma (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5-3.1) and coexistent adenomyosis (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.4) were also associated with abnormal uterine bleeding. Conclusion: A history of cesarean section was an independent risk factor for abnormal uterine bleeding in patients with uterine leiomyomas; submucosal leiomyoma and coexisting adenomyosis were also independent risk factors. PMID:27464864

  11. Outpatient versus inpatient uterine polyp treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding: randomised controlled non-inferiority study

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Natalie A M; Middleton, Lee; Diwakar, Lavanya; Smith, Paul; Denny, Elaine; Roberts, Tracy; Stobert, Lynda; Jowett, Susan; Daniels, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness and acceptability of outpatient polypectomy with inpatient polypectomy. Design Pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority study. Setting Outpatient hysteroscopy clinics in 31 UK National Health Service hospitals. Participants 507 women who attended as outpatients for diagnostic hysteroscopy because of abnormal uterine bleeding and were found to have uterine polyps. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to either outpatient uterine polypectomy under local anaesthetic or inpatient uterine polypectomy under general anaesthesia. Data were collected on women’s self reported bleeding symptoms at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Data were also collected on pain and acceptability of the procedure at the time of polypectomy. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was successful treatment, determined by the women’s assessment of bleeding at six months, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 25%. Secondary outcomes included generic (EQ-5D) and disease specific (menorrhagia multi-attribute scale) quality of life, and feasibility and acceptability of the procedure. Results 73% (166/228) of women in the outpatient group and 80% (168/211) in the inpatient group reported successful treatment at six months (intention to treat relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.02; per protocol relative risk 0.92, 0.82 to 1.02). Failure to remove polyps was higher (19% v 7%; relative risk 2.5, 1.5 to 4.1) and acceptability of the procedure was lower (83% v 92%; 0.90, 0.84 to 0.97) in the outpatient group Quality of life did not differ significantly between the groups. Four uterine perforations, one of which necessitated bowel resection, all occurred in the inpatient group. Conclusions Outpatient polypectomy was non-inferior to inpatient polypectomy. Failure to remove a uterine polyp was, however, more likely with outpatient polypectomy and acceptability of the procedure was slightly lower. Trial

  12. Pregnancy complications in women with uterine duplication abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda Demetri; Levine, Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Patients with duplication anomalies have a higher incidence of infertility, repeated first trimester spontaneous abortions, fetal intrauterine growth restriction, fetal malposition, preterm labor, and retained placenta. The role of imaging is not only to detect and diagnose müllerian anomalies but also to help distinguish surgically correctable forms of müllerian duct anomalies from nonsurgical forms. Imaging is also important to identify the location of the pregnancy, because ultrasound guidance may be needed after miscarriage or when pregnancies occur in an ectopic location. Attention to the position of the fetus within a normal-appearing uterus, with normal thickness surrounding myometrium, is important for recognizing an otherwise unsuspected uterine duplication abnormality. In this article, we review and illustrate the imaging features and complications of uterine duplication anomalies in pregnancy and identify potential mimics of duplication anomalies.

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding induced by glucocorticoid treatment for pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaobo; Feng, Hui; Jiang, Lu; Chen, Qianming

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are the first-line treatment option for pemphigus. Moreover, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a rarely reported side effect of glucocorticoid treatment that usually manifests as abnormal and excessive endometrial bleeding; in fact, AUB can be induced by the systemic or topical application of glucocorticoids. In the present report, we describe the cases of 3 patients with pemphigus who developed AUB following glucocorticoid administration. It is important to note that the administration mode of glucocorticoids, and the onset time and duration of AUB differed among these patients. Thus, we propose the following treatment algorithm for AUB following glucocorticoid administration: 1. perform a gynecological and physical examination to exclude organic diseases. 2. continue glucocorticoid treatment. 3. if AUB persists, change the mode of administration of glucocorticoids. 4. if AUB still persists, despite these measures, completely withdraw treatment with glucocorticoids and use non-glucocorticoid treatments. PMID:27570861

  14. Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding with Emphasis on Alternatives to Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Billow, Megan R; El-Nashar, Sherif A

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common problem that negatively impacts a woman's health-related quality of life and activity. Initial medical treatment includes hormonal and nonhormonal medications. If bleeding persists and no structural abnormalities are present, a repeat trial of medical therapy, a levonorgestrel intrauterine system, or an endometrial ablation can be used dependent on future fertility wishes. The levonorgestrel intrauterine system and endometrial ablation are effective, less invasive, and safe alternatives to a hysterectomy in women with AUB. A hysterectomy is the definitive treatment of AUB irrespective of the suspected cause when alternative treatments fail. Future studies should focus on detection of predictors for treatment outcomes. PMID:27521876

  15. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Evaluation of endometrium in peri-menopausal abnormal uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kotdawala, Parul; Kotdawala, Sonal; Nagar, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is one of the most common health problems encountered by women. It affects about 20% women of reproductive age, and accounts for almost two thirds of all hysterectomies. Gynaecologists are often unable to identify the cause of abnormal bleeding even after a thorough history and physical examination. Diagnostic evaluations and treatment modalities have been evolving over time. The onus in AUB management is to exclude complex endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. From D and C + EUA under general anesthesia the shift to more accurate procedures like hysteroscopy and vision directed biopsy was welcome. But the current minimally invasive procedures like sonohysterography, office vacuum aspiration (Pipelle) and the use of office hysteroscopy have revolutionized the management of AUB. We have tried to review the current literature and guidelines for evaluation of endometrium with the twin goals of finding an accurate reason causing the AUB and to rule out endometrial cancer or a potential for the cancer in future. We have also attempted to compare the current procedures and their present perspective vis-à-vis each other. Histological assessment is the final word, but obtaining a sample for histology makes it more accurate, and we have reviewed these techniques to enhance accuracy in diagnosis. Hysteroscopy and directed biopsy is the ‘gold standard’ approach for most accurate evaluation of endometrium to rule out focal endometrial Ca. Blind endometrial biopsies should no longer be performed as the sole diagnostic strategy in perimenopausal as well as in postmenopausal women with AUB. A single-stop approach, especially in high risk women (Obesity, diabetes, family history of endometrial, ovarian or breast cancer) as well as in women with endometrial hyperplasia of combining the office hysteroscopy, directed biopsy in presence of a focal lesion, and vacuum sampling of endometrium in normal looking endometrium, all without

  17. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Zafarani, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  18. Cesarean scar defects: an underrecognized cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and other gynecologic complications.

    PubMed

    Tower, Amanda M; Frishman, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    The gynecologic sequelae due to deficient uterine scar healing after cesarean section are only recently being identified and described. These include conditions such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, as well as a potentially higher risk of complications and difficulties during gynecologic procedures such as uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and insertion of an intrauterine device. The proposed mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding is a pouch or "isthmocele" in the lower uterine segment that causes delayed menstrual bleeding. The prevalence of symptomatic or clinically relevant cesarean scar defects (CSDs) ranges from 19.4% to 88%. Possible risk factors for CSD include number of cesarean sections, uterine position, labor before cesarean section, and surgical technique used to close the uterine incision. There are no accepted guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of CSD. We propose that a CSD be defined on transvaginal ultrasound or saline infusion sonohysterography as a triangular hypoechoic defect in the myometrium at the site of the previous hysterotomy. We also propose a classification system to aid in standardized classification for future research. Surgical techniques for repair of CSD include laparoscopic excision, resectoscopic treatment, vaginal revision, and endometrial ablation. PMID:23680518

  19. [Abnormal uterine bleeding in women with IUDs submitted to magnetotherapy].

    PubMed

    Semeraro, A; De Castro, G

    1985-01-01

    IUDs are now 1 of the cornerstones of modern contraception. Blood loss, in the form of hemorrhage or spotting, is the most common complication. Between 10%-20% of users exhibit this symptom, which is also the most frequent reason for mandatory removal. The explanations given by various authors to justify the connection between uterine hemorrhage and the IUD are many and often conflicting. In a clinical case in Italy, a 32-year-old patient came in complaining of uterine bleeding. In the long term pathological case history nothing appeared which indicated pathology in the genital region. However, it reported a vertebral fracture for which reason she was fitted with a 2nd copper IUD, which was well tolerated, and caused no intermenstrual spotting. 5 days before her appointment she had started a cycle of magnetotherapy for the vertebral fracture and 3 days later she noticed mild spotting. This is why she sought medical care. It is known that during this therapy, metals found within the magnetic field can become hot. Copper is an excellent electrical conductor, and if it is within a magnetic field it can also become hot. There are 2 possible hypotheses: 1) direct action of the magnetic field on the metal; in fact, a metal immersed in a variable magnetic field acts as if it were made up of many small magnets which modify their orientation at the fringes of the magnetic field, generating internal friction which may alter its temperature; and 2) direct action of the magnetic field on the copper wiring by way of parasite currents, setting up the Joule effect. In this patient, the symptom disappeared 6 days after the termination of physiotherapy. Therefore, it is thought that when there is a uterine hemorrhage for which no plausible explanation can be found, it is advisable to verify whether there has been any magnetotherapy involving the pelvic region. The IUD is the most widely used contraceptive among patients 40 years of age and older and it is mostly this group that may

  20. Recurrent venous thromboembolism and abnormal uterine bleeding with anticoagulant and hormone therapy use

    PubMed Central

    Lensing, Anthonie W. A.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Levi, Marcel; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; van Bellen, Bonno; Bounameaux, Henri; Brighton, Timothy A.; Cohen, Alexander T.; Trajanovic, Mila; Gebel, Martin; Lam, Phuong; Wells, Philip S.; Prins, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Women receiving vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) require adequate contraception because of the potential for fetal complications. It is unknown whether the use of hormonal therapy, especially those containing estrogens, is associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) during anticoagulation. Despite the absence of data, World Health Organization guidelines state that use of estrogen-containing contraceptives confers an “unacceptable health risk” during established anticoagulation for VTE. We compared the incidences of recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding with and without concomitant hormonal therapy in women aged <60 years who were receiving anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin/VKA for confirmed VTE. Incidence densities in percentage per year were computed for the on and off estrogen-containing or progestin-only therapy periods. Cox regression models were fitted, with hormonal therapy (on vs off) as a time-dependent variable to derive the hazard ratio (HR) for the effects on recurrent VTE and abnormal uterine bleeding. In total, 1888 women were included. VTE incidence densities on and off hormonal therapy were 3.7%/year and 4.7%/year (adjusted HR, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.23-1.39), respectively, and were 3.7%/year and 3.8%/year, respectively, for estrogen-containing and progestin-only therapy. The adjusted HR for all abnormal uterine bleeding (on vs off hormonal therapy) was 1.02 (95% CI, 0.66-1.57). Abnormal uterine bleeding occurred more frequently with rivaroxaban than with enoxaparin/VKA (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.57-2.89). Hormonal therapy was not associated with an increased risk of recurrent VTE in women receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. The observed increased risk of abnormal uterine bleeding with rivaroxaban needs further exploration. PMID:26696010

  1. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transvaginal Sonography in the Detection of Uterine Abnormalities in Infertile Women

    PubMed Central

    Niknejadi, Maryam; Haghighi, Hadieh; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad; Vosough, Ahmad; Moenian, Deena

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate diagnosis of uterine abnormalities has become a core part of the fertility work-up. A variety of modalities can be used for the diagnosis of uterine abnormalities. Objectives This study was designed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) in uterine pathologies of infertile patients using hysteroscopy as the gold standard. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Reproductive Imaging at Royan Institute from October 2007 to October 2008. In this study, the medical documents of 719 infertile women who were investigated with transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and then hysteroscopy were reviewed. All women underwent hysteroscopy in the same cycle time after TVS. Seventy-six out of 719 patients were excluded from the study and 643 patients were studied. TVS was performed in the follicular phase after cessation of bleeding. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for TVS. Hysteroscopy served as the gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for TVS in the diagnosis of uterine abnormality was 79%, 82%, 84% and 71%, respectively. The sensitivity and PPV of TVS in detection of polyp were 88.3% and 81.6%, respectively. These indices were 89.2% and 92.5%, respectively for fibroma, 67% and 98.3%, respectively for subseptated uterus and 90.9% and 100%, respectively for septated uterus. Adhesion and unicornuated uterus have the lowest sensitivity with a sensitivity of 35% and PPV of 57.1%. Conclusion TVS is a cost-effective and non-invasive method for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions such as polyps, submucosal fibroids and septum. It is a valuable adjunctive to hysteroscopy with high accuracy for identification and characterization of intrauterine abnormalities. This may lead to a more precise surgery plan and performance. PMID:23329979

  2. Anatomic uterine defects.

    PubMed

    Patton, P E

    1994-09-01

    Congenital or acquired uterine defects remain important considerations in the investigation of recurrent pregnancy loss. When repeated first or second trimester losses, preterm delivery, or abnormal fetal presentations are documented, the suspicion of a structural uterine abnormality should be high. The diagnosis of uterine defects is no longer elusive. The combination of radiologic imaging techniques, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy enables an accurate diagnosis in nearly every case. The optimal treatment for uterine malformations is still a matter of considerable controversy. Therefore, when a uterine defect is diagnosed, tough clinical decisions must be made. When alternate causes of pregnancy loss are excluded, pregnancy potential will depend primarily on the specific type of uterine anomaly that is detected. It is important to recognize that not all uterine defects are amenable to therapy, but in carefully selected patients, reparative surgery may be rewarding.

  3. Endometrial ablation in the management of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Philippe; Leyland, Nicholas; Murji, Ally; Fortin, Claude; Martyn, Paul; Vilos, George; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Yeung, Grace

    2015-04-01

    à de faibles risques et présentant une tolérance satisfaisante à la douleur sont de bonnes candidates pour ce qui est de la tenue d’une ablation endométriale dans un milieu autre qu’en salle d’opération ou dans un centre chirurgical autonome. (II-2) 8. Les techniques d’ablation de l’endomètre tant résectoscopiques que non résectoscopiques sont relativement sûres et ne comptent que de faibles taux de complication. Parmi les complications les plus graves, on trouve la perforation (s’accompagnant de lésions potentielles aux structures adjacentes), l’hémorragie et l’infection. (II-2) 9. La tenue concomitante d’une stérilisation hystéroscopique et d’une ablation endométriale peut être sûre et efficace tout en favorisant une approche à effraction minimale. (II-2) Recommandations 1. L’évaluation préopératoire devrait être exhaustive, de façon à pouvoir écarter toute contre-indication à l’ablation de l’endomètre. (II-2A) 2. Les patientes devraient être avisées de la nécessité d’une contraception permanente à la suite de l’ablation de l’endomètre. (II-2B) 3. Les évaluations recommandées en présence de saignements utérins anormaux (dont, entre autres, le prélèvement endométrial et l’évaluation de la cavité utérine) sont des composantes nécessaires de l’évaluation préopératoire. (II-2B) 4. Les cliniciens devraient demeurer à l’affût des complications propres à l’ablation résectoscopique de l’endomètre, comme celles qui sont associées au produit de distension et aux lésions électrochirurgicales. (III-A) 5. Dans le cas de l’ablation résectoscopique de l’endomètre, un protocole strict devrait être respecté pour ce qui est de la surveillance liquidienne et de la prise en charge, et ce, afin de minimiser le risque de voir se manifester des complications associées à la surcharge de produit de distension. (III-A) 6. Lorsque l’on soupçonne qu’une perforation utérine s

  4. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans. PMID:25153777

  5. Leptospira interrogans induces uterine inflammatory responses and abnormal expression of extracellular matrix proteins in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Wenlong; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Zecai; Jiang, Haichao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans), a worldwide zoonosis, infect humans and animals. In dogs, four syndromes caused by leptospirosis have been identified: icteric, hemorrhagic, uremic (Stuttgart disease) and reproductive (abortion and premature or weak pups), and also it caused inflammation. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex mixture of matrix molecules that is crucial to the reproduction. Both inflammatory response and ECM are closed relative to reproductive. The aim of this study was to clarify how L. interrogans affected the uterus of dogs, by focusing on the inflammatory responses, and ECM expression in dogs uterine tissue infected by L. interrogans. In the present study, 27 dogs were divided into 3 groups, intrauterine infusion with L. interrogans, to make uterine infection, sterile EMJH, and normal saline as a control, respectively. The uteruses were removed by surgical operation in 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. The methods of histopathological analysis, ELISA, Western blot and qPCR were used. The results showed that L. interrogans induced significantly inflammatory responses, which were characterized by inflammatory cellular infiltration and high expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in uterine tissue of these dogs. Furthermore, L. interrogans strongly down-regulated the expression of ECM (collagens (CL) IV, fibronectins (FN) and laminins (LN)) in mRNA and protein levels. These data indicated that strongly inflammatory responses, and abnormal regulation of ECM might contribute to the proliferation of dogs infected by L. interrogans.

  6. Deficiency in DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs causes infertility due to multiple abnormalities during uterine development in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Seung Chel; Park, Mira; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lim, Hyunjung J; Hong, Seok-Ho; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Choi, Youngsok; Lee, Dong Ryul; Song, Haengseok

    2016-01-01

    DGCR8 is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with DROSHA to produce pre-microRNA in the nucleus, while DICER generates not only mature microRNA, but also endogenous small interfering RNAs in the cytoplasm. Here, we produced Dgcr8 conditional knock-out mice using progesterone receptor (PR)-Cre (Dgcr8(d/d)) and demonstrated that canonical microRNAs dependent on the DROSHA-DGCR8 complex are required for uterine development as well as female fertility in mice. Adult Dgcr8(d/d) females neither underwent regular reproductive cycles nor produced pups, whereas administration of exogenous gonadotropins induced normal ovulation in these mice. Interestingly, immune cells associated with acute inflammation aberrantly infiltrated into reproductive organs of pregnant Dgcr8(d/d) mice. Regarding uterine development, multiple uterine abnormalities were noticeable at 4 weeks of age when PR is significantly increased, and the severity of these deformities increased over time. Gland formation and myometrial layers were significantly reduced, and the stromal cell compartment did not expand and became atrophic during uterine development in these mice. These results were consistent with aberrantly reduced stromal cell proliferation and completely failed decidualization. Collectively, we suggest that DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs are essential for uterine development and physiological processes such as proper immune modulation, reproductive cycle, and steroid hormone responsiveness in mice. PMID:26833131

  7. Deficiency in DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs causes infertility due to multiple abnormalities during uterine development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Sun; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Hyongbum; Yang, Seung Chel; Park, Mira; Yoon, Jung Ah; Lim, Hyunjung J.; Hong, Seok-Ho; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Choi, Youngsok; Lee, Dong Ryul; Song, Haengseok

    2016-01-01

    DGCR8 is an RNA-binding protein that interacts with DROSHA to produce pre-microRNA in the nucleus, while DICER generates not only mature microRNA, but also endogenous small interfering RNAs in the cytoplasm. Here, we produced Dgcr8 conditional knock-out mice using progesterone receptor (PR)-Cre (Dgcr8d/d) and demonstrated that canonical microRNAs dependent on the DROSHA-DGCR8 complex are required for uterine development as well as female fertility in mice. Adult Dgcr8d/d females neither underwent regular reproductive cycles nor produced pups, whereas administration of exogenous gonadotropins induced normal ovulation in these mice. Interestingly, immune cells associated with acute inflammation aberrantly infiltrated into reproductive organs of pregnant Dgcr8d/d mice. Regarding uterine development, multiple uterine abnormalities were noticeable at 4 weeks of age when PR is significantly increased, and the severity of these deformities increased over time. Gland formation and myometrial layers were significantly reduced, and the stromal cell compartment did not expand and became atrophic during uterine development in these mice. These results were consistent with aberrantly reduced stromal cell proliferation and completely failed decidualization. Collectively, we suggest that DGCR8-dependent canonical microRNAs are essential for uterine development and physiological processes such as proper immune modulation, reproductive cycle, and steroid hormone responsiveness in mice. PMID:26833131

  8. Evaluation of Endometrium for Chronic Endometritis by Using Syndecan-1 in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Kannar, Vidyavathi; Lingaiah, Harendra Kumar Malligere; Sunita, Venigalla

    2012-01-01

    Context: Chronic endometritis is a condition observed in 3-10% of women with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Diagnosis depends upon the histological detection of plasma cells within the inflammatory infiltrate in the endometrium. Plasma cells on H and E may be obscured by a mononuclear infiltrate, plasmacytoid stromal cells, abundant stromal mitosis, a pronounced predecidual reaction, menstrual features or secondary changes due to exogenous progesterone treatment prior to biopsy. Aims: The objective of this study was to determine utility of syndecan-1 in diagnosis of chronic endometritis in patients with AUB, and to see if any of the secondary histologic features in endometrial biopsy, correlated with the presence of plasma cells on immunohistochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods: Fifty endometrial biopsies with a clinical diagnosis of AUB were taken. Endometrium in proliferative phase, secretory phase, endometrial polyps, and disordered proliferative endometrium were studied for the presence of plasma cells. IHC was done using syndecan-1. The secondary histologic features of chronic endometritis like gland architectural irregularity, spindled stroma, stromal edema and hemorrhage with the presence of plasma cells was statistically analysed. Values of P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: Plasma cells were seen in 11 (69%) of DPE, 8 (66%) of PEB, and 1 (7%) of normal proliferative endometrium and in 2 (40%) of secretory endometrium. Presence of stromal breakdown showed a significant association with plasma cells (P = 0.02) whereas gland architecture irregularity (P = 0.28), stromal edema (P = 0.71) and spindled stromal (P = 0.72) did not show a significant association. Conclusions: Plasma cells were significantly present in AUB patients. Syndecan-1 maybe helpful in unusual cases, where chronic endometritis is suspected as the cause of clinically significant ongoing abnormal bleeding. PMID:23440678

  9. Effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) has been used in the Iranian Traditional Medicine as a treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of myrtle fruit syrup on abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study was conducted on 30 women suffering from abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. Treatment comprised of giving 15 ml oral myrtle syrup daily (5 ml three times a day) for 7 days starting from the onset of bleeding. The myrtle syrup along with placebo was repeated for 3 consecutive menstrual periods. Menstrual duration and number of used pads were recorded by the Pictorial Blood loss Assessment Chart at the end of each menstrual period. The quality of life was also evaluated using the menorrhagia questionnaire. Results The mean number of bleeding days significantly declined from 10.6 ± 2.7 days to 8.2 ± 1.9 days after 3 months treatment with the syrup (p = 0.01) and consequently the participants in the intervention group used fewer pads after 3 months (16.4 ± 10.7) compared with the number of pads used at the beginning of the treatment (22.7 ± 12.0, p = 0.01). Bleeding days and number of pads used by the participants in the placebo group did not change significantly. Also significant changes of quality of life scores were observed in the intervention group after 3 months compared to the baseline. Conclusion Myrtle syrup is introduced as a potential remedy for abnormal uterine bleeding-menometrorrhagia. PMID:24888316

  10. Detection of Structural Abnormalities Using Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.; Maccalla, A.; Daggumati, V.; Gulati, S.; Toomarian, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a feed-forward neural net approach for detection of abnormal system behavior based upon sensor data analyses. A new dynamical invariant representing structural parameters of the system is introduced in such a way that any structural abnormalities in the system behavior are detected from the corresponding changes to the invariant.

  11. An international response to questions about terminologies, investigation, and management of abnormal uterine bleeding: use of an electronic audience response system.

    PubMed

    Munro, Malcolm G; Broder, Michael; Critchley, Hilary O D; Matteson, Kristen; Haththotuwa, Rohana; Fraser, Ian S

    2011-09-01

    More than 600 registrants attended a two-hour interactive symposium on abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) at the Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics World Congress in Cape Town, October 2009. Nearly 250 of these participants answered multiple questions through an electronic audience responder system. The audience heard five structured presentations on clinically important and controversial aspects of AUB, including terminologies and definitions, classification of causes, mechanisms of AUB in the absence of structural lesions of the reproductive tract, the potential for a structured menstrual history, and management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in low-resource settings. Numerous demographic details were collected, and a total of 30 questions to the audience were interspersed through each of the presentations. The audience demonstrated great variation in the way the terms AUB, menorrhagia, and dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) are used, and considerable majorities agreed that the terms menorrhagia and DUB should be abolished. AUB should be the overarching term to describe all symptomatic departures from normal menstruation or the menstrual cycle. HMB is a suitable replacement term for menorrhagia. DUB can be replaced by the three clinical entities comprising "nonstructural" causes of AUB. There was a high consistency across demographic subgroups in answers to most questions. Acute and chronic AUB were defined, and aspects of a classification system for causes of AUB and of a structured menstrual history were explored. Issues related to investigation and hormonal treatment of HMB in low-resource settings were explored by registrants from developing countries.

  12. Efficacy of yoga in pregnant women with abnormal Doppler study of umbilical and uterine arteries.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Shamanthakamani; Nagarathna, R; Gunasheela, Sulochana; Nagendra, H R

    2005-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on the outcome of complicated pregnancy, 121 women attending antenatal clinic at Gunasheela Surgical and Maternity Hospital (GSMH) in Bangalore, India, were enrolled between 18-20 weeks of pregnancy in a prospective, matched, observational study. Sixty-eight women were in the yoga group and 53 women in the control group. Women were matched for age, gravida and Doppler velocimetry scores of umbilical and uterine arteries. Yoga practices including physical postures, breathing and meditation were practised by the yoga group, one hour daily, from the date of entry into the study until delivery. The control group walked half an hour twice a day during the study period. Compliance in both the groups was ensured. In babies the birth-weight is significantly higher (P < 0.018) in the Yoga group (2.78 +/- 0.52 kg), compared to the control group (2.55 +/- 0.52 kg). Occurrence of complications of pregnancy (pregnancy-induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, pre-term delivery) shows lower trends in yoga group.

  13. Expression of ERα and PR in Various Morphological Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding-Endometrial causes in Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Chaurasia, Amrita; Dhingra, Vishal; Misra, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is most common gynaecological problem but its management is not well defined. So FIGO/PALMCOEIN classification was developed to provide clear management options as treatment is different in PALM and AUB-E group. FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification and immunohistochemistry with ERα and PR expression in AUB-E group will be helpful in management of these patients, thus preventing surgical interventions. Aim To study histomorphological classification according to FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification in patients presenting with AUB into PALM and AUB-E group. To study the receptor expression of ERα and PR in AUB-E group. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed in patients presenting with AUB in reproductive age group (15-45 years). Six hundred endometrial specimens were stained with H&E for histolomorphological examination and classified as per FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification of AUB in non-gravid women in reproductive age group. Fifty endometrial biopsies were of pregnancy and pregnancy related complications and were excluded from study. A total of 550 samples were evaluated in present study. IHC for quantification of ERα and PR expression was carried out in AUB-E (100) cases and control group endometrium (20) cases due to technical constraints. Statistical Analysis Unpaired student t-test was performed. p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results Endometrial (58.19%) (AUB-E) causes were most common cause of AUB. Most common morphology was AUB-E (Proliferative endometrium), AUB-L (Leiomyoma) and AUB-E (Secretory endometrium) respectively. Statistically significant expression of ERα and PR was found in AUB-E endometrium as compared to control group endometrium. In Non secretory/Proliferative endometrium AUB-E group. Proliferative endometrium and hyperplasia without atypia had significant expression of ERα and PR in glands and stroma when compared with proliferative phase control group

  14. Uterine structural anomalies and arthrogryposis-death of an urban legend.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith G

    2013-01-01

    In a review of 2,300 cases of arthrogryposis collected over the last 35 years, 33 cases of maternal uterine structural anomalies were identified (1.3%). These cases of arthrogryposis represent a very heterogeneous group of types of arthrogryposis. Over half of individuals affected with arthrogryposis demonstrated asymmetry and some responded to removal of constraint, 29 of the 33 cases of arthrogryposis whose mother had a uterine structural anomaly could be identified as having a specific recognizable type of arthrogryposis. Only two cases (0.08%) had primarily proximal contractures that returned to almost normal function within 1 year. Craniofacial asymmetry was the most striking finding in these two cases. A quarter of cases had ruptured membranes between 32 and 36 weeks and either oligohydramnios or prematurity. The pregnancy histories of the mothers with uterine structural anomalies were typical in having infertility, multiple miscarriages, and stillbirths. The finding of only two cases which are likely to have multiple congenital contractures on the basis of uterine constraint suggests that it is a very rare primary cause of arthrogryposis. PMID:23239599

  15. Reconciling abnormalities of brain network structure and function in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Fornito, Alex; Bullmore, Edward T

    2015-02-01

    Schizophrenia is widely regarded as a disorder of abnormal brain connectivity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggests that patients show robust reductions of structural connectivity. However, corresponding changes in functional connectivity do not always follow, with increased functional connectivity being reported in many cases. Here, we consider different methodological and mechanistic accounts that might reconcile these apparently contradictory findings and argue that increased functional connectivity in schizophrenia likely represents a pathophysiological dysregulation of brain activity arising from abnormal neurodevelopmental wiring of structural connections linking putative hub regions of association cortex to other brain areas. Elucidating the pathophysiological significance of connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia will be contingent on better understanding how network structure shapes and constrains function.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Gregory M.; Bonafede, Machaon M.; Lukes, Andrea S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB—1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives—evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments. (Population Health Management 2015;18:373–382) PMID:25714906

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Global Endometrial Ablation vs. Hysterectomy for Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: US Commercial and Medicaid Payer Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Bonafede, Machaon M; Lukes, Andrea S; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2015-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness modeling studies of global endometrial ablation (GEA) for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) from a US perspective are lacking. The objective of this study was to model the cost-effectiveness of GEA vs. hysterectomy for treatment of AUB in the United States from both commercial and Medicaid payer perspectives. The study team developed a 1-, 3-, and 5-year semi-Markov decision-analytic model to simulate 2 hypothetical patient cohorts of women with AUB-1 treated with GEA and the other with hysterectomy. Clinical and economic data (including treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, direct costs, and productivity costs) came from analyses of commercial and Medicaid claims databases. Analysis results show that cost savings with simultaneous reduction in treatment complications and fewer days lost from work are achieved with GEA versus hysterectomy over almost all time horizons and under both the commercial payer and Medicaid perspectives. Cost-effectiveness metrics also favor GEA over hysterectomy from both the commercial payer and Medicaid payer perspectives-evidence strongly supporting the clinical-economic value about GEA versus hysterectomy. Results will interest clinicians, health care payers, and self-insured employers striving for cost-effective AUB treatments.

  18. [Consequences of abnormalities of chromosome structure in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Popescu, C P

    1990-01-01

    Abnormalities in chromosome structure generally have no phenotypic expression but are very often associated with reproductive disorders. In cattle, sheep and goats, the robertsonian translocation seems to be the most frequent abnormality of chromosome structure. In the pig, reciprocal translocations are very common. The accumulation of data on the frequency of such abnormalities and their effects on reproductive performance prompted an evaluation of their economic consequences in cattle and pigs. In cattle, because of the negative effect of 1/29 translocation, an eradication program, based on the removal of carrier bulls from artificial insemination centers was established. In pig, the main effect of the reciprocal translocations was a reduction in the number of offspring, up to 50%, thus representing a considerable economic loss. PMID:2206288

  19. Brief Report: Brain Mechanisms in Autism: Functional and Structural Abnormalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minshew, Nancy J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of research on functional and structural abnormalities of the brain in autism. The current concept of causation is seen to involve multiple biologic levels. A consistent profile of brain function and dysfunction across methods has been found and specific neuropathologic findings have been found; but some research…

  20. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation due to Uterine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Uysal, Aysel; Alparslan, Ahmet Sukru; Gurses, Cemil; Koroglu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is defined as abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Although the patients typically present with vaginal bleeding, some patients may experience life-threatening massive bleeding in some circumstances. The treatment of choice depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, and localization and size of the lesion; however, embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients at reproductive age with expectations of future fertility. We report a case of acquired AVM (after D/C) with an extensive lesion, which was successfully treated with bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE).

  1. Successful Treatment of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation due to Uterine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Ozgur; Uysal, Aysel; Alparslan, Ahmet Sukru; Gurses, Cemil; Koroglu, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is defined as abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Although the patients typically present with vaginal bleeding, some patients may experience life-threatening massive bleeding in some circumstances. The treatment of choice depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, and localization and size of the lesion; however, embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients at reproductive age with expectations of future fertility. We report a case of acquired AVM (after D/C) with an extensive lesion, which was successfully treated with bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE). PMID:27699074

  2. Connectivity and functional profiling of abnormal brain structures in pedophilia

    PubMed Central

    Poeppl, Timm B.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fox, Peter T.; Laird, Angela R.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold; Bzdok, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Despite its 0.5–1% lifetime prevalence in men and its general societal relevance, neuroimaging investigations in pedophilia are scarce. Preliminary findings indicate abnormal brain structure and function. However, no study has yet linked structural alterations in pedophiles to both connectional and functional properties of the aberrant hotspots. The relationship between morphological alterations and brain function in pedophilia as well as their contribution to its psychopathology thus remain unclear. First, we assessed bimodal connectivity of structurally altered candidate regions using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and resting-state correlations employing openly accessible data. We compared the ensuing connectivity maps to the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) maps of a recent quantitative meta-analysis of brain activity during processing of sexual stimuli. Second, we functionally characterized the structurally altered regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database. Candidate regions were functionally connected to key areas for processing of sexual stimuli. Moreover, we found that the functional role of structurally altered brain regions in pedophilia relates to nonsexual emotional as well as neurocognitive and executive functions, previously reported to be impaired in pedophiles. Our results suggest that structural brain alterations affect neural networks for sexual processing by way of disrupted functional connectivity, which may entail abnormal sexual arousal patterns. The findings moreover indicate that structural alterations account for common affective and neurocognitive impairments in pedophilia. The present multi-modal integration of brain structure and function analyses links sexual and nonsexual psychopathology in pedophilia. PMID:25733379

  3. Progestins Upregulate FKBP51 Expression in Human Endometrial Stromal Cells to Induce Functional Progesterone and Glucocorticoid Withdrawal: Implications for Contraceptive- Associated Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Guzeloglu Kayisli, Ozlem; Kayisli, Umit A.; Basar, Murat; Semerci, Nihan; Schatz, Frederick; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    Use of long-acting progestin only contraceptives (LAPCs) offers a discrete and highly effective family planning method. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major side effect of, and cause for, discontinuation of LAPCs. The endometria of LAPC-treated women display abnormally enlarged, fragile blood vessels, decreased endometrial blood flow and oxidative stress. To understanding to mechanisms underlying AUB, we propose to identify LAPC-modulated unique gene cluster(s) in human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Protein and RNA isolated from cultured HESCs treated 7 days with estradiol (E2) or E2+ medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or E2+ etonogestrel (ETO) or E2+ progesterone (P4) were analyzed by quantitative Real-time (q)-PCR and immunoblotting. HSCORES were determined for immunostained-paired endometria of pre-and 3 months post-Depot MPA (DMPA) treated women and ovariectomized guinea pigs (GPs) treated with placebo or E2 or MPA or E2+MPA for 21 days. In HESCs, whole genome analysis identified a 67 gene group regulated by all three progestins, whereas a 235 gene group was regulated by E2+ETO and E2+MPA, but not E2+P4. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation as one of upstream regulators of the 235 MPA and ETO-specific genes. Among these, microarray results demonstrated significant enhancement of FKBP51, a repressor of PR/GR transcriptional activity, by both MPA and ETO. q-PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed the microarray results. In endometria of post-DMPA versus pre-DMPA administered women, FKBP51 expression was significantly increased in endometrial stromal and glandular cells. In GPs, E2+MPA or MPA significantly increased FKBP51 immunoreactivity in endometrial stromal and glandular cells versus placebo- and E2-administered groups. MPA or ETO administration activates GR signaling and increases endometrial FKBP51 expression, which could be one of the mechanisms causing AUB by inhibiting PR and GR-mediated transcription

  4. Abnormal thalamocortical structural and functional connectivity in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    O’Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Vollmar, Christian; Barker, Gareth J.; Kumari, Veena; Symms, Mark R.; Thompson, Pam; Duncan, John S.; Koepp, Matthias J.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy, characterized by frequent myoclonic jerks, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and, less commonly, absences. Neuropsychological and, less consistently, anatomical studies have indicated frontal lobe dysfunction in the disease. Given its presumed thalamo–cortical basis, we investigated thalamo–cortical structural connectivity, as measured by diffusion tensor imaging, in a cohort of 28 participants with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and detected changes in an anterior thalamo–cortical bundle compared with healthy control subjects. We then investigated task-modulated functional connectivity from the anterior thalamic region identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a task consistently shown to be impaired in this group, phonemic verbal fluency. We demonstrate an alteration in task-modulated connectivity in a region of frontal cortex directly connected to the thalamus via the same anatomical bundle, and overlapping with the supplementary motor area. Further, we show that the degree of abnormal connectivity is related to disease severity in those with active seizures. By integrating methods examining structural and effective interregional connectivity, these results provide convincing evidence for abnormalities in a specific thalamo–cortical circuit, with reduced structural and task-induced functional connectivity, which may underlie the functional abnormalities in this idiopathic epilepsy. PMID:23250883

  5. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Youth with Psychosis-Spectrum Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Wolf, Daniel H.; Calkins, Monica E.; Vandekar, Simon N.; Erus, Guray; Ruparel, Kosha; Roalf, David R.; Linn, Kristin A.; Elliott, Mark A.; Moore, Tyler M.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Shinohara, Russell T.; Davatzikos, Christos; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Structural brain abnormalities are prominent in psychotic disorders including schizophrenia. However, it is unclear when aberrations emerge in the disease process, and if such deficits are present in association with less severe psychosis-spectrum (PS) symptoms in youth. Objective To investigate the presence of structural brain abnormalities in youth with PS symptoms. Design The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a prospectively accrued community-based sample of nearly 10,000 youths who received a structured psychiatric evaluation. A subsample of 1,601 subjects underwent neuroimaging including structural magnetic resonance imaging. Setting The PNC is a collaboration between The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Participants Youths ages 8–22 years identified through structured interview as having psychosis-spectrum features (PS, n=391), and typically developing comparison subjects without significant psychopathology (TD, n=400). Main Outcomes and Measures Measures of brain volume derived from T1-weighted structural neuroimaging at 3T. Analyses were conducted at global, regional, and voxelwise levels. Regional volumes were estimated with an advanced multi-atlas regional segmentation procedure; voxelwise volumetric analyses were conducted as well. Nonlinear developmental patterns were examined using penalized splines within a general additive model. PS symptom severity was summarized using factor analysis and evaluated dimensionally. Results Compared to the TD group, the PS group had diminished whole brain gray matter volume and expanded white matter volume. Voxelwise analyses revealed significantly lower gray matter volume in the medial temporal lobes as well as in frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. Reduction of medial temporal lobe volume was correlated with PS symptom severity. Conclusions and Relevance Structural brain abnormalities that have been commonly reported in adults

  6. Abnormal brain structure in adults with Van der Woude syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nopoulos, P; Richman, L; Andreasen, N C; Murray, J C; Schutte, B

    2007-06-01

    Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) is an autosomal dominant disorder manifested in cleft lip and/or palate and lip pits. Isolated clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP) have both genotype and phenotype overlap with VWS. Subjects with ICLP have abnormalities in brain structure and function. Given the similarities between VWS and ICLP, the current study was designed to evaluate the pattern of brain structure of adults with VWS. Fourteen adults with VWS were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Brain structure was evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects with VWS had enlarged volumes of the anterior regions of the cerebrum. Men with VWS had reduced volumes of the posterior cerebrum. Anterior cerebrum volume was negatively correlated with intelligent quotient in the subjects with VWS indicating that the enlargement of this brain region was 'pathologic.' The pattern of brain structure in VWS is nearly identical to those seen in ICLP. In addition, men are affected more severely. Pathologic enlargement of the tissue and a gender effect with men affected more severely are common features of neurodevelopmental disorders supporting the notion that the brain structure of VWS and ICLP may be because of abnormal brain development. PMID:17539900

  7. Uterine factors.

    PubMed

    Jaslow, Carolyn R

    2014-03-01

    Uterine anomalies are one of the most common parental causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, occurring in about 19% of patients. Congenital uterine anomalies are most likely caused by HOX gene mutations, although the mechanism is probably polygenic. There are no known environmental causes other than estrogenic endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol. Acquired uterine anomalies may result from uterine trauma (adhesions) or benign growths of the myometrium (fibroids) or endometrium (polyps). Although randomized controlled trials are lacking, surgical treatment is recommended for repair of uterine septa, and for removal of severe adhesions and submucosal fibroids, especially if no other causes are identified.

  8. Uterine leiomyoma cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Nibert, M; Heim, S

    1990-05-01

    Uterine leiomyoma--a benign smooth muscle tumor--has recently been found to contain tumor-specific chromosome aberrations. Although only normal karyotypes were detected in 50 to 80% of cytogenetically investigated tumors, 104 leiomyomas with karyotypic aberrations have already been reported. At least four cytogenetically abnormal subgroups have been identified thus far, characterized by rearrangements of 6p, del(7)(q21.2q31.2), +12, and t(12;14)(q14-15;q23-24). The remaining abnormal tumors have had various nonrecurrent anomalies. Secondary karyotypic rearrangements, sometimes including ring chromosomes, have been found in one-third and reflect clonal evolution. Occasional leiomyomas have contained multiple numerical and structural rearrangements. Though benign, these cytogenetically grossly aberrant tumors often displayed more atypical histological features than are usually seen in leiomyoma. Multiple leiomyomas have been investigated from 69 patients, with detection of chromosome anomalies in at least two separate tumors from the same uterus in ten cases. In half of these patients unrelated aberrations were found in different leiomyomas from the same uterus. On other occasions the aberrations were identical, indicating that although some uterine leiomyomas originate independently, others may develop by intra-myometrial spreading from a common neoplastic clone. Some common features are discernible between the karyotypic pictures of uterine leiomyoma and angioleiomyoma; rearrangements of 6p, 13q, and 21q have been described in both tumor types. The cytogenetic similarities so far detected between leiomyoma and the malignant muscle tumors--leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma--are few and may be fortuitous. The cytogenetic profiles of leiomyoma and lipoma are strikingly similar; both tumor types have nonrandom rearrangements of 12q13-15, t(12;14) in leiomyoma and t(3;12) in lipoma, as well as variant rearrangements of the same 12q segment. Both also have cytogenetic

  9. Abnormalities of vascular structure and function in pediatric hypertension.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Elaine M

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. Measures of vascular structure and function, including increased carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and elevated arterial stiffness predict hard CV events in adulthood. Newer data suggest that abnormalities in target organ damage are occurring in adolescents and young adults with high blood pressure. In this review, we discuss the techniques for measuring vascular dysfunction in young people and the evidence linking blood pressure levels to this type of target organ damage.

  10. Abnormalities in structural covariance of cortical gyrification in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, Lena; Park, Bert; Balain, Vijender; Dangi, Raj; Liddle, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The highly convoluted shape of the adult human brain results from several well-coordinated maturational events that start from embryonic development and extend through the adult life span. Disturbances in these maturational events can result in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, resulting in abnormal patterns of morphological relationship among cortical structures (structural covariance). Structural covariance can be studied using graph theory-based approaches that evaluate topological properties of brain networks. Covariance-based graph metrics allow cross-sectional study of coordinated maturational relationship among brain regions. Disrupted gyrification of focal brain regions is a consistent feature of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear if these localized disturbances result from a failure of coordinated development of brain regions in schizophrenia. We studied the structural covariance of gyrification in a sample of 41 patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls by constructing gyrification-based networks using a 3-dimensional index. We found that several key regions including anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex show increased segregation in schizophrenia, alongside reduced segregation in somato-sensory and occipital regions. Patients also showed a lack of prominence of the distributed covariance (hubness) of cingulate cortex. The abnormal segregated folding pattern in the right peri-sylvian regions (insula and fronto-temporal cortex) was associated with greater severity of illness. The study of structural covariance in cortical folding supports the presence of subtle deviation in the coordinated development of cortical convolutions in schizophrenia. The heterogeneity in the severity of schizophrenia could be explained in part by aberrant trajectories of neurodevelopment.

  11. Cardiac ultrasonography in structural abnormalities and arrhythmias. Recognition and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, M M; Silverman, N H; Villegas, M

    1993-01-01

    Fetal cardiac ultrasonography has become an important tool in the evaluation of fetuses at risk for cardiac anomalies. It can both guide prenatal treatment and assist the management and timing of delivery. We recommend that a fetal echocardiogram be done when there is a family history of congenital heart disease; maternal disease that may affect the fetus; a history of maternal drug use, either therapeutic or illegal; evidence of other fetal abnormalities; or evidence of fetal hydrops. The optimal timing of evaluation is 18 to 22 weeks' gestation. An entire range of structural cardiac defects can be visualized prenatally, including atrioventricular septal defect, ventricular septal defect, cardiomyopathy, ventricular outlet obstruction, and complex cardiac defects. The outcome for a fetus with a recognized abnormality is unfavourable, with less than 50% surviving the neonatal period. Fetal cardiac arrhythmias are also a common occurrence, 15% in the series described here. Premature atrial or ventricular contractions are most commonly seen and usually require no treatment. Supraventricular tachycardia can result in hydrops and require in utero treatment to prevent fetal demise. Complete heart block, particularly in association with structural heart disease, has a poor prognosis for fetal survival. Images PMID:8236970

  12. Patterns of Structural MRI Abnormalities in Deficit and Nondeficit Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Galderisi, Silvana; Quarantelli, Mario; Volpe, Umberto; Mucci, Armida; Cassano, Giovanni Battista; Invernizzi, Giordano; Rossi, Alessandro; Vita, Antonio; Pini, Stefano; Cassano, Paolo; Daneluzzo, Enrico; De Peri, Luca; Stratta, Paolo; Brunetti, Arturo; Maj, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generally been found in association with ventricular enlargement and prefrontal abnormalities. These relationships, however, have not been observed consistently, most probably because negative symptoms are heterogeneous and result from different pathophysiological mechanisms. The concept of deficit schizophrenia (DS) was introduced by Carpenter et al to identify a clinically homogeneous subgroup of patients characterized by the presence of primary and enduring negative symptoms. Findings of brain structural abnormalities reported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies focusing on DS have been mixed. The present study included 34 patients with DS, 32 with nondeficit schizophrenia (NDS), and 31 healthy comparison subjects, providing the largest set of MRI findings in DS published so far. The Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome was used to categorize patients as DS or NDS patients. The 2 patient groups were matched on age and gender and did not differ on clinical variables, except for higher scores on the negative dimension and more impaired interpersonal relationships in DS than in NDS subjects. Lateral ventricles were larger in NDS than in control subjects but were not enlarged in patients with DS. The cingulate gyri volume was smaller in NDS but not in DS patients as compared with healthy subjects. Both groups had smaller dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes than healthy subjects, but DS patients had significantly less right temporal lobe volume as compared with NDS patients. These findings do not support the hypothesis that DS is the extreme end of a severity continuum within schizophrenia. PMID:17728266

  13. Structural abnormalities at neuromuscular synapses lacking multiple syntrophin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Adams, Marvin E; Kramarcy, Neal; Fukuda, Taku; Engel, Andrew G; Sealock, Robert; Froehner, Stanley C

    2004-11-17

    The syntrophins are modular adapter proteins that function by recruiting signaling molecules to the cytoskeleton via their direct association with proteins of the dystrophin protein family. We investigated the physiological function of beta2-syntrophin by generating a line of mice lacking this syntrophin isoform. The beta2-syntrophin null mice show no overt phenotype, or muscular dystrophy, and form structurally normal neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). To determine whether physiological consequences caused by the lack of beta2-syntrophin were masked by compensation from the alpha-syntrophin isoform, we crossed these mice with our previously described alpha-syntrophin null mice to produce mice lacking both isoforms. The alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice have NMJs that are structurally more aberrant than those lacking only alpha-syntrophin. The NMJs of the alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice have fewer junctional folds than either parent strain, and the remaining folds are abnormally shaped with few openings to the synaptic space. The levels of acetylcholine receptors are reduced to 23% of wild type in mice lacking both syntrophin isoforms. Furthermore, the alpha/beta2-syntrophin null mice ran significantly shorter distances on voluntary exercise wheels despite having normal neuromuscular junction transmission as determined by micro-electrode recording of endplate potentials. We conclude that both alpha-syntrophin and beta2-syntrophin play distinct roles in forming and maintaining NMJ structure and that each syntrophin can partially compensate for the loss of the other.

  14. Neuroimaging of schizophrenia: structural abnormalities and pathophysiological implications

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Peter F

    2005-01-01

    Schizophrenia, once considered a psychological malady devoid of any organic brain substrate, has been the focus of intense neuroimaging research. Findings reveal mild but generalized tissue loss as well as more selective focal loss. It is unclear whether these abnormalities reflect neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative processes, or some combination of each; current evidence favors a preponderance of neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The pattern of brain abnormalities is also influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors, as well as by the course (and possibly even treatment) of this illness. These findings are described in this article. PMID:18568069

  15. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women of childbearing age. Fibroids are made of muscle cells and other tissues ... of the uterus, or womb. The cause of fibroids is unknown. Risk factors include being African American ...

  16. Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... it? How is it diagnosed? What are the treatments for it? Other FAQs NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Uterine Fibroids: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links ...

  17. Uterine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. This type of cancer is sometimes called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of ...

  18. Uterine surgery by operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bacskó, G

    1997-02-01

    Uterine anomalies are found in 10-15% of women with repeated pregnancy loss. Uterine malformations and benign tumors are common causes of abortions, premature labour and abnormal fetal presentation in some cases. One-third of patients with habitual abortion have a septated or subseptated uterus, and two-thirds of pregnancies in women with duplicated uterus progress to term. Müllerian fusion defects and submucous fibroid may cause poor implantation or ineffective maternal blood supply to the placental site of the developing pregnancy. When these abnormalities were evaluated in infertile patients or in habitual abortions, traditionally the abdominal correction (Jones, Strassman, Tompkins etc.) were used traditionally. These procedures require incision of abdominal and uterine walls in general anesthesia with relative long hospitalization and recovery. The new endoscopic procedure; hysteroscopy is used not only to evaluate the type and size of Müllerian fusion defects but also to treat this malformation. The uterine septum is transsectable, via this elegant method, without injury of abdominal wall and healthy uterine wall musculature. After a traditional abdominal metroplasty there is no other-choice other than the cesarean section to prevent rupture of the uterus, but after hysteroscopic septotomy the vaginal delivery is possible and the uterine rupture rarity.

  19. Psychological characteristics of and counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Wu, B; Guo, K M; Tian, R H

    2016-01-01

    Infertility as a psychological problem has gained increasing attention. Male partners among infertile couples have elevated levels of psychological distress, which could affect semen quality, result in hormonal abnormalities, and increase the occurrence of early miscarriage. Infertile women are more vulnerable to psychological distress and require psychological support. Subfertile women who conceive after assisted reproduction have higher stress, anxiety, and depression levels. Psychological interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on infertility patients. However, psychosocial characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities have not been studied. We report the characteristics of carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities and their influence on psychological counseling. Seventy-five patients were carriers of reciprocal translocations, 25 carried Robertsonian translocations, 17 carried inversions, 10 carried deletions, and 3 carried isochromosomes. The main clinical characteristics were recurrent spontaneous abortion, oligospermatism, azoospermatism, primary amenorrhea, and fetal death. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those scores of women with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than those of men with normal karyotype. SAS and SDS scores of women with structural chromosome abnormality were significantly higher than their scores of men with structural chromosome abnormality. Women carriers with structural chromosome abnormality were more vulnerable to psychological distress. Psychosocial counseling for carriers of structural chromosome abnormalities should focus on self-confidence and treatment with assisted reproductive technology. PMID:27173267

  20. The course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Neil D

    2016-01-01

    Neuropsychological impairment and abnormalities in brain structure are commonly observed in psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Shared deficits in neuropsychological functioning and abnormalities in brain structure suggest overlapping neuropathology between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which has important implications for psychiatric nosology, treatment, and our understanding of the etiology of psychotic illnesses. However, the emergence and trajectory of brain dysfunction in psychotic disorders is less well understood. Differences in the course and progression of neuropsychological impairment and brain abnormalities among psychotic disorders may point to unique neuropathological processes. This article reviews the course of neuropsychological impairment and brain structure abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  1. Structural abnormalities of muscle tissue in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Berman, L; Isaacs, H; Pickering, A

    1976-07-24

    Muscle tissue of patients with ankylosing spondylitis has been studied by means of histology, histochemistry and electron microscopy and has been shown to be grossly abnormal. The underlying basis of the muscle changes is probably neuropathic and we believe that these changes form part of the over-all pathology of this disease.

  2. Structural abnormalities of common carp Cyprinus carpio spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, Martin; Rodina, Marek; Flajshans, Martin; Kaspar, Vojtech; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-11-01

    Spermatozoa of common carp Cyprinus carpio are typically consist of a primitive head without acrosome, a midpiece with several mitochondria, a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centriole), and one flagellum. During an evaluation of the motility of common carp spermatozoa, we found spermatozoa with more than one flagellum and/or "double head" in three different individuals. This may be related to abnormal spermatogenesis. Ultrastructure and physiological parameters of spermatozoa were examined using light microscopy (dark field with stroboscopic illumination), transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. The recorded pictures and videos were evaluated using Olympus MicroImage software. All spermatozoa with more than one flagellum had a larger head and shorter flagella. They occasionally demonstrated several cytoplasmic channels separating the flagella from the midpiece. Each flagellum was based upon its own centriolar complex, with the connection of the flagellum to the head always at a constant angle. The flagella always consisted of nine peripheral pairs and one central doublet of microtubules. Sperm exhibited a relative DNA content similar to that found in sperm from normal males, with higher coefficients of variation. Although similar abnormalities have been found in livestock, where they were described as a defect in spermiogenesis, no comparable results have been reported in fish. The frequency at which these abnormalities occurs, the fertilization ability of males with defects in spermiogenesis, the influence of these abnormalities on progeny in terms of ploidy level, and the occurrence of deformities warrant further investigation.

  3. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies.

  4. Molecular genetic alterations in endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary: similar frequency of beta-catenin abnormalities but lower rate of microsatellite instability and PTEN alterations than in uterine endometrioid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Catasús, Lluis; Bussaglia, Elena; Rodrguez, Ingrid; Gallardo, Alberto; Pons, Cristina; Irving, Julie A; Prat, Jaime

    2004-11-01

    Endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary closely resemble their uterine counterparts. It has been suggested that the former tumors have the same molecular alterations (microsatellite instability [MSI], PTEN, and beta-catenin) described in endometrioid carcinomas of the uterus. We analyzed 55 ovarian carcinomas, including 22 endometrioid, 18 clear cell, and 15 mixed types. MSI was detected in 5 of 39 cases (13%). MLH1 promoter hypermethylation was identified in 2 of the 5 MSI-positive tumors. PTEN was mutated in 5 of 54 cases (9%); of these, 3 had MSI and exhibited frameshift mutations in short-coding mononucleotide repeats. Beta-catenin nuclear expression was detected in 11 of 54 cases (20%) by immunostaining; of these, 7 exhibited CTNNB1 gene mutations. These alterations were found more frequently in endometrioid carcinomas than in tumors of the other 2 groups. Among the former tumors, MSI was detected in 3 of 17 cases (17.5%); PTEN mutations, in 3 of 21 (14%); and beta-catenin, in 8 of 21 (38%). The molecular alterations were found more often in tumors associated with endometriosis than in tumors without endometriosis. Six endometrioid tumors demonstrating matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) immunoreactivity with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin had good outcomes, in contrast to poor outcomes in 7 of 9 predominantly nonendometrioid tumors demonstrating expression of MMP-7 only. We found a similar frequency of beta-catenin abnormalities but lower rates of MSI and PTEN alterations than in uterine endometrioid carcinomas. Alterations in beta-catenin and PTEN genes, as well as MSI, are frequent in low-stage ovarian carcinomas of endometrioid type that have a favorable prognosis.

  5. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Vodstrcil, Lenka A.; Tare, Marianne; Novak, Jacqueline; Dragomir, Nicoleta; Ramirez, Rolando J.; Wlodek, Mary E.; Conrad, Kirk P.; Parry, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Normal pregnancy involves dramatic remodeling of the uterine vasculature, with abnormal vascular adaptations contributing to pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia. The peptide hormone relaxin is important for the renal and systemic hemodynamic adaptations to pregnancy, and has been shown to increase arterial compliance and outward hypertrophic remodeling. Therefore, we investigated the possibility that relaxin acts on its receptor, RXFP1, to mediate uterine artery compliance in late pregnancy and increase uterine blood flow velocity in rats. RXFP1 was predominantly localized to the tunica media vascular smooth muscle cells in the uterine artery, although receptors were also detected in endothelial cells. Highest expression of Rxfp1 in the uterine artery occurred in estrus and early pregnancy. Isolated uterine arteries from late pregnant rats treated with a monoclonal antibody against circulating relaxin (MCA1) had significantly increased vessel wall stiffness compared with controls, with no reduction in wall thickness. Chronic infusion of relaxin (4 μg/h, osmotic minipump) for 5 d in nonpregnant rats significantly increased uterine artery blood flow velocity. Overall, these data demonstrate a functional role for relaxin in mediating uterine artery compliance in pregnant rats, which may be necessary to maintain adequate uterine blood flow to the uterus and placenta.—Vodstrcil, L. A., Tare, M., Novak, J., Dragomir, N., Ramirez, R. J., Wlodek, M. E., Conrad, K. P., Parry, L. J. Relaxin mediates uterine artery compliance during pregnancy and increases uterine blood flow. PMID:22744867

  6. Uterine factors and infertility.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Barry

    2006-03-01

    A literature review was performed to explore the available information regarding the association of uterine factors--intrauterine adhesions, uterine septa, uterine myomas and endometrial polyps--with infertility and reproductive loss. The literature was reviewed also to ascertain evidence that treatment of these abnormalities improves fertility. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify the relevant publications in the English-language literature. There is minimal published evidence to demonstrate that intrauterine adhesions lead to infertility or pregnancy loss, but the literature does contain several observational series that demonstrate successful fertility, with term pregnancy rates ranging from 32% to 87% following hysteroscopic division of intrauterine adhesions. The evidence supporting a direct link between a septate uterus and reproductive loss/infertility is derived from the results of metroplasty. Several case series demonstrated a reduction in the spontaneous abortion rate, from 91% to 17%, on average, after hysteroscopic metroplasty. Furthermore, following metroplasty, the mean pregnancy rate in previously infertile patients is 47%. Little has been written regarding the association of endometrial polyps and infertility. One study did demonstrate a pregnancy rate of 78% after hysteroscopic polypectomy as compared to 42% in infertile patients with normal endometrial cavities. The literature that associates myomas with infertility/reproductive loss is more extensive but quite controversial. Evidence from the in vitro fertilization literature suggests that only those myomas that distort the endometrial cavity impair fertility. Pregnancy rates approximating 50% are achieved with myomectomy by laparotomy, laparoscopy or hysteroscopy.

  7. Molecular cytogenetic studies in structural abnormalities of chromosome 13

    SciTech Connect

    Lozzio, C.B.; Bamberger, E.; Anderson, I.

    1994-09-01

    A partial trisomy 13 was detected prenatally in an amniocentesis performed due to the following ultrasound abnormalities: open sacral neural tube defect (NTD), a flattened cerebellum, and lumbar/thoracic hemivertebrae. Elevated AFP and positive acetylcholinesterase in amniotic fluid confirmed the open NTD. Chromosome analysis showed an extra acrocentric chromosome marker. FISH analysis with the painting probe 13 showed that most of the marker was derived from this chromosome. Chromosomes on the parents revealed that the mother had a balanced reciprocal translocation t(2;13)(q23;q21). Dual labeling with painting chromosomes 2 and 13 on cells from the mother and from the amniotic fluid identified the marker as a der(13)t(2;13)(p23;q21). Thus, the fetus had a partial trisomy 13 and a small partial trisomy 2p. The maternal grandfather was found to be a carrier for this translocation. Fetal demise occurred a 29 weeks of gestation. The fetus had open lumbar NTD and showed dysmorphic features, overlapping fingers and imperforate anus. This woman had a subsequent pregnancy and chorionic villi sample showed that this fetus was normal. Another case with an abnormal chromosome 13 was a newborn with partial monosomy 13 due to the presence of a ring chromosome 13. This infant had severe intrauterine growth retardation, oligohydramnios, dysmorphic features and multiple congenital microphthalmia, congenital heart disease, absent thumbs and toes and cervical vertebral anomalies. Chromosome studies in blood and skin fibroblast cultures showed that one chromosome 3 was replaced by a ring chromosome of various sizes. This ring was confirmed to be derived from chromosome 13 using the centromeric 21/13 probe.

  8. Ovarian structures and uterine environment are associated with phenotypic and genetic merit for performance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, A M; Ryan, D P; Carthy, T R; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between detailed reproductive phenotypes for cows categorized as divergent for phenotypic and genetic performance. The hypothesis was that higher yielding animals, either phenotypically or genetically, would have compromised ovarian and uterine reproductive performance. Detailed reproductive traits including multiple ovulations, cystic ovarian structures, corpus luteum (CL) presence, and uterine environment were available on 9675 ultrasound records from 8174 dairy lactating cows, calved between 10 and 70 days. Cows were categorized, within parity, into low, average, or high for each of the performance traits. There was a greater likelihood of multiple ovulations in cows with greater phenotypic yields (odds ratio: 1.53-1.81) and greater genetic merit for yield (odds ratio: 1.31-1.59) relative to lower performing contemporaries. After adjustment for genetic merit, a similar trend of increased odds (odds ratio: 1.29-1.87) of multiple ovulations in higher yielding cows was observed compared with the lowest yielding category. There was no association between either phenotypic milk composition or genetic merit for milk composition with the likelihood of multiple ovulations. The likelihood of cystic ovarian structures was highest in cows with greatest phenotypic milk yields (odds ratio: 2.75-3.24), greater genetic merit for milk yield (odds ratio: 1.30-1.51), and even after adjustment for genetic merit there was a greater likelihood of cystic ovarian structures in cows with the highest milk yields (odds ratio: 2.71-2.95), compared with cows in the lowest category for each of the milk traits. Cows with average phenotypic milk yields were more likely to have a CL, compared with the lowest yielding category (odds ratio: 1.20-1.23), and these associations remained after adjustment for genetic merit of the trait. The likelihood of CL presence was highest in cows with the lowest genetic merit for milk. Lower fat

  9. SMAD Signaling Is Required for Structural Integrity of the Female Reproductive Tract and Uterine Function During Early Pregnancy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Amanda; Tripurani, Swamy K; Burton, Jason C; Clementi, Caterina; Larina, Irina; Pangas, Stephanie A

    2016-08-01

    Pregnancy is a complex physiological process tightly controlled by the interplay among hormones, morphogens, transcription factors, and signaling pathways. Although recent studies using genetically engineered mouse models have revealed that ligands and receptors of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways are essential for multiple reproductive events during pregnancy, the functional role of SMAD transcription factors, which serve as the canonical signaling platform for the TGFbeta/BMP pathways, in the oviduct and uterus is undefined. Here, we used a mouse model containing triple conditional deletion of the BMP receptor signaling Smads (Smad1 and Smad5) and Smad4, the central mediator of both TGFbeta and BMP signaling, to investigate the role of the SMADs in reproductive tract structure and function in cells from the Amhr2 lineage. Unlike the respective single- or double-knockouts, female Smad1(flox/flox) Smad5(flox/flox) Smad4(flox/flox) Amhr2(cre/+)conditional knockout (i.e., Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO) mice are sterile. We discovered that Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females have malformed oviducts that subsequently develop oviductal diverticuli. These oviducts showed dysregulation of multiple genes essential for oviduct and smooth muscle development. In addition, uteri from Smad1/5/4-Amhr2-cre KO females exhibit multiple defects in stroma, epithelium, and smooth muscle layers and fail to assemble a closed uterine lumen upon embryo implantation, with defective uterine decidualization that led to pregnancy loss at early to mid-gestation. Taken together, our study uncovers a new role for the SMAD transcription factors in maintaining the structural and functional integrity of oviduct and uterus, required for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:27335065

  10. Modeling the thermal and structural response of engineered systems to abnormal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Skocypec, R.D.; Thomas, R.K.; Moya, J.L.

    1993-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is engaged actively in research to improve the ability to accurately predict the response of engineered systems to thermal and structural abnormal environments. Abnormal environments that will be addressed in this paper include: fire, impact, and puncture by probes and fragments, as well as a combination of all of the above. Historically, SNL has demonstrated the survivability of engineered systems to abnormal environments using a balanced approach between numerical simulation and testing. It is necessary to determine the response of engineered systems in two cases: (1) to satisfy regulatory specifications, and (2) to enable quantification of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). In a regulatory case, numerical simulation of system response is generally used to guide the system design such that the system will respond satisfactorily to the specified regulatory abnormal environment. Testing is conducted at the regulatory abnormal environment to ensure compliance.

  11. Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail. PMID:22378865

  12. Medical treatment of uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-04-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail.

  13. Structural abnormalities of small resistance arteries in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico

    2012-06-01

    Regardless of the mechanisms that initiate the increase in blood pressure, the development of structural changes in the systemic vasculature is the end result of established hypertension. In essential hypertension, the small arteries smooth muscle cells are restructured around a smaller lumen, and there is no net growth of the vascular wall, while in some secondary forms of hypertension, a hypertrophic remodeling may be detected. Also, in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, a hypertrophic remodeling of subcutaneous small arteries is present. The results from our own group have suggested that indices of small resistance artery structure, such as the tunica media to internal lumen ratio, may have a strong prognostic significance in hypertensive patients, over and above all other known cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, the regression of vascular alterations is an appealing goal of antihypertensive treatment. Different antihypertensive drugs seem to have different effect on vascular structure, both in human and in animal models of genetic and experimental hypertension. A complete normalization of small resistance artery structure is demonstrated in hypertensive patients, after long-term and effective therapy with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and calcium antagonists. Few data are available in diabetic hypertensive patients; however, blockade of the renin-angiotensin system seems to be effective in this regard. In conclusion, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest that small resistance artery structure may be considered an intermediate endpoint in the evaluation of the effects of antihypertensive therapy; however, there are presently no data available about the prognostic impact of the regression of vascular structural alterations in hypertension and diabetes.

  14. Delineating the Structure of Normal and Abnormal Personality: An Integrative Hierarchical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Markon, Kristian E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that normal and abnormal personality can be treated within a single structural framework. However, identification of a single integrated structure of normal and abnormal personality has remained elusive. Here, a constructive replication approach was used to delineate an integrative hierarchical account of the structure of normal and abnormal personality. This hierarchical structure, which integrates many Big Trait models proposed in the literature, replicated across a meta-analysis as well as an empirical study, and across samples of participants as well as measures. The proposed structure resembles previously suggested accounts of personality hierarchy and provides insight into the nature of personality hierarchy more generally. Potential directions for future research on personality and psychopathology are discussed. PMID:15631580

  15. [Spontaneous uterine rupture due to uterine leiomyosarcoma].

    PubMed

    Boussouni, Khouloud; Benoulaid, Meryem; Dafiri, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare cancers characterized by clinical and histological polymorphism. They are malignant tumors of poor prognosis. Inaugural manifestation of acute abdomen with hemo-pneumoperitoneum and spontaneous uterine rupture remains exceptional. The authors report the case of a uterine leiomyosarcoma manifesting itself as an inaugural generalized acute peritonitis in a 43 year old woman. Uterine rupture due to malignant tumor was suspected during urgent preoperative imaging (ultrasound and CT scan) and confirmed histologically. PMID:27642425

  16. Brain Structure Abnormalities in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Graeme; Hagan, Cindy C.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Passamonti, Luca; Calder, Andrew J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD.…

  17. HFE gene: Structure, function, mutations, and associated iron abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Barton, James C; Edwards, Corwin Q; Acton, Ronald T

    2015-12-15

    The hemochromatosis gene HFE was discovered in 1996, more than a century after clinical and pathologic manifestations of hemochromatosis were reported. Linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p, HFE encodes the MHC class I-like protein HFE that binds beta-2 microglobulin. HFE influences iron absorption by modulating the expression of hepcidin, the main controller of iron metabolism. Common HFE mutations account for ~90% of hemochromatosis phenotypes in whites of western European descent. We review HFE mapping and cloning, structure, promoters and controllers, and coding region mutations, HFE protein structure, cell and tissue expression and function, mouse Hfe knockouts and knockins, and HFE mutations in other mammals with iron overload. We describe the pertinence of HFE and HFE to mechanisms of iron homeostasis, the origin and fixation of HFE polymorphisms in European and other populations, and the genetic and biochemical basis of HFE hemochromatosis and iron overload.

  18. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide

    PubMed Central

    Cope, L.M.; Ermer, E.; Gaudet, L.M.; Steele, V.R.; Eckhardt, A.L.; Arbabshirani, M.R.; Caldwell, M.F.; Calhoun, V.D.; Kiehl, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Methods Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Results Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Conclusions Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses. PMID:24936430

  19. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata.

  20. [Microscopic anatomy of abnormal structure in root tuber of Pueraria lobata].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hai-yan; Cheng, Ming-en; Peng, Hua-sheng; Zhang, He-ting; Zhao, Yu-jiao

    2015-11-01

    Puerariae Lobatae Radix, also known as Gegen, is a root derived from Pueraria lobata. Based on field investigation and the developmental anatomy of root tuber, we have elucidated the relationship between the growth of root tuber and the anomalous structure. The results of analysis showed that the root system of P. lobata was developed from seed and adventitious root and there existed root tuber, adventitious root and conductive root according to morphology and function. The root tuber was developed from adventitious root, its secondary structure conformed to the secondary structure of dicotyledon's root. With the development of root, the secondary phloem of root tuber appeared abnormal vascular tissue, which was distributed like ring in the outside of secondary vascular tissue. The root tuber might have 4-6 concentric circular permutation abnormal vascular tissuelobate, and was formed by the internal development of abnormal vascular tissue. The xylem and phloem of abnormal vascular tissue were the main body of the root tuber. The results reveal the abnormal anatomical structure development of P. lobata, also provides the theoretical basis for reasonable harvest medicinal parts and promoting sustainable utilization of resources of P. lobata. PMID:27097408

  1. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40-70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  2. Structural Chromosome Abnormalities Associated with Obesity: Report of Four New subjects and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dasouki, Majed J; Youngs, Erin L; Hovanes, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans is a complex polygenic trait with high inter-individual heritability estimated at 40–70%. Candidate gene, DNA linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have allowed for the identification of a large set of genes and genomic regions associated with obesity. Structural chromosome abnormalities usually result in congenital anomalies, growth retardation and developmental delay. Occasionally, they are associated with hyperphagia and obesity rather than growth delay. We report four new individuals with structural chromosome abnormalities involving 10q22.3-23.2, 16p11.2 and Xq27.1-q28 chromosomal regions with early childhood obesity and developmental delay. We also searched and summarized the literature for structural chromosome abnormalities reported in association with childhood obesity. PMID:22043167

  3. Uterine Leiomyomas: An ENIGMA

    PubMed Central

    Geethamala, Kempula; Murthy, Venkataramappa Srinivasa; Vani, Bangalore Ramalingiah; Rao, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leiomyomas are benign tumors composed of smooth muscle cells and varying amounts of fibrous connective tissue commonly encountered in women of reproductive age group. Leiomyomas need hormonal milieu for their growth and maintenance. Unopposed estrogenic stimulation manifests as leiomyomas undergoing secondary changes, endometrial proliferation or hyperplasia, and other associated pathological findings. Objective: To study and analyze various histopathological changes within uterine leiomyomas in hysterectomy specimens. And also, to analyze the associated endometrial and adnexal structures pathology. Materials and Methods: A 4 years retrospective study from June 2010 to June 2014 conducted in the Department of Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, ESIC Medical College and PGIMSR, wherein 820 hysterectomy specimens clinically diagnosed as uterine leiomyomas were subjected to histopathological examination and relevant clinical data were analyzed. Results: Leiomyomas occurred mostly in women aged 31-50 years (90.23%). Menorrhagia (49.36%) and pain abdomen (30.6%) were the chief clinical manifestations. Endometrial patterns commonly seen were proliferative and hyperplastic endometrium together accounting for 73.4% and dual pathology with adenomyosis was 29.1%. Four cases of tubercular etiology and a single case of granulosa cell tumor of ovary was noted. Conclusion: Though hysterectomy is a routine procedure in the management of uterine leiomyomas, occasional cases of tumor or infective pathology may be missed. Therefore, histopathology is mandatory and conscientious quest must be done for confirmed diagnosis and ensuring optimal management. PMID:27134477

  4. Inhibition of PPARγ during rat pregnancy causes intrauterine growth restriction and attenuation of uterine vasodilation

    PubMed Central

    Gokina, Natalia I.; Chan, Siu-Lung; Chapman, Abbie C.; Oppenheimer, Karen; Jetton, Thomas L.; Cipolla, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity is thought to have a major role in preeclampsia through abnormal placental development. However, the role of PPARγ in adaptation of the uteroplacental vasculature that may lead to placental hypoperfusion and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy is not known. Here, pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 11/group) were treated during the second half of pregnancy with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day in food) or vehicle. Pregnancy outcome and PPARγ mRNA, vasodilation and structural remodeling were determined in maternal uterine and mesenteric arteries. PPARγ was expressed in uterine vascular tissue of both non-pregnant and pregnant rats with ~2-fold greater expression in radial vs. main uterine arteries. PPARγ mRNA levels were significantly higher in uterine compared to mesenteric arteries. GW9662 treatment during pregnancy did not affect maternal physiology (body weight, glucose, blood pressure), mesenteric artery vasodilation or structural remodeling of uterine and mesenteric vessels. Inhibition of PPARγ for the last 10 days of gestation caused decreased fetal weights on both day 20 and 21 of gestation that was associated with impaired vasodilation of radial uterine arteries in response to acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. These results define an essential role of PPARγ in the control of uteroplacental vasodilatory function during pregnancy, an important determinant of blood flow to the placenta and fetus. Strategies that target PPARγ activation in the uterine circulation could have important therapeutic potential in treatment of pregnancies complicated by hypertension, diabetes or preeclampsia. PMID:23888144

  5. Abnormal hippocampal structure and function in clinical anxiety and comorbid depression.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jiook; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Song, Inkyung; Blair Simpson, Helen; Posner, Jonathan; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-05-01

    Given the high prevalence rates of comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders, identifying a common neural pathway to both disorders is important not only for better diagnosis and treatment, but also for a more complete conceptualization of each disease. Hippocampal abnormalities have been implicated in anxiety and depression, separately; however, it remains unknown whether these abnormalities are also implicated in their comorbidity. Here we address this question by testing 32 adults with generalized anxiety disorder (15 GAD only and 17 comorbid MDD) and 25 healthy controls (HC) using multimodal MRI (structure, diffusion and functional) and automated hippocampal segmentation. We demonstrate that (i) abnormal microstructure of the CA1 and CA2-3 is associated with GAD/MDD comorbidity and (ii) decreased anterior hippocampal reactivity in response to repetition of the threat cue is associated with GAD (with or without MDD comorbidity). In addition, mediation-structural equation modeling (SEM) reveals that our hippocampal and dimensional symptom data are best explained by a model describing a significant influence of abnormal hippocampal microstructure on both anxiety and depression-mediated through its impact on abnormal hippocampal threat processing. Collectively, our findings show a strong association between changes in hippocampal microstructure and threat processing, which together may present a common neural pathway to comorbidity of anxiety and depression.

  6. Role of Medical Management for Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Kashani, Banafsheh N; Centini, Gabriele; Morelli, Sara S; Weiss, Gerson; Petraglia, Felice

    2016-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, are the most common benign tumor in reproductive aged women. Affected women may remain asymptomatic or may report symptoms related to abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, or pelvic pain and pressure. Depending on a patient's symptomatology and reproductive plans, treatment options include expectant management, medical management (hormonal and non-hormonal), or surgical management (myomectomy or hysterectomy). In those wishing to defer surgical management, non-hormonal therapies such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and tranexamic acid have been shown to decrease menstrual blood loss. In patients with more symptomatic leiomyomas, hormonal therapies such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists and selective progesterone receptor modulators are effective at reducing leiomyoma volume, uterine size, and menstrual blood loss. This manuscript will detail the available and emerging hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for symptomatic uterine leiomyomas. PMID:26796059

  7. Mutations in the SPTLC1 protein cause mitochondrial structural abnormalities and endoplasmic reticulum stress in lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Myers, Simon J; Malladi, Chandra S; Hyland, Ryan A; Bautista, Tara; Boadle, Ross; Robinson, Phillip J; Nicholson, Garth A

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) cause the typical length-dependent axonal degeneration hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN1). Transmission electron microscopy studies on SPTLC1 mutant lymphoblasts derived from patients revealed specific structural abnormalities of mitochondria. Swollen mitochondria with abnormal cristae were clustered around the nucleus, with some mitochondria being wrapped in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. Total mitochondrial counts revealed a significant change in mitochondrial numbers between healthy and diseased lymphocytes but did not reveal any change in length to width ratios nor were there any changes to cellular function. However, there was a notable change in ER homeostasis, as assessed using key ER stress markers, BiP and ERO1-Lα, displaying reduced protein expression. The observations suggest that SPTLC1 mutations cause mitochondrial abnormalities and ER stress in HSN1 cells. PMID:24673574

  8. Uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth A; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K; Catherino, William H; Lalitkumar, Sujata; Gupta, Devashana; Vollenhoven, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are common clonal neoplasms of the uterus. Fibroids have both smooth muscle and fibroblast components, in addition to a substantial amount of fibrous extracellular matrix, which all contribute to the pathogenetic process. Fibroids are extremely heterogeneous in their pathophysiology, size, location and clinical symptomatology. They are also a part of a range of disease in which some variants have facets of malignant behaviour but overall are benign. Risk for fibroids is associated with race; black women have a higher risk of developing fibroids earlier in life than their white counterparts and also develop more-severe forms of the disease. Clinically, fibroids account for one-third to half of all hysterectomies and are associated with substantial morbidity and health care costs for women of reproductive age. Indeed, current treatments are primarily surgical and interventional; approximately three-quarters of all fibroid treatments are hysterectomies. However, clinical innovations are emerging in the use of progesterone receptor modulators as a medical therapy. New information is rapidly accumulating about the genetic subgroups that lead to fibroid formation, which might aid further understanding of the clinical heterogeneity of this disease and lead to individualized treatments. This information is a crucial development given the current lack of high-quality evidence on which to base therapeutic decisions. PMID:27335259

  9. Fifty probands with extra structurally abnormal chromosomes characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Telenius, H.; Nordenskjoeld, M.

    1995-01-02

    Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESACs) are small supernumerary chromosomes often associated with developmental abnormalities and malformations. We present 50 probands with ESACs characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization using centromere-specific probes and chromosome-specific libraries. ESAC-specific libraries were constructed by flow sorting and subsequent amplification by DOP-PCR. Using such ESAC-specific libraries we were able to outline the chromosome regions involved. Twenty-three of the 50 ESACs were inverted duplications of chromosome 15 (inv dup(15)), including patients with normal phenotypes and others with similar clinical symptoms. These 2 groups differed in size and shape of the inv dup(15). Patients with a large inv dup(15), which included the Prader-Willi region, had a high risk of abnormality, whereas patients with a small inv dup(15), not including the Prader-Willi region, were normal. ESACs derived from chromosomes 13 or 21 appeared to have a low risk of abnormality, while one out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 14 had discrete symptoms. One out of 3 patients with an ESAC derived from chromosome 22 had severe anomalies, corresponding to some of the manifestations of the cat eye syndrome. Small extra ring chromosomes of autosomal origin and ESACs identified as i(12p) or i(18p) were all associated with a high risk of abnormality. 42 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function.

  11. Constitutive Activation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor 1 in the Mouse Uterus Impairs Uterine Morphology and Function1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Bayless, Kayla J.; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

  12. Pharmacological Treatment of Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, RM; Vieira, CS; Ferriani, RA; Candido-dos-Reis, FJ; Brito, LGO

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (UF) are common, benign gynecologic tumors, affecting one in three to four women, with estimates of up to 80%, depending on the population studied. Their etiology is not well established, but it is under the influence of several risk factors, such as early menarche, nulliparity and family history. More than 50% of affected women are asymptomatic, but the lesions may be related to bothersome symptoms, such as abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and bloating or urinary symptoms. The treatment of UF is classically surgical; however, various medical options are available, providing symptom control while minimizing risks and complications. A large number of clinical trials have evaluated commonly used medical treatments and potentially effective new ones. Through a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Scopus and Google Scholar databases, through which we included 41 studies out of 7658 results, we thoroughly explored the different pharmacological options available for management of UF, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25364587

  13. Primary Uterine Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Dong, Aisheng; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xuefeng; Yang, Panpan; Wang, Li; Jing, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is extremely rare accounting for <1% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Imaging findings of primary uterine lymphoma have rarely been reported before. We present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT findings in a patient with primary uterine peripheral T-cell lymphoma. A 27-year-old female presented with intermittent fever with neutropenia for 7 months. MRI showed an ill-defined mass involved both the uterine corpus and cervix, resulting in diffuse enlargement of the uterus. This mass showed inhomogeneous hypointensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images, hyperintensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, relative hypointensity compared to the surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted images and lower enhancement than the surrounding myometrium on enhanced T1-weighted images. FDG PET/CT showed intense FDG uptake in the thickened wall of the uterine corpus and cervix with SUVmax of 26.9. There were multiple hypermetabolic lymph nodes in the pelvis and retroperitoneum. Uterine curettage and CT-guided biopsy of the uterine mass revealed peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Bone marrow biopsy revealed no evidence of lymphomatous involvement. The imaging and pathologic findings were consistent with primary uterine lymphoma. After 3 circles of chemotherapy, follow-up enhanced MRI showed decreased thickness of the uterine wall. Despite its rarity, primary uterine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma should be taken into consideration when a uterine tumor shows large size, relative hypointesity on both T2-weighted images and enhanced T1-weighted images compared to the surrounding myometrium, and intense FDG uptake on PET/CT. MRI may be helpful for describing the relationship between the tumor and adjacent structures. FDG PET/CT may be useful for tumor detection and staging. PMID:27124063

  14. Abnormal interactions between context, memory structure, and mood in schizophrenia: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana P; Del Re, Elisabetta; Nestor, Paul G; Mezin, Jenna; Rezaii, Neguine; McCarley, Robert W; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Niznikiewicz, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    This study used event-related potentials to examine interactions between mood, sentence context, and semantic memory structure in schizophrenia. Seventeen male chronic schizophrenia and 15 healthy control subjects read sentence pairs after positive, negative, or neutral mood induction. Sentences ended with expected words (EW), within-category violations (WCV), or between-category violations (BCV). Across all moods, patients showed sensitivity to context indexed by reduced N400 to EW relative to both WCV and BCV. However, they did not show sensitivity to the semantic memory structure. N400 abnormalities were particularly enhanced under a negative mood in schizophrenia. These findings suggest abnormal interactions between mood, context processing, and connections within semantic memory in schizophrenia, and a specific role of negative mood in modulating semantic processes in this disease.

  15. Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: an update.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Motonobu; Schneider, Marlon R; Schmidt-Ullrich, Ruth; Paus, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Human hair disorders comprise a number of different types of alopecia, atrichia, hypotrichosis, distinct hair shaft disorders as well as hirsutism and hypertrichosis. Their causes vary from genodermatoses (e.g. hypotrichoses) via immunological disorders (e.g. alopecia areata, autoimmune cicatrical alopecias) to hormone-dependent abnormalities (e.g. androgenetic alopecia). A large number of spontaneous mouse mutants and genetically engineered mice develop abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or hair shaft formation, whose analysis has proven invaluable to define the molecular regulation of hair growth, ranging from hair follicle development, and cycling to hair shaft formation and stem cell biology. Also, the accumulating reports on hair phenotypes of mouse strains provide important pointers to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying human hair growth disorders. Since numerous new mouse mutants with a hair phenotype have been reported since the publication of our earlier review on this matter a decade ago, we present here an updated, tabulated mini-review. The updated annotated tables list a wide selection of mouse mutants with hair growth abnormalities, classified into four categories: Mutations that affect hair follicle (1) morphogenesis, (2) cycling, (3) structure, and (4) mutations that induce extrafollicular events (for example immune system defects) resulting in secondary hair growth abnormalities. This synthesis is intended to provide a useful source of reference when studying the molecular controls of hair follicle growth and differentiation, and whenever the hair phenotypes of a newly generated mouse mutant need to be compared with existing ones.

  16. Dissociated Accumbens and Hippocampal Structural Abnormalities across Obesity and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Elijah; Chien, Yee; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing of food and drug rewards involves specific neurocircuitry, and emerging evidence implicates subcortical abnormalities, particularly the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. We specifically hypothesized that these 2 established regions in addiction neurocircuitry are associated with distinctive in vivo structural abnormalities in obesity and alcohol dependence. Methods: To specifically investigate anatomically discrete volumetric changes associated with overconsumption of different rewards, we acquired T1 MRI data from 118 subjects in 3 groups comprising obesity (n=42), alcohol dependence (n=32), and healthy volunteer controls (n=44). To exploit novel methods of automated hippocampal subfield segmentation, we used Freesurfer software to generate volumetric data in subject groups for the hippocampal subiculum and its major striatal efferent target, the nucleus accumbens. Hypothesis-led, selective group difference comparisons were analyzed. Results: We found markedly greater accumbens volumes (P=.002) and relatively preserved hippocampal subfield volumes in obesity. Conversely, in alcohol dependence, we found preserved accumbens volumes but atrophy of specific ventral hippocampal subfields, the subiculum and presubiculum. Smaller global subcortical gray-matter volume was found in the alcohol dependence group only. Conclusions: Reward neurocircuitry including the accumbens and ventral hippocampus may show key structural abnormalities in disorders involving processing of both food and drug rewards, although the foci of disruption may vary as a function of reward modality. Structural differences may subserve altered reward and motivational processes in obesity and alcohol dependence and represent a potential biomarker for therapeutic targeting in key public health disorders. PMID:27207916

  17. Abnormal Vertical Structure of Water Vapor over Taklamakan Desert from COSMIC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. K.; Liu, X. Y.; Yin, H. T.

    2012-04-01

    Water vapor is an important greenhouse gas. The vertical structure of the water vapor has a great impact on the weather and the climate. The Taklamakan desert is the largest desert in China, surrounded by a series of high mountains. The vertical structures of the water vapor over the Taklamakan desert have rarely been described by former research, due to the lack of conventional observations. This work is the first result of the water vapor vertical structure over the Taklamakan desert and its surroundings (35N-47N, 75E-94E) from the COSMIC occultation observations. Analysis found that a humid layer frequently occurs at the average height of 4800m. An "abnormal profile" was defined if a peak was observed in mid-troposphere in the humidity profile. This "abnormal profile" appeared in 24% of the total profile and appeared much more often inside the desert than outside during the year 2008 to 2010. Based on model analysis, two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the reason of the formation of the abnormal profile. Through the statistics, 53% of total "abnormal profiles" were due to the transported water vapor topographic uplift effect, the topography of the desert forces the east-blowing wind to climb the surrounding mountains, bringing the low-altitude water vapor to mid-troposphere above the desert. The rest were due to the lack of water content in the air close to the ground. This new discovery and its possible explanations will help us to understand more about the climate of the Taklamakan desert and possibly also other similar regions.

  18. Structural Brain Abnormalities in Patients with Schizophrenia and 22q11 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eva W.C.; Zipursky, Robert B.; Mikulis, David J.; Bassett, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background 22q11 Deletion Syndrome is a genetic syndrome associated with an increased risk for developing schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been reported in 22q11 Deletion Syndrome, but little is known about whether differences in brain structure underlie the psychotic disorders associated with this syndrome. In the current study, we used magnetic resonance imaging to characterize the structural brain abnormalities found in adults who have both 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans of 14 adults (7 male, 7 female) with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were analyzed to derive measures of gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid. Differences between the two groups were tested using student t tests. Results 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia subjects had significantly smaller total gray matter volume (t = 2.88, p < .01) and larger lateral ventricles (t = 4.08, p < .001) than healthy controls. Gray matter deficits were most prominent in the frontal and temporal lobes. Total white matter volumes did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Findings from this 22q11 Deletion Syndrome and schizophrenia study are similar to those reported in other patients with schizophrenia, but only partially consistent with those reported in nonpsychotic children with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome. 22q11 Deletion Syndrome may provide a valuable genetic neurodevelop-mental model for investigating the relationship between abnormalities in brain development and the expression of schizophrenia. PMID:11839363

  19. Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Identify Trigeminal System Abnormalities in Classical Trigeminal Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    DeSouza, Danielle D.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Davis, Karen D.

    2016-01-01

    Classical trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a chronic pain disorder that has been described as one of the most severe pains one can suffer. The most prevalent theory of TN etiology is that the trigeminal nerve is compressed at the root entry zone (REZ) by blood vessels. However, there is significant evidence showing a lack of neurovascular compression (NVC) for many cases of classical TN. Furthermore, a considerable number of patients who are asymptomatic have MR evidence of NVC. Since there is no validated animal model that reproduces the clinical features of TN, our understanding of TN pathology mainly comes from biopsy studies that have limitations. Sophisticated structural MRI techniques including diffusion tensor imaging provide new opportunities to assess the trigeminal nerves and CNS to provide insight into TN etiology and pathogenesis. Specifically, studies have used high-resolution structural MRI methods to visualize patterns of trigeminal nerve-vessel relationships and to detect subtle pathological features at the trigeminal REZ. Structural MRI has also identified CNS abnormalities in cortical and subcortical gray matter and white matter and demonstrated that effective neurosurgical treatment for TN is associated with a reversal of specific nerve and brain abnormalities. In conclusion, this review highlights the advanced structural neuroimaging methods that are valuable tools to assess the trigeminal system in TN and may inform our current understanding of TN pathology. These methods may in the future have clinical utility for the development of neuroimaging-based biomarkers of TN. PMID:27807409

  20. Phenotyping structural abnormalities in mouse embryos using high-resolution episcopic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Wolfgang J.; Geyer, Stefan H.; Martineau, Alexandrine; Galli, Antonella; Adams, David J.; Wilson, Robert; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The arrival of simple and reliable methods for 3D imaging of mouse embryos has opened the possibility of analysing normal and abnormal development in a far more systematic and comprehensive manner than has hitherto been possible. This will not only help to extend our understanding of normal tissue and organ development but, by applying the same approach to embryos from genetically modified mouse lines, such imaging studies could also transform our knowledge of gene function in embryogenesis and the aetiology of developmental disorders. The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium is coordinating efforts to phenotype single gene knockouts covering the entire mouse genome, including characterising developmental defects for those knockout lines that prove to be embryonic lethal. Here, we present a pilot study of 34 such lines, utilising high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) for comprehensive 2D and 3D imaging of homozygous null embryos and their wild-type littermates. We present a simple phenotyping protocol that has been developed to take advantage of the high-resolution images obtained by HREM and that can be used to score tissue and organ abnormalities in a reliable manner. Using this approach with embryos at embryonic day 14.5, we show the wide range of structural abnormalities that are likely to be detected in such studies and the variability in phenotypes between sibling homozygous null embryos. PMID:25256713

  1. Multimodal Highlighting of Structural Abnormalities in Diabetic Rat and Human Corneas

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczuk, Laura; Latour, Gaël; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Savoldelli, Michèle; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Plamann, Karsten; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to highlight structural corneal changes in a model of type 2 diabetes, using in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM). The abnormalities were also characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy in rat and human corneas. Methods Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were observed at age 12 weeks (n = 3) and 1 year (n = 6), and compared to age-matched controls. After in vivo CCM examination, TEM and SHG microscopy were used to characterize the ultrastructure and the three-dimensional organization of the abnormalities. Human corneas from diabetic (n = 3) and nondiabetic (n = 3) patients were also included in the study. Results In the basal epithelium of GK rats, CCM revealed focal hyper-reflective areas, and histology showed proliferative cells with irregular basement membrane. In the anterior stroma, extracellular matrix modifications were detected by CCM and confirmed in histology. In the Descemet's membrane periphery of all the diabetic corneas, hyper-reflective deposits were highlighted using CCM and characterized as long-spacing collagen fibrils by TEM. SHG microscopy revealed these deposits with high contrast, allowing specific detection in diabetic human and rat corneas without preparation and characterization of their three-dimensional organization. Conclusion Pathologic findings were observed early in the development of diabetes in GK rats. Similar abnormalities have been found in corneas from diabetic patients. Translational Relevance This multidisciplinary study highlights diabetes-induced corneal abnormalities in an animal model, but also in diabetic donors. This could constitute a potential early marker for diagnosis of hyperglycemia-induced tissue changes. PMID:24049714

  2. Common and distinct structural network abnormalities in major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Depping, Malte S; Wolf, Nadine D; Vasic, Nenad; Sambataro, Fabio; Thomann, Philipp A; Wolf, R Christian

    2016-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) show substantial overlap in both affective symptom expression and in regional brain volume reduction. To address the specificity of structural brain change for the respective diagnostic category, we investigated structural networks in MDD and BPD to identify shared and distinct patterns of abnormal brain volume associated with these phenotypically related disorders. Using magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, we studied 22 females with MDD, 17 females with BPD and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder, and 22 age-matched female healthy controls. We used “source-based morphometry” (SBM) to investigate naturally grouping patterns of gray matter volume variation (i.e. “structural networks”) and the magnitude of their expression between groups. SBM identified three distinct structural networks which showed a significant group effect (p b 0.05, FDR-corrected). A bilateral frontostriatal network showed reduced volume in MDD compared to both controls and BPD patients. A medial temporal/medial frontal network was found to be significantly reduced in BPD compared to both controls and MDD patients. Decreased cingulate and lateral prefrontal volume was found in both MDD and BPD when compared to healthy individuals. In MDD significant relationships were found between depressive symptoms and a cingulate/lateral prefrontal structural pattern. In contrast, overall BPD symptoms and impulsivity scores were significantly associated with medial temporal/medial frontal network volume. The data suggest both distinct and common patterns of abnormal brain volume in MDD and BPD. Alterations of distinct structural networks differentially modulate clinical symptom expression in these disorders.

  3. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Pescatello, Linda S.; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Design and Setting: We used chi-square 2 × 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. Subjects: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 ± 1.3 years, height = 167.6 ± 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 ± 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. Measurements: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60°/s and 300°/s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. Results: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300°/s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300°/s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

  4. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries. PMID:15496997

  5. Structural and functional brain abnormalities place phenocopy frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in the FTD spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, Rebecca M.E.; Meijboom, Rozanna; Bron, Esther E.; Osse, Robert Jan; de Koning, Inge; Jiskoot, Lize C.; Klein, Stefan; de Jong, Frank Jan; van der Lugt, Aad; van Swieten, John C.; Smits, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Purpose ‘Phenocopy’ frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) patients may clinically mimic the behavioral variant of FTD (bvFTD), but do not show functional decline or abnormalities upon visual inspection of routine neuroimaging. We aimed to identify abnormalities in gray matter (GM) volume and perfusion in phFTD and to assess whether phFTD belongs to the FTD spectrum. We compared phFTD patients with both healthy controls and bvFTD patients. Materials & methods Seven phFTD and 11 bvFTD patients, and 20 age-matched controls underwent structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 3D pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) at 3T. Normalized GM (nGM) volumes and perfusion, corrected for partial volume effects, were quantified regionally as well as in the entire supratentorial cortex, and compared between groups taking into account potential confounding effects of gender and scanner. Results PhFTD patients showed cortical atrophy, most prominently in the right temporal lobe. Apart from this regional atrophy, GM volume was generally not different from either controls or from bvFTD. BvFTD however showed extensive frontotemporal atrophy. Perfusion was increased in the left prefrontal cortex compared to bvFTD and to a lesser extent to controls. Conclusion PhFTD and bvFTD show overlapping cortical structural abnormalities indicating a continuum of changes especially in the frontotemporal regions. Together with functional changes suggestive of a compensatory response to incipient pathology in the left prefrontal regions, these findings are the first to support a possible neuropathological etiology of phFTD and suggest that phFTD may be a neurodegenerative disease on the FTD spectrum. PMID:27222795

  6. Functional changes are associated with tracheal structural abnormalities in patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva; Mogami, Roberto; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Melo, Pedro Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although impaired pulmonary function and respiratory sleep disorders are described as responsible for increased mortality in acromegalic patients, little is known about the tracheal abnormalities in this group of patients. Thus, the objectives of this study were to describe the tracheal structural abnormalities and correlate these changes with the respiratory function and clinical data of acromegalic patients. Material and methods This is a cross-sectional study that was carried out at two university hospitals. Twenty acromegalic patients underwent spirometry, forced oscillation technique, and computed tomography (CT) assessments. Dyspnea and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), respectively. Forty matched subjects served as controls. Results The acromegalic patients exhibited larger median ratios between forced expiratory flow and forced inspiratory flow at 50% of the forced vital capacity (FEF50%/FIF50%) (2.05 vs. 1.06, p = 0.0001) compared with healthy volunteers. In the CT analysis, acromegalic patients exhibited larger median differences between their cervical and thoracic tracheal diameters (Δ tracheal diameters) (3 vs. 1 mm; p = 0.003). An association was found between FEF50%/FIF50% and the following variables: mean resistance (Rm), cervical tracheal diameter, and Δ tracheal diameters. Rm also exhibited a negative correlation with cervical tracheal diameter. Neither the MMRC scale nor the ESS exhibited any significant correlation with large airway obstruction (LAO) indices or with the measured tracheal diameters. Conclusions Acromegalic patients have tracheal structural abnormalities which are associated with functional indicators of LAO but not with clinical data. PMID:26925121

  7. A Prospective Study of Overuse Knee Injuries Among Female Athletes With Muscle Imbalances and Structural Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Devan, Michelle R; Pescatello, Linda S; Faghri, Pouran; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2004-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the influence of hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio and structural abnormalities on the prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. DESIGN AND SETTING: We used chi-square 2 x 2 contingency tables and the Fischer exact test to examine associations among H:Q ratios, structural abnormalities, and overuse knee injuries. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three apparently healthy women (age = 19.4 +/- 1.3 years, height = 167.6 +/- 10.1 cm, mass = 65.0 +/- 10.0 kg) from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's field hockey (n = 23), soccer (n = 20), and basketball teams (n = 10) volunteered. MEASUREMENTS: The H:Q ratio was determined from a preseason isokinetic test on a Biodex system at 60 degrees /s and 300 degrees /s. We measured athletes for genu recurvatum and Q-angles with a 14-in (35.56-cm) goniometer. Iliotibial band flexibility was assessed via the Ober test. RESULTS: Ten overuse knee injuries (iliotibial band friction syndromes = 5, patellar tendinitis = 3, patellofemoral syndrome = 1, pes anserine tendinitis = 1) occurred in 9 athletes. The H:Q ratio below the normal range at 300 degrees /s (P = 0.047) was associated with overuse knee injuries, as was the presence of genu recurvatum (P = 0.004). In addition, athletes possessing lower H:Q ratios at 300 degrees /s and genu recurvatum incurred more overuse knee injuries than athletes without these abnormalities (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of genu recurvatum and an H: Q ratio below normal range was associated with an increased prevalence of overuse knee injuries among female collegiate athletes. Further investigation is needed to clarify which preseason screening procedures may identify collegiate athletes who are susceptible to overuse knee injuries.

  8. Abnormal causal connectivity by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia at rest.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Liu, Jianrong; Yu, Liuyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Zhikun; Xiao, Changqing; Zhai, Jinguo; Zhao, Jingping

    2015-01-01

    Anatomical deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC) alterations in prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuit have been implicated in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. However, the effect of structural deficits in schizophrenia on causal connectivity of this circuit remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine the causal connectivity biased by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 49 first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry and Granger causality analysis. The causal connectivity of the integrated prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit was partly affected by structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia as follows: (1) unilateral prefrontal-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the left medial prefrontal cortex [MPFC] to the sensorimotor regions); (2) bilateral limbic-sensorimotor connectivity abnormalities (increased driving effect from the right anterior cingulate cortex [ACC] to the sensorimotor regions and decreased feedback from the sensorimotor regions to the right ACC); and (3) bilateral increased and decreased causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions. Some correlations between the gray matter volume of the seeds, along with their causal effects and clinical variables (duration of untreated psychosis and symptom severity), were also observed in the patients. The findings indicated the partial effects of structural deficits in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia on the prefrontal-thalamic (limbic)-cerebellar (sensorimotor) circuit. Schizophrenia may reinforce the driving connectivities from the left MPFC or right ACC to the sensorimotor regions and may disrupt bilateral causal connectivities among the sensorimotor regions.

  9. Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: a proposal for DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Widiger, Thomas A

    2011-06-01

    The personality disorders section of the American Psychiatric Association's fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) is currently being developed. The purpose of the current paper is to encourage the authors of DSM-V to integrate normal and abnormal personality structure within a common, integrative model, and to suggest that the optimal choice for such an integration would be the five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. A proposal for the classification of personality disorder from the perspective of the FFM is provided. Discussed as well are implications and issues associated with an FFM of personality disorder, including validity, coverage, feasibility, clinical utility, and treatment implications.

  10. Uterine pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, C; Gianaroli, L; Ferraretti, A P; Jasonni, V M; Melega, C; Possati, G

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the factors influencing implantation with reference to uterine pathology; the role that it plays both in the case of failure of implantation and in the case of repeated abortions is discussed and the techniques of treatment in the presence of uterine pathology affecting fertility are listed.

  11. Uterine artery embolization

    MedlinePlus

    ... the procedure. UAE is less invasive than surgical treatments for uterine fibroids. Many women may return more quickly to activities ... SC, Spies JB, Worthington-Kirsch R, et al. Uterine artery embolization for ... from the FIBROID registry. Obstet Gynecol . 2008; 111:22-33. Munro ...

  12. Structural and behavioral correlates of abnormal encoding of money value in the sensorimotor striatum in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Konova, Anna B; Moeller, Scott J; Tomasi, Dardo; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2012-10-01

    Abnormalities in frontostriatal systems are thought to be central to the pathophysiology of addiction, and may underlie the maladaptive processing of the highly generalizable reinforcer, money. Although abnormal frontostriatal structure and function have been observed in individuals addicted to cocaine, it is less clear how individual variability in brain structure is associated with brain function to influence behavior. Our objective was to examine frontostriatal structure and neural processing of money value in chronic cocaine users and closely matched healthy controls. A reward task that manipulated different levels of money was used to isolate neural activity associated with money value. Gray matter volume measures were used to assess frontostriatal structure. Our results indicated that cocaine users had an abnormal money value signal in the sensorimotor striatum (right putamen/globus pallidus) that was negatively associated with accuracy adjustments to money and was more pronounced in individuals with more severe use. In parallel, group differences were also observed in both the function and gray matter volume of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; in the cocaine users, the former was directly associated with response to money in the striatum. These results provide strong evidence for abnormalities in the neural mechanisms of valuation in addiction and link these functional abnormalities with deficits in brain structure. In addition, as value signals represent acquired associations, their abnormal processing in the sensorimotor striatum, a region centrally implicated in habit formation, could signal disadvantageous associative learning in cocaine addiction.

  13. Management of Bleeding Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation with Bilateral Uterine Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehwan; Kim, Jinoo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Yang, Heechul; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical outcome of bilateral uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a first-line therapeutic option for bleeding uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Materials and Methods Between 2002 and 2012, 19 patients were diagnosed with acquired uterine AVM clinically and through imaging studies. The clinical characteristics, angiographic features, technical success rate of embolization, procedure-related complications, imaging, and clinical follow-up data were assessed. Clinical success was defined as immediate symptomatic resolution with disappearance of vascular abnormality on subsequent imaging studies. Results A total of 20 bilateral UAE, with or without embolization of extra-uterine feeders, were performed as the first-line treatment. Technical and clinical success rate was 90.0% (18/20) and 89.5% (17/19), respectively. Embolization was incomplete in two patients who had residual extra-uterine fine feeders to the AVM or a procedure-related complication (ruptured uterine artery); the former showed slow regression of the vascular malformation during the observation period, while the latter underwent a successful second bilateral UAE. Immediate clinical success was achieved in the remaining 17 patients after a single session and no recurrence of bleeding was found. Recovery to normal menstrual cycle was seen in all 17 patients with clinical success within one or two months, two of whom subsequently had uneventful intrauterine pregnancies carried to term. Conclusion Bilateral UAE is a safe and effective first-line therapeutic option for the management of bleeding uterine AVMs. However, incomplete embolization due to unembolizable feeders or difficult access into the uterine artery may lead to suboptimal treatment. PMID:24532505

  14. Uterine fibroids: clinical manifestations and contemporary management.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Leo; Mutlu, Levent; Sinclair, Donna; Taylor, Hugh

    2014-09-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomata) are extremely common lesions that are associated with detrimental effects including infertility and abnormal uterine bleeding. Fibroids cause molecular changes at the level of endometrium. Abnormal regulation of growth factors and cytokines in fibroid cells may contribute to negative endometrial effects. Understanding of fibroid biology has greatly increased over the last decade. Although the current armamentarium of Food and Drug Administration-approved medical therapies is limited, there are medications approved for use in heavy menstrual bleeding that can be used for the medical management of fibroids. Emergence of the role of growth factors in pathophysiology of fibroids has led researchers to develop novel therapeutics. Despite advances in medical therapies, surgical management remains a mainstay of fibroid treatment. Destruction of fibroids by interventional radiological procedures provides other effective treatments. Further experimental studies and clinical trials are required to determine which therapies will provide the greatest benefits to patients with fibroids.

  15. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea.

  16. [Uterine rupture in a patient with bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea: about a case].

    PubMed

    Itchimouh, Sanaa; Khabtou, Karima; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Boufettal, Houssine; Samouh, Naima

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of uterine malformations affecting reproduction is difficult to assess. Their identification requires a specific assessment (hysterosalpingography, hysteroscopy, laparoscopy). Spontaneous fertility can be affected depending on the type of uterine abnormality. All these abnormalities can affect the evolution of pregnancy causing early and late miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, threat of premature labour, premature labour, vascular pathologies during pregnancy and inadequate intra-uterine growth. Bicornuate uterus is the most common uterine malformation and represents about half of all uterine anomalies The occurrence of this type of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, but early diagnosis and proper monitoring can lead pregnancies to term on malformed uterus. Ultrasound screening should allow for a systematic identification of such cases in order to take the necessary preventive measures. We report a case of uterine rupture in a patient with unicervical bicornuate uterus at 12 weeks of amenorrhea. PMID:27642490

  17. Functional and Structural Abnormalities in Deferoxamine Retinopathy: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicola, Maura; Barteselli, Giulio; Dell'Arti, Laura; Ratiglia, Roberto; Viola, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Deferoxamine mesylate (DFO) is the most commonly used iron-chelating agent to treat transfusion-related hemosiderosis. Despite the clear advantages for the use of DFO, numerous DFO-related systemic toxicities have been reported in the literature, as well as sight-threatening ocular toxicity involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The damage to the RPE can lead to visual field defects, color-vision defects, abnormal electrophysiological tests, and permanent visual deterioration. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated summary of the ocular findings, including both functional and structural abnormalities, in DFO-treated patients. In particular, we pay particular attention to analyzing results of multimodal technologies for retinal imaging, which help ophthalmologists in the early diagnosis and correct management of DFO retinopathy. Fundus autofluorescence, for example, is not only useful for screening patients at high-risk of DFO retinopathy, but is also a prerequisite for identify specific high-risk patterns of RPE changes that are relevant for the prognosis of the disease. In addition, optical coherence tomography may have a clinical usefulness in detecting extent and location of different retinal changes in DFO retinopathy. Finally, this review wants to underline the need for universally approved guidelines for screening and followup of this particular disease. PMID:26167477

  18. Abnormal structural connectivity in the brain networks of children with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Holland, Scott K; Shimony, Joshua S; Altaye, Mekibib; Mangano, Francesco T; Limbrick, David D; Jones, Blaise V; Nash, Tiffany; Rajagopal, Akila; Simpson, Sarah; Ragan, Dustin; McKinstry, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure and ventriculomegaly in children with hydrocephalus are known to have adverse effects on white matter structure. This study seeks to investigate the impact of hydrocephalus on topological features of brain networks in children. The goal was to investigate structural network connectivity, at both global and regional levels, in the brains in children with hydrocephalus using graph theory analysis and diffusion tensor tractography. Three groups of children were included in the study (29 normally developing controls, 9 preoperative hydrocephalus patients, and 17 postoperative hydrocephalus patients). Graph theory analysis was applied to calculate the global network measures including small-worldness, normalized clustering coefficients, normalized characteristic path length, global efficiency, and modularity. Abnormalities in regional network parameters, including nodal degree, local efficiency, clustering coefficient, and betweenness centrality, were also compared between the two patients groups (separately) and the controls using two tailed t-test at significance level of p < 0.05 (corrected for multiple comparison). Children with hydrocephalus in both the preoperative and postoperative groups were found to have significantly lower small-worldness and lower normalized clustering coefficient than controls. Children with hydrocephalus in the postoperative group were also found to have significantly lower normalized characteristic path length and lower modularity. At regional level, significant group differences (or differences at trend level) in regional network measures were found between hydrocephalus patients and the controls in a series of brain regions including the medial occipital gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, thalamus, cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus, rectal gyrus, caudate, cuneus, and insular. Our data showed that structural connectivity analysis using graph theory and diffusion tensor tractography is sensitive to detect

  19. Macro- and microscopic spectral-polarization characteristics of the structure of normal and abnormally located chordae tendianeae of left ventricular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyk, Yu. Yu.; Prydij, O. G.; Zymnyakov, D. A.; Alonova, M. V.; Ushakova, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The morphological peculiarities of TS mitral valve of the heart of man in normal and abnormal spaced strings of the left ventricle and the study of their structural features depending on the location was studied. There are given the results of comparative statistics, correlation and fractal study population Mueller-matrix images (MMI) of healthy and abnormal (early forms that are not diagnosed by histological methods) BT normal and abnormally located tendon strings left ventricle of the human heart. Abnormalities in the structure of the wings, tendon strings (TS), mastoid muscle (MM) in inconsistencies elements and harmonized operation of all valve complex shown in the features of the polarization manifestations of it laser images.

  20. Mechanisms of uterine estrogen signaling during early pregnancy in mice: an update.

    PubMed

    Robertshaw, I; Bian, F; Das, S K

    2016-04-01

    Adherence of an embryo to the uterus represents the most critical step of the reproductive process. Implantation is a synchronized event between the blastocyst and the uterine luminal epithelium, leading to structural and functional changes for further embryonic growth and development. The milieu comprising the complex process of implantation is mediated by estrogen through diverse but interdependent signaling pathways. Mouse models have demonstrated the relevance of the expression of estrogen-modulated paracrine factors to uterine receptivity and implantation window. More importantly, some factors seem to serve as molecular links between different estrogen pathways, promoting cell growth, acting as molecular chaperones, or amplifying estrogenic effects. Abnormal expression of these factors can lead to implantation failure and infertility. This review provides an overview of several well-characterized signaling pathways that elucidates the molecular cross talk involved in the uterus during early pregnancy. PMID:26887389

  1. Abnormal behavior associated with a point mutation in the structural gene for monoamine oxidase A

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, H.G. ); Nelen, M.; Ropers, H.H.; van Oost, B.A. )

    1993-10-22

    Genetic and metabolic studies have been done on a large kindred in which several males are affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal behavior. The types of behavior that occurred include impulsive aggression, arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism. Analysis of 24-hour urine samples indicated markedly disturbed monoamine metabolism. This syndrome was associated with a complete and selective deficiency of enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA). In each of five affected males, a point mutation was identified in the eighth exon of the MAOA structural gene, which changes a glutamine to a termination codon. Thus, isolated complete MAOA deficiency in this family is associated with a recognizable behavioral phenotype that includes disturbed regulation of impulsive aggression.

  2. Structural brain abnormalities in the frontostriatal system and cerebellum in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Boris; Peschel, Thomas; Paul, Thomas; Gizewski, Elke; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Krueger, Tillmann H C

    2007-11-01

    Even though previous neuropsychological studies and clinical case reports have suggested an association between pedophilia and frontocortical dysfunction, our knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying pedophilia is still fragmentary. Specifically, the brain morphology of such disorders has not yet been investigated using MR imaging techniques. Whole brain structural T1-weighted MR images from 18 pedophile patients (9 attracted to males, 9 attracted to females) and 24 healthy age-matched control subjects (12 hetero- and 12 homosexual) from a comparable socioeconomic stratum were processed by using optimized automated voxel-based morphometry within multiple linear regression analyses. Compared to the homosexual and heterosexual control subjects, pedophiles showed decreased gray matter volume in the ventral striatum (also extending into the nucl. accumbens), the orbitofrontal cortex and the cerebellum. These observations further indicate an association between frontostriatal morphometric abnormalities and pedophilia. In this respect these findings may support the hypothesis that there is a shared etiopathological mechanism in all obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

  3. Structural and Functional Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Patients With Vasospastic Angina Pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ong, Peter; Aziz, Ahmed; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Prescott, Eva; Athanasiadis, Anastasios; Sechtem, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary spasm is involved in many clinical scenarios, such as stable angina, acute coronary syndrome, sudden cardiac death, non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia and syncope. In recent years, imaging tools such as computerized tomographic angiography, intravascular ultrasound or optical coherence tomography have been applied to study the coronary pathology in patients with vasospastic angina. Patients with vasospastic angina represent a heterogeneous cohort of patients with regard to the extent of concomitant coronary atherosclerosis. They share the common pathophysiological phenomenon of vascular smooth muscle hyperreactivity leading to spasm caused by various factors that may also overlap. Focal coronary spasm is related to epicardial atherosclerosis and in the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease it may be useful to treat the lesion to prevent further spasm. The aim of this article is to review structural and functional coronary artery abnormalities in patients with vasospastic angina.

  4. Functional Connectivity Abnormalities of Brain Regions with Structural Deficits in Young Adult Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Limei; Yu, Dahua; Su, Shaoping; Ma, Yao; von Deneen, Karen M.; Luo, Lin; Zhai, Jinquan; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Jiadong; Guan, Yanyan; Li, Yangding; Bi, Yanzhi; Xue, Ting; Lu, Xiaoqi; Yuan, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most prevalent dependence disorders. Previous studies have detected structural and functional deficits in smokers. However, few studies focused on the changes of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of the brain regions with structural deficits in young adult smokers. Twenty-six young adult smokers and 26 well-matched healthy non-smokers participated in our study. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and RSFC were employed to investigate the structural and functional changes in young adult smokers. Compared with healthy non-smokers, young smokers showed increased gray matter (GM) volume in the left putamen and decreased GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Moreover, GM volume in the left ACC has a negative correlation trend with pack-years and GM volume in the left putamen was positively correlated with pack-years. The left ACC and putamen with abnormal volumes were chosen as the regions of interest (ROIs) for the RSFC analysis. We found that smokers showed increased RSFC between the left ACC and right amygdala and between the left putamen and right anterior insula. We revealed structural and functional deficits within the frontostriatal circuits in young smokers, which may shed new insights into the neural mechanisms of smoking. PMID:27757078

  5. Uterine fibroids: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aamir T; Shehmar, Manjeet; Gupta, Janesh K

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are a major cause of morbidity in women of a reproductive age (and sometimes even after menopause). There are several factors that are attributed to underlie the development and incidence of these common tumors, but this further corroborates their relatively unknown etiology. The most likely presentation of fibroids is by their effect on the woman’s menstrual cycle or pelvic pressure symptoms. Leiomyosarcoma is a very rare entity that should be suspected in postmenopausal women with fibroid growth (and no concurrent hormone replacement therapy). The gold standard diagnostic modality for uterine fibroids appears to be gray-scale ultrasonography, with magnetic resonance imaging being a close second option in complex clinical circumstances. The management of uterine fibroids can be approached medically, surgically, and even by minimal access techniques. The recent introduction of selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) and aromatase inhibitors has added more armamentarium to the medical options of treatment. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) has now been well-recognized as a uterine-sparing (fertility-preserving) method of treating fibroids. More recently, the introduction of ultrasound waves (MRgFUS) or radiofrequency (VizAblate™ and Acessa™) for uterine fibroid ablation has added to the options of minimal access treatment. More definite surgery in the form of myomectomy or hysterectomy can be performed via the minimal access or open route methods. Our article seeks to review the already established information on uterine fibroids with added emphasis on contemporary knowledge. PMID:24511243

  6. Underground structure of terrestrial mud volcanoes and abnormal water pressure formation in Niigata, Central JAPAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, K.; Shinya, T.; Miyata, Y.; Tokuyasu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Activity of mud volcano is thought to be caused by an abnormal water pressure generated in deep underground and make a serious problem for underground constructions such as railway tunnel, underground facility for radwaste and so on. It is important to investigate the underground structure of a mud volcano and the mechanism of abnormal water formation for site selection and safety assessment of such facilities. Serious trouble such as tunnel wall collapse due to the rock swelling has happened 180m deep under mud volcanoes. It took more than 10 years to excavate the section of 150 m long. 4 terrestrial mud volcanoes were found in the Tertiary sedimentary basin in Niigata, central Japan All the mud volcanoes are distributed along the rim of the topographic basin that is located at the NE-SW trending crest of mountainous area and distributed along the wing of anticline. Geological structure inside basin is heavily disturbed. The extinct mud volcano is exposed in the side-slope of newly constructed road and the internal vent structure of mud volcano can be observed. The vent is 30 m in diameter and is consisted of mud breccia and scaly network clay that is thought to be generated by hydro-fracturing and the following water-rock interaction between mudstone and groundwater. Groundwater erupted from mud volcano is highly saline with electric conductivity of 15 mS/cm and high 18 O/16 O isotope ratio of 1.2 parmillage. Also, the vitrinite reflectance is 1.5 to 1.9 % that is not expected in the sedimentary rocks exposed near ground surface. As a result, it is assumed that these erupted materials were introduced from the deep underground about 4000 m deep. CSA-MT geophysical exploration was carried out to survey the underground structure and obtained the profile of electrical resistivity from the surface to 800 m in depth. It is found that the disk-shaped low resistivity zone less than 1 m due to the high salinity content is identified in underground 600 m deep, 200 m thick

  7. Sensory migraine aura is not associated with structural grey matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Arngrim, Nanna; Vlachou, Maria; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2016-01-01

    Migraine with aura (MA) is characterized by cortical dysfunction. Frequent aura attacks may alter cerebral cortical structure in patients, or structural grey matter abnormalities may predispose MA patients to aura attacks. In the present study we aimed to investigate cerebral grey matter structure in a large group of MA patients with and without sensory aura (i.e. gradually developing, transient unilateral sensory disturbances). We included 60 patients suffering from migraine with typical visual aura and 60 individually age and sex-matched controls. Twenty-nine of the patients additionally experienced sensory aura regularly. We analysed high-resolution structural MR images using two complimentary approaches and compared patients with and without sensory aura. Patients were also compared to controls. We found no differences of grey matter density or cortical thickness between patients with and without sensory aura and no differences for the cortical visual areas between patients and controls. The somatosensory cortex was thinner in patients (1.92 mm vs. 1.96 mm, P = 0.043) and the anterior cingulate cortex of patients had a decreased grey matter density (P = 0.039) compared to controls. These differences were not correlated to the clinical characteristics. Our results suggest that sensory migraine aura is not associated with altered grey matter structure and that patients with visual aura have normal cortical structure of areas involved in visual processing. The observed decreased grey matter volume of the cingulate gyrus in patients compared to controls have previously been reported in migraine with and without aura, but also in a wide range of other neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Most likely, this finding reflects general bias between patients and healthy controls.

  8. Age at First Episode Modulates Diagnosis-Related Structural Brain Abnormalities in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Janssen, Joost; Bioque, Miquel; González-Pinto, Ana; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sarró, Salvador; Desco, Manuel; Sanjuan, Julio; Lacalle-Aurioles, Maria; Cuesta, Manuel J; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12-35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software. The nonlinear relationship between age at scan (a proxy for age at FEP in patients) and volume and thickness measurements was explored in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), affective psychoses (AFP), and HC. Earlier SSD cases (ie, FEP before 15-20 y) showed significant volume and thickness deficits in frontal lobe, volume deficits in temporal lobe, and volume enlargements in ventricular system and basal ganglia. First-episode AFP patients had smaller cingulate cortex volume and thicker temporal cortex only at early age at FEP (before 18-20 y). The AFP group also had age-constant (12-35-y age span) volume enlargements in the frontal and parietal lobe. Our study suggests that age at first episode modulates the structural brain abnormalities found in FEP patients in a nonlinear and diagnosis-dependent manner. Future MRI studies should take these results into account when interpreting samples with different ages at onset and diagnosis. PMID:26371339

  9. Age at First Episode Modulates Diagnosis-Related Structural Brain Abnormalities in Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Pina-Camacho, Laura; Del Rey-Mejías, Ángel; Janssen, Joost; Bioque, Miquel; González-Pinto, Ana; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sarró, Salvador; Desco, Manuel; Sanjuan, Julio; Lacalle-Aurioles, Maria; Cuesta, Manuel J; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Bernardo, Miguel; Parellada, Mara

    2016-03-01

    Brain volume and thickness abnormalities have been reported in first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, it is unclear if and how they are modulated by brain developmental stage (and, therefore, by age at FEP as a proxy). This is a multicenter cross-sectional case-control brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. Patients with FEP (n = 196), 65.3% males, with a wide age at FEP span (12-35 y), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 157), matched for age, sex, and handedness, were scanned at 6 sites. Gray matter volume and thickness measurements were generated for several brain regions using FreeSurfer software. The nonlinear relationship between age at scan (a proxy for age at FEP in patients) and volume and thickness measurements was explored in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), affective psychoses (AFP), and HC. Earlier SSD cases (ie, FEP before 15-20 y) showed significant volume and thickness deficits in frontal lobe, volume deficits in temporal lobe, and volume enlargements in ventricular system and basal ganglia. First-episode AFP patients had smaller cingulate cortex volume and thicker temporal cortex only at early age at FEP (before 18-20 y). The AFP group also had age-constant (12-35-y age span) volume enlargements in the frontal and parietal lobe. Our study suggests that age at first episode modulates the structural brain abnormalities found in FEP patients in a nonlinear and diagnosis-dependent manner. Future MRI studies should take these results into account when interpreting samples with different ages at onset and diagnosis.

  10. Abnormal Bone Mechanical and Structural Properties in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Study with Finite Element Analysis and Structural Model Index.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, K Y; Zhu, T Y; Yu, F W P; Hung, V W Y; Lee, K M; Qin, L; Cheng, J C Y; Lam, T P

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies found adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) and abnormal bone quality, whilst the association between AIS and their bone strength is unknown. From high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography-generated images, bone mechanical properties can be evaluated with finite element analysis (FEA), and trabecular rod-plate configuration related to trabecular bone strength can be quantified by structure model index (SMI). This study aimed to compare trabecular configuration and bone mechanical properties between AIS and the controls. 95 AIS girls aged 12-14 years and 97 age- and gender-matched normal controls were recruited. Bilateral femoral necks and non-dominant distal radius were scanned by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for areal BMD and HR-pQCT for SMI and FEA, respectively. Subjects were further classified into osteopenic and non-osteopenic group based on their areal BMD. Bone mechanical properties (stiffness, failure load and apparent modulus) were calculated using FEA. Linear regression model was used for controlling age, physical activity and calcium intake. AIS was associated with lower failure load and apparent modulus after adjusting for age, whereas AIS was associated with lower apparent modulus after adjusting for all confounders. Osteopenic AIS was associated with more rod-like trabeculae when compared with non-osteopenic AIS, whereas no difference was detected between osteopenic and non-osteopenic controls. This might be the result of abnormal regulation and modulation of bone metabolism and bone modelling and remodelling in AIS which will warrant future studies with a longitudinal design to determine the significance of micro-architectural abnormalities in AIS.

  11. Puerperal uterine inversion managed by the uterine balloon tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Mariétou; Niang, Mouhamadou Mansour; Gueye, Lamine; Sarr, Fatou Rachel; Dieme, Marie Edouard Faye; Cisse, Mamadou Lamine

    2015-01-01

    The uterine inversion is a rare and severe puerperal complication. Uncontrolled cord traction and uterine expression are the common causes described. We report a case of uterine inversion stage III caused by poor management of the third stage of labor. It was about a 20 years old primigravida referred in our unit for postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony. After manual reduction of the uterus, the use of intra uterine balloon tamponade helped to stop the hemorrhage. The uterine inversion is a rare complication that may cause maternel death. The diagnosis is clinical and its management must be immediate to avoid maternal complications. PMID:26977239

  12. Pre-existing structural abnormalities of the limbic system in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Park, Kang Min; Han, Yong Hee; Kim, Tae Hyung; Mun, Chi Woong; Shin, Kyong Jin; Ha, Sam Yeol; Park, JinSe; Kim, Sung Eun

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical and radiological findings in patients with transient global amnesia and to evaluate structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry. The subjects were diagnosed with transient global amnesia. For the voxel-based morphometry analyses, Statistical Parametric Mapping, running on the MATLAB platform (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA), was employed to analyze the structural differences between patients with transient global amnesia and control subjects. Eighty patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three patients (29%) were men, and 57 patients (71%) were women. There were significantly more women among the transient global amnesia patients compared with the general Korean population. MRI revealed hippocampal cavities in 41 patients (51%), and the incidence of such cavities was significantly different from that of the control subjects (24%). There were no differences in the clinical factors between the patients with and without hippocampal cavities. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed in 54 patients, and 13 patients (24%) exhibited high signal intensity in the hippocampus. There were also no differences in the clinical factors between the patients with and without high signal intensities in the hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging. Twenty-six patients underwent three-dimensional volumetric T1-weighted imaging that produced results suitable for voxel-based morphometry, and these patients presented with gray matter volume reductions in the hippocampus, cingulum, and cerebellum. There were significant structural differences in the limbic structures between patients with transient global amnesia and the control subjects that might have contributed to vulnerability of the memory pathways of the patients with transient global amnesia.

  13. A Congenital Gerbode Defect associated with a Rare Structural Abnormality of the Mitral Valve Diagnosed in an Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    Mateescu, Anca D.; Beladan, Carmen C.; Radulescu, Bogdan; Ginghina, Carmen; Popescu, Bogdan A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a rare association of a congenital Gerbode defect with severe mitral regurgitation due to abnormal linear structure of mitral valve, diagnosed in an adult patient. The case highlights the importance of a thorough examination interpreting the echocardiographic findings on a pathophysiological basis. It also underlines the complementary role of different imaging techniques with transesophageal echocardiography, allowing the precise assessment of both structural and functional abnormalities in such a complex case. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis and repair of the Gerbode defect. The imaging findings were confirmed during the surgical procedure, leading to a good outcome. PMID:27721869

  14. Incidence, aetiology and epidemiology of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Okolo, Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumour of the female genital tract. However, their true prevalence is probably under-estimated, as the incidence at histology is more than double the clinical incidence. Recent longitudinal studies have estimated that the lifetime risk of fibroids in a woman over the age of 45 years is more than 60%, with incidence higher in blacks than in whites. The cause of fibroids remains unclear and their biology poorly understood. No single candidate gene has been detected for commonly occurring uterine fibroids. However, the occurrence of rare uterine fibroid syndromes, such as multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis, has been traced to the gene that codes for the mitochondrial enzyme, fumarate hydratase. Cytogenetic abnormalities, particularly deletions of chromosome 7, which are found in up to 50% of fibroid specimens, seem to be secondary rather than primary events, and investigations into the role of tumour suppressor genes have yielded conflicting results. The key regulators of fibroid growth are ovarian steroids, both oestrogen and progestogen, growth factors and angiogenesis, and the process of apoptosis. Black race, heredity, nulliparity, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes and hypertension are associated with increased risk of fibroids, and there is emerging evidence that familial predisposition to fibroids is associated with a distinct pattern of clinical and molecular features compared with fibroids in families without this prevalence.

  15. Filaggrin genotype in ichthyosis vulgaris predicts abnormalities in epidermal structure and function.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Robert; Elias, Peter M; Crumrine, Debra; Lin, Tzu-Kai; Brandner, Johanna M; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Presland, Richard B; Fleckman, Philip; Janecke, Andreas R; Sandilands, Aileen; McLean, W H Irwin; Fritsch, Peter O; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Schmuth, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Although it is widely accepted that filaggrin (FLG) deficiency contributes to an abnormal barrier function in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis, the pathomechanism of how FLG deficiency provokes a barrier abnormality in humans is unknown. We report here that the presence of FLG mutations in Caucasians predicts dose-dependent alterations in epidermal permeability barrier function. Although FLG is an intracellular protein, the barrier abnormality occurred solely via a paracellular route in affected stratum corneum. Abnormal barrier function correlated with alterations in keratin filament organization (perinuclear retraction), impaired loading of lamellar body contents, followed by nonuniform extracellular distribution of secreted organelle contents, and abnormalities in lamellar bilayer architecture. In addition, we observed reductions in corneodesmosome density and tight junction protein expression. Thus, FLG deficiency provokes alterations in keratinocyte architecture that influence epidermal functions localizing to the extracellular matrix. These results clarify how FLG mutations impair epidermal permeability barrier function.

  16. Exhaled Aerosol Pattern Discloses Lung Structural Abnormality: A Sensitivity Study Using Computational Modeling and Fractal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Kim, JongWon; Mckee, Edward; Lin, En-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Background Exhaled aerosol patterns, also called aerosol fingerprints, provide clues to the health of the lung and can be used to detect disease-modified airway structures. The key is how to decode the exhaled aerosol fingerprints and retrieve the lung structural information for a non-invasive identification of respiratory diseases. Objective and Methods In this study, a CFD-fractal analysis method was developed to quantify exhaled aerosol fingerprints and applied it to one benign and three malign conditions: a tracheal carina tumor, a bronchial tumor, and asthma. Respirations of tracer aerosols of 1 µm at a flow rate of 30 L/min were simulated, with exhaled distributions recorded at the mouth. Large eddy simulations and a Lagrangian tracking approach were used to simulate respiratory airflows and aerosol dynamics. Aerosol morphometric measures such as concentration disparity, spatial distributions, and fractal analysis were applied to distinguish various exhaled aerosol patterns. Findings Utilizing physiology-based modeling, we demonstrated substantial differences in exhaled aerosol distributions among normal and pathological airways, which were suggestive of the disease location and extent. With fractal analysis, we also demonstrated that exhaled aerosol patterns exhibited fractal behavior in both the entire image and selected regions of interest. Each exhaled aerosol fingerprint exhibited distinct pattern parameters such as spatial probability, fractal dimension, lacunarity, and multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, a correlation of the diseased location and exhaled aerosol spatial distribution was established for asthma. Conclusion Aerosol-fingerprint-based breath tests disclose clues about the site and severity of lung diseases and appear to be sensitive enough to be a practical tool for diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases with structural abnormalities. PMID:25105680

  17. Structural Abnormalities in Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Voxel-Based Analysis Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenchao; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Chuanyong; Miao, Ailiang; Tang, Lu; Huang, Shuyang; Hu, Zheng; Xiang, Jing; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN) regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64 ± 2.59 years, seven females and seven males) and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The data were analyzed using voxel-based analysis (VBA) and statistically compared between patients and controls. Pearson correlation was explored between altered DTI metrics and clinical parameters. The difference of brain volumes between patients and controls were also tested using unpaired t-test. Results: Patients showed significant increase of mean diffusivity (MD) and radial diffusivity (RD) in left medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and decrease of fractional anisotropy (FA) in left precuneus and axial diffusivity (AD) in both left MPFC and precuneus. In correlation analysis, MD value from left MPFC was positively associated with duration of epilepsy. Neither the disease duration nor the seizure frequency showed significant correlation with FA values. Between-group comparison of brain volumes got no significant difference. Conclusion: The findings indicate that structural impairments exist in DMN regions in children suffering from absence epilepsy and MD values positively correlate with epilepsy duration. This may contribute to understanding the pathological mechanisms of chronic neurological deficits and promote the development of new therapies for this disorder. PMID:27733824

  18. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27

    PubMed Central

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder Jr, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene MF; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype–phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies. PMID:24736736

  19. Delineation of candidate genes responsible for structural brain abnormalities in patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q27.

    PubMed

    Peddibhotla, Sirisha; Nagamani, Sandesh C S; Erez, Ayelet; Hunter, Jill V; Holder, J Lloyd; Carlin, Mary E; Bader, Patricia I; Perras, Helene M F; Allanson, Judith E; Newman, Leslie; Simpson, Gayle; Immken, LaDonna; Powell, Erin; Mohanty, Aaron; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Bi, Weimin; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with terminal deletions of chromosome 6q present with structural brain abnormalities including agenesis of corpus callosum, hydrocephalus, periventricular nodular heterotopia, and cerebellar malformations. The 6q27 region harbors genes that are important for the normal development of brain and delineation of a critical deletion region for structural brain abnormalities may lead to a better genotype-phenotype correlation. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven unrelated patients with deletions involving chromosome 6q27. All patients had structural brain abnormalities. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. The smallest region of overlap spans 1.7 Mb and contains DLL1, THBS2, PHF10, and C6orf70 (ERMARD) that are plausible candidates for the causation of structural brain abnormalities. Our study reiterates the importance of 6q27 region in normal development of brain and helps identify putative genes in causation of structural brain anomalies.

  20. Relationship of uterine artery with ureter.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Khalil, M; Rahman, M H; Mannan, S; Sultana, S Z; Rahman, M M; Ahmed, M S; Zaman, K S; Islam, M S

    2008-07-01

    The study was done to see the relationship of right and left uterine artery with corresponding ureter. Their distance from lateral border of uterus and site of crossing in relation to internal os in Bangladeshi female were observed. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. Gross and fine dissections were carried out to study the relationship and distance of uterine artery where it crosses the corresponding ureter and the site of crossing in relation to internal os. In the present study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. In this study, there were no variations regarding relations of right and left uterine artery with corresponding ureter. In all cases of all age groups, ureters were found to cross the uterine artery anteriorly on both sides. Site of crossing of uterine artery of both sides with ureter at the level of internal os was 50% in 2-12 years (Group A) 20.45% in 13-45 years (Group B) and 12.50% in 46-80 years (Group C) age group. Below the level of the os was found in remaining cases except one which crosses above the level of the os in group B. In this study mean distance of uterine artery where it crosses the ureter from lateral border of uterus was more on right side in all age groups, which was 1.67 cm, 2.30 cm and 2.11 cm in age Group A, B & C respectively. PMID:18626447

  1. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21827719

  2. Microbial community structure and function during abnormal curve development of substrate-induced respiration measurements.

    PubMed

    Bartling, Johanna; Kotzerke, Anja; Mai, Maike; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Buegger, Franz; Schloter, Michael; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2009-12-01

    Soil respiration measurements are an established method to test the abundance, activity and vitality of the soil microorganisms. However, abnormal progressions of soil respiration curves impede a clear interpretation of the data. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the microbial structure during the formation of phenomena like double peaks and terraces by analysis of the PLFA composition (phospholipid fatty acid composition). Moreover, 13C labeled glucose was used as substrate; therefore it was possible to measure delta13C values both within the PLFA fraction as well as within the carbon dioxide evolved during respiration. As contaminants trinitrotoluene, cycloheximide, and hexadecane were used. The results showed that the appearance of double peaks was mainly related to the growth of fungi with the marker 18:2delta9,12 due to a toxic effect of trinitrotoluene and cycloheximide. In contrast, the phenomenon of terrace formation was related to the utilization of hexadecane as a carbon source mainly by bacteria.

  3. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  4. Are structural brain abnormalities associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders?

    PubMed

    Giakoumatos, Christoforos I; Tandon, Neeraj; Shah, Jai; Mathew, Ian T; Brady, Roscoe O; Clementz, Brett A; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Thaker, Gunvant K; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-10-01

    Suicide represents a major health problem world-wide. Nevertheless, the understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of suicidal behavior remains far from complete. We compared suicide attempters to non-attempters, and high vs. low lethality attempters, to identify brain regions associated with suicidal behavior in patients with psychotic disorders. 489 individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder I and 262 healthy controls enrolled in the B-SNIP study were studied. Groups were compared by attempt history and the highest medical lethality of previous suicide attempts. 97 patients had a history of a high lethality attempt, 51 of a low lethality attempt and 341 had no attempt history. Gray matter volumes were obtained from 3T structural MRI scans using FreeSurfer. ANCOVAs were used to examine differences between groups, followed by Hochberg multiple comparison correction. Compared to non-attempters, attempters had significantly less gray matter volume in bilateral inferior temporal and superior temporal cortices, left superior parietal, thalamus and supramarginal regions, right insula, superior frontal and rostral middle frontal regions. Among attempters, a history of high lethality attempts was associated with significantly smaller volumes in the left lingual gyrus and right cuneus. Compared to non-attempters, low lethality attempters had significant decreases in the left supramarginal gyrus, thalamus and the right insula. Structural brain abnormalities may distinguish suicide attempters from non-attempters and high from low lethality attempters among individuals with psychotic disorders. Regions in which differences were observed are part of neural circuitries that mediate inhibition, impulsivity and emotion, visceral, visual and auditory perception.

  5. General Information About Uterine Sarcoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Uterine Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Uterine Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  6. How Are Uterine Fibroids Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are uterine fibroids diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... probably won’t know that you have uterine fibroids. Sometimes, health care providers find fibroids during a ...

  7. Uterine fibroid embolization

    PubMed Central

    Raikhlin, Antony; Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Asch, Murray R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review evidence supporting the use of uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) as an alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy for managing uterine fibroids. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched using the MeSH terms embolization, therapeutic; leiomyoma; treatment outcome; pregnancy; and clinical trials. Most published studies on use of UFE for management of uterine fibroids provide level II evidence. MAIN MESSAGE For 71% to 92% of patients, UFE is effective at alleviating fibroid-related symptoms. After UFE, fibroids are reduced in size by 42% to 83%. Patients’ satisfaction with the procedure is high (>90%), and UFE is safe and has a low rate of major complications (1.25%). When compared with hysterectomy, UFE is associated with fewer major complications, shorterhospital stays, and faster recovery. Although successful pregnancy following UFE is possible, there is insufficient evidence to advocate use of UFE over myomectomy for management of uterine fibroids in women wishing to preserve fertility. CONCLUSION For treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids, UFE is a safe and effective nonsurgical alternative to hysterectomy and myomectomy. PMID:17872642

  8. Rectus abdominalis muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma: An unusual case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Tayfun; Akbay, Serap; Aksüt, Hayri; Yılmaz, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive malignancy. Spread to the lung, thyroid, liver, brain, pancreas, heart, duodenum, breast, vagina, submandibular gland, and bone has been reported. We describe a case of metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the rectus abdominalis muscle as the first case in the literature. A 39-year-old nulligravid woman presented with a history of pelvic pain. Physical examination discovered about a 6-cm mass in the suprapubic region. She had previously undergone a hysterectomy for uterine leiomyosarcoma. Operative findings had revealed a mass measuring 4×5×6 cm located in the rectus abdominalis muscle. Abnormal mitotic figures and necrosis were evident, and uterine leiomyosarcoma was diagnosed. Uterine leiomyosarcomas are malignancies of the smooth muscle arising from the myometrium. Skeletal muscle is an uncommon site of metastasis by hematogenous spread. In conclusion, we have described a case of skeletal muscle metastasis (first case of rectus abdominalis muscle metastasis) secondary to uterine leiomyosarcoma. PMID:24976779

  9. Clinco-Pathological Patterns in Women with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rehana; Sherwani, Rana K; Rana, Safia; Hakim, Seema; S Jairajpuri, Zeeba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) refers to any abnormal bleeding from the uterus, unassociated with tumour, inflammation and pregnancy. The histological diagnosis of DUB is very essential for adequate management especially in perimenopausal and postmenopausal females. The present study was undertaken with the aim of evaluating DUB in various age groups, carry out histopathological study of the endometrium and analyze its clinic-pathological patterns. Methods: The study included 500 cases of atypical uterine bleeding, out of which 120 cases of DUB were included based on clinical features and detailed investigations. Study was conducted in Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, between March 2003 to December 2004 Endometrial tissue was collected by D&C procedure and the samples were sent for histopathological evaluation by pathologist. Result: Hyperplasia was the commonest endometrial pathology (20.5%) followed by luteal phase insufficiency (15.6%) and secretory endometrium (13.7%). Endometritis including tubercular endometritis (12.7%), post abortal (5.8%), proliferative (6.8%), polyp (3.9%), atrophic (3.9%), exogenous hormone changes (2.9%) and anovulatory cycles (6.8%) made up for the remaining lesions. Conclusion: DUB occurs secondary to a wide variety of functional and structural abnormalities, warranting a thorough evaluation especially in perimenoupausal females. Menorrhagia is a common symptom and the most likely etiology relates to the patient’s age. Significant number of endometrial samples revealed pathology rendering endometrial curetting and biopsy an important procedure. Cervical cytology is a valuable adjunct however histopathology remains the gold standard in diagnosis. PMID:26870139

  10. Laparoscopic uterine sling suspension: a new technique of uterine suspension in women desiring surgical management of uterine prolapse with uterine conservation.

    PubMed

    Cutner, A; Kearney, R; Vashisht, A

    2007-09-01

    The surgical management of uterine prolapse in women who wish to retain their uterus remains a challenge. Several techniques have been reported using open abdominal, laparoscopic and vaginal approaches. The laparoscopic approach offers both excellent intraoperative visualisation of supportive and adjacent structures and quick postoperative recovery. Currently, laparoscopic suspension of the uterus to the round ligaments, uterosacral ligaments, suture and synthetic mesh suspension to the sacral promontory have been reported. This report describes a new surgical technique of laparoscopic uterine suspension, which has been performed successfully in eight women. Mersilene tape is used to suspend the uterus to the sacral promontory bilaterally and to recreate new uterosacral ligaments.

  11. Risk of Occult Uterine Sarcoma in Presumed Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Cui, Rosa R; Wright, Jason D

    2016-03-01

    Symptomatic fibroids are a common indication for hysterectomy or myomectomy. Although rare, unexpected gynecologic malignancies in presumed fibroids have been documented. In cases where tissue retrieval is performed through morcellation, there is increasing concern that intra-abdominal dispersion of occult uterine malignancies may lead to peritoneal dissemination and worse outcomes. We examined the available literature to determine the prevalence of all uterine cancers in women undergoing hysterectomy or myomectomy for benign uterine disease, with attention to the risk of morcellating occult uterine sarcomas. We also reviewed the available tools for preoperative discrimination between benign and malignant uterine disease. PMID:26645385

  12. Abnormalities of motor function, transcription and cerebellar structure in mouse models of THAP1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-12-20

    DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations. PMID:26376866

  13. Abnormalities of motor function, transcription and cerebellar structure in mouse models of THAP1 dystonia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Marta; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ortiz-Virumbrales, Maitane; Méneret, Aurelie; Morant, Andrika; Kottwitz, Jessica; Fuchs, Tania; Bonet, Justine; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro; Hof, Patrick R; Ozelius, Laurie J; Ehrlich, Michelle E

    2015-12-20

    DYT6 dystonia is caused by mutations in THAP1 [Thanatos-associated (THAP) domain-containing apoptosis-associated protein] and is autosomal dominant and partially penetrant. Like other genetic primary dystonias, DYT6 patients have no characteristic neuropathology, and mechanisms by which mutations in THAP1 cause dystonia are unknown. Thap1 is a zinc-finger transcription factor, and most pathogenic THAP1 mutations are missense and are located in the DNA-binding domain. There are also nonsense mutations, which act as the equivalent of a null allele because they result in the generation of small mRNA species that are likely rapidly degraded via nonsense-mediated decay. The function of Thap1 in neurons is unknown, but there is a unique, neuronal 50-kDa Thap1 species, and Thap1 levels are auto-regulated on the mRNA level. Herein, we present the first characterization of two mouse models of DYT6, including a pathogenic knockin mutation, C54Y and a null mutation. Alterations in motor behaviors, transcription and brain structure are demonstrated. The projection neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei are especially altered. Abnormalities vary according to genotype, sex, age and/or brain region, but importantly, overlap with those of other dystonia mouse models. These data highlight the similarities and differences in age- and cell-specific effects of a Thap1 mutation, indicating that the pathophysiology of THAP1 mutations should be assayed at multiple ages and neuronal types and support the notion of final common pathways in the pathophysiology of dystonia arising from disparate mutations.

  14. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride and Docetaxel With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced or Recurrent Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-11

    Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  15. Altered structure of cortical sulci in gilles de la Tourette syndrome: Further support for abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Muellner, Julia; Delmaire, Christine; Valabrégue, Romain; Schüpbach, Michael; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Hartmann, Andreas; Worbe, Yulia

    2015-04-15

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of motor and vocal tics. We hypothesized that patients with this syndrome would present an aberrant pattern of cortical formation, which could potentially reflect global alterations of brain development. Using 3 Tesla structural neuroimaging, we compared sulcal depth, opening, and length and thickness of sulcal gray matter in 52 adult patients and 52 matched controls. Cortical sulci were automatically reconstructed and identified over the whole brain, using BrainVisa software. We focused on frontal, parietal, and temporal cortical regions, in which abnormal structure and functional activity were identified in previous neuroimaging studies. Partial correlation analysis with age, sex, and treatment as covariables of noninterest was performed amongst relevant clinical and neuroimaging variables in patients. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome showed lower depth and reduced thickness of gray matter in the pre- and post-central as well as superior, inferior, and internal frontal sulci. In patients with associated obsessive-compulsive disorder, additional structural changes were found in temporal, insular, and olfactory sulci. Crucially, severity of tics and of obsessive-compulsive disorder measured by Yale Global Tic severity scale and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale, respectively, correlated with structural sulcal changes in sensorimotor, temporal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and middle cingulate cortical areas. Patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome displayed an abnormal structural pattern of cortical sulci, which correlated with severity of clinical symptoms. Our results provide further evidence of abnormal brain development in GTS.

  16. Abnormal structure of fear circuitry in pediatric post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Keding, Taylor J; Herringa, Ryan J

    2015-02-01

    Structural brain studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in fear regulatory areas including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus. Surprisingly, neither finding has been reported in pediatric PTSD. One possibility is that they represent age-dependent effects that are not fully apparent until adulthood. In addition, lower-resolution MRI and image processing in prior studies may have limited detection of such differences. Here we examine fear circuitry GMV, including age-related differences, using higher-resolution MRI in pediatric PTSD vs healthy youth. In a cross-sectional design, 3 T anatomical brain MRI was acquired in 27 medication-free youth with PTSD and 27 healthy non-traumatized youth of comparable age, sex, and IQ. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare GMV in a priori regions including the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala/hippocampus. Compared with healthy youth, PTSD youth had reduced GMV but no age-related differences in anterior vmPFC (BA 10/11, Z=4.5), which inversely correlated with PTSD duration. In contrast, although there was no overall group difference in hippocampal volume, a group × age interaction (Z=3.6) was present in the right anterior hippocampus. Here, age positively predicted hippocampal volume in healthy youth but negatively predicted volume in PTSD youth. Within the PTSD group, re-experiencing symptoms inversely correlated with subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, Z=3.7) and right anterior hippocampus (Z=3.5) GMV. Pediatric PTSD is associated with abnormal structure of the vmPFC and age-related differences in the hippocampus, regions important in the extinction and contextual gating of fear. Reduced anterior vmPFC volume may confer impaired recovery from illness, consistent with its role in the allocation of attentional resources. In contrast, individual differences in sgACC volume were associated with re-experiencing symptoms, consistent with

  17. Detection of structural and numerical chomosomal abnormalities by ACM-FISH analysis in sperm of oligozoospermic infertility patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, T E; Brinkworth, M H; Hill, F; Sloter, E; Kamischke, A; Marchetti, F; Nieschlag, E; Wyrobek, A J

    2003-11-10

    Modern reproductive technologies are enabling the treatment of infertile men with severe disturbances of spermatogenesis. The possibility of elevated frequencies of genetically and chromosomally defective sperm has become an issue of concern with the increased usage of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), which can enable men with severely impaired sperm production to father children. Several papers have been published about aneuploidy in oligozoospermic patients, but relatively little is known about chromosome structural aberrations in the sperm of these patients. We examined sperm from infertile, oligozoospermic individuals for structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities using a multicolor ACM FISH assay that utilizes DNA probes specific for three regions of chromosome 1 to detect human sperm that carry numerical chromosomal abnormalities plus two categories of structural aberrations: duplications and deletions of 1pter and 1cen, and chromosomal breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was a significant increase in the average frequencies of sperm with duplications and deletions in the infertility patients compared with the healthy concurrent controls. There was also a significantly elevated level of breaks within the 1cen-1q12 region. There was no evidence for an increase in chromosome-1 disomy, or in diploidy. Our data reveal that oligozoospermia is associated with chromosomal structural abnormalities suggesting that, oligozoospermic men carry a higher burden of transmissible, chromosome damage. The findings raise the possibility of elevated levels of transmissible chromosomal defects following ICSI treatment.

  18. Clinical practice. Uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-23

    A 47-year-old black woman has heavy menstrual bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia.She reports nocturia and urinary frequency. A colonoscopy is negative. Ultrasonography shows a modestly enlarged uterus with three uterine fibroids. She is not planning to become pregnant. How should this case be evaluated and managed? PMID:25901428

  19. Clinical practice. Uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-23

    A 47-year-old black woman has heavy menstrual bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia.She reports nocturia and urinary frequency. A colonoscopy is negative. Ultrasonography shows a modestly enlarged uterus with three uterine fibroids. She is not planning to become pregnant. How should this case be evaluated and managed?

  20. Disruption of Ah Receptor Signaling during Mouse Development Leads to Abnormal Cardiac Structure and Function in the Adult

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Vinicius S.; Fan, Yunxia; Kurita, Hisaka; Wang, Qin; Ko, Chia-I; Naticchioni, Mindi; Jiang, Min; Koch, Sheryl; Zhang, Xiang; Biesiada, Jacek; Medvedovic, Mario; Xia, Ying; Rubinstein, Jack; Puga, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) Theory proposes that the environment encountered during fetal life and infancy permanently shapes tissue physiology and homeostasis such that damage resulting from maternal stress, poor nutrition or exposure to environmental agents may be at the heart of adult onset disease. Interference with endogenous developmental functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), either by gene ablation or by exposure in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a potent AHR ligand, causes structural, molecular and functional cardiac abnormalities and altered heart physiology in mouse embryos. To test if embryonic effects progress into an adult phenotype, we investigated whether Ahr ablation or TCDD exposure in utero resulted in cardiac abnormalities in adult mice long after removal of the agent. Ten-months old adult Ahr-/- and in utero TCDD-exposed Ahr+/+ mice showed sexually dimorphic abnormal cardiovascular phenotypes characterized by echocardiographic findings of hypertrophy, ventricular dilation and increased heart weight, resting heart rate and systolic and mean blood pressure, and decreased exercise tolerance. Underlying these effects, genes in signaling networks related to cardiac hypertrophy and mitochondrial function were differentially expressed. Cardiac dysfunction in mouse embryos resulting from AHR signaling disruption seems to progress into abnormal cardiac structure and function that predispose adults to cardiac disease, but while embryonic dysfunction is equally robust in males and females, the adult abnormalities are more prevalent in females, with the highest severity in Ahr-/- females. The findings reported here underscore the conclusion that AHR signaling in the developing heart is one potential target of environmental factors associated with cardiovascular disease. PMID:26555816

  1. The p160/Steroid Receptor Coactivator Family: Potent Arbiters of Uterine Physiology and Dysfunction1

    PubMed Central

    Szwarc, Maria M.; Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Lessey, Bruce A.; Lydon, John P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The p160/steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) family comprises three pleiotropic coregulators (SRC-1, SRC-2, and SRC-3; otherwise known as NCOA1, NCOA2, and NCOA3, respectively), which modulate a wide spectrum of physiological responses and clinicopathologies. Such pleiotropy is achieved through their inherent structural complexity, which allows this coregulator class to control both nuclear receptor and non-nuclear receptor signaling. As observed in other physiologic systems, members of the SRC family have recently been shown to play pivotal roles in uterine biology and pathobiology. In the murine uterus, SRC-1 is required to launch a full steroid hormone response, without which endometrial decidualization is markedly attenuated. From “dovetailing” clinical and mouse studies, an isoform of SRC-1 was recently identified which promotes endometriosis by reprogramming endometrial cells to evade apoptosis and to colonize as endometriotic lesions within the peritoneal cavity. The endometrium fails to decidualize without SRC-2, which accounts for the infertility phenotype exhibited by mice devoid of this coregulator. In related studies on human endometrial stromal cells, SRC-2 was shown to act as a molecular “pacemaker” of the glycolytic flux. This finding is significant because acceleration of the glycolytic flux provides the necessary bioenergy and biomolecules for endometrial stromal cells to switch from quiescence to a proliferative phenotype, a critical underpinning in the decidual progression program. Although studies on uterine SRC-3 function are in their early stages, clinical studies provide tantalizing support for the proposal that SRC-3 is causally linked to endometrial hyperplasia as well as with endometrial pathologies in patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. This proposal is now driving the development and application of innovative technologies, particularly in the mouse, to further understand the functional role of this elusive

  2. Small-molecule structure correctors target abnormal protein structure and function: structure corrector rescue of apolipoprotein E4-associated neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Mahley, Robert W; Huang, Yadong

    2012-11-01

    An attractive strategy to treat proteinopathies (diseases caused by malformed or misfolded proteins) is to restore protein function by inducing proper three-dimensional structure. We hypothesized that this approach would be effective in reversing the detrimental effects of apolipoprotein (apo) E4, the major allele that significantly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. ApoE4's detrimental effects result from its altered protein conformation ("domain interaction"), making it highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage and the generation of neurotoxic fragments. Here, we review apoE structure and function and how apoE4 causes neurotoxicity, and describe the identification of potent small-molecule-based "structure correctors" that induce proper apoE4 folding. SAR studies identified a series of small molecules that significantly reduced apoE4's neurotoxic effects in cultured neurons and a series that reduced apoE4 fragment levels in vivo, providing proof-of-concept for our approach. Structure-corrector-based therapies could prove to be highly effective for the treatment of many protein-misfolding diseases.

  3. Structural chromosomal abnormalities in patients with mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies: a new series of 24 patients.

    PubMed

    Tos, T; Karaman, A; Aksoy, A; Tukun, A

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation and/or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA/MR). Screening for these chromosomal imbalances has mainly been done by standard karyotyping. The objective of this study was to report standard chromosome analysis and FISH screening of a series of 24 patients with MCA/MR. Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 24 alterations and included 5 deletions, 2 duplications, 6 unbalanced translocations, 3 inversions, 2 insertions, 3 derivative chromosomes, 2 marker chromosomes and 1 isochromosome. We confirm that a high percentage of MCA/MR cases hitherto considered idiopathic is caused by chromosomal imbalances. We conclude that patients with MCA/MR should be routinely karyotyped.

  4. White Matter Abnormalities and Structural Hippocampal Disconnections in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jared; Fonov, Vladimir; Wu, Ona; Eskildsen, Simon Fristed; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Wu, Liyong; Mohades, Sara; Shin, Monica; Sziklas, Viviane; Cheewakriengkrai, Laksanun; Shmuel, Amir; Dagher, Alain; Gauthier, Serge; Rosa-Neto, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate white matter degeneration and its impact on hippocampal structural connectivity in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. We estimated white matter fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity in two independent cohorts. The ADNI cohort included 108 subjects [25 cognitively normal, 21 amnestic mild cognitive impairment, 47 non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 15 Alzheimer’s disease]. A second cohort included 34 subjects [15 cognitively normal and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment] recruited in Montreal. All subjects underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment in addition to diffusion and T1 MRI. Individual fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity maps were generated using FSL-DTIfit. In addition, hippocampal structural connectivity maps expressing the probability of connectivity between the hippocampus and cortex were generated using a pipeline based on FSL-probtrackX. Voxel-based group comparison statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and hippocampal structural connectivity were estimated using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics. The proportion of abnormal to total white matter volume was estimated using the total volume of the white matter skeleton. We found that in both cohorts, amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients had 27-29% white matter volume showing higher mean diffusivity but no significant fractional anisotropy abnormalities. No fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity differences were observed between non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients and cognitively normal subjects. Alzheimer’s disease patients had 66.3% of normalized white matter volume with increased mean diffusivity and 54.3% of the white matter had reduced fractional anisotropy. Reduced structural connectivity was found in the hippocampal connections to temporal, inferior parietal

  5. Abnormal thermal expansion, multiple transitions, magnetocaloric effect, and electronic structure of Gd6Co4.85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zheng, Zhigang; Shan, Guangcun; Bobev, Svilen; Shek, Chan Hung

    2015-10-01

    The structure of known Gd4Co3 compound is re-determined as Gd6Co4.85, adopting the Gd6Co1.67Si3 structure type, which is characterized by two disorder Co sites filling the Gd octahedral and a short Gd-Gd distance within the octahedra. The compound shows uniaxial negative thermal expansion in paramagnetic state, significant negative expansion in ferromagnetic state, and positive expansion below ca. 140 K. It also exhibits large magnetocaloric effect, with an entropy change of -6.4 J kg-1 K-1 at 50 kOe. In the lattice of the compound, Co atoms at different sites show different spin states. It was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra and calculation of electronic structure and shed lights on the abnormal thermal expansion. The stability of such compound and the origin of its magnetism are also discussed based on measured and calculated electronic structures.

  6. Abnormal structure of frontostriatal brain systems is associated with aspects of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Anna; Simon Jones, P.; Morein-Zamir, Sharon; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by impulsive behaviours and compulsive drug-taking. Here we compared self-report, behavioural and structural magnetic resonance imaging data on a relatively large sample of cocaine-dependent individuals (n = 60) with data on healthy volunteers (n = 60); and we investigated the relationships between grey matter volume variation, duration of cocaine use, and measures of impulsivity and compulsivity in the cocaine-dependent group. Cocaine dependence was associated with an extensive system of abnormally decreased grey matter volume in orbitofrontal, cingulate, insular, temporoparietal and cerebellar cortex, and with a more localized increase in grey matter volume in the basal ganglia. Greater duration of cocaine dependence was correlated with greater grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, cingulate and insular cortex. Greater impairment of attentional control was associated with reduced volume in insular cortex and increased volume of caudate nucleus. Greater compulsivity of drug use was associated with reduced volume in orbitofrontal cortex. Cocaine-dependent individuals had abnormal structure of corticostriatal systems, and variability in the extent of anatomical changes in orbitofrontal, insular and striatal structures was related to individual differences in duration of dependence, inattention and compulsivity of cocaine consumption. PMID:21690575

  7. Uterine arteriovenous malformations following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Touhami, Omar; Gregoire, Jean; Noel, Patricia; Trinh, Xuan Bich; Plante, Marie

    2014-10-01

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) following gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a rare condition. It can be associated with chronic vaginal bleeding or life-threatening heavy bleeding, even after complete resolution of the tumor following chemotherapy. This analysis aimed to perform an extensive systematic review highlighting clinical symptoms, imaging, management and prognosis of this rare complication of GTN. We also describe an additional case of uterine AVM following GTN. We conducted a literature search using Medline, Embase and Cochrane library to analyze the clinical data of 49 published cases of uterine AVM following GTN. Median age of the women diagnosed with AVM was 29 years (range 15-49). Median gravidity was 2 (range 1-8) and 50% of women were nulligravida. Complete molar pregnancy was the most common initial gestational trophoblastic diagnosis (48%). Overall, 44 patients (88%) were symptomatic and presented with chronic or acute abnormal vaginal bleeding. Only 3 patients had an undetectable HCG level at the time of uterine AVM diagnosis. Hypo-echoic space in the myometrium is the most relevant finding on ultrasonography but the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of AVMs is angiographic examination. Uterine artery embolization was the most common treatment option performed in 82% of the patients and was successful in controlling the bleeding in 85% of cases. We identified 20 pregnancies after successful embolization of uterine AVM following a GTN and 90% of them were successful. Because of the risk of life-threatening heavy bleeding, the diagnosis of uterine AVM should always be considered in patients with a history of recurrent unexplained vaginal bleeding after gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Angiographic embolization is successful in the majority of cases and does not appear to compromise future pregnancy.

  8. Abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt structure

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, D. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhang, L. J.; Yang, T.; Hu, Q. R.; Lei, M.; Tang, W. H. E-mail: pgli@zstu.edu.cn; Li, P. G. E-mail: pgli@zstu.edu.cn; Li, L. H.

    2015-07-20

    A stable and repeatable abnormal bipolar resistive switching behavior was observed in a Pt/GaO{sub 1.3}/Pt sandwich structure without an electroforming process. The low resistance state (LRS) and the high resistance state (HRS) of the device can be distinguished clearly and be switched reversibly under a train of the voltage pulses. The LRS exhibits a conduction of electron tunneling, while the HRS shows a conduction of Schottky-type. The observed phenomena are considered to be related to the migration of oxygen vacancies which changes the space charge region width of the metal/semiconductor interface and results in a different electron transport mechanism.

  9. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA. PMID:24048981

  10. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M.; Fodah, Ramy A.; Warawa, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium. PMID:25398987

  11. Abnormal epithelial structure and chronic lung inflammation after repair of chlorine-induced airway injury.

    PubMed

    Mo, Yiqun; Chen, Jing; Humphrey, David M; Fodah, Ramy A; Warawa, Jonathan M; Hoyle, Gary W

    2015-01-15

    Chlorine is a toxic gas used in a variety of industrial processes and is considered a chemical threat agent. High-level chlorine exposure causes acute lung injury, but the long-term effects of acute chlorine exposure are unclear. Here we characterized chronic pulmonary changes following acute chlorine exposure in mice. A/J mice were exposed to 240 parts per million-hour chlorine or sham-exposed to air. Chlorine inhalation caused sloughing of bronchial epithelium 1 day after chlorine exposure, which was repaired with restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium by day 7. The repaired epithelium contained an abnormal distribution of epithelial cells containing clusters of club or ciliated cells rather than the uniformly interspersed pattern of these cells in unexposed mice. Although the damaged epithelium in A/J mice was repaired rapidly, and minimal airway fibrosis was observed, chlorine-exposed mice developed pneumonitis characterized by infiltration of alveoli with neutrophils and prominent, large, foamy macrophages. Levels of CXCL1/KC, CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and VEGF in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid from chlorine-exposed mice showed steadily increasing trends over time. BAL protein levels were increased on day 4 and remained elevated out to day 28. The number of bacteria cultured from lungs of chlorine-exposed mice 4 wk after exposure was not increased compared with sham-exposed mice, indicating that the observed pneumonitis was not driven by bacterial infection of the lung. The results indicate that acute chlorine exposure may cause chronic abnormalities in the lungs despite rapid repair of injured epithelium.

  12. Frequency, prognosis and surgical treatment of structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging in childhood epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions identified by MRI; (ii) clinical factors associated with ‘positive’ MRI scans; and (iii) the utilization of comprehensive epilepsy evaluations and neurosurgery. Of the original cohort of 613 children, 518 (85%) had usable MRI scans. Eighty-two (16%) had MRI abnormalities potentially relevant to epilepsy (‘positive’ scans). Idiopathic epilepsy syndromes were identified in 162 (31%) of whom 3% had positive scans. The remainder had non-idiopathic epilepsy syndromes of which 22% had positive MRI findings. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified non-idiopathic epilepsy and abnormal motor-sensory (neurological) examinations as predictors of a positive MRI scan. Of the non-idiopathic patients with normal neurological exams and who were not pharmacoresistant, 10% had positive MRI scans, including four patients with gliomas. Evaluations at comprehensive epilepsy centres occurred in 54 pharmacoresistant cases. To date 5% of the imaged cohort or 8% of non-idiopathic epilepsy patients have undergone surgical procedures (including vagal nerve stimulator implantation) to treat their epilepsy (n = 22) or for tumours (n = 6) without being drug resistant. Applying our findings to the general population of children in the USA, we estimate that there will be 127/1 000 000 new cases per year of pharmacoresistant epilepsy, and 52/1 000 000 childhood-onset epilepsy patients undergoing epilepsy evaluations. In addition, approximately 27/1 000 000 will have an epilepsy-related surgical procedure. These findings support recommendations for the use of MRI in evaluating newly diagnosed paediatric epilepsy patients, especially with non

  13. Age-related structural abnormalities in the human retina-choroid complex revealed by two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Han, Meng; Giese, Guenter; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Bindewald-Wittich, Almut; Holz, Frank G; Yu, Jiayi; Bille, Josef F; Niemz, Markolf H

    2007-01-01

    The intensive metabolism of photoreceptors is delicately maintained by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid. Dysfunction of either the RPE or choroid may lead to severe damage to the retina. Two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) from endogenous fluorophores in the human retina provides a novel opportunity to reveal age-related structural abnormalities in the retina-choroid complex prior to apparent pathological manifestations of age-related retinal diseases. In the photoreceptor layer, the regularity of the macular photoreceptor mosaic is preserved during aging. In the RPE, enlarged lipofuscin granules demonstrate significantly blue-shifted autofluorescence, which coincides with the depletion of melanin pigments. Prominent fibrillar structures in elderly Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaries represent choroidal structure and permeability alterations. Requiring neither slicing nor labeling, TPEF imaging is an elegant and highly efficient tool to delineate the thick, fragile, and opaque retina-choroid complex, and may provide clues to the trigger events of age-related macular degeneration.

  14. [Uterine rupture without preexisting caesarean section after perforation of the uterus during evacuation].

    PubMed

    Bønnelykke, Astrid; Jeppesen, Ulla; Munk, Anne Cathrine Hoffgaard

    2015-01-26

    Uterine rupture is a serious complication, associated with perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. This case report describes uterine rupture in a patient who did not have any previous caesarean section. The patient had acute abdominal pain, hypertonic uterus, blood in the amniotic fluid and abnormal cardiotocographic values. An abruption of the placenta was suspected, and an acute caesarean section was performed during which a rupture in fundus uteri was found. It was later experienced that the patient ten years earlier had suffered a uterine perforation during evacuation after a late abortion.

  15. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass. PMID:25003044

  16. A cross-sectional study of platelet volume in healthy normotensive women with bilateral uterine artery notches.

    PubMed

    Lees, C C; Brown, A S; Harrington, K F; Beacon, H J; Martin, J F; Campbell, S

    1997-10-01

    High uterine artery resistance characterized by bilateral notches seen on Doppler ultrasound in the second half of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcome related to pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. We sought to establish whether there was a difference in platelet volume in healthy, normotensive women with high-resistance uterine artery Doppler findings compared to those with normal uterine artery Doppler findings. Forty-seven women were allocated prospectively into 'bilateral notch' and 'no notch' groups at color Doppler imaging of the uterine arteries carried out at a mean of 26 weeks' gestation. The difference in platelet volume between the two groups and the relationship of adverse outcome with raised platelet volume and high-resistance uterine artery Doppler findings was investigated. Twenty-three women had no evidence of uterine artery notches and 24 had bilateral uterine artery notches. Platelet volume in the women with bilateral notches was greater than in those with no notches (8.28 fl vs. 7.46 fl; p = 0.01). However, unlike high-resistance uterine artery Doppler findings, increased platelet volume was not associated with adverse outcome. Uterine artery Doppler flow abnormalities have not previously been studied in combination with hematological or biochemical markers. Our findings show, for the first time, that women with bilateral uterine artery notches have an increased platelet volume compared to those with normal uterine artery Doppler findings many weeks before clinical signs of pre-eclampsia or fetal growth retardation are evident. Women with abnormal uterine artery flow at this gestation may have other cardiovascular and hematological differences compared to those with normal flow.

  17. Uterine Inversion; A case report.

    PubMed

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, Ma

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  18. Uterine Inversion; A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bouchikhi, C; Saadi, H; Fakhir, B; Chaara, H; Bouguern, H; Banani, A; Melhouf, MA

    2008-01-01

    The puerperal uterine inversion is a rare and severe complication occurring in the third stage of labour. The mechanisms are not completely known. However, extrinsic factors such as oxytocic arrests after a prolonged labour, umbilical cord traction or abdominal expression are pointed. Other intrinsic factors such as primiparity, uterine hypotonia, various placental localizations, fundic myoma or short umbilical cord were also reported. The diagnosis of the uterine inversion is mainly supported by clinical symptoms. It is based on three elements: haemorrhage, shock and a strong pelvic pain. The immediate treatment of the uterine inversion is required. It is based on a medical reanimation associated with firstly a manual reduction then surgical treatment using various techniques. We report an observation of a 25 years old grand multiparous patient with a subacute uterine inversion after delivery at home. PMID:21516244

  19. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  20. The inwardly rectifying K+ channel KIR7.1 controls uterine excitability throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Conor; Rada, Cara; Bailey, Elizabeth; McCavera, Samantha; van den Berg, Hugo A; Atia, Jolene; Rand, David A; Shmygol, Anatoly; Chan, Yi-Wah; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J; Vatish, Manu; Zhang, Jie; Denton, Jerod S; Taggart, Michael J; Kettleborough, Catherine; Tickle, David; Jerman, Jeff; Wright, Paul; Dale, Timothy; Kanumilli, Srinivasan; Trezise, Derek J; Thornton, Steve; Brown, Pamela; Catalano, Roberto; Lin, Nan; England, Sarah K; Blanks, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy causes a range of important clinical disorders, including preterm birth, dysfunctional labour and post-partum haemorrhage. Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. Computational modelling identified Kir7.1 as potentially important in regulating uterine excitability during pregnancy. We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. Labour is associated with a decline, but not loss, of Kir7.1 expression. Knockdown of Kir7.1 by lentiviral expression of miRNA was sufficient to increase uterine contractile force and duration significantly. Conversely, overexpression of Kir7.1 inhibited uterine contractility. Finally, we demonstrate that the Kir7.1 inhibitor VU590 as well as novel derivative compounds induces profound, long-lasting contractions in mouse and human myometrium; the activity of these inhibitors exceeds that of other uterotonic drugs. We conclude Kir7.1 regulates the transition from quiescence to contractions in the pregnant uterus and may be a target for therapies to control uterine contractility.

  1. Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2013-02-01

    Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  2. Management of Uterine Bleeding During Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Purisch, Stephanie E.; Shanis, Dana; Zerbe, Christa; Merideth, Melissa; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Stratton, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an effective treatment strategy for a variety of hematologic disorders, but patients are at risk for dysfunctional coagulation and abnormal bleeding. Gynecologists are often consulted before transplant for management of abnormal uterine bleeding, which may be particularly challenging in this context. CASE A premenopausal woman with MonoMAC (a rare adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex infections resulting from mutations in GATA2, a crucial gene in early hematopoiesis) presented with pancytopenia, evolving leukemia, and recent strokes, necessitating anticoagulation. During preparation for hematopoietic stem cell transplant, she experienced prolonged menorrhagia requiring transfusions. Surgical therapy was contraindicated, and medical management was successful only when combined with balloon tamponade. CONCLUSION Balloon tamponade may be a potentially life-saving adjunct to medical therapy for control of uterine hemorrhage before hematopoietic stem cell transplant. PMID:23344397

  3. Radiation Therapy, Paclitaxel, and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  4. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Role of nuclear progesterone receptor isoforms in uterine pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bansari; Elguero, Sonia; Thakore, Suruchi; Dahoud, Wissam; Bedaiwy, Mohamed; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-01-01

    cellular signaling pathways required for growth. In contrast, progesterone via PR activation appears to increase leiomyoma growth. The exact role of PRs in cervical cancer is unclear. PRs regulate implantation and therefore aberrant PR function may be implicated in recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). PRs likely regulate key immunogenic factors involved in RPL. However, the exact role of PRs in the pathophysiology of RPL and the use of progesterone for therapeutic benefit remains uncertain. CONCLUSIONS PRs are key mediators of progesterone action in uterine tissues and are essential for normal uterine function. Aberrant PR function (due to abnormal expression and/or function) is a major cause of uterine pathophysiology. Further investigation of the underlying mechanisms of PR isoform action in the uterus is required, as this knowledge will afford the opportunity to create progestin/PR-based therapeutics to treat various uterine pathologies. PMID:25406186

  6. Investigating brain community structure abnormalities in bipolar disorder using path length associated community estimation.

    PubMed

    Gadelkarim, Johnson J; Ajilore, Olusola; Schonfeld, Dan; Zhan, Liang; Thompson, Paul M; Feusner, Jamie D; Kumar, Anand; Altshuler, Lori L; Leow, Alex D

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present path length associated community estimation (PLACE), a comprehensive framework for studying node-level community structure. Instead of the well-known Q modularity metric, PLACE utilizes a novel metric, Ψ(PL), which measures the difference between intercommunity versus intracommunity path lengths. We compared community structures in human healthy brain networks generated using these two metrics and argued that Ψ(PL) may have theoretical advantages. PLACE consists of the following: (1) extracting community structure using top-down hierarchical binary trees, where a branch at each bifurcation denotes a collection of nodes that form a community at that level, (2) constructing and assessing mean group community structure, and (3) detecting node-level changes in community between groups. We applied PLACE and investigated the structural brain networks obtained from a sample of 25 euthymic bipolar I subjects versus 25 gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Results showed community structural differences in posterior default mode network regions, with the bipolar group exhibiting left-right decoupling.

  7. Fetal Arthrogryposis Secondary to a Giant Maternal Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Vila-Vives, José María; Hidalgo-Mora, Juan José; Soler, Inmaculada; Rubio, Juan; Quiroga, Ramiro; Perales, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Arthrogryposis multiplex congenital is a rare condition defined as contractures in multiple joints at birth due to disorders starting in fetal life. Its etiology is associated with many different conditions and in many instances remains unknown. The final common pathway to all of them is decreased fetal movement (fetal akinesia) due to an abnormal intrauterine environment. Causes of decreased fetal movements may be neuropathic abnormalities, abnormalities of connective tissue or muscle, intrauterine vascular compromise, maternal diseases, and space limitations within the uterus. When the cause of arthrogryposis is space limitations in uterus, the most common etiology is oligohydramnios. The same can result from intrauterine tumours as fibroids, although to our knowledge there are only two papers reporting cases of fetal deformities related to uterine leiomyomas. We describe a well-documented exceptional case of arthrogryposis associated with the presence of a large uterine fibroid. It could illustrate the importance of a careful and appropriate assessment of uterine fibroids before and in the course of a pregnancy considering that they can cause both serious maternal and fetal complications. PMID:23198198

  8. Uterine ALK3 is essential during the window of implantation.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Diana; Clementi, Caterina; Peng, Jia; Titus, Mary M; Barrish, James P; Creighton, Chad J; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Matzuk, Martin M

    2016-01-19

    The window of implantation is defined by the inhibition of uterine epithelial proliferation, structural epithelial cell remodeling, and attenuated estrogen (E2) response. These changes occur via paracrine signaling between the uterine epithelium and stroma. Because implantation defects are a major cause of infertility in women, identifying these signaling pathways will improve infertility interventions. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are TGF-β family members that regulate the postimplantation and midgestation stages of pregnancy. In this study, we discovered that signaling via activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3/BMPR1A), a BMP type 1 receptor, is necessary for blastocyst attachment. Conditional knockout (cKO) of ALK3 in the uterus was obtained by producing Alk3(flox) (/flox)-Pgr-cre-positive females. Alk3 cKO mice are sterile and have defects in the luminal uterine epithelium, including increased microvilli density and maintenance of apical cell polarity. Moreover, Alk3 cKO mice exhibit an elevated uterine E2 response and unopposed epithelial cell proliferation during the window of implantation. We determined that dual transcriptional regulation of Kruppel-like factor 15 (Klf15), by both the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) transcription factor SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4) and progesterone receptor (PR), is necessary to inhibit uterine epithelial cell proliferation, a key step for embryo implantation. Our findings present a convergence of BMP and steroid hormone signaling pathways in the regulation of uterine receptivity. PMID:26721398

  9. Uterine Contraction Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Miao; Belfore, Lee A.; Shen, Yuzhong; Scerbo, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Building a training system for medical personnel to properly interpret fetal heart rate tracing requires developing accurate models that can relate various signal patterns to certain pathologies. In addition to modeling the fetal heart rate signal itself, the change of uterine pressure that bears strong relation to fetal heart rate and provides indications of maternal and fetal status should also be considered. In this work, we have developed a group of parametric models to simulate uterine contractions during labor and delivery. Through analysis of real patient records, we propose to model uterine contraction signals by three major components: regular contractions, impulsive noise caused by fetal movements, and low amplitude noise invoked by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus. The regular contractions are modeled by an asymmetric generalized Gaussian function and least squares estimation is used to compute the parameter values of the asymmetric generalized Gaussian function based on uterine contractions of real patients. Regular contractions are detected based on thresholding and derivative analysis of uterine contractions. Impulsive noise caused by fetal movements and low amplitude noise by maternal breathing and measuring apparatus are modeled by rational polynomial functions and Perlin noise, respectively. Experiment results show the synthesized uterine contractions can mimic the real uterine contractions realistically, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. BMPR2 is required for postimplantation uterine function and pregnancy maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Takashi; Li, Qinglei; Clementi, Caterina; Lydon, John P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities in cell-cell communication and growth factor signaling pathways can lead to defects in maternal-fetal interactions during pregnancy, including immunologic rejection of the fetal/placental unit. In this study, we discovered that bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2) is essential for postimplantation physiology and fertility. Despite normal implantation and early placental/fetal development, deletion of Bmpr2 in the uterine deciduae of mice triggered midgestation abnormalities in decidualization that resulted in abnormal vascular development, trophoblast defects, and a deficiency of uterine natural killer cells. Absence of BMPR2 signaling in the uterine decidua consequently suppressed IL-15, VEGF, angiopoietin, and corin signaling. Disruption of these pathways collectively lead to placental abruption, fetal demise, and female sterility, thereby placing BMPR2 at a central point in the regulation of several physiologic signaling pathways and events at the maternal-fetal interface. Since trophoblast invasion and uterine vascular modification are implicated in normal placentation and fetal growth in humans, our findings suggest that abnormalities in uterine BMPR2-mediated signaling pathways can have catastrophic consequences in women for the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:23676498

  11. Detection of zones of abnormal strains in structures using Gaussian curvature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lisle, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    Whereas some folds, such as those produced by flexural slip, do not theoretically entail strain within the folded surfaces, any surface involving double curvature (such as domes and saddles) cannot form without some stretching or contraction of the bedding. Whether straining of the surfaces is required during folding depends on the three-dimensional fold shape and, in particular, on the Gaussian curvature at points on the folded surface. Using this as a basis, I present a method for detecting zones of anomalously high strain in oil-field structures from Gaussian curvature analysis (GCA) of natural structures. The new method of GCA is suitable for analyzing surfaces that have been mapped seismically. A Gaussian curvature map of the structure is a principal outcome of the analysis and can be used to predict the density of strain-related subseismic structures, such as small-scale fracturing. The Goose Egg dome, near Casper, Wyoming, is analyzed and provides an example of GCA. In this structure, a relationship is observed between fracture densities and Gaussian curvature.

  12. Shape Abnormalities of Subcortical and Ventricular Structures in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease: Detecting, Quantifying, and Predicting

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoying; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the feasibility of using shape information to detect and quantify the subcortical and ventricular structural changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. We first demonstrate structural shape abnormalities in MCI and AD as compared with healthy controls (HC). Exploring the development to AD, we then divide the MCI participants into two subgroups based on longitudinal clinical information: (1) MCI patients who remained stable; (2) MCI patients who converted to AD over time. We focus on seven structures (amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and lateral ventricles) in 754 MR scans (210 HC, 369 MCI of which 151 converted to AD over time, and 175 AD). The hippocampus and amygdala were further subsegmented based on high field 0.8 mm isotropic 7.0T scans for finer exploration. For MCI and AD, prominent ventricular expansions were detected and we found that these patients had strongest hippocampal atrophy occurring at CA1 and strongest amygdala atrophy at the basolateral complex. Mild atrophy in basal ganglia structures was also detected in MCI and AD. Stronger atrophy in the amygdala and hippocampus, and greater expansion in ventricles was observed in MCI converters, relative to those MCI who remained stable. Furthermore, we performed principal component analysis on a linear shape space of each structure. A subsequent linear discriminant analysis on the principal component values of hippocampus, amygdala, and ventricle leads to correct classification of 88% HC subjects and 86% AD subjects. PMID:24443091

  13. Rupture of uterine serosal hematoma: delayed complication of uterine perforation.

    PubMed

    Seol, H J; Ki, K D

    2015-01-01

    Uterine perforation, a major complication of dilatation and curettage (D&C), is typically recognized at the time of the procedure. Large defects in the uterine wall or injury to other intraabdominal organs can result in an acute abdomen requiring immediate surgical treatment. On the other hand, small perforations usually resolve on their own without any long-term consequences. Here, the authors report a case of delayed hemoperitoneum, ten days after the D&C evacuation of an early pregnancy. Initially, intramural pregnancy was the suspected etiology. However, histopathology suggested that the inciting event was the rupture of a serosal uterine hematoma, which likely resulted from an incomplete uterine perforation during D&C. The patient did well after undergoing an uneventful laparoscopy.

  14. Abnormal centrosomal structure and duplication in Cep135-deficient vertebrate cells.

    PubMed

    Inanç, Burcu; Pütz, Monika; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Kuriyama, Ryoko; Gergely, Fanni; Morrison, Ciaran G

    2013-09-01

    Centrosomes are key microtubule-organizing centers that contain a pair of centrioles, conserved cylindrical, microtubule-based structures. Centrosome duplication occurs once per cell cycle and relies on templated centriole assembly. In many animal cells this process starts with the formation of a radially symmetrical cartwheel structure. The centrosomal protein Cep135 localizes to this cartwheel, but its role in vertebrates is not well understood. Here we examine the involvement of Cep135 in centriole function by disrupting the Cep135 gene in the DT40 chicken B-cell line. DT40 cells that lack Cep135 are viable and show no major defects in centrosome composition or function, although we note a small decrease in centriole numbers and a concomitant increase in the frequency of monopolar spindles. Furthermore, electron microscopy reveals an atypical structure in the lumen of Cep135-deficient centrioles. Centrosome amplification after hydroxyurea treatment increases significantly in Cep135-deficient cells, suggesting an inhibitory role for the protein in centrosome reduplication during S-phase delay. We propose that Cep135 is required for the structural integrity of centrioles in proliferating vertebrate cells, a role that also limits centrosome amplification in S-phase-arrested cells.

  15. Structural, energetic, and dynamic insights into the abnormal xylene separation behavior of hierarchical porous crystal

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jiao-Min; He, Chun-Ting; Liao, Pei-Qin; Lin, Rui-Biao; Zhang, Jie-Peng

    2015-01-01

    Separation of highly similar molecules and understanding the underlying mechanism are of paramount theoretical and practical importance, but visualization of the host-guest structure, energy, or dynamism is very difficult and many details have been overlooked. Here, we report a new porous coordination polymer featuring hierarchical porosity and delicate flexibility, in which the three structural isomers of xylene (also similar disubstituted benzene derivatives) can be efficiently separated with an elution sequence inversed with those for conventional mechanisms. More importantly, the separation mechanism is comprehensively and quantitatively visualized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography coupled with multiple computational simulation methods, in which the small apertures not only fit best the smallest para-isomer like molecular sieves, but also show seemingly trivial yet crucial structural alterations to distinguish the meta- and ortho-isomers via a gating mechanism, while the large channels allow fast guest diffusion and enable the structural/energetic effects to be accumulated in the macroscopic level. PMID:26113287

  16. Co-Localisation of Abnormal Brain Structure and Function in Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badcock, Nicholas A.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Barry, Johanna G.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between brain structure and function in 10 individuals with specific language impairment (SLI), compared to six unaffected siblings, and 16 unrelated control participants with typical language. Voxel-based morphometry indicated that grey matter in the SLI group, relative to controls, was increased in the left inferior…

  17. Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huili; Shi, Xun; Kirkham, Melanie J; Wang, Hsin; Li, Qiang; Uher, Ctirad; Zhang, Wenqing; Chen, Lidong

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

  18. Large-scale brain network abnormalities in Huntington's disease revealed by structural covariance.

    PubMed

    Minkova, Lora; Eickhoff, Simon B; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Kaller, Christoph P; Peter, Jessica; Scheller, Elisa; Lahr, Jacob; Roos, Raymund A; Durr, Alexandra; Leavitt, Blair R; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Klöppel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be diagnosed with certainty decades before symptom onset. Studies using structural MRI have identified grey matter (GM) loss predominantly in the striatum, but also involving various cortical areas. So far, voxel-based morphometric studies have examined each brain region in isolation and are thus unable to assess the changes in the interrelation of brain regions. Here, we examined the structural covariance in GM volumes in pre-specified motor, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and social-affective networks in 99 patients with manifest HD (mHD), 106 presymptomatic gene mutation carriers (pre-HD), and 108 healthy controls (HC). After correction for global differences in brain volume, we found that increased GM volume in one region was associated with increased GM volume in another. When statistically comparing the groups, no differences between HC and pre-HD were observed, but increased positive correlations were evident for mHD, relative to pre-HD and HC. These findings could be explained by a HD-related neuronal loss heterogeneously affecting the examined network at the pre-HD stage, which starts to dominate structural covariance globally at the manifest stage. Follow-up analyses identified structural connections between frontoparietal motor regions to be linearly modified by disease burden score (DBS). Moderator effects of disease load burden became significant at a DBS level typically associated with the onset of unequivocal HD motor signs. Together with existing findings from functional connectivity analyses, our data indicates a critical role of these frontoparietal regions for the onset of HD motor signs.

  19. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular. PMID:24753775

  20. Histological investigation of the supra-glottal structures in humans for understanding abnormal phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Miwako; Sakakibara, Ken-Ichi; Imagawa, Hiroshi; Chan, Roger; Niimi, Seijii; Tayama, Niro

    2002-11-01

    Phonation is the vocal fold vibration on normal voice. But sometimes we can observe the other phonation styles like as the pressed voice or some throat singings like as ''kargyraa'' or ''drone'' in Khoomei in Mongolian music. Also, clinically, we know that some patients who have the wide glottal slit in phonation because of the recurrence nerve palsy or after partial laryngectomy, could make the ''supra-glottal phonation.'' The ''supra-glottal phonation'' would be made from the vibration of ''supra-glottal structures'' such as the false vocal folds, the arytenoids and the epiglottis, etc. Endoscopic examination suggests the existence of some contractile functions in supra-glottal space. However, these phonation systems have not been clear to explain their neuromuscular mechanism in histology. This study aimed to find the basis for making the supra-glottal phonation from the points of view of the histological structures. We tried to investigate if there were any muscles that could contract the supra-glottal structures. The samples are the excised larynx of human beings. They were fixed by formalin after excision. We observed their macroscopic anatomy, and also with the microscopic observation their histological preparations after the process of the embedding in paraffin, slicing for the preparation and HE (hematoxylin-eosin) staining.

  1. Prevalence of X-aneuploidies, X-structural abnormalities and 46,XY sex reversal in Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Geckinli, B B; Toksoy, G; Sayar, C; Soylemez, M A; Yesil, G; Aydın, H; Karaman, A; Devranoglu, B

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to identify the distribution of cytogenetic abnormalities of 175 Turkish women with primary amenorrhea (PA) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). A retrospective study was performed using medical records of 94 patients with PA and 81 patients with POI at the Genetics Department, Zeynep Kamil Women's and Children's Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. G-banded metaphase karyotype analysis were prepared and analyzed. Chromosomal abnormalities were present in 44 of 175 cases (25%). 15 were full blown or mosaic numerical X chromosome abnormalities (8.5%), 10 were full blown or mosaic X-chromosome structural anomalies (5.7%), one was X-autosome translocation (0.5%), 3 were autosomal anomalies (1.7%), 12 were XY karyotype (6.8%), one was 45,X/46,XY mosaic and 2 were full blown or mosaic structural anomalies of Y chromosome (1.7%). The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was 25% in this large series of Turkish women with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian insufficiency, most cases involving X-aneuploidy or X-structural abnormalities or 46,XY karyotype. High prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is associated with POI starting at an early age (average age: 26 years).

  2. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  3. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  4. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  5. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  6. Efficacy of Combined Laparoscopic and Hysteroscopic Repair of Post-Cesarean Section Uterine Diverticulum: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cuilan; Tang, Shiyan; Gao, Xingcheng; Lin, Wanping; Han, Dong; Zhai, Jinguo; Mo, Xuetang; Zhou, Lee Jaden Gil Yu Kang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Diverticulum, one of the long-term sequelae of cesarean section, can cause abnormal uterine bleeding and increase the risk of uterine scar rupture. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic repair, a newly occurring method, treating post-cesarean section uterine scar diverticulum. Methods. Data relating to 40 patients with post-cesarean section uterine diverticulum who underwent combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic repair were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative clinical manifestations, size of uterine defects, thickness of the lower uterine segment (LUS), and duration of menstruation were compared with follow-up findings at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. Results. The average preoperative length and width of uterine diverticula and thickness of the lower uterine segment were recorded and analyzed. The average durations of menstruations at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery were significantly shorter than the preoperative one (p < 0.05), respectively. At 6 months after surgery, the overall success improvement rate of surgery was 90% (36/40). Three patients (3/40 = 7.5%) developed partial improvement, and 1/40 (2.5%) was lost to follow-up. Conclusions. Our findings showed that combined treatment with laparoscopy and hysteroscopy was an effective method for the repair of post-cesarean section uterine diverticulum. PMID:27066497

  7. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient’s hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient’s hair was 22% thinner, while the Young’s modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  8. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient's hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient's hair was 22% thinner, while the Young's modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future. PMID:26982655

  9. Structural brain abnormalities in postural tachycardia syndrome: A VBM-DARTEL study

    PubMed Central

    Umeda, Satoshi; Harrison, Neil A.; Gray, Marcus A.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    Postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), a form of dysautonomia, is characterized by orthostatic intolerance, and is frequently accompanied by a range of symptoms including palpitations, lightheadedness, clouding of thought, blurred vision, fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Although the estimated prevalence of PoTS is approximately 5–10 times as common as the better-known condition orthostatic hypotension, the neural substrates of the syndrome are poorly characterized. In the present study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure to examine variation in regional brain structure associated with PoTS. We recruited 11 patients with established PoTS and 23 age-matched normal controls. Group comparison of gray matter volume revealed diminished gray matter volume within the left anterior insula, right middle frontal gyrus and right cingulate gyrus in the PoTS group. We also observed lower white matter volume beneath the precentral gyrus and paracentral lobule, right pre- and post-central gyrus, paracentral lobule and superior frontal gyrus in PoTS patients. Subsequent ROI analyses revealed significant negative correlations between left insula volume and trait anxiety and depression scores. Together, these findings of structural differences, particularly within insular and cingulate components of the salience network, suggest a link between dysregulated physiological reactions arising from compromised central autonomic control (and interoceptive representation) and increased vulnerability to psychiatric symptoms in PoTS patients. PMID:25852449

  10. Structural Abnormalities in the Hair of a Patient with a Novel Ribosomopathy.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Zhang, Yuchen; Pieterse, Marc; Fatona, Ayodele; Dej, Kimberly; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-01-01

    We report the biophysical characterization of hair from a patient with a de novo ribosomopathy. The patient was diagnosed with a mutation on gene RPS23, which codes for a protein which comprises part of the 40S subunit of the ribosome. The patient presents with a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, autism, extra teeth, elastic skin, and thin/brittle hair. We combined optical microscopy, tensile tests, and X-ray diffraction experiments on hair samples obtained from the scalp of the patient to a multi-scale characterization of the hair from macroscopic to molecular length scales and observe distinct differences in the biophysical properties in the patient's hair when compared to hair from other family members. While no differences were observed in the coiled-coil structure of the keratin proteins or the structure of the intermediate filaments, the patient's hair was 22% thinner, while the Young's modulus remained roughly constant. The X-ray diffraction results give evidence that the amount of lipids in the cell membrane complex is reduced by 20%, which well accounts for the other observations. The pathologies characterized by these techniques may be used to inform the diagnosis of similar de novo mutations in the future.

  11. The Extracellular Matrix Contributes to Mechanotransduction in Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Leppert, Phyllis C.; Jayes, Friederike L.; Segars, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and mechanotransduction as an important signaling factor in the human uterus is just beginning to be appreciated. The ECM is not only the substance that surrounds cells, but ECM stiffness will either compress cells or stretch them resulting in signals converted into chemical changes within the cell, depending on the amount of collagen, cross-linking, and hydration, as well as other ECM components. In this review we present evidence that the stiffness of fibroid tissue has a direct effect on the growth of the tumor through the induction of fibrosis. Fibrosis has two characteristics: (1) resistance to apoptosis leading to the persistence of cells and (2) secretion of collagen and other components of the ECM such a proteoglycans by those cells leading to abundant disposition of highly cross-linked, disoriented, and often widely dispersed collagen fibrils. Fibrosis affects cell growth by mechanotransduction, the dynamic signaling system whereby mechanical forces initiate chemical signaling in cells. Data indicate that the structurally disordered and abnormally formed ECM of uterine fibroids contributes to fibroid formation and growth. An appreciation of the critical role of ECM stiffness to fibroid growth may lead to new strategies for treatment of this common disease. PMID:25110476

  12. Does abnormal glycogen structure contribute to increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy?

    PubMed

    DiNuzzo, Mauro; Mangia, Silvia; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Epilepsy is a family of brain disorders with a largely unknown etiology and high percentage of pharmacoresistance. The clinical manifestations of epilepsy are seizures, which originate from aberrant neuronal synchronization and hyperexcitability. Reactive astrocytosis, a hallmark of the epileptic tissue, develops into loss-of-function of glutamine synthetase, impairment of glutamate-glutamine cycle and increase in extracellular and astrocytic glutamate concentration. Here, we argue that chronically elevated intracellular glutamate level in astrocytes is instrumental to alterations in the metabolism of glycogen and leads to the synthesis of polyglucosans. Unaccessibility of glycogen-degrading enzymes to these insoluble molecules compromises the glycogenolysis-dependent reuptake of extracellular K(+) by astrocytes, thereby leading to increased extracellular K(+) and associated membrane depolarization. Based on current knowledge, we propose that the deterioration in structural homogeneity of glycogen particles is relevant to disruption of brain K(+) homeostasis and increased susceptibility to seizures in epilepsy.

  13. Structural, Metabolic, and Functional Brain Abnormalities as a Result of Prenatal Exposure to Drugs of Abuse: Evidence from Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Roussotte, Florence; Soderberg, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol and stimulants negatively affects the developing trajectory of the central nervous system in many ways. Recent advances in neuroimaging methods have allowed researchers to study the structural, metabolic, and functional abnormalities resulting from prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse in living human subjects. Here we review the neuroimaging literature of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Neuroimaging studies of prenatal alcohol exposure have reported differences in the structure and metabolism of many brain systems, including in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, in the cerebellum and basal ganglia, as well as in the white matter tracts that connect these brain regions. Functional imaging studies have identified significant differences in brain activation related to various cognitive domains as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The published literature of prenatal exposure to cocaine and methamphetamine is much smaller, but evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that exposure to stimulant drugs in utero may be particularly toxic to dopamine-rich basal ganglia regions. Although the interpretation of such findings is somewhat limited by the problem of polysubstance abuse and by the difficulty of obtaining precise exposure histories in retrospective studies, such investigations provide important insights into the effects of drugs of abuse on the structure, function, and metabolism of the developing human brain. These insights may ultimately help clinicians develop better diagnostic tools and devise appropriate therapeutic interventions to improve the condition of children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. PMID:20978945

  14. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  15. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00±29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70±22.26) (p<0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics. PMID:25963262

  16. Functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia: An fMRI and VBM study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Goyal, Satnam; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Namita; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N; Khushu, Subash

    2015-06-01

    Empathy deficit is a core feature of schizophrenia which may lead to social dysfunction. The present study was carried out to investigate functional and structural abnormalities associated with empathy in patients with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 schizophrenia patients and 14 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and education were examined with structural highresolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during empathy task in the same session. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software. On behavioural assessment, schizophrenic patients (83.00+-29.04) showed less scores for sadness compared to healthy controls (128.70+-22.26) (p less than 0.001). fMRI results also showed reduced clusters of activation in the bilateral fusiform gyrus, left lingual gyrus, left middle and inferior occipital gyrus in schizophrenic subjects as compared to controls during empathy task. In the same brain areas, VBM results also showed reduced grey and white matter volumes. The present study provides an evidence for an association between structural alterations and disturbed functional brain activation during empathy task in persons affected with schizophrenia. These findings suggest a biological basis for social cognition deficits in schizophrenics.

  17. Abnormalities in the basement membrane structure promote basal keratinocytes in the epidermis of hypertrophic scars to adopt a proliferative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaowei; Sun, Yexiao; Geng, Zhijun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xiaobing

    2016-05-01

    The majority of studies on scar formation have mainly focused on the dermis and little is known of the involvement of the epidermis. Previous research has demonstrated that the scar tissue-derived keratinocytes are different from normal cells at both the genetic and cell biological levels; however, the mechanisms responsible for the fundamental abnormalities in keratinocytes during scar development remain elusive. For this purpose, in this study, we used normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissue to examine the morphological changes which occur during epidermal regeneration as part of the wound healing process and found that the histological structure of hypertrophic scar tissues differed from that of normal skin, with a significant increase in epidermal thickness. Notably, staining of the basement membrane (BM) appeared to be absent in the scar tissues. Moreover, immunofluorescence staining for cytokeratin (CK)10, CK14, CK5, CK19 and integrin-β1 indicated the differential expression of cell markers in the epidermal keratinocytes among the normal, wound edge and hypertrophic scar tissues, which corresponded with the altered BM structures. By using a panel of proteins associated with BM components, we validated our hypothesis that the BM plays a significant role in regulating the cell fate decision of epidermal keratinocytes during skin wound healing. Alterations in the structure of the BM promote basal keratinocytes to adopt a proliferative phenotype both in vivo and in vitro.

  18. Partial regeneration and reconstruction of the rat uterus through recellularization of a decellularized uterine matrix.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kaoru; Maruyama, Tetsuo

    2014-10-01

    Despite dramatic progress in infertility treatments and assisted reproduction, no effective therapies exist for complete loss of uterine structure and/or function. For such patients, genetic motherhood is possible only through gestational surrogacy or uterine transplantation. However, many ethical, social, technical and safety challenges accompany such approaches. A theoretical alternative is to generate a bioartificial uterus, which requires engineering of uterine architecture and appropriate cellular constituents. Here, rat uteri decellularization by aortic perfusion with detergents produced an underlying extracellular matrix together with an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture. Uterine-like tissues were then regenerated and maintained in vitro for up to 10 d through decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) reseeding with adult and neonatal rat uterine cells and rat mesenchymal stem cells followed by aortic perfusion in a bioreactor. Furthermore, DUM placement onto a partially excised uterus yielded recellularization and regeneration of uterine tissues and achievement of pregnancy nearly comparable to the intact uterus. These results suggest that DUM could be used for uterine regeneration, and provides insights into treatments for uterine factor infertility.

  19. Partial regeneration and reconstruction of the rat uterus through recellularization of a decellularized uterine matrix.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kaoru; Maruyama, Tetsuo

    2014-10-01

    Despite dramatic progress in infertility treatments and assisted reproduction, no effective therapies exist for complete loss of uterine structure and/or function. For such patients, genetic motherhood is possible only through gestational surrogacy or uterine transplantation. However, many ethical, social, technical and safety challenges accompany such approaches. A theoretical alternative is to generate a bioartificial uterus, which requires engineering of uterine architecture and appropriate cellular constituents. Here, rat uteri decellularization by aortic perfusion with detergents produced an underlying extracellular matrix together with an acellular, perfusable vascular architecture. Uterine-like tissues were then regenerated and maintained in vitro for up to 10 d through decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) reseeding with adult and neonatal rat uterine cells and rat mesenchymal stem cells followed by aortic perfusion in a bioreactor. Furthermore, DUM placement onto a partially excised uterus yielded recellularization and regeneration of uterine tissues and achievement of pregnancy nearly comparable to the intact uterus. These results suggest that DUM could be used for uterine regeneration, and provides insights into treatments for uterine factor infertility. PMID:25043501

  20. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid. PMID:26664240

  1. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Uterine enlargement is common in reproductive life of a female. Other than pregnancy, it is seen most frequently in the result of leiomyomas. Leiomyomas, are benign smooth muscle neoplasmas that typically originate from the myometrium, due to fibrous consistency and are also called as fibroid. They may be identified in asymptomatic women during routine pelvic examination or may cause symptoms. Typical complaints include pain, pressure sensations, dysmenorrhea or abnormal uterine bleeding. Management of uterine fibroid through surgery is available to meet urgent need of the patient, but challenges remain to establish a satisfactory conservatory medical treatment till date. Hence, it was critically reviewed in the context of Granthi Roga (disease) and treatment protocol befitting the Samprapti Vighatana of Granthi (encapsulated growth) was subjected in patients of uterine fibroids. Seven cases of uterine fibroid were managed by Ayurvedic intervention. Ultrasonography (USG) of the lower abdomen was the main investigative/diagnostic tool in this study. After 7 weeks, patients presented with USG report as absence of uterine fibroid. Ayurvedic formulations Kanchanara Guggulu, Shigru Guggulu, and Haridra Khand are found to be effective treatment modality in uterine fibroid.

  2. Abnormalities in brain structure and behavior in GSK-3alpha mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a widely expressed and highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase encoded by two genes that generate two related proteins: GSK-3α and GSK-3β. Mice lacking a functional GSK-3α gene were engineered in our laboratory; they are viable and display insulin sensitivity. In this study, we have characterized brain functions of GSK-3α KO mice by using a well-established battery of behavioral tests together with neurochemical and neuroanatomical analysis. Results Similar to the previously described behaviours of GSK-3β+/-mice, GSK-3α mutants display decreased exploratory activity, decreased immobility time and reduced aggressive behavior. However, genetic inactivation of the GSK-3α gene was associated with: decreased locomotion and impaired motor coordination, increased grooming activity, loss of social motivation and novelty; enhanced sensorimotor gating and impaired associated memory and coordination. GSK-3α KO mice exhibited a deficit in fear conditioning, however memory formation as assessed by a passive avoidance test was normal, suggesting that the animals are sensitized for active avoidance of a highly aversive stimulus in the fear-conditioning paradigm. Changes in cerebellar structure and function were observed in mutant mice along with a significant decrease of the number and size of Purkinje cells. Conclusion Taken together, these data support a role for the GSK-3α gene in CNS functioning and possible involvement in the development of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19925672

  3. Abnormal structure or function of the amygdala is a common component of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Cynthia M.; Bauman, Melissa D.; Amaral, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, perhaps more than any other brain region, has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is part of a system initially evolved to detect dangers in the environment and modulate subsequent responses, which can profoundly influence human behavior. If its threshold is set too low, normally benign aspects of the environment are perceived as dangers, interactions are limited, and anxiety may arise. If set too high, risk taking increases and inappropriate sociality may occur. Given that many neurodevelopmental disorders involve too little or too much anxiety or too little of too much social interaction, it is not surprising that the amygdala has been implicated in many of them. In this chapter, we begin by providing a brief overview of the phylogeny, ontogeny, and function of the amygdala and then appraise data from neurodevelopmental disorders which suggest amygdala dysregulation. We focus on neurodevelopmental disorders where there is evidence of amygdala dysregulation from postmortem studies, structural MRI analyses or functional MRI. However, the results are often disparate and it is not totally clear whether this is due to inherent heterogeneity or differences in methodology. Nonetheless, the amygdala is a common site for neuropathology in neurodevelopmental disorders and is therefore a potential target for therapeutics to alleviate associated symptoms. PMID:20950634

  4. Growth and Age-Related Abnormalities in Cortical Structure and Fracture Risk

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral fractures and trabecular bone loss have dominated thinking and research into the pathogenesis and the structural basis of bone fragility during the last 70 years. However, 80% of all fractures are non-vertebral and occur at regions assembled using large amounts of cortical bone; only 20% of fractures are vertebral. Moreover, ~80% of the skeleton is cortical and ~70% of all bone loss is cortical even though trabecular bone is lost more rapidly than cortical bone. Bone is lost because remodelling becomes unbalanced after midlife. Most cortical bone loss occurs by intracortical, not endocortical remodelling. Each remodelling event removes more bone than deposited enlarging existing canals which eventually coalesce eroding and thinning the cortex from 'within.' Thus, there is a need to study the decay of cortical as well as trabecular bone, and to develop drugs that restore the strength of both types of bone. It is now possible to accurately quantify cortical porosity and trabecular decay in vivo. The challenges still to be met are to determine whether measurement of porosity identifies persons at risk for fracture, whether this approach is compliments information obtained using bone densitometry, and whether changes in cortical porosity and other microstructural traits have the sensitivity to serve as surrogates of treatment success or failure. PMID:26394727

  5. Growth and Age-Related Abnormalities in Cortical Structure and Fracture Risk.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Ego

    2015-12-01

    Vertebral fractures and trabecular bone loss have dominated thinking and research into the pathogenesis and the structural basis of bone fragility during the last 70 years. However, 80% of all fractures are non-vertebral and occur at regions assembled using large amounts of cortical bone; only 20% of fractures are vertebral. Moreover, ~80% of the skeleton is cortical and ~70% of all bone loss is cortical even though trabecular bone is lost more rapidly than cortical bone. Bone is lost because remodelling becomes unbalanced after midlife. Most cortical bone loss occurs by intracortical, not endocortical remodelling. Each remodelling event removes more bone than deposited enlarging existing canals which eventually coalesce eroding and thinning the cortex from 'within.' Thus, there is a need to study the decay of cortical as well as trabecular bone, and to develop drugs that restore the strength of both types of bone. It is now possible to accurately quantify cortical porosity and trabecular decay in vivo. The challenges still to be met are to determine whether measurement of porosity identifies persons at risk for fracture, whether this approach is compliments information obtained using bone densitometry, and whether changes in cortical porosity and other microstructural traits have the sensitivity to serve as surrogates of treatment success or failure. PMID:26394727

  6. Identifying risk factors for uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer G; Mertz, Heather L; Merrill, David C

    2008-03-01

    Uterine rupture, whether in the setting of a prior uterine incision or in an unscarred uterus, is an obstetric emergency with potentially catastrophic consequences for both mother and child. Numerous studies have been published regarding various risk factors associated with uterine rupture. Despite the mounting data regarding both antepartum and intrapartum factors, it currently is impossible to predict in whom a uterine rupture will occur. This article reviews the data regarding these antepartum and intrapartum predictors for uterine rupture. The author hopes that the information presented in this article will help clinicians assess an individual's risk for uterine rupture.

  7. Current Evidence on Uterine Embolization for Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Spies, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence for both safety and effectiveness of uterine fibroid embolization has been generated since the procedure's introduction. This review will focus on the key articles representing the best evidence to summarize the outcomes from uterine embolization. This review will attempt to answer three important questions associated with uterine embolization. First, does uterine embolization relieve symptoms caused by uterine fibroids? Second, how well does the improvement in symptoms and quality of life after uterine embolization compare with standard surgical options for fibroids? Finally, how durable is the improvement in fibroid-related symptoms and quality of life after embolization? PMID:24436560

  8. Physiological remodelling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mandala, Maurizio; Osol, George

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodelling of the entire maternal uterine vasculature. The main focus of this MiniReview is to provide information on upstream (pre-placental) maternal uterine vascular remodelling that facilitates gestational increases in uterine blood flow. Consideration of the three-dimensional pattern of remodelling (circumferential enlargement versus axial elongation), changes in vessel biomechanical properties, and underlying mechanisms [shear stress, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/placental growth factor (PlGF), the renin-angiotensin system] and pathways (local versus systemic; venoarterial exchange) are provided using the rat as the principal animal model, although findings from other species are incorporated wherever possible to provide a comparative perspective. The process of maternal gestational uterine vascular remodelling involves a number of cellular processes and mechanisms, including trophoblast invasion, hyperplasia and hypertrophy, and changes in extracellular matrix composition. In addition, changes in cellular function, e.g. the secretory and contractile properties of smooth muscle and an up-regulation of endothelial vasodilatory influences may contribute to uteroplacental blood flow increases through changes in tone as well as in structure. Future studies aimed at better understanding the inter-relationship between changes in vessel structure (remodelling) and function (reactivity) would likely generate new mechanistic insights into the fascinating process of maternal gestational uterine vascular adaptation and provide a more physiological perspective of the underlying cellular processes involved in its regulation.

  9. Abnormal coexistence of unipolar, bipolar, and threshold resistive switching in an Al/NiO/ITO structure.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xin-Cai; Tang, Jin-Long; Zeng, Hui-Zhong; Wei, Xian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an abnormal coexistence of different resistive switching behaviors including unipolar (URS), bipolar (BRS), and threshold switching (TRS) in an Al/NiO/indium tin oxide (ITO) structure fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The switching behaviors have been strongly dependent on compliance current (CC) and switching processes. It shows reproducible URS and BRS after electroforming with low and high CC of 1 and 3 mA, respectively, which is contrary to previous reports. Furthermore, in the case of high-forming CC, TRS is observed after several switching cycles with a low-switching CC. Analysis of current-voltage relationship demonstrates that Poole-Frenkel conduction controlled by localized traps should be responsible for the resistance switching. The unique behaviors can be dominated by Joule heating filament mechanism in the dual-oxygen reservoir structure composed of Al/NiO interfacial layer and ITO. The tunable switching properties can render it flexible for device applications. PMID:24940181

  10. Structural analysis of placental terminal villi from growth-restricted pregnancies with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms.

    PubMed

    Macara, L; Kingdom, J C; Kaufmann, P; Kohnen, G; Hair, J; More, I A; Lyall, F; Greer, I A

    1996-01-01

    The abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveform represented by absent end-diastolic flow velocity (AEDFV) identifies a group of preterm small-for-gestational age fetuses that are at high risk of perinatal death due to chronic fetal hypoxia. The placental ischaemia that results from inadequate trophoblast invasion of spiral arterioles leads to an assumption of placental villous hypoxia, though an alternative explanation is that the placenta fails to adequately transfer oxygen to the fetus from the intervillous space. Because oxygen transport takes place within the terminal villi, we undertook the first detailed studies of villous ultrastructure structure and immunohistochemistry in order to determine the likely origin of fetal hypoxia in this condition. Terminal villi were examined ultrastructurally using transmission electron microscopy and by immunohistochemical localization of matrix molecules (laminin and collagens I, III and IV) and a marker of cell proliferation (MIB-1), in 16 small-for-gestational age pregnancies with AEDFV in the umbilical artery [deemed to have intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)] and in 16 gestation age-matched controls. Terminal villi from the IUGR cases were smaller in diameter (P < 0.02) and had several abnormal features in comparison with the controls; increased syncytial nuclei (P < 0.01), reduced cytotrophoblast nuclei (P < 0.01), thickened basal lamina (P < 0.01), and increased stromal deposition of collagens and laminin. The amount of proliferating cytotrophoblast was reduced in the IUGR group (P < 0.014) and the degree of capillary erythrocyte congestion within terminal villous capillaries was increased (P < 0.001). Several of the structural differences in the terminal villi of the IUGR group such as reduced cytotrophoblast proliferation and stromal fibrosis are incompatible with the prevailing view of placental hypoxia in IUGR. Rather thickening of the basal lamina and congestion of the capillaries by erythrocytes are predicted

  11. Inherited structural cytogenetic abnormalities detected incidentally in fetuses diagnosed prenatally: frequency, parental-age associations, sex-ratio trends, and comparisons with rates of mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Schreinemachers, D M; Willey, A M; Cross, P K

    1984-01-01

    Rates of structural chromosome abnormalities were analyzed in 24,951 fetuses studied prenatally in which there were no grounds to suspect an inherited abnormality. In about one in 200 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses, an unexpected structural abnormality was found. The observed rate was 5.3 per 1,000, of which 1.7 per 1,000 were unbalanced and 3.6 per 1,000 balanced. The rate of inherited abnormalities was 3.1-3.7 per 1,000 (0.4-0.9 per 1,000 for unbalanced abnormalities and 2.6-2.8 per 1,000 for balanced abnormalities). The rate of mutants in this series was, by contrast, 1.6-2.2 per 1,000 (0.8-1.2 per 1,000 for unbalanced abnormalities and 0.8-1.0 per 1,000 for balanced abnormalities). The rate of balanced Robertsonian translocation carriers was 0.6 per 1,000 (about 0.25 per 1,000 for mutants and 0.35 per 1,000 for inherited abnormalities), and for other balanced abnormalities, 3.0 per 1,000 (about 0.6 per 1,000 for mutants and 2.4 per 1,000 for inherited abnormalities). The rates of unbalanced Robertsonian translocations was about 0.1 per 1,000, almost all of which were mutants. For supernumerary rearrangements, the rate was 0.9 per 1,000 (about 0.4 per 1,000 inherited and 0.5 per 1,000 mutant). The rates of all unbalanced (nonmosaic) inherited abnormalities (4.0-5.2 per 10,000) were intermediate between higher rates estimated in all conceptuses (9.1-15.8 per 10,000) and rates observed in newborns (1.5-2.5 per 10,000). This trend is probably attributable to fetal mortality associated with unbalanced rearrangements. The rates of balanced (nonmosaic) inherited abnormalities (26.0-28.0 per 10,000), however, were considerably higher than the rates in all conceptuses (13-16.7 per 10,000) or in all live births (12.2-16.0 per 10,000). The major difference was in the rate of inversions. The use of "banding" methods in the studies of amniocentesis but not in most of the live births or abortus studies probably contributes to at least some of these differences. One trend in

  12. A model for educational simulation of the evolution of uterine contractions during labor.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Luísa Ferreira; van Meurs, Willem; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2012-08-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring remains an important tool in labor ward settings, providing continuous information on fetal heart rate and maternal uterine contractions. A prompt detection of abnormalities in these signals is essential for the timely resolution of situations that may put both mother and fetus at risk. Uterine contraction signals provide information that is important to evaluate the onset and progress of labor, as well as the significance of certain fetal heart rate abnormalities. We present a model for educational simulation of the spontaneous evolution of uterine contractions during labor, which combines a previously published signal generator with literature-based pre-programmed scripts for educationally relevant scenarios. This model is an essential component of a high-fidelity simulator of intrapartum emergencies, aimed to improve the competency of healthcare providers. Real and simulated tracings were presented to three independent clinical experts who judged simulated signals to be indistinguishable or negligibly different from real tracings.

  13. Recurring structural chromosome abnormalities in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thangavelu, M; Finn, W G; Yelavarthi, K K; Roenigk, H H; Samuelson, E; Peterson, L; Kuzel, T M; Rosen, S T

    1997-05-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from 19 patients with mycosis fungoides (MF)/Sézary syndrome (SS) stimulated with either phytohemagglutinin, a conventional mitogen, or a combination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus IL-7. The use of both PHA-stimulated and IL-2 plus IL-7-stimulated cultures enhanced the ability to identify clonal abnormalities. Clonal abnormalities were observed in 11 patients (53%) including one with monosomy for the sex chromosome as the sole abnormality. Five of the 11 patients with clonal abnormalities had normal peripheral white blood cell counts, indicating detectability of clones in the absence of frankly leukemic disease. The presence of clonal abnormalities correlated with advanced stage disease and a significantly reduced survival duration from the time of cytogenetic studies. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 1 and 8 were observed in six cases. In five cases with aberrations of chromosome 1, loss of material involved the region between 1p22 and 1p36. In an additional case, a reciprocal translocation involving 1p33 was observed. Clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 10 and 17 were observed in 5 cases, clonal abnormalities involving chromosome 2 in 4 cases, and clonal abnormalities involving chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 19, and 20 in 3 cases. In 2 cases a der(8)t(8;17)(p11;q11) was observed. Regions of the genome that encode T-cell receptors were not involved in abnormalities. The region between 1p22 and 1p36 is identified as a region of the genome that requires detailed analysis toward the identification of potential gene(s) involved in the process of malignant transformation and/or progression in MF/SS.

  14. What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Fibroids?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Publications What are the symptoms of uterine fibroids? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content ​Uterine fibroids can cause uncomfortable or sometimes painful symptoms, such ...

  15. Naturally occurring lesions of the uterine tube in sheep and serologic evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, L; Barker, I K; Foster, R A; McEwen, S A; Menzies, P I; Shewen, P E

    2000-01-01

    The uterine tubes from 405 ewes, collected at an abattoir, were assessed grossly and microscopically for abnormalities that correlated with serological evidence of exposure to Chlamydophila abortus. Gross lesions were found in 41 ewes and 86 had microscopic lesions. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) of serum was used as an indication of exposure of individual ewes to C. abortus; 52 were found to be positive. Chi-squared analysis indicated no association between EIA-positive animals and lesions of the uterine tube. PMID:11041501

  16. Uterine prolapse in a primigravid woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Ok; Jang, Shin A; Yun, Nae Ri; Lee, Sang-Hun; Hwang, Sung Ook

    2016-01-01

    Uterine prolapse during pregnancy is an uncommon condition. It can cause preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, fetal demise, maternal urinary complication, maternal sepsis and death. We report the case of uterine prolapse in a 32-year-old healthy primigravid woman. She had no risk factors associated with uterine prolapse. She was conservatively treated, resulting in a successful vaginal delivery. This report is a very rare case of uterine prolapse in a young healthy primigravid woman, resulting in a successful vaginal delivery. PMID:27200317

  17. Infertility and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zepiridis, Leonidas I; Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women and their prevalence is higher in patients with infertility. At present, they are classified according to their anatomical location, as no classification system includes additional parameters such as their size or number. There is a general agreement that submucosal fibroids negatively affect fertility, when compared to women without fibroids. Intramural fibroids above a certain size (>4 cm), even without cavity distortion, may also negatively influence fertility. However, the presence of subserosal myomas has little or no effect on fertility. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain how fibroids impair fertility: mechanisms involving alteration of local anatomical location, others involving functional changes of the myometrium and endometrium, and finally endocrine and paracrine molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, any of the above mentioned mechanisms can cause reduced reproductive potential, thereby leading to impaired gamete transport, reduced ability for embryo implantation, and creation of a hostile environment. The published experience defines the best practice strategy, as not many large, well-designed, and properly powered studies are available. Myomectomy appears to have an effect in fertility improvement in certain cases. Excision of submucosal myomas seems to restore fertility with pregnancy rates after surgery similar to normal controls. Removal of intramural myomas affecting pregnancy outcome seems to be associated with higher pregnancy rates when compared to non-operated controls, although evidence is still nοt sufficient. Treatment of subserosal myomas of reasonable size is not necessary for fertility reasons. The results of endoscopic and open myomectomy are similar; thus, endoscopic treatment is the recommended approach due to its advantages in patient's postoperative course. PMID:26856931

  18. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient. PMID:25482490

  19. Uterine fibroids associated with infertility.

    PubMed

    Van Heertum, Kristin; Barmat, Larry

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the contributory role of uterine fibroids to infertility. The prevalence of these tumors increases with age, which becomes significant as more women are delaying childbearing. Therefore, fibroids and infertility frequently occur together. Treatment varies with fibroid location and size. The various methods of treatment include open myomectomy, laparoscopic or robot-assisted myomectomy, medical treatment, uterine artery embolization and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery. While there is a general consensus on the treatment of submucosal fibroids, the management of intramural fibroids in the infertility patient remains controversial. This paper aims to review and summarize the current literature in regards to the approach to uterine fibroids in the infertile patient.

  20. Gemcitabine Hydrochloride, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Uterine Sarcoma That Has Been Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-01-16

    Stage IA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIIC Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVB Uterine Sarcoma; Uterine Corpus Leiomyosarcoma

  1. Placenta accreta: pathogenesis of a 20th century iatrogenic uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Jauniaux, E; Jurkovic, D

    2012-04-01

    Placenta accreta refers to different grades of abnormal placental attachment to the uterine wall, which are characterised by invasion of trophoblast into the myometrium. Placenta accreta has only been described and studied by pathologists for less than a century. The fact that the first detailed description of a placenta accreta happened within a couple of decades of major changes in the caesarean surgical techniques is highly suggestive of a direct relationship between prior uterine surgery and abnormal placenta adherence. Several concepts have been proposed to explain the abnormal placentation in placenta accreta including a primary defect of the trophoblast function, a secondary basalis defect due to a failure of normal decidualization and more recently an abnormal vascularisation and tissue oxygenation of the scar area. The vast majority of placenta accreta are found in women presenting with a previous history of caesarean section and a placenta praevia. Recent epidemiological studies have also found that the strongest risk factor for placenta praevia is a prior caesarean section suggesting that a failure of decidualization in the area of a previous uterine scar can have an impact on both implantation and placentation. Ultrasound studies of uterine caesarean section scar have shown that large and deep myometrial defects are often associated with absence of re-epithelialisation of the scar area. These findings support the concept of a primary deciduo-myometrium defect in placenta accreta, exposing the myometrium and its vasculature below the junctional zone to the migrating trophoblast. The loss of this normal plane of cleavage and the excessive vascular remodelling of the radial and arcuate arteries can explain the in-vivo findings and the clinical consequence of placenta accreta. Overall these data support the concept that abnormal decidualization and trophoblastic changes of the placental bed in placenta accreta are secondary to the uterine scar and thus

  2. The effect of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine) on healing and regeneration of the uterine cervix and vagina and vulvar dystrophy therapy.

    PubMed

    Markowska, J; Madry, R; Markowska, A

    2011-01-01

    Procedures aimed at the treatment of precancerous lesions and ectopia on the uterine cervix are frequently linked to lesions of anatomical structures. The application of hyaluronic acid (Cicatridine vaginal ovules) promotes accelerated healing of the uterine cervix and acquisition of a normal shape in the uterine cervix canal. Local application of hyaluronic acid in the vagina following radiotherapy due to cancer in the uterine cervix or endometrium favourably affects the healing of post-irradiation lesions in the vagina and improves quality of life. Over 90% of patients responded positively to the application of hyaluronic acid in the form of a cream on dystrophic lesions in the vulva. Hyaluronic acid aids the healing process of post-procedural wounds in the uterine cervix, following radiotherapy applied due to cancer of the uterine cervix, endometrium and in vulvar dystrophy.

  3. Uterine glands: development, function and experimental model systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Paul S.; Spencer, Thomas E.; Bartol, Frank F.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    Development of uterine glands (adenogenesis) in mammals typically begins during the early post-natal period and involves budding of nascent glands from the luminal epithelium and extensive cell proliferation in these structures as they grow into the surrounding stroma, elongate and mature. Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy, as demonstrated by the infertility that results from inhibiting the development of these glands through gene mutation or epigenetic strategies. Several genes, including forkhead box A2, beta-catenin and members of the Wnt and Hox gene families, are implicated in uterine gland development. Progestins inhibit uterine epithelial proliferation, and this has been employed as a strategy to develop a model in which progestin treatment of ewes for 8 weeks from birth produces infertile adults lacking uterine glands. More recently, mouse models have been developed in which neonatal progestin treatment was used to permanently inhibit adenogenesis and adult fertility. These studies revealed a narrow and well-defined window in which progestin treatments induced permanent infertility by impairing neonatal gland development and establishing endometrial changes that result in implantation defects. These model systems are being utilized to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying uterine adenogenesis and endometrial function. The ability of neonatal progestin treatment in sheep and mice to produce infertility suggests that an approach of this kind may provide a contraceptive strategy with application in other species. Recent studies have defined the temporal patterns of adenogenesis in uteri of neonatal and juvenile dogs and work is underway to determine whether neonatal progestin or other steroid hormone treatments might be a viable contraceptive approach in this species. PMID:23619340

  4. Ichthyosis in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome reflects defective barrier function due to abnormal lamellar body structure and secretion.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, William B; S'Aulis, Dana; Jennings, M Anitia; Crumrine, Debra A; Williams, Mary L; Elias, Peter M

    2010-08-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene coding for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme necessary for oxidation of fatty aldehydes and fatty alcohols. We investigated the cutaneous abnormalities in 9 patients with Sjögren-Larsson syndrome to better understand how the enzymatic deficiency results in epidermal dysfunction. Histochemical staining for aldehyde oxidizing activity was profoundly reduced in the epidermis. Colloidal lanthanum perfusion studies showed abnormal movement of tracer into the extracellular spaces of the stratum corneum consistent with a leaky water barrier. The barrier defect could be attributed to the presence of abnormal lamellar bodies, many with disrupted limiting membranes or lacking lamellar contents. Entombed lamellar bodies were present in the cytoplasm of corneocytes suggesting blockade of lamellar body secretion. At the stratum granulosum-stratum corneum interface, non-lamellar material displaced or replaced secreted lamellar membranes, and in the stratum corneum, the number of lamellar bilayers declined and lamellar membrane organization was disrupted by foci of lamellar/non-lamellar phase separation. These studies demonstrate the presence of a permeability barrier abnormality in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, which localizes to the stratum corneum interstices and can be attributed to abnormalities in lamellar body formation and secretion.

  5. Biological Roles of Uterine Glands in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, uterine receptivity, and stromal cell decidualization in humans and animal models. The infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss observed in the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model unequivocally supports a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid in survival and development of the conceptus. Further, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation as well as stromal cell decidualization. Similarly in humans, uterine glands and their secretory products are likely critical regulators of blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus growth and development during the first trimester. Circumstantial evidence suggests that deficient glandular activity may be a causative factor in pregnancy failure and complications in humans. Thus, an increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility and pregnancy problems in mammals. PMID:24959816

  6. Epilepsy in the setting of full trisomy 18: A multicenter study on 18 affected children with and without structural brain abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Matricardi, Sara; Spalice, Alberto; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Balistreri, Maria Cristina; Grosso, Salvatore; Parisi, Pasquale; Elia, Maurizio; Striano, Pasquale; Accorsi, Patrizia; Cusmai, Raffaella; Specchio, Nicola; Coppola, Giangennaro; Savasta, Salvatore; Carotenuto, Marco; Tozzi, Elisabetta; Ferrara, Pietro; Ruggieri, Martino; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on the clinical aspects, electroencephalographic (EEG) features, and neuroimaging findings in children with full trisomy 18 and associated epilepsy, and compares the evolution and outcome of their neurological phenotype. We retrospectively studied 18 patients (10 males and 8 females; aged 14 months to 9 years) with full trisomy 18 and epilepsy. All patients underwent comprehensive assessment including neuroimaging studies of the brain. We divided patients into two groups according to neuroimaging findings: (Group 1) 10 patients harboring structural brain malformations, and (Group 2) 8 patients with normal brain images. Group 1 had a significantly earlier age at seizure onset (2 months) compared to Group 2 (21 months). The seizure semiology was more severe in Group 1, who presented multiple seizure types, need for polytherapy (80% of patients), multifocal EEG abnormalities and poorer outcome (drug resistant epilepsy in 90% of patients) than Group 2 who presented a single seizure type, generalized or focal, and non-specific EEG pattern; these patients were successfully treated with monotherapy with good outcome. Imaging revealed a wide and complex spectrum of structural brain abnormalities including anomalies of the commissures, cerebellar malformations, cortical abnormalities, and various degrees of cortical atrophy. Epilepsy in full trisomy 18 may develop during the first months of life and can be associated with structural brain malformations. Patients with brain malformations can show multiple seizure types and can frequently be resistant to therapy with antiepileptic drugs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27519909

  7. Spontaneous uterine rupture at 32 weeks of gestation after previous uterine artery embolization.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Jun; Makino, Shintaro; Ota, Atsuyuki; Tawada, Tetsuo; Mitsuhashi, Naoki; Takeda, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a common treatment for post-partum hemorrhage and uterine fibroids. However, the effects of UAE on subsequent pregnancies have not been established. Here, we present a case of spontaneous uterine rupture after previous UAE. A 31-year-old woman underwent UAE for a cervical ectopic pregnancy. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at days 5 and 25 post-UAE suggested a regionally decreased blood supply in the mid-posterior wall of the uterine fundus. During a subsequent pregnancy at age 35 years, she underwent an emergency cesarean delivery due to spontaneous uterine rupture at the mid-posterior wall of the uterus at 32 weeks of gestation. Obstetricians should be attentive to the possibility of spontaneous uterine rupture in pregnant women who have previously undergone UAE. Detection of ischemic uterine muscle on MRI may predict potential for uterine rupture in a subsequent pregnancy.

  8. Pregnancy outcome and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Fabio; Tozzi, Luca; Bianchi, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Myomas are observed in about 3-12% of pregnant women. Uterine fibroids may affect the outcome of pregnancy. The presence of myomas - in particular of myomas that distort the uterine cavity and larger intramural myomas - has been associated with infertility. In the case of pregnancy, it has been linked to an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, fetal malpresentation, placenta previa, preterm birth, cesarean section, and peripartum hemorrhage. Although fibroids may negatively affect pregnancy outcome, the impact of their treatment, particularly in quantitative terms, is unclear. Hysteroscopic myomectomy is the treatment of choice for submucous fibroids. The comparative efficacy of laparoscopic, laparotomic, or new modalities of treatment of intramural fibroids is not known. Up to date the choice and modalities of treatment of submucous fibroids should not be based on sound evidence but on clinical concerns and the skill of each center. PMID:26723475

  9. Pregnancy outcome and uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Fabio; Tozzi, Luca; Bianchi, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Myomas are observed in about 3-12% of pregnant women. Uterine fibroids may affect the outcome of pregnancy. The presence of myomas - in particular of myomas that distort the uterine cavity and larger intramural myomas - has been associated with infertility. In the case of pregnancy, it has been linked to an increased risk of spontaneous abortion, fetal malpresentation, placenta previa, preterm birth, cesarean section, and peripartum hemorrhage. Although fibroids may negatively affect pregnancy outcome, the impact of their treatment, particularly in quantitative terms, is unclear. Hysteroscopic myomectomy is the treatment of choice for submucous fibroids. The comparative efficacy of laparoscopic, laparotomic, or new modalities of treatment of intramural fibroids is not known. Up to date the choice and modalities of treatment of submucous fibroids should not be based on sound evidence but on clinical concerns and the skill of each center.

  10. Innovative Oral Treatments of Uterine Leiomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyoma), the benign tumors of the uterine wall, are very common cause of morbidity in reproductive age women usually in the form of excessive vaginal bleeding, chronic pelvic pain, miscarriage and infertility. These tumors are the leading indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Uterine fibroids are about 4 times higher in blacks compared to whites and constitute a major health disparity challenge. The estimated cost of uterine fibroids is up to $34.4 billion annually. Additionally, women who suffer from this disease and desire to maintain their future fertility have very limited treatment choices. Currently, there is no effective long-term medicinal treatment for uterine fibroids. While surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine fibroids, there is growing interest towards orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In this paper, we will discuss these promising innovative oral medical treatments in detail. PMID:22518167

  11. GIANT INTRALIGAMENTARY UTERINE LEIOMYOMA AND ITS COMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Cărăuleanu, A; Socolov, R; Lupaşcu, Ivona Anghelache; Rugină, V; Socolov, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from uterine smooth muscle. Although their pathogenesis remains unclear, they are the most common tumor of the female reproductive tract, occurring in as many as half of women older than 35 years. Uterine leiomyomas represent the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. Giant uterine leiomyomas are very rare and represents a great diagnosis and therapeutic challenge. Uterine leiomyoma is one of the most frequent types of tumours and it is diagnosed in 20-40% of the women of reproductive age. Until the age of 50, approximately 70% of the white women and less than 80% of the black women will have had at least one leiomyoma. The frequency of the emergence of uterine leiomyoma in black women is significantly higher than in white women. PMID:27125088

  12. The Role of Uterine and Umbilical Arterial Doppler in High-risk Pregnancy: A Prospective Observational Study from India

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Teena; Sharma, Deepak; Choudhary, Mukesh; Khoiwal, Shusheela; Nagar, Rajendra Prasad; Pandita, Aakash

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the role of Doppler imaging in prediction of high-risk pregnancies and their outcomes. METHODS AND MATERIAL This prospective study in a setup of tertiary-level care center includes 500 high-risk pregnant women from rural and urban sectors and evaluates the predictive values of various Doppler indices. RESULTS Out of 500 patients, 110 patients had abnormal Doppler among them, 70 patients had abnormal uterine artery Doppler, and 50 patients had abnormal umbilical artery Doppler flow indices. In all, 10 patients had both umbilical artery and uterine artery abnormal Doppler indices. When uterine artery was abnormal (70 patients), 20 patients had preeclampsia, 10 patients had pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and 25 patients had intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Systolic/diastolic (S/D) ratio and notch had sensitivity of 60% and positive predictive value of 33.3% and 37.5%, respectively. When umbilical artery was abnormal (50 patients), 10 had preeclampsia, 15 had PIH, and 15 had IUGR. S/D ratio had the highest positive predictive value of 40%; sensitivity is same for all. In uterine artery, combination of parameters had the best sensitivity of 80%, followed by notch and S/D ratio. In umbilical artery, combination of parameters, S/D ratio, and RI (resistance index) had sensitivity of 40%; specificity of all the indices was 91–96%. In all, 20 patients had bilateral notch, and among them 15 developed preeclampsia and 15 developed IUGR. When both uterine and umbilical artery Doppler were abnormal (10 patients), all patients had preeclampsia and IUGR. CONCLUSION Therefore, Doppler study may be used for the prediction of preeclampsia and IUGR to reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25922590

  13. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  14. GCIG Consensus Review: Uterine and Ovarian Leiomyosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Martee L.; Barrette, Brigitte A.; Baumann, Klaus; Gaffney, David; Hamilton, Anne L.; Kim, Jae-Weon; Maenpaa, Johanna U.; Pautier, Patricia; Siddiqui, Nadeem Ahmad; Westermann, Anneke M.; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objective The GCIG aimed to provide an overview of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management. Methods Published articles and author experience were used to draft management overview. The draft manuscript was circulated to international members of the GCIG for review and comment, and appropriate revisions were made. Results The approach to management of uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcoma management is reviewed. Conclusions Uterine and ovarian leiomyosarcomas are rare, aggressive cancers that require specialized expertise for optimal management. PMID:25341583

  15. Nonsurgical Alternatives for Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Zupi, Errico; Centini, Gabriele; Sabbioni, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Lucia; Argay, István Máté; Petraglia, Felice

    2016-07-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are the direct cause of a significant health-care burden for women, their families, and society as a whole. Because of the long experience with the mode of treatment, surgical myomectomy remains the gold standard for treating reproductive-age women; however, in the recent years, the wide evolution of less invasive approaches led to a change in the options used by the clinician to treat symptomatic fibroids. Minimally invasive procedures such as uterine artery embolization (UAE) are increasingly used to treat symptomatic fibroids. Other alternative treatments are becoming more diffuse, such as magnetic resonance-guided high-frequency focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS), cryomyolysis, vaginal occlusion, and laparoscopic closure of the uterine arteries. Both advantages and limitations of these techniques under development must be taken into account, but this wider range of choices is being increasingly considered for a tailored treatment. This article aims to enable health-care providers with the tools to provide the latest evidence-based care in the minimally invasive or noninvasive management of this common problem. PMID:26711881

  16. Microvessels Density in Uterine Leiomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Bobiński, Marcin; Bednarek, Wiesława; Szumiło, Justyna; Cybulski, Marek; Polak, Grzegorz; Kotarski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Uterine leiomyosarcomas (LMS) are rare tumors typically presenting rapid growth and unfavorable outcome. Nowadays the results of uterine LMS treatment do not meet expectations. Angiogenesis is one of processes investigated to be target for future treatment. The aim of the research was to assess microvessels density (MVD) in tumor samples collected from 50 patients with histological confirmed uterine leiomyosarcoma and to investigate statistical relations between MVD, patients survival, and FIGO stage of tumor. The assessment was carried out using immunohistochemistry methods with anti-CD34 antibody. No significant difference in MVD between FIGO stages was observed. Furthermore, contrary to many other malignancies, we found no significant relation between MVD and patients overall and 2-year survival. Results obtained in the study suggest that processes on vascular mimicry and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) may play important role in development of LMS. No statistical relation between MVD and survival leads to conclusion that not only angiogenesis but other mechanisms as well should be taken into consideration in planning future research. PMID:26161403

  17. Abnormal Subcortical Components of the Corticostriatal System in Young Adults with DLI: A Combined Structural MRI and DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna C.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Developmental Language Impairment (DLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 12% to 14% of the school-age children in the United States. While substantial studies have shown a wide range of linguistic and non-linguistic difficulty in individuals with DLI, very little is known about the neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this disorder. In the current study, we examined the subcortical components of the corticostriatal system in young adults with DLI, including the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus, and the thalamus. Additionally, the four cerebral lobes and the hippocampus were also comprised for an exploratory analysis. We used conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure regional brain volumes, as well as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess water diffusion anisotropy as quantified by fractional anisotropy (FA). Two groups of participants, one with DLI (n=12) and the other without ( n=12), were recruited from a prior behavioral study, and all were matched on age, gender, and handedness. Volumetric analyses revealed region-specific abnormalities in individuals with DLI, showing pathological enlargement bilaterally in the putamen and the nucleus accumbens, and unilaterally in the right globus pallidus after the intracranial volumes were controlled. Regarding the DTI findings, the DLI group showed decreased FA values in the globus pallidus and the thalamus but these significant differences disappeared after controlling for the whole-brain FA value, indicating that microstructural abnormality is diffuse and affects other regions of the brain. Taken together, these results suggest region-specific corticostriatal abnormalities in DLI at the macrostructural level, but corticostriatal abnormalities at the microstructural level may be a part of a diffuse pattern of brain development. Future work is suggested to investigate the relationship between corticostriatal connectivity and individual differences in

  18. Uterine artery embolization - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, ultrasound imaging of pelvic structures. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  19. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour.

    PubMed

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-09-08

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery.

  20. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of uterine leiomyoma during labour

    PubMed Central

    Ramskill, Nikki; Hameed, Aisha; Beebeejaun, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture in labour requires an emergency caesarean section. In women with a uterine scar, either from gynaecological surgery or from a previous caesarean section, it is well documented that the risk of rupture is higher than in those without. Spontaneous uterine rupture in a uterus with fibroids during pregnancy or labour is extremely rare. We present a case of a 33-year-old, unbooked pregnant woman from Nigeria who had a uterine rupture secondary to fibroids. She required an emergency caesarean section in labour. The fibroids were not removed. Her baby was born alive and in good condition and she made an uneventful recovery. PMID:25199188

  2. Skeletal muscle metastasis from uterine leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, J M; Brennan, D D; Taylor, D H; Holloway, D P; Hurson, B; O'Keane, J C; Eustace, S J

    2004-11-01

    A case of a 68-year-old woman who presented with a rapidly enlarging painful right thigh mass is presented. She had a known diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma following a hysterectomy for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. She subsequently developed a single hepatic metastatic deposit that responded well to radiofrequency ablation. Whole-body MRI and MRA revealed a vascular mass in the sartorius muscle and a smaller adjacent mass in the gracilis muscle, proven to represent metastatic leiomyosarcoma of uterine origin. To our knowledge, metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma to the skeletal muscle has not been described previously in the English medical literature.

  3. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  4. Can Intrapartum Cardiotocography Predict Uterine Rupture among Women with Prior Caesarean Delivery?: A Population Based Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Malene M.; Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Krebs, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiotocographic abnormalities recorded during labour in women with prior caesarean delivery (CD) and complete uterine rupture with those recorded in controls with prior CD without uterine rupture. Study Design Women with complete uterine rupture during labour between 1997 and 2008 were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (n = 181). Cases were validated by review of medical records and 53 cases with prior CD, trial of labour, available cardiotocogram (CTG) and complete uterine rupture were included and compared with 43 controls with prior CD, trial of labour and available CTG. The CTG tracings were assessed by 19 independent experts divided into groups of three different experts for each tracing. The assessors were blinded to group, outcome and clinical data. They analyzed occurrence of defined abnormalities and classified the traces as normal, suspicious, pathological or pre-terminal according to international guidelines (FIGO). Results A pathological CTG during the first stage of labour was present in 77% of cases and in 53% of the controls (OR 2.58 [CI: 0.96–6.94] P = 0.066). Fetal tachycardia was more frequent in cases with uterine rupture (OR 2.50 [CI: 1.0–6.26] P = 0.053). Significantly more cases showed more than 10 severe variable decelerations compared with controls (OR 22 [CI: 1.54–314.2] P = 0.022). Uterine tachysystole was not correlated with the presence of uterine rupture. Conclusion A pathological cardiotocogram should lead to particular attention on threatening uterine rupture but cannot be considered a strong predictor as it is common in all women with trial of labour after caesarean delivery. PMID:26872018

  5. Abnormal structural luteolysis in ovaries of the senescence accelerated mouse (SAM): expression of Fas ligand/Fas-mediated apoptosis signaling molecules in luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Minako; Manabe, Noboru; Komatsu, Kohji; Shimabe, Munetake; Miyamoto, Hajime

    2003-12-01

    Senescence accelerated mouse-prone (SAMP) mice with a shortened life span show accelerated changes in many of the signs of aging and a shorter reproductive life span than SAM-resistant (SAMR) controls. We previously showed that functional regression (progesterone dissimilation) occurs in abnormally accumulated luteal bodies (aaLBs) of SAMP mice, but structural regression of luteal cells in aaLB is inhibited. A deficiency of luteal cell apoptosis causes the abnormal accumulation of LBs in SAMP ovaries. In the present study, to show the abnormality of Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-mediated apoptosis signal transducing factors in the aaLBs of the SAMP ovaries, we assessed the changes in the expression of FasL, Fas, caspase-8 and caspase-3 mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and in the expression and localization of FasL, Fas and activated caspase-3 proteins by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively, during the estrus cycle/luteolysis. These mRNAs and proteins were expressed in normal LBs of both SAMP and SAMR ovaries, but not at all or only in trace amounts in aaLBs of SAMP, indicating that structural regression is inhibited by blockage of the expression of these transducing factors in luteal cells of aaLBs in SAMP mice. PMID:14967896

  6. Application of detergents or high hydrostatic pressure as decellularization processes in uterine tissues and their subsequent effects on in vivo uterine regeneration in murine models.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Erna G; Yoshida, Keita; Hirota, Yasushi; Aizawa, Masanori; Yoshino, Osamu; Kishida, Akio; Osuga, Yutaka; Saito, Shigeru; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2014-01-01

    Infertility caused by ovarian or tubal problems can be treated using In Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET); however, this is not possible for women with uterine loss and malformations that require uterine reconstruction for the treatment of their infertility. In this study, we are the first to report the usefulness of decellularized matrices as a scaffold for uterine reconstruction. Uterine tissues were extracted from Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and decellularized using either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at optimized conditions. Histological staining and quantitative analysis showed that both SDS and HHP methods effectively removed cells from the tissues with, specifically, a significant reduction of DNA contents for HHP constructs. HHP constructs highly retained the collagen content, the main component of extracellular matrices in uterine tissue, compared to SDS constructs and had similar content levels of collagen to the native tissue. The mechanical strength of the HHP constructs was similar to that of the native tissue, while that of the SDS constructs was significantly elevated. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed no apparent denaturation of collagen fibers in the HHP constructs compared to the SDS constructs. Transplantation of the decellularized tissues into rat uteri revealed the successful regeneration of the uterine tissues with a 3-layer structure 30 days after the transplantation. Moreover, a lot of epithelial gland tissue and Ki67 positive cells were detected. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that the regenerated tissues have a normal response to ovarian hormone for pregnancy. The subsequent pregnancy test after 30 days transplantation revealed successful pregnancy for both the SDS and HHP groups. These findings indicate that the decellularized matrix from the uterine tissue can be a potential scaffold for uterine regeneration.

  7. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Devender; Chandolia, Ramesh Kumar; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Yadav, Vishal; Kumar, Parveen; Dalal, Jasmer

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion group in comparison to control animals, but the decrease in placentomal area was marginal (p>0.05) in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity) were found significantly increased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead), internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus. PMID:27651672

  8. Transabdominal color doppler ultrasonography: A relevant approach for assessment of effects of uterine torsion in buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Devender; Chandolia, Ramesh Kumar; Pandey, Anand Kumar; Yadav, Vishal; Kumar, Parveen; Dalal, Jasmer

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted on advanced pregnant buffaloes suffering from uterine torsion to assess the status of fetus and uterus by transabdominal ultrasonography, and the findings were compared with normal advanced pregnant buffaloes. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 clinical cases of uterine torsion and 20 normal advanced pregnant buffaloes (control group). The lower ventral area just lateral to linea alba (on both sides of the udder) in standing animals was scanned transabdominally by the two-dimensional convex transducer for various ultrasonographic findings. The data collected were statistically analyzed by “one-way ANOVA” and “independent sample t-test” using computerized SPSS 16.0 software program. Results: Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed dead fetus in 95% uterine torsion cases and proved useful in imaging internal structures of fetuses while no dead fetus was reported in the control group. Size of umbilicus was found significantly decreased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion group in comparison to control animals, but the decrease in placentomal area was marginal (p>0.05) in uterine torsion group. Average thickness of the uterine wall and mean pixel values of fetal fluids (echogenicity) were found significantly increased (p<0.05) in uterine torsion affected buffaloes in comparison to control group. Conclusion: Status of fetus (whether live or dead), internal status of uterus, and its contents could be determined by transabdominal ultrasonography in uterine torsion cases and thus determining the prognosis of the uterine torsion cases before going for further manipulations. This will also help in taking all the precautions to avoid death of the fetus.

  9. The study of MED12 gene mutations in uterine leiomyomas from Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Samaneh; Khorrami, Mandana; Amin-Beidokhti, Mona; Abbasi, Maryam; Kamalian, Zeeba; Irani, Shiva; Omrani, Mirdavood; Azmoodeh, Ozra; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2016-02-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumors of the female genital tract that cause a variety of health problems including, abnormal menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, placenta displacement, premature labor, and miscarriages. Recently, studies showed that recurrent somatic mutations in MED12 exon 2 are the major cause of uterine leiomyomas in different ethnic groups. In order to validate these results in Iranian population, we performed mutational analysis of exon 2 and the flanking intronic regions by using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and sequencing analyses in a series of 103 uterine leiomyomas samples. MED12 gene was mutated in 31.07 % of the uterine leiomyomas. Mutations were consisted of 20 missense (62.5 %) and 12 in-frame deletion (37.5 %) mutations and were not detected in normal myometrial tissue. Although this is the lowest mutation frequency reported so far, MED12 mutations are associated with fibroid pathogenesis in the studied population. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of uterine leiomyoma will play an important role in designing new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26298726

  10. Paclitaxel and Intraperitoneal Carboplatin Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIIC-IV Uterine Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-10

    Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC1 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC2 Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  11. Uterine glands: biological roles in conceptus implantation, uterine receptivity, and decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Filant, Justyna; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    All mammalian uteri contain glands in the endometrium that synthesize or transport and secrete substances essential for survival and development of the conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes). This review summarizes information related to the biological roles of uterine glands and their secretions in uterine receptivity, blastocyst/conceptus survival and implantation, and stromal cell decidualization. Studies with the ovine uterine gland knockout (UGKO) model support a primary role for uterine glands and, by inference, their secretions present in uterine luminal fluid histrotroph for conceptus survival and development. In rodents, studies with mutant and progesterone-induced UGKO mice found that uterine glands and their secretions are unequivocally required for establishment of uterine receptivity and blastocyst implantation and also may influence blastocyst trophectoderm activation and stromal cell decidualization in the uterus. Similarly in humans, histotroph from uterine glands appears critical for blastocyst implantation, uterine receptivity, and conceptus nutrition during the first trimester and uterine glands likely have a role in stromal cell decidualization. An increased understanding of uterine gland biology is important for diagnosis, prevention and treatment of fertility problems, particularly infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, in domestic animals and humans. PMID:25023676

  12. Does prolapse equal hysterectomy? The role of uterine conservation in women with uterovaginal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Beri M

    2015-12-01

    Hysterectomy has historically been a mainstay in the surgical treatment of uterovaginal prolapse, even in cases in which the removal of the uterus is not indicated. However, uterine-sparing procedures have a long history and are now becoming more popular. Whereas research on these operations is underway, hysteropexy for the treatment of prolapse is not as well studied as hysterectomy-based repairs. Compared with hysterectomy and prolapse repair, hysteropexy is associated with a shorter operative time, less blood loss, and a faster return to work. Other advantages include maintenance of fertility, natural timing of menopause, and patient preference. Disadvantages include the lack of long-term prolapse repair outcomes and the need to continue surveillance for gynecological cancers. Although the rate of unanticipated abnormal pathology in this population is low, women who have uterine abnormalities or postmenopausal bleeding are not good candidates for uterine-sparing procedures. The most studied approaches to hysteropexy are the vaginal sacrospinous ligament hysteropexy and the abdominal sacrohysteropexy, which have similar objective and subjective prolapse outcomes compared with hysterectomy and apical suspension. Pregnancy and delivery have been documented after vaginal and abdominal hysteropexy approaches, although very little is known about outcomes following parturition. Uterine-sparing procedures require more research but remain an acceptable option for most patients with uterovaginal prolapse after a balanced and unbiased discussion reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

  13. Developmental Abnormalities of Neuronal Structure and Function in Prenatal Mice Lacking the Prader-Willi Syndrome Gene Necdin

    PubMed Central

    Pagliardini, Silvia; Ren, Jun; Wevrick, Rachel; Greer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Ndntm2Stw mutant mice die shortly after birth because of abnormal respiratory rhythmogenesis generated by a key medullary nucleus, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). Here, we address two fundamental issues relevant to its pathogenesis. First, we performed a detailed anatomical study of the developing medulla to determine whether there were defects within the preBötC or synaptic inputs that regulate respiratory rhythmogenesis. Second, in vitro studies determined if the unstable respiratory rhythm in Ndntm2Stw mice could be normalized by neuromodulators. Anatomical defects in Ndntm2Stw mice included defasciculation and irregular projections of axonal tracts, aberrant neuronal migration, and a major defect in the cytoarchitecture of the cuneate/gracile nuclei, including dystrophic axons. Exogenous application of neuromodulators alleviated the long periods of slow respiratory rhythms and apnea, but some instability of rhythmogenesis persisted. We conclude that deficiencies in the neuromodulatory drive necessary for preBötC function contribute to respiratory dysfunction of Ndntm2Stw mice. These abnormalities are part of a more widespread deficit in neuronal migration and the extension, arborization, and fasciculation of axons during early stages of central nervous system development that may account for respiratory, sensory, motor, and behavioral problems associated with PWS. PMID:15972963

  14. Deceased Donor Uterine Transplantation: Innovation and Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Flyckt, Rebecca L; Farrell, Ruth M; Perni, Uma C; Tzakis, Andreas G; Falcone, Tommaso

    2016-10-01

    This commentary endeavors to share our practical experience in developing and implementing the first uterine transplant clinical trial in the United States. Uterine transplant is a promising novel treatment for uterine factor infertility. After reported successful live births after uterine transplant in Sweden, research teams around the world are either embarking on or are considering the development of uterine transplant protocols. Our observations on the applied rather than theoretical aspects of uterine transplantation research in human subjects are detailed in this article. Important among these considerations are composing a broad and experienced multidisciplinary team as well as performing adequate preclinical preparations, including ideally animal studies and practice organ procurements. Ethical preparation is tantamount to clinical preparation for the complexities inherent in uterine transplant, and our suggestions for updating the current ethical criteria for uterine transplant are outlined here. We also describe our perspectives on the strengths and weaknesses of living compared with deceased donor models. Finally, we describe how a strong program can recover and adapt in the face of setbacks to continue a path toward innovation. PMID:27607877

  15. Uterine prolapse in 2 dromedary camels.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, C; Corbera, J A; Morales, I; Morales, M; Navarro, R

    2001-01-01

    Two cases of uterine prolapse in dromedary camels in a herd with concomitant cases of white muscle disease are described. Serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase in whole blood were investigated in both patients and showed statistical difference compared with a control group. Results suggest that selenium deficiency could promote uterine prolapse in dromedary camels. PMID:11665430

  16. Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Sachin; Wu, Yu-Hsin; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William

    2004-09-15

    Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

  17. Preoperative Uterine Artery Embolization (PUAE) Before Uterine Fibroid Myomectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Dumousset, E.; Chabrot, P.; Rabischong, B.; Mazet, N.; Nasser, S.; Darcha, C.; Garcier, J.M.; Mage, G.; Boyer, L.

    2008-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the potential of uterine artery embolization to minimize blood loss and facilitate easier removal of fibroids during subsequent myomectomy. Methods. This retrospective study included 22 patients (median age 37 years), of whom at least 15 wished to preserve their fertility. They presented with at least one fibroid (mean diameter 85.6 mm) and had undergone preoperative uterine artery embolization (PUAE) with resorbable gelatin sponge. Results. No complication or technical failure of embolization was identified. Myomectomies were performed during laparoscopy (12 cases) and laparotomy (9 cases). One hysterectomy was performed. The following were noted: easier dissection of fibroids (mean 5.6 per patient, range 1-30); mean intervention time 113 min (range 25-210 min); almost bloodless surgery, with a mean peroperative blood loss of 90 ml (range 0-806 ml); mean hemoglobin pretherapeutically 12.3 g/dl (range 5.9-15.2 g/dl) and post-therapeutically 10.3 g/dl (range 5.6-13.3 g/dl), with no blood transfusion needed. Patients were discharged on day 4 on average and the mean sick leave was 1 month. Conclusion. Preoperative embolization is associated with minimal intraoperative blood loss. It does not increase the complication rate or impair operative dissection, and improves the chances of performing conservative surgery.

  18. Congenital uterine anomalies affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Reichman, David E; Laufer, Marc R

    2010-04-01

    The following review seeks to summarise the current data regarding reproductive outcomes associated with congenital uterine anomalies. Such malformations originate from adverse embryologic events ranging from agenesis to lateral and vertical fusion defects. Associated renal anomalies are common both for the symmetric and asymmetric malformations. While fertility is minimally impacted upon by müllerian anomalies in most cases, such malformations have historically been associated with poor obstetric outcomes such as recurrent miscarriage, second trimester loss, preterm delivery, malpresentation and intrauterine foetal demise (IUFD). The following review delineates the existing literature regarding such outcomes and indicates therapies, where applicable, to optimise the care of such patients.

  19. Endocervicosis of the Uterine Cervix.

    PubMed

    Mobarki, Mousa; Karpathiou, Georgia; Forest, Fabien; Corsini, Thomas; Peoc'h, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Endocervicosis is considered a form of Mülleriosis affecting mainly the bladder and is comprised of endocervical-type glands and cysts. It has been rarely described in the uterine cervix where the extensive involvement of cervical and paracervical tissue poses the suspicion of malignancy, mostly minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma. We describe a case of cervical endocervicosis causing long-term symptoms leading to hysterectomy. We provide evidence that this pathology is associated with cesarean section similar with isthmocele. Its differential diagnosis is discussed. PMID:26825004

  20. Early second trimester uterine scar rupture.

    PubMed

    Bharatnur, Sunanda; Hebbar, Shripad; Shyamala, G

    2013-12-10

    Spontaneous uterine scar rupture can be lethal in pregnant women. A spontaneous uterine scar rupture in the early mid-trimester is rare and difficult to diagnose. This is a case of a 30-year-old woman (G2P1L1) at 19 weeks of gestation and having undergone a previous caesarean section presented with acute abdomen in shock. Laparotomy revealed a uterine scar rupture, which was resutured after evacuation of products of conception. This case merits that the uterine rupture should be considered as a differential diagnosis in pregnant women presenting with acute abdomen. In this case, although there was uterine rupture in the second trimester and a complete placental separation, fetus was alive which is quite unusual in patients presenting with rupture uterus.

  1. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  2. Small-molecule Structure Correctors Target Abnormal Protein Structure and Function: The Structure Corrector Rescue of Apolipoprotein E4–associated Neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Mahley, Robert W.; Huang, Yadong

    2013-01-01

    An attractive strategy to treat proteinopathies—diseases caused by malformed or misfolded proteins—is to restore protein function by inducing proper three-dimensional structure. We hypothesized that this approach would be effective in reversing the detrimental effects of apolipoprotein (apo) E4, the major allele that significantly increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. ApoE4’s detrimental effects result from its altered protein conformation (“domain interaction”), making it highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage and the generation of neurotoxic fragments. Here, we review apoE structure and function, how apoE4 causes neurotoxicity, and describe the identification of potent small-molecule-based “structure correctors” that induce proper apoE4 folding. SAR studies identified a series of small molecules that significantly reduced apoE4’s neurotoxic effects in cultured neurons, and a series that reduced apoE4 fragment levels in vivo, providing proof-of-concept for our approach. Structure corrector–based therapies could prove highly effective for the treatment of many protein-misfolding diseases. PMID:23013167

  3. Incidence and clinical characteristics of unexpected uterine sarcoma after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids: a retrospective study of 10,248 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wan-Cheng; Bi, Fang-Fang; Li, Da; Yang, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine fibroids often require a hysterectomy or myomectomy via laparotomy or laparoscopy. Morcellation is often necessary to perform a laparoscopic surgery. The objective of this study is to determine the incidence of unexpected uterine sarcomas (UUSs) after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids and to reduce the occurrence and avoid the morcellation of UUSs by analyzing their characteristics. Methods Women who had a hysterectomy or myomectomy for uterine fibroids in Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between November 2008 and November 2014 were selected for the study, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. Results During the period, 48 UUSs were found in 10,248 cases, and the overall incidence was 0.47%. There was no statistical difference (P=0.449) regarding the incidence (0.50% vs 0.33%) between 42 UUSs in 8,456 cases undergoing laparotomy and six UUSs in 1,792 cases undergoing laparoscopy. Most of the UUSs were stage I (89.58%), which occurred more commonly (56.25%) in women aged 40–49. Abnormal uterine bleeding (39.58%) was the main clinical manifestation. Rapidly growing pelvic masses (12.5%), rich blood flow signals (18.75%), and degeneration of uterine fibroids (18.75%) prompted by ultrasonography may suggest the possibility of UUSs. The margins of most UUSs (93.75%) were regular, which may cause UUSs to be misdiagnosed as uterine fibroids. Fifteen cases underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Approximately 73.33% showed heterogeneous and hypointense signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and 80% showed intermediate-to-high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with necrosis and hemorrhage in 40% of cases. After contrast administration, 80% presented early heterogeneous enhancement. Conclusion The incidence of UUSs after hysterectomy and myomectomy for uterine fibroids was low, and their clinical characteristics are atypical. It is necessary and very critical to make a complete and cautious

  4. Abnormal Bleeding During Menopause Hormone Therapy: Insights for Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas; Yamamoto, Márcia Marly Winck; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to review the involved mechanisms and propose actions for controlling/treating abnormal uterine bleeding during climacteric hormone therapy. Methods A systemic search of the databases SciELO, MEDLINE, and Pubmed was performed for identifying relevant publications on normal endometrial bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, and hormone therapy bleeding. Results Before starting hormone therapy, it is essential to exclude any abnormal organic condition, identify women at higher risk for bleeding, and adapt the regimen to suit eachwoman’s characteristics. Abnormal bleeding with progesterone/progestogen only, combined sequential, or combined continuous regimens may be corrected by changing the progestogen, adjusting the progestogen or estrogen/progestogen doses, or even switching the initial regimen to other formulation. Conclusion To diminish the occurrence of abnormal bleeding during hormone therapy (HT), it is important to tailor the regimen to the needs of individual women and identify those with higher risk of bleeding. The use of new agents as adjuvant therapies for decreasing abnormal bleeding in women on HT awaits future studies. PMID:24665210

  5. Uterine artery embolization as a treatment option for uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, Paul B; Matthews, Michelle L; Hurst, Bradley S

    2006-03-01

    Information is still being collected on the long-term clinical responses and appropriate patient selection for UAE. Prospective RCTs have not been performed to compare the clinical results from UAE with more conventional therapies for symptomatic uterine leiomyomata. At least three attempts at conducting such RCTs have been unsuccessful because of poor patient accrual that related to differing patient expectation and desires, clinical bias, insurance coverage, and the tendency that patients who have exhausted other treatment options may be disposed more favorably to less invasive treatments. Other comparative studies have serious limitations. For example, the retrospective study that compared outcomes after abdominal myomectomy with UAE suggested that patients who received UAE were more likely to require further invasive treatment by 3 years than were recipients of myomectomy. Lack of randomization introduced a selection bias because women in the group that underwent UAEwere older and were more likely to have had previous surgeries. A prospective study of "contemporaneous cohorts," which excluded patients who had sub-mucosal and pedunculated subserosal myomas, sought to compare quality of life measures and adverse events in patients who underwent UAE or hysterectomy. The investigators concluded that both treatments resulted in marked improvement in symptoms and quality of life scores, but complications were higher in the group that underwent hysterectomy over 1 year. In this study,however, a greater proportion of patients who underwent hysterectomy had improved pelvic pain scores. Furthermore, hysterectomy eliminates uterine bleeding and the risk for recurrence of myomas. Despite the lack of controlled studies that compared UAE with conventional surgery, and despite limited extended outcome data, UAE has gained rapid acceptance, primarily because the procedure preserves the uterus, is less invasive, and has less short-term morbidity than do most surgical options

  6. Uterine caliper and depth gauge

    DOEpatents

    King, Loyd L.; Wheeler, Robert G.; Fish, Thomas M.

    1977-01-01

    A uterine caliper and sound consisting of an elongated body having outwardly biased resilient caliper wings and a spring-loaded slidable cervical stop. A slide on the body is operatively connected to the wings by a monofilament and operates with respect to a first scale on the body as a width indicator. A rod extending longitudinally on the body is connected to the cervical stop and cooperates with a second scale on the body as a depth indicator. The instrument can be positioned to measure the distance from the outer cervical ostium to the fundus, as read on said second scale. The wings may be allowed to open by moving the slide, and when the wings engage the utero-tubal junctions, the width may be read on said first scale. By adjustment of the caliper wings the instrument may be retracted until the resistance of the inner ostium of the cervix is felt, enabling the length of the cervical canal to be read directly by the position of the longitudinal indicator rod with respect to said second scale. The instrument may be employed to measure the width of the uterine cavity at any position between the inner ostium of the cervix and the fundus.

  7. Extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected at amniocentesis: frequency in approximately 75,000 prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses and associations with maternal and paternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Hook, E B; Cross, P K

    1987-01-01

    We analyzed rates of extra structurally abnormal chromosomes (ESAC) detected in prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses of amniotic fluid reported to the New York Chromosome Registry. These karyotypes include both extra unidentified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EUSAC)--often denoted as "markers"--and extra identified structurally abnormal chromosomes (EISAC). The rate of all EUSAC was 0.64/1,000 (0.32-0.40/1,000 mutant and 0.23-0.32 inherited), and that of all EISAC was 0.11/1,000 (0.07/1,000 mutant and 0.04/1,000 inherited). The rate of all ESAC was approximately 0.8/1,000-0.4-0.5/1,000 mutant and 0.3-0.4/1,000 inherited. Mean +/- SD maternal age of mutant cases was 37.5 +/- 2.9, significantly greater than the value of 35.8 years in controls. A regression analysis indicated a rate of change of the log of the rate of about +0.20 with each year of maternal age between 30 and 45 years. When paternal age was introduced, the maternal age coefficient increased to about +0.25--close to that seen for 47, +21--but the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. After being matched for maternal age and year of diagnosis, the case-control difference in paternal age for 24 mutant cases was -2.4 with a 95% confidence interval of -4.6 to -0.1 years. In a regression analysis of the effects of both parental ages on the (log) rate, the maternal age coefficient was +0.25 and the paternal age coefficient was -0.06. These results are consistent with a (weak) negative paternal age effect in the face of a strong maternal age effect. Since ESAC include a heterogeneous group of abnormalities, the maternal age and paternal age trends, if not the result of statistical fluctuation or undetected biases, may involve different types of events. Data in the literature suggest that chromosomes with de novo duplicated inversions of 15p have a strong maternal age effect (but little paternal age effect). Such chromosomes, however, do not account for the active maternal age trends seen in the data analyzed here

  8. Dynamic monitoring of menopause hormone therapy and defining the cut-off value of endometrial thickness during uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qiu; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Qiaoling; Li, Fen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-dose tibolone therapy on ovarian area, uterine volume and endometrial thickness, and define the cut-off value of endometrial thickness for curettage during uterine bleeding. We followed 619 postmenopausal women, aged 40-60 years, for two years. There were 301 subjects in the low-dose tibolone treatment group and 318 subjects in the control group. The ovarian area, uterine volume and endometrial thickness in all participants were measured by transvaginal ultrasound prior to, one and two years post enrollment, respectively. Endometrial specimens were collected from all subjects with abnormal uterine bleeding during the follow-up period. We found that the uterine volume in the treatment group was greater than that in the control group, and the difference was significant (P<0.05), but there were no significant differences in ovarian area and endometrial thickness between the two groups (P>0.05). When the cut-off value for endometrial thickness was 7.35 mm, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 79.07%, respectively, and 85.71% and 93.02% when 7.55 mm was set as the cut-off during tibolone therapy. The results indicate that low-dose tibolone therapy may postpone uterine atrophy and the cut-off value of endometrial thickness may be appropriately adjusted for curettage. PMID:27533929

  9. Investigation of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere by microwave ground-based sensing over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karashtin, Dmitriy; Berezin, Evgeny; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of the lower atmosphere structure and stability is required for studying the processes of the convection in the atmosphere, determining the mutual influence of global climate change trends and the current state of regional climate systems, which have an impact on the appearance of dangerous meteorological events (heavy rains, thunderstorms, hail, floods, squalls, tornadoes, etc). There are many methods of measuring structure of the atmosphere: contact (rocket and balloon), contactless - active (lidar) and passive (radiometric), with the placement of the instrumentation on the satellite, airplanes and the Earth's surface (ground-based). For the convection processes study in order to predict dangerous meteorological events the ground-based radiometric sensing of the structure of the lower atmosphere seems to be the most suitable due to higher time and spatial resolution. This report discusses the peculiarities of the structure of the lower atmosphere over Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia during the abnormally warm winter 2013 - 2014 retrieved from measurements by radiometric complex HATPRO-G3 by Radiometer Physics GmbH. This complex gives vertical thermal and water vapor profiles of the lower atmosphere (0 - 10 km) with time resolution of a few minutes, horizontally resolution of about 10 kilometers and vertically resolution of about 100 meters. The analysis of the structure and stability of the lower atmosphere is based on the vertical distribution of virtual potential temperature derived from these measurements under the hydrostatic approximation. Also the comparison of the results for the abnormally winter 2013 - 2014 and the data computed from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (http://www.wrf-model.org) for winter 2011 - 2012 is discussed.

  10. High frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 internal tandem duplication.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, Theodore S; Zou, Ying; Ning, Yi; Emadi, Ashkan; Duong, Vu H; Tidwell, Michael L; Chen, Ching; Rassool, Feyruz V; Baer, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are present in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), most commonly in those with a normal karyotype, and are associated with short relapse-free survival. Both in vitro and in vivo studies of FLT3-ITD cell lines have demonstrated reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA double-strand breaks and associated error-prone DNA repair as a mechanism of genomic instability, and we hypothesized that genomic instability might be manifested by cytogenetic changes at relapse of FLT3-ITD AML. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients with cytogenetically normal (CN) FLT3-ITD AML treated at the University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, with attention to metaphase analysis results at relapse. Cytogenetic data were available from first and, when applicable, subsequent relapses for 15 patients diagnosed with CN FLT3-ITD AML. Among 12 patients with documented FLT3-ITD at first and, when applicable, subsequent relapse, 10 had cytogenetic changes, including nine with rare structural abnormalities. The high frequency of rare structural chromosome abnormalities at relapse in our case series supports a role of genomic instability in the genesis of relapse, and suggests that reactive oxygen species-generating and DNA repair pathways might be therapeutic targets in FLT3-ITD AML. PMID:25441683

  11. Uterine transplantation: a promising surrogate to surrogacy?

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Ayoubi, Jean-Marc; Bulletti, Carlo; Frydman, Rene; Fanchin, Renato

    2011-03-01

    Infertility due to the inability of the uterus to carry a pregnancy ranks among the most unresolved issues in reproductive medicine. It affects millions of women worldwide who have congenital or acquired uterine affections, often requiring hysterectomy, and potentially represents a considerable fraction of the general infertile population. Patients suffering from severe uterine infertility are currently compelled to go through gestational surrogacy or adoption; both approaches, unfortunately, deprive them of the maternal experience of pregnancy and birth. Uterine transplantation represents an outstanding, yet complex, perspective to alleviating definitive uterine infertility. In the past decades, a number of scientific experiments conducted both in animals and women, focusing on uterine transplantation, have led to promising results. Collectively, these findings undoubtedly constitute a sound basis to clinically apply uterine transplantation in the near future. This paper is, however, an overview not only of the extent and limitations of accumulated scientific knowledge on uterine transplantation, but also its ethical implications, in an effort to define the actual place of such an approach among the therapeutic arsenal for alleviating infertility. PMID:21401629

  12. UTERINE RUPTURE FOLLOWING MYOMECTOMY IN THIRD TRIMESTER.

    PubMed

    Djaković, Ivka; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Kosec, Vesna

    2015-12-01

    Rupture of gravid uterus is surgical emergency causing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The risk of uterine rupture is associated with uterine scars caused by previous cesarean section, myomectomy, hysteroscopic procedures, and curettage. We report a case of a 40-year-old woman in 31st week of gestation with spontaneous uterine rupture. It was her third pregnancy. She had two healthy children from previous pregnancies. Her symptoms were abdominal pain, vomiting and pain in the right shoulder lasting for 12 hours prior to admission. Ultrasound examination at admission revealed a dead fetus in the abdomen and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. She had previously undergone laparoscopic myomectomy. After myomectomy, she had one successful vaginal delivery. Every abdominal pain in pregnant woman with uterine scar should be carefully and promptly examined to exclude uterine rupture before further diagnostic procedures. This early time frame is essential for survival of the fetus and sometimes even of the mother. Uterine rupture represents indication for immediate cesarean section and it should be performed within 25 minutes of the first signs of uterine rupture. As shown in the case presented, one successful vaginal delivery after myomectomy is no guarantee for future pregnancies.

  13. Association between chronic stress-induced structural abnormalities in Ranvier nodes and reduced oligodendrocyte activity in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Shingo; Taniguchi, Manabu; Koyama, Yoshihisa; Shimizu, Shoko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Akihide; Iida, Hidehiro; Kudo, Takashi; Katayama, Taiichi; Tohyama, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    Repeated stressful events are associated with the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). We previously showed oligodendrocyte (OL)-specific activation of the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK)1 cascade, increased expression of axon-myelin adhesion molecules, and elaboration of the oligodendrocytic arbor in the corpus callosum of chronically stressed mice. In the current study, we demonstrate that the nodes and paranodes of Ranvier in the corpus callosum were narrower in these mice. Chronic stress also led to diffuse redistribution of Caspr and Kv 1.1 and decreased the activity in white matter, suggesting a link between morphological changes in OLs and inhibition of axonal activity. OL primary cultures subjected to chronic stress resulted in SGK1 activation and translocation to the nucleus, where it inhibited the transcription of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Furthermore, the cAMP level and membrane potential of OLs were reduced by chronic stress exposure. We showed by diffusion tensor imaging that the corpus callosum of patients with MDD exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy, reflecting compromised white matter integrity possibly caused by axonal damage. Our findings suggest that chronic stress disrupts the organization of the nodes of Ranvier by suppressing mGluR activation in OLs, and that specific white matter abnormalities are closely associated with MDD onset. PMID:26976207

  14. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing.

  15. Structural brain abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease with visual hallucinations: a comparative voxel-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Gama, Romulo Lopes; Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales; Távora, Daniel Gurgel Fernandes; Duran, Fábio L S; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    The objective is to evaluate clinical characteristics and cerebral alterations in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with diurnal visual hallucinations (VHs). Assessment was performed using magnetic resonance image (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirty-nine patients with PD (53.8%) and ten controls were studied. Voxel based morphology analysis was performed. Eleven patients presented diurnal VHs and among these, six had cognitive dysfunction. Patients with VHs performed worse in the mentation-related UPDRS I (p=0.005) and motor-related UPDRS III (p=0.02). Patients with VHs showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume compared to controls in the left opercula frontal gyrus and left superior frontal gyrus. PD without hallucinations demonstrated reduced grey matter volume in the left superior frontal gyrus compared to controls. Comparisons between patients with VHs regarding the presence of cognitive dysfunction showed that cases with cognitive dysfunction as compared to those without cognitive dysfunction showed significant clusters of reduced grey matter volume in the left opercular frontal gyrus. Cases without cognitive dysfunction had reduced grey matter substance in the left insula and left trigonal frontal gyrus. Judging from our findings, an abnormal frontal cortex, particularly left sided insula, frontal opercular, trigonal frontal gyrus and orbital frontal would make PD patients vulnerable to hallucinations. Compromise of the left operculum distinguished cases with VHs and cognitive dysfunction. Our findings reinforce the theoretical concept of a top-down visual processing in the genesis of VHs in PD.

  16. Fyn kinase genetic ablation causes structural abnormalities in mature retina and defective Müller cell function.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Solano, Marbella; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo; Treviño, Mario; Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia; Lamas, Monica

    2016-04-01

    Fyn kinase is widely expressed in neuronal and glial cells of the brain, where it exerts multiple functional roles that affect fundamental physiological processes. The aim of our study was to investigate the, so far unknown, functional role of Fyn in the retina. We report that Fyn is expressed, in vivo, in a subpopulation of Müller glia. We used a mouse model of Fyn genetic ablation and Müller-enriched primary cultures to demonstrate that Fyn deficiency induces morphological alterations in the mature retina, a reduction in the thickness of the outer and inner nuclear layers and alterations in postnatal Müller cell physiology. These include shortening of Müller cell processes, a decrease in cell proliferation, inactivation of the Akt signal transduction pathway, a reduced number of focal adhesions points and decreased adhesion of these cells to the ECM. As abnormalities in Müller cell physiology have been previously associated to a compromised retinal function we evaluated behavioral responses to visual stimulation. Our results associate Fyn deficiency with impaired visual optokinetic responses under scotopic and photopic light conditions. Our study reveals novel roles for Fyn kinase in retinal morphology and Müller cell physiology and suggests that Fyn is required for optimal visual processing. PMID:26808221

  17. Dynamic and quasi-static mechanical testing for characterization of the viscoelastic properties of human uterine tissue.

    PubMed

    Omari, Eenas A; Varghese, Tomy; Kliewer, Mark A; Harter, Josephine; Hartenbach, Ellen M

    2015-07-16

    Ultrasound elastography is envisioned as an optional modality to augment standard ultrasound B-mode imaging and is a promising technique to aid in detecting uterine masses which cause abnormal uterine bleeding in both pre- and post-menopausal women. In order to determine the effectiveness of strain imaging, mechanical testing to establish the elastic contrast between normal uterine tissue and stiffer masses such as leiomyomas (fibroids) and between softer pathologies such as uterine cancer and adenomyosis has to be performed. In this paper, we evaluate the stiffness of normal uterine tissue, leiomyomas, and endometrial cancers using a EnduraTEC ElectroForce (ELF) system. We quantify the viscoelastic characteristics of uterine tissue and associated pathologies globally by using two mechanical testing approaches, namely a dynamic and a quasi-static (ramp testing) approach. For dynamic testing, 21 samples obtained from 18 patients were tested. The testing frequencies were set to 1, 10, 20, and 30 Hz. We also report on stiffness variations with pre-compression from 1% to 6% for testing at 2%, 3%, and 4% strain amplitude. Our results show that human uterine tissue stiffness is both dependent on percent pre-compression and testing frequencies. For ramp testing, 20 samples obtained from 14 patients were used. A constant strain rate of 0.1% was applied and comparable results to dynamic testing were obtained. The mean modulus contrast at 2% amplitude between normal uterine tissue (the background) and leiomyomas was 2.29 and 2.17, and between the background and cancer was 0.47 and 0.39 for dynamic and ramp testing, respectively.

  18. Dietary Wolfberry Ameliorates Retinal Structure Abnormalities in db/db Mice at the Early Stage of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yunong; Jiang, Yu; Willard, Lloyd; Ortiz, Edlin; Wark, Logan; Medeiros, Denis; Lin, Dingbo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-linked oxidative stress and/or consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress are the causative factors of pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Dietary bioactive components which mitigate oxidative stress may serve as potential chemopreventative agents to prevent or slow down the disease progression. Wolfberry is a traditional Asian fruit consumed for years to prevent aging eye diseases in Asian countries. Here we report that dietary wolfberry ameliorated mouse retinal abnormality at the early stage of type 2 diabetes in db/db mice. Male mice at 6 weeks of age were fed the control diet with or without 1 % (kCal) wolfberry for 8 weeks. Dietary wolfberry restored the thickness of the whole retina, in particular the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptor layer, and the integrity of retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), and the ganglion cell number in db/db mice. Western blotting of whole retinal cell lysates revealed that addition of wolfberry lowered expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarkers BiP, PERK, ATF6, and caspase-12; and restored AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, and FOXO3α activities. To determine if our observations were due to the high contents of zeaxanthin and lutein in wolfberry additional studies using these carotenoids were conducted. Using the human adult diploid RPE cell line ARPE-19 we demonstrated that both zeaxanthin and lutein could mimic wolfberry preventive effect on activation of AMPK, thioredoxin, Mn SOD, FOXO3α activities, normalize cellular reactive oxygen species, and attenuate ER stress in ARPE-19 cells exposed to a high glucose challenge. The zeaxanthin preventive effect was abolished by siRNA knockdown of AMPKα. These results suggested that AMPK activation appeared to play a key role in upregulated expression of thioredoxin and Mn SOD, and mitigation of cellular oxidative stress and/or ER stress by wolfberry and zeaxanthin and/or lutein. Taken together, dietary wolfberry on retinal protection in diabetic mice is, at least

  19. Pre-Uterine Artery Embolization MRI: Beyond Fibroids

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Petra L.; Coote, Jacky M.; Watkinson, Anthony F.

    2011-12-15

    Uterine leiomyomata, or fibroids, although benign, cause debilitating symptoms in many women. Symptoms are often nonspecific and may be the presenting complaint in a number of other conditions. Furthermore, because the presence of fibroids may be coincident with other symptomatic conditions that result in similar complaints, there may be diagnostic difficulty and consequent difficulty in planning therapeutic strategy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic fibroids and is increasingly being performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation before and after treatment is routine practice with the potential to significantly alter management in up to a fifth of patients. It is well recognized that significant incidental findings may be demonstrated during imaging investigations, and in particular that abnormalities that are not directly related to the clinical question may be overlooked. Radiologists evaluating pre-UAE MRI studies must be aware of the MRI appearances of gynecological pathologies that may cause similar symptoms or that may affect the success or complication rates of UAE, and they must also be wary of 'satisfaction of search,' reviewing imaging thoroughly so that relevant other pathologies are not missed. We demonstrate the appearances of coincidental pathologies found on pre-UAE MRI, with the potential to change patient management.

  20. Thermotolerance of human myometrium: implications for minimally invasive uterine therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Aaron C.; Grisez, Brian T.; McMillan, Kathleen; Chill, Nicholas; Harclerode, Tyler P.; Radabaugh, Rebecca; Jones, Ryan M.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Endometrial ablation has gained significant clinical acceptance over the last decade as a minimally invasive treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. To improve upon current thermal injury modeling, it is important to better characterize the myometrium's thermotolerance. The extent of myometrial thermal injury was determined across a spectrum of thermal histories/doses (time-temperature combinations). Fresh extirpated human myometrium was obtained from 13 subjects who underwent a previous scheduled benign hysterectomy. Within two hours of hysterectomy, the unfixed myometrium was treated in a stabilized saline bath with temperatures ranging from 45-70 °C and time intervals from 30- 150 seconds. The time-temperature combinations were selected to simulate treatment times under 2.5 minutes. A total of six such thermal matrices, each comprised of 45 time-temperature combinations, were prepared for evaluation. The treated myometrium was cryosectioned for nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining to assess for thermal respiratory enzyme inactivation. Image analysis was subsequently used to quantitatively assess the stained myometrium's capacity to metabolize the tetrazolium at each time-temperature combination. This colorimetric data was then used as marker of cellular viability and determine survival parameters with implications for developing minimally invasive uterine therapies.

  1. Uncommon Complication of Uterine Artery Embolization: Expulsion of Infarcted Myoma and Uterine Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Juliana G; Gaudenti, Dawn; Crespo, Frank; Ganesh, Dervi; Verma, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors in young females and leading cause of hysterectomy. Uterine artery embolization is a safe option for women who wish to retain their uterus. Several complications have been reported including expulsion and sepsis. MRI is a useful pretreatment tool to predict results and outcomes. We report a case of a 44-year-old female with a history of uterine fibroids with the largest one being intracavitary. Patient underwent uterine artery embolization that was complicated by endomyometritis that failed antibiotics, leading to sepsis and hysterectomy. PMID:27073705

  2. Uncommon Complication of Uterine Artery Embolization: Expulsion of Infarcted Myoma and Uterine Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Juliana G.; Gaudenti, Dawn; Crespo, Frank; Ganesh, Dervi; Verma, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors in young females and leading cause of hysterectomy. Uterine artery embolization is a safe option for women who wish to retain their uterus. Several complications have been reported including expulsion and sepsis. MRI is a useful pretreatment tool to predict results and outcomes. We report a case of a 44-year-old female with a history of uterine fibroids with the largest one being intracavitary. Patient underwent uterine artery embolization that was complicated by endomyometritis that failed antibiotics, leading to sepsis and hysterectomy. PMID:27073705

  3. Uterine Serous Adenocarcinoma in an Elderly Postmenopausal Woman: Clinically Misdiagnosed as Uterine Cervix Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-A; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Chung, Soo-Ho; Heo, Gyeong-Eun; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Choi, Seung Do; Han, Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    Uterine serous adenocarcinoma (USC) is rare and invasive cancer. This cancer is more often reported in the ovary, the fallopian tube, and the endometrium than uterine cervix. No matter where the tumor is located, the tumor exhibits similar histological characteristics. So when uterine cancer is proven to be serous adenocarcinoma, it is necessary to see if the tumor originated from ovary or endometrium and invaded the cervix. We report a case of a 73-year-old postmenopausal woman with USC arising near the internal os of endocervical canal, clinically misdiagnosed as uterine cervix cancer. PMID:26793684

  4. Ultrasound diagnosis of uterine myomas.

    PubMed

    Fascilla, Fabiana D; Cramarossa, Paola; Cannone, Rossella; Olivieri, Claudiana; Vimercati, Antonella; Exacoustos, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Myomas represent a large part of benign gynecological pathology, widely spread in fertile female population. First step to diagnose fibroids is ultrasound (US) that can be 2-dimensional (2D), 3-dimensional (3D), Color Doppler (CD) and sonohysterography (SHG). This review develops according to MUSA's sonographic features (Morphological Uterus Sonographic Assessment). One of the main topic of interest for ultrasonographer today is endo/myometrial junctional zone (JZ), because it may be useful to discern a diagnosis of myoma and adenomyosis. Another important aspect of ultrasound is the analysis of vascularization in front of a uterine lesion. Indeed, vascular pattern can be used to make differential diagnosis between myoma-adenomyosis and leiomyosarcomas. Myomas should be described accurately according to sonographic guidelines. Sonographic features correlated with symptoms should guide an appropriate surgical or medical treatment. PMID:27014801

  5. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion.

  6. Structural and Perfusion Abnormalities of Brain on MRI and Technetium-99m-ECD SPECT in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kamer Singh; Narwal, Varun; Chauhan, Lokesh; Singh, Giriraj; Sharma, Monica; Chauhan, Suneel

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy has traditionally been associated with hypoxic ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to demonstrate structural and perfusion brain abnormalities. Fifty-six children diagnosed clinically as having cerebral palsy were studied between 1 to 14 years of age and were subjected to 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brain and Technetium-99m-ECD brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1 with a mean age of 4.16 ± 2.274 years. Spastic cerebral palsy was the most common type, observed in 91%. Birth asphyxia was the most common etiology (69.6%). White matter changes (73.2%) such as periventricular leukomalacia and corpus callosal thinning were the most common findings on MRI. On SPECT all cases except one revealed perfusion impairments in different regions of brain. MRI is more sensitive in detecting white matter changes, whereas SPECT is better in detecting cortical and subcortical gray matter abnormalities of perfusion. PMID:26353878

  7. Uterine leiomyosarcoma and pyometra in a dog.

    PubMed

    Tsioli, V G; Gouletsou, P G; Loukopoulos, P; Zavlaris, M; Galatos, A D

    2011-02-01

    A seven-year-old entire female, mixed-breed dog, weighing 19 kg, was presented with a 2-day history of abdominal distension, reduced appetite and general dullness. Abdominal palpation revealed a large mass. Radiography showed a large mass occupying the left mid-abdominal area and convoluted loops of tubular fluid opacity occupying the right mid-abdominal area. Ultrasonography revealed a large heterogeneous mass with an anechoic area and some hyperechoic foci, indicative of calcification, in the mid-abdominal area. Furthermore, hypoechoic areas were found in the middle and caudal abdominal area and were presumed to be the fluid-filled uterine horns. At laparotomy, a 10·5×14·5-cm firm mass was found in the uterine body, while the uterine horns were filled with a thick red-brownish exudate; ovariohysterectomy was subsequently performed. A diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma associated with pyometra was established by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. PMID:21265853

  8. Postmyomectomic Uterine Rupture Despite Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Kacperczyk, Joanna; Bartnik, Paweł; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Dobrowolska-Redo, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus. Fibroids can develop anywhere within the muscular wall. Leiomyomas may be associated with infertility. Laparoscopic myomectomy is often used to remove symptomatic intramural or subserosal fibroids. Advantages of the procedure include short recovery time and minimal perioperative morbidity. At the same time, the multilayer suture technique is more complicated during laparoscopy. A rare but serious complication of laparoscopic myomectomies is uterine rupture. A brief review of the literature and a clinical example of a 33-year-old woman with history of infertility, laparoscopic myomectomies and uterine rupture followed by peripartum hemorrhage is presented. The treatment of leiomyomas is a challenge not only because of possible recurrence but also due to long-term consequences following successful myomectomy. Management of patients with uterine scars should include careful planning of the route of delivery, as the risk of rupture may be increased. PMID:26976991

  9. Uterine torsion in pregnancy. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vavrinkova, Blanka; Binder, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a case of uterine torsion not only around the long, but also the horizontal axis, diagnosed post-operatively. The patient was 28-years-old, II/I in the 34th week of her gravidity. She was admitted due to amniotic fluid leak. Due to unsuccessful delivery induction using prostaglandins, a caesarean section was indicated to end the gravidity. Uterine torsion 180° around the longitudinal axis and 90° around the transversal axis was diagnosed during the surgery. The uterine wound was treated in accordance with guidelines and the patient was dismissed in a good condition. Control hysteroscopy and laparoscopy done after a time interval showed problem-free healing of the wound in the posterior uterine wall.

  10. Learning Discloses Abnormal Structural and Functional Plasticity at Hippocampal Synapses in the APP23 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Roberto, Anna; Berretta, Nicola; Panico, Maria Beatrice; Lista, Simone; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B.; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Nistico, Robert

    2010-01-01

    B6-Tg/Thy1APP23Sdz (APP23) mutant mice exhibit neurohistological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease but show intact basal hippocampal neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Here, we examine whether spatial learning differently modifies the structural and electrophysiological properties of hippocampal synapses in APP23 and wild-type mice. While…

  11. Hysteroscopic Transcervical Resection of Uterine Septum

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Hua, Xiangdong; Gu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Dazhen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the method of diagnosis for uterine septum and the clinical effect of hysteroscopic transcervical resection of the septum. Methods: One-hundred ninety cases of patients with uterine septum who were diagnosed and treated at our hospital during 2007–2011 were selected, and their general information, perioperative status, postoperative recovery treatment, and postoperative pregnancy rates were statistically analyzed. Results: All 190 patients were cured with one surgery, with an average hysteroscopic operating time of 22.60 ± 10.67 minutes and intraoperative blood loss of 15.74 ± 9.64 mL. There were no complications such as uterine perforation, water intoxication, infection, or heavy bleeding. Among the 115 patients that we followed up, 86 became pregnant and delivered infants, 81 of which were born at term and 5 that were born premature. Conclusion: The combination of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy is still the most reliable method for the diagnosis of uterine septum. With a shorter operative time, less blood loss, a significantly increased postoperative pregnancy rate and live birth rate, and a significantly lower spontaneous abortion rate, transcervical resection of the septum was the preferred method for the treatment of uterine septum, and surgical instruments and skills were critical to the prognosis of uterine septum. PMID:24398191

  12. Potential Therapeutic Targets in Uterine Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cuppens, Tine; Tuyaerts, Sandra; Amant, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors accounting for 3,4% of all uterine cancers. Even after radical hysterectomy, most patients relapse or present with distant metastases. The very limited clinical benefit of adjuvant cytotoxic treatments is reflected by high mortality rates, emphasizing the need for new treatment strategies. This review summarizes rising potential targets in four distinct subtypes of uterine sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, low-grade and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. Based on clinical reports, promising approaches for uterine leiomyosarcoma patients include inhibition of VEGF and mTOR signaling, preferably in combination with other targeted or cytotoxic compounds. Currently, the only targeted therapy approved in leiomyosarcoma patients is pazopanib, a multitargeted inhibitor blocking VEGFR, PDGFR, FGFR, and c-KIT. Additionally, preclinical evidence suggests effect of the inhibition of histone deacetylases, tyrosine kinase receptors, and the mitotic checkpoint protein aurora kinase A. In low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas, antihormonal therapies including aromatase inhibitors and progestins have proven activity. Other potential targets are PDGFR, VEGFR, and histone deacetylases. In high-grade ESS that carry the YWHAE/FAM22A/B fusion gene, the generated 14-3-3 oncoprotein is a putative target, next to c-KIT and the Wnt pathway. The observation of heterogeneity within uterine sarcoma subtypes warrants a personalized treatment approach. PMID:26576131

  13. Uterine sarcomas: clinical presentation and MRI features

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Pedro; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2015-01-01

    Uterine sarcomas are a rare heterogeneous group of tumors of mesenchymal origin, accounting for approximately 8% of uterine malignancies. They comprise leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma, and adenosarcoma. Compared with the more common endometrial carcinomas, uterine sarcomas behave more aggressively and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Due to their distinct clinical and biological behavior, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics introduced a new staging system for uterine sarcomas in 2009, categorizing uterine carcinosarcoma as a variant of endometrial carcinoma, rather than a pure sarcoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a developing role in the assessment of these malignancies. Features such as tumor localization, irregular or nodular margins, necrosis, rapid growth, intense contrast enhancement, and restriction at diffusion-weighted imaging can suggest the diagnosis and help differentiate from more common leiomyomas and endometrial carcinoma. MRI is therefore extremely useful in preoperative detection and staging and, consequently, in determination of appropriate management. This pictorial review aims to discuss the clinical features of uterine sarcomas, as well as their most common appearances and distinct characteristics in MRI. PMID:25347940

  14. Uterine disorders in 50 pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Künzel, Frank; Grinninger, Petra; Shibly, Sarina; Hassan, Jasmin; Tichy, Alexander; Berghold, Petra; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Although the incidence of uterine disorders in pet rabbits is high there are only a few retrospective studies and case reports on genital tract disease in female rabbits. Uterine disorders were assessed in 50 pet rabbits. In 31 pet rabbits with suspected clinical uterine disease, medical records were further reviewed regarding clinical signs, diagnostic workup, treatment as well as the outcome itself. Uterine adenocarcinoma (54%) was most frequently diagnosed, followed by endometrial hyperplasia (26%). Serosanguineous vaginal discharge was the predominant clinical sign observed by the rabbit owners. In approximately 50% of the rabbits with suspected uterine disorders, abdominal palpation revealed enlarged and/or irregular masses in the caudoventral abdomen indicating uterine lesions. Out of 23 rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy, four were either euthanized or died shortly after surgery because they were clinically unstable. Overall, 80% of the ovariohysterectomized animals were still alive 6 mo after surgery. In female pet rabbits that are not breeding, either ovariohysterectomy should be performed at an early age or routine checks including ultrasonography of the abdomen are recommended on a regular basis.

  15. Microwave-Induced Structural and Functional Injury of Hippocampal and PC12 Cells Is Accompanied by Abnormal Changes in the NMDAR-PSD95-CaMKII Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Feng; Wei, Li; Qiao, Si-Mo; Gao, Xiao-Na; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, Shui-Ming; Zhao, Li; Dong, Ji; Xu, Xin-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Hu, Xiang-Jun; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important role of the postsynaptic NMDAR-PSD95-CaMKII pathway for synaptic transmission and related neuronal injury. Here, we tested changes in the components of this pathway upon microwave-induced neuronal structure and function impairments. Ultrastructural and functional changes were induced in hippocampal neurons of rats and in PC12 cells exposed to microwave radiation. We detected abnormal protein and mRNA expression, as well as posttranslational modifications in the NMDAR-PSD95-CaMKII pathway and its associated components, such as synapsin I, following microwave radiation exposure of rats and PC12 cells. Thus, microwave radiation may induce neuronal injury via changes in the molecular organization of postsynaptic density and modulation of the biochemical cascade that potentiates synaptic transmission.

  16. Abnormal thermal expansion, multiple transitions, magnetocaloric effect, and electronic structure of Gd{sub 6}Co{sub 4.85}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiliang; Zheng, Zhigang; Shan, Guangcun E-mail: bobev@udel.edu; Bobev, Svilen E-mail: bobev@udel.edu; Shek, Chan Hung E-mail: bobev@udel.edu

    2015-10-07

    The structure of known Gd{sub 4}Co{sub 3} compound is re-determined as Gd{sub 6}Co{sub 4.85}, adopting the Gd{sub 6}Co{sub 1.67}Si{sub 3} structure type, which is characterized by two disorder Co sites filling the Gd octahedral and a short Gd-Gd distance within the octahedra. The compound shows uniaxial negative thermal expansion in paramagnetic state, significant negative expansion in ferromagnetic state, and positive expansion below ca. 140 K. It also exhibits large magnetocaloric effect, with an entropy change of −6.4 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} at 50 kOe. In the lattice of the compound, Co atoms at different sites show different spin states. It was confirmed by the X-ray photoelectron spectra and calculation of electronic structure and shed lights on the abnormal thermal expansion. The stability of such compound and the origin of its magnetism are also discussed based on measured and calculated electronic structures.

  17. STAT3 accelerates uterine epithelial regeneration in a mouse model of decellularized uterine matrix transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Takehiro; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Matsuo, Mitsunori; Egashira, Mahiro; Matsumoto, Leona; Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Furukawa, Katsuko S.; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Although a close connection between uterine regeneration and successful pregnancy in both humans and mice has been consistently observed, its molecular basis remains unclear. We here established a mouse model of decellularized uterine matrix (DUM) transplantation. Resected mouse uteri were processed with SDS to make DUMs without any intact cells. DUMs were transplanted into the mouse uteri with artificially induced defects, and all the uterine layers were recovered at the DUM transplantation sites within a month. In the regenerated uteri, normal hormone responsiveness in early pregnancy was observed, suggesting the regeneration of functional uteri. Uterine epithelial cells rapidly migrated and formed a normal uterine epithelial layer within a week, indicating a robust epithelial-regenerating capacity. Stromal and myometrial regeneration occurred following epithelial regeneration. In ovariectomized mice, uterine regeneration of the DUM transplantation was similarly observed, suggesting that ovarian hormones are not essential for this regeneration process. Importantly, the regenerating epithelium around the DUM demonstrated heightened STAT3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation, which was suppressed in uteri of Stat3 conditional knockout mice. These data suggest a key role of STAT3 in the initial step of the uterine regeneration process. The DUM transplantation model is a powerful tool for uterine regeneration research. PMID:27358915

  18. Uterine distension differentially affects remodelling and distensibility of the uterine vasculature in non-pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Osol, George; Barron, Carolyn; Mandalà, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy the mammalian uterine circulation undergoes significant expansive remodelling necessary for normal pregnancy outcome. The underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that myometrial stretch actively stimulates uterine vascular remodelling by developing a new surgical approach to induce unilateral uterine distension in non-pregnant rats. Three weeks after surgery, which consisted of an infusion of medical-grade silicone into the uterine lumen, main and mesometrial uterine artery and vein length, diameter and distensibility were recorded. Radial artery diameter, distensibility and vascular smooth muscle mitotic rate (Ki67 staining) were also measured. Unilateral uterine distension resulted in significant increases in the length of main uterine artery and vein and mesometrial segments but had no effect on vessel diameter or distensibility. In contrast, there were significant increases in the diameter of the radial arteries associated with the distended uterus. These changes were accompanied by reduced arterial distensibility and increased vascular muscle hyperplasia. In summary, this is the first report to show that myometrial stretch is a sufficient stimulus to induce significant remodelling of uterine vessels in non-pregnant rats. Moreover, the results indicate differential regulation of these growth processes as a function of vessel size and type.

  19. Uterine sarcoma in a 14 year-old girl presenting with uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Jane; Dülger, Özlem; Küpelioğlu, Latif; Gönenç, Ali İhsan; Erşahin, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    Uterine sarcomas are rare in adolescents. Adenosarcomas are even more rare. Uterine rupture, as a presentation is a rare entity.•It is hard to diagnose sarcomas preoperatively. It is still hard even postoperatively due to variable morphologic features.•Experience of the gynecopathologists and oncologic surgeons is the hallmark of the treatment option.

  20. Structural and Functional Abnormalities of the Neuromuscular Junction in the Trembler-J Homozygote Mouse Model of Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Scurry, Alexandra N; Heredia, Dante J; Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Gephart, Gregory B; Hennig, Grant W; Gould, Thomas W

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) result in the most common form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, CMT1A. This hereditary peripheral neuropathy is characterized by dysmyelination of peripheral nerves, reduced nerve conduction velocity, and muscle weakness. APMP22 point mutation in L16P (leucine 16 to proline) underlies a form of human CMT1A as well as the Trembler-J mouse model of CMT1A. Homozygote Trembler-J mice (Tr(J)) die early postnatally, fail to make peripheral myelin, and, therefore, are more similar to patients with congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy than those with CMT1A. Because recent studies of inherited neuropathies in humans and mice have demonstrated that dysfunction and degeneration of neuromuscular synapses or junctions (NMJs) often precede impairments in axonal conduction, we examined the structure and function of NMJs in Tr(J)mice. Although synapses appeared to be normally innervated even in end-stage Tr(J)mice, the growth and maturation of the NMJs were altered. In addition, the amplitudes of nerve-evoked muscle endplate potentials were reduced and there was transmission failure during sustained nerve stimulation. These results suggest that the severe congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy that characterizes Tr(J)mice results in structural and functional deficits of the developing NMJ.

  1. Uterine sarcoma Part I-Uterine leiomyosarcoma: The Topic Advisory Group systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kuo-Chang; Horng, Huann-Cheng; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Ng, Heung-Tat

    2016-08-01

    Uterine sarcomas account for 3-7% of all uterine cancers. Because of their rarity, unknown etiology, and highly divergent genetic aberration, there is a lack of consensus on risk factors for occurrence and predictive poor outcomes as well as optimal therapeutic choices. Tumor types according to the World Health Organization classification include leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stroma sarcoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. Staging is done using the 2014 Federation International Gynecology and Obstetrics and 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor, lymph node, and metastases systems. Tumor grade can be classified based on the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group system or the Broder's system that incorporates tumor differentiation, mitotic count, and tumor necrosis. This review is a series of articles discussing uterine sarcoma, and this is Part I, which focuses on one of the subtypes of uterine sarcomas-uterine leiomyosarcoma. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, outcome, and recent advances are summarized in this article. PMID:27590365

  2. Intrapartum uterine rupture with coincidental uterine adenomyosis in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Newell-Fugate, Annie; Lane, Emily

    2009-12-01

    A 7-yr-old African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) multiparous bitch experienced severe dystocia and death one day after the onset of parturition. Necropsy revealed three placental attachments in the right uterine horn and one in the left. A full-thickness rupture of the right horn at the middle placental attachment and an autolysed fetus free in the abdomen were present. Death was attributed to hypovolemic and endotoxemic shock after uterine rupture. Myometrium adjacent to the rupture and in the left uterine horn was subdivided into irregular pseudolobules by fibrous connective tissue tracts containing small endometrial glandular acini suggestive of adenomyosis, which may have facilitated uterine rupture. This is the first reported case of dystocia-induced uterine rupture and of adenomyosis in a wild dog.

  3. Uterine Artery Embolization to Treat Uterine Adenomyosis with or without Uterine Leiomyomata: Results of Symptom Control and Health-Related Quality of Life 40 Months after Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Froeling, V. Scheurig-Muenkler, C. Hamm, B. Kroencke, T. J.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcome for uterine adenomyosis with or without uterine leiomyomata 40 months after uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Forty women aged 39-56 years (median 46 years) with symptomatic uterine adenomyosis and magnetic resonance imaging findings of uterine adenomyosis with or without combined uterine leiomyomata underwent UAE. Self-perceived changes in clinical symptoms were assessed, and residual symptom severity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) after UAE were evaluated. Clinical failure was defined as no symptomatic improvement or second invasive therapy after UAE. Results were stratified by the extent of uterine adenomyosis at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Patients were followed for a median of 40 months (range 5-102 months). UAE led to symptomatic control after UAE in 29 (72.5%) of 40 patients while 11 women underwent hysterectomy (n = 10) or dilatation and curettage (n = 1) for therapy failure. No significant difference between women with pure uterine adenoymosis and women with uterine adenomyosis combined with uterine leiomyomata was observed. Best results were shown for UAE in uterine adenomyosis with uterine leiomyomata predominance as opposed to predominant uterine adenomyosis with minor fibroid disease (clinical failure 0% vs. 31.5%, P = 0.058). Throughout the study group, HRQOL score values increased and symptom severity scores decreased after UAE. Least improvement was noted for women with pure adenomyosis. Conclusions: UAE is clinically effective in the long term in most women with uterine adenomyosis. Symptomatic control and HRQOL were highest in patients with combined disease of uterine adenomyosis but leiomyomata predominance.

  4. Abnormal structure and increased stiffness of the femoral arterial wall in young patients with sustained essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eiskjaer, H; Christensen, T; Pedersen, E B

    1989-10-01

    Thickness, elastic modulus, and stiffness of the common femoral arterial wall were estimated in 11 patients with essential hypertension and in 11 age-matched normotensive control subjects by use of an in vivo, non-invasive, ultrasound time-motion display technique (M-mode). Hypertensive patients had significantly higher levels than normotensive subjects with regard to arterial wall thickness (0.23 cm vs. 0.18 cm, medians; P less than 0.01), elastic modulus (10.6 x 10(7) Pa vs. 6.18 x 10(7) Pa, medians; P less than 0.05) and arterial wall stiffness (3.80 x 10(7) Pa vs. 2.07 +/- 10(7) Pa, medians; P less than 0.01). It is concluded that structural changes in the wall of the large arteries contribute to the increase in arterial wall stiffness in young patients with sustained essential hypertension.

  5. Structural alterations of the c-mos locus in benign pleomorphic adenomas with chromosome abnormalities of 8q12.

    PubMed

    Stenman, G; Sahlin, P; Mark, J; Landys, D

    1991-07-01

    Recent mapping studies have assigned the human c-mos proto-oncogene to chromosome 8, bands q11-12. This region is frequently affected by chromosomal translocations in benign pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. Using Southern blot analysis we report here that the c-mos gene and its flanking sequences are structurally altered in pleomorphic adenomas with chromosomal rearrangements of 8q12. Rearrangements were detected in two out of 23 tumors. Restriction fragment analysis indicated that the rearrangements were due to multiple, subtle mutations involving the c-mos open reading frame and its flanking sequences. There was no direct evidence of translocation of mos in any of the tumors. Control DNAs from the two patients showed a normal restriction pattern for all enzymes tested, indicating that the rearrangements are tumor specific. Collectively, our cytogenetic and molecular data suggest involvement of the c-mos gene in the pathogenesis of pleomorphic adenomas.

  6. Magnetic and structural properties of CaMn0.9Mo0.1O3 perovskite synthesized in abnormal glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento Santos, Armando; Parra Vargas, Carlos Arturo; Supelano García, Ivan

    2015-09-01

    In this work we use the abnormal glow discharge (AGD) to produce the CaMn0.9Mo0.1O3 perovskite through decarbonize, calcination and sintering steps. Structural characterization was carry out by Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction on samples after sintering step. The magnetic properties was analysed through magnetization curves as a function of temperature for applied magnetic fields in the range of 20 Oe to 20 kOe by the ZFC-FC method and magnetization curves in function of the applied field at 50 K and 300 K temperatures. The CaMn0.9Mo0.1O3 perovskite was also produced by conventional method in resistive furnace and its behaviour was compared with those of the plasma synthesized. The X-ray analysis reveals that the samples produced by both methods crystalized in a Pnma structure, the lattice parameters change and one second phase appears when the AGD is applied in the last production steps. The magnetization measurements allow analysing the behaviour of the sample at low temperatures and comparing the magnetic transitions in the samples produced by both methods; these are influenced according to production method employed. The results shows that the use of AGD is an alternative method to produce ceramic materials, which reduced ostensibly the production time and allow to obtain similar magnetic and structural properties with respect to conventional method.

  7. Ovarian steroid hormone-regulated uterine remodeling occurs independently of macrophages in mice.

    PubMed

    Care, Alison S; Ingman, Wendy V; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Jasper, Melinda J; Robertson, Sarah A

    2014-09-01

    Macrophages are abundant in the uterine stroma and are intimately juxtaposed with other cell lineages comprising the uterine epithelial and stromal compartments. We postulated that macrophages may participate in mediating or amplifying the effects of ovarian steroid hormones to facilitate the uterine remodeling that is a characteristic feature of every estrus cycle and is essential for pregnancy. Using the Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mouse model with an ovariectomy and hormone replacement strategy, we depleted macrophages to determine their role in hormone-driven proliferation of uterine epithelial and stromal cells and uterine vascular development. Following diphtheria toxin (DT) administration, approximately 85% of EMR1-positive (EMR1⁺) macrophages, as well as 70% of CD11C⁺ dendritic cells, were depleted from Cd11b-Dtr mice. There was no change in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into epithelial cells induced to proliferate by administration of 17beta-estradiol (E2) to ovariectomized mice or into stromal cells induced to proliferate in response to E2 and progesterone (P4), and the resulting sizes and structures of the luminal epithelial and stromal cell compartments were not altered compared with those of leukocyte replete controls. Depletion of CD11B⁺ myeloid cells failed to alter the density or pattern of distribution of uterine blood vessels, as identified by staining PECAM1-positive endothelial cells in the uterine stroma of E2- or E2 combined with P4 (E2P4)-treated ovariectomized mice. These experiments support the interpretation that macrophages are dispensable to regulation of proliferative events induced by steroid hormones in the cycling and early pregnant mouse uterus to establish the epithelial, stromal, and vascular architecture which is critical for normal reproductive competence. PMID:25061095

  8. Alterations in uterine hemodynamics caused by uterine fibroids and their impact on in vitro fertilization outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Jun-Bum; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of fibroids on the blood flow of the uterine and subendometrial arteries and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. Methods In this study, we analyzed 86 IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in which a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol was used for controlled ovarian stimulation between January 2008 and March 2009. The subjects comprised 86 infertile women with (fibroid group, n=43) or without (control group, n=43) uterine fibroids. Results Patient characteristics were similar between the fibroid and control groups. The IVF/ICSI outcomes in patients with fibroids were similar to those of patients in the control group. The resistance index (RI) and pulsatile index (PI) of the uterine and subendometrial arteries on the day of embryo transfer were also comparable between the two groups. IVF outcomes and uterine hemodynamics in patients with multiple (≥2) fibroids were similar to those of patients with a single fibroid. However, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were significantly lower in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). The RI and PI of the subendometrial artery were significantly higher on the day of embryo transfer in patients with fibroids who experienced uterine cavity distortion than in patients with fibroids who had a normal uterine cavity (both p<0.05). Conclusion Fibroids which distorting the uterine cavity might impair the subendometrial artery blood flow clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate in infertile patients undergoing IVF. Otherwise, IVF outcomes were not influenced by the presence of uterine fibroids. PMID:26816875

  9. Uterine adenosarcomas are mesenchymal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Piscuoglio, Salvatore; Burke, Kathleen A; Ng, Charlotte K Y; Papanastasiou, Anastasios D; Geyer, Felipe C; Macedo, Gabriel S; Martelotto, Luciano G; de Bruijn, Ino; De Filippo, Maria R; Schultheis, Anne M; Ioris, Rafael A; Levine, Douglas A; Soslow, Robert A; Rubin, Brian P; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Weigelt, Britta

    2016-02-01

    Uterine adenosarcomas (UAs) are biphasic lesions composed of a malignant mesenchymal (ie stromal) component and an epithelial component. UAs are generally low-grade and have a favourable prognosis, but may display sarcomatous overgrowth (SO), which is associated with a worse outcome. We hypothesized that, akin to breast fibroepithelial lesions, UAs are mesenchymal neoplasms in which clonal somatic genetic alterations are restricted to the mesenchymal component. To characterize the somatic genetic alterations in UAs and to test this hypothesis, we subjected 20 UAs to a combination of whole-exome (n = 6), targeted capture (n = 13) massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and/or RNA sequencing (n = 6). Only three genes, FGFR2, KMT2C and DICER1, were recurrently mutated, all in 2/19 cases; however, 26% (5/19) and 21% (4/19) of UAs harboured MDM2/CDK4/HMGA2 and TERT gene amplification, respectively, and two cases harboured fusion genes involving NCOA family members. Using a combination of laser-capture microdissection and in situ techniques, we demonstrated that the somatic genetic alterations detected by MPS were restricted to the mesenchymal component. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA sequencing of microdissected samples revealed that epithelial and mesenchymal components of UAs were clonally unrelated. In conclusion, here we provide evidence that UAs are genetically heterogeneous lesions and mesenchymal neoplasms. PMID:26592504

  10. Disruption of Arp2/3 Results in Asymmetric Structural Plasticity of Dendritic Spines and Progressive Synaptic and Behavioral Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Hwan; Racz, Bence; Wang, Hong; Burianek, Lauren; Weinberg, Richard; Yasuda, Ryohei; Wetsel, William C.; Soderling, Scott H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knockout of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders. PMID:23554489

  11. Using tensor-based morphometry to detect structural brain abnormalities in rats with adolescent intermittent alcohol exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paniagua, Beatriz; Ehlers, Cindy; Crews, Fulton; Budin, Francois; Larson, Garrett; Styner, Martin; Oguz, Ipek

    2011-03-01

    Understanding the effects of adolescent binge drinking that persist into adulthood is a crucial public health issue. Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure (AIE) is an animal model that can be used to investigate these effects in rodents. In this work, we investigate the application of a particular image analysis technique, tensor-based morphometry, for detecting anatomical differences between AIE and control rats using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Deformation field analysis is a popular method for detecting volumetric changes analyzing Jacobian determinants calculated on deformation fields. Recent studies showed that computing deformation field metrics on the full deformation tensor, often referred to as tensor-based morphometry (TBM), increases the sensitivity to anatomical differences. In this paper we conduct a comprehensive TBM study for precisely locating differences between control and AIE rats. Using a DTI RARE sequence designed for minimal geometric distortion, 12-directional images were acquired postmortem for control and AIE rats (n=9). After preprocessing, average images for the two groups were constructed using an unbiased atlas building approach. We non-rigidly register the two atlases using Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping, and analyze the resulting deformation field using TBM. In particular, we evaluate the tensor determinant, geodesic anisotropy, and deformation direction vector (DDV) on the deformation field to detect structural differences. This yields data on the local amount of growth, shrinkage and the directionality of deformation between the groups. We show that TBM can thus be used to measure group morphological differences between rat populations, demonstrating the potential of the proposed framework.

  12. Disruption of Arp2/3 results in asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines and progressive synaptic and behavioral abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il Hwan; Racz, Bence; Wang, Hong; Burianek, Lauren; Weinberg, Richard; Yasuda, Ryohei; Wetsel, William C; Soderling, Scott H

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence for a strong genetic contribution to several major psychiatric disorders, individual candidate genes account for only a small fraction of these disorders, leading to the suggestion that multigenetic pathways may be involved. Several known genetic risk factors for psychiatric disease are related to the regulation of actin polymerization, which plays a key role in synaptic plasticity. To gain insight into and test the possible pathogenetic role of this pathway, we designed a conditional knock-out of the Arp2/3 complex, a conserved final output for actin signaling pathways that orchestrates de novo actin polymerization. Here we report that postnatal loss of the Arp2/3 subunit ArpC3 in forebrain excitatory neurons leads to an asymmetric structural plasticity of dendritic spines, followed by a progressive loss of spine synapses. This progression of synaptic deficits corresponds with an evolution of distinct cognitive, psychomotor, and social disturbances as the mice age. Together, these results point to the dysfunction of actin signaling, specifically that which converges to regulate Arp2/3, as an important cellular pathway that may contribute to the etiology of complex psychiatric disorders.

  13. Morphometric study on the uterine horn and thyroid gland in hypothyroid, and thyroxine treated hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed Central

    Inuwa, I; Williams, M A

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of reproductive disorders such as irregular menstruation and frank infertility is found in women with hypothyroidism. Most research done on these patients has focused on steroid and gonadotropin hormone profiles, whilst there has been little work on uterine morphology. Studies on hypothyroid animals have also demonstrated increases in fetal wastage, but there have been few studies of uterine structure in the hypothyroid rat. The present study has used hypothyroid Wistar rats as a model for investigating the effects of hypothyroidism on uterine structure. Three groups of Wistar rats were studied. One was made hypothyroid with methimazole (MMI), the 2nd was also made hypothyroid with methimazole but in addition the rats were simultaneously given daily thyroxine intraperitoneally (MMI + T4), and the 3rd was an untreated euthyroid group (control). Daily vaginal smears were obtained from rats in all 3 groups. All rats were aged 6 wk at the start of treatment and were killed after a further 6 wk. Uterine horns were removed and studied. Systematic random transverse sections were obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the horn and subjected to morphometric analysis. Difference between regions was assessed using 2-way analysis of variance. Absolute volume of endometrium in the uteri of hypothyroid rats was reduced by 45.1% (P < 0.05), whilst that of the muscle layer was decreased by 33.6% (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional area and absolute volume of the uterine horns were also reduced in hypothyroid animals (P < 0.05). In hypothyroid rats given thyroxine (MMI + T4) all variables increased significantly above those of hypothyroid rats. These changes suggest that hypothyroidism has an effect on uterine structure, which demonstrably improves under exogenous thyroxine administration. The observed structural changes might well play a significant role in the reproductive difficulties observed during hypothyroidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2

  14. Structurally abnormal type II collagen in a severe form of Kniest dysplasia caused by an exon 24 skipping mutation.

    PubMed

    Weis, M A; Wilkin, D J; Kim, H J; Wilcox, W R; Lachman, R S; Rimoin, D L; Cohn, D H; Eyre, D R

    1998-02-20

    Type II collagen mutations have been identified in a phenotypic continuum of chondrodysplasias that range widely in clinical severity. They include achondrogenesis type II, hypochondrogenesis, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Kniest dysplasia, and Stickler syndrome. We report here results that define the underlying genetic defect and consequent altered structure of assembled type II collagen in a neonatal lethal form of Kniest dysplasia. Electrophoresis of a cyanogen bromide (CNBr) (CB) digest of sternal cartilage revealed an alpha1(II)CB11 peptide doublet and a slightly retarded mobility for all major CB peptides, which implied post-translational overmodification. Further peptide mapping and sequence analysis of CB11 revealed equal amounts of a normal alpha1(II) sequence and a chain lacking the 18 residues (361-378 of the triple helical domain) corresponding to exon 24. Sequence analysis of an amplified genomic DNA fragment identified a G to A transition in the +5 position of the splice donor consensus sequence of intron 24 in one allele. Cartilage matrix analysis showed that the short alpha1(II) chain was present in collagen molecules that had become cross-linked into fibrils. Trypsin digestion of the pepsin-extracted native type II collagen selectively cleaved the normal length alpha1(II) chains within the exon 24 domain. These findings support a hypothesis that normal and short alpha-chains had combined to form heterotrimeric molecules in which the chains were in register in both directions from the deletion site, accommodated effectively by a loop out of the normal chain exon 24 domain. Such an accommodation, with potential overall shortening of the helical domain and hence misalignment of intermolecular relationships within fibrils, offers a common molecular mechanism by which a group of different mutations might act to produce the Kniest phenotype. PMID:9468540

  15. Aberrant Methylation of the E-Cadherin Gene Promoter Region in the Endometrium of Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ran, Ran; Guan, Yingxia; Zhu, Xiaoxiong; Kang, Shan

    2016-08-01

    A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma that originates from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. A variety of endometrial abnormalities are associated with uterine fibroids. This study aims to investigate the methylation status of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter region in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids. The methylation of CDH1 was studied using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in the endometrial tissue of 102 patients with uterine fibroids and 50 control patients. The E-cadherin expression was examined by flow cytometry. The methylation rate of CDH1 promoter region was 33.3% in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids and 8% in the endometrium of women without fibroids. The frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in the endometrium of patients with fibroids was significantly higher than that in the endometrium of women without fibroids (P = .001). Furthermore, the E-cadherin expression level in methylation-positive tissues was significantly lower than that in methylation-negative tissues (P = .017). These results suggest that epigenetic aberration of CDH1 may occur in the endometrium of patients with fibroids, which may be associated with E-cadherin protein expression in endometrial tissue. PMID:26880767

  16. Aberrant Methylation of the E-Cadherin Gene Promoter Region in the Endometrium of Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Ran, Ran; Guan, Yingxia; Zhu, Xiaoxiong; Kang, Shan

    2016-08-01

    A uterine fibroid is a leiomyoma that originates from the smooth muscle layer of the uterus. A variety of endometrial abnormalities are associated with uterine fibroids. This study aims to investigate the methylation status of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) promoter region in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids. The methylation of CDH1 was studied using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction in the endometrial tissue of 102 patients with uterine fibroids and 50 control patients. The E-cadherin expression was examined by flow cytometry. The methylation rate of CDH1 promoter region was 33.3% in the endometrium of patients with uterine fibroids and 8% in the endometrium of women without fibroids. The frequency of CDH1 promoter methylation in the endometrium of patients with fibroids was significantly higher than that in the endometrium of women without fibroids (P = .001). Furthermore, the E-cadherin expression level in methylation-positive tissues was significantly lower than that in methylation-negative tissues (P = .017). These results suggest that epigenetic aberration of CDH1 may occur in the endometrium of patients with fibroids, which may be associated with E-cadherin protein expression in endometrial tissue.

  17. Structural and functional MRI abnormalities of cerebellar cortex and nuclei in SCA3, SCA6 and Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Stefanescu, Maria R; Dohnalek, Moritz; Maderwald, Stefan; Thürling, Markus; Minnerop, Martina; Beck, Andreas; Schlamann, Marc; Diedrichsen, Joern; Ladd, Mark E; Timmann, Dagmar

    2015-05-01

    type 3. Within the cerebellar nuclei, reductions were significant when comparing spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 and Friedreich's ataxia to matched controls (P < 0.01, bootstrap-corrected cluster-size threshold; two-sample t-tests). Susceptibility weighted imaging allowed depiction of atrophy of the cerebellar nuclei in patients with Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. In spinocerebellar ataxia type 6, pathology was not restricted to the cerebellar cortex but also involved the cerebellar nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data, on the other hand, revealed that pathology in Friedreich's ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 is not restricted to the cerebellar nuclei. There was functional involvement of the cerebellar cortex despite no or little structural changes.

  18. Three-dimensional sonohysterography for examination of the uterine cavity in women with abnormal uterine bleeding: Preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Sconfienza, L M; Lacelli, F; Caldiera, V; Perrone, N; Piscopo, F; Gandolfo, N; Serafini, G

    2010-03-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Valutare l'impatto diagnostico della Isterosonografia Tridimensionale (ISG 3D) nello studio della cavità uterina in donne con sanguinamento anomalo (SUA) rispetto all'ecografia transvaginale (ETV) e all'isterosonografia bidimensionale (ISG 2D), particolarmente per l'identificazione di neoformazioni a sviluppo endocavitario della superficie endometriale e della parete uterina. MATERIALI E METODI: Ventiquattro pazienti affette da SUA sono state incluse nello studio. Ciascuna di esse é stata sottoposta ad ETV, ISG e ISG 3D durante la medesima seduta. Le acquisizioni 3D sono state ottenute con tecnica free-hand in fase di massima replezione idrica della cavità. Tutte le pazienti sono state valutate con isteroscopia entro 10 giorni dall'ecografia. Considerando l'esame isteroscopico come reference standard, sono stati calcolati i valori di sensibilità, specificità, valore predittivo positivo (VPP), valore predittivo negativo (VPN) ed accuratezza delle tre metodiche. RISULTATI: L'isteroscopia ha dimostrato la presenza di lesioni endocavitarie in 21/24 pazienti (87,5%). Nelle restanti pazienti l'esame isteroscopico è risultato negativo. ETV, ISG 2D ed ISG 3D hanno mostrato rispettivamente sensibilità del 76% (16/21), 90% (19/21), 100% (21/21); specificità del 100% (3/3), 100% (19/19), 100% (21/21); VPP del 100%, 100%, 100%; VPN del 37%, 60%, 100%; accuratezza 76%, 90%, 100%. L'ISG 3D ha consentito una completa identificazione dei rapporti delle lesioni con la cavità uterina e con la parete endometriale. CONCLUSIONI: L'ISG 3D è una metodica con maggiore sensibilità nella definizione delle lesioni della cavità uterina rispetto all'ISG 2D ed all'ETV. Se questi dati preliminari saranno confermati da studi piú ampi, ISG 3D potrebbe essere proposta come alternativa all'isteroscopia eseguita a soli fini diagnostici.

  19. What's New in Uterine Sarcoma Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for uterine sarcoma What`s new in uterine sarcoma research and treatment? Molecular pathology ... the chromosomes leads to the formation of a new gene, called JAZF1/JJAZ. This gene may help ...

  20. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too Women with BRCA1 may want to ... increased risk for a deadly form of uterine cancer, a new study finds. The BRCA1 gene mutation ...

  1. Use of nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation.

    PubMed

    Smith, G N; Brien, J F

    1998-09-01

    Data from human and experimental animal research indicate that nitric oxide (NO), a novel messenger, formed during the nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed oxidation of L-arginine to L-citrulline, is involved in maintaining normal uterine tone during gestation. There are demonstrated and potential benefits of manipulating the L-arginine-NO system during pregnancy. Several recent case reports and case series have described the effective use of nitroglycerin (GTN), a NO donor compound, antenatally, intrapartum, and postpartum for acute uterine relaxation. Therapeutic indications for GTN range from facilitating external cephalic version, difficult vaginal or cesarean section delivery, and manual exploration of the uterus, to its use as a tocolytic. The intravenous regimen of GTN required to obtain the desired degree of uterine relaxation is extremely variable; intravenous bolus doses of 50 micrograms to 500 micrograms GTN with up to three repeated injections of 50 micrograms to 250 micrograms have been reported. Other methods of GTN administration include transdermal patches and sublingual spray. GTN, when used in low doses, may provide safe and effective uterine relaxation with no clinically apparent fetal or maternal adverse effects. However, clinical trials with use of objective methods of evaluating uterine tone and comparing GTN to other tocolytic agents are required before widespread use in advocated.

  2. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation developing in retained products of conception: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surbhi; Goyal, Ankur; Mahajan, Surbhi; Sharma, Shikha; Dev, Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding in the postabortal period requires meticulous diagnostic work-up to decide proper management. Imaging modalities including Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in concert with clinical and laboratory findings are useful to narrow the differential diagnoses but are not definitive. Presence of increased uterine vascularity and arteriovenous shunting is non-specific and can be detected in a variety of conditions including retained trophoblastic tissue, gestational trophoblastic disease, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), placental polyp and vascular neoplasm. We present here a case of a multiparous woman with unexplained postabortal bleeding posing a diagnostic challenge. Excluding the possibility of AVM before attempting dilatation and curettage in such a clinical scenario is crucial to prevent catastrophic bleeding. PMID:24033740

  3. Antepartum uterine rupture in previous caesarean sections presenting as advanced extrauterine pregnancies: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Ramphal, Surandhra R; Moodley, Jagidesa

    2009-03-01

    In present day obstetric practice, rupture of a previously scarred uterus should be uncommon. It occurs in <1% of previous caesarean sections and most cases occur during labour and have evidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, vaginal bleeding and continuous abdominal pains. Clinicians are alert to these symptoms and signs, and therefore immediate action is taken to prevent further maternal morbidity and mortality. However, rupture of a previously scarred uterus may occur occasionally in the antepartum period. In such circumstances, the patients may be haemodynamically stable and present with loss of fetal movements and vague abdominal pains, and are treated expectantly for a period of time because an initial diagnosis of advanced extra-uterine pregnancy is made. We present a series of 7 cases, all of whom had one or more previous caesarean sections, were haemodynamically stable and were being managed expectantly, to illustrate the fact that ruptured uterus should be strongly considered in the differential diagnosis, even when the clinical signs and sonography are suggestive of an advanced extra-uterine pregnancy. The lessons in these cases fall into the following categories: 1. Ruptured uteri can occur in non-labouring women with previous lower segment caesarean sections. 2. Absence of signs of peritonism is possibly due to the fact that the pregnancy is extruded through the uterine rupture with the amniotic sac being intact and there is little or no bleeding into the abdominal cavity or vaginally. 3. Imaging techniques should focus on the size of the uterus, as an enlarged uterus in the background of an advanced extra-uterine pregnancy in a previously scarred uterus is highly suggestive of uterine rupture. Clinicians must strongly consider ruptured uteri in non labouring women with previous caesarean sections even when imaging modalities suggest an advanced extrauterine pregnancy. This will lead to earlier surgical treatment and appropriate information

  4. Papillary Squamotransitional Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shomaila Aamir M; Tunio, Mutahir A; Al-Dandan, Sadeq; Salamah, Kareema Mohammed Y; AlAsiri, Mushabbab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSTCC) is an uncommon histopathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix, which occurs in postmenopausal women. Presentation of Case. Herein, we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with 4-month history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a fragile lesion of size 1 × 1 cm invading left posterior vaginal fornice and parametrium. Biopsy showed the presence of papillae containing fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelial cells resembling squamous and transitional cell epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of PSTCC of the uterine cervix. After staging work-up she was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system 2009 as FIGO IIB, and she was started on extended field concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare and aggressive entity. PSTCC is often characterized by the presence of papillary structures with prominent fibrovascular cores. PSTCC of the uterine cervix should be differentiated from transitional cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with papillary features. Conclusion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is a diagnostic challenge; further studies regarding the mechanism underlying the development of PSCC are warranted. PMID:27656303

  5. Knowledge of, Perception of, and Attitude towards Uterine Fibroids among Women with Fibroids in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adegbesan-Omilabu, M. A.; Okunade, K. S.; Gbadegesin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The study was to assess the level of knowledge of, perception of, and attitude towards uterine fibroids among women diagnosed with the condition. Methods. It is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among women diagnosed as having uterine fibroids in two gynaecological clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. Eligible women were recruited and a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the required information. Statistical analysis of data was done using EPI Info 2008. Results. Knowledge of fibroids was reported in 98.6% of the respondents and the information on uterine fibroids was obtained from radio, parents/relatives, health workers, and television in 29%, 27.3%, 18.7%, and 18.3%, respectively, by the respondents. Most of the women believed that being black, being nulliparous, or having positive family history predisposes women to having uterine fibroids. Up to 69.0% of the respondents believed that fibroid is a spiritual problem and many thought it requires spiritual healing. Fear of complications of surgery keeps most sufferers away from the hospital until fibroids become advanced or associated with complications. Conclusion. Awareness of uterine fibroids is high, but correct knowledge on aetiology and proper treatment is low. Intensive enlightenment of the populace using the mass media by trained personnel is recommended. PMID:24757580

  6. Papillary Squamotransitional Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salamah, Kareema Mohammed Y.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSTCC) is an uncommon histopathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix, which occurs in postmenopausal women. Presentation of Case. Herein, we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with 4-month history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a fragile lesion of size 1 × 1 cm invading left posterior vaginal fornice and parametrium. Biopsy showed the presence of papillae containing fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelial cells resembling squamous and transitional cell epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of PSTCC of the uterine cervix. After staging work-up she was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system 2009 as FIGO IIB, and she was started on extended field concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare and aggressive entity. PSTCC is often characterized by the presence of papillary structures with prominent fibrovascular cores. PSTCC of the uterine cervix should be differentiated from transitional cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with papillary features. Conclusion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is a diagnostic challenge; further studies regarding the mechanism underlying the development of PSCC are warranted. PMID:27656303

  7. Sex Steroids Modulate Uterine-Placental Vasculature: Implications for Obstetrics and Neonatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maliqueo, Manuel; Echiburú, Bárbara; Crisosto, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Adequate blood supply to the uterine-placental region is crucial to ensure the transport of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Multiple factors intervene to achieve appropriate uterine blood flow and the structuring of the placental vasculature during the early stages of pregnancy. Among these factors, oxygen concentrations, growth factors, cytokines, and steroid hormones are the most important. Sex steroids are present in extremely high concentrations in the maternal circulation and are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of a wide range of maternal and placental functions. In this regard, progesterone and estrogens act as modulators of uterine vessels and decrease the resistance of the spiral uterine arteries. On the other hand, androgens have the opposite effect, increasing the vascular resistance of the uterus. Moreover, progesterone and estrogens modulate the synthesis and release of angiogenic factors by placental cells, which regulates trophoblastic invasion and uterine artery remodeling. In this scenario, it is not surprising that women with pregnancy-related pathologies, such as early miscarriages, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and fetal growth restriction, exhibit altered sex steroid concentrations. PMID:27199767

  8. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  9. Papillary Squamotransitional Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salamah, Kareema Mohammed Y.; AlAsiri, Mushabbab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma (PSTCC) is an uncommon histopathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the uterine cervix, which occurs in postmenopausal women. Presentation of Case. Herein, we describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with 4-month history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Vaginal examination revealed a fragile lesion of size 1 × 1 cm invading left posterior vaginal fornice and parametrium. Biopsy showed the presence of papillae containing fibrovascular cores lined by multilayered atypical epithelial cells resembling squamous and transitional cell epithelium, confirming the diagnosis of PSTCC of the uterine cervix. After staging work-up she was staged according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system 2009 as FIGO IIB, and she was started on extended field concurrent chemoradiation. Discussion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare and aggressive entity. PSTCC is often characterized by the presence of papillary structures with prominent fibrovascular cores. PSTCC of the uterine cervix should be differentiated from transitional cell carcinoma, squamous papilloma, papillary adenocarcinoma, and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with papillary features. Conclusion. PSTCC of the uterine cervix is a diagnostic challenge; further studies regarding the mechanism underlying the development of PSCC are warranted.

  10. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad

    2012-01-01

    To investigate uterine and serum Ca(++) and Mg(++) variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL(-1), and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca(++) was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL(-1), respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg(++) in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL(-1), and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg(++) was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL(-1), respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca(++) was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca(++) in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg(++) content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg(++) content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg(++) was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca(++) is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca(++) variations but Mg(++) is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations. PMID:25653760

  11. Uterine torsion and cesarean section in llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Anderson, David E

    2009-07-01

    Dystocia occurs infrequently in llamas and alpacas. Uterine torsion is one of the more common causes of dystocia that requires veterinary care. Cesarean section may be required to resolve dystocia or uterine torsion. Correction of uterine torsion is most often successful without laparotomy. Laparotomy and cesarean section can be performed successfully in llamas and alpacas in field settings. This article discusses the indications, techniques, and expected outcomes of uterine torsion and cesarean section when performed in llamas or alpacas.

  12. Clinical efficiency investigation of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang-Hua; Gao, Ling-Ling; Gu, Yang; Song, Jing-Zhe; Gao, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids. From August 2008 to August 2009, forty-eight women with uterine fibroids desiring to preserve their uteri underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Among them, 18 women received laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before uterine myomectomy while the others received laparoscopic myomectomy only. All of the 48 cases with uterine fibroids underwent laparoscopic myomectomy successfully, and no patient developed Intraoperative or postoperative complications. The average operation time was (105.6±27.6) min, and the average surgical blood loss was (87.52±18.35) ml. Blocking uterine artery before laparoscopic myomectomy is valuable and feasible for the management of women with symptomatic fibroids. Adopting this method can obtain pleasing therapeutic effect. The method can reduce blood loss thus make the surgical field clean and clear, and it can reduce the operating time and recurrence rate. It can also reduce electro-coagulation on the surgical surface and therefore cause less tissue necrosis and lower incidence of complications. PMID:24995096

  13. Clinical efficiency investigation of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiang-Hua; Gao, Ling-Ling; Gu, Yang; Song, Jing-Zhe; Gao, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids. From August 2008 to August 2009, forty-eight women with uterine fibroids desiring to preserve their uteri underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Among them, 18 women received laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before uterine myomectomy while the others received laparoscopic myomectomy only. All of the 48 cases with uterine fibroids underwent laparoscopic myomectomy successfully, and no patient developed Intraoperative or postoperative complications. The average operation time was (105.6±27.6) min, and the average surgical blood loss was (87.52±18.35) ml. Blocking uterine artery before laparoscopic myomectomy is valuable and feasible for the management of women with symptomatic fibroids. Adopting this method can obtain pleasing therapeutic effect. The method can reduce blood loss thus make the surgical field clean and clear, and it can reduce the operating time and recurrence rate. It can also reduce electro-coagulation on the surgical surface and therefore cause less tissue necrosis and lower incidence of complications.

  14. Clinical efficiency investigation of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiang-Hua; Gao, Ling-Ling; Gu, Yang; Song, Jing-Zhe; Gao, Jing; Ji, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion combined with myomectomy for uterine fibroids. From August 2008 to August 2009, forty-eight women with uterine fibroids desiring to preserve their uteri underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. Among them, 18 women received laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion before uterine myomectomy while the others received laparoscopic myomectomy only. All of the 48 cases with uterine fibroids underwent laparoscopic myomectomy successfully, and no patient developed Intraoperative or postoperative complications. The average operation time was (105.6±27.6) min, and the average surgical blood loss was (87.52±18.35) ml. Blocking uterine artery before laparoscopic myomectomy is valuable and feasible for the management of women with symptomatic fibroids. Adopting this method can obtain pleasing therapeutic effect. The method can reduce blood loss thus make the surgical field clean and clear, and it can reduce the operating time and recurrence rate. It can also reduce electro-coagulation on the surgical surface and therefore cause less tissue necrosis and lower incidence of complications. PMID:24995096

  15. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity...

  16. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity...

  18. 21 CFR 884.2730 - Home uterine activity monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the clinic. The HUAM system comprises a tocotransducer, an at-home recorder, a modem, and a computer... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Home uterine activity monitor. 884.2730 Section... Devices § 884.2730 Home uterine activity monitor. (a) Identification. A home uterine activity...

  19. Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA

    SciTech Connect

    Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi

    1996-03-01

    Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

  20. Use of Cyclosporine in Uterine Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Saso, Srdjan; Logan, Karl; Abdallah, Yazan; Louis, Louay S.; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Smith, J. Richard; Del Priore, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Uterine transplantation has been proposed as a possible solution to absolute uterine factor infertility untreatable by any other option. Since the first human attempt in 2000, various teams have tried to clarify which immunosuppressant would be most suitable for protecting the allogeneic uterine graft while posing a minimal risk to the fetus. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant widely used by transplant recipients. It is currently being tested as a potential immunosuppressant to be used during UTn. Its effect on the mother and fetus and its influence upon the graft during pregnancy have been of major concern. We review the role of CsA in UTn and its effect on pregnant transplant recipients and their offspring. PMID:22132302

  1. Imaging diagnosis of congenital uterine malformation.

    PubMed

    Pui, Margaret H

    2004-10-01

    Congenital anomaly of the female reproductive system is associated with higher rate of infertility, spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, premature birth and postpartum bleed. Because of the variable clinical pictures of obstruction of menstrual flow in adolescence to hypomenorrhea, vaginal discharge, dyspareunia, and fertility problems in adult life, early and accurate diagnosis is difficult. Complete uterine and vaginal septum can be easily confused with uterus didelphys. Management of these two müllerian duct anomalies is different. With improved treatment methods for complete relief of symptoms and prevention of further sequelae, comprehensive evaluation is important to identify the underlying problem and formulate appropriate therapeutic plan. The embryology, classification, and clinical presentation of uterine malformation, advantages and limitations of diagnostic methods including hysterosalpingogram, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopy, and hysteroscopy are discussed. The imaging features of different types of uterine anomalies are illustrated.

  2. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

  3. Effect of cobalt doping on the structural, magnetic and abnormal thermal expansion properties of NaZn13-type La(Fe1-xCox)11.4Al1.6 compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuqiang; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Shaopeng; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Xingxing; Lin, Zheshuai; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Laifeng

    2016-07-27

    Cubic NaZn13-type La(Fe1-xCox)11.4Al1.6 compounds were synthesized and extensively explored through crystal structure and magnetization analyses. By optimizing the chemical composition, the isotropic abnormal properties of excellent zero and giant negative thermal expansion in a pure form were both found at different temperature ranges through room temperature. Moreover, the temperature regions with the remarkable abnormal thermal expansion (ATE) properties have been broadened which are controlled by the dM/dT. The present study demonstrates that the ATE behavior mainly depends on special structural and magnetic properties. These diverse properties suggest the high potential of La(Fe1-xCox)11.4Al1.6 for the development of abnormal expansion materials. PMID:27411397

  4. Uterine Prolapse: From Antiquity to Today

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Keith T.

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a condition that has likely affected women for all of time as it is documented in the oldest medical literature. By looking at the watershed moments in its recorded history we are able to appreciate the evolution of urogynecology and to gain perspective on the challenges faced by today's female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons in their attempts to treat uterine and vaginal vault prolapse. “He who cannot render an account to himself of at least three thousand years of time, will always grope in the darkness of inexperience” —Goethe, Translation of Panebaker PMID:22262975

  5. Cesarean Hysterectomy and Uterine-Preserving Alternatives.

    PubMed

    Huls, Christopher Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Hysterectomy at the time of an obstetric delivery or postpartum is an uncommon time to perform one of the most common gynecologic procedures. Hysterectomy associated with pregnancy is often unplanned and undesired. Postpartum complications associated with the need for hysterectomy carry significant risks, which pose challenges for mother-infant bonding and can signify an unexpected end to fertility. The most common indication for hysterectomy is postpartum hemorrhage. Postpartum hemorrhage is caused by uterine atony, genital tract laceration, uterine rupture, invasive placentation, infection, or coagulopathy. Multidisciplinary teams improve outcomes and are capable of managing complex medical and surgical complications that occur postpartum. PMID:27521882

  6. Uterine cancer presenting as obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Valdano; Rocha, Eserval; Fortini, Giovana; Pascoal, Zeida; Netto, Renata; Rengel, Lenira; Birolini, Claudio; Utiyama, Edivaldo Massazo

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice as an initial manifestation of uterine cancer is extremely rare. We present a case of a 72-year-old female who presented with obstructive jaundice, supposedly for pancreatic cancer. After detailed diagnostic investigation, the cause of the jaundice was attributed to a metastatic compression of the common bile duct, from the primary neoplasm of the uterus. This case highlights the importance of including uterine cancer in the differential diagnosis of woman presenting with obstructive jaundice, even though it is very rare. PMID:27462179

  7. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  8. Relationship between uterine natural killer cells and unexplained repeated miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Farghali, Mohamed M.; El-kholy, Abdel-Latif G.; Swidan, Khaled H.; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A.; Rashed, Ahmed R.; El-Sobky, Ezzat; Goma, Mostafa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relation between uterine killer (uK) cells and unexplained repeated miscarriage (RM). Material and Methods Eighty women with unexplained repeated miscarriage and missed miscarriage of current pregnancy were studied. Fetal viability and gestational age of the current pregnancy were confirmed by ultrasound, followed by suction evacuation to collect abortion specimens and uterine wall curettage to collect decidua specimens. Abortion specimens were collected for long-term monolayer cell culture and subsequent chromosome analysis using conventional G-banding. Decidua specimens were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies specific to CD56+ and CD16+ expressed by uK cells. Results CD56+ CD16+ uK cells were found in 85% [68/80] of the studied decidua specimens of women with unexplained repeated miscarriage; 88.5% [54/61] had normal abortion karyotyping and 73.7% [14/19] had abnormal abortion karyotyping. Moreover, 73.75% [59/80] of the studied women with a past history of early miscarriage had CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in their decidua specimens, and 66.25% [53/80] of studied women with a past history of late miscarriage had CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in their decidua specimens; the association between early and late miscarriage and CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in decidua specimens was significant. Conclusion CD56+CD16+ uK cells were predominant in the decidua specimens of the studied women with repeated miscarriage. A significant association was found between the presence of CD56+ CD16+ uK cells in the studied decidua specimens and unexplained repeated miscarriage. PMID:26692771

  9. Uterine Leiomyoma Stem Cells: Linking Progesterone to Growth.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Moravek, Molly B; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon, John S; Dyson, Matthew T; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E; Zhao, Hong; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) represent the most common class of benign tumors in women. Multiple leiomyomas usually arise from the uterus of a symptomatic woman. These tumors cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are responsible for more than 200,000 hysterectomies in the United States annually. Each leiomyoma seems to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a mutation. Tumor expansion is sustained by cell proliferation together with the production of large amounts of extracellular matrix. Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth of leiomyomas. Estrogen, together with its receptor ERα, enables progesterone action via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression. Progesterone induces the growth of leiomyoma by regulation of a set of key genes that control proliferation and apoptosis. A distinct cell population with stem-progenitor properties is indispensable for progesterone-dependent growth of leiomyomas. This stem-progenitor cell population is deficient in ERα and PR and dependent on the much higher levels of these steroid receptors in surrounding mature leiomyoma or myometrial cells. Progesterone sends paracrine signals from these mature cells to stem cells. The WNT/β-catenin pathway comprises a key component of this paracrine signaling system. The majority of medical treatments currently available for leiomyoma works by inhibiting estrogen or progesterone production or action, but tumors tend to regrow once treatment is stopped. Targeting stem cells and their paracrine interactions with more differentiated cell populations within leiomyoma may lead to the development of more effective therapeutics.

  10. Ovarian steroids, stem cells and uterine leiomyoma: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Yin, Ping; Ono, Masanori; Coon V, John S.; Dyson, Matthew T.; Navarro, Antonia; Marsh, Erica E.; Chakravarti, Debabrata; Kim, J. Julie; Wei, Jian-Jun; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor in women and is thought to arise from the clonal expansion of a single myometrial smooth muscle cell transformed by a cellular insult. Leiomyomas cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, bladder or bowel dysfunction, and recurrent pregnancy loss, and are the most common indication for hysterectomy in the USA. A slow rate of cell proliferation, combined with the production of copious amounts of extracellular matrix, accounts for tumor expansion. A common salient feature of leiomyomas is their responsiveness to steroid hormones, thus providing an opportunity for intervention. METHODS A comprehensive search of PUBMED was conducted to identify peer-reviewed literature published since 1980 pertinent to the roles of steroid hormones and somatic stem cells in leiomyoma, including literature on therapeutics that target steroid hormone action in leiomyoma. Reviewed articles were restricted to English language only. Studies in both animals and humans were reviewed for the manuscript. RESULTS Estrogen stimulates the growth of leiomyomas, which are exposed to this hormone not only through ovarian steroidogenesis, but also through local conversion of androgens by aromatase within the tumors themselves. The primary action of estrogen, together with its receptor estrogen receptor α (ERα), is likely mediated via induction of progesterone receptor (PR) expression, thereby allowing leiomyoma responsiveness to progesterone. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the growth of leiomyoma through a set of key genes that regulate both apoptosis and proliferation. Given these findings, aromatase inhibitors and antiprogestins have been developed for the treatment of leiomyoma, but neither treatment results in complete regression of leiomyoma, and tumors recur after treatment is stopped. Recently, distinct cell populations were discovered in leiomyomas; a small population showed stem

  11. Second-trimester pregnancy termination for genetic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, W F; LaFerla, J J

    1982-09-01

    2nd trimester pregnancy termination techniques are reviewed in this discussion, and attention is directed to some of the special needs of couples with a genetically abnormal fetus. Focus is on the psychological considerations, the medical techniques (prostaglandins, hypertonic saline, and hypertonic urea), and surgical techniques (dilatation and evacuation and abdominal operations). Patients who present for genetic diagnosis are generally older, more often married, and desirous of a healthy pregnancy outcome. The grief response is common and understandable when one considers that amniocentesis results are not known until after quickening and that patients have seen the ultrasonic image of their living fetuses at the time of amniocentesis. Patients differ in their manner of dealing with the loss of their hoped for healthy children, and the physician must be sufficiently sensitive to assess the individual patient's needs rather than give the same advice when counseling every patient. The patient and her partner may want to vent their immediate feelings or concentrate on the objective details of the termination procedure. In any case, the various available methods of terminating the pregnancy should be reviewed along with their advantages and disadvantages. Prostaglandins should be used with caution and are contraindicated for the following conditions: hypersensitivity; pelvic inflammatory disease; unfavorable fetal position; and placenta previa. Careful monitoring of uterine contractions should be done. The primary advantage of prostaglandins in terminating a pregnancy with a malformed or genetically abnormal fetus is the removal of an intact fetus for morphologic examination and for other diagnostic tests to confirm the antenatal diagnosis. Hypertonic saline promotes uterine contractions by drawing fluid from the vascular and extravascular space. 100 milliliters of amniotic fluid is removed with a 20 gauge spinal needle, and 200 ml of a 20% saline solution instilled

  12. Assessment and optimization of uterine activity during labor.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kathleen R; Miller, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    Accurate assessment of uterine activity during labor is essential to promote optimal patient outcomes. This review provides clinicians with information to develop an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of uterine activity during labor including identification and treatment of excessive uterine activity. Common terminology is defined in an effort to enhance clear and direct communication and accurate assessment. The latest evidence regarding normal labor is presented along with physiology related to uterine activity and fetal oxygenation. Suggestions for managing excessive uterine activity are offered as well as a synopsis of risk reduction strategies for clinical practice.

  13. Stress during a Critical Postnatal Period Induces Region-Specific Structural Abnormalities and Dysfunction of the Prefrontal Cortex via CRF1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Dun; Liao, Xue-Mei; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Liu, Rui; Xie, Xiao-Meng; Jia, Jiao; Su, Yun-Ai; Li, Ji-Tao; Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Si, Tian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    During the early postnatal period, environmental influences play a pivotal role in shaping the development of the neocortex, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is crucial for working memory and goal-directed actions. Exposure to stressful experiences during this critical period may disrupt the development of PFC pyramidal neurons and impair the wiring and function of related neural circuits. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impact of early-life stress on PFC development and function are not well understood. In this study, we found that repeated stress exposure during the first postnatal week hampered dendritic development in layers II/III and V pyramidal neurons in the dorsal agranular cingulate cortex (ACd) and prelimbic cortex (PL) of neonatal mice. The deleterious effects of early postnatal stress on structural plasticity persisted to adulthood only in ACd layer V pyramidal neurons. Most importantly, concurrent blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1) by systemic antalarmin administration (20 μg/g of body weight) during early-life stress exposure prevented stress-induced apical dendritic retraction and spine loss in ACd layer V neurons and impairments in PFC-dependent cognitive tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of dendritic regression, especially the shrinkage of apical branches, of ACd layer V neurons predicted the degree of cognitive deficits in stressed mice. Our data highlight the region-specific effects of early postnatal stress on the structural plasticity of prefrontal pyramidal neurons, and suggest a critical role of CRF1 in modulating early-life stress-induced prefrontal abnormalities. PMID:25403725

  14. MRI Assessment of Uterine Artery Patency and Fibroid Infarction Rates 6 Months after Uterine Artery Embolization with Nonspherical Polyvinyl Alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Raj Gonsalves, Michael; Vlahos, Ioannis; Manyonda, Issac; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: We have observed significant rates of uterine artery patency after uterine artery embolization (UAE) with nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (nsPVA) on 6 month follow-up MR scanning. The study aim was to quantitatively assess uterine artery patency after UAE with nsPVA and to assess the effect of continued uterine artery patency on outcomes. Methods: A single centre, retrospective study of 50 patients undergoing bilateral UAE for uterine leiomyomata was undertaken. Pelvic MRI was performed before and 6 months after UAE. All embolizations were performed with nsPVA. Outcome measures included uterine artery patency, uterine and dominant fibroid volume, dominant fibroid percentage infarction, presence of ovarian arterial collaterals, and symptom scores assessed by the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Results: Magnetic resonance angiographic evidence of uterine artery recanalization was demonstrated in 90 % of the patients (64 % bilateral, 26 % unilateral) at 6 months. Eighty percent of all dominant fibroids demonstrated >90 % infarction. The mean percentage reduction in dominant fibroid volume was 35 %. No significant difference was identified between nonpatent, unilateral, and bilateral recanalization of the uterine arteries with regard to percentage dominant fibroid infarction or dominant fibroid volume reduction. The presence of bilaterally or unilaterally patent uterine arteries was not associated with inferior clinical outcomes (symptom score or UFS-QOL scores) at 6 months. Conclusion: The high rates of uterine artery patency challenge the current paradigm that nsPVA is a permanent embolic agent and that permanent uterine artery occlusion is necessary to optimally treat uterine fibroids. Despite high rates of uterine artery recanalization in this cohort, satisfactory fibroid infarction rates and UFS-QOL scores were achieved.

  15. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  16. Influence of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids on uterine function.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, E; Jawerbaum, A; Novaro, V; Gimeno, M A

    1997-01-01

    In spite of the large quantities of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EEts) released by reproductive tissues, their function has not yet been determined. In order to analyze the influence of epoxygenase products on isolated uterine function, Clotrimazole, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor was used. The drug decreased isolated rat uterine isometric developed tension (IDT) and frequency (FC). 14,15 EEt induced a contractile response when added at 10(11) M, 8,9 EEt and 11,12 EEt produced an increment of IDT when added to 10(-7) M and 5,6 EEt did not modify IDT values. A contractile stimulatory effect was observed when 14,15 EEt (10(-7) M) was added to a tissue bath preparation containing Clotrimazole (20 microM). On the other hand, uterine contractile response to 14,15 EEt addition was partially abolished by indomethacin (10(-6) M), a well known cyclooxygenase inhibitor. Uterine response to 5,6; 8,9 and 11,12 EEts was not modified by indomethacin. This is the first evidence of 14-15 EEt uterotonic properties, possibly exerted in part through the cyclooxygenase pathway.

  17. Anastomoses of the Ovarian and Uterine Arteries: A Potential Pitfall and Cause of Failure of Uterine Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Matthew; Nicholson, Anthony; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2000-09-15

    Four women with symptomatic uterine fibroids were treated by uterine artery embolization (UAE). In all cases both uterine arteries were embolized via a single femoral puncture with polyvinyl alcohol using a selective catheter technique. In three cases, the ovarian artery was not visible on the initial angiogram before embolization, but appeared after the second uterine artery had been treated. In one case of clinical failure following UAE, a repeat angiogram demonstrated filling of the fibroids from the ovarian artery. Anastomoses between uterine and ovarian arteries may cause problems for radiologists performing UAE and are a potential cause of treatment failure.

  18. Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.

    PubMed

    Czernobilsky, Bernard

    2008-04-01

    Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements. An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors. In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm. Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential. In recent years, the histological features in group 2 were found to be much more varied than those in group 1 and consisted among others of retiform areas, glomeruloid structures, and Leydig-like cells. In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules. Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors. The most significant information in recently conducted studies concerns the immunophenotype of these lesions especially of UTROSCT. Out of the plethora of the immunohistochemical stains, a panel of 4 including calretinin, inhibin, CD99, and Melan A has emerged which seemed to be the most characteristic sex cord markers. Positivity for calretinin and at least for 1 of the other above-mentioned markers may thus confirm the diagnosis of UTROSCT. Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually

  19. Minimally invasive surgical options for congenital and acquired uterine factors associated with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amelia P; Jaslow, Carolyn R; Kutteh, William H

    2015-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined as two or more failed clinical pregnancies before 20 weeks' gestation and may be caused by genetic, endocrinologic, anatomic and immunologic abnormalities. Anatomic uterine anomalies include congenital malformations (bicornuate, didelphic, septate and unicornuate uteri) and acquired defects (fibroids, adenomas, adhesions and polyps). Women with septate and bicornuate uteri, intrauterine adhesions, and some adenomas and fibroids are at increased risk of RPL. Data support surgical treatment of all of these lesions except bicornuate uteri. The role of polyps in RPL is unclear. Minimally invasive options for surgical correction of intrauterine lesions include hysteroscopy, laparoscopy with and without robotic assistance and minilaparotomy.

  20. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty.

  1. Tamm-Horsfall protein in recurrent calcium kidney stone formers with positive family history: abnormalities in urinary excretion, molecular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Markus; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Zipperle, Ljerka; Hess, Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) powerfully inhibits calcium oxalate crystal aggregation, but structurally abnormal THPs from recurrent calcium stone formers may promote crystal aggregation. Therefore, increased urinary excretion of abnormal THP might be of relevance in nephrolithiasis. We studied 44 recurrent idiopathic calcium stone formers with a positive family history of stone disease (RCSF(fam)) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (C). Twenty-four-hour urinary THP excretion was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Structural properties of individually purified THPs were obtained from analysis of elution patterns from a Sepharose 4B column. Sialic acid (SA) contents of native whole 24-h urines, crude salt precipitates of native urines and individually purified THPs were measured. THP function was studied by measuring inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in vitro (pH 5.7, 200 mM sodium chloride). Twenty-four-hour urine excretion of THP was higher in RCSF(fam) (44.0 +/- 4.0 mg/day) than in C (30.9 +/- 2.2 mg/day, P = 0.015). Upon salt precipitation and lyophilization, elution from a Sepharose 4B column revealed one major peak (peak A, cross-reacting with polyclonal anti-THP antibody) and a second minor peak (peak B, not cross-reacting). THPs from RCSF(fam) eluted later than those from C (P = 0.021), and maximum width of THP peaks was higher in RCSF(fam )than in C (P = 0.024). SA content was higher in specimens from RCSF(fam) than from C, in native 24-h urines (207.5 +/- 20.4 mg vs. 135.2 +/- 16.1 mg, P = 0.013) as well as in crude salt precipitates of 24-h urines (10.4 +/- 0.5 mg vs. 7.4 +/- 0.9 mg, P = 0.002) and in purified THPs (75.3 +/- 9.3 microg/mg vs. 48.8 +/- 9.8 microg/mg THP, P = 0.043). Finally, inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal aggregation by 40 mg/L of THP was lower in RCSF(fam) (6.1 +/- 5.5%, range -62.0 to +84.2%) than in C (24.9 +/- 6.0%, range -39.8 to +82.7%), P = 0.022, and only 25 out of 44 (57%) THPs from RCSF

  2. Correlation of clinical and molecular biological abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Cole, W; Chan, D; Lamande, S; Mascara, T; Rogers, J; Bateman, J

    1989-01-01

    Substitution of a glycine residue in the triple helix of the alpha 1(I) chain by either arginine, valine or alanine was associated with the type II lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta phenotype. This phenotype was also produced by a frameshift mutation that resulted in an abnormal amino acid sequence of the carboxy-terminal propeptide of the pro-alpha 1(I) chain. The latter baby, however, showed some clinical and radiographic differences from the other babies with type II OI. The severity of the clinical and radiographic phenotypes are likely to be determined by both the type and site of the mutation as well as by the intra-uterine environment.

  3. Endocrinology of Uterine Fibroids: Steroid Hormones, Stem Cells, and Genetic Contribution

    PubMed Central

    Moravek, Molly B.; Bulun, Serdar E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review Uterine fibroids are extremely common, and can cause significant morbidity, yet the exact etiology of these tumors remains elusive and there are currently no long-term treatments available. In this review we aim to provide an overview of steroid hormones, genetic abnormalities, and stem cells in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids. Recent Findings A universal feature of fibroids is responsiveness to estrogen and progesterone, and most of the currently available therapies exploit this characteristic. Ulipristal acetate has recently shown particular promise for providing long-term relief from uterine fibroids. Additionally, fibroid stem cells were isolated and appear to be necessary for growth. The recent discovery of somatic mutations involving MED12 or HMGA2 in the majority of fibroids and the links to their pathophysiology were also significant advances. Summary The recent shift in focus from hormones to fibroid stem cells and genetic aberrations should lead not only to a deeper understanding of the specific etiology of fibroids, but also to the discovery of new therapeutic targets. Targeting the products of genetic mutations or fibroid stem cells has the potential to achieve both better control of current tumors and the prevention of new fibroids. PMID:26107781

  4. Successful Management of Two Cases of Placenta Accreta and a Literature Review: Use of the B-Lynch Suture and Bilateral Uterine Artery Ligation Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Maliheh; Ghavami, Behnaz; Saraeian, Samaneh; Sheibani, Samaneh; Abbasian Azar, Fatemeh; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Placenta accreta is an increasingly common complication of pregnancy that can result in massive hemorrhage. Case Presentation We describe two cases of placenta accreta, with successful conservative management in a referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. In both cases, two procedures were performed: compression suture (B-Lynch) and a perfusion-decreasing procedure (bilateral uterine artery ligation). We also present the results of a narrative literature review. Conclusions The double B-Lynch and uterine arterial ligation procedure in cases of abnormal placentation might be strongly considered in fertility preservation, coagulopathy, coexisting medical disease, blood access shortage, low surgical experience, distant local hospitals, and no help. PMID:27354921

  5. Tualang Honey Protects against BPA-Induced Morphological Abnormalities and Disruption of ERα, ERβ, and C3 mRNA and Protein Expressions in the Uterus of Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Zaid, Siti Sarah; Kassim, Normadiah M; Othman, Shatrah

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) that can disrupt the normal functions of the reproductive system. The objective of the study is to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey against BPA-induced uterine toxicity in pubertal rats. The rats were administered with BPA by oral gavage over a period of six weeks. Uterine toxicity in BPA-exposed rats was determined by the degree of the morphological abnormalities, increased lipid peroxidation, and dysregulated expression and distribution of ERα, ERβ, and C3 as compared to the control rats. Concurrent treatment of rats with BPA and Tualang honey significantly improved the uterine morphological abnormalities, reduced lipid peroxidation, and normalized ERα, ERβ, and C3 expressions and distribution. There were no abnormal changes observed in rats treated with Tualang honey alone, comparable with the control rats. In conclusion, Tualang honey has potential roles in protecting the uterus from BPA-induced toxicity, possibly accounted for by its phytochemical properties.

  6. Genetic Counseling for a Prenatal Diagnosis of Structural Chromosomal Abnormality with High-Resolution Analysis Using a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Akiko; Takeshita, Naoki; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 41-year old pregnant woman underwent amniocentesis to conduct a conventional karyotyping analysis; the analysis reported an abnormal karyotype: 46, XY, add(9)(p24). Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is utilized in prenatal diagnoses. A single nucleotide polymorphism microarray revealed a male fetus with balanced chromosomal translocations on 9p and balanced chromosomal rearrangements, but another chromosomal abnormality was detected. The fetus had microduplication. The child was born as a phenotypically normal male. CMA is a simple and informative procedure for prenatal genetic diagnosis. CMA is the detection of chromosomal variants of unknown clinical significance; therefore, genetic counseling is important during prenatal genetic testing. PMID:27777709

  7. Clinical Efficacy and Complications of Uterine Artery Embolization in Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mohammadgharib; Jalilian, Nasrin; Salehi, Ayoub; Ayazi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    We decided to evaluate the efficacy and complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Sixty-five premenopausal patients, without considering the fibroids size and its location, were treated by bilateral UAE. At baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months MRI was obtained to determine the uterine length and fibroid diameter. In addition, symptoms of the patients were documented at these follow-up schedules. UAE was successful in 62 (95.4%) cases. Complete infarction rate of the fibroid was 83.1%. After 12 months, the uterine length showed a decrease of 55.7% (mean of 9.4 cm) and the diameter of the dominant fibroid revealed a decrease of 52.1% (mean of 3.4 cm). Menorrhagia improved in 45 cases (91.8%), abdominal mass in 24 cases (82.28%), urinary symptoms in 17 cases (85%), pelvic pain in 21 cases (84%), and dysmenorrhea in 25 cases (80.6%). At final follow-up performed after one year, complete infarction of the fibroma was demonstrated in 49 patients (83.1%). Two cases achieved successful pregnancy in the one year follow-up period. Five patients developed post-embolization syndrome which necessitated admission to the hospital. Twenty-two patients presented and complained of pain for which outpatient pain management was done. UAE was a successful treatment for uterine fibroids that preserved the uterus, had minimal complications, and required short hospitalization and recovery. PMID:26925914

  8. Clinical Efficacy and Complications of Uterine Artery Embolization in Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Mohammadgharib; Jalilian, Nasrin; Salehi, Ayoub; Ayazi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    We decided to evaluate the efficacy and complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Sixty-five premenopausal patients, without considering the fibroids size and its location, were treated by bilateral UAE. At baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months MRI was obtained to determine the uterine length and fibroid diameter. In addition, symptoms of the patients were documented at these follow-up schedules. UAE was successful in 62 (95.4%) cases. Complete infarction rate of the fibroid was 83.1%. After 12 months, the uterine length showed a decrease of 55.7% (mean of 9.4 cm) and the diameter of the dominant fibroid revealed a decrease of 52.1% (mean of 3.4 cm). Menorrhagia improved in 45 cases (91.8%), abdominal mass in 24 cases (82.28%), urinary symptoms in 17 cases (85%), pelvic pain in 21 cases (84%), and dysmenorrhea in 25 cases (80.6%). At final follow-up performed after one year, complete infarction of the fibroma was demonstrated in 49 patients (83.1%). Two cases achieved successful pregnancy in the one year follow-up period. Five patients developed post-embolization syndrome which necessitated admission to the hospital. Twenty-two patients presented and complained of pain for which outpatient pain management was done. UAE was a successful treatment for uterine fibroids that preserved the uterus, had minimal complications, and required short hospitalization and recovery. PMID:26925914

  9. Uterine sarcoma Part II-Uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma: The TAG systematic review.

    PubMed

    Horng, Huann-Cheng; Wen, Kuo-Chang; Wang, Peng-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Ng, Heung-Tat

    2016-08-01

    Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine tumors (<1%). Four main categories include endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS), and uterine undifferentiated sarcoma (UUS). This review is a series of articles discussing the uterine sarcomas. LG-ESS, a hormone-dependent tumor harboring chromosomal rearrangement, is an indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, but characterized by late recurrences even in patients with Stage I disease, suggesting the requirement of a long-term follow-up. Patients with HG-ESS, based on the identification of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B (YWHAE-FAM22A/B) gene fusion, typically present with advanced stage diseases and frequently have recurrences, usually within a few years after initial surgery. UUS is, a high-grade sarcoma, extremely rare, lacking a specific line of differentiation, which is a diagnosis of exclusion (the wastebasket category, which fails to fulfill the morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of translocation-positive ESS). Surgery is the main strategy in the management of uterine sarcoma. Due to rarity, complex biological characteristics, and unknown etiology and risk factors of uterine sarcomas, the role of adjuvant therapy is not clear. Only LG-ESS might respond to progestins or aromatase inhibitors. PMID:27590366

  10. Clinical Efficacy and Complications of Uterine Artery Embolization in Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Mohammadgharib; Jalilian, Nasrin; Salehi, Ayoub; Ayazi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    We decided to evaluate the efficacy and complications of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Sixty-five premenopausal patients, without considering the fibroids size and its location, were treated by bilateral UAE. At baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months MRI was obtained to determine the uterine length and fibroid diameter. In addition, symptoms of the patients were documented at these follow-up schedules. UAE was successful in 62 (95.4%) cases. Complete infarction rate of the fibroid was 83.1%. After 12 months, the uterine length showed a decrease of 55.7% (mean of 9.4 cm) and the diameter of the dominant fibroid revealed a decrease of 52.1% (mean of 3.4 cm). Menorrhagia improved in 45 cases (91.8%), abdominal mass in 24 cases (82.28%), urinary symptoms in 17 cases (85%), pelvic pain in 21 cases (84%), and dysmenorrhea in 25 cases (80.6%). At final follow-up performed after one year, complete infarction of the fibroma was demonstrated in 49 patients (83.1%). Two cases achieved successful pregnancy in the one year follow-up period. Five patients developed post-embolization syndrome which necessitated admission to the hospital. Twenty-two patients presented and complained of pain for which outpatient pain management was done. UAE was a successful treatment for uterine fibroids that preserved the uterus, had minimal complications, and required short hospitalization and recovery.

  11. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ali, Eram; Kumar, Manisha

    2016-05-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  12. Chronic Uterine Inversion Presenting as a Painless Vaginal Mass at 6 Months Post Partum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Uterine inversion is an abnormal protrusion of internal surface of relaxed uterus through the vaginal orifice. Its causes can be broadly classified as puerperal and non-puerperal with puerperal uterine inversion more common than non-puerperal uterine inversion. Acute inversions occurring immediately, or within 24 hours post-partum are the most common type. Chronic Uterine Inversions (CUI) occurring more than four weeks after the delivery are rare identities. There differential diagnosis includes prolapsed fibroids and endometrial polyp. Chronic nature of these inversions makes the restoration of the normal position of the uterus per vaginal difficult contrary to acute inversions which can be reposited more easily. We hereby present a case of 28-year-old lady who presented with a painless vaginal mass at 6 months post-partum. She was diagnosed as a case of CUI based on clinical and sonographic examination. Inverted uterus was successfully restored through per abdominal approach. The presentation of CUI as a painless vaginal mass at delayed post-partum period is rare and therefore reported. PMID:27437313

  13. Intra-uterine infection and cord immunoglobulin M II. Clinical analysis of infants with elevated cord serum immunoglobulin M *

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Annette; Dent, P. B.; Emrich, W. H.; Gent, M.; Rahim, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    Cord blood immunoglobulin M was measured in 3474 consecutive newborn infants. A group of 147 infants with elevated IgM values (≥19.0 mg./100 ml.) were compared with 92 unselected newborn infants with normal IgM values. One infant with clinically unsuspected congenital rubella was detected in the study group while no cases of intra-uterine infection were found among the controls. A greater proportion of mothers in the study group had a history of viral infection. The study group also contained a larger number of mothers who might be considered to be at greater risk of infection with agents known to cause intra-uterine disease. Follow-up studies at 6 months of age revealed no differences between the two groups aside from an increased incidence of minor motor abnormalities in the study group. While it is recognized that infants with cord blood IgM levels truly in excess of 30 mg./100 ml. may represent a high-risk group with respect to proved or subclinical intra-uterine infection, it is concluded that routine cord blood screening for elevated IgM values is not a high-yield procedure for the detection of intra-uterine infection in our population. PMID:4203457

  14. Hormones and pathogenesis of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Reis, Fernando M; Bloise, Enrrico; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tânia M

    2016-07-01

    The role of ovarian steroid hormones in the pathogenesis of uterine fibroids is supported by epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence. Estradiol and progesterone induce mature leiomyoma cells to release mitogenic stimuli to adjacent immature cells, thereby providing uterine leiomyoma with undifferentiated cells that are likely to support tumor growth. Progesterone action is required for the complete development and proliferation of leiomyoma cells, while estradiol predominantly increases tissue sensitivity to progesterone by increasing the availability of progesterone receptors (PRs). The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene and the selective PR modulators (SPRMs) mifepristone, asoprisnil, and ulipristal acetate have been shown in clinical trials to inhibit fibroid growth. The role of sex steroids is critical for leiomyoma development and maintenance, but a number of autocrine and paracrine messengers are involved in this process; hence, numerous pathways remain to be explored in therapeutic innovations for treating this common disease. PMID:26725037

  15. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  16. Thermal ablative treatment of uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Stephen Derek; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw M

    2015-05-01

    In addition to surgical methods of treating uterine fibroids, numerous non-invasive treatments have been developed. Many of these involve the use of hyperthermia, the heating of tissue by a variety of methods. These include the use of lasers, radiofrequency, microwave energy and high intensity focused ultrasound, guided by both ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. In this review we examine the technology behind these treatment modalities and review the current evidence for their use. PMID:25815582

  17. Uterine tumors in ataxia-telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R A; Nieberg, R; Boder, E

    1989-02-01

    Roughly one-third of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) develop malignant tumors, usually of lymphoid origin. AT patients also exhibit progeric changes. We describe three patients, between the ages of 27 and 32 years, with uterine tumors: one with a frank leiomyosarcoma and chronic T-cell leukemia, one with a multilobulated leiomyoma of uncertain malignant potential, and one with an unremarkable leiomyoma. Thus, the spectrum of tumors in AT patients beyond adolescence includes nonlymphoid malignancies and precocious, benign leiomyomas.

  18. The management of uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Allaire, Catherine; Laberge, Philippe-Yves; Leyland, Nicholas; Vilos, Angelos G; Murji, Ally; Chen, Innie

    2015-02-01

    Objectifs : La présente directive clinique a pour objectif d’aider les cliniciens à mieux comprendre la pathophysiologie, la prévalence et l’importance clinique des myomes, et de leur faire part des meilleures données probantes disponibles quant aux modalités de traitement. Options : Dans le cadre de la rédaction de la présente directive clinique, nous avons tenu compte des aspects suivants de la pratique clinique : évaluation, traitements médicaux, traitements conservateurs par myolyse, occlusion sélective de l’artère utérine et solutions de rechange chirurgicales (dont la myomectomie et l’hystérectomie). Le rapport risques-avantages doit faire l’objet d’une analyse personnalisée dans le cadre des discussions menées entre la patiente et son fournisseur de soins. Issues : La mise en œuvre de la présente directive clinique devrait optimiser le processus décisionnel pour les patientes et les fournisseurs de soins en ce qui a trait à la tenue d’autres explorations ou à la façon d’assurer la prise en charge des léiomyomes utérins, en ayant tenu compte du processus pathogénique (et des options disponibles en matière de traitement) et en ayant passé en revue les risques et les avantages anticipés. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed, CINAHL et Cochrane Systematic Reviews en février 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « uterine fibroids », « myoma », « leiomyoma », « myomectomy », « myolysis », « heavy menstrual bleeding » et « menorrhagia ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « myoma », « leiomyoma », « fibroid », « myomectomy », « uterine artery embolization », « hysterectomy », « heavy menstrual bleeding », « menorrhagia ») appropriés. Des recherches ont également été menées dans les listes de références des articles identifiés en vue d’en tirer d

  19. Etiology and pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Flake, Gordon P; Andersen, Janet; Dixon, Darlene

    2003-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas, or fibroids, represent a major public health problem. It is believed that these tumors develop in the majority of American women and become symptomatic in one-third of these women. They are the most frequent indication for hysterectomy in the United States. Although the initiator or initiators of fibroids are unknown, several predisposing factors have been identified, including age (late reproductive years), African-American ethnicity, nulliparity, and obesity. Nonrandom cytogenetic abnormalities have been found in about 40% of tumors examined. Estrogen and progesterone are recognized as promoters of tumor growth, and the potential role of environmental estrogens has only recently been explored. Growth factors with mitogenic activity, such as transforming growth factor- (subscript)3(/subscript), basic fibroblast growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-I, are elevated in fibroids and may be the effectors of estrogen and progesterone promotion. These data offer clues to the etiology and pathogenesis of this common condition, which we have analyzed and summarized in this review. PMID:12826476

  20. Low-cost technology for screening uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Parashari, A.; Singh, V.; Sehgal, A.; Satyanarayana, L.; Sodhani, P.; Gupta, M. M.

    2000-01-01

    We report on an illuminated, low-cost (Rs 1500 (US$ 36)) magnifying device (Magnivisualizer) for detecting precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix. A total of 403 women attending a maternal and child health care clinic who had abnormal vaginal discharge and related symptoms were referred for detailed pelvic examination and visual inspection by means of the device after the application of 5% (v/v) acetic acid. Pap smears were obtained at the same time. The results were compared with those obtained using colposcopy and/or histology. The Magnivisualizer improved the detection rate of early cancerous lesions from 60%, for unaided visual inspection, to 95%. It also permitted detection of 58% of cases of low-grade dysplasia and 83% of cases of high-grade dysplasia; none of these cases were detectable by unaided visual inspection. For low-grade dysplasia the sensitivity of detection by means of the Magnivisualizer was 57.5%, in contrast with 75.3% for cytological examination. However, the two methodologies had similar sensitivities for higher grades of lesions. The specificity of screening with the Magnivisualizer was 94.3%, while that of cytology was 99%. The cost per screening was approximately US$ 0.55 for the Magnivisualizer and US$ 1.10 for cytology. PMID:10994279

  1. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative. PMID:26537093

  2. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203

  3. [Bilateral uterine rupture of an unscarred gravid uterus before labor].

    PubMed

    Leroux, M; Coatleven, F; Faure, M; Horovitz, J

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of bilateral spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus occured in a primigravida at 32 weeks to take care in our department after in utero transfert. Uterine rupture occurs mainly on scarred uterus during labor. This is an unfrequent but serious complication involving fetal-maternal prognosis in the absence of immediate care. We are conducting a review about spontaneous uterine rupture of unscarred uterus, before and during labor.

  4. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels.

  5. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    PubMed

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative.

  6. Uterine anomaly and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi; Ozaki, Yasuhiko; Katano, Kinue; Suzumori, Nobuhiro; Mizutani, Eita

    2011-11-01

    Women with recurrent pregnancy loss have a 3.2 to 6.9% likelihood of having a major uterine anomaly and a 1.0 to 16.9% chance of having an arcuate uterus. Bicornuate and septate uterine have a negative impact on reproductive outcomes and are associated with subsequent euploid miscarriage. The impact of an arcuate uterus on pregnancy outcome remains unclear. There are no definitive criteria to distinguish among the arcuate, septate, and bicornuate uteri. The American Fertility Society classification of Müllerian anomalies is the most common standardized classification of uterine anomalies. According to estimates, 65 to 85% of patients with bicornuate or septate uteri have a successful pregnancy outcome after metroplasty. However, 59.5% of the patients with such anomalies have a successful subsequent pregnancy without surgery, with a cumulative live birthrate of 78.0%. There is no case-control study to compare live birthrates in women who had surgery compared with those who did not. Strict criteria to distinguish between the bicornuate and septate uterus should be established. Further study is needed to confirm the benefits of metroplasty.

  7. Uterine fibroids: do we deal with more than one disease?

    PubMed

    Markowski, Dominique N; Helmke, Burkhard M; Bartnitzke, Sabine; Löning, Thomas; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2014-11-01

    Uterine fibroids rank among the most frequent symptomatic human tumors at all. Recent data suggest that mutations of the mediator subcomplex 12 gene (MED12) and rearrangements of the gene-encoding high-mobility group protein AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) characterize major genetic subtypes of these tumors, which, for example, differ by their average size. Herein, we have investigated a total of 289 fibroids from 120 patients. Of these fibroids, 256 were fully genetically analyzed. Of the latter group, 20 (7.8%) fibroids had a chromosomal rearrangement of 12q14-15 reflecting a rearranged allele of HMGA2 and 179 (69.9%) fibroids had a mutation of MED12. The remaining tumors had either another genetic abnormality or no detectable abnormality at all. We were able to demonstrate that tumors of both groups also display striking differences of their frequency in individual patients. Whereas 70.0% (14/20) HMGA2-mutated fibroids made their appearance as solitary nodules, 85.5% (153/179) MED12-mutated fibroids occurred as multiple nodules as a rule of independent clonal origin, as reflected by different MED12 mutations. These findings are likely to point to a different pathogenesis of both types of fibroids. In the predominant of these groups so far, an unknown "mutator" may cause independent mutations of MED12, resulting in an independent clonal outgrowth of nodules. Furthermore, the low but existing risk of MED12-mutated fibroids to undergo malignant transformation after a leiomyoma-STUMP (smooth muscle tumors of uncertain malignant potential)-leiomyosarcoma sequence excludes the latter mutation as a suitable stand-alone marker for benign growth.

  8. [Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary pregnant uterine horn in a pseudo-unicornuate uterus at 23 weeks of amenorrhea. Case report].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Guillot, E; Cordier, A-G; Chis, C; Raynal, P; Panel, P

    2008-04-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation associated with a high risk of uterine rupture. We report the case of a pregnancy developed in a non communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus complicated by horn rupture at 23 weeks of amenorrhea showing as an acute abdominal pain and massive hemoperitoneum. This patient's uterine abnormality was known before, as this woman has delivered two years before at term a healthy boy by cesarean section. This past pregnancy was located in the normal horn and the non communicating rudimentary horn seemed at this time normal. This uterine malformation is presented with its gynecological and obstetrical entailments as well as methods that could prevent such outcome.

  9. Uterine disorders and pregnancy complications: insights from mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Wang, Haibin

    2010-01-01

    Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), gene-manipulated mice are considered by many the most useful tool for mechanistic analysis, and numerous studies have identified many similarities in female reproduction between the two species. This Review brings together information from studies using animal models, in particular mouse models, that shed light on normal and pathologic aspects of uterine biology and pregnancy complications. PMID:20364098

  10. Asymptomatic spontaneous complete uterine rupture in a term pregnancy after uterine packing during previous caesarean section: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Chen, S F; Luo, Y E

    2014-01-01

    Uterine rupture is a life-threatening obstetrical complication with significant neonatal and maternal morbidity. The authors report a 36-year-old woman with a history of previous caesarean section because of pre-eclampsia and antepartum haemorrhage at 31 gestational weeks during her first pregnancy. Postpartum haemorrhage occurred and the uterine cavity was packed with gauze for reducing blood loss. After two years, she underwent elective, repeat caesarean section at 38+1 gestational weeks with no abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding. During the operation, a six- to seven-cm-long defect was found in the lower uterine segment, with complete separation of the uterine scar and disruption of the visceral peritoneum. A live baby was delivered. The postoperative course was uneventful. Uterine dehiscence and rupture should be suspected in the presence of risk factors such as previous caesarean section, especially uterine packing involved. Spontaneous silent rupture can occur in women without any alarming symptoms.

  11. Uterine artery embolisation for uterine fibroids: Our experience at a tertiary care service hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, John; Kumar, Sushil; Hande, P.C.; Singh, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uterine artery embolisation (UAE) has evolved as a minimally invasive and effective alternative, treatment modality for women with symptomatic fibroids. We discuss our initial experience of UAE in the management of symptomatic fibroids. Methods Twenty five symptomatic patients of uterine fibroids were treated with UAE by selectively cannulating and injecting poly vinyl alcohol particles into the uterine arteries. Post treatment follow up was done at 2 and 6 months respectively. Results Pre-treatment, the sizes of fibroids were between 3.9 and 10.9 cm (mean 7.4) on ultrasonography. Of the total 25 patients, 49 uterine arteries were embolised with a technical success rate of 98%. Menorrhagia persisted in 7 patients, dysmenorrhea in 4 patients and pressure symptoms in 2 patients respectively in follow up study of six months which corresponds to a reduction in symptoms by 68% for menorrhagia, 71% for dysmenorhoea and 75% for those with pressure symptoms respectively. At 2 months follow-up post embolisation, the mean diameter of the fibroid was 4.03 cm (range 2–5.2 cm) and at 6 months 3.2 cm (range 1.3–4.1 cm), corresponding to size reduction of 45.5% and 57%, respectively. Follow up with ultrasonography at 2 and 6 months period showed successful fibroid reduction in 24 patients with corresponding reduction in the symptomatology. One patient remained symptomatic with increase in fibroid size and had to undergo hysterectomy. Conclusion Uterine artery embolisation can be considered as an alternative to hysterectomy in appropriately selected symptomatic patients of uterine fibroids. PMID:26288491

  12. MR Reproducibility in the Assessment of Uterine Fibroids for Patients Scheduled for Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Volkers, Nicole A. Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Moolhuijzen, Albert D.; Birnie, Erwin; Ankum, Willem M.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2008-03-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly applied in the evaluation of uterine fibroids. However, little is known about the reproducibility of MRI in the assessment of uterine fibroids. This study evaluates the inter- and intraobserver variation in the assessment of the uterine fibroids and concomitant adenomyosis in women scheduled for uterine artery embolization (UAE). Forty patients (mean age: 44.5 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids who were scheduled for UAE underwent T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted MRI. To study inter- and intraobserver agreement 40 MR images were evaluated independently by two observers and reevaluated by both observers 4 months later. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen's {kappa} statistic and intraclass correlation coefficient for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Inter-observer agreement for uterine volumes ({kappa} = 0.99, p < 0.0001), dominant fibroid volumes ({kappa} = 0.98, p {<=} 0.0001), and number of fibroids ({kappa} = 0.88; CI, 0.77-0.93; p < 0.0001) was excellent. For the T{sub 1}- and T{sub 2}-weighted signal intensity of the dominant fibroid there was good agreement between the observers (87%; 95% CI, 71.9%-95.6%) and the intraobserver agreement was good for observer A (95%; 95% CI, 83.1%-99.4%) and moderate for observer B ({kappa} = 0.47). The interobserver agreement with respect to the presence of adenomyosis was good ({kappa} = 0.73, p < 0.0001), while both intraobserver agreements were fair to moderate (observer A, {kappa} = 0.55, p = 0.0003; and observer B, {kappa} = 0.66, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, MRI criteria used for the selection of suitable UAE patients show good inter- and intraobserver reproducibility.

  13. Epidemiology of uterine cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Brinton, L A; Fraumeni, J F

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiology of cervical cancer presents a number of unique challenges, mainly with respect to disentangling correlated factors and to elucidating biological mechanisms. The available evidence suggests a complex multifactorial etiology, although the relative contributions of risk factors and their interactions remain obscure. Infectious agents are strongly suspected, but as yet not conclusively identified. It is also unclear whether there are subgroups of women or periods of life that are most susceptible to the action of infectious agents, and the contribution of the "male factor" needs to be defined. Several epidemiologic leads can be pursued through biochemical and molecular techniques. Most promising is the recent evidence linking certain HPV types to cervical abnormalities, including cancer, and newly developed probes can be incorporated into epidemiologic studies to evaluate an array of risk factors. Endocrine and metabolic assays may be helpful in clarifying the role of exogenous and possibly endogenous hormones. The effects of cigarette smoking may be further evaluated by studying constituents of tobacco smoke and their metabolites in cervical mucus. Finally, the relationship of diet to cervical cancer should be assessed by examining the levels of micronutrients, trace minerals, and other nutritional indices in body tissues and fluids, as well as through interview data. An understanding of cervical cancer etiology will require a better identification of risk factors for precursor lesions as well as factors that enhance their progression to invasive cancer. Through studies that focus on disease stage and time-related events, it should be possible to clarify the multi-stage processes involved in cervical carcinogenesis, and those factors that may inhibit as well as promote transition rates. The protective effects of screening programs deserve further attention, and research into dietary factors may lead in time to nutritional intervention. Investigation

  14. Current Role of Uterine Artery Embolization in the Management of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Spies, James B

    2016-03-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a well-established therapy for uterine fibroids, with safety and efficacy demonstrated in several comparative randomized trials. It is a minimally invasive procedure, which allows for rapid recovery and return to normal activities. Most studies demonstrate outcomes similar to those of myomectomy with a reintervention rate of 20% to 30% at 5 years after therapy. While pregnancy is often successful after UAE, limited comparative data suggest that myomectomy may be preferred in those patients who have not had prior fibroid interventions. UAE should be discussed as an option for most women presenting for treatment of fibroids. PMID:26630074

  15. Transcatheter arterial embolization of a uterine artery pseudoaneurysm with Onyx® following D&C for uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Mark; Beheshti, Michael; Yousaf, Muhammad; Erdem, Eren

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter uterine artery embolization is well described and performed for treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomas, for postpartum hemorrhage, and for hemorrhage following hysterectomy. Embolic agents have included polyvinyl alcohol, gelfoam, coils, and Embospheres®. We present a case of severe uterine hemorrhage after a missed abortion (after two instances of dilatation and curettage), which could not be managed with traditional embolic techniques but was successfully controlled with Onyx®.

  16. Patient, Physician, and Nurse Factors Associated With Entry Onto Clinical Trials and Finishing Treatment in Patients With Primary or Recurrent Uterine, Endometrial, or Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Sarcoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage I Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Sarcoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  17. Bisphenol A, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and Vinclozolin Affect ex-vivo Uterine Contraction in Rats via Uterotonin (Prostaglandin F2α, Acetylcholine and Oxytocin) Related Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Salleh, Naguib; Giribabu, Nelli; Feng, Angeline Oh Mei; Myint, Kyaimon

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA), dichrolodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and vinclozolin were found able to induce abnormal uterine contraction. The mechanisms involved remains unclear. We hypothesized that the effect of these compounds were mediated via the uterotonin pathways. Therefore, in this study, effects of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT-only and in combination with uterotonins (PGF-2α, acetylcholine and oxytocin) on the force and pattern of uterine contraction were observed. Methods: Uteri were harvested from intact adult female rats 24 hours after a single injection (1 mg/kg/b.w) of estrogen to synchronize their oestrous cycle. The uterine horns were subjected for ex-vivo contraction studies in an organ bath connected to Powerlab data acquisition system. Different doses of BPA, vinclozolin and DDT were added into the bathing solution and changes in the pattern and strength of uterine contraction were recorded. Further, increasing doses of uterotonins were concomitantly administered with these compounds and changes in the force and pattern of contraction were observed. Results: In the absence of uterotonins, uterine contractile force decreased with increasing doses of BPA and DDT. However, vinclozolin induced sharp increase in the contractile forces which then gradually decrease. Administration of BPA, DDT and vinclozolin alone reduced the force of uterine contraction following stimulation of contraction by uterotonins. However, BPA, vinclozolin or DDT effects were relieved upon co-administration with uterotonins at increasing doses. Conclusions: The antagonizing effect of uterotonins on BPA, vinclozolin and DDT actions could explain the mechanism underlying the adverse effect of these compounds on uterine contraction. PMID:26640411

  18. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  19. Repair of uterine rupture in twin gestation after laparoscopic cornual resection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chi-Yuan; Ding, Dah-Ching

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture in the course of pregnancy is a rare event that usually occurs in a scarred uterus. The event occurs mostly during the intrapartum period and is potentially catastrophic for both mother and fetus. We report a case of 2-cm cornual rupture in a pregnant woman at 13 weeks twin gestation with previous history of cornual pregnancy successfully managed via laparoscopy. Sudden onset of abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding was noted first. Physical examination revealed stable vital signs, lower abdominal tenderness, and mild rebounding pain. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed twin pregnancy at 13 weeks with extrauterine saccular structure 6 cm in diameter located on the left fundus and contiguous with an intrauterine oligohydramnics twin. Exploratory laparotomy was promptly performed, and a small rupture about 2 cm in diameter was observed on the upper portion of the left fundus, the site of a previous laparoscopic cornual resection scar. A protruding amniotic sac of about 6 cm diameter and containing some part of the umbilical cord was seen. The uterine rupture site was repaired directly after aspiration of amniotic fluid from the protruding sac. After surgery, the patient received antibiotics, 17-OH-progesterone for potential rupture of membranes and prematurity. Tocolysis with Ritodrine for irregular uterine contractions was given at 22 weeks gestation. Steroids were given at 24 weeks gestation. The pregnancy ended with a successful delivery by cesarean section because of uncontrollable uterine contractions at 30 5/7 weeks gestation. In conclusion, although termination of pregnancy would normally be recommended when uterine rupture occurs, a different approach to management may now be accepted.

  20. Structural abnormalities of the myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus in familial dysautonomia (Riley-Day syndrome) as demonstrated by flat-mount preparation of the esophagus and stomach.

    PubMed

    Ariel, I; Wells, T R

    1985-01-01

    The esophageal and gastric myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus were studied by a flat-mount preparation in 3 patients with familial dysautonomia. In 1 patient a typical esophageal network was found in the stomach. In another patient both esophageal and gastric plexus patterns were significantly different from normal. These changes, by producing abnormal nervous stimulation, may explain disturbed motility of the esophagus and stomach in familial dysautonomia.

  1. The Role of Vitamin D in Uterine Fibroid Biology

    PubMed Central

    Brakta, Soumia; Diamond, Justin S.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Diamond, Michael P.; Halder, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a detailed summary of current scientific knowledge on uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) in vitro and in in vivo animal models, as well as to postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 as an effective, inexpensive, safe long-term treatment option for uterine fibroids. Design PubMed search articles were used to identify the most relevant studies on uterine fibroids as well as effects of vitamin D3 on uterine fibroid cells and fibroid tumor growth in in vivo animal models. Setting University research laboratory - affiliated infertility clinic. Patient(s) Not applicable. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) Not applicable. Results Despite numerous publications available on uterine fibroids, information about the role that vitamin D3 plays in the regulation of uterine fibroids are limited. Most of the recent vitamin D3-related studies on uterine fibroids were published from our group. Recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency plays a significant role in the development of uterine fibroids. Our recent studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3 reduces leiomyoma cell proliferation in vitro, and leiomyoma tumor growth in in vivo animal models. These results postulate the potential role of vitamin D3 for an effective, safe non-surgical medical treatment option for uterine fibroids. Conclusions This article reviews human and animal studies and uncover new possibilities for understanding the vitamin D-based therapeutic option for an effective, safe long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. Based on these results, a clinical trial with vitamin D3 or a hypocalcemic analog, paricalcitol may be warranted for non-surgical medical treatment of uterine fibroids. PMID:26079694

  2. Genome-wide analysis reveals recurrent structural abnormalities of TP63 and other p53-related genes in peripheral T-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Vasmatzis, George; Johnson, Sarah H.; Knudson, Ryan A.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Braggio, Esteban; Fonseca, Rafael; Viswanatha, David S.; Law, Mark E.; Kip, N. Sertac; Özsan, Nazan; Grebe, Stefan K.; Frederick, Lori A.; Eckloff, Bruce W.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Kadin, Marshall E.; Milosevic, Dragana; Porcher, Julie C.; Asmann, Yan W.; Smith, David I.; Kovtun, Irina V.; Ansell, Stephen M.; Dogan, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are aggressive malignancies of mature T lymphocytes with 5-year overall survival rates of only ∼ 35%. Improvement in outcomes has been stymied by poor understanding of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of PTCL, with a resulting paucity of molecular targets for therapy. We developed bioinformatic tools to identify chromosomal rearrangements using genome-wide, next-generation sequencing analysis of mate-pair DNA libraries and applied these tools to 16 PTCL patient tissue samples and 6 PTCL cell lines. Thirteen recurrent abnormalities were identified, of which 5 involved p53-related genes (TP53, TP63, CDKN2A, WWOX, and ANKRD11). Among these abnormalities were novel TP63 rearrangements encoding fusion proteins homologous to ΔNp63, a dominant-negative p63 isoform that inhibits the p53 pathway. TP63 rearrangements were seen in 11 (5.8%) of 190 PTCLs and were associated with inferior overall survival; they also were detected in 2 (1.2%) of 164 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. As TP53 mutations are rare in PTCL compared with other malignancies, our findings suggest that a constellation of alternate genetic abnormalities may contribute to disruption of p53-associated tumor suppressor function in PTCL. PMID:22855598

  3. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: Promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H.; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70–80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids. PMID:24976593

  4. Use of dietary phytochemicals to target inflammation, fibrosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in uterine tissues: promising options for prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids?

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Soriful; Akhtar, Most Mauluda; Ciavattini, Andrea; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Protic, Olga; Janjusevic, Milijana; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Segars, James H; Castellucci, Mario; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2014-08-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids, myomas) are the most common benign tumors of female reproductive tract. They are highly prevalent, with 70-80% of women burdened by the end of their reproductive years. Fibroids are a leading cause of pelvic pain, abnormal vaginal bleeding, pressure on the bladder, miscarriage, and infertility. They are the leading indication for hysterectomy, and costs exceed 6 billion dollars annually in the United States. Unfortunately, no long-term medical treatments are available. Dysregulation of inflammatory processes are thought to be involved in the initiation of leiomyoma and extracellular matrix deposition, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis are the key cellular events implicated in leiomyoma growth. In modern pharmaceutical industries, dietary phytochemicals are used as source of new potential drugs for many kinds of tumors. Dietary phytochemicals may exert therapeutic effects by interfering with key cellular events of the tumorigenesis process. At present, a negligible number of phytochemicals have been tested as therapeutic agents against fibroids. In this context, our aim was to introduce some of the potential dietary phytochemicals that have shown anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiangiogenic activities in different biological systems. This review could be useful to stimulate the evaluation of these phytochemicals as possible therapies for uterine fibroids.

  5. Dlx5 and Dlx6 control uterine adenogenesis during post-natal maturation: possible consequences for endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bellessort, Brice; Le Cardinal, Marine; Bachelot, Anne; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Garagnani, Paolo; Pirazzini, Chiara; Barbieri, Ottavia; Mastracci, Luca; Jonchere, Vincent; Duvernois-Berthet, Evelyne; Fontaine, Anastasia; Alfama, Gladys; Levi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Dlx5 and Dlx6 are two closely associated homeobox genes which code for transcription factors involved in the control of steroidogenesis and reproduction. Inactivation of Dlx5/6 in the mouse results in a Leydig cell defect in the male and in ovarian insufficiency in the female. DLX5/6 are also strongly expressed by the human endometrium but their function in the uterus is unknown. The involvement of DLX5/6 in human uterine pathology is suggested by their strong downregulation in endometriotic lesions and upregulation in endometrioïd adenocarcinomas. We first show that Dlx5/6 expression begins in Müllerian ducts epithelia and persists then in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia throughout post-natal maturation and in the adult. We then use a new mouse model in which Dlx5 and Dlx6 can be simultaneously inactivated in the endometrium using a Pgr(cre/+) allele. Post-natal inactivation of Dlx5/6 in the uterus results in sterility without any obvious ovarian involvement. The uteri of Pgr(cre/+); Dlx5/6(flox/flox) mice present very few uterine glands and numerous abnormally large and branched invaginations of the uterine lumen. In Dlx5/6 mutant uteri, the expression of genes involved in gland formation (Foxa2) and in epithelial remodelling during implantation (Msx1) is significantly reduced. Furthermore, we show that DLX5 is highly expressed in human endometrial glandular epithelium and that its expression is affected in endometriosis. We conclude that Dlx5 and Dlx6 expression determines uterine architecture and adenogenesis and is needed for implantation. Given their importance for female reproduction, DLX5 and DLX6 must be regarded as interesting targets for future clinical research. PMID:26512061

  6. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  7. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  8. Uterine uptake of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine during the menstrual phase of uterine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bomanji, J.; Britton, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radioiodinated I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) has been used for diagnostic purposes for detection of apudomas. In this paper normal physiological uptake of I-123 MIBG by the uterus during the menstrual phase of the uterine cycle is reported. It is likely that I-123 MIBG can be used to evaluate some of the problems in this context.

  9. A novel technique of uterine manipulation in laparoscopic pelvic oncosurgical procedures: "the uterine hitch technique".

    PubMed

    Puntambekar, S P; Patil, A M; Rayate, N V; Puntambekar, S S; Sathe, R M; Kulkarni, M A

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To describe a new technique of uterine manipulation in laparoscopic management of pelvic cancers. Material and Methods. We used a novel uterine hitch technique in 23 patients from May 2008 to October 2008. These patients underwent pelvic oncologic surgery including laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (n = 7), laparoscopic anterior resection (n = 4), laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (n = 3), laparoscopic posterior exenteration (n = 4), or laparoscopic anterior exenteration (n = 5). The uterus was hitched to the anterior abdominal.wall by either a single suture in the fundus or by sutures through the round ligaments. Results. The uterine hitch technique was successfully accomplished in all procedures. It was performed in less than 5 minutes in all cases. It obviated the need for vaginal manipulation. An extra port for retraction could be avoided. There were no intraoperative complications. Conclusion. A practical, cheap and reproducible method for uterine manipulation, during pelvic oncologic surgery is described. It improves the stability of the uterus and also obviates the need for keeping an additional assistant for vaginal manipulation in any of the procedures. PMID:22091356

  10. [Huge uterine leiomyoma with degenerative changes mimicking ovarian carcinoma--a case report].

    PubMed

    Gajewska, Małgorzata; Kosińska-Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Marczewska, Janina; Kamiński, Paweł

    2013-02-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine tumors. Although 20-40% of all women in reproductive age may have uterine leiomyomas, they are not very common in pregnancy. Only 0.3-2.6% af all pregnant women are diagnosed with leiomyomas. The leiomyomas are symptomatic in 20-50% of all cases. Clinical symptoms are usually excessive or irregular menstrual bleeding, problems resulting from adjacent organs pressure, sterility miscarriage or problems during the labour. Leiomyomas are known to have estrogen receptors and can demonstrate an extensive growth in high estrogens concentration environment. During the pregnancy they can grow, stay the same size or as well decrease. Rapid leiomyoma's growth, caused by its transformation into sarcoma, takes place in about 0.1-0.8% of all cases. In this article we present a case of patient with leiomyoma, which rapid growth, which imitated ovarian tumor. A 40-year old patient was admitted to the 1st Department of Obstretrics and Gynecology Medical University of Warsaw, in May 2012 because of a large abdominal tumor. She had four vaginal deliveries and one cesarean section. The patients delivered three months before admission. Since the labour she had suffered from dysuria and noticed a quick waits enlargement. On admission the patient was in good general condition, without any stomachache. A giant tumor in her lower and middle abdomen was found. The tumor reached three fingers above the navel. In the ultrasound scan a large solid-cystic the tumor with moderate vascularization was described. It looked like the ovarian neoplasm. The CA-125 plasma concentration was 389,5 IU/ml. After giving a written informed consent the patient had an operation. During the operation a solid-cystic peducled uterine tumor was diagnosed. The diameter of the tumor was about 25 cm. The uterine and uterine appendages had no pathological macroscopic changes. Intraoperative histopathological examination was carried out and revealed mesenchymal tumor without

  11. Copper and zinc levels in serum from patients with abnormalities of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Grail, A; Norval, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 110 women with varying degrees of cervical dysplasia up to carcinoma-in-situ and in 9 women with invasive carcinoma of the cervix, and compared with levels in 21 women with no evidence of cervical dysplasia. The average serum copper and zinc levels in the control group were 1.25 mg/l and 1.02 mg/l (respectively). The mean serum copper level increased with dysplasia to 1.4 mg/l and with invasive carcinoma to 1.47 mg/l. The mean serum zinc levels were decreased in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 1 to 0.81 mg/l and in invasive carcinoma to 0.73 mg/l. The copper:zinc ratios varied significantly between controls, patients with cervical dysplasia and patients with invasive carcinoma (p less than 0.01). Measurement of serum ceruloplasmin revealed no significant differences among the control group and the groups of patients.

  12. Reproductive Management for Optimal Uterine Preparedness for Pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is clear that decreased serum concentrations of preovulatory estradiol create uterine deficiencies that prevent the maintenance of pregnancy and losses are related to reduced ability of the developing embryo to implant. The uterine deficiencies in response to reduced post-ovulatory progesterone ...

  13. Uterine inversion with massive uterovaginal prolapse and multiple bladder stones.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Aruku; Nusee, Zalina; Tayib, Shahila

    2011-06-01

    A non-puerperal uterine inversion in advanced uterovaginal prolapse is a rare occurrence. Even more unusual is the presence of bladder calculi in these two conditions, which has not been documented before. We report a case of acute urinary retention secondary to severe uterovaginal prolapse associated with uterine inversion and multiple bladder calculi.

  14. Ectopic pregnancy with uterine horn encapsulation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Harish, G; Stevens, J B; Scheffler, H G

    1983-11-01

    A 4 x 7-cm free-floating cylindrical mass was found in the abdomen of a 2 1/2-year-old domestic short-hair cat at ovariohysterectomy. The left uterine horn was absent. The mass contained 2 necrotic fetuses surrounded by tissue with the histologic appearance of uterine wall. PMID:12002569

  15. Diagnosis and Nonsurgical Management of Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, R. D.; Moloney, J. C.; Anderson, H. J.

    2007-11-15

    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an uncommon problem and traditional treatment by hysterectomy excludes the possibility of future pregnancy. Developments in interventional techniques make transcatheter embolization of the feeding vessel(s) a therapeutic alternative, potentially preserving the patient's fertility. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of uterine AVM.

  16. The effect of uterine motion and uterine margins on target and normal tissue doses in intensity modulated radiation therapy of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, J. J.; Weiss, E.; Abayomi, O. K.; Siebers, J. V.; Dogan, N.

    2011-05-01

    In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of cervical cancer, uterine motion can be larger than cervix motion, requiring a larger clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-to-PTV) margin around the uterine fundus. This work simulates different motion models and margins to estimate the dosimetric consequences. A virtual study used image sets from ten patients. Plans were created with uniform margins of 1 cm (PTVA) and 2.4 cm (PTVC), and a margin tapering from 2.4 cm at the fundus to 1 cm at the cervix (PTVB). Three inter-fraction motion models (MM) were simulated. In MM1, all structures moved with normally distributed rigid body translations. In MM2, CTV motion was progressively magnified as one moved superiorly from the cervix to the fundus. In MM3, both CTV and normal tissue motion were magnified as in MM2, modeling the scenario where normal tissues move into the void left by the mobile uterus. Plans were evaluated using static and percentile DVHs. For a conventional margin (PTVA), quasi-realistic uterine motion (MM3) reduces fundus dose by about 5 Gy and increases normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by ~5%. A tapered CTV-to-PTV margin can restore fundus and CTV doses, but will increase normal tissue volumes receiving 30-50 Gy by a further ~5%.

  17. CDB-2914 for Uterine Leiomyomata Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Eric D.; Potlog-Nahari, Clariss; Armstrong, Alicia Y.; Wesley, Robert; Premkumar, Ahalya; Blithe, Diana L.; Blocker, Wendy; Nieman, Lynnette K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether 3-month administration of CDB-2914, a selective progesterone receptor modulator, reduces leiomyoma size and symptoms. METHODS Premenopausal women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata were randomly assigned to CDB-2914 at 10 mg (T1) or 20 mg (T2) daily or to placebo (PLC) for 3 cycles or 90–102 days if no menses occurred. The primary outcome was leiomyoma volume change determined by magnetic resonance imaging at study entry and within 2 weeks of hysterectomy. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of amenorrhea, change in hemoglobin and hematocrit, ovulation inhibition, and quality-of-life assessment. RESULTS Twenty-two patients were allocated, and 18 completed the trial. Age and body mass index were similar among groups. Leiomyoma volume was significantly reduced with CDB-2914 administration (PLC 6%; CDB-2914 −29%; P=.01), decreasing 36% and 21% in the T1 and T2 groups, respectively. During treatment, hemoglobin was unchanged, and the median estradiol was greater than 50 pg/mL in all groups. CDB-2914 eliminated menstrual bleeding and inhibited ovulation (% ovulatory cycles: CDB-2914, 20%; PLC, 83%; P=.001). CDB-2914 improved the concern scores of the uterine leiomyoma symptom quality-of-life subscale (P=.04). One CDB-2914 woman developed endometrial cystic hyperplasia without evidence of atypia. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Compared with PLC, CDB-2914 significantly reduced leiomyoma volume after three cycles, or 90–102 days. CDB-2914 treatment resulted in improvements in the concern subscale of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom Quality of Life assessment. In this small study, CDB-2914 was well-tolerated without serious adverse events. Thus, there may be a role for CDB-2914 in the treatment of leiomyomata. PMID:18448745

  18. Endoscopic laser treatment of uterine malformations.

    PubMed

    Donnez, J; Nisolle, M

    1997-07-01

    Hysteroscopic resection of an intrauterine septum may benefit patients suffering from infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. A partial or complete uterine septum can be easily resected using a Nd-YAG laser. If present, the vaginal septum may also be removed during the same procedure. The reproductive outcome of women treated by operative hysteroscopy for an intrauterine septum is reviewed. To avoid pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn, the removal of the horn and the homolateral tube may be performed by either bipolar coagulation or a CO2 laser.

  19. Alternatives to Hysterectomy: Management of Uterine Fibroids.

    PubMed

    Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2016-09-01

    Uterine fibroids are a common condition that can be debilitating and are the leading benign cause of hysterectomy. Women often live with the symptoms rather than choose hysterectomy, but survey studies have shown that work, social life, and physical activities are hindered by fibroid symptoms. Offering alternative therapies tailored to a woman's symptoms will allow her to choose a treatment that fits her needs and to preserve her uterus and fertility. The minimally invasive treatment options have a faster recovery and lower surgical risk than hysterectomy, but may require reintervention. One pharmacologic treatment offers short-term, intermittent therapy with lasting effects. PMID:27521875

  20. Uterine rotation: a cause of intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    González-Mesa, Ernesto; Narbona, Isidoro; Cohen, Isaac; Villegas, Emilia; Cuenca, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is an uncommon surgical emergency during pregnancy that affects seriously the prognosis of gestation. The underlying cause can be identified in the majority of cases and usually consists of adhesions secondary to previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, followed in order of frequency by intestinal volvuli. In recent years there have been no reports in which the gravid uterus has been the cause of intestinal obstruction. We report the case of a woman in week 33 + 4 of pregnancy who developed extrinsic compression of the colon secondary to uterine rotation and pelvic impaction of the head of the fetus.

  1. Trophoblast-uterine interactions at implantation

    PubMed Central

    Aplin, John D; Kimber, Susan J

    2004-01-01

    Implantation of the embryo in the uterus is a critical and complex event and its failure is widely considered an impediment to improved success in assisted reproduction. Depending on whether placentation is invasive or superficial (epitheliochorial), the embryo may interact transiently or undergo a prolonged adhesive interaction with the uterine epithelium. Numerous candidate interactions have been identified, and there is good progress on identifying gene networks required for early placentation. However no molecular mechanisms for the epithelial phase are yet firmly established in any species. It is noteworthy that gene ablation in mice has so far failed to identify obligatory initial molecular events. PMID:15236654

  2. [Preinvasive lesions in gynaecology - uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Mouková, L; Feranec, R; Chovanec, J

    2013-01-01

    Preinvasive lesion of the uterine cervix can give rise to cervical cancer. High-risk human papillomaviruses with high oncogenic potential are considered to be the main etiopathological factors with interaction of other risk factors (recurrent inflammation of the cervix, injury of the cervix, immunosuppressive conditions, sexual promiscuity, etc.). Early dia-gnosis of these changes at regular gynecological examinations and adequate treatment can prevent of malignant transformation. Organized cervical screening and implementation of nationwide vaccination against human papillomavirus promises to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. PMID:24325165

  3. [Diagnosis and treatment of uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Török, Péter; Póka, Róbert

    2016-05-22

    Uterine fibroid is the most common tumor in women of reproductive age. Depending on the size and location they can cause variety of symptoms. The clinical presentation may include bleeding disorders, infertility, pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea as well. Detection and precise evaluation of the number, size and location of myomas is possible due to advances in imaging and endoscopic methods. Treatment of fibroids depends on the severity and type of symptoms. There are medical, radiological and surgical options for treatment. Debates on fibroid management are widely published and are in focus recently, related to the "fibroid-scandal" occurred in the United States. PMID:27177787

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of uterine myoma].

    PubMed

    Török, Péter; Póka, Róbert

    2016-05-22

    Uterine fibroid is the most common tumor in women of reproductive age. Depending on the size and location they can cause variety of symptoms. The clinical presentation may include bleeding disorders, infertility, pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea as well. Detection and precise evaluation of the number, size and location of myomas is possible due to advances in imaging and endoscopic methods. Treatment of fibroids depends on the severity and type of symptoms. There are medical, radiological and surgical options for treatment. Debates on fibroid management are widely published and are in focus recently, related to the "fibroid-scandal" occurred in the United States.

  5. Is assisted reproduction associated with abnormal placentation?

    PubMed

    Joy, Jolly; Gannon, Caroline; McClure, Neil; Cooke, Inez

    2012-01-01

    Artificial reproductive technologies (ART) and conception following a period of untreated infertility (>1 year) are independently associated with increased pregnancy complications in both singleton and multiple pregnancies. It is unknown if placental dysfunction associated with macroscopic and/or microscopic histological discrepancies might explain some of these variances. Our aim was to compare the histopathology of placentae from singleton pregnancies belonging to 3 groups, as follows: conception as a result of ART; spontaneous conception (<1 year of trying); and conception following untreated infertility (>1 year). Pathological examination of placentae from singleton pregnancies of nonsmoking, age-matched primiparous women with no significant medical history and no known uterine congenital anomalies was performed by a single pathologist blinded to the groups. Features were compared using analysis of variance and chi-square tests. A total of 89 placental pathology reports were available (control  =  39, infertility  =  17, ART  =  33). The mean placental thickness was significantly higher in the ART group when compared to the spontaneous conception group (P  =  0.02). There were significantly more placental hematomas in the ART group (P  =  0.04) compared to the other groups. There were no significant differences in rates of abnormal placental shapes or abnormal cord insertions. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of microscopic placental lesions, nor were there any statistically significant differences in the incidence of macroscopic and microscopic placental lesions between the infertility group and the other groups. Placentae of ART pregnancies show significantly increased thickness and a higher incidence of hematomas. Increased placental thickness has previously been linked to increased perinatal risk.

  6. Radiation-induced uterine changes: MR imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Arrive, L.; Chang, Y.C.; Hricak, H.; Brescia, R.J.; Auffermann, W.; Quivey, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the capability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to demonstrate postirradiation changes in the uterus, MR studies of 23 patients who had undergone radiation therapy were retrospectively examined and compared with those of 30 patients who had not undergone radiation therapy. MR findings were correlated with posthysterectomy histologic findings. In premenopausal women, radiation therapy induced (a) a decrease in uterine size demonstrable as early as 3 months after therapy ended; (b) a decrease in signal intensity of the myometrium on T2-predominant MR images, reflecting a significant decrease in T2 relaxation time, demonstrable as early as 1 month after therapy; (c) a decrease in thickness and signal intensity of the endometrium demonstrable on T2-predominant images 6 months after therapy; and (d) loss of uterine zonal anatomy as early as 3 months after therapy. In postmenopausal women, irradiation did not significantly alter the MR imaging appearance of the uterus. These postirradiation MR changes in both the premenopausal and postmenopausal uteri appeared similar to the changes ordinarily seen on MR images of the nonirradiated postmenopausal uterus.

  7. Therapeutic management of uterine fibroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puchar, Anne; Feyeux, Cécile; Luton, Dominique; Koskas, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Fibroids, which are benign smooth-muscle tumors of clonal origin, are the most common gynecologic tumors occurring in about 20 to 25 % of women over 30 years of age. The most frequent symptoms are pelvic pain and heavy menstrual bleeding resulting in anemia. The role of fibroids in infertility remains debated but probably mostly related to submucosal location due to implantation impairment. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids can have a considerable impact on quality of life. Considering this impact and the cost associated with their management, treatment of fibroids is a public health concern. Treatment options for symptomatic fibroids include medical, surgical and alternatives techniques. Medical management is mainly based on the use of progestogens, antifibrinolytics agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs selective progesterone receptor modulators. Surgical management includes myomectomy (hysteroscopic, laparoscopic, minilaparoscopic or laparotomic) and hysterectomy. The choice of surgery depends on several factors: the number, topography and size of myomas, the age of the patient and her desire for fertility, treatment history and her desire to keep the uterus. Alternatives techniques to surgery are mainly based on the uterine artery embolization. The aim of this article is to provide evidence based recommendations for the management of uterine fibroids. PMID:26698838

  8. Cervical Neoplasia-Related Factors and Decreased Prevalence of Uterine Fibroids among a Cohort of African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Kristen R.; Smith, Jennifer S.; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K.; Baird, Donna D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the previously reported inverse association between cervical neoplasia and uterine fibroids is corroborated. Design Cross-sectional analysis of enrollment data from an ongoing prospective study of fibroid development. Setting Detroit, Michigan area. Patients(s) Self-reported data on abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment were obtained from 1,008 African-American women ages 23-34 with no previous fibroid diagnosis and no reported history of HPV vaccination. Presence of fibroids was assessed at a standardized ultrasound examination. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) The association between the 3 cervical neoplasia-related variables and presence of fibroids was evaluated with logistic regression to estimate age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Result(s) Of the analysis sample, 46%, 29% and 14% reported a prior abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy and cervical treatment, respectively. Twenty-five percent had fibroids at ultrasound. Those reporting cervical treatment had a 39% [aOR: 0.61, 95%CI (0.38-0.96)] reduction in fibroid risk. Weak non-significant associations were found for abnormal Pap smear and colposcopy. Conclusion(s) Although a protective-type association of cervical neoplasia with uterine fibroids seems counter intuitive, a causal pathway is possible, and the findings are consistent with two prior studies. Further investigation is needed on the relationship between fibroids and cervical neoplasia and HPV-related mechanisms. PMID:24268705

  9. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  10. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  11. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  12. Bilateral segmental aplasia with unilateral uterine horn torsion in a Pomeranian bitch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Noboru; Aoshima, Keisuke; Kimura, Takashi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with unilateral pyometra and uterine horn torsion were diagnosed in a Pomeranian bitch that presented with chronic abdominal distension and an acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Because radiographic and ultrasonographic findings revealed the presence of markedly enlarged bilateral uterine horns filled with fluid in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of either pyometra or hydrometra with uterine horn torsion was made. Exploratory laparotomy showed bilateral, segmentally distended uterine horns with unilateral uterine horn torsion. Ovariohysterectomy was performed, and bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with the development of unilateral uterine horn torsion was diagnosed histopathologically. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of uterine horn torsion in conjunction with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn in a bitch. PMID:22843825

  13. The effect of cinnamon extract on isolated rat uterine strips.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamon is a spice used by some populations as a traditional remedy to control blood pressure and thus hypertension. Cinnamon extract decreases contractility in some smooth muscles, but its effect on uterine smooth muscle is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and pharmacological effects of cinnamon extract (CE) on the contractions of isolated rat uterine strips and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. Isolated longitudinal uterine strips were dissected from non-pregnant rats, mounted vertically in an organ bath chamber, and exposed to different concentrations of CE (10-20mg/mL). The effect of CE was investigated in the presence of each of the following solutions: 60mM KCl, 5nM oxytocin, and 1μM Bay K8644. CE significantly decreased the force of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly attenuated the uterine contractions elicited by KCl and oxytocin. In addition, CE significantly decreased the contractile force elicited when L-type Ca(2+) channels were activated by Bay K8644. CE's major mechanism may be inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels, which limits calcium influx. These data demonstrate that CE can be a potent tocolytic that can decrease uterine activity regardless of how the force was produced, even when the uterus was stimulated by agonists. As a result, cinnamon may be used to alleviate menstrual pain associated with dysmenorrhoea or prevent unwanted uterine activity in early pregnancy. PMID:26952750

  14. Uterine vascular effects of estetrol in nonpregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Levine, M G; Miodovnik, M; Clark, K E

    1984-03-15

    Estetrol is produced by the fetal liver and has been suggested to be a sensitive indicator of fetal well-being. Although the uterine vascular effects of estrogens (17 beta-estradiol, estriol, and estrone) have been extensively investigated in our laboratory and those of others, the ability of estetrol to dilate the ovine uterine vasculature is not presently known. The present experiment was designed to compare the vasoactivity of estetrol to that of a second pregnancy-associated estrogen, estriol. Five nonpregnant oophorectomized ewes were chronically instrumented with catheters in the femoral artery, femoral vein, uterine arteries, and electromagnetic flow probes on both uterine arteries. Upon recovering from operation, animals received unilateral intra-arterial (uterine) injections of either estriol (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 micrograms) or estetrol (1, 3, 10, and 30 micrograms). Ewes received only one dose of either estetrol or estriol daily and all doses were given in a randomized order. Uterine blood flow responses were continuously monitored and the time of onset, peak, and duration were recorded. The time of onset (38 +/- 2 minutes), time of peak response (75 +/- 1 minute), and duration (189 +/- 7 minutes) were approximately equal to those observed for estriol. On the basis of the data obtained in the present study we have determined that estetrol is 15 to 30 times less potent than estriol as a uterine vasodilator. PMID:6702941

  15. Uterine activin receptor-like kinase 5 is crucial for blastocyst implantation and placental development.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jia; Monsivais, Diana; You, Ran; Zhong, Hua; Pangas, Stephanie A; Matzuk, Martin M

    2015-09-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily are key regulators in most developmental and physiological processes. However, the in vivo roles of TGF-β signaling in female reproduction remain uncertain. Activin receptor-like kinase 5 (ALK5) is the major type 1 receptor for the TGF-β subfamily. Absence of ALK5 leads to early embryonic lethality because of severe defects in vascular development. In this study, we conditionally ablated uterine ALK5 using progesterone receptor-cre mice to define the physiological roles of ALK5 in female reproduction. Despite normal ovarian functions and artificial decidualization in conditional knockout (cKO) mice, absence of uterine ALK5 resulted in substantially reduced female reproduction due to abnormalities observed at different stages of pregnancy, including implantation defects, disorganization of trophoblast cells, fewer uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, and impairment of spiral artery remodeling. In our microarray analysis, genes encoding proteins involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity were down-regulated in cKO decidua compared with control decidua. Flow cytometry confirmed a 10-fold decrease in uNK cells in cKO versus control decidua. According to these data, we hypothesize that TGF-β acts on decidual cells via ALK5 to induce expression of other growth factors and cytokines, which are key regulators in luminal epithelium proliferation, trophoblast development, and uNK maturation during pregnancy. Our findings not only generate a mouse model to study TGF-β signaling in female reproduction but also shed light on the pathogenesis of many pregnancy complications in human, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:26305969

  16. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  17. Upside-Down and Inside-Out Signs in Uterine Inversion.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Haruka; Hasegawa, Junichi; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Maruyama, Daisuke; Arakaki, Tatsuya; Ono, Ayako; Miyake, Yasufumi; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Uterine inversion is a rare condition that is accompanied by massive hemorrhaging and shock, resulting in a maternal emergency. The diagnosis of uterine inversion is often difficult due to massive postpartum hemorrhaging. Ultrasonography is useful for the diagnosis in such conditions, but we do not often encounter typical ultrasonographic images in uterine inversion because it occurs rarely. In the present case report of uterine inversion, we demonstrate the typical ultrasonographic findings of uterine inversion. PMID:27298665

  18. Genetic determinants of uterine fibroid size in the multiethnic NIEHS uterine fibroid study

    PubMed Central

    Aissani, Brahim; Zhang, Kui; Wiener, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a follow-up association study across extended candidate chromosomal regions for uterine leiomyoma (UL), or fibroids, to search for loci influencing the size of UL in 916 premenopausal North American women participants to the NIEHS uterine fibroid study. Proportional odds models with adjustments for confounders were fitted to evaluate the association of a final set of 2,484 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with the size of uterine fibroids measured by transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasounds. SNP association with UL size was tested in a case-only design comparing three categories of tumor size (small, medium and large tumors) and in a design that included UL-free controls as the lowest category of a four-level ordinal outcome to account for misclassifications due to small, undetected tumors. In the case-only design, rs2285789 in SORCS2 (sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2) was the sole variant that remained significant after correction for multiple testing (Bonferroni-adjusted P=0.037). Several other SNPs, namely those located in MYT1L, TMCC1 and BRCA1, reached promising associations. In the design that included the controls, several genes of potential relevance to UL pathogenesis were associated (Bonferroni-unadjusted P < 0.01) with tumor size, particularly LIFR-AS1 (leukemia inhibitory factor receptor alpha-antisense RNA 1), which showed the strongest association (Bonferroni-unadjusted P=0.0006) among the genes with regulated expression in UL. In conclusion, SORCS2, a known GWAS candidate for circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3, may act through IGF-I signaling to affect the size of fibroids. Through down-regulation of LIFR, LIFR-AS1 may mediate the inhibitory action of LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor), a cytokine involved in embryonic uterine development. Replication analyses are needed to substantiate our reported associations of SORCS2 and LIFR-AS1 with the size of fibroids. PMID:26417400

  19. Two cases of uterine malignant lymphoma diagnosed by needle biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Murakami, Makoto; Matsuda, Makiko; Kawamura, Naoki; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The incidence of primary malignant lymphoma arising in the female genital tract is extremely rare and constitutes approximately 0.05% of malignant tumors. Uterine malignant lymphoma develops in the endometrial stroma, causing minimal necrosis. It is therefore difficult to diagnose malignant lymphoma, as it does not involve genital bleeding or epithelial defects. We have performed transcervical needle biopsies from deep in the myometrium, with the purpose of diagnosing uterine muscle layer lesions, such as leiomyosarcoma, but this is an unusual method. In this report, we suggest that transcervical needle biopsy is useful in the diagnosis of uterine malignant lymphoma. PMID:26370331

  20. MRI diagnosis of spontaneous uterine rupture of an unscarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Hruska, Karim M; Coughlin, Bret F; Coggins, Allahna A; Wiczyk, Halina P

    2006-05-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture is a rare, potentially catastrophic complication of pregnancy, and its prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential in limiting morbidity and mortality. Clinical diagnosis is difficult and relies heavily on diagnostic imaging. Radiological diagnosis is also often difficult with most documented cases involving the use of ultrasound and computed tomography. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being used more frequently to assess patients, there are few reports illustrating the utility of MRI and its advantages over other imaging modalities in the diagnosis of uterine rupture. This report documents a case of spontaneous uterine rupture diagnosed by MRI in a postpartum patient with an unscarred uterus.

  1. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture of an Unscarred Uterus before Labour.

    PubMed

    Guèye, Mamour; Mbaye, Magatte; Ndiaye-Guèye, Mame Diarra; Kane-Guèye, Serigne Modou; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Niang, Mouhamadou Mansour; Diaw, Hannegret; Moreau, Jean Charles

    2012-01-01

    Uterine rupture is a public health problem in developing countries. When it is spontaneous, it occurs most often during labor in a context of scarred uterus. Uterine rupture during pregnancy is a rare situation. The diagnosis is not always obvious and morbidity and maternal and fetal mortality is still high. We report a case of spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy at 35 weeks of an unscarred uterus before labour. This is an exceptional case that we observe for the first time in our unit.

  2. Uterine rupture at 10 weeks of gestation after laparoscopic myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Junichi; Mimura, Takashi; Arakaki, Tatsuya; Yoshikawa, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Yuka; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Matsuoka, Ryu; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    The patient had a previous history of laparoscopic myomectomy. At 10 weeks of gestation, she visited our emergency center due to sudden abdominal pain. An ultrasound examination and MRI showed complete rupture of the uterine myometrium in the fundal wall and a floating gestation sac in Douglas' fossa with fluid. Emergency abdominal laparotomy was immediately performed due to the diagnosis of uterine rupture. During surgery, a small defect of the myometrium was found in the posterior fundal wall of the uterus. Two-layer suturing was performed at the perforation hole. The occasional occurrence of uterine rupture after surgery of the uterus even in the first trimester should be considered.

  3. Image-guided thermal therapy of uterine fibroids

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Fennessy, Fiona; McDannold, Nathan; Jolesz, Ferenc; Tempany, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Thermal ablation is an established treatment for tumor. The merging of newly developed imaging techniques has allowed precise targeting and real-time thermal mapping. This article provides an overview of the image-guided thermal ablation techniques in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Background on uterine fibroids, including epidemiology, histology, symptoms, imaging findings and current treatment options, is first outlined. After describing the principle of magnetic resonance thermal imaging, we introduce the applications of image-guided thermal therapies, including laser ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryotherapy and particularly the newest, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery, and how they apply to uterine fibroid treatment. PMID:19358440

  4. Ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroid-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Puchar, A; Luton, D; Koskas, M

    2015-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign uterine tumors in women of reproductive age. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids, according to their type and location, can cause several symptoms and impact quality of life. To date, no medical treatment is able to eliminate fibroids. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an orally active synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) characterized by a tissue-specific progesterone antagonist effect that reduces the proliferation of leiomyoma cells and induces apoptosis. It was licensed in Europe for preoperative fibroid treatment in 2012. Its pharmacological and pharmacodynamic characteristics, its efficacy and good tolerance make UPA a new important tool in the management of uterine fibroids. PMID:26744741

  5. Possible role of DaVinci Robot in uterine transplantation.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, specifically robotic surgery, became a common technique used by gynecological surgeons over the last decade. The realization of the first human uterine transplantation commenced new perspectives in the treatment of uterine agenesia or infertility in women with history of hysterectomy at a young age. Robot-assisted technique may enhance the safety of the procedure by facilitating the microvascular anastomosis, vaginal anastomosis, and ligaments' fixation. This study proposes the formation of a multicenter collaboration group to organize a protocol with the aim to clarify the possible role of robotic surgery in uterine transplantation. PMID:26401113

  6. Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoints in uterine leiomyomata, pulmonary chondroid hamartoma, and lipoma: Physical mapping of the 12q14-q15 breakpoint region in uterine leiomyomata

    SciTech Connect

    Fejzo, M.S.; Yoon, S.J.; Kucherlapati, R.S.

    1995-03-20

    Uterine leiomyomata are the most common tumors in women and can cause abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility. Approximately 200,000 hysterectomies are performed annually in the U.S. to relieve patients of the medical sequelae of these benign neoplasms. Our efforts have focused on cloning the t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) breakpoint in uterine leiomyoma to further our understanding of the biology of these tumors. Thirty-nine YACs and six cosmids mapping to 12q14-q15 have been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to tumor metaphase chromosomes containing a t(12;14). One YAC spanned the translocation breakpoint and was mapped to tumor metaphases from a pulmonary chondroid hamartoma containing a t(12;14)(q14-q15;q23-q24) and a lipoma containing a t(12;15)(q15;q24); this YAC also spanned the breakpoint in these two tumors, suggesting that the same gene on chromosome 12 may be involved in the pathobiology of these distinct benign neoplasms. 41 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans Histone Deacetylase hda-1 Is Required for Morphogenesis of the Vulva and LIN-12/Notch-Mediated Specification of Uterine Cell Fates

    PubMed Central

    Ranawade, Ayush Vasant; Cumbo, Philip; Gupta, Bhagwati P.

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin modification genes play crucial roles in development and disease. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the class I histone deacetylase family member hda-1, a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation complex, has been shown to control cell proliferation. We recovered hda-1 in an RNA interference screen for genes involved in the morphogenesis of the egg-laying system. We found that hda-1 mutants have abnormal vulva morphology and vulval-uterine connections (i.e., no uterine-seam cell). We characterized the vulval defects by using cell fate-specific markers and found that hda-1 is necessary for the specification of all seven vulval cell types. The analysis of the vulval-uterine connection defect revealed that hda-1 is required for the differentiation of the gonadal anchor cell (AC), which in turn induces ventral uterine granddaughters to adopt π fates, leading to the formation of the uterine-seam cell. Consistent with these results, hda-1 is expressed in the vulva and AC. A search for hda-1 target genes revealed that fos-1 (fos proto-oncogene family) acts downstream of hda-1 in vulval cells, whereas egl-43 (evi1 proto-oncogene family) and nhr-67 (tailless homolog, NHR family) mediate hda-1 function in the AC. Furthermore, we showed that AC expression of hda-1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of the lin-12/Notch ligand lag-2 to specify π cell fates. These results demonstrate the pivotal role of hda-1 in the formation of the vulva and the vulval-uterine connection. Given that hda-1 homologs are conserved across the phyla, our findings are likely to provide a better understanding of HDAC1 function in development and disease. PMID:23797102

  8. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  9. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop AUB. Some illnesses (like thyroid disease or polycystic ovary syndrome ) can mess with the body's hormones. Problems like ... sex. Doctors ask these questions because conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome and some STDs can cause abnormal bleeding. If ...

  10. Management of Uterine Fibroids: A Focus on Uterine-sparing Interventional Techniques.

    PubMed

    Silberzweig, James E; Powell, Daniel K; Matsumoto, Alan H; Spies, James B

    2016-09-01

    Uterine fibroids occur in approximately 50% of women over the age of 40 years, and an estimated 50% of those are symptomatic. Menorrhagia is the most common symptom and the primary indication for treatment, although bulk symptoms often occur and can be treated. Pharmacotherapy is typically inadequate unless it can be expected to successfully bridge to menopause or allow for a less-invasive intervention. However, hormonal therapies have risks. Hysterectomy is still the most commonly performed procedure for symptomatic fibroids and has the lowest rate of reintervention (compared with myomectomy or uterine artery embolization [UAE]), but rates of more serious complications are higher and patient satisfaction and ability to return to normal activities may also be less favorable. Myomectomy is not necessarily less morbid than hysterectomy and may have a greater failure rate than UAE. Techniques and devices vary with little standardization, and operator experience is crucial to success. The largest studies of UAE show very low rates of serious complications and rapid recovery. UAE significantly improves symptoms related to uterine fibroids in 85%-90% of patients. Herein, this article will discuss the nature of fibroids and their diagnosis, pharmacotherapy, surgical treatment, and nonsurgical interventional treatment, including UAE and magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27533290

  11. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  13. Pathology of the uterine tubal junction.

    PubMed

    Biffignandi, F

    1982-01-01

    First the Author reviews briefly the anatomy and the physiology of the Uterine-Tubal Junction (UTJ) with a main concern for the muscular pattern and the secretory activity of this part of the tube, in relation with the hormonal and nervous control. Speaking about the pathology of the UTJ that can impair fertility, different are the causes: chronic infections and their sequelae, salpingitis isthmica nodosa, polyps, iatrogenic lesions (mainly following sterilization procedures), congenital malformations. Other pathologies might be: ectopic pregnancies - 2.5% of all tubal pregnancies - and neoplasms even if not related to infertility. The therapy in most cases for restoring the continuity and hopefully the function of the tube is surgery through a microsurgical approach.

  14. Uterine artery embolization for heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jonathan; Christie, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Uterine artery embolization (UAE) as a treatment option for fibroids was first reported by Ravina in 1995. Although rapidly adopted by enthusiasts, many were skeptical and its introduction varied widely across the globe. It was not until randomized controlled trials and registries were published and national guidance statements issued that UAE was accepted as a safe and proven treatment for fibroids. The technique is now established as one of the treatment options to be discussed with patients as an alternative to surgery for fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding. Research is on-going to evaluate the relative merits of UAE compared with other medical and surgical treatment options for heavy menstrual bleeding, particularly for women wishing to maintain their fertility. PMID:26756068

  15. Quantitative PIXE analysis of human uterine myoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, S. C.; Chu, T. C.; Lin, H. J.; Hsu, C. C.

    1986-11-01

    Twenty-two samples, taken from eight pathological proved uterine myoma patients, were embedded in paraffin and cut into slices of identical thickness (4.0 μm). After deparaffinization, washing and drying, the slices of myomal tissue and their neighboring myometrial tissue were bombarded by 2.0 MeV proton beams from a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The induced characteristic X-rays were then detected and analyzed using a HPGe detector system. The absolute concentrations of trace elements contained in tumors and normal tissues of human myomal uterus were determined, in reference to a known concentration of doped yttrium. Significant correlations between the concentration of elements, both in tumors and in normal tissues, were found.

  16. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  17. Adrenal Metastasis from Uterine Papillary Serous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lubana, Sandeep Singh; Singh, Navdeep; Tuli, Sandeep S.; Seligman, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: UPSC with adrenal metastasis Symptoms: Post menopausal bleeding Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Adrenalectomy Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a highly malignant form of endometrial cancer with a high propensity for metastases and recurrences even when there is minimal or no myometrial invasion. It usually metastasizes to the pelvis, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, upper abdomen, and peritoneum. However, adrenal metastases from UPSC is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of UPSC with adrenal metastasis that occurred 6 years after the initial diagnosis. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman previously diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma at an outside facility presented in September of 2006 with postmenopausal bleeding. She underwent comprehensive surgical staging with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage 2. Post-operatively, the patient was treated with radiation and chemotherapy. The treatment was completed in April of 2007. The patient had no evidence of disease until July 2009 when she was found to have a mass highly suspicious for malignancy. Subsequently, she underwent right upper lobectomy. The morphology of the carcinoma was consistent with UPSC. She refused chemotherapy due to a previous history of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. The patient was followed up with regular computed tomography (CT) scans. In October 2012 a new right adrenal nodule was seen on CT, which showed intense metabolic uptake on positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan. The patient underwent right adrenalectomy. Pathology of the surgical specimen was consistent with UPSC. Conclusions: UPSC is an aggressive variant of endometrial cancer associated with high recurrence rate and poor prognoses. Long-term follow-up is needed because there is a possibility of late metastases, as in this case. PMID:27117594

  18. Percutaneous In Utero Thoracoamniotic Shunt Creation for Fetal Thoracic Abnormalities Leading to Non-Immune Hydrops

    PubMed Central

    White, Sarah B.; Tutton, Sean M.; Rilling, William S.; Kuhlmann, Randall S.; Peterson, Erika L.; Wigton, Thomas R.; Ames, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a fetus, rare, fetal thoracic abnormalities can cause mediastinal shift and vena cava obstruction resulting in fetal hydrops and intra-uterine fetal demise. This series describes a trans-abdominal, trans-uterine Seldinger based percutaneous approach to create a shunt for treatment of these fetal abnormalities. Material and Methods Five fetuses presented with non-immune fetal hydrops due to fetal thoracic abnormalities causing severe mass effect. Under direct ultrasound guidance, an 18 G needle was used to access the malformation. Through a peel away sheath, a customized pediatric transplant 4.5 French double J ureteral stent was advanced; the leading loop was placed in the fetal thorax and the trailing end left outside the fetal thorax within the amniotic cavity. Results Seven thoracoamniotic shunts were successfully placed in 5 fetuses, with one shunt immediately replaced due to displacement during the procedure and the second not functioning at follow-up requiring insertion of a second shunt. All fetuses had successful decompression of the thoracic malformation, allowing lung re-expansion and resolution of hydrops. Three of 5 mothers had meaningful (> 7 days) prolongation of their pregnancies. All pregnancies were maintained to > 30 weeks, with a range of 30 weeks 1 day to 37 weeks 2 days. There were no maternal complications. Conclusions Seldinger based percutaneous approach to draining fetal thoracic abnormalities is feasible and can allow for prolongation of pregnancy, antenatal lung development and ultimately result in fetal survival. PMID:24702750

  19. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  20. Uterine contractility of plants used to facilitate childbirth in Nigerian ethnomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Attah, Alfred F.; O'Brien, Margaret; Koehbach, Johannes; Sonibare, Mubo A.; Moody, Jones O.; Smith, Terry J.; Gruber, Christian W.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Pregnant women in Nigeria use plant preparations to facilitate childbirth and to reduce associated pain. The rationale for this is not known and requires pharmacological validation. Aim of study Obtain primary information regarding the traditional use of plants and analyze their uterine contractility at cellular level. Materials and methods Semi-structured, open interviews using questionnaires of traditional healthcare professionals and other informants triggered the collection and identification of medicinal plant species. The relative traditional importance of each medicinal plant was determined by its use-mention index. Extracts of these plants were analyzed for their uterotonic properties on an in vitro human uterine cell collagen model. Result The plants Calotropis procera, Commelina africana, Duranta repens, Hyptis suaveolens, Ocimum gratissimum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea, Sida corymbosa and Vernonia amygdalina were documented and characterized. Aqueous extracts from these nine plants induced significant sustained increases in human myometrial smooth muscle cell contractility, with varying efficiencies, depending upon time and dose of exposure. Conclusion The folkloric use of several plant species during childbirth in Nigeria has been validated. Seven plants were for the first time characterized to have contractile properties on uterine myometrial cells. The results serve as ideal starting points in the search for safe, longer lasting, effective and tolerable uterotonic drug leads. PMID:22766472

  1. [Stimulation and inhibition of uterine contractions from the modern viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, H

    1986-06-30

    We know close to nothing why preterm or adterm delivery in human being starts. Either it is the breakdown of mechanisms protecting the pregnancy when it is time for the baby to flee the no more adequate surrounding of the uterus, or the activation of substances starting uterine contractions. Most probable is the interaction between oxytocin and prostaglandines which leads to the onset of labour; the influence of the fetus on this procedure is discussed. Stimulation of contractions: Oxytocin given as infusion with or without foregoing priming by locally applied prostaglandines (exact supervision of uterine motility and the well-being of the fetus by CTG) and/or amniotomy. Infusions of Prostaglandines always cause uterine contractions ending with the expulsion of the fetus. Inhibition of uterine contractility: In cases of threatening premature delivery before during and after intraabdominal operations and fetal distress during term delivery nowadays Betamimetics are given. The application of alcohol is reserved for special cases.

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Unification of Noncommunicating Uterine Cavities

    PubMed Central

    Mullesserill, Bijoy T.; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Damario, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The benefits of ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic metroplasty have been well described in the management of the partial septate uterus. The use of ultrasonography at the time of hysteroscopy provides visualization of the intrauterine instruments within the uterine cavity. This report describes a case where ultrasound-guidance was used to enter a noncommunicating uterine cavity hysteroscopically. Methods: A 22-year-old female after her third miscarriage experienced worsening dysmenorrhea. The patient underwent a laparoscopy and hysteroscopy to further evaluate the cause of pelvic pain and to treat the Müllerian anomaly. Under ultrasound-guidance, the 2 uterine cavities were unified by hysteroscopic metroplasty. Results: Postoperative sonohysterography demonstrated unification of the 2 cavities. Conclusions: This unique application of ultrasound-guidance in hysteroscopic surgery may aid the surgeon in entering a noncommunicating uterine cavity. PMID:12856848

  3. Uterine cervical carcinoma: role of matrix metalloproteinases (review).

    PubMed

    Libra, Massimo; Scalisi, Aurora; Vella, Nadia; Clementi, Silvia; Sorio, Roberto; Stivala, Franca; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Mazzarino, Clorinda

    2009-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have provided evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a main player in the development of uterine cervical neoplasms. Migration of cancer cells from the origin tissue to surrounding or distant organs is essential for tumor progression. Many studies of tumor invasion and metastases have focused on the degradation of the extracellular matrix where matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a central role. Two of these enzymes, MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been correlated with the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis in human cancers, including uterine neoplasms. It has been shown that the up-regulation of MMPs is associated with progression of cervical uterine neoplasms. This review describes the current understanding of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity in pre-cancer and cancer lesions of cervical uterine, which may open new strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  4. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field. PMID:21632170

  5. Current status of surrogacy in Japan and uterine transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Mihara, Makoto; Iida, Takuya; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproductive technology (ART) have made it possible to circumvent many causes of male and female infertility. The right to have a child by ART has been respected for infertile couples. However, there are currently no legal regulations concerning ART in Japan, and this has resulted in social and ethical problems. Surrogacy involves particularly complex medical, ethical, social, and legal issues, and is frequently focused on as a major social concern. Uterine transplantation (UTx) is a potential alternative for young women with uterine factor infertility due to hysterectomy for treatment of a malignant uterine tumor or massive blood loss after delivery, or because of a congenital disease such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster syndrome. UTx has been examined in experimental animals as a basis for establishment of fecundity for young women with uterine factor infertility. In this review, we focus on surrogacy in Japan and UTx research, and discuss the current status and concerns in this field.

  6. Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advances Supported Networks, Programs & Initiatives Genetic Cause of Infertility Associated with Uterine Fibroids Skip sharing on social ... To determine whether TSC genes were involved in infertility related to fibroids, scientists funded by the Fertility ...

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Uterine Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a uterine sarcoma. Pelvic radiation therapy High-energy (ionizing) radiation used to treat some cancers can damage cells’ DNA, sometimes increasing the risk of developing a second type of cancer . If ...

  8. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  9. Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus with membranous glomerulonephritis and uterine vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Feriozzi, S; Muda, A O; Amini, M; Faraggiana, T; Ancarani, E

    1997-02-01

    We report a case of lupus vasculitis with uterine localization and concurrent membranous nephropathy. Immunofluorescence study suggested the occurrence of an immune complex nephropathy and a pauci-immune pathogenesis of vasculitis. Our case points out the event of tissue damage in two organs mediated by different pathogenetic mechanisms. In addition, uterine vasculitis without pregnancy may be observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis.

  11. Uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy in a scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Bika, O; Huned, D; Jha, S; Selby, K

    2014-02-01

    We present a series of two cases complicated by uterine rupture following termination of pregnancy (TOP) in the 1st and 2nd trimesters using misoprostol in women with caesarean section scar. Current literature and practise have also been reviewed on ruptured uterus in women with caesarean section scar undergoing TOP using misoprostol; the diagnosis of adherent placenta in the 1st and 2nd trimesters in women with previous caesarean uterine scar; and likely implications of a ruptured uterus.

  12. Uterine cancer in the writings of Byzantine physicians.

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Laios, Konstantinos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    Byzantine physicians recognized uterine cancer as a distinct disease and tried to suggest a therapeutic approach. The work of Oribasius, Aetius of Amida, Paul of Aegina, Cleopatra Metrodora and Theophanes Nonnus reflects the Hippocratic-Galenic scientific ideas as well as their own concept on this malignancy. According to their writings uterine cancer was considered an incurable disease and its treatment was based mainly on palliative herbal drugs.

  13. Novel Image-Guided Management of a Uterine Arteriovenous Malformation

    SciTech Connect

    Przybojewski, Stefan J. Sadler, David J.

    2011-02-15

    The investigators present a novel image-guided embolization, not previously described, of a uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) resistant to endovascular management. The uterus was exposed surgically, and Histoacryl (Braun, Fulda, Germany) was injected directly into the nidus using ultrasound guidance and fluoroscopy. The patient had a successful full-term pregnancy after this procedure. This technique may be a useful alternative management strategy in patients with uterine AVM who fail traditional endovascular embolization and who still desire fertility.

  14. Four different mutations in codon 28 of alpha spectrin are associated with structurally and functionally abnormal spectrin alpha I/74 in hereditary elliptocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Coetzer, T L; Sahr, K; Prchal, J; Blacklock, H; Peterson, L; Koler, R; Doyle, J; Manaster, J; Palek, J

    1991-01-01

    Hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) Sp alpha I/74 is a disorder associated with defective spectrin (Sp) heterodimer self-association and an abnormal tryptic cleavage of the 80-kD alpha I domain of Sp resulting in increased amounts of a 74-kD peptide. The molecular basis of this disorder is heterogeneous and mutations in codons 28, 46, 48, and 49 (codons 22, 40, 42, and 43 in the previous nomenclature which did not include the six NH2-terminal amino acids) have been reported. In this study we present data on seven unrelated HE Sp alpha I/74 kindred from diverse racial backgrounds in whom we identified four different mutations all occurring in exon 2 of alpha Sp at codon 28. Utilizing the polymerase chain reaction we established a CGT----CTT; Arg----Leu 28 mutation in one kindred of Arab/Druze origin. In two unrelated white kindred of English/European origin the substitution is CGT----AGT; Arg----Ser 28 and in two apparently unrelated white kindred from New Zealand, the mutation is CGT----TGT; Arg----Cys 28. Finally, in one American black kindred and in a black kindred from Ghana the mutation involves CGT----CAT; Arg----His 28. Allele specific oligonucleotide hybridization confirmed that the probands are heterozygous for the respective mutant alleles. All four point mutations abolished an Aha II restriction enzyme site which allowed verification of linkage of the mutation with HE Sp alpha I/74. Our results imply that codon 28 of alpha Sp is a "hot spot" for mutations and also indicate that Arg 28 is critical for the conformational stability and functional self association of Sp heterodimers. Images PMID:1679439

  15. Decreased C-reactive protein induces abnormal vascular structure in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji Hye; Choi, Jong Ho; Bae, Si Hyun; Oh, Seh Hoon; Kim, Gi Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Chronic liver disease leads to liver fibrosis, and although the liver does have a certain regenerative capacity, this disease is associated with dysfunction of the liver vessels. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced in the liver and circulated from there for metabolism. CRP was recently shown to inhibit angiogenesis by inducing endothelial cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CRP levels on angiogenesis in a rat model of liver dysfunction induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The diameter of the hepatic vein was analyzed in rat liver tissues using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The expression levels of angiogenic factors, albumin, and CRP were analyzed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A tube formation assay was performed to confirm the effect of CRP on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with lithocholic acid (LCA) and siRNA-CRP. Results The diameter of the hepatic portal vein increased significantly with the progression of cirrhosis. The expression levels of angiogenic factors were increased in the cirrhotic liver. In contrast, the expression levels of albumin and CRP were significantly lower in the liver tissue obtained from the BDL rat model than in the normal liver. The CRP level was correlated with the expression of albumin in hepatocytes treated with LCA and siRNA-CRP. Tube formation was significantly decreased in HUVECs when they were treated with LCA or a combination of LCA and siRNA-CRP. Conclusion CRP seems to be involved in the abnormal formation of vessels in hepatic disease, and so it could be a useful diagnostic marker for hepatic disease. PMID:27729629

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis Reveals a Potential Mechanism for the Pathogenesis and Development of Uterine Leiomyomas

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Ryo; Sato, Shun; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Isao; Lee, Lifa; Okada, Maki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takaki, Eiichi; Nakai, Akira; Sugino, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of uterine leiomyomas, the most common benign tumor in women, remains unclear. Since acquired factors such as obesity, hypertension and early menarche place women at greater risk for uterine leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas may be associated with epigenetic abnormalities that are caused by unfavorable environmental exposures. Principal Findings Profiles of genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression were investigated in leiomyomas and in myometrium with and without leiomyomas. Profiles of DNA methylation and mRNA expression in the myometrium with and without leiomyomas were quite similar while those in leiomyomas were distinct. We identified 120 genes whose DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns differed between leiomyomas and the adjacent myometrium. The biological relevance of the aberrantly methylated and expressed genes was cancer process, including IRS1 that is related to transformation, and collagen-related genes such as COL4A1, COL4A2 and COL6A3. We also detected 22 target genes of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, including apoptosis-related genes, that have aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter, suggesting that the aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes contributes to the aberrant response to estrogen. Conclusions Aberrant DNA methylation and its related transcriptional aberration were associated with cancer processes, which may represent a critical initial mechanism that triggers transformation of a single tumor stem cell that will eventually develop into a monoclonal leiomyoma tumor. The aberrant epigenetic regulation of ER alpha-target genes also may contribute to the aberrant response to estrogen, which is involved in the development of uterine leiomyomas after menarche. PMID:23818951

  17. Identification of uterine leiomyoma-specific marker genes based on DNA methylation and their clinical application.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shun; Maekawa, Ryo; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Isao; Lee, Lifa; Okada, Maki; Jozaki, Kosuke; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sugino, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas is needed to determine whether the uterus can be retained. Therefore, biomarkers for uterine leiomyomas, and reliable and objective diagnostic methods have been desired besides the pathological diagnosis. In the present study, we identified 12 genes specific to uterine leiomyomas based on DNA methylation. Using these marker genes specific to uterine leiomyomas, we established a hierarchical clustering system based on the DNA methylation level of the marker genes, which could completely differentiate between uterine leiomyomas and normal myometrium. Furthermore, our hierarchical clustering system completely discriminated uterine cancers and differentiated between uterine leiomyosarcomas and leiomyomas with more than 70% accuracy. In conclusion, this study identified DNA methylation-based marker genes specific to uterine leiomyomas, and our hierarchical clustering system using these marker genes was useful for differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. PMID:27498619

  18. Identification of uterine leiomyoma-specific marker genes based on DNA methylation and their clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shun; Maekawa, Ryo; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Tamura, Isao; Lee, Lifa; Okada, Maki; Jozaki, Kosuke; Asada, Hiromi; Tamura, Hiroshi; Sugino, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas is needed to determine whether the uterus can be retained. Therefore, biomarkers for uterine leiomyomas, and reliable and objective diagnostic methods have been desired besides the pathological diagnosis. In the present study, we identified 12 genes specific to uterine leiomyomas based on DNA methylation. Using these marker genes specific to uterine leiomyomas, we established a hierarchical clustering system based on the DNA methylation level of the marker genes, which could completely differentiate between uterine leiomyomas and normal myometrium. Furthermore, our hierarchical clustering system completely discriminated uterine cancers and differentiated between uterine leiomyosarcomas and leiomyomas with more than 70% accuracy. In conclusion, this study identified DNA methylation-based marker genes specific to uterine leiomyomas, and our hierarchical clustering system using these marker genes was useful for differential diagnosis of uterine leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. PMID:27498619

  19. The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Ariel; Edwards, Marcel; Balayla, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Absolute uterine factor infertility (UFI) refers to the refractory causes of female infertility stemming from the anatomical or physiological inability of a uterus to sustain gestation. Today, uterine factor infertility affects 3-5% of the population. Traditionally, although surrogacy and adoption have been the only viable options for females affected by this condition, the uterine transplant is currently under investigation as a potential medical alternative for women who desire to go through the experience of pregnancy. Although animal models have shown promising results, human transplantation cases have only been described in case reports and a successful transplant leading to gestation is yet to occur in humans. Notwithstanding the intricate medical and scientific complexities that a uterine transplant places on the medical minds of our time, ethical questions on this matter pose a similar, if not greater, challenge. In light of these facts, this article attempts to present the ethical issues in the context of experimentation and standard practice which surround this controversial and potentially paradigm-altering procedure; and given these, introduces "The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation", a set of proposed criteria required for a woman to be ethically considered a candidate for uterine transplantation.

  20. Age and Nursing Affect the Neonatal Porcine Uterine Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kathleen M; Camp, Meredith E; Prasad, Nripesh; McNeel, Anthony K; Levy, Shawn E; Bartol, Frank F; Bagnell, Carol A

    2016-02-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis for maternal programming of neonatal development was proposed to describe a mechanism through which milk-borne bioactive factors, delivered from mother to nursing offspring, could affect development of tissues, including the uterus. Porcine uterine development, initiated before birth, is completed postnatally. However, age- and lactocrine-sensitive elements of the neonatal porcine uterine developmental program are undefined. Here, effects of age and nursing on the uterine transcriptome for 48 h from birth (Postnatal Day [PND] = 0) were identified using RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Uterine tissues were obtained from neonatal gilts (n = 4 per group) within 1 h of birth and before feeding (PND 0), or 48 h after nursing ad libitum (PND 2N) or feeding a commercial milk replacer (PND 2R). RNAseq analysis revealed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with both age (PND 2N vs. PND 0; 3283 DEGs) and nursing on PND 2 (PND 2N vs PND 2R; 896 DEGs). Expression of selected uterine genes was validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Bioinformatic analyses revealed multiple biological processes enriched in response to both age and nursing, including cell adhesion, morphogenesis, and cell-cell signaling. Age-sensitive pathways also included estrogen receptor-alpha and hedgehog signaling cascades. Lactocrine-sensitive processes in nursed gilts included those involved in response to wounding, the plasminogen activator network and coagulation. Overall, RNAseq analysis revealed comprehensive age- and nursing-related transcriptomic differences in the neonatal porcine uterus and identified novel pathways and biological processes regulating uterine development.