Science.gov

Sample records for utility photovoltaic group

  1. Utility photovoltaic group: Status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Hester, Stephen L.; Wills, Bethany N.

    1996-01-01

    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)—an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)—an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process.

  2. Photovoltaic utility/customer interface study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C. H.; Hayes, T. P.; Matthews, M. M.; Wilraker, V. F.

    1980-12-01

    The technical, economic, and legal and regulatory issues of interconnecting small, privately-owned, on-site photovoltaic generating systems to an electric utility are addressed. Baseline residential, commercial and industrial class photovoltaic systems were developed. Technical issues of concern affecting this interconnection were identified and included fault protection, undervoltage protection, lamp flicker, revenue metering, loss of synchromism, electrical safety, prevention of backfeeding a de-energized utility feeder, effects of on-site generation on utility relaying schemes, effects of power conditioner harmonic distortion on the electric utility, system isolation, electromagnetic interference and site power factor as seen by the utility. Typical interconnection wiring diagrams were developed for interconnecting each class of baseline photovoltaic generating system.

  3. Isolation transformers for utility-interactive photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, E. C., Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Isolation transformers are used in some photovoltaic systems to isolate the photovoltaic system common mode voltage from the utility distribution system. In early system experiments with grid connected photovoltaics, such transformers were the source of significant power losses. A project at the Lincoln Laboratory and at Allied Chemical Corporation developed an improved isolation transformer to minimize such power losses. Experimental results and an analytical model of conventional and improved transformers are presented, showing considerable reductions of losses associated with the improved transformer.

  4. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  5. 77 FR 30368 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... objective of the rule is to promote utilization of domestic photovoltaic devices under energy savings... 0750-AH43 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Utilization of Domestic Photovoltaic... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011. The section provides that photovoltaic devices to be utilized in...

  6. Solar photovoltaic power systems: an electric utility R & d perspective.

    PubMed

    Demeo, E A; Taylor, R W

    1984-04-20

    Solar photovoltaic technology is receiving increasing attention as a prospective source of bulk, electric utility power within the next 10 to 20 years. Successful development will require solar energy conversion efficiencies of about 15 percent for photovoltaic flat-plate modules, or about 25 percent for photovoltaic cells using highly concentrated sunlight. Three different cell technologies have a better than even chance of achieving these target efficiencies with costs and operating lifetimes that would allow significant use by electric utilities. The challenge for the next decade is to push photovoltaic technology to its physical limits while expanding markets and user confidence with currently available systems.

  7. Photovoltaics and electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bright, R.; Leigh, R.; Sills, T.

    1981-12-01

    The long term value of grid connected, residential photovoltaic (PV) systems is determined. The value of the PV electricity is defined as the full avoided cost in accordance with the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978. The avoided cost is computed using a long range utility planning approach to measure revenue requirement changes in response to the time phased introduction of PV systems into the grid. A case study approach to three utility systems is used. The changing value of PV electricity over a twenty year period from 1985 is presented, and the fuel and capital savings due to FY are analyzed. These values are translated into measures of breakeven capital investment under several options of power interchange and pricing.

  8. Utility interface issues for grid-connected photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D.; Key, T.; Fitzer, J.

    Photovoltaic (PV) balance-of-system research and development has focused on interconnection with the utility grid as the most promising future application for photovoltaic energy production. These sysems must be compatible with the existing utility grid to be accepted. Compatibility encompasses many technical, economic and institutional issues, from lineman safety to revenue metering and power quality. This paper reviews DOE/PV sponsored research for two of the technical interconnection issues: harmonic injection, and power factor control. Explanations and rationale behind these two issues will be reviewed, and the status of current research and plans for required future work will be presented.

  9. Utility interconnection experience with an operating central station MW-sized photovoltaic plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patapoff, N. W., Jr.; Mattijetz, D. R.

    1985-08-01

    Utility experience to date with photovoltaic systems has been with small dispersed systems designed primarily as demonstration projects. The 1 MW photovoltaic plant at Lugo Substation in Hesperia, California, has been designed and is operated as a central station power plant. The performance of the system has been monitored since first coming on line in November 1982. The potential impact of this and similar systems upon the operation of the utility is discussed.

  10. DOE Forms National Center for Photovoltaics

    Science.gov Websites

    , Georgia, Florida and New Mexico. The alliance also will include the Utility Photovoltaic Group, a testing in partnership with the U.S. photovoltaic industry. For industry that means one-stop shopping for amorphous silicon and cadmium telluride photovoltaic modules, and manufacturing of silicon sheet and

  11. Federal policies to promote the widespread utilization of photovoltaic systems. Supplement: Review and critique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Review comments of the Congressional report entitled 'Federal Policies to Promote the Widespread Utilization of Photovoltaic Systems' are presented. Responses to the review comments by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, preparer of the Congressional report, are also presented. The Congressional report discussed various issues related to promoting the deployment of photovoltaic systems through the Federal Photovoltaic Program. Various program strategies and funding levels were examined.

  12. Utility-interactive photovoltaic power conditioners - Effects of transformerless design and dc injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, R.; Krauthamer, S.; Klein, J.

    It is shown that the use of isolation transformers to eliminate dc injection into the utility in utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) systems can reduce the overall efficiency of the system. In order to improve PV efficiency, a transformerless power conditioning subsystem (PCS) is proposed for a grounded PV array having two and three connections to a utility. An additional transformerless PCS configuration is proposed for an ungrounded PV array. A detailed schematic drawing of the interconnections between the elements of a transformerless PCS is provided.

  13. Distributed photovoltaic systems: Utility interface issues and their present status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, M.; Klein, J.

    1981-01-01

    Major technical issues involving the integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) into electric utility systems are defined and their impacts are described quantitatively. An extensive literature search, interviews, and analysis yielded information about the work in progress and highlighted problem areas in which additional work and research are needed. The findings from the literature search were used to determine whether satisfactory solutions to the problems exist or whether satisfactory approaches to a solution are underway. It was discovered that very few standards, specifications, or guidelines currently exist that will aid industry in integrating PV into the utility system. Specific areas of concern identified are: (1) protection, (2) stability, (3) system unbalance, (4) voltage regulation and reactive power requirements, (5) harmonics, (6) utility operations, (7) safety, (8) metering, and (9) distribution system planning and design.

  14. Photovoltaic power generation system with photovoltaic cells as bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel is described herein. The solar panel includes a photovoltaic sub-module, which includes a group of microsystem enabled photovoltaic cells. The group includes a first string of photovoltaic cells, a second string of photovoltaic cells, and a differing photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cells in the first string are electrically connected in series, and photovoltaic cells in the second string are electrically connected in series. Further, the first string of photovoltaic cells, the second string of photovoltaic cells, and the differing photovoltaic cell are electrically connected in parallel. Moreover, the differing photovoltaic cellmore » is used as a bypass diode for the first string of photovoltaic cells and the second string of photovoltaic cells.« less

  15. Effectively Improving Extinction Coefficient of Benzodithiophene and Benzodithiophenedione-based Photovoltaic Polymer by Grafting Alkylthio Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Shaoqing; Xu, Bowei; Ye, Long; Yao, Huifeng; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Hao; Yuan, Wenxia; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-10-06

    Alkylthio groups have received much attention in the polymer community for their molecular design applications in polymer solar cells. In this work, alkylthio substitution on the conjugated thiophene side chains in benzodithiophene (BDT) and benzodithiophenedione (BDD)-based photovoltaic polymer was used to improve the extinction coefficient. The introduction of alkylthio groups into the polymer increased its extinction coefficient while the HOMO levels, bandgaps, and absorption bands remained the same. Thus, the short circuit current density (J sc ) and the efficiency of the device were much better than those of the control device. Thus, introducing the alkylthio functional group in polymer is an effective method to tune the extinction coefficient of photovoltaic polymer. This provides a new path to improve photovoltaic performance without increasing active layer thickness, which will be very helpful to design advanced photovoltaic materials for high photovoltaic performance. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  17. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  18. Distributed photovoltaic system impact upon utility load/supply management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachtsevanos, G. J.; Meliopoulos, A. P.; Paraskevopoulos, B. K.

    A methodology is described for simulation of the economic and technical factors of photovoltaic (PV) installations interfacing with utility load/management operations. A probabalistic technique is used to model the expected demand, reliability of the generating units, costs and profits from each unit, expected unserviced energy, and the loss of load probability. The available power from PV arrays is treated stochastically with statistical weighting on the basis of site meteorological data. The goal is to include the PV power while minimizing operational costs, taking into account the level of penetration of the total PV output. Two sample simulations for a utility with a diverse generating mix demonstrate that overall costs would decrease in both cases with PVs on-line through the emphasis on cheaper-fueled generators and peak-load shaving when possible.

  19. The Importance of End Groups for Solution-Processed Small-Molecule Bulk-Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruomeng; Cui, Yong; Zhao, Yanfei; Li, Chen; Chen, Long; Hou, Jianhui; Wagner, Manfred; Baumgarten, Martin; He, Chang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-05-10

    End groups in small-molecule photovoltaic materials are important owing to their strong influence on molecular stability, solubility, energy levels, and aggregation behaviors. In this work, a series of donor-acceptor pentads (D2 -A-D1 -A-D2 ) were designed and synthesized, aiming to investigate the effect of the end groups on the materials properties and photovoltaic device performance. These molecules share identical central A-D1 -A triads (with benzodithiophene as D1 and 6-carbonyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene as A), but with various D2 end groups composed of alkyl-substituted thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (TT), and 2,2'-bithiophene (BT). The results indicate a relationship between conjugated segment/alkyl chain length of the end groups and the photovoltaic performance, which contributes to the evolving molecular design principles for high efficiency organic solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Economics of Utility Scale Photovoltaics at Purdue University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, William

    The research for this case study shows that utility scale solar photovoltaics has become a competitive energy investment option, even when a campus operates a power plant at low electricity rates. To evaluate this an economic model called SEEMS (Solar Economic Evaluation Modelling Spreadsheets) was developed to evaluate a number of financial scenarios in Real Time Pricing for universities. The three main financing structures considered are 1) land leasing, 2) university direct purchase, and 3) third party purchase. Unlike other commercially available models SEEMS specifically accounts for real time pricing, where the local utility provides electricity at an hourly rate that changes with the expected demand. In addition, SEEMS also includes a random simulation that allows the model to predict the likelihood of success for a given solar installation strategy. The research showed that there are several options for utility scale solar that are financially attractive. The most practical financing structure is with a third party partnership because of the opportunity to take advantage of tax incentives. Other options could become more attractive if non-financial benefits are considered. The case study for this research, Purdue University, has a unique opportunity to integrate utility-scale solar electricity into its strategic planning. Currently Purdue is updating its master plan which will define how land is developed. Purdue is also developing a sustainability plan that will define long term environmental goals. In addition, the university is developing over 500 acres of land west of campus as part of its Aerospace Innovation District. This research helps make the case for including utility-scale solar electricity as part of the university's strategic planning.

  1. 2D lateral heterostructures of group-III monochalcogenide: Potential photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Guo, Yu; Han, Nannan; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Junfeng; Ahuja, Rajeev; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics provides a practical and sustainable solution to the increasing global energy demand. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the energetics and electronic properties of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures by group-III monochalcogenides and explore their potential applications in photovoltaics. The band structures and formation energies from supercell calculations demonstrate that these heterostructures retain semiconducting behavior and might be synthesized in laboratory using the chemical vapor deposition technique. According to the computed band offsets, most of the heterojunctions belong to type II band alignment, which can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Besides, the electronic properties of these lateral heterostructures can be effectively tailored by the number of layers, leading to a high theoretical power conversion efficiency over 20%.

  2. High efficiency thin-film multiple-gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic device includes at least two solar cells made from Group IV elements or their alloys in the amorphous state mounted on a substrate. The outermost or first cell has a larger bandgap than the second cell. Various techniques are utilized to improve the efficiency of the device.

  3. Integration of photovoltaic units into electric utility grids: experiment information requirements and selected issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    A number of investigations, including those conducted by The Aerospace Corporation and other contractors, have led to the recognition of technical, economic, and institutional issues relating to the interface between solar electric technologies and electric utility systems. These issues derive from three attributes of solar electric power concepts, including (1) the variability and unpredictability of the solar resources, (2) the dispersed nature of those resources which suggests the feasible deployment of small dispersed power units, and (3) a high initial capital cost coupled with relatively low operating costs. It is imperative that these integration issues be pursued in parallel withmore » the development of each technology if the nation's electric utility systems are to effectively utilize these technologies in the near to intermediate term. Analyses of three of these issues are presented: utility information requirements, generation mix and production cost impacts, and rate structures in the context of photovoltaic units integrated into the utility system. (WHK)« less

  4. Performance Characterization of Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaics under Indoor Lighting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Jian, Zih-Hong; Huang, Shih-Han; Lee, Kun-Mu; Kao, Ming-Hsuan; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Min; Wang, Chin-Li; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Bo-Zhi; Lin, Ching-Yao; Chang, Ting-Kuang; Chi, Yun; Chi, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Wei-Ting; Tai, Yian; Lu, Ming-De; Tung, Yung-Liang; Chou, Po-Ting; Wu, Wen-Ti; Chow, Tahsin J; Chen, Peter; Luo, Xiang-Hao; Lee, Yuh-Lang; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chih-Ming; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Fan, Miao-Syuan; Peng, Jia-De; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lee, Hsiao-Yi; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lin, Hao-Wu; Yen, Chia-Te; Huang, Yu-Ching; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Ting, Yu-Chien; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2017-04-20

    Indoor utilization of emerging photovoltaics is promising; however, efficiency characterization under room lighting is challenging. We report the first round-robin interlaboratory study of performance measurement for dye-sensitized photovoltaics (cells and mini-modules) and one silicon solar cell under a fluorescent dim light. Among 15 research groups, the relative deviation in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the samples reaches an unprecedented 152%. On the basis of the comprehensive results, the gap between photometry and radiometry measurements and the response of devices to the dim illumination are identified as critical obstacles to the correct PCE. Therefore, we use an illuminometer as a prime standard with a spectroradiometer to quantify the intensity of indoor lighting and adopt the reverse-biased current-voltage (I-V) characteristics as an indicator to qualify the I-V sampling time for dye-sensitized photovoltaics. The recommendations can brighten the prospects of emerging photovoltaics for indoor applications.

  5. Photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, H.

    1982-11-01

    The utilization of photovoltaic generators in measuring and signalling installations, communication systems, water pumping, and electric power plants is discussed. The advantages of solar generators over conventional power supply equipment are outlined.

  6. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The stringsmore » of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.« less

  7. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 1: An introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems were examined their potential for terrestrial application and future development. Photovoltaic technology, existing and potential photovoltaic applications, and the National Photovoltaics Program are reviewed. The competitive environment for this electrical source, affected by the presence or absence of utility supplied power is evaluated in term of systems prices. The roles of technological breakthroughs, directed research and technology development, learning curves, and commercial demonstrations in the National Program are discussed. The potential for photovoltaics to displace oil consumption is examined, as are the potential benefits of employing PV in either central-station or non-utility owned, small, distributed systems.

  8. Optical Frequency Optimization of a High Intensity Laser Power Beaming System Utilizing VMJ Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raible, Daniel E.; Dinca, Dragos; Nayfeh, Taysir H.

    2012-01-01

    An effective form of wireless power transmission (WPT) has been developed to enable extended mission durations, increased coverage and added capabilities for both space and terrestrial applications that may benefit from optically delivered electrical energy. The high intensity laser power beaming (HILPB) system enables long range optical 'refueling" of electric platforms such as micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MUAV), airships, robotic exploration missions and spacecraft platforms. To further advance the HILPB technology, the focus of this investigation is to determine the optimal laser wavelength to be used with the HILPB receiver, which utilizes vertical multi-junction (VMJ) photovoltaic cells. Frequency optimization of the laser system is necessary in order to maximize the conversion efficiency at continuous high intensities, and thus increase the delivered power density of the HILPB system. Initial spectral characterizations of the device performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) indicate the approximate range of peak optical-to-electrical conversion efficiencies, but these data sets represent transient conditions under lower levels of illumination. Extending these results to high levels of steady state illumination, with attention given to the compatibility of available commercial off-the-shelf semiconductor laser sources and atmospheric transmission constraints is the primary focus of this paper. Experimental hardware results utilizing high power continuous wave (CW) semiconductor lasers at four different operational frequencies near the indicated band gap of the photovoltaic VMJ cells are presented and discussed. In addition, the highest receiver power density achieved to date is demonstrated using a single photovoltaic VMJ cell, which provided an exceptionally high electrical output of 13.6 W/sq cm at an optical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of 24 percent. These results are very promising and scalable, as a potential 1.0 sq m HILPB receiver of

  9. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  10. Voltage Support Study of Smart PV Inverters on a High-Photovoltaic Penetration Utility Distribution Feeder

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Pratt, Annabelle; Bialek, Tom

    2016-11-21

    This paper reports on tools and methodologies developed to study the impact of adding rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems, with and without the ability to provide voltage support, on the voltage profile of distribution feeders. Simulation results are provided from a study of a specific utility feeder. The simulation model of the utility distribution feeder was built in OpenDSS and verified by comparing the simulated voltages to field measurements. First, we set all PV systems to operate at unity power factor and analyzed the impact on feeder voltages. Then we conducted multiple simulations with voltage support activated for all the smartmore » PV inverters. These included different constant power factor settings and volt/VAR controls.« less

  11. The economic impact of state ordered avoided cost rates for photovoltaic generated electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottaro, D.; Wheatley, N. J.

    Various methods the states have devised to implement federal policy regarding the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978, which requires that utilities pay their full 'avoided costs' to small power producers for the energy and capacity provided, are examined. The actions of several states are compared with rates estimated using utility expansion and rate-setting models, and the potential break-even capital costs of a photovoltaic system are estimated using models which calculate photovoltaic worth. The potential for the development of photovoltaics has been increased by the PURPA regulations more from the guarantee of utility purchase of photovoltaic power than from the high buy-back rates paid. The buy-back rate is high partly because of the surprisingly high effective capacity of photovoltaic systems in some locations.

  12. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  13. Estimating the Value of Improved Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption Forecasts for Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter J; Stoll, Brady; Mai, Trieu T

    Misforecasting the adoption of customer-owned distributed photovoltaics (DPV) can have operational and financial implications for utilities - forecasting capabilities can be improved, but generally at a cost.This paper informs this decision-space by quantifying the costs of misforecasting across a wide range of DPV growth rates and misforecast severities. Using a simplified probabilistic method presented within, an analyst can make a first-order estimate of the financial benefit of improving a utility's forecasting capabilities, and thus be better informed about whether to make such an investment. For example, we show that a utility with 10 TWh per year of retail electric salesmore » who initially estimates that the increase in DPV's contribution to total generation could range from 2 percent to 7.5 percent over the next 15 years could expect total present-value savings of approximately $4 million if they could keep the severity of successive five-year misforecasts within +/- 25 percent. We also have more general discussions about how misforecasting DPV impacts the buildout and operation of the bulk power system - for example, we observed that misforecasting DPV most strongly influenced the amount of utility-scale PV that gets built, due to the similarity in the energy and capacity services offered by the two solar technologies.« less

  14. Recent Development of Plasmonic Resonance-Based Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics for Solar Utilization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenguang; Leung, Michael K H

    2016-02-02

    Increasing utilization of solar energy is an effective strategy to tackle our energy and energy-related environmental issues. Both solar photocatalysis (PC) and solar photovoltaics (PV) have high potential to develop technologies of many practical applications. Substantial research efforts are devoted to enhancing visible light activation of the photoelectrocatalytic reactions by various modifications of nanostructured semiconductors. This review paper emphasizes the recent advancement in material modifications by means of the promising localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) mechanisms. The principles of LSPR and its effects on the photonic efficiency of PV and PC are discussed here. Many research findings reveal the promise of Au and Ag plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs). Continual investigation for increasing the stability of the plasmonic NPs will be fruitful.

  15. Photovoltaic-system evaluation at the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    Five residential photovoltaic systems were tested and the systems' performance and cost was evaluated. The five systems each consist of an unoccupied structure employing a roof mounted photovoltaic array and a utility connected power inverter capable of sending excess PV generated energy to the local utility system. The photovoltaic systems are designed to meet at least 50% of the total annual electrical demand of residences in the cold climate regions of the country. The following specific issues were investigated: photovoltaic array and inverter system power rating and performance characterization, system energy production, reliability and system cost/worth. Summary load data from five houses in the vicinity of the Northeast Residential Experiment Station, and meteorological data from the station's weather station are also presented.

  16. Monitoring the battery status for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myungsoo; Hwang, Euijin

    Photovoltaic power systems in Korea have been installed in remote islands where it is difficult to connect the utilities. Lead/acid batteries are used as an energy storage device for the stand-alone photovoltaic system. Hence, monitoring the battery status of photovoltaic systems is quite important to extend the total system service life. To monitor the state-of-charge of batteries, we adopted a current interrupt technique to measure the internal resistance of the battery. The internal resistance increases at the end of charge/discharge steps and also with cycles. The specific gravity of the electrolyte was measured in relation to the state-of-charge. A home-made optical hydrometer was utilized for automatic monitoring of the specific gravity. It is shown that the specific gravity and stratification increase with cycle number. One of the photovoltaic systems in a remote island, Ho-do, which has 90 kW peak power was checked for actual operational conditions such as solar generation, load, and battery status.

  17. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  18. Assessment of the biophysical impacts of utility-scale photovoltaics through observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, A. M.; Georgescu, M.; Krayenhoff, E. S.; Sailor, D.

    2017-12-01

    Utility-scale solar power plants are a rapidly growing component of the solar energy sector. Utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation in the United States has increased by 867% since 2012 (EIA, 2016). This expansion is likely to continue as the cost PV technologies decrease. While most agree that solar power can decrease greenhouse gas emissions, the biophysical effects of PV systems on surface energy balance (SEB), and implications for surface climate, are not well understood. To our knowledge, there has never been a detailed observational study of SEB at a utility-scale solar array. This study presents data from an eddy covariance observational tower, temporarily placed above a utility-scale PV array in Southern Arizona. Comparison of PV SEB with a reference (unmodified) site, shows that solar panels can alter the SEB and near surface climate. SEB observations are used to develop and validate a new and more complete SEB PV model. In addition, the PV model is compared to simpler PV modelling methods. The simpler PV models produce differing results to our newly developed model and cannot capture the more complex processes that influence PV SEB. Finally, hypothetical scenarios of PV expansion across the continental United States (CONUS) were developed using various spatial mapping criteria. CONUS simulations of PV expansion reveal regional variability in biophysical effects of PV expansion. The study presents the first rigorous and validated simulations of the biophysical effects of utility-scale PV arrays.

  19. Cost and Performance Model for Photovoltaic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Smith, J. H.; Davisson, M. C.; Reiter, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Lifetime cost and performance (LCP) model assists in assessment of design options for photovoltaic systems. LCP is simulation of performance, cost, and revenue streams associated with photovoltaic power systems connected to electric-utility grid. LCP provides user with substantial flexibility in specifying technical and economic environment of application.

  20. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M.; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J.; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J.; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid. PMID:27240365

  1. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  2. Estimating the Value of Improved Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption Forecasts for Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter J

    Misforecasting the adoption of customer-owned distributed photovoltaics (DPV) can have operational and financial implications for utilities - forecasting capabilities can be improved, but generally at a cost. This paper informs this decision-space by quantifying the costs of misforecasting across a wide range of DPV growth rates and misforecast severities. Using a simplified probabilistic method presented within, an analyst can make a first-order estimate of the financial benefit of improving a utility's forecasting capabilities, and thus be better informed about whether to make such an investment. For example, we show that a utility with 10 TWh per year of retail electricmore » sales who initially estimates that the increase in DPV's contribution to total generation could range from 2 to 7.5 percent over the next 15 years could expect total present-value savings of approximately 4 million dollars if they could keep the severity of successive five-year misforecasts within plus or minus 25 percent. We also have more general discussions about how misforecasting DPV impacts the buildout and operation of the bulk power system - for example, we observed that misforecasting DPV most strongly influenced the amount of utility-scale PV that gets built, due to the similarity in the energy and capacity services offered by the two solar technologies.« less

  3. Future contingencies and photovoltaic system worth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. J.; Thomas, M. G.; Bonk, G. J.

    1982-09-01

    The value of dispersed photovoltaic systems connected to the utility grid was calculated using the optimized generation planning program. The 1986 to 2001 time period was used for this study. Photovoltaic systems were dynamically integrated, up to 5% total capacity, into 9 NERC based regions under a range of future fuel and economic contingencies. Value was determined by the change in revenue requirements due to the photovoltaic additions. Displacement of high cost fuel was paramount to value, while capacity displacement was highly variable and dependent upon regional fuel mix.

  4. Correction: An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Payne, Abby-Jo; Li, Shi; Dayneko, Sergey V; Risko, Chad; Welch, Gregory C

    2017-09-21

    Correction for 'An unsymmetrical non-fullerene acceptor: synthesis via direct heteroarylation, self-assembly, and utility as a low energy absorber in organic photovoltaic cells' by Abby-Jo Payne et al., Chem. Commun., 2017, 53, 10168-10171.

  5. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-11-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  6. Controlling the Morphology of BDTT-DPP-Based Small Molecules via End-Group Functionalization for Highly Efficient Single and Tandem Organic Photovoltaic Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jong Baek; Yang, Hoichang; Jung, In Hwan; Yoon, Sung Cheol; Kim, Dongwook; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2015-11-04

    A series of narrow-band gap, π-conjugated small molecules based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) electron acceptor units coupled with alkylthienyl-substituted-benzodithiophene (BDTT) electron donors were designed and synthesized for use as donor materials in solution-processed organic photovoltaic cells. In particular, by end-group functionalization of the small molecules with fluorine derivatives, the nanoscale morphologies of the photoactive layers of the photovoltaic cells were successfully controlled. The influences of different fluorine-based end-groups on the optoelectronic and morphological properties, carrier mobilities, and the photovoltaic performances of these materials were investigated. A high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.00% under simulated solar light (AM 1.5G) illumination has been achieved for organic photovoltaic cells based on a small-molecule bulk heterojunction system consisting of a trifluoromethylbenzene (CF3) end-group-containing oligomer (BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3) as the donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor. As a result, the introduction of CF3 end-groups has been found to enhance both the short circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor (FF). A tandem photovoltaic device comprising an inverted BDTT-(DPP)2-CF3:PC71BM cell and a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):indene-C60-bisadduct (IC60BA)-based cell as the top and bottom cell components, respectively, showed a maximum PCE of 8.30%. These results provide valuable guidelines for the rational design of conjugated small molecules for applications in high-performance organic photovoltaic cells. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the design of fluorine-functionalized BDTT-DPP-based small molecules, which have been shown to be a viable candidate for use in inverted tandem cells.

  7. Decentralized solar photovoltaic energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupka, M. C.

    1980-09-01

    Emphasis was placed upon the selection and use of a model residential photovoltaic system to develop and quantify the necessary data. The model consists of a reference home located in Phoenix, AZ utilizing a unique solar cell array roof shingle combination. Silicon solar cells, rated at 13.5 percent efficiency at 28 C and 100 mW/sq cm insolation are used to generate 10 kW (peak). An all electric home is considered with lead acid battery storage, DC AC inversion and utility backup. The reference home is compared to others in regions of different insolation. It is suggested that solar cell materials production and fabrication may have the major environmental impact when comparing all facets of photovoltaic system usage. Fabrication of the various types of solar cell systems involves the need, handling, and transportation of many toxic and hazardous chemicals with attendant health and safety impacts. Increases in production of such materials as lead, antimony, sulfuric acid, copper, plastics, cadmium and gallium will be required should large scale usage of photovoltaic systems be implemented.

  8. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by Utility-Scale Solar

    Science.gov Websites

    Essential Reliability Services by Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant: Q&A Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant: Q&A Webinar Questions & Answers April 27, 2017 Is photovoltaic (PV) generation required to provide grid supportive

  9. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  10. Solar photovoltaics for development applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.; Richards, E.H.

    1993-08-01

    This document introduces photovoltaic technology to individuals and groups specializing in development activities. Examples of actual installations illustrate the many services supplied by photovoltaic systems in development applications, including water pumping, lighting, health care, refrigeration, communications, and a variety of productive uses. The various aspects of the technology are explored to help potential users evaluate whether photovoltaics can assist them in achieving their organizational goals. Basic system design, financing techniques, and the importance of infrastructure are included, along with additional sources of information and major US photovoltaic system suppliers.

  11. Estimating the Value of Improved Distributed Photovoltaic Adoption Forecasts for Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Barbose, Galen L.; Stoll, Brady

    Misforecasting the adoption of customer-owned distributed photovoltaics (DPV) can have operational and financial implications for utilities; forecasting capabilities can be improved, but generally at a cost. This paper informs this decision-space by using a suite of models to explore the capacity expansion and operation of the Western Interconnection over a 15-year period across a wide range of DPV growth rates and misforecast severities. The system costs under a misforecast are compared against the costs under a perfect forecast, to quantify the costs of misforecasting. Using a simplified probabilistic method applied to these modeling results, an analyst can make a first-ordermore » estimate of the financial benefit of improving a utility’s forecasting capabilities, and thus be better informed about whether to make such an investment. For example, under our base assumptions, a utility with 10 TWh per year of retail electric sales who initially estimates that DPV growth could range from 2% to 7.5% of total generation over the next 15 years could expect total present-value savings of approximately $4 million if they could reduce the severity of misforecasting to within ±25%. Utility resource planners can compare those savings against the costs needed to achieve that level of precision, to guide their decision on whether to make an investment in tools or resources.« less

  12. Flate-plate photovoltaic power systems handbook for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.; Savage, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose is to provide a tool for personnel in Federal agencies to evaluate the viability of potential photovoltaic applications. A second objective is to provide descriptions of various photovoltaic systems installed by different Federal agencies under the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program so that other agencies may consider similar applications. A third objective is to share lessons learned to enable more effective procurement, design, installation, and operation of future photovoltaic systems. The intent is not to provide a complete handbook, but rather to provide a guide for Federal agency personnel with additional information incorporated by references. The steps to be followed in selecting, procuring, and installing a photovoltaic application are given.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  14. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  15. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  17. Module utilization committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  18. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Davidson, Carolyn; Fu, Ran

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scalemore » systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.« less

  19. Photovoltaic power conditioning subsystem: State of the art and development opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Bahrami, K.; Das, R.; Macie, T.; Rippel, W.

    1984-01-01

    Photovoltaic systems, the state of the art of power conditioning subsystem components, and the design and operational interaction between photovoltaic systems and host utilities are detailed in this document. Major technical issues relating to the design and development of power conditioning systems for photovoltaic application are considered; these include: (1) standards, guidelines, and specifications; (2) cost effective hardware design; (3) impact of advanced components on power conditioning development; (4) protection and safety; (5) quality of power; (6) system efficiency; and (7) system integration with the host utility. Theories of harmonic distortion and reactive power flow are discussed, and information about power conditioner hardware and manufacturers is provided.

  20. Performance characteristics of solar-photovoltaic flywheel-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvinen, P. O.; Brench, B. L.; Rasmussen, N. E.

    A solar photovoltaic energy flywheel storage and conversion system for residential applications was tested. Performance and efficiency measurements were conducted on the system, which utilizes low loss magnetic bearings, maximum power point tracking of the photovoltaic array, integrated permanent magnet motor generator, and output power conditioning sections of either the stand alone cycloconverter or utility interactive inverter type. The overall in/out electrical storage efficiency of the flywheel system was measured along with the power transfer efficiencies of the individual components and the system spin down tare losses. The system compares favorably with systems which use batteries and inverters.

  1. Design considerations for lunar base photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, J. Mark; Curtis, Henry B.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was made of factors that may affect the design of photovoltaic arrays for a lunar base. These factors, which include the lunar environment and system design criteria, are examined. A photovoltaic power system design with a triangular array geometry is discussed and compared to a nuclear reactor power systems and a power system utilizing both nuclear and solar power sources.

  2. Observation of surface dark photovoltaic solitons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Chen, Weiqiang; Yao, Peng; Zhang, Tianhao; Tian, Jianguo; Xu, Jingjun

    2013-02-25

    Surface dark solitons in photovoltaic nonlinear media are reported. Taking advantage of diffusion and photovoltaic nonlinearities we demonstrated the surface dark solitons and their behaviors near surface theoretically and experimentally in LiNbO₃ crystal. It is very interesting that surface dark soliton is just half of dark soliton in bulk. Another interesting thing is that transverse modulation instability can be perfectly suppressed by surface dark soliton in virtue of surface. In addition, surface waveguides were written successfully utilizing surface dark soliton.

  3. Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Deployment Scenarios of the Western United States: Implications for Solar Energy Zones in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany; Mai, Trieu; Krishnan, Venkat

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we use the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model to estimate utility-scale photovoltaic (UPV) deployment trends from present day through 2030. The analysis seeks to inform the U.S. Bureau of Land Management's (BLM's) planning activities related to UPV development on federal lands in Nevada as part of the Resource Management Plan (RMP) revision for the Las Vegas and Pahrump field offices. These planning activities include assessing the demand for new or expanded additional Solar Energy Zones (SEZ), per the process outlined in BLM's Western Solar Plan process.

  4. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  5. Central station market development strategies for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Federal market development strategies designed to accelerate the market penetration of central station applications of photovoltaic energy system are analyzed. Since no specific goals were set for the commercialization of central station applications, strategic principles are explored which, when coupled with specific objectives for central stations, can produce a market development implementation plan. The study includes (1) background information on the National Photovoltaic Program, photovoltaic technology, and central stations; (2) a brief market assessment; (3) a discussion of the viewpoints of the electric utility industry with respect to solar energy; (4) a discussion of commercialization issues; and (5) strategy principles. It is recommended that a set of specific goals and objectives be defined for the photovoltaic central station program, and that these goals and objectives evolve into an implementation plan that identifies the appropriate federal role.

  6. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchuli, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B. G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-01-01

    The social and economic impact of photovoltaic power on a small, remote native American village is studied. Village history, group life, energy use in general, and the use of photovoltaic-powered appliances are discussed. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.

  7. Design of a photovoltaic system for a southwest all-electric residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Johnson, J.; Parker, J.

    1980-04-01

    The grid connected residential photovoltaic system for the Southwest is designed to meet both space conditioning requirements and all conventional electrical load requirements for an all-electric residence. The system is comprised of two major subsystems, the solar array and the power conditioning subsystem (PCS). An 8 kW peak photovoltaic array been designed for the house. The 93 square meters solar array uses a shingle solar cell module in a highly redundant series/parallel matrix. The photovoltaic generated power is supplied to a 10kVA power conversion subsystem which is controlled to track the solar array maximum power operating point and feed the 240 Vac output power directly to the house loads or back to the utility when excess power is generated. The photovoltaic power is isolated from the utility by a 15 kVA transformer. The house design and subsystem specifications are given in detail.

  8. Power Quality Improvement Utilizing Photovoltaic Generation Connected to a Weak Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, Eduard; Tumbelaka, Hanny H.; Gao, Wenzhong

    Microgrid research and development in the past decades have been one of the most popular topics. Similarly, the photovoltaic generation has been surging among renewable generation in the past few years, thanks to the availability, affordability, technology maturity of the PV panels and the PV inverter in the general market. Unfortunately, quite often, the PV installations are connected to weak grids and may have been considered as the culprit of poor power quality affecting other loads in particular sensitive loads connected to the same point of common coupling (PCC). This paper is intended to demystify the renewable generation, and turnsmore » the negative perception into positive revelation of the superiority of PV generation to the power quality improvement in a microgrid system. The main objective of this work is to develop a control method for the PV inverter so that the power quality at the PCC will be improved under various disturbances. The method is to control the reactive current based on utilizing the grid current to counteract the negative impact of the disturbances. The proposed control method is verified in PSIM platform. Promising results have been obtained.« less

  9. Coaxial group III-nitride nanowire photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yajie; Tian, Bozhi; Kempa, Thomas J; Lieber, Charles M

    2009-05-01

    Coaxial core/shell nanowires represent an important class of nanoscale building blocks with substantial potential for exploring new concepts and materials for solar energy conversion. Here, we report the first experimental realization of coaxial group III-nitride nanowire photovoltaic (PV) devices, n-GaN/i-In(x)Ga(1-x)N/p-GaN, where variation of indium mole fraction is used to control the active layer band gap and hence light absorption. Current-voltage data reveal clear diode characteristics with ideality factors from 3.9 to 5.6. Electroluminescence measurements demonstrate tunable emission from 556 to 371 nm and thus confirm band gap variations in the In(x)Ga(1-x)N active layer from 2.25 to 3.34 eV as In composition is varied. Simulated one-sun AM 1.5G illumination yielded open-circuit voltages (V(oc)) from 1.0 to 2.0 V and short-circuit current densities (J(sc)) from 0.39 to 0.059 mA/cm(2) as In composition is decreased from 0.27 to 0 and a maximum efficiency of approximately 0.19%. The n-GaN/i-In(x)Ga(1-x)N/p-GaN nanowire devices are highly robust and exhibit enhanced efficiencies for concentrated solar light illuminations as well as single nanowire J(sc) values as high as 390 mA/cm(2) under intense short-wavelength illumination. The ability to rationally tune the structure and composition of these core/shell III-nitride nanowires will make them a powerful platform for exploring nanoenabled PVs in the future.

  10. Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop Lodging Information | Photovoltaic

    Science.gov Websites

    Research | NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop Lodging Information Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop Lodging Information The 2018 Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (PVRW) will be held Tuesday

  11. Electronic structure and charge transfer excited states of endohedral fullerene containing electron donoracceptor complexes utilized in organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amerikheirabadi, Fatemeh

    Organic Donor-Acceptor complexes form the main component of the organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). The open circuit voltage of OPVs is directly related to the charge transfer excited state energies of these complexes. Currently a large number of different molecular complexes are being tested for their efficiency in photovoltaic devices. In this work, density functional theory as implemented in the NRLMOL code is used to investigate the electronic structure and related properties of these donor-acceptor complexes. The charge transfer excitation energies are calculated using the perturbative delta self-consistent field method recently developed in our group as the standard time dependent density functional approaches fail to accurately provide them. The model photovoltaics systems analyzed are as follows: Sc3N C 80--ZnTPP, Y3 N C80-- ZnTPP and Sc3 N C80-- ZnPc. In addition, a thorough analysis of the isolated donor and acceptor molecules is also provided. The studied acceptors are chosen from a class of fullerenes named trimetallic nitride endohedral fullerenes. These molecules have shown to possess advantages as acceptors such as long lifetimes of the charge-separated states.

  12. Photovoltaics program plan, FY 1991 - 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-10-01

    This program plan describes the goals and philosophy of DOE National Photovoltaics Program and its major research and development activities for fiscal years (FY) 1991 through 1995. The plan represents a consensus among researchers and manufacturers, as well as current and potential users of photovoltaics (PV). It defines the activities that we believe are necessary to continue the rapid progress toward acceptance of photovoltaics as a serious candidate for cost-competitive electric power generation by the utility, transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors. A successful National Photovoltaics Program will help achieve many of our national priorities. The mission of the National Photovoltaics Program is to help US industry to develop photovoltaic technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States, making PV a significant part of our national energy mix. To fully achieve this, we must continue to work toward the long-term goals established in our previous program plan: reducing the price of delivered electricity to 5 to 6 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh), increasing lifetimes to 30 years, and increasing module efficiencies to 15 percent for flat-plate and 25 percent for concentrator technologies. If progress continues at its current pace, we expect that the PV industry will have installed at least 1000 megawatts (MW) of capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by the year 2000.

  13. Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells Organic Photovoltaic Solar Cells The National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL has strong complementary research capabilities in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells pages: High-Efficiency Crystalline PV Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Perovskite and Organic PV Advanced PV

  14. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  15. Issues and opportunities in space photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Robert W.; Somerville, W. A.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    Space power sources are becoming a central focus for determining man's potential and schedule for exploring and utilizing the benefits of space. The ability to search, probe, survey, and communicate throughout the universe will depend on providing adequate power to the instruments to do these jobs. Power requirements for space platforms are increasing and will continue to increase into the 21st century. Photovoltaics have been a dependable power source for space for the last 30 years and have served as the primary source of power on virtually all DOD and NASA satellites. The performance of silicon (Si) solar cells has increased from 10 percent air mass zero (AM0) solar energy conversion efficiency in the early 60's to almost 15 percent on today's spacecraft. Some technologists even think that the potential for solar photovoltaics has reached a plateau. However, present and near-future Air Force and NASA requirements show needs that, if the problems are looked upon as opportunities, can elevate the photovoltaic power source scientist and array structure engineer into the next technological photovoltaic growth curve.

  16. Understanding Processes and Timelines for Distributed Photovoltaic

    Science.gov Websites

    data from more than 30,000 PV systems across 87 utilities in 16 states to better understand how solar photovoltaic (PV) interconnection process time frames in the United States. This study includes an analysis of Analysis Metrics" that shows the four steps involved in the utility interconnection process for solar

  17. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  18. Building Integrated Photovoltaic Module-Based on Aluminum Substrate With Forced Water Cooling.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei; Zhang, Yongzhe; Cui, Yanan; Yu, Hongwen; Liu, Yu; Yan, Hui

    2018-04-01

    The increase of operating temperature on a photovoltaic (PV) cell degrades its electrical efficiency. This paper is organized to describe our latest design of an aluminum substrate-based photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) system. The electrical efficiency of the proposed PV/T can be increased by ∼ 20% in comparison with a conventional glass substrate-based PV. The work will benefit hybrid utilization of solar energy in development of building integrated photovoltaic systems.

  19. Utilizing Maximum Power Point Trackers in Parallel to Maximize the Power Output of a Solar (Photovoltaic) Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase... photovoltaic (PV) system to use a maximum power point tracker ( MPPT ) to increase the power output of the solar array. Currently, most military... MPPT ) is an optimizing circuit that is used in conjunction with photovoltaic (PV) arrays to achieve the maximum delivery of power from the array

  20. PURPA and Photovoltaics: A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Flaim, T.

    On May 16, 1983, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the last major challenge to the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) and its implementing regulations. In so doing, the Supreme Court upheld the right of photovoltaic and other qualifying investors to interconnect with electric utilities and to sell power at rates equal to the utility's full avoided cost. To appreciate the significance of this event, for U.S. markets, it is necessary to review the recent five-year history of PURPA-related events.

  1. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  2. 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshops | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    5 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshops 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshops The 2015 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop was held February 24-27, 2015, in Golden, Colorado. This event be available for download as soon as possible. The Photovoltaic Module Reliability Workshop is

  3. New architecture for utility scale electricity from concentrator photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Roger; Connors, Thomas; Davison, Warren; Olbert, Blain; Sivanandam, Suresh

    2010-08-01

    The paper describes a new system architecture optimized for utility-scale generation with concentrating photovoltaic cells (CPV) at fossil fuel price. We report on-sun tests of the architecture and development at the University of Arizona of the manufacturing processes adapted for high volume production. The new system takes advantage of triple-junction cells to convert concentrated sunlight into electricity. These commercially available cells have twice the conversion efficiency of silicon panels (40%) and one-tenth the cost per watt, when used at 1000x concentration. Telescope technology is adapted to deliver concentrated light to the cells at minimum cost. The architecture combines three novel elements: large (3.1 m x 3.1 m square) dish reflectors made as back-silvered glass monoliths; 2.5 kW receivers at each dish focus, each one incorporating a spherical field lens to deliver uniform illumination to multiple cells; and a lightweight steel spaceframe structure to hold multiple dish/receiver units in coalignment and oriented to the sun. Development of the process for replicating single-piece reflector dishes is well advanced at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab. End-to-end system tests have been completed with single cells. A lightweight steel spaceframe to hold and track eight dish/receiver units to generate 20 kW has been completed. A single 2.5 kW receiver is presently under construction, and is expected to be operated in an end-to-end on-sun test with a monolithic dish before the end of 2010. The University of Arizona has granted an exclusive license to REhnu, LLC to commercialize this technology.

  4. Photovoltaic village power application: assessment of the near-term market

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W.J.; Poley, W.A.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the near-term market for photovoltaic village power applications is presented. One of the objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaic Program is to stimulate the demand for photovoltaic power systems so that appropriate markets will be developed in the near-term to support the increasing photovoltaic production capacity also being developed by DOE. The village power application represents such a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems is compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential ''domestic''' demand (including the 50 states of the union plus themore » areas under legal control of the U.S. government) is defined in both the goverment and commercial sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for village power systems in the developing countries are also discussed briefly. It is concluded that a near-term domestic market of at least 12 MW (peak) and a foreign market of about 10 GW (peak) exists and that significant market penetration should be possible beginning in the 1981--82 period.« less

  5. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needsmore » of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.« less

  6. Study on the measures to promote the use of photovoltaic power generating system overseas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-03-01

    In order to understand the state of the utilizing photovoltaic power generating system, the present situation to promote its development, the actual status of the assistance for developing countries by each country or by each international organization, research was done for USA, principal western countries, UN and EC. First, development conditions of the solar cell utilizing technique were classified by each country at the standpoint of developing and promoting systems. Second, the projects and policies in each country or international organization were arranged to promote research, development and introduction. Next, the present situation of the photovoltaic power generation projects by civilian parties and the problems to assist the projects by each country were arranged. While, the present sutuation of the photovoltaic power generation projects assisted by the governments and international organizations were classified by each country and each international organizations. Finally, in view of importance in the photovoltaic power generation project, it was concluded that not only developed country governments and international organizations but also private enterprises in developed countries were required to expand the understanding about the photovoltaic power generation system.

  7. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat

    A process including forming a photovoltaic solar cell on a substrate, the photovoltaic solar cell comprising an anchor positioned between the photovoltaic solar cell and the substrate to suspend the photovoltaic solar cell from the substrate. A surface of the photovoltaic solar cell opposite the substrate is attached to a receiving substrate. The receiving substrate may be bonded to the photovoltaic solar cell using an adhesive force or a metal connecting member. The photovoltaic solar cell is then detached from the substrate by lifting the receiving substrate having the photovoltaic solar cell attached thereto and severing the anchor connecting themore » photovoltaic solar cell to the substrate. Depending upon the type of receiving substrate used, the photovoltaic solar cell may be removed from the receiving substrate or remain on the receiving substrate for use in the final product.« less

  8. Chromatic dispersion concentrator applied to photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassi, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how it is possible to realize a chromatic dispersion concentrator which collects the different monochromatic components of the solar spectrum separately in subsequently concentric rings in the focal zone. This comes about without an increase in the energetic losses compared to any other type of concentrator. If different photovoltaic elements with energy gaps equal to the photon energy falling on the focal zone are put in the latter, energy losses due to incomplete utilization of the solar spectrum and to incomplete utilization of the energy of a single photon can be drastically reduced. How the losses due to the voltage factor and the fill-factor of the photovoltaic elements of the system can be reduced compared to the normal silicon cells is also demonstrated. The other contributions to losses in the conversion process have only been mentioned, foreseeing their possible variation.

  9. Prototype residential photovoltaic system: Evaluation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, B. E.; Russell, M. C.

    1982-09-01

    Residential size photovoltaic power systems were discussed. Lessons learned from this experience, and performance summaries for the five prototype systems at the Northeast Residential Experiment Station and the system at the all electric Carlisle PV house are given. Results of evaluating five utility interactive residential size inverters also are reported.

  10. Reflective photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflectivemore » segments having standard film thicknesses.« less

  11. Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics Perovskite and Organic Photovoltaics Scientist holds several solar cells; 2) electronic energy level alignment at the carbon nanotube/organic metal halide perovskite Hest in the PDIL in the S and TF at NREL. Organic Photovoltaics (OPV) We develop and apply new absorber

  12. MATLAB Simulation of Photovoltaic and Photovoltaic/Thermal Systems Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasir, Farah H. M.; Husaini, Yusnira

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of the photovoltaic reduces when the photovoltaic cell temperature increased due to solar irradiance. One solution is come up with the cooling system photovoltaic system. This combination is forming the photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Not only will it generate electricity also heat at the same time. The aim of this research is to focus on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic (PV) and photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) electrical performance by using single-diode equivalent circuit model. Both PV and PV/T models are developed in Matlab/Simulink. By providing the cooling system in PV/T, the efficiency of the system can be increased by decreasing the PV cell temperature. The maximum thermal, electrical and total efficiency values of PV/T in the present research are 35.18%, 15.56% and 50.74% at solar irradiance of 400 W/m2, mass flow rate of 0.05kgs-1 and inlet temperature of 25 °C respectively has been obtained. The photovoltaic-thermal shows that the higher efficiency performance compared to the photovoltaic system.

  13. Analysis of a utility-interactive wind-photovoltaic hybrid system with battery storage using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraud, Francois

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation investigates the application of neural network theory to the analysis of a 4-kW Utility-interactive Wind-Photovoltaic System (WPS) with battery storage. The hybrid system comprises a 2.5-kW photovoltaic generator and a 1.5-kW wind turbine. The wind power generator produces power at variable speed and variable frequency (VSVF). The wind energy is converted into dc power by a controlled, tree-phase, full-wave, bridge rectifier. The PV power is maximized by a Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT), a dc-to-dc chopper, switching at a frequency of 45 kHz. The whole dc power of both subsystems is stored in the battery bank or conditioned by a single-phase self-commutated inverter to be sold to the utility at a predetermined amount. First, the PV is modeled using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). To reduce model uncertainty, the open-circuit voltage VOC and the short-circuit current ISC of the PV are chosen as model input variables of the ANN. These input variables have the advantage of incorporating the effects of the quantifiable and non-quantifiable environmental variants affecting the PV power. Then, a simplified way to predict accurately the dynamic responses of the grid-linked WPS to gusty winds using a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) is investigated. The RNN is a single-output feedforward backpropagation network with external feedback, which allows past responses to be fed back to the network input. In the third step, a Radial Basis Functions (RBF) Network is used to analyze the effects of clouds on the Utility-Interactive WPS. Using the irradiance as input signal, the network models the effects of random cloud movement on the output current, the output voltage, the output power of the PV system, as well as the electrical output variables of the grid-linked inverter. Fourthly, using RNN, the combined effects of a random cloud and a wind gusts on the system are analyzed. For short period intervals, the wind speed and the solar radiation are considered as

  14. Effect of Spatial-Dependent Utility on Social Group Domination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Nathaniel; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    The mathematical modeling of social group competition has garnered much attention. We consider a model originated by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] that predicts the extinction of one of two social groups. This model assigns a utility to each social group, which is constant over the entire society. We find by allowing this utility to vary over a society, through the introduction of a network or spatial dependence, this model may result in the coexistence of the two social groups.

  15. Emerging photovoltaic module technologies at PVUSA: A five-year assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Tim

    1995-04-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of photovoltaic systems: new modules fielded as 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays, and more mature technologies fielded as 20- to 500-kW turnkey utility scale (US) systems. This report summarizes experiences of the PVUSA project in operating the first six 20-kW EMT photovoltaic systems. Five systems are installed at Davis, California, and one at Kihei, Hawaii. Products selected for testing and demonstration were judged to have potential for significant technical advancement or reduction in manufacturing cost. Features leading to selection of each system and findings over the average 5 years of operation are compared in the report. Factory product qualification test experiences along with field acceptance test results are documented. Evaluation includes a broad range of performance parameters, including long-term efficiency, seasonal generation patterns, and maintenance. While some of the arrays have operated as well as any commercial system, others have fared poorly. Throughout the procurement and operation of these precommercial PV modules, PVUSA has provided feedback to vendors, critical for product improvement. The data and evaluations in this report will be of further benefit to manufacturers and provide general comparative information on a variety of technologies to researchers in utilities, government, and industry alike.

  16. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  17. Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the National Laboratory developed low-cost transparent encapsulation schemes for CIGS cells that reduced power

  18. U.S. EPA'S PHOTOVOLTAIC DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an investigation of how photovoltaic (PV) may be used as both a pollution-mitigating energy replacement for fossil fuels and a demand-side management (DSM) option to reduce peak electrical demands of commercial and residential buildings. leven electric utiliti...

  19. Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroposki, Benjamin

    1997-02-01

    The objective of the Photovoltaic Performance and Reliability Workshop was to provide a forum where the entire photovoltaic (PV) community (manufacturers, researchers, system designers, and customers) could get together and discuss technical issues relating to PV. The workshop included presentations from twenty-five speakers and had more than one hundred attendees. This workshop also included several open sessions in which the audience and speakers could discuss technical subjects in depth. Several major topics were discussed including: PV characterization and measurements, service lifetimes for PV devices, degradation and failure mechanisms for PV devices, standardization of testing procedures, AC module performance and reliability testing, inverter performance and reliability testing, standardization of utility interconnect requirements, experience from field deployed systems, and system certification.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic and Liquid Natural Gas Opportunities for Command Naval Region Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Utilities Commission xii PV Photovoltaic Pwr Power RE Renewable Energy Re-gas Regasification RFP Request For Proposal RMI Rocky... forecasted LS diesel price and the forecasted LNG delivered-to-the- power -plant cost. The forecast for LS diesel by FGE from year 2020–2030 is seen...annual/html/epa_08_01.html Electric Power Research Institute. (July, 2010). Addressing solar photovoltaic operations and maintenance challenges: A

  1. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  2. Photovoltaic water pumping applications: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Scudder, L. R.; Poley, W. A.; Cusick, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Water pumping applications represent a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in the government, commercial/institutional and public sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for water pumping systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 240 megawatts and a foreign market of about 6 gigawatts exist.

  3. 78 FR 76993 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Photovoltaic Devices (DFARS Case 2014-D006)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... (DFARS) to clarify rules of origin under trade agreements for photovoltaic devices to be utilized under.... 111-383) addresses the origin of photovoltaic devices purchased by a contractor under an energy... country of origin. DoD initially implemented this statute through an interim rule (DFARS Case 2011-D046...

  4. National Center for Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV includes multiple capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach. To help the U.S. photovoltaic industry

  5. Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials as Active Layer Components in Thin-Film Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, Tejas Attreya

    Thin-film photovoltaics offer the promise of cost-effective and scalable solar energy conversion, particularly for applications of semi-transparent solar cells where the poor absorption of commercially-available silicon is inadequate. Applications ranging from roof coatings that capture solar energy to semi-transparent windows that harvest the immense amount of incident sunlight on buildings could be realized with efficient and stable thin-film solar cells. However, the lifetime and efficiency of thin-film solar cells continue to trail their inorganic silicon counterparts. Low-dimensional nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides, have recently been explored as materials in thin-film solar cells due to their exceptional optoelectronic properties, solution-processability, and chemical inertness. Thus far, issues with the processing of these materials has held back their implementation in efficient photovoltaics. This dissertation reports processing advances that enable demonstrations of low-dimensional nanomaterials in thin-film solar cells. These low-dimensional photovoltaics show enhanced photovoltaic efficiency and environmental stability in comparison to previous devices, with a focus on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes as an active layer component. The introduction summarizes recent advances in the processing of carbon nanotubes and their implementation through the thin-film photovoltaic architecture, as well as the use of two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides in photovoltaic applications and potential future directions for all-nanomaterial solar cells. The following chapter reports a study of the interaction between carbon nanotubes and surfactants that enables them to be sorted by electronic type via density gradient ultracentrifugation. These insights are utilized to construct of a broad distribution of carbon nanotubes that absorb throughout the solar spectrum. This polychiral distribution is then shown

  6. Inorganic Photovoltaics Materials and Devices: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Rafaelle, Ryne P.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes recent aspects of advanced inorganic materials for photovoltaics or solar cell applications. Specific materials examined will be high-efficiency silicon, gallium arsenide and related materials, and thin-film materials, particularly amorphous silicon and (polycrystalline) copper indium selenide. Some of the advanced concepts discussed include multi-junction III-V (and thin-film) devices, utilization of nanotechnology, specifically quantum dots, low-temperature chemical processing, polymer substrates for lightweight and low-cost solar arrays, concentrator cells, and integrated power devices. While many of these technologies will eventually be used for utility and consumer applications, their genesis can be traced back to challenging problems related to power generation for aerospace and defense. Because this overview of inorganic materials is included in a monogram focused on organic photovoltaics, fundamental issues and metrics common to all solar cell devices (and arrays) will be addressed.

  7. Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D | Photovoltaic Research

    Science.gov Websites

    | NREL Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Company Partners in Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D More than 40 private-sector companies partnered with NREL on successful Global Photovoltaic Specialists Global Solar Energy Golden Photon Iowa Thin Film Technologies ITN Energy

  8. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    DOEpatents

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  9. Photovoltaic village power application: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.; Scudder, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    The village power application represents a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in both the government and commercial sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for village power systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 12 MW min and a foreign market of about 10 GW exists.

  10. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  11. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Photovoltaic module and laminate

    SciTech Connect

    Bunea, Gabriela E.; Kim, Sung Dug; Kavulak, David F.J.

    A photovoltaic module is disclosed. The photovoltaic module has a first side directed toward the sun during normal operation and a second, lower side. The photovoltaic module comprises a perimeter frame and a photovoltaic laminate at least partially enclosed by and supported by the perimeter frame. The photovoltaic laminate comprises a transparent cover layer positioned toward the first side of the photovoltaic module, an upper encapsulant layer beneath and adhering to the cover layer, a plurality of photovoltaic solar cells beneath the upper encapsulant layer, the photovoltaic solar cells electrically interconnected, a lower encapsulant layer beneath the plurality of photovoltaicmore » solar cells, the upper and lower encapsulant layers enclosing the plurality of photovoltaic solar cells, and a homogenous rear environmental protection layer, the rear environmental protection layer adhering to the lower encapsulant layer, the rear environmental protection layer exposed to the ambient environment on the second side of the photovoltaic module.« less

  13. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications. [NASA Lewis Research Center research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  14. Photovoltaic and thermal energy conversion for solar powered satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Tiesenhausen, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is provided concerning the most important aspects of present investigations related to a use of solar power satellites (SPS) as a future source of terrestrial energy. General SPS characteristics are briefly considered, early work is reviewed, and a description of current investigations is presented. System options presently under study include a photovoltaic array, a thermionic system, and a closed Brayton cycle. Attention is given to system reference options, basic building blocks, questions of system analysis and engineering, photovoltaic conversion, and the utility interface. It is concluded that an SPS may be cost effective compared to terrestrial systems by 1995.

  15. Photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  16. Technical Report: Guide Details Best Practices in Photovoltaic System

    Science.gov Websites

    Operations and Maintenance | Solar Research | NREL Guide Details Best Practices in Photovoltaic A best-practices report on photovoltaic (PV) operations and maintenance (O&M) released by NREL and the PV O&M Working Group provides valuable insights on improving the performance of PV systems

  17. Photovoltaic Experiment Using Light from a Solar Simulator Lamp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell experiment utilizing the convenience of a solar simulating type lamp is described. Insight into the solid state aspect of a solar cell is gained by the student in studying the characteristics, and deducing from them cell parameters and efficiency. (Author/CS)

  18. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  19. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-09-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  20. Performance simulation of a grid connected photovoltaic power system using TRNSYS 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Sekhar, Y.; Ganesh, D.; Kumar, A. Suresh; Abraham, Raju; Padmanathan, P.

    2017-11-01

    Energy plays an important role in a country’s economic growth in the current energy scenario, the major problem is depletion of energy sources (non-renewable) are more than being formed. One of the prominent solutions is minimizing the use of fossil fuels by utilization of renewable energy resources. A photovoltaic system is an efficient option in terms of utilizing the solar energy resource. The electricity output produced by the photovoltaic systems depends upon the incident solar radiation. This paper examines the performance simulation of 200KW photovoltaic power system at VIT University, Vellore. The main objective of this paper is to correlate the results between the predicted simulation data and the experimental data. The simulation tool used here is TRNSYS. Using TRNSYS modelling prediction of electricity produced throughout the year can be calculated with the help of TRNSYS weather station. The deviation of the simulated results with the experimented results varies due to the choice of weather station. Results from the field test and simulation results are to be correlated to attain the maximum performance of the system.

  1. High-Penetration Photovoltaic Planning Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Tian, Tian

    The main objective of this report is to provide an overview of select U.S. utility methodologies for performing high-penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) system planning and impact studies. This report covers the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's orders related to photovoltaic (PV) power system interconnection, particularly the interconnection processes for the Large Generation Interconnection Procedures and Small Generation Interconnection Procedures. In addition, it includes U.S. state interconnection standards and procedures. The procedures used by these regulatory bodies consider the impacts of HPPV power plants on the networks. Technical interconnection requirements for HPPV voltage regulation include aspects of power monitoring, grounding, synchronization, connection tomore » the overall distribution system, back-feeds, disconnecting means, abnormal operating conditions, and power quality. This report provides a summary of mitigation strategies to minimize the impact of HPPV. Recommendations and revisions to the standards may take place as the penetration level of renewables on the grid increases and new technologies develop in future years.« less

  2. Photovoltaic-Thermal New Technology Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, Jesse; McNutt, Peter; Lisell, Lars

    Photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) hybrid solar systems offer increased electricity production by cooling the PV panel, and using the removed thermal energy to heat water - all in the same footprint as a standard PV system. GPG's assessment of the nation's first large-scale PV-T system installed at the Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr. Federal Building in Boston, MA, provided numerous lessons learned in system design, and identified a target market of locations with high utility costs and electric hot water backup.

  3. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  4. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chainmore » and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)« less

  5. Ultraminiaturized photovoltaic and radio frequency powered optoelectronic systems for wireless optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Il; Shin, Gunchul; Banks, Anthony; McCall, Jordan G; Siuda, Edward R; Schmidt, Martin J; Chung, Ha Uk; Noh, Kyung Nim; Mun, Jonathan Guo-Han; Rhodes, Justin; Bruchas, Michael R; Rogers, John A

    2015-10-01

    Wireless control and power harvesting systems that operate injectable, cellular-scale optoelectronic components provide important demonstrated capabilities in neuromodulatory techniques such as optogenetics. Here, we report a radio frequency (RF) control/harvesting device that offers dramatically reduced size, decreased weight and improved efficiency compared to previously reported technologies. Combined use of this platform with ultrathin, multijunction, high efficiency solar cells allows for hundred-fold reduction of transmitted RF power, which greatly enhances the wireless coverage. Fabrication involves separate construction of the harvester and the injectable µ-ILEDs. To test whether the presence of the implantable device alters behavior, we implanted one group of wild type mice and compared sociability behavior to unaltered controls. Social interaction experiments followed protocols defined by Silverman et al. with minor modifications. The results presented here demonstrate that miniaturized RF harvesters, and RF control strategies with photovoltaic harvesters can, when combined with injectable µ-ILEDs, offer versatile capabilities in optogenetics. Experimental and modeling studies establish a range of effective operating conditions for these two approaches. Optogenetics studies with social groups of mice demonstrate the utility of these systems. The addition of miniaturized, high performance photovoltaic cells significantly expands the operating range and reduces the required RF power. The platform can offer capabilities to modulate signaling path in the brain region of freely-behaving animals. These suggest its potential for widespread use in neuroscience.

  6. ARO-YIP (Materials By Design): Organic Photovoltaic Multiferroics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Materials-by- design and self-assembly principles are applied to organic functional materials to control their morphology, interface, and crystalline...multifunctional properties, such as dielectric, magnetic, optoelectronic, and magnetoelectric coupling behaviors. The control of organic crystallization and...electronics. In this project, we aim at utilizing the material design and assembly strategies to rationally develop organic multiferroic-photovoltaics

  7. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  8. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  9. Flexo-photovoltaic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-Min; Kim, Dong Jik; Alexe, Marin

    2018-05-01

    It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable enhanced efficiency of solar cells. Here we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We used either an atomic force microscope or a micrometer-scale indentation system to introduce strain gradients, thus creating very large photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of strontium titanate, titanium dioxide, and silicon. This strain gradient–induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p-n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors.

  10. Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications: electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. Final Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lonergan, Mark

    Final technical report for Conjugated ionomers for photovoltaic applications, electric field driven charge separation in organic photovoltaics. The central goal of the work we completed was been to understand the photochemical and photovoltaic properties of ionically functionalized conjugated polymers (conjugated ionomers or polyelectrolytes) and energy conversion systems based on them. We primarily studied two classes of conjugated polymer interfaces that we developed based either upon undoped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in ionic composition (the ionic junction) or doped conjugated polymers with an asymmetry in doping type (the p-n junction). The materials used for these studies have primarily been themore » polyacetylene ionomers. We completed a detailed study of p-n junctions with systematically varying dopant density, photochemical creation of doped junctions, and experimental and theoretical work on charge transport and injection in polyacetylene ionomers. We have also completed related work on the use of conjugated ionomers as interlayers that improve the efficiency or organic photovoltaic systems and studied several important aspects of the chemistry of ionically functionalized semiconductors, including mechanisms of so-called "anion-doping", the formation of charge transfer complexes with oxygen, and the synthesis of new polyfluorene polyelectrolytes. We also worked worked with the Haley group at the University of Oregon on new indenofluorene-based organic acceptors.« less

  11. Si nanocrystals-based multilayers for luminescent and photovoltaic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peng; Li, Dongke; Cao, Yunqing; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2018-06-01

    Low dimensional Si materials have attracted much attention because they can be developed in many kinds of new-generation nano-electronic and optoelectronic devices, among which Si nanocrystals-based multilayered material is one of the most promising candidates and has been extensively studied. By using multilayered structures, the size and distribution of nanocrystals as well as the barrier thickness between two adjacent Si nanocrystal layers can be well controlled, which is beneficial to the device applications. This paper presents an overview of the fabrication and device applications of Si nanocrystals, especially in luminescent and photovoltaic devices. We first introduce the fabrication methods of Si nanocrystals-based multilayers. Then, we systematically review the utilization of Si nanocrystals in luminescent and photovoltaic devices. Finally, some expectations for further development of the Si nanocrystals-based photonic and photovoltaic devices are proposed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11774155, 11274155).

  12. Molecular Design of Benzodithiophene-Based Organic Photovoltaic Materials.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huifeng; Ye, Long; Zhang, Hao; Li, Sunsun; Zhang, Shaoqing; Hou, Jianhui

    2016-06-22

    Advances in the design and application of highly efficient conjugated polymers and small molecules over the past years have enabled the rapid progress in the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) technology as a promising alternative to conventional solar cells. Among the numerous OPV materials, benzodithiophene (BDT)-based polymers and small molecules have come to the fore in achieving outstanding power conversion efficiency (PCE) and breaking 10% efficiency barrier in the single junction OPV devices. Remarkably, the OPV device featured by BDT-based polymer has recently demonstrated an impressive PCE of 11.21%, indicating the great potential of this class of materials in commercial photovoltaic applications. In this review, we offered an overview of the organic photovoltaic materials based on BDT from the aspects of backbones, functional groups, alkyl chains, and device performance, trying to provide a guideline about the structure-performance relationship. We believe more exciting BDT-based photovoltaic materials and devices will be developed in the near future.

  13. End-group-directed self-assembly of organic compounds useful for photovoltaic applications

    DOEpatents

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; Lee, Olivia P.; Yiu, Alan T.; Frechet, Jean M.J.

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for an organic compound comprising electron deficient unit covalently linked to two or more electron rich units. The present invention also provides for a device comprising the organic compound, such as a light-emitting diode, thin-film transistor, chemical biosensor, non-emissive electrochromic, memory device, photovoltaic cells, or the like.

  14. Socioeconomic impact of photovoltaic power at Schuchulik, Arizona. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bahr, D.; Garrett, B.G.; Chrisman, C.

    1980-10-01

    Schuchuli, a small remote village on the Papago Indian Reservation in southwest Arizona, is 27 kilometers (17 miles) from the nearest available utility power. In some respects, Schuchuli resembles many of the rural villages in other parts of the world. For example, it's relatively small in size (about 60 residents), composed of a number of extended family groupings, and remotely situated relative to major population centers (190 km, or 120 miles, from Tucson). Its lack of conventional power is due to the prohibitive cost of supplying a small electrical load with a long-distance distribution line. Furthermore, alternate energy sources aremore » expensive and place a burden on the resources of the villagers. On December 16, 1978, as part of a federally funded project, a solar cell power system was put into operation at Schuchuli. The system powers the village water pump, lighting for homes ad other village buildings, family refrigerators and a communal washing machine and sewing machine. The project, managed for the US Department of Energy by the NASA Lewis Research Center, provided for a one-year socio-economic study to assess the impact of a relatively small amount of electricity on the basic living environment of the villagers. The results of that study are presented, including village history, group life, energy use in general and the use of the photovoltaic-powered appliances. No significant impacts due to the photovoltaic power system were observed.« less

  15. Thermionic photovoltaic energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, D. L. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A thermionic photovoltaic energy conversion device comprises a thermionic diode mounted within a hollow tubular photovoltaic converter. The thermionic diode maintains a cesium discharge for producing excited atoms that emit line radiation in the wavelength region of 850 nm to 890 nm. The photovoltaic converter is a silicon or gallium arsenide photovoltaic cell having bandgap energies in this same wavelength region for optimum cell efficiency.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  18. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  19. Organic Photovoltaic Multiferroics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-14

    Aug-2014 31-Jul-2017 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: ARO-YIP (Materials By Design): Organic Photovoltaic ...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Materials design, self-assembly, magnetoelectrics, photovoltaics REPORT...7552 31-Jul-2017 ABSTRACT Final Report: ARO-YIP (Materials By Design): Organic Photovoltaic Multiferroics Report Title In this project, we aim at

  20. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  1. Photovoltaic power - An important new energy option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferber, R. R.

    1983-12-01

    A review of photovoltaic (PV) power technology is presented with an emphasis of PV as an economical and technically feasible alternative source of energy. The successful completion of the development and transfer of emerging low-cost technologies into a fully commercialized status are identified as the means to the realization of this option's full potential. The DOE National Photovoltaics Program, a significant sponsor of PV R&D, expects both flat-plate and concentrator collectors to meet established cost targets. Citing the DOE large flat-plate grid-connected system project of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, current technology modules priced at near $5/Wp (1983 dollars) are steadily reducing costs. A recent DOE study suggests that PV-generated electricity produced at a 30-year levelized cost of 15 cents per kWh would represent a viable energy supply alternative for the nation.

  2. Empirical testing of an analytical model predicting electrical isolation of photovoltaic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    A major design requirement for photovoltaic modules is that the encapsulation system be capable of withstanding large DC potentials without electrical breakdown. Presented is a simple analytical model which can be used to estimate material thickness to meet this requirement for a candidate encapsulation system or to predict the breakdown voltage of an existing module design. A series of electrical tests to verify the model are described in detail. The results of these verification tests confirmed the utility of the analytical model for preliminary design of photovoltaic modules.

  3. Enhancement of photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2 induced by plasma doping.

    PubMed

    Wi, Sungjin; Kim, Hyunsoo; Chen, Mikai; Nam, Hongsuk; Guo, L Jay; Meyhofer, Edgar; Liang, Xiaogan

    2014-05-27

    Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides hold promise for making ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices with a combination of excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, long lifetime, and low manufacturing cost. Engineering the proper band structures of such layered materials is essential to realize such potential. Here, we present a plasma-assisted doping approach for significantly improving the photovoltaic response in multilayer MoS2. In this work, we fabricated and characterized photovoltaic devices with a vertically stacked indium tin oxide electrode/multilayer MoS2/metal electrode structure. Utilizing a plasma-induced p-doping approach, we are able to form p-n junctions in MoS2 layers that facilitate the collection of photogenerated carriers, enhance the photovoltages, and decrease reverse dark currents. Using plasma-assisted doping processes, we have demonstrated MoS2-based photovoltaic devices exhibiting very high short-circuit photocurrent density values up to 20.9 mA/cm(2) and reasonably good power-conversion efficiencies up to 2.8% under AM1.5G illumination, as well as high external quantum efficiencies. We believe that this work provides important scientific insights for leveraging the optoelectronic properties of emerging atomically layered two-dimensional materials for photovoltaic and other optoelectronic applications.

  4. Photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kurtz, Sarah

    1984-11-27

    In a photovoltaic cell structure containing a visibly transparent, electrically conductive first layer of metal oxide, and a light-absorbing semiconductive photovoltaic second layer, the improvement comprising a thin layer of transition metal nitride, carbide or boride interposed between said first and second layers.

  5. Design and Optimization of Slot Aluminum Alloy Connectors of Photovoltaics Applied to High-rise Building Facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ya-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Dong, Jin-Zhi; Shi, Zhen-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) is a resort to save energy and reduce heat gain of buildings, utilize new and renewable energy, solve environment problems and alleviate electricity shortage in large cities. The area needed to generate power makes facade integrated photovoltaic panel a superb choice, especially in high-rise buildings. Numerous scholars have hitherto explored Building Facade Integrated Photovoltaic, however, focusing mainly on thermal performance, which fails to ensure seismic safety of high-rise buildings integrated photovoltaic. Based on connecting forms of the glass curtain wall, a connector jointing photovoltaic panel and facade was designed, which underwent loading position and size optimization. Static loading scenarios were conducted to test and verify the connector's mechanical properties under gravity and wind loading by means of HyperWorks. Compared to the unoptimized design, the optimized one saved material and managed to reduce maximum deflection by 74.64%.

  6. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems is presented. This particular application is for a solar cell power system demonstration project designed to provide electric power requirements for remote villages. The techniques utilized involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  7. Method of manufacturing semiconductor having group II-group VI compounds doped with nitrogen

    DOEpatents

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Price, Kent J.; Ma, Xianda; Makhratchev, Konstantin

    2005-02-08

    A method of making a semiconductor comprises depositing a group II-group VI compound onto a substrate in the presence of nitrogen using sputtering to produce a nitrogen-doped semiconductor. This method can be used for making a photovoltaic cell using sputtering to apply a back contact layer of group II-group VI compound to a substrate in the presence of nitrogen, the back coating layer being doped with nitrogen. A semiconductor comprising a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, and a photovoltaic cell comprising a substrate on which is deposited a layer of a group II-group VI compound doped with nitrogen, are also included.

  8. Flexo-photovoltaic effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Min; Kim, Dong Jik; Alexe, Marin

    2018-05-25

    It is highly desirable to discover photovoltaic mechanisms that enable enhanced efficiency of solar cells. Here we report that the bulk photovoltaic effect, which is free from the thermodynamic Shockley-Queisser limit but usually manifested only in noncentrosymmetric (piezoelectric or ferroelectric) materials, can be realized in any semiconductor, including silicon, by mediation of flexoelectric effect. We used either an atomic force microscope or a micrometer-scale indentation system to introduce strain gradients, thus creating very large photovoltaic currents from centrosymmetric single crystals of strontium titanate, titanium dioxide, and silicon. This strain gradient-induced bulk photovoltaic effect, which we call the flexo-photovoltaic effect, functions in the absence of a p-n junction. This finding may extend present solar cell technologies by boosting the solar energy conversion efficiency from a wide pool of established semiconductors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  9. An inverter/controller subsystem optimized for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickrell, R. L.; Merrill, W. C.; Osullivan, G.

    1978-01-01

    Conversion of solar array dc power to ac power stimulated the specification, design, and simulation testing of an inverter/controller subsystem tailored to the photovoltaic power source characteristics. This paper discusses the optimization of the inverter/controller design as part of an overall Photovoltaic Power System (PPS) designed for maximum energy extraction from the solar array. The special design requirements for the inverter/controller include: (1) a power system controller (PSC) to control continuously the solar array operating point at the maximum power level based on variable solar insolation and cell temperatures; and (2) an inverter designed for high efficiency at rated load and low losses at light loadings to conserve energy. It must be capable of operating connected to the utility line at a level set by an external controller (PSC).

  10. Revealing the influence of Cyano in Anchoring Groups of Organic Dyes on Adsorption Stability and Photovoltaic Properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Chieh; Nachimuthu, Santhanamoorthi; Jiang, Jyh-Chiang

    2017-07-10

    Determining an ideal adsorption configuration for a dye on the semiconductor surface is an important task in improving the overall efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we present a detailed investigation of different adsorption configurations of designed model dyes on TiO 2 anatase (101) surface using first principles methods. Particularly, we aimed to investigate the influence of cyano group in the anchoring part of dye on its adsorption stability and the overall photovoltaic properties such as open circuit voltage, electron injection ability to the surface. Our results indicate that the inclusion of cyano group increases the stability of adsorption only when it adsorbs via CN with the surface and it decreases the photovoltaic properties when it does not involve in binding. In addition, we also considered full dyes based on the results of model dyes and investigated the different strength of acceptor abilities on stability and electron injection ability. Among the various adsorption configurations considered here, the bidentate bridging mode (A3) is more appropriate one which has higher electron injection ability, larger V OC value and more importantly it has higher dye loading on the surface.

  11. Photovoltaic energy program overview, fiscal year 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-02-01

    The Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 to FY 1995 builds on the accomplishments of the past 5 years and broadens the scope of program activities for the future. The previous plan emphasized materials and PV cell research. Under the balanced new plan, the PV Program continues its commitment to strategic research and development (R&D) into PV materials and processes, while also beginning work on PV systems and helping the PV industry encourage new markets for photovoltaics. A major challenge for the program is to assist the US PV industry in laying the foundation for at least 1000 MW of installed PV capacity in the United States and 500 MW internationally by 2000. As part of the new plan, the program expanded the scope of its activities in 1991. The PV Program is now addressing many new aspects of developing and commercializing photovoltaics. It is expanding activities with the US PV industry through the PV Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project, designed to address US manufacturers' immediate problems; providing technical assistance to potential end users such as electric utilities; and the program is turning its attention to encouraging new markets for PV. In 1991, for example, the PV Program initiated a new project with the PV industry to encourage a domestic market for PV applications in buildings and began cooperative ventures to support other countries such as Mexico to use PV in their rural electrification programs. This report reviews some of the development, fabrication and manufacturing advances in photovoltaics this year.

  12. Comparison between solar utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop and that of a stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Fuqiang; Long, Chao; Shan, Aidang; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the solar energy utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop for energy efficient production of biogas with fertilizer recovery against that of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The comparison was made from the perspective of broad life cycle assessment, simultaneously taking exergy to be the functional unit. The results indicated that the bio-loop was more environmentally competitive than an equivalent stand-alone PV system, but had higher economic cost due to high energy consumption during the operational phase. To fix the problem, a patented, interior pressurization scheduling method was used to operate the bio-loop, with microalgae and aerobic bacterial placed together in the same reactor. As a result, the overall environmental impact and total investment were respectively reduced by more than 75% and 84%, a vast improvement on the bio-loop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert J; Lesniak, Michael J; Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joe A; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K; Boven, Michelle L

    2015-01-27

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  14. Photovoltaic device and method

    DOEpatents

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  15. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  16. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    For more information about solar photovoltaic energy, visit the following resources: Solar PV Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the

  18. Calculating solar photovoltaic potential on residential rooftops in Kailua Kona, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Caroline

    As carbon based fossil fuels become increasingly scarce, renewable energy sources are coming to the forefront of policy discussions around the globe. As a result, the State of Hawaii has implemented aggressive goals to achieve energy independence by 2030. Renewable electricity generation using solar photovoltaic technologies plays an important role in these efforts. This study utilizes geographic information systems (GIS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with statistical analysis to identify how much solar photovoltaic potential exists for residential rooftops in the town of Kailua Kona on Hawaii Island. This study helps to quantify the magnitude of possible solar photovoltaic (PV) potential for Solar World SW260 monocrystalline panels on residential rooftops within the study area. Three main areas were addressed in the execution of this research: (1) modeling solar radiation, (2) estimating available rooftop area, and (3) calculating PV potential from incoming solar radiation. High resolution LiDAR data and Esri's solar modeling tools and were utilized to calculate incoming solar radiation on a sample set of digitized rooftops. Photovoltaic potential for the sample set was then calculated with the equations developed by Suri et al. (2005). Sample set rooftops were analyzed using a statistical model to identify the correlation between rooftop area and lot size. Least squares multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the influence of slope, elevation, rooftop area, and lot size on the modeled PV potential values. The equations built from these statistical analyses of the sample set were applied to the entire study region to calculate total rooftop area and PV potential. The total study area statistical analysis findings estimate photovoltaic electric energy generation potential for rooftops is approximately 190,000,000 kWh annually. This is approximately 17 percent of the total electricity the utility provided to the entire island in

  19. A novel application for concentrator photovoltaic in the field of agriculture photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Luqing; Guan, Chenggang; Zhang, Fangxin; Li, Ming; Lv, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yao, Peijun; Ingenhoff, Jan; Liu, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture photovoltaics is a trend setting area which has already led to a new industrial revolution. Shortage of land in some countries and desertification of land where regular solar panels are deployed are some of the major problems in the photovoltaic industry. Concentrator photovoltaics experienced a decline in applicability after the cost erosion of regular solar panels at the end of the last decade. We demonstrate a novel and unique application for concentrator photovoltaics tackling at a same time the issue of conventional photovoltaics preventing the land being used for agricultural purpose where ever solar panels are installed. We leverage the principle of diffractive and interference technology to split the sun light into transmitted wavelengths necessary for plant growth and reflected wavelengths useful for solar energy generation. The technology has been successfully implemented in field trials and sophisticated scientific studies have been undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this technology for competitive solar power generation and simultaneous high-quality plant growth. The average efficiency of the agriculture photovoltaic system has reached more than 8% and the average efficiency of the CPV system is 6.80%.

  20. Real-Time Photovoltaic and Solar Resource Testing | Photovoltaic Research |

    Science.gov Websites

    community toward developing comprehensive PV standards. Each year, NCPV researchers, along with solar performance Bill Marion: Solar radiation resource information, and PV module and system performance modeling NREL Real-Time Photovoltaic and Solar Resource Testing Real-Time Photovoltaic and Solar

  1. Organic Semiconductor Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2005-03-01

    Recent developments on organic photovoltaic elements are reviewed. Semiconducting conjugated polymers and molecules as well as nanocrystalline inorganic semiconductors are used in composite thin films. The photophysics of such photoactive devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting molecules onto acceptor type molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C60 and/or nanoparticles. Similar to the first steps in natural photosynthesis, this photoinduced electron transfer leads to a number of potentially interesting applications which include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena. Examples of photovoltaic architectures are discussed with their potential in terrestrial solar energy conversion. Several materials are introduced and discussed for their photovoltaic activities. Furthermore, nanomorphology has been investigated with AFM, SEM and TEM. The morphology/property relationship for a given photoactive system is found to be a major effect.

  2. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  3. The development and utilization of solar photovoltaic cells: An assessment of the potential for a new energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cyr, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Government set the goal of accelerating the adaptation of photovoltaics by reducing system costs to a competitive level and overcoming the technical, institutional, legal, environmental, and social barriers impeding the diffusion of photovoltaic technology. The technology of silicon solar arrays was examined and the status of development efforts are reviewed. The political, legal, economic, social, and environmental issues are discussed, and several methods for selecting development projects are described. A number of market forecasting techniques, including time trend, judgemental, and econometric methods, were reviewed, and the results of these models are presented.

  4. Long-range PV R&D and the electric utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Terry M.

    1997-04-01

    In the short term, photovoltaics will probably continue to enjoy great success in niche markets and non-utility businesses, but see relatively little use within utilities. Deregulation is driving major restructuring of the electric-utility sector, causing great uncertainty among its planners and executives, and leading them to favor cost-cutting over other corporate strategies. However, the competitive motives at the root of that restructuring will ultimately induce resourceful utility executives to seek novel non-commodity energy-service businesses to sustain their companies' success in the deregulated industry of the future. In that industry, technology innovation will play a very important role. Specifically, photovoltaics will be highly valued in light of its unsurpassed modularity, extreme siting ease, very low operation and maintenance costs, and public popularity. The eventual leaders in wielding that powerful technology likely will be among those who recognize those assets earliest and strive to bring its promises to reality through innovative applications.

  5. Awards for Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Awards for Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Awards for Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D The following research efforts within the PV Manufacturing R&D Project were honored with prestigious industry awards. 1995-AstroPower (now GE Energy): Received an R&D 100 Award for its Silicon-Film

  6. DOE LeRC photovoltaic systems test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cull, R. C.; Forestieri, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The facility was designed and built and is being operated as a national facility to serve the needs of the entire DOE National Photovoltaic Program. The object of the facility is to provide a place where photovoltaic systems may be assembled and electrically configured, without specific physical configuration, for operation and testing to evaluate their performance and characteristics. The facility as a breadboard system allows investigation of operational characteristics and checkout of components, subsystems and systems before they are mounted in field experiments or demonstrations. The facility as currently configured consist of 10 kW of solar arrays built from modules, two inverter test stations, a battery storage system, interface with local load and the utility grid, and instrumentation and control necessary to make a flexible operating facility. Expansion to 30 kW is planned for 1978. Test results and operating experience are summaried to show the variety of work that can be done with this facility.

  7. BIPV-Powered Smart Windows Utilizing Photovoltaic and Electrochromic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO3/Ta2O5/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO3/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750–1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan. PMID:22368474

  8. BIPV-powered smart windows utilizing photovoltaic and electrochromic devices.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rong-Hua; Chen, Yu-Chia

    2012-01-01

    A BIPV-powered smart window comprising a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) panel and an all-solid-state electrochromic (EC) stack is proposed. In the proposed device, the output voltage of the BIPV panel varies in accordance with the intensity of the incident light and is modulated in such a way as to generate the EC stack voltage required to maintain the indoor illuminance within a specified range. Two different EC stacks are fabricated and characterized, namely one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/Ta(2)O(5)/ITO and one stack comprising ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO. It is shown that of the two stacks, the ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack has a larger absorptance (i.e., approximately 99% at a driving voltage of 3.5 V). The experimental results show that the smart window incorporating an ITO/WO(3)/lithium-polymer electrolyte/ITO stack with an electrolyte thickness of 1.0 μm provides an indoor illuminance range of 750-1,500 Lux under typical summertime conditions in Taiwan.

  9. Photovoltaic cell module and method of forming

    DOEpatents

    Howell, Malinda; Juen, Donnie; Ketola, Barry; Tomalia, Mary Kay

    2017-12-12

    A photovoltaic cell module, a photovoltaic array including at least two modules, and a method of forming the module are provided. The module includes a first outermost layer and a photovoltaic cell disposed on the first outermost layer. The module also includes a second outermost layer disposed on the photovoltaic cell and sandwiching the photovoltaic cell between the second outermost layer and the first outermost layer. The method of forming the module includes the steps of disposing the photovoltaic cell on the first outermost layer, disposing a silicone composition on the photovoltaic cell, and compressing the first outermost layer, the photovoltaic cell, and the second layer to form the photovoltaic cell module.

  10. Utility Rate Equations of Group Population Dynamics in Biological and Social Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I.; Yukalova, Elizaveta P.; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system of equations to describe the evolution of self-organized structured societies (biological or human) composed of several trait groups. The suggested approach is based on the combination of ideas employed in the theory of biological populations, system theory, and utility theory. The evolution equations are defined as utility rate equations, whose parameters are characterized by the utility of each group with respect to the society as a whole and by the mutual utilities of groups with respect to each other. We analyze in detail the cases of two groups (cooperators and defectors) and of three groups (cooperators, defectors, and regulators) and find that, in a self-organized society, neither defectors nor regulators can overpass the maximal fractions of about each. This is in agreement with the data for bee and ant colonies. The classification of societies by their distance from equilibrium is proposed. We apply the formalism to rank the countries according to the introduced metric quantifying their relative stability, which depends on the cost of defectors and regulators as well as their respective population fractions. We find a remarkable concordance with more standard economic ranking based, for instance, on GDP per capita. PMID:24386163

  11. Utility rate equations of group population dynamics in biological and social systems.

    PubMed

    Yukalov, Vyacheslav I; Yukalova, Elizaveta P; Sornette, Didier

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel system of equations to describe the evolution of self-organized structured societies (biological or human) composed of several trait groups. The suggested approach is based on the combination of ideas employed in the theory of biological populations, system theory, and utility theory. The evolution equations are defined as utility rate equations, whose parameters are characterized by the utility of each group with respect to the society as a whole and by the mutual utilities of groups with respect to each other. We analyze in detail the cases of two groups (cooperators and defectors) and of three groups (cooperators, defectors, and regulators) and find that, in a self-organized society, neither defectors nor regulators can overpass the maximal fractions of about [Formula: see text] each. This is in agreement with the data for bee and ant colonies. The classification of societies by their distance from equilibrium is proposed. We apply the formalism to rank the countries according to the introduced metric quantifying their relative stability, which depends on the cost of defectors and regulators as well as their respective population fractions. We find a remarkable concordance with more standard economic ranking based, for instance, on GDP per capita.

  12. Photovoltaics in the Department of Defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Richard N.

    1997-02-01

    This paper documents the history of photovoltaic use within the Department of Defense leading up to the installation of 2.1 MW of photovoltaics underway today. This history describes the evolution of the Department of Defense's Tri-Service Photovoltaic Review Committee and the committee's strategic plan to realize photovoltaic's full potential through outreach, conditioning of the federal procurement system, and specific project development. The Photovoltaic Review Committee estimates photovoltaic's potential at nearly 4,000 MW, of which about 700 MW are considered to be cost-effective at today's prices. The paper describes photovoltaic's potential within the Department of Defense, the status and features of the 2.1-MW worth of photovoltaic systems under installation, and how these systems are selected and implemented. The paper also documents support provided to the Department of Defense by the Department of Energy dating back to the late 70s.

  13. Physics of Quantum Structures in Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Andersen, John D.

    2005-01-01

    There has been considerable activity recently regarding the possibilities of using various nanostructures and nanomaterials to improve photovoltaic conversion of solar energy. Recent theoretical results indicate that dramatic improvements in device efficiency may be attainable through the use of three-dimensional arrays of zero-dimensional conductors (i.e., quantum dots) in an ordinary p-i-n solar cell structure. Quantum dots and other nanostructured materials may also prove to have some benefits in terms of temperature coefficients and radiation degradation associated with space solar cells. Two-dimensional semiconductor superlattices have already demonstrated some advantages in this regard. It has also recently been demonstrated that semiconducting quantum dots can also be used to improve conversion efficiencies in polymeric thin film solar cells. Improvement in thin film cells utilizing conjugated polymers has also be achieved through the use of one-dimensional quantum structures such as carbon nanotubes. It is believed that carbon nanotubes may contribute to both the disassociation as well as the carrier transport in the conjugated polymers used in certain thin film photovoltaic cells. In this paper we will review the underlying physics governing some of the new photovoltaic nanostructures being pursued, as well as the the current methods being employed to produce III-V, II-VI, and even chalcopyrite-based nanomaterials and nanostructures for solar cells.

  14. A 194 kilowatt solar photovoltaic flat panel power system for the combined Beverly High School/C. H. Patten Vocational High School, Beverly, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addiss, R. R., Jr.; Lawson, P. A.

    1980-06-01

    The design and performance of a photovoltaic power system is discussed. The 194 kW system consists of the photovoltaic array, the inverter/control subsystem, the building and utility interface, and the monitoring subsystem. The photovoltaic array consists of 56 separate subarrays of 112 photovoltaic modules each, deployed in rows on the southerly facing slope north of the school building. The wiring scheme permits individual modules to be disconnected without a radical change in subarray output current. Power is transmitted at 4160 V from the inverters and a step up transformer to the main 4160 V utility feed line in the school. Separate metering measures power bought and sold. At the optimum tilt angle of 40 deg, the array provides 232 MWH of AC energy annually, or 17 percent of the school load. The immediate impact is an $8000 saving in the annual utility bill. Levelized busbar energy costs are reduced from $2/kWH to $1/kWH when site specific parameters are used in the analysis instead of the JPL specified nominal values. A fault detection and isolation scheme which can find a single modulus failure is incorporated into the monitoring subsystem.

  15. US photovoltaic patents: 1991-1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, L.

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class 'Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric' and the subclasses 'Photoelectric,' 'Testing,' and 'Applications.' The search also located patents that contained the words 'photovoltaic(s)' or 'solar cell(s)' and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  16. Photovoltaics: The endless spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the developments in the photovoltaic field over the past decade or two is presented. Accomplishments in the terrestrial field are reviewed along with projections and challenges toward meeting cost goals. The contrasts and commonality of space and terrestrial photovoltaics are presented. Finally, a strategic philosophy of photovoltaics research highlighting critical factors, appropriate directions, emerging opportunities, and challenges of the future is given.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  18. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  19. Baseline Testing of the Ultracapacitor Enhanced Photovoltaic Power Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing an advanced ultracapacitor enhanced photovoltaic power station. Goals of this effort include maximizing photovoltaic power generation efficiency and extending the life of photovoltaic energy storage systems. Unique aspects of the power station include the use of a solar tracker, and ultracapacitors for energy storage. The photovoltaic power station is seen as a way to provide electric power in remote locations that would otherwise not have electric power, provide independence form utility systems, reduce pollution, reduce fossil fuel consumption, and reduce operating costs. The work was done under the Hybrid Power Management (HPM) Program, which includes the Hybrid Electric Transit Bus (HETB), and the E-Bike. The power station complements the E-Bike extremely well in that it permits the charging of the vehicle batteries in remote locations. Other applications include scientific research and medical power sources in isolated regions. The power station is an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in power technology in a practical application. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners, and provides power system data valuable for future space applications. A description of the ultracapacitor enhanced power station, the results of performance testing and future power station development plans is the subject of this report. The report concludes that the ultracapacitor enhanced power station provides excellent performance, and that the implementation of ultracapacitors in the power system can provide significant performance improvements.

  20. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Durrant, James R.; Tsoi, Wing C.

    2016-06-01

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  1. Plasmonically enhanced hot electron based photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Atar, Fatih B; Battal, Enes; Aygun, Levent E; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet; Okyay, Ali K

    2013-03-25

    Hot electron photovoltaics is emerging as a candidate for low cost and ultra thin solar cells. Plasmonic means can be utilized to significantly boost device efficiency. We separately form the tunneling metal-insulator-metal (MIM) junction for electron collection and the plasmon exciting MIM structure on top of each other, which provides high flexibility in plasmonic design and tunneling MIM design separately. We demonstrate close to one order of magnitude enhancement in the short circuit current at the resonance wavelengths.

  2. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    SciTech Connect

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects weremore » excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.« less

  3. Analysis of Electrical Characteristics of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasick, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    Solar energy is the most abundant form of energy in many terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Often in extraterrestrial environments sunlight is the only readily available form of energy. Thus the ability to efficiently harness solar energy is one of the ultimate goals in the design of space power systems. The essential component that converts solar energy into electrical energy in a solar energy based power system is the photovoltaic cell. Traditionally, photovoltaic cells are based on a single crystal silicon absorber. While silicon is a well understood technology and yields high efficiency, there are inherent disadvantages to using single crystal materials. The requirements of weight, large planar surfaces, and high manufacturing costs make large silicon cells prohibitively expensive for use in certain applications. Because of silicon s disadvantages, there is considerable ongoing research into alternative photovoltaic technologies. In particular, thin film photovoltaic technologies exhibit a promising future in space power systems. While they are less mature than silicon, the better radiation hardness, reduced weight, ease of manufacturing, low material cost, and the ability to use virtually any exposed surface as a substrate makes thin film technologies very attractive for space applications. The research group lead by Dr. Hepp has spent several years researching copper indium disulfide as an absorber material for use in thin film photovoltaic cells. While the group has succeeded in developing a single source precursor for CuInS2 as well as a unique method of aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition, the resulting cells have not achieved adequate efficiencies. While efficiencies of 11 % have been demonstrated with CuInS2 based cells, the cells produced by this group have shown efficiencies of approximately 1 %. Thus, current research efforts are turning towards the analysis of the individual layers of these cells, as well as the junctions between

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  5. Photovoltaic fabrics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-22

    CLADDING SOLAR CELLS PV (PHOTOVOLTAIC) University of Massachusetts – Dartmouth 285 Old Westport Road Dartmouth, MA 02747...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...direct sunlight (AM1.5). Over the duration of the project we demonstrated PV efficiency ranging from 5.04% (wire on a black background) to >8

  6. A photovoltaic industry overview - The results of a survey on photovoltaic technology industrialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Shimada, K.

    1981-01-01

    The National Photovoltaics Program of the United States Department of Energy has the objective of bringing photovoltaic power systems to a point where they can supply a significant portion of the United States energy requirements by the year 2000. This is planned to be accomplished through substantial research and technology development activities aimed at achieving major cost reductions and market penetration. This paper presents information derived from a limited survey performed to obtain photovoltaic industry attitudes concerning industrialization, and to determine current industry plans to meet the DOE program goals. Silicon material production, a key photovoltaic manufacturing industry, is highlighted with regards to implementation of technology improvement and silicon material supply outlook.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenreich, Henry; Martin, John H.

    1979-01-01

    The goals of solar photovoltaic technology in contributing to America's future energy needs are presented in this study conducted by the American Physical Society. Although the time needed for photovoltaics to become popular is several decades away, according to the author, short-range applications are given. (Author/SA)

  8. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2018-06-07

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  9. Photovoltaic tests and applications project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The activities and accomplishments of the Photovoltaic Tests and Applications Project during the period April 1976 through June 1977 are summarized. Results of efforts to identify potential near-term photovoltaic applications and users are discussed, including the outcome of an extensive survey of Federal government agencies. The status of application experiments is presented. Various general engineering efforts are reported, including the design and construction of a photovoltaic Systems Test Facility. Efforts to develop a high efficiency 10 kVA self-commutated inverter and controller specifically designed for photovoltaic systems are also discussed. The results of a wide variety of activities in the area of photovoltaic measurements and standards are related. Documents generated by the Project during the reporting period are listed in an Appendix.

  10. The impact of photovoltaic (PV) installations on downwind particulate matter concentrations: Results from field observations at a 550-MWAC utility-scale PV plant.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Dwarakanath; Sinha, Parikhit

    2017-10-01

    With utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) projects increasingly developed in dry and dust-prone geographies with high solar insolation, there is a critical need to analyze the impacts of PV installations on the resulting particulate matter (PM) concentrations, which have environmental and health impacts. This study is the first to quantify the impact of a utility-scale PV plant on PM concentrations downwind of the project site. Background, construction, and post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 and <10 μm, respectively) concentration data were collected from four beta attenuation monitor (BAM) stations over 3 yr. Based on these data, the authors evaluate the hypothesis that PM emissions from land occupied by a utility-scale PV installation are reduced after project construction through a wind-shielding effect. The results show that the (1) confidence intervals of the mean PM concentrations during construction overlap with or are lower than background concentrations for three of the four BAM stations; and (2) post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations downwind of the PV installation are significantly lower than the background concentrations at three of the four BAM stations. At the fourth BAM station, downwind post-construction PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations increased marginally by 5.7% and 2.6% of the 24-hr ambient air quality standards defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, respectively, when compared with background concentrations, with the PM 2.5 increase being statistically insignificant. This increase may be due to vehicular emissions from an access road near the southwest corner of the site or a drainage berm near the south station. The findings demonstrate the overall environmental benefit of downwind PM emission abatement from a utility-scale PV installation in desert conditions due to wind shielding. With PM emission reductions observed within 10 months of completion of construction, post

  11. Enlarging photovoltaic effect: combination of classic photoelectric and ferroelectric photovoltaic effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingjiao; Su, Xiaodong; Shen, Mingrong; Dai, Zhihua; Zhang, Lingjun; He, Xiyun; Cheng, Wenxiu; Cao, Mengyu; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-01

    Converting light energy to electrical energy in photovoltaic devices relies on the photogenerated electrons and holes separated by the built-in potential in semiconductors. Photo-excited electrons in metal electrodes are usually not considered in this process. Here, we report an enhanced photovoltaic effect in the ferroelectric lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) by using low work function metals as the electrodes. We believe that electrons in the metal with low work function could be photo-emitted into PLZT and form the dominant photocurrent in our devices. Under AM1.5 (100 mW/cm2) illumination, the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of Mg/PLZT/ITO are about 150 and 2 times of those of Pt/PLZT/ITO, respectively. The photovoltaic response of PLZT capacitor was expanded from ultraviolet to visible spectra, and it may have important impact on design and fabrication of high performance photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric materials. PMID:23811832

  12. Enlarging photovoltaic effect: combination of classic photoelectric and ferroelectric photovoltaic effects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjiao; Su, Xiaodong; Shen, Mingrong; Dai, Zhihua; Zhang, Lingjun; He, Xiyun; Cheng, Wenxiu; Cao, Mengyu; Zou, Guifu

    2013-01-01

    Converting light energy to electrical energy in photovoltaic devices relies on the photogenerated electrons and holes separated by the built-in potential in semiconductors. Photo-excited electrons in metal electrodes are usually not considered in this process. Here, we report an enhanced photovoltaic effect in the ferroelectric lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) by using low work function metals as the electrodes. We believe that electrons in the metal with low work function could be photo-emitted into PLZT and form the dominant photocurrent in our devices. Under AM1.5 (100 mW/cm²) illumination, the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage of Mg/PLZT/ITO are about 150 and 2 times of those of Pt/PLZT/ITO, respectively. The photovoltaic response of PLZT capacitor was expanded from ultraviolet to visible spectra, and it may have important impact on design and fabrication of high performance photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric materials.

  13. Summary of photovoltaic system performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. H.; Reiter, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed overview of photovoltaics (PV) performance modeling capabilities developed for analyzing PV system and component design and policy issues is provided. A set of 10 performance models are selected which span a representative range of capabilities from generalized first order calculations to highly specialized electrical network simulations. A set of performance modeling topics and characteristics is defined and used to examine some of the major issues associated with photovoltaic performance modeling. Each of the models is described in the context of these topics and characteristics to assess its purpose, approach, and level of detail. The issues are discussed in terms of the range of model capabilities available and summarized in tabular form for quick reference. The models are grouped into categories to illustrate their purposes and perspectives.

  14. Publications | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Publications Publications The scientists in the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) at NREL publish a variety of documents related to photovoltaic and related research, including journal articles

  15. Photovoltaic test and demonstration project for the National Photovoltaic Conversion program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed are photovoltaic system tests and demonstrations covering a wide range of applications in order to develop low cost photovoltaic cells suitable for terrestrial applications. Program objectives are: (1) tests and model system demonstrations; (2) device performance and diagnostics; and (3) endurance of solar cell modules and arrays.

  16. Photovoltaic-Pyroelectric Coupled Effect Induced Electricity for Self-Powered Photodetector System.

    PubMed

    Ma, Nan; Zhang, Kewei; Yang, Ya

    2017-12-01

    Ferroelectric materials have demonstrated novel photovoltaic effect to scavenge solar energy. However, most of the ferroelectric materials with wide bandgaps (2.7-4 eV) suffer from low power conversion efficiency of less than 0.5% due to absorbing only 8-20% of solar spectrum. Instead of harvesting solar energy, these ferroelectric materials can be well suited for photodetector applications, especially for sensing near-UV irradiations. Here, a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 film-based photodetector is demonstrated that can be operated without using any external power source and a fast sensing of 405 nm light illumination is enabled. As compared with photovoltaic effect, both the responsivity and the specific detectivity of the photodetector can be dramatically enhanced by larger than 260% due to the light-induced photovoltaic-pyroelectric coupled effect. A self-powered photodetector array system can be utilized to achieve spatially resolved light intensity detection by recording the output voltage signals as a mapping figure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Current challenges in organic photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Cody W; Thompson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, significant interest in utilizing conjugated organic molecules for solid-state solar to electric conversion has produced rapid improvement in device efficiencies. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices are attractive for their compatibility with low-cost processing techniques and thin-film applicability to flexible and conformal applications. However, many of the processes that lead to power losses in these systems still remain poorly understood, posing a significant challenge for the future efficiency improvements required to make these devices an attractive solar technology. While semiconductor band models have been employed to describe OPV operation, a more appropriate molecular picture of the pertinent processes is beginning to emerge. This chapter presents mechanisms of OPV device operation, based on the bound molecular nature of the involved transient species. With the intention to underscore the importance of considering both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, recent progress in elucidating molecular characteristics that dictate photovoltage losses in heterojunction organic photovoltaics is also discussed.

  18. Colored ultrathin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Kyu -Tae; Lee, Jae Yong; Seo, Sungyong; ...

    2014-10-24

    Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. The large surfaces and interiors of modern buildings are not efficiently utilized for potential electric power generation. Here, we introduce dual-function solar cells based on ultrathin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances. Light-energy-harvestingmore » colored signage is demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Furthermore, this study pioneers a new approach to architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film photovoltaics.« less

  19. Colored ultrathin hybrid photovoltaics with high quantum efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyu -Tae; Lee, Jae Yong; Seo, Sungyong

    Most current solar panels are fabricated via complex processes using expensive semiconductor materials, and they are rigid and heavy with a dull, black appearance. As a result of their non-aesthetic appearance and weight, they are primarily installed on rooftops to minimize their negative impact on building appearance. The large surfaces and interiors of modern buildings are not efficiently utilized for potential electric power generation. Here, we introduce dual-function solar cells based on ultrathin dopant-free amorphous silicon embedded in an optical cavity that not only efficiently extract the photogenerated carriers but also display distinctive colors with the desired angle-insensitive appearances. Light-energy-harvestingmore » colored signage is demonstrated. Furthermore, a cascaded photovoltaics scheme based on tunable spectrum splitting can be employed to increase power efficiency by absorbing a broader band of light energy. Furthermore, this study pioneers a new approach to architecturally compatible and decorative thin-film photovoltaics.« less

  20. US photovoltaic patents, 1951--1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-09-01

    This document contains 2195 U.S. patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1951 through 1987; no patents were found in 1950. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the U.S. Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric, and the subclasses Photoelectric, Testing, and Applications. The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s) or solar cell(s) and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrwstrial PV power technologies.

  1. Transparent contacts for stacked compound photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2016-11-29

    A microsystems-enabled multi-junction photovoltaic (MEM-PV) cell includes a first photovoltaic cell having a first junction, the first photovoltaic cell including a first semiconductor material employed to form the first junction, the first semiconductor material having a first bandgap. The MEM-PV cell also includes a second photovoltaic cell comprising a second junction. The second photovoltaic cell comprises a second semiconductor material employed to form the second junction, the second semiconductor material having a second bandgap that is less than the first bandgap, the second photovoltaic cell further comprising a first contact layer disposed between the first junction of the first photovoltaic cell and the second junction of the second photovoltaic cell, the first contact layer composed of a third semiconductor material having a third bandgap, the third bandgap being greater than or equal to the first bandgap.

  2. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... supportive environment in which a utility can take steps to be climate ready. In this meeting, the Working... Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National...

  3. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2015-04-14

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  4. Photovoltaic array mounting apparatus, systems, and methods

    DOEpatents

    West, Jack Raymond; Atchley, Brian; Hudson, Tyrus Hawkes; Johansen, Emil

    2016-01-05

    A photovoltaic array, including: (a) supports laid out on a surface in rows and columns; (b) photovoltaic modules positioned on top of the supports; and (c) fasteners connecting the photovoltaic modules to the supports, wherein the supports have an upper pedestal surface and a lower pedestal surface such that the photovoltaic modules are positioned at a non-horizontal angle when edges of the photovoltaic modules are positioned on top of the upper and lower pedestal surfaces, and wherein a portion of the fasteners rotate to lock the photovoltaic modules onto the supports.

  5. Validation of Multiple Tools for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modeling Against Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Blair, N.

    2014-08-01

    This report expands upon a previous work by the same authors, published in the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists conference. In this validation study, comprehensive analysis is performed on nine photovoltaic systems for which NREL could obtain detailed performance data and specifications, including three utility-scale systems and six commercial scale systems. Multiple photovoltaic performance modeling tools were used to model these nine systems, and the error of each tool was analyzed compared to quality-controlled measured performance data. This study shows that, excluding identified outliers, all tools achieve annual errors within +/-8% and hourly root mean squared errors less than 7% formore » all systems. It is further shown using SAM that module model and irradiance input choices can change the annual error with respect to measured data by as much as 6.6% for these nine systems, although all combinations examined still fall within an annual error range of +/-8.5%. Additionally, a seasonal variation in monthly error is shown for all tools. Finally, the effects of irradiance data uncertainty and the use of default loss assumptions on annual error are explored, and two approaches to reduce the error inherent in photovoltaic modeling are proposed.« less

  6. Photovoltaics Innovation Roadmap Request for Information Summary

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    On June 28, 2017, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) released the Photovoltaics (PV) Innovation Roadmap Request for Information (RFI) for public response and comment. The RFI sought feedback from PV stakeholders, including research and commercial communities, about the most important research and development (R&D) pathways to improve PV cell and module technology to reach the SETO’s SunShot 2030 cost targets of $0.03/W for utility PV installations, $0.04/W for commercial scale installations, and $0.05/W for residential PV installations.

  7. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  8. Is organic photovoltaics promising for indoor applications?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Harrison K. H.; Li, Zhe; Tsoi, Wing C., E-mail: w.c.tsoi@swansea.ac.uk

    2016-06-20

    This work utilizes organic photovoltaics (OPV) for indoor applications, such as powering small electronic devices or wireless connected Internet of Things. Three representative polymer-based OPV systems, namely, poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), poly[N-9′-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2-thienyl-2′, 1′,3′-benzothiadiazole)], and poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl] [3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  9. Centrifugal photovoltaic and photogalvanic effects driven by structured light

    PubMed Central

    Wätzel, J.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-01-01

    Much efforts are devoted to material structuring in a quest to enhance the photovoltaic effect. We show that structuring light in a way it transfers orbital angular momentum to semiconductor-based rings results in a steady charge accumulation at the outer boundaries that can be utilized for the generation of an open circuit voltage or a photogalvanic (bulk photovoltaic) type current. This effect which stems both from structuring light and matter confinement potentials, can be magnified even at fixed moderate intensities, by increasing the orbital angular momentum of light which strengthens the effective centrifugal potential that repels the charge outwards. Based on a full numerical time propagation of the carriers wave functions in the presence of light pulses we demonstrate how the charge buildup leads to a useable voltage or directed photocurrent whose amplitudes and directions are controllable by the light pulse parameters. PMID:26900105

  10. A probabilistic approach to photovoltaic generator performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khallat, M. A.; Rahman, S.

    1986-09-01

    A method for predicting the performance of a photovoltaic (PV) generator based on long term climatological data and expected cell performance is described. The equations for cell model formulation are provided. Use of the statistical model for characterizing the insolation level is discussed. The insolation data is fitted to appropriate probability distribution functions (Weibull, beta, normal). The probability distribution functions are utilized to evaluate the capacity factors of PV panels or arrays. An example is presented revealing the applicability of the procedure.

  11. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of this meeting is for the Working Group to discuss the attributes and...

  12. A maximum power point prediction method for group control of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on parameter identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Su, J. H.; Guo, L.; Chen, J.

    2017-06-01

    This paper puts forward a maximum power estimation method based on the photovoltaic array (PVA) model to solve the optimization problems about group control of the PV water pumping systems (PVWPS) at the maximum power point (MPP). This method uses the improved genetic algorithm (GA) for model parameters estimation and identification in view of multi P-V characteristic curves of a PVA model, and then corrects the identification results through least square method. On this basis, the irradiation level and operating temperature under any condition are able to estimate so an accurate PVA model is established and the MPP none-disturbance estimation is achieved. The simulation adopts the proposed GA to determine parameters, and the results verify the accuracy and practicability of the methods.

  13. Photovoltaics as a terrestrial energy source. Volume 2: System value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Assumptions and techniques employed by the electric utility industry and other electricity planners to make estimates of the future value of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected with U.S. electric utilities were examined. Existing estimates of PV value and their interpretation and limitations are discussed. PV value is defined as the marginal private savings accruing to potential PV owners. For utility-owned PV systems, these values are shown to be the after-tax savings in conventional fuel and capacity displaced by the PV output. For non-utility-owned (distributed) systems, the utility's savings in fuel and capacity must first be translated through the electric rate structure (prices) to the potential PV system owner. Base-case estimates of the average value of PV systems to U.S. utilities are presented. The relationship of these results to the PV Program price goals and current energy policy is discussed; the usefulness of PV output quantity goals is also reviewed.

  14. Materials for Photovoltaic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana

    Energy priorities are changing nowadays. As mankind will probably have to face energy crisis, factors such as energy independence, energy security, stability of energy supply and the variety of energy sources become much more vital these days. Photovoltaics is exceptional compared to other renewable sources of energy due to its wide opportunity to gain energetic and environmental benefits. An overview of the present state of knowledge of the materials aspects of photovoltaic cells will be given, and new semiconductor materials, including nanomaterials, with potential for application in photovoltaic devices will be identified.

  15. The Influence of Substituent Orientation on the Photovoltaic Performance of Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tejerina, Lara; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Torres, Tomas

    2016-03-18

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of their stability and intense absorption in the red and near-IR regions. Impressive progress has been made in photovoltaic efficiencies by introduction of bulky peripheral substituents to help suppress macrocycle aggregation. To reach benchmark efficiencies reported for other related dyes, new designs need to be explored. Single carboxy-ZnPc regioisomers substituted at the non-peripheral positions by rigid aryl groups have now been studied, which has shed light on the influence of steric hindrance and/or orientation of the substituent around the anchoring group on the photovoltaic response. The regioisomer bearing the aryl group far away from the anchoring group produces a more effective sensitization of the TiO2 films and higher short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc). Taking advantage of the good photovoltaic performance in the near-IR region of this ZnPc, it was combined with another appropriate dye for panchromatic sensitization of the mesoporous photoelectrode and an increase of the overall device efficiency. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The influence of the distance between the donor-acceptor groups of polymethine dyes on their photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstova, E.; Ibrayev, N.

    2018-01-01

    Spectral-luminescent and photovoltaic properties of polymethine dyes of various structures are studied. It is shown that an increase in the length of the methylene chain between the active chromophores leads to a red-wave shift of the absorption and fluorescence spectra. Significant changes in the absorptivity and lifetime of fluorescence do not occur in this case. The best photovoltaic parameters have cells sensitized with shorter dye molecules. It is shown, that for a longer dye the resistance associated with electron recombination on the TiO2/electrolyte surface is much higher than the electron transfer resistance in the semiconductor, which reduces the efficiency of electron transfer in the solar cell, sensitized with longer dye molecules.

  17. Do photovoltaics have a future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    There is major concern as to the economic practicality of widespread terrestrial use because of the high cost of the photovoltaic arrays themselves. Based on their high efficiency, photovoltaic collectors should be one of the cheapest forms of energy generators known. Present photovoltaic panels are violating the trend of lower costs with increasing efficiency due to their reliance on expensive materials. A medium technology solution should provide electricity competitive with the existing medium to high technology energy generators such as oil, coal, gas, and nuclear fission thermal plants. Programs to reduce the cost of silicon and develop reliable thin film materials have a realistic chance of producing cost effective photovoltaic panels.

  18. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting Announcement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of this meeting is for the Working Group to discuss key findings, the...

  19. Parametric study of laser photovoltaic energy converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, G. H.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Photovoltaic converters are of interest for converting laser power to electrical power in a space-based laser power system. This paper describes a model for photovoltaic laser converters and the application of this model to a neodymium laser silicon photovoltaic converter system. A parametric study which defines the sensitivity of the photovoltaic parameters is described. An optimized silicon photovoltaic converter has an efficiency greater than 50 percent for 1000 W/sq cm of neodymium laser radiation.

  20. Highly uniform and vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Yup; Kang, Jin Soo; Shin, Junyoung; Kim, Jin; Han, Seung-Joo; Park, Jongwoo; Min, Yo-Sep; Ko, Min Jae; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2015-04-01

    Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process. In the modified process, ultrasonication is utilized to avoid formation of partial compact layers and lateral cracks in the SnO2 nanochannel arrays. Building on this breakthrough, we first demonstrate the photovoltaic application of these vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays. These vertically aligned arrays were directly and successfully applied in quasi-solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) as photoanodes, yielding reasonable conversion efficiency under back-side illumination. In addition, a significantly short process time (330 s) for achieving the optimal thickness (7.0 μm) and direct utilization of the anodized electrodes enable a simple, rapid and low-cost fabrication process. Furthermore, a TiO2 shell layer was coated on the SnO2 nanochannel arrays by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for enhancement of dye-loading and prolonging the electron lifetime in the DSSC. Owing to the presence of the ALD TiO2 layer, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency were increased by 20% and 19%, respectively, compared to those of the DSSC without the ALD TiO2 layer. This study provides valuable insight into the development of efficient SnO2-based photoanodes for photovoltaic application by a simple and rapid fabrication process.Nanostructured electrodes with vertical alignment have been considered ideal structures for electron transport and interfacial contact with redox electrolytes in photovoltaic devices. Here, we report large-scale vertically aligned SnO2 nanochannel arrays with uniform structures, without lateral cracks fabricated by a modified anodic oxidation process

  1. Drug utilization research in primary health care as exemplified by physicians' quality assessment groups.

    PubMed

    von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J

    1992-11-01

    Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.

  2. Reticulated Organic Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Schiros T.; Yager K.; Mannsfeld S.

    2012-03-21

    This paper shows how the self-assembled interlocking of two nanostructured materials can lead to increased photovoltaic performance. A detailed picture of the reticulated 6-DBTTC/C{sub 60} organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction, which produces devices approaching the theoretical maximum for these materials, is presented from near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The complementary suite of techniques shows how self-assembly can be exploited to engineer the interface and morphology between the cables of donor (6-DBTTC) material and a polycrystalline acceptor (C{sub 60}) to create an interpenetrating network of pure phasesmore » expected to be optimal for OPV device design. Moreover, we find that there is also a structural and electronic interaction between the two materials at the molecular interface. The data show how molecular self-assembly can facilitate 3-D nanostructured photovoltaic cells that are made with the simplicity and control of bilayer device fabrication. The significant improvement in photovoltaic performance of the reticulated heterojunction over the flat analog highlights the potential of these strategies to improve the efficiency of organic solar cells.« less

  3. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

    2010-01-01

    Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

  4. Charting the Emergence of Corporate Procurement of Utility-Scale PV |

    Science.gov Websites

    Jeffrey J. Cook Though most large-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) deployment has been driven by utility corporate interest in renewables as more companies are recognizing that solar PV can provide clean United States highlighting states with utility-scale solar PV purchasing options Figure 2. States with

  5. SIMWEST: A simulation model for wind and photovoltaic energy storage systems (CDC user's manual), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, A. W.; Esinger, A. W.

    1979-01-01

    Procedures are given for using the SIMWEST program on CDC 6000 series computers. This expanded software package includes wind and/or photovoltaic systems utilizing any combination of five types of storage (pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic).

  6. Photovoltaic Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute through David Scheiman and Phillip Jenkins provided the Photovoltaics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with expertise in photovoltaic (PV) research, flight experiments and solar cell calibration. NASA GRC maintains the only world-class solar cell calibration and measurement facility within NASA. GRC also has a leadership role within the solar cell calibration community, and is leading the effort to develop ISO standards for solar cell calibration. OAI scientists working under this grant provided much of the expertise and leadership in this area.

  7. Photovoltaic Systems Test Facilities: Existing capabilities compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volkmer, K.

    1982-01-01

    A general description of photovoltaic systems test facilities (PV-STFs) operated under the U.S. Department of Energy's photovoltaics program is given. Descriptions of a number of privately operated facilities having test capabilities appropriate to photovoltaic hardware development are given. A summary of specific, representative test capabilities at the system and subsystem level is presented for each listed facility. The range of system and subsystem test capabilities available to serve the needs of both the photovoltaics program and the private sector photovoltaics industry is given.

  8. Report of the Field and Laboratory Utilization Study Group. Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1975-12-01

    These appendices (ERDA organization and management, summary of other resources, and FLU study considerations/inputs) provide detailed and quantitative information in support of the findings and recommendations presented in the report of the field and laboratory utilization study group. (RWR)

  9. International photovoltaic program. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.; Heiferling, P.; Carpenter, P.; Forman, S.; Perelman, L.

    1979-01-01

    The results of analyses conducted in preparation of an international photovoltaic marketing plan are summarized. Included are compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about the how US government actions could affect this market;international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  10. Solar photovoltaic reflective trough collection structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Benjamin J.; Sweatt, William C.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-11-19

    A photovoltaic (PV) solar concentration structure having at least two troughs encapsulated in a rectangular parallelepiped optical plastic structure, with the troughs filled with an optical plastic material, the troughs each having a reflective internal surface and approximately parabolic geometry, and the troughs each including photovoltaic cells situated so that light impinging on the optical plastic material will be concentrated onto the photovoltaic cells. Multiple structures can be connected to provide a solar photovoltaic collection system that provides portable, efficient, low-cost electrical power.

  11. Subcutaneous Photovoltaic Infrared Energy Harvesting for Bio-Implantable Devices.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eunseong; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D

    2017-05-01

    Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1-3], kinetic [4-6], radio-frequency [7-11] and radiative sources [12-14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive. Here we show that photovoltaic cells at the mm-scale can achieve a power conversion efficiency of more than 17 % for silicon and 31 % for GaAs under 1.06 μW/mm 2 infrared irradiation at 850 nm. Finally, these photovoltaic cells demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting through biological tissue from ambient sunlight, or irradiation from infrared sources such as used in present-day surveillance systems, by utilizing the near infrared (NIR) transparency window between the 650 nm and 950 nm wavelength range [15-17].

  12. Characterization of Photovoltaic Generators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitier, V.; Cressault, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses photovoltaic panel systems and reviews their electrical properties and use in several industrial fields. We explain how different photovoltaic panels may be characterized by undergraduate students at university using simple methods to retrieve their electrical properties (power, current and voltage) and compare these values…

  13. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  14. PV Reliability Workshop | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Laboratory. NREL hosts an annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (PVRW) so that solar technology experts Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (PVRW) will be held Tuesday, February 27, to Thursday, March 1, at the workshop. 2017 Workshop The 2017 Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (PVRW) was Tuesday, February 28, to

  15. Analysis of the harmonics and power-factor effects at a utility-inertied photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campen, G. L.

    The harmonics and power factor characteristics and effects of a single residential photovoltaic (PV) installation using a line commutated inverter are outlined. The data were taken during a 5 day measurement program at a prototype residential PV installation in Arizona. The magnitude and phase of various currents and voltages from the fundamental to the 13th harmonic were recorded both with and without the operation of the PV system. A candidate method of modeling the installation for computer studies of larger concentrations is given.

  16. Solar photovoltaic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forney, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Department of Energy's photovoltaic program is outlined. The main objective of the program is the development of low cost reliable terrestrial photovoltaic systems. A second objective is to foster widespread use of the system in residential, industrial and commercial application. The system is reviewed by examining each component; silicon solar cell, silicon solar cell modules, advanced development modules and power systems. Cost and applications of the system are discussed.

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the pollutant emission reduction and demand-side management potential of 16 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed across the U.S. in 1993 and 1994. The project was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 11 electric utilities. This ar...

  18. Assessment of the technology required to develop photovoltaic power system for large scale national energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical assessment of a program to develop photovoltaic power system technology for large-scale national energy applications was made by analyzing and judging the alternative candidate photovoltaic systems and development tasks. A program plan was constructed based on achieving the 10 year objective of a program to establish the practicability of large-scale terrestrial power installations using photovoltaic conversion arrays costing less than $0.50/peak W. Guidelines for the tasks of a 5 year program were derived from a set of 5 year objectives deduced from the 10 year objective. This report indicates the need for an early emphasis on the development of the single-crystal Si photovoltaic system for commercial utilization; a production goal of 5 x 10 to the 8th power peak W/year of $0.50 cells was projected for the year 1985. The developments of other photovoltaic conversion systems were assigned to longer range development roles. The status of the technology developments and the applicability of solar arrays in particular power installations, ranging from houses to central power plants, was scheduled to be verified in a series of demonstration projects. The budget recommended for the first 5 year phase of the program is $268.5M.

  19. Feasibility Study of Seawater Electrolysis for Photovoltaic/Fuel Cell Hybrid Power System for the Coastal Areas in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srisiriwat, A.; Pirom, W.

    2017-10-01

    Solar photovoltaic cell and fuel cell are the practicable options to realize as a possible hybrid power system because the power of the sun cannot be utilized at night or cloudy days but hydrogen has been found as an ideal energy carrier for being transportable, storable, and converting energy though fuel cell. Hydrogen storage is chosen for its ability to obtain a clean energy option. Electrolysis, which is the simplest process to produce hydrogen, can be powered by the dc voltage from the photovoltaic cell instead of using the battery as power supply. This paper concentrates on a feasibility study of seawater electrolysis using photovoltaic power integrated fuel cell system for the coastal cities in Thailand. The proposed system composed of photovoltaic arrays, seawater electrolyzer and fuel cell is presented when the 10-kW of fuel cell electrical power is considered. The feasibility study of hydrogen production and energy analysis of this proposed system is also evaluated.

  20. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focusedmore » on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed

  1. Definition study for photovoltaic residential prototype system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F.; Landes, R.; Kornrumpf, W. P.

    1976-01-01

    A site evaluation was performed to assess the relative merits of different regions of the country in terms of the suitability for experimental photovoltaic powered residences. Eight sites were selected based on evaluation criteria which included population, photovoltaic systems performance and the cost of electrical energy. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed for four selected site locations. Analytical models were developed for four different power system implementation approaches. Using the model which represents a direct (or float) charge system implementation the performance sensitivity to the following parameter variations is reported: (1) solar roof slope angle; (2) ratio of the number of series cells in the solar array to the number of series cells in the lead-acid battery; and (3) battery size. For a Cleveland site location, a system with no on site energy storage and with a maximum power tracking inverter which feeds back excess power to the utility was shown to have 19 percent greater net system output than the second place system. The experiment test plan is described. The load control and data acquisition system and the data display panel for the residence are discussed.

  2. Photovoltaics | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Photovoltaics Photovoltaics Solar photovoltaics (PV) is a mature, commercially available technology arrays. Campus Solar Energy Options A PV system requires periodic maintenance, but upkeep averages two to undertaking a solar energy assessment or PV installation. Solar Energy Resources Solar energy production

  3. Photovoltaics: Current status and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, D. W.

    1981-10-01

    The generation of electricity by photovoltaic means was examined. Projections of near future developments are made, together with estimates of their impact on the cost and availability of photovoltaic systems for various markets. This concluded that photovoltaic systems should be able to deliver electricity at a cost of between 5 to 10 cents per kilowatt hour by 1986.

  4. Photovoltaic cell with thin CS layer

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, John F.; Albright, Scot P.

    1994-01-18

    An improved photovoltaic panel and method of forming a photovoltaic panel are disclosed for producing a high efficiency CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cell. The photovoltaic panel of the present invention is initially formed with a substantially thick Cds layer, and the effective thickness of the CdS layer is substantially reduced during regrowth to both form larger diameter CdTe crystals and substantially reduce the effective thickness of the C This invention was made with Government support under Subcontract No. ZL-7-06031-3 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  5. Graphite-based photovoltaic cells

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max; Liu, Feng

    2010-12-28

    The present invention uses lithographically patterned graphite stacks as the basic building elements of an efficient and economical photovoltaic cell. The basic design of the graphite-based photovoltaic cells includes a plurality of spatially separated graphite stacks, each comprising a plurality of vertically stacked, semiconducting graphene sheets (carbon nanoribbons) bridging electrically conductive contacts.

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of the pollutant emission reduction and demand-side management potential of 16 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed across the U.S. in 1993 and 1994. The investigation was sponsored by the U.S. EPA and 11 electric utilities. The report ...

  7. Effect of inversion layer at iron pyrite surface on photovoltaic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-03-01

    Iron pyrite has great potential as a thin-film solar cell material because it has high optical absorption, low cost, and is earth-abundant. However, previously reported iron pyrite solar cells showed poor photovoltaic characteristics. Here, we have numerically simulated its photovoltaic characteristics and band structures by utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator, ATLAS, to evaluate the effects of an inversion layer at the surface and a high density of deep donor defect states in the bulk. We found that previous device structures did not consider the inversion layer at the surface region of iron pyrite, which made it difficult to obtain the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we remodeled the device structure and suggested that removing the inversion layer and reducing the density of deep donor defect states would lead to a high conversion efficiency of iron pyrite solar cells.

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that such photovoltaic device (e.g., solar panel) is a designated country photovoltaic device shall be... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7018 Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate. As prescribed in 225.7017-4...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7018 - Photovoltaic Devices-Certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that such photovoltaic device (e.g., solar panel) is a designated country photovoltaic device shall be... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Photovoltaic Devices... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7018 Photovoltaic Devices—Certificate. As prescribed in 225.7017-4...

  10. Technology advances needed for photovoltaics to achieve widespread grid price parity: Widespread grid price parity for photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Jones-Albertus, Rebecca; Feldman, David; Fu, Ran

    2016-04-20

    To quantify the potential value of technological advances to the photovoltaics (PV) sector, this paper examines the impact of changes to key PV module and system parameters on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The parameters selected include module manufacturing cost, efficiency, degradation rate, and service lifetime. NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM) is used to calculate the lifecycle cost per kilowatt-hour (kWh) for residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems within the contiguous United States, with a focus on utility scale. Different technological pathways are illustrated that may achieve the Department of Energy's SunShot goal of PV electricity that ismore » at grid price parity with conventional electricity sources. In addition, the impacts on the 2015 baseline LCOE due to changes to each parameter are shown. These results may be used to identify research directions with the greatest potential to impact the cost of PV electricity.« less

  11. Applying Resource Utilization Groups (RUG-III) in Hong Kong Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris; Leung, Joe C. B.

    2008-01-01

    Resource Utilization Groups III (RUG-III) is a case-mix system developed in the United States for categorization of nursing home residents and the financing of residential care services. In Hong Kong, RUG-III is based on several board groups of residents. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the RUG-III in Hong Kong…

  12. Combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  13. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 4: Review criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for the organization, preparation and conduct of program reviews for photovoltaic applications. These criteria apply to all photovoltaic applications. They include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Conceptual design review; (2) Preliminary design review; (3) Critical design review; and (4) Operational readiness review. Contract goal's and objectives are met through program monitoring for cost, schedule, and performance for both managerial and technical elements for all PV applications activities.

  14. Study on photovoltaic power system on ships

    SciTech Connect

    Katagi, Takeshi; Fujii, Yoshimi; Nishikawa, Eiichi

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the application of photovoltaic power systems to ships. Two types of leisure or fishing boats powered by photovoltaics are designed. The boats described are single hull and catamaran type with twin hulls. The design of a new electric power system using a photovoltaic power system in a harbor ship having 20 tons is also proposed. The results of this study show that the photovoltaic power system can apply to small ships.

  15. Photovoltaic Properties in Interpenetrating Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells Utilizing MoO3 and ZnO Charge Transport Buffer Layers

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tetsuro; Moritou, Hiroki; Fukuoka, Naoki; Sakamoto, Junki; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film solar cells with a conducting polymer (CP)/fullerene (C60) interpenetrating heterojunction structure, fabricated by spin-coating a CP onto a C60 deposit thin film, have been investigated and demonstrated to have high efficiency. The photovoltaic properties of solar cells with a structure of indium-tin-oxide/C60/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (PAT6)/Au have been improved by the insertion of molybdenum trioxide (VI) (MoO3) and zinc oxide charge transport buffer layers. The enhanced photovoltaic properties have been discussed, taking into consideration the ground-state charge transfer between PAT6 and MoO3 by measurement of the differential absorption spectra and the suppressed contact resistance at the interface between the organic and buffer layers. PMID:28883360

  16. Time-asymmetric photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Green, Martin A

    2012-11-14

    Limits upon photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency generally are formulated using the detailed balance approach of Shockley and Queisser. One key underlying assumption is invariance upon time reversal, underpinning detailed balance itself. Recent proposals for compact, layered, time-asymmetrical, magneto-optical devices make their routine implementation likely. It is shown that such time-asymmetry can alter the relationship between solar cell emission and absorption assumed in the Shockley-Queisser approach, allowing generally accepted photovoltaic performance limits to be exceeded.

  17. Photovoltaic Subcontract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Surek, Thomas; Catalano, Anthony

    1993-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year (FY) 1992 progress of the subcontracted photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R D) performed under the Photovoltaic Advanced Research and Development Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)-formerly the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The mission of the national PV program is to develop PV technology for large-scale generation of economically competitive electric power in the United States. The technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontract program: the Crystalline Materials and Advanced Concepts project, the Polycrystalline Thin Films project, Amorphous Silicon Research project, the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT)more » project, PV Module and System Performance and Engineering project, and the PV Analysis and Applications Development project. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1992, and future research directions.« less

  18. Development and Testing of the Glenn Research Center Visitor's Center Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed, installed, and tested a 12 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the GRC Visitor s Center. This system utilizes a unique ballast type roof mount for installing the photovoltaic panels on the roof of the Visitor s Center with no alterations or penetrations to the roof. The PV system has generated in excess of 15000 kWh since operation commenced in August 2008. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provides valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the GRC Visitor s Center PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The GRC Visitor s Center grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles

  19. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. DISTRIBUTED GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEM EMISSION OFFSET ASSESSMENT: STATISTICAL TEST OF SIMULATED- AND MEASURED-BASED DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assessed the pollutant emission offset potential of distributed grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Computer-simulated performance results were utilized for 211 PV systems located across the U.S. The PV systems' monthly electrical energy outputs were based ...

  1. Spectrally-engineered solar thermal photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David; Chan, Walker

    A solar thermal photovoltaic device, and method of forming same, includes a solar absorber and a spectrally selective emitter formed on either side of a thermally conductive substrate. The solar absorber is configured to absorb incident solar radiation. The solar absorber and the spectrally selective emitter are configured with an optimized emitter-to-absorber area ratio. The solar thermal photovoltaic device also includes a photovoltaic cell in thermal communication with the spectrally selective emitter. The spectrally selective emitter is configured to permit high emittance for energies above a bandgap of the photovoltaic cell and configured to permit low emittance for energies belowmore » the bandgap.« less

  2. A sensitivity analysis of central flat-plate photovoltaic systems and implications for national photovoltaics program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosetti, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity of the National Photovoltaic Research Program goals to changes in individual photovoltaic system parameters is explored. Using the relationship between lifetime cost and system performance parameters, tests were made to see how overall photovoltaic system energy costs are affected by changes in the goals set for module cost and efficiency, system component costs and efficiencies, operation and maintenance costs, and indirect costs. The results are presented in tables and figures for easy reference.

  3. Application of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells to Extend the Endurance and Capabilities of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Group V element to make them n or p material. Another common group of semiconductors are called III–V compounds , such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), or...these compounds used for photovoltaics are Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), and Copper Indium Gallium DiSelenide, commonly referred to as CIGS [49]. Figure...INDIUM GALLIUM DISELENIDE PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS TO EXTEND THE ENDURANCE AND CAPABILITIES OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES by William R. Hurd

  4. Practical design considerations for photovoltaic power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, T. D.

    Aspects of photovoltaic (PV) technology are discussed along with generic PV design considerations, taking into account the resource sunlight, PV modules and their reliability, questions of PV system design, the support structure subsystem, and a power conditioning unit subsystem. A description is presented of two recent projects which demonstrate the translation of an idea into actual working PV systems. A privately financed project in Denton, Maryland, went on line in early December, 1982, and began providing power to the local utility grid. It represents the first intermediate size, grid-connected, privately financed power station in the U.S. Based on firm quotes, the actual cost of this system is about $13/W peak. The other project, called the PV Breeder, is an energy independent facility which utilizes solar power to make new solar cells. It is also the first large industrial structure completely powered by the sun.

  5. Synthesis and Structure of Fully Conjugated Block Copolymers Utilized in Organic Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Aplan, Melissa; Wang, Qing; Gomez, Enrique D.

    2015-03-01

    Fully conjugated block copolymers have the potential to overcome many of the limitations of mixtures and blends as photoactive layers in solar cells; furthermore, they may serve as model systems to study fundamental questions regarding optoelectric properties and charge transfer. However, the synthesis of fully conjugated block copolymers remains a challenging issue in the fieldchallenge. We have optimized the two-step synthesis of P3HT-b-PFTBT, which is composed comprised of Grignard metathesis for polymerization of P3HT followed by chain extension through a Suzuki-Miyaura polycondenstation. We find that the concentration of the Grignard reagent is critical for end-group control such that P3HT is terminated by H at one end and Br at the other. Furthermore, we can utilize an asymmetric feed ratio of monomers for the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction to minimize the amount of uncoupled homopolymers and to control the molecular weight of the second block. We investigated the chemical composition, structure and electrical characteristics of the polymers prepared by the different synthetic methods, and demonstrate that we can utilize these strategies for the synthesis of block copolymers beyond P3HT-b-PFTBT.

  6. Home Photovoltaic System Design in Pangkalpinang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunanda, Wahri

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to obtain the design of home photovoltaic systems in Pangkalpinang and the opportunity of economic savings. The system consists of photovoltaic with batteries. Based on electricity consumption of several houses with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang for one year, the daily load of photovoltaic system is varied to 40%, 30% and 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The investment costs, the cost of replacement parts and the cost of electricity consumption accrued to PLN during lifetime of systems (25 years) are also calculated. The result provided that there are no economic saving opportunities for photovoltaic systems with batteries at home with installed power of 1300 VA and 2200 VA in Pangkalpinang. The most economical is the photovoltaic system with the daily load of 20% of the average value of the daily home electricity consumption. The configuration of photovoltaic system for 1300 VA home consists of 10 modules of 200 wattpeak and 4 batteries 150 AH, 12 Volt while photovoltaic system for 2200 VA home consists of 15 modules of 200 wattpeak and 6 batteries 150 AH,12Volt.

  7. Advanced Rainbow Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick; Shields, Virgil

    2003-01-01

    Photovoltaic arrays of the rainbow type, equipped with light-concentrator and spectral-beam-splitter optics, have been investigated in a continuing effort to develop lightweight, high-efficiency solar electric power sources. This investigation has contributed to a revival of the concept of the rainbow photovoltaic array, which originated in the 1950s but proved unrealistic at that time because the selection of solar photovoltaic cells was too limited. Advances in the art of photovoltaic cells since that time have rendered the concept more realistic, thereby prompting the present development effort. A rainbow photovoltaic array comprises side-by-side strings of series-connected photovoltaic cells. The cells in each string have the same bandgap, which differs from the bandgaps of the other strings. Hence, each string operates most efficiently in a unique wavelength band determined by its bandgap. To obtain maximum energy-conversion efficiency and to minimize the size and weight of the array for a given sunlight input aperture, the sunlight incident on the aperture is concentrated, then spectrally dispersed onto the photovoltaic array plane, whereon each string of cells is positioned to intercept the light in its wavelength band of most efficient operation. The number of cells in each string is chosen so that the output potentials of all the strings are the same; this makes it possible to connect the strings together in parallel to maximize the output current of the array. According to the original rainbow photovoltaic concept, the concentrated sunlight was to be split into multiple beams by use of an array of dichroic filters designed so that each beam would contain light in one of the desired wavelength bands. The concept has since been modified to provide for dispersion of the spectrum by use of adjacent prisms. A proposal for an advanced version calls for a unitary concentrator/ spectral-beam-splitter optic in the form of a parabolic curved Fresnel-like prism

  8. International photovoltaic products and manufacturers directory, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Shepperd, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    This international directory of more than 500 photovoltaic-related manufacturers is intended to guide potential users of photovoltaics to sources for systems and their components. Two indexes help the user to locate firms and materials. A glossary describes equipment and terminology commonly used in the photovoltaic industry.

  9. Workshop proceedings: Photovoltaic conversion of solar energy for terrestrial applications. Volume 1: Working group and panel reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technological aspects of solar energy conversion by photovoltaic cells are considered. The advantage of the single crystal silicon solar cell approach is developed through comparisons with polycrystalline silicon, cadmium sulfide/copper sulfide thin film cells, and other materials and devices.

  10. Study of the electrical and thermal performances of photovoltaic thermal collector-compound parabolic concentrated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaaz, Ahed Hameed; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer

    2018-06-01

    The importance of utilizing the solar energy as a very suitable source among multi-source approaches to replace the conventional energy is on the rise in the last four decades. The invention of the photovoltaic module (PV) could be the corner stone in this process. However, the limited amount of energy obtained from PV was and still the main challenge of full utilization of the solar energy. In this paper, the use of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) along with the thermal photovoltaic module (PVT) where the cooling process of the CPC is conducted using a novel technique of water jet impingement has applied experimentally and physically tested. The test includes the effect of water jet impingement on the total power, electrical efficiency, thermal efficiency, and total efficiency on CPC-PVT system. The cooling process at the maximum irradiation by water jet impingement resulted in improving the electrical efficiency by 7%, total output power by 31% and the thermal efficiency by 81%. These results outperform the recent highest results recorded by the most recent work.

  11. Microinverters for employment in connection with photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat

    2015-09-22

    Microinverters useable in association with photovoltaic modules are described. A three phase-microinverter receives direct current output generated by a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell and converts such direct current output into three-phase alternating current out. The three-phase microinverter is interleaved with other three-phase-microinverters, wherein such microinverters are integrated in a photovoltaic module with the microsystems-enabled photovoltaic cell.

  12. Overview and current status of DOE/UPVG`s TEAM-UP Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, S.

    1995-11-01

    An overview is given of the Utility Photovoltaic Group. The mission is to accelerate the use of small-scale and large scale applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of the electric utilities and their customers.

  13. Prognostics and health management of photovoltaic systems

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Jay; Riley, Daniel

    2018-04-10

    The various technologies presented herein relate to providing prognosis and health management (PHM) of a photovoltaic (PV) system. A PV PHM system can eliminate long-standing issues associated with detecting performance reduction in PV systems. The PV PHM system can utilize an ANN model with meteorological and power input data to facilitate alert generation in the event of a performance reduction without the need for information about the PV PHM system components and design. Comparisons between system data and the PHM model can provide scheduling of maintenance on an as-needed basis. The PHM can also provide an approach for monitoring system/component degradation over the lifetime of the PV system.

  14. Dynamic of small photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrmann, A.; Kleinkauf, W.; Pigorsch, W.; Steeb, H.

    The results of 1.5 yr of field-testing of two photovoltaic (PV) power plants, one equipped with an electrolyzer and H2 storage, are reported. Both systems were interconnected with the grid and featured the PV module, a power conditioning unit, ac and dc load connections, and control units. The rated power of both units was 100 Wp. The system with electrolysis was governed by control laws which maximized the electrolyzer current. The tests underscored the preference for a power conditioning unit, rather than direct output to load connections. A 1 kWp system was developed in a follow-up program and will be tested in concert with electrolysis and interconnection with several grid customers. The program is geared to eventual development of larger units for utility-size applications.

  15. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    DOEpatents

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  16. Subcutaneous Photovoltaic Infrared Energy Harvesting for Bio-Implantable Devices

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunseong; Blaauw, David; Phillips, Jamie D.

    2017-01-01

    Wireless biomedical implantable devices on the mm-scale enable a wide range of applications for human health, safety, and identification, though energy harvesting and power generation are still looming challenges that impede their widespread application. Energy scavenging approaches to power biomedical implants have included thermal [1–3], kinetic [4–6], radio-frequency [7–11] and radiative sources [12–14]. However, the achievement of efficient energy scavenging for biomedical implants at the mm-scale has been elusive. Here we show that photovoltaic cells at the mm-scale can achieve a power conversion efficiency of more than 17 % for silicon and 31 % for GaAs under 1.06 μW/mm2 infrared irradiation at 850 nm. Finally, these photovoltaic cells demonstrate highly efficient energy harvesting through biological tissue from ambient sunlight, or irradiation from infrared sources such as used in present-day surveillance systems, by utilizing the near infrared (NIR) transparency window between the 650 nm and 950 nm wavelength range [15–17]. PMID:29056754

  17. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective inmore » remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.« less

  18. Real options analysis for photovoltaic project under climate uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeongseok; Kim, Sejong; Kim, Hyoungkwan

    2016-08-01

    The decision on photovoltaic project depends on the level of climate environments. Changes in temperature and insolation affect photovoltaic output. It is important for investors to consider future climate conditions for determining investments on photovoltaic projects. We propose a real options-based framework to assess economic feasibility of photovoltaic project under climate change. The framework supports investors to evaluate climate change impact on photovoltaic projects under future climate uncertainty.

  19. Photovoltaic building sheathing element with anti-slide features

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2015-09-08

    The present invention is premised` upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic building sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the photovoltaic building sheathing element. The element including a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; and at feast a first and a second connector assembly capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to one or more adjoining devices; wherein the body portion includes one or more geometric features adapted to engage a vertically adjoining device before installation.

  20. Productivity, vitality and utility in a group of healthy professionally active individuals with nocturia.

    PubMed

    Kobelt, G; Borgström, F; Mattiasson, A

    2003-02-01

    To assess the effect of nocturia on productivity, vitality and utility in a selected group of professionally active individuals with nocturia, compared with matched controls, and investigate the effect of symptom severity, to test the hypothesis that lack of sleep caused by frequent sleep interruptions could reduce an individuals' daytime energy and activity levels. Subjects (203) were recruited in Sweden through advertisements, and their suitability for the study assessed in a structured interview. Controls (80) matched for age and gender were randomly selected from a market research panel and given the same interview. Both groups completed a productivity questionnaire, a generic quality-of-life questionnaire with a specific domain for vitality and a utility instrument. The study group with nocturia had a significantly lower level of vitality and utility, and greater impairment of work and activity, than the control group. Women were more affected than men. Symptom severity correlated with all three measures. In an otherwise healthy and professionally active group of individuals, waking at night to void significantly diminishes their overall well-being, vitality and productivity, leading to a significant level of indirect and intangible costs.

  1. In situ KPFM imaging of local photovoltaic characteristics of structured organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Fukuchi, Yasumasa; Fukasawa, Masako; Sassa, Takafumi; Kimoto, Atsushi; Tajima, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Yamashita, Takashi; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Aoyama, Tetsuya

    2014-02-12

    Here, we discuss the local photovoltaic characteristics of a structured bulk heterojunction, organic photovoltaic devices fabricated with a liquid carbazole, and a fullerene derivative based on analysis by scanning kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Periodic photopolymerization induced by an interference pattern from two laser beams formed surface relief gratings (SRG) in the structured films. The surface potential distribution in the SRGs indicates the formation of donor and acceptor spatial distribution. Under illumination, the surface potential reversibly changed because of the generation of fullerene anions and hole transport from the films to substrates, which indicates that we successfully imaged the local photovoltaic characteristics of the structured photovoltaic devices. Using atomic force microscopy, we confirmed the formation of the SRG because of the material migration to the photopolymerized region of the films, which was induced by light exposure through photomasks. The structuring technique allows for the direct fabrication and the control of donor and acceptor spatial distribution in organic photonic and electronic devices with minimized material consumption. This in situ KPFM technique is indispensable to the fabrication of nanoscale electron donor and electron acceptor spatial distribution in the devices.

  2. Optimizing Grid Patterns on Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    CELCAL computer program helps in optimizing grid patterns for different photovoltaic cell geometries and metalization processes. Five different powerloss phenomena associated with front-surface metal grid pattern on photovoltaic cells.

  3. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  4. NREL Photovoltaic Program FY 1996 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    This report summarizes the in-house and subcontract research and development (R&D) activities under the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltaics (PV) Program from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996 (fiscal year [FY] 1996). The NREL PV Program is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaics Program, as described in the DOE Photovoltaics Program Plan, FY 1991 - FY 1995. The mission of the DOE National Photovoltaics Program is to: "Work in partnership with U.S. industry to develop and deploy photovoltaic technology for generating economically competitive electric power, making photovoltaics an important contributor to the nation's andmore » the world's energy use and environmental improvement. The two primary goals of the national program are to (1) maintain the U.S. PV industry's world leadership in research and technology development and (2) help the U.S. industry remain a major, profitable force in the world market. The NREL PV Program provides leadership and support to the national program toward achieving its mission and goals.« less

  5. Impact of small-scale storage systems on the photovoltaic penetration potential at the municipal scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Camargo, Luis; Dorner, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    municipality using a series of indicators. These indicators include: a) the total photovoltaic installed capacity, b) the total storage installed capacity, c) the output variability, d) the total unfulfilled demand, e) total excess energy, f) total properly supplied energy, g) the loss of power supply probability, h) the amount of hours of supply higher than the highest demand in a year, i) the number of hours, when supply is 1.5. times higher than the highest demand in a year, and j) the additional storage energy capacity and power required to store all excess energy generated by the photovoltaic installations. The comparison of the proposed indicators serves to quantify the contribution that household-sized small-scale storage systems would make to the energy balance of the studied municipality. Increased installed energy storage capacity allows a higher roof-top photovoltaic share and improves energy utilization, variability and reliability indicators. The proposed methodology serves also to determine the amount of storage capacity with the highest positive impact on the local energy balance.

  6. Designing of new structure PID controller of boost converter for solar photovoltaic stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabrina, Hanifati Nur; Setiawan, Eko Adhi; Sabirin, Chip Rinaldi

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the utilization of renewable energy as the source on distributed generation system is increasing. It aims to reduce reliance and power losses from utility grid and improve power stability in near loads. One example of renewable energy technology that have been highly proven on the market is solar photovoltaic (PV). This technology converts photon from sunlight into electricity. However, the fluctuation of solar radiation that often occurs become the main problem for this system. Due to this condition, the power conversion is needed to convert the change frequently in photovoltaic panel into a stable voltage to the system. Developing control of boost converter has important role to keep ability of system stabilization. A conventional PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control is mostly used to achieve this goal. In this research, a design of new structure PID controller of boost converter is offered to better optimize system stability comparing to the conventional PID. Parameters obtained from this PID structure have been successfully yield a stable boost converter output at 200 V with 10% overshoot, 1.5 seconds of settling time, and 1.5% of steady-state error.

  7. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, Shane

    its own energy reduction goals created by the energy management agenda (Resolution to Encourage Sustainability) and the County’s Eco-initiative. Each site has installed photovoltaic panels on the existing roof structures that exhibit suitable solar exposure. The generation systems utilize solar energy creating electricity used for the facility’s lighting system and other electrical requirements. Unused electricity is sent to the electric utility grid, often at peak demand times. Educational signage, kiosks and information have been included to inform and expand the public’s understanding of solar energy technology. The Solar Green Boxes were created for further hands on classroom education of solar power. In addition, data is sent by a Long Term PV performance monitoring system, complete with data transmission to NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), located in Golden, CO. This system correlates local solar irradiance and weather with power production. The expected outcomes of this Solar Project are as follows: (1) Successful photovoltaic electricity generation technologies to capture solar energy in a useful form of electrical energy. (2) Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental degradation resulting from reduced energy demand from traditional electricity sources such as fossil fuel fired and nuclear power plants. (3) Advance the research and development of solar electricity generation. (4) The education of the general public in regards to the benefits of environmentally friendly electricity generation and Clark County’s efforts to encourage sustainable living practices. (5) To provide momentum for the nexus for future solar generation facilities in Clark County facilities and buildings and further the County’s energy reduction goals. (6) To ultimately contribute to the reduction of dependence on foreign oil and other unsustainable sources of energy. This Solar Project addresses several objectives and goals of the U.S. Department of

  8. Mounting support for a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Brandt, Gregory Michael; Barsun, Stephan K.; Coleman, Nathaniel T.; Zhou, Yin

    2013-03-26

    A mounting support for a photovoltaic module is described. The mounting support includes a foundation having an integrated wire-way ledge portion. A photovoltaic module support mechanism is coupled with the foundation.

  9. Lightweight Solar Photovoltaic Blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ceragioli, R.; Himmler, R.; Nath, P.; Vogeli, C.; Guha, S.

    1995-01-01

    Lightweight, flexible sheets containing arrays of stacked solar photovoltaic cells developed to supply electric power aboard spacecraft. Solar batteries satisfying stringent requirements for operation in outer space also adaptable to terrestrial environment. Attractive for use as long-lived, portable photovoltaic power sources. Cells based on amorphous silicon which offers potential for order-of-magnitude increases in power per unit weight, power per unit volume, and endurance in presence of ionizing radiation.

  10. Advanced Grid-Friendly Controls Demonstration for Utility-Scale

    Science.gov Websites

    PV power plant in CAISO's footprint. NREL, CAISO, and First Solar conducted demonstration tests that vendors, integrators, and utilities to develop and evaluate photovoltaic (PV) power plants with advanced grid-friendly capabilities. Graph of power over time that shows a PV plant varying output to follow an

  11. International Photovoltaic Program Plan. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, D.; Koontz, R.; Posner, D.

    1979-12-01

    This second volume of a two-part report on the International Photovoltaic Program Plan contains appendices summarizing the results of analyses conducted in preparation of the plan. These analyses include compilations of relevant statutes and existing Federal programs; strategies designed to expand the use of photovoltaics abroad; information on the domestic photovoltaic plan and its impact on the proposed international plan; perspectives on foreign competition; industry views on the international photovoltaic market and ideas about how US government actions could affect this market; international financing issues; and information on issues affecting foreign policy and developing countries.

  12. Analysis of the value of battery storage with wind and photovoltaic generation to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis to determine the economic and operational value of battery storage to wind and photovoltaic (PV) generation technologies to the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) system. The analysis approach consisted of performing a benefit-cost economic assessment using established SMUD financial parameters, system expansion plans, and current system operating procedures. This report presents the results of the analysis. Section 2 describes expected wind and PV plant performance. Section 3 describes expected benefits to SMUD associated with employing battery storage. Section 4 presents preliminary benefit-cost results for battery storage added at the Solano wind plantmore » and the Hedge PV plant. Section 5 presents conclusions and recommendations resulting from this analysis. The results of this analysis should be reviewed subject to the following caveat. The assumptions and data used in developing these results were based on reports available from and interaction with appropriate SMUD operating, planning, and design personnel in 1994 and early 1995 and are compatible with financial assumptions and system expansion plans as of that time. Assumptions and SMUD expansion plans have changed since then. In particular, SMUD did not install the additional 45 MW of wind that was planned for 1996. Current SMUD expansion plans and assumptions should be obtained from appropriate SMUD personnel.« less

  13. Frequently Asked Questions | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Principles for Terrestrial Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Devices with Reference Spectral Irradiance Data ERDA/NASA TM 73702: Terrestrial Photovoltaic Measurement Procedures, ERDA / NASA / 1022-77 / 16, June 1977. K.A

  14. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-12-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with (14)C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with (13)C(6)-glucose and (13)C(3)-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with (13)C-glucose and (13)C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with (14)C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high K(m) for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5-10  mM). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta.

  15. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with 14C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with 13C6-glucose and 13C3-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with 13C-glucose and 13C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with 14C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high Km for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5–10 m). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta. PMID:21562600

  16. Ferroelectric BiFeO3 as an Oxide Dye in Highly Tunable Mesoporous All-Oxide Photovoltaic Heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfei; Ma, He; Chang, Lei; Ma, Chun; Yuan, Guoliang; Wang, Junling; Wu, Tom

    2017-01-01

    As potential photovoltaic materials, transition-metal oxides such as BiFeO 3 (BFO) are capable of absorbing a substantial portion of solar light and incorporating ferroic orders into solar cells with enhanced performance. But the photovoltaic application of BFO has been hindered by low energy-conversion efficiency due to poor carrier transport and collection. In this work, a new approach of utilizing BFO as a light-absorbing sensitizer is developed to interface with charge-transporting TiO 2 nanoparticles. This mesoporous all-oxide architecture, similar to that of dye-sensitized solar cells, can effectively facilitate the extraction of photocarriers. Under the standard AM1.5 (100 mW cm -2 ) irradiation, the optimized cell shows an open-circuit voltage of 0.67 V, which can be enhanced to 1.0 V by tailoring the bias history. A fill factor of 55% is achieved, which is much higher than those in previous reports on BFO-based photovoltaic devices. The results provide here a new viable approach toward developing highly tunable and stable photovoltaic devices based on ferroelectric transition-metal oxides. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The impact of retail electricity tariff evolution on solar photovoltaic deployment

    DOE PAGES

    Gagnon, Pieter; Cole, Wesley J.; Frew, Bethany; ...

    2017-11-10

    Here, this analysis explores the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the deployment of solar photovoltaics. It suggests that ignoring the evolution of tariffs resulted in up to a 36% higher prediction of the capacity of distributed PV in 2050, compared to scenarios that represented tariff evolution. Critically, the evolution of tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV $-$ both utility-scale and distributed $-$ in the scenarios that were examined.

  18. The impact of retail electricity tariff evolution on solar photovoltaic deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, Pieter; Cole, Wesley J.; Frew, Bethany

    Here, this analysis explores the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the deployment of solar photovoltaics. It suggests that ignoring the evolution of tariffs resulted in up to a 36% higher prediction of the capacity of distributed PV in 2050, compared to scenarios that represented tariff evolution. Critically, the evolution of tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV $-$ both utility-scale and distributed $-$ in the scenarios that were examined.

  19. Highway renewable energy : photovoltaic noise barriers

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-07-01

    Highway photovoltaic noise barriers (PVNBs) represent the combination of noise barrier systems and photovoltaic systems in order to mitigate traffic noise while simultaneously producing renewable energy. First deployed in Switzerland in 1989, PVNBs a...

  20. Systematic Analysis of Polymer Molecular Weight Influence on the Organic Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Katsouras, Athanasios; Gasparini, Nicola; Koulogiannis, Chrysanthos; Spanos, Michael; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J; Chochos, Christos L; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos

    2015-10-01

    The molecular weight of an electron donor-conjugated polymer is as essential as other well-known parameters in the chemical structure of the polymer, such as length and the nature of any side groups (alkyl chains) positioned on the polymeric backbone, as well as their placement, relative strength, the ratio of the donor and acceptor moieties in the backbone of donor-acceptor (D-A)-conjugated polymers, and the arrangement of their energy levels for organic photovoltaic performance. Finding the "optimal" molecular weight for a specific conjugated polymer is an important aspect for the development of novel photovoltaic polymers. Therefore, it is evident that the chemistry of functional conjugated polymers faces major challenges and materials have to adopt a broad range of specifications in order to be established for high photovoltaic performance. In this review, the approaches followed for enhancing the molecular weight of electron-donor polymers are presented in detail, as well as how this influences the optoelectronic properties, charge transport properties, structural conformation, morphology, and the photovoltaic performance of the active layer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Terrestrial Photovoltaic System Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    the photovoltaic arrays was detertttined to be the roof on the building adjacent to the plating facilit.. Sult ficitut roof area is available to...indicated here: Component 50 kW System 300 kW System Solar Array $10/W $"’/W Inverter $38/W $I/W (dlitereut supplier) The life-cycle cost analysis...27 15. Various solar energy concem t rating systems .......... 3 I. Varionts photovoltaic concentrators developed under PRDA- 15

  2. Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Swinger Platt, Heather Anne

    2017-05-09

    Photovoltaic sub-cell interconnect systems and methods are provided. In one embodiment, a photovoltaic device comprises a thin film stack of layers deposited upon a substrate, wherein the thin film stack layers are subdivided into a plurality of sub-cells interconnected in series by a plurality of electrical interconnection structures; and wherein the plurality of electrical interconnection structures each comprise no more than two scribes that penetrate into the thin film stack layers.

  3. A method for evaluating photovoltaic potential in China based on GIS platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. Z.; Tan, H. W.; Ji, L.; Wang, D.

    2017-11-01

    Solar photovoltaic systems are commonly utilized in China. However, the associated research is still lack of its resource potential analysis in all regions in China. Based on the existed data about solar radiation and system conversion efficiency data, a new method for distributed photovoltaic potential assessment has been presented. The experiment of three kinds of solar photovoltaic system has been set up for the purpose of analyzing the relationship between conversion efficiency and environmental parameters. This paper fits the relationship between conversion efficiency and solar radiation intensity. This method takes into account the amount of solar radiation that is effectively generated and drives away the weak values. With the spatial analysis function of geographic information system (GIS) platform, frequency distribution of solar radiation intensity and PV potential in China can be derived. Furthermore, analytical results show that monocrystalline-silicon PV generation in the north-western and northern areas have reached a level of more than 200 kWh/(m2.a), making those areas be suitable for the development of PV system. However, the potential for southwest areas reaches a level of only 130 kWh/(m2.a). This paper can provide the baseline reference for solar energy development planning.

  4. Development and Testing of a Prototype Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed and tested a prototype 2 kW DC grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system at the Center. The PV system has generated in excess of 6700 kWh since operation commenced in July 2006. The PV system is providing power to the GRC grid for use by all. Operation of the prototype PV system has been completely trouble free. A grid-tied PV power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. The project transfers space technology to terrestrial use via nontraditional partners. GRC personnel glean valuable experience with PV power systems that are directly applicable to various space power systems, and provide valuable space program test data. PV power systems help to reduce harmful emissions and reduce the Nation s dependence on fossil fuels. Power generated by the PV system reduces the GRC utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Present global energy concerns reinforce the need for the development of alternative energy systems. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics has been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Based upon the success of the prototype PV system, additional PV power system expansion at GRC is under consideration. The prototype grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed which served to validate the basic principles described, and the theoretical work that was performed. The report concludes that grid-tied photovoltaic power systems are reliable, maintenance free, long life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community.

  5. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! A lowcost, portable, and end-to-end photovoltaic-system test appropriate for NASA's new generation of Class D missions is presented. High risk, low-cost, and quick-turn satellites rarely have the resources to execute the traditional approaches from higher-class (A-C) missions. The Class D approach, as demonstrated on the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), utilizes a portable, metalhalide, theatre lamp for an end-to-end photovoltaic system test. While not as precise and comprehensive as the traditional Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS) test, the LADEE method leverages minimal resources into an ongoing assessment program that can be applied through numerous stages of the mission. The project takes a true Class D approach in assessing the technical value of a costly, highfidelity performance test versus a simpler approach with less programmatic risk. The resources required are a fraction of that for a LAPSS test, and is easy to repeat due to its portability. Further, the test equipment can be handed down to future projects without building an on-site facility. At the vanguard of Class D missions, the LADEE team frequently wrestled with and challenged the status quo. The philosophy of risk avoidance at all cost, typical to Class A-C missions, simply could not be executed. This innovative and simple testing solution is contextualized to NASA Class D programs and a specific risk encountered during development of the LADEE Electrical Power System (EPS). Selection of the appropriate lamp and safety concerns are discussed, with examples of test results. Combined with the vendor's panellevel data and periodic inspection, the method ensures system integrity from Integration and Test (I&T) through launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of available data.

  6. A molecular spin-photovoltaic device.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangnan; Vélez, Saül; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Parui, Subir; Zhu, Xiangwei; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E

    2017-08-18

    We fabricated a C 60 fullerene-based molecular spin-photovoltaic device that integrates a photovoltaic response with the spin transport across the molecular layer. The photovoltaic response can be modified under the application of a small magnetic field, with a magnetophotovoltage of up to 5% at room temperature. Device functionalities include a magnetic current inverter and the presence of diverging magnetocurrent at certain illumination levels that could be useful for sensing. Completely spin-polarized currents can be created by balancing the external partially spin-polarized injection with the photogenerated carriers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  7. Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost Analysis | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost Analysis Solar Photovoltaic Manufacturing Cost Analysis NREL's photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing cost analysis-part of our broader effort supporting manufacturing manufacturing sector, and is that growth sustainable? NREL's manufacturing cost analysis studies show that: U.S

  8. Potential and Innovations in Rooftop Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, Ben

    2011-11-01

    Photovoltaic technology has reached a point where its cost and capability make it one of a handful of carbon-free sources of electrical energy that could meet a meaningful fraction of US energy demand. In this paper we will first compare Photovoltaics with several other carbon free energy technologies, then look at the economics of Solyndra's rooftop photovoltaic solution as an example of the current state of the art, as well as the market dynamics that have resulted in dramatically faster adoption in Germany vs. the United States.

  9. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  10. Application of power transistors to residential and intermediate rating photovoltaic array power conditioners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, R. L.; Ferraro, A.; Turnbull, F. G.

    1983-04-01

    Power conditioning systems that interface with photovoltaic arrays are presently investigated for the cases of 5-30 kW residential systems interfacing with a 240-V single-phase utility connection, and 30-200 kW intermediate systems interfacing with a 480-V three-phase utility connection. Both systems require an isolation transformer between the array and the utility interface. A tradeoff study is conducted for numerous transistor and thyristor circuits and configurations, with weighting criteria that include full- and part-load efficiency, size, weight, reliability, ease of control, injected harmonics, reactive power requirements, and parts cost. On the basis of study results, a 10-kW high frequency transistor inverter feeding a high frequency isolation transformer with a sinusoidally shaped current wave was selected.

  11. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack

    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, amore » focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.« less

  12. Photovoltaic generating systems in rural schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Lawand, T.A.; Campbell, J.

    1997-12-01

    During the period 1994-95, solar photovoltaic systems were installed at a number of schools in Neuquen Province, Argentina, by the Provincial electric utility, Ente Provincial de Energia del Neuquen. This was undertaken with funds provided by the Inter-American Development Bank. In all, there are 12 schools that have had photovoltaic generating systems installed. These generating systems are designed to provide electricity for the basic needs at the schools: primarily for lighting, and to operate small electrical appliances such as communication radios, televisions, VCR`s, AM/FM and short-wave radios. They do not provide enough energy to operate large consumption appliances such asmore » washing machines, microwaves, refrigerators, power tools, etc. The program of provision of PV systems was supplemented with training on simple systems for cooking food or drying fruit, etc. These techniques are primarily intended for demonstration at the schools thus serving an educational role with the hope that they will be transmitted in time to the families of the students where the need is manifested the most.« less

  13. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  14. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  15. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Reaven, S.J.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.

    1996-01-01

    How will photovoltaic modules (PVMS) be recycled at the end of their service lives? This question has technological and institutional components (Reaven, 1994a). The technological aspect concerns the physical means of recycling: what advantages and disadvantages of the several existing and emerging mechanical, thermal, and chemical recycling processes and facilities merit consideration? The institutional dimension refers to the arrangements for recycling: what are the operational and financial roles of the parties with an interest in PVM recycling? These parties include PVM manufacturers, trade organizations; distributors, and retailers; residential, commercial, and utility PVM users; waste collectors, transporters, reclaimers, and reclaimers; andmore » governments.« less

  16. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov Websites

    2017-2030 | Solar Research | NREL Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030 Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030 This report Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying

  17. National Center for Photovoltaics at NREL

    ScienceCinema

    VanSant, Kaitlyn; Wilson, Greg; Berry, Joseph; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Kurtz, Sarah

    2018-06-08

    The National Center for Photovoltaics at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) focuses on technology innovations that drive industry growth in U.S. photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. The NCPV is a central resource for our nation's capabilities in PV research, development, deployment, and outreach.

  18. Design and field performance of the KENETECH photovoltaic inverter system

    SciTech Connect

    Behnke, M.R.

    1995-11-01

    KENETECH Windpower has recently adapted the power conversion technology developed for the company`s variable speed wind turbine to grid-connected photovoltaic applications. KENETECH PV inverter systems are now in successful operation at the Sacramento Municipal Utility District`s (SMUD) Hedge Substation and the PVUSA-Davis site, with additional systems scheduled to be placed into service by the end of 1995 at SMUD, the New York Power Authority, Xerox Corporation`s Clean Air Now project, and the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The features of the inverter are described.

  19. Novel Photovoltaic Devices Using Ferroelectric Material and Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Young Hun

    As the global concern for the financial and environmental costs of traditional energy resources increases, research on renewable energy, most notably solar energy, has taken center stage. Many alternative photovoltaic (PV) technologies for 'the next generation solar cell' have been extensively studied to overcome the Shockley-Queisser 31% efficiency limit as well as tackle the efficiency vs. cost issues. This dissertation focuses on the novel photovoltaic mechanism for the next generation solar cells using two inorganic nanomaterials, nanocrystal quantum dots and ferroelectric nanoparticles. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) materials are widely studied and easy to synthesize using solution based chemistry. One of the fascinating properties of the PZT material is a Bulk Photovoltaic effect (BPVE). This property has been spotlighted because it can produce very high open circuit voltage regardless of the electrical bandgap of the materials. However, the poor optical absorption of the PZT materials and the required high temperature to form the ferroelectric crystalline structure have been obstacles to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices. Colloidal quantum dots also have fascinating optical and electrical properties such as tailored absorption spectrum, capability of the bandgap engineering due to the wide range of material selection and quantum confinement, and very efficient carrier dynamics called multiple exciton generations. In order to utilize these properties, many researchers have put numerous efforts in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic research and there has been remarkable progress in the past decade. However, several drawbacks are still remaining to achieve highly efficient photovoltaic device. Traps created on the large surface area, low carrier mobility, and lower open circuit voltage while increasing the absorption of the solar spectrum is main issues of the nanocrystal based photovoltaic effect. To address these issues and to take the advantages of

  20. New Best-Practices Guide for Photovoltaic System Operations and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Fact sheet summarizing technical report TP-7A40-67553. As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have continued their transition from niche applications into large, mature markets in the United States, their potential as financial investments has risen accordingly. Mainstream investors, however, need to feel confident about the risk and return of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems before committing funds. A major influence on risk and return for PV is operations and maintenance (O&M) - but O&M practices and costs vary widely across the United States, making these variables difficult for investors to predict. To address this barrier to continued PV investment, the PV O&M Workingmore » Group has developed a new best-practices guide for PV O&M.« less

  1. Design of Photovoltaic Power System for a Precursor Mission for Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnatt, Jeremiah; Landis, Geoffrey; Fincannon, James

    2016-01-01

    This project analyzed the viability of a photovoltaic power source for technology demonstration mission to demonstrate Mars in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) to produce propellant for a future human mission, based on technology available within the next ten years. For this assessment, we performed a power-system design study for a scaled ISRU demonstrator lander on the Mars surface based on existing solar array technologies.

  2. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    (CdTe) We develop processes and a range of materials for CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices. Our work partners. Our objectives are to improve CdTe PV performance, reduce costs, and advance fundamental processes and materials related to thin-film polycrystalline PV devices, and our measurements and

  3. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Eleventh Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at NASA Lewis Research Center from May 7 to 9, 1991. The papers and workshop summaries presented here report remarkable progress on a wide variety of approaches in space photovoltaics, both near and far term applications. Papers were presented in a variety of technical areas, including multijunction cell technology, GaAs and InP cells, system studies, cell and array development, and photovoltaics for conversion of laser radiation. Three workshops were held to discuss thin film cell development, III-V cell development, and space environmental effects.

  4. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved side clip

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle L; Brown, Jr., Claude; Eurich, Gerald K; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael

    2013-11-19

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  5. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved front clip

    DOEpatents

    Keenihan, James R; Boven, Michelle; Brown, Jr., Claude; Gaston, Ryan S; Hus, Michael; Langmaid, Joe A; Lesniak, Mike

    2013-11-05

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic assembly system for securing and/or aligning at least a plurality of vertically adjacent (overlapping) photovoltaic device assemblies to one another. The securing function being accomplished by a clip member that may be a separate component or integral to one or more of the photovoltaic device assemblies.

  6. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed Designed for Calibrating Photovoltaic Devices in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the performance of solar arrays in space requires that the cells be tested in comparison with a space-flown standard. Recognizing that improvements in future solar cell technology will require an ever-increasing fidelity of standards, the Photovoltaics and Space Environment Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with the Ohio Aerospace Institute, designed a prototype facility to allow routine calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells on the International Space Station, and then the return of the cells to Earth for laboratory use. For solar cell testing, the Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed (PET) site provides a true air-mass-zero (AM0) solar spectrum. This allows solar cells to be accurately calibrated using the full spectrum of the Sun.

  7. Charge Generation and Recombination in Organic Materials for Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Jessica Jacklyn

    Understanding the nature of molecular exciton states is critical for the design of organic photovoltaic materials that push current device efficiencies into the next realm. This thesis describes several research projects that have sought to further our understanding of the generation and recombination of charge carriers, facilitated by such excitonic states, in organic systems. We begin with fundamental studies on the excited-state dynamics of several fullerene derivatives. We also venture away from the traditional fullerene-based electron acceptors and consider several derivatized perylene diimides as alternate electron acceptors. We then report on the observation of a broad, structureless, emission emanating from charge-generating films comprised of perfluoroalkyl fullerene derivatives dilutely dispersed in polyfluorene hosts. We have determined that this red-shifted PL signature is the result of radiative recombination from a charge-transfer state that is populated initially as a precursor to charge generation, and may be repopulated upon charge recombination. Our data offers an observable link between charge-generation and charge-transfer emission that is kinetically associated with carrier recombination, and we utilize this link to probe the influence of driving force and polymer microstructure in the fundamental processes of charge generation and decay in small molecule/polymer heterojunctions. Thereafter, we sought to develop our understanding of a novel photophysical mechanism (known as energy pooling) which would allow for the energy of multiple excitons to be 'pooled' towards a central molecular moiety, where the individual exciton energies may add together to create a single highly excited excitonic state. This upconversion-like process would facilitate more efficient photocurrent generation in devices utilizing this mode of charge separation. The primary modes of inquiry utilized in this work come from the spectroscopic techniques of absorbance, steady

  8. Market definition studies for photovoltaic highway applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Prospects for solar electric power in applications related to highways within the continental United States are examined. Principal prospective users are found to be the highway departments of the various states. Economic analysis is employed to demonstrate that suitable applications can occur when powering apparatus such as signs, crossing signals, or instruments which consume less than 100 watts on the average, provided they are located at least one-half mile from existing utility power. Such applications are projected to occur two or three times per state per year. Attitudes of highway officials toward possible use of solar power are sampled and described. Although falling photovoltaic cell prices are expected to have little effect on sales potential here, methods for federal stimulation of this market are discussed.

  9. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Systems technology, reliability, and present and projected costs of photovoltaic systems are discussed using data derived from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with photovoltaic systems deployed with a variety of users. Operating systems in two villages, one in Upper Volta and the other in southwestern Arizona are described. Energy cost comparisons are presented for photovoltaic systems versus alternative energy sources. Based on present system technology, reliability, and costs, photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for developing nations.

  10. Nonimaging solar concentrator with near-uniform irradiance for photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Gallagher, Joseph J.; Winston, Roland; Gee, Randy

    2001-11-01

    We report results of a study our group has undertaken to design a solar concentrator with uniform irradiance on a planar target. This attribute is especially important for photovoltaic concentrators. We find that a variety of optical mixers, some incorporating a moderate level of concentration, can be quite effective in achieving near uniform irradiance.

  11. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 2: Quality assurance criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Quality assurance criteria are described for manufacturers and installers of solar photovoltaic tests and applications. Quality oriented activities are outlined to be pursued by the contractor/subcontractor to assure the physical and operational quality of equipment produced is included. In the broad sense, guidelines are provided for establishing a QA organization if none exists. Mainly, criteria is provided to be considered in any PV quality assurance plan selected as appropriate by the responsible Field Center. A framework is established for a systematic approach to ensure that photovoltaic tests and applications are constructed in a timely and cost effective manner.

  12. High-Efficiency Crystalline Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    . We are key players in developing low-cost, manufacturable techniques for further increasing the also a driving force in two industry-relevant areas: low-cost III-V photovoltaic cells for 1-sun and are developing a >23%-efficiency, low-cost industrial-size cell on n-Cz wafer by 2018. Silicon

  13. High efficiency photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Xu, Xi Xiang

    1999-11-02

    An N-I-P type photovoltaic device includes a multi-layered body of N-doped semiconductor material which has an amorphous, N doped layer in contact with the amorphous body of intrinsic semiconductor material, and a microcrystalline, N doped layer overlying the amorphous, N doped material. A tandem device comprising stacked N-I-P cells may further include a second amorphous, N doped layer interposed between the microcrystalline, N doped layer and a microcrystalline P doped layer. Photovoltaic devices thus configured manifest improved performance, particularly when configured as tandem devices.

  14. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOEpatents

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  15. High-efficiency photovoltaic technology including thermoelectric generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisac, Miguel; Villasevil, Francesc X.; López, Antonio M.

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, photovoltaic solar energy is a clean and reliable source for producing electric power. Most photovoltaic systems have been designed and built up for use in applications with low power requirements. The efficiency of solar cells is quite low, obtaining best results in monocrystalline silicon structures, with an efficiency of about 18%. When temperature rises, photovoltaic cell efficiency decreases, given that the short-circuit current is slightly increased, and the open-circuit voltage, fill factor and power output are reduced. To ensure that this does not affect performance, this paper describes how to interconnect photovoltaic and thermoelectric technology into a single structure. The temperature gradient in the solar panel is used to supply thermoelectric cells, which generate electricity, achieving a positive contribution to the total balance of the complete system.

  16. PVUSA: The value of photovoltaics in the distribution system. The Kerman Grid-Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenger, Howard J.; Hoff, Thomas E.

    1995-05-01

    As part of the Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications Applications (PVUSA) Project Pacific Gas Electric Company (PG&E) built the Kerman 500-kW photovoltaic power plant. Located near the end of a distribution feeder in a rural section of Fresno County, the plant was not built so much to demonstrate PV technology, but to evaluate its interaction with the local distribution grid and quantify available nontraditional grid-support benefits (those other than energy and capacity). As demand for new generation began to languish in the 1980s, and siting and permitting of power plants and transmission lines became more involved, utilities began considering smaller, distributed power sources. Potential benefits include shorter construction lead time, less capital outlay, and better utilization of existing assets. The results of a PG&E study in 1990/1991 of the benefits from a PV system to the distribution grid prompted the PVUSA Project to construct a plant at Kerman. Completed in 1993, the plant is believed to be the first one specifically built to evaluate the multiple benefits to the grid of a strategically sited plant. Each of nine discrete benefits were evaluated in detail by first establishing the technical impact, then translating the results into present economic value. Benefits span the entire system from distribution feeder to the generation fleet. This work breaks new ground in evaluation of distributed resources, and suggests that resource planning practices be expanded to account for these non-traditional benefits.

  17. Estimates of occupational safety and health impacts resulting from large-scale production of major photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, T.; Ungers, L.; Briggs, T.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate both quantitatively and qualitatively, the worker and societal risks attributable to four photovoltaic cell (solar cell) production processes. Quantitative risk values were determined by use of statistics from the California semiconductor industry. The qualitative risk assessment was performed using a variety of both governmental and private sources of data. The occupational health statistics derived from the semiconductor industry were used to predict injury and fatality levels associated with photovoltaic cell manufacturing. The use of these statistics to characterize the two silicon processes described herein is defensible from the standpoint that many ofmore » the same process steps and materials are used in both the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries. These health statistics are less applicable to the gallium arsenide and cadmium sulfide manufacturing processes, primarily because of differences in the materials utilized. Although such differences tend to discourage any absolute comparisons among the four photovoltaic cell production processes, certain relative comparisons are warranted. To facilitate a risk comparison of the four processes, the number and severity of process-related chemical hazards were assessed. This qualitative hazard assessment addresses both the relative toxicity and the exposure potential of substances in the workplace. In addition to the worker-related hazards, estimates of process-related emissions and wastes are also provided.« less

  18. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts containedmore » in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.« less

  19. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic manufacturing technology, phase 2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, G.; Mackamul, K.; Metcalf, D.

    1995-01-01

    Utility Power Group (UPG), and its lower-tier subcontractor, Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) have conducted efforts in developing their manufacturing lines. UPG has focused on the automation of encapsulation and termination processes developed in Phase 1. APS has focused on completion of the encapsulation and module design tasks, while continuing the process and quality control and automation projects. The goal is to produce 55 watt (stabilized) EP50 modules in a new facility. In the APS Trenton EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Developed high throughput lamination procedures; (2) Optimized existing module designs; (3) Developed new module designs for architectural applications; (4) Developed enhanced deposition parameter control; (5) Designed equipment required to manufacture new EUREKA modules developed during Phase II; (6) Improved uniformity of thin-film materials deposition; and (7) Improved the stabilized power output of the APS EP50 EUREKA module to 55 watts. In the APS Fairfield EUREKA manufacturing facility, APS has: (1) Introduced the new products developed under Phase 1 into the APS Fairfield EUREKA module production line; (2) Increased the extent of automation in the production line; (3) Introduced Statistical Process Control to the module production line; and (4) Transferred-progress made in the APS Trenton facility into the APS Fairfield facility.

  20. Work with Us | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Research Facility (SERF) Science and Technology Facility (S&TF) Outdoor Test Facility (OTF) Energy the Hands On Photovoltaic Experience (HOPE). Photo of a researcher in a lab Photovoltaic research and related activities occur in various locations across the NREL campus, including the Solar Energy Research

  1. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nearhoof, S. L.; Oster, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications were identified. Building codes and referenced standards were reviewed for their applicability to residential photovoltaic array installations. Four installation types were identified - integral (replaces roofing), direct (mounted on top of roofing), stand-off (mounted away from roofing), and rack (for flat or low slope roofs, or ground mounted). Installation costs were developed for these mounting types as a function of panel/module size. Studies were performed to identify optimum module shapes and sizes and operating voltage cost drivers. It is concluded that there are no perceived major obstacles to the use of photovoltaic modules in residential arrays. However, there is no applicable building code category for residential photovoltaic modules and arrays and additional work with standards writing organizations is needed to develop residential module and array requirements.

  2. Photovoltaic: Instructional Manual. The North Dakota High Technology Mobile Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Herbert J.

    This instructional manual contains 11 learning activity packets for use in a workshop on photovoltaic converters. The lessons cover the following topics: introduction; solar radiation--input for photovoltaic converters; photovoltaic cells; solar electric generator systems; characteristics of silicon cells; photovoltaic module source resistance;…

  3. Development and testing of advanced fire-resistant photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugimura, R. S.; Otth, D. H.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The evaluation of back-surface materials flammability in order to identify fire resistant module designs is examined. The fire test apparatus, burning-brand test sequence, and spread-of-flame test sequence are described. Video recordings and time-temperature profiles of module back surfaces are utilized to study the flammability failure mechanism and identify high-temperature materials. A table of flammability test results for various module designs is provided. The data reveals that 2-mil kapton, fiberglass cloth coated or impregnated with a material to plug pores, and metal foil back-surface materials achieve class A and B fire-resistance levels, and are applicable for photovoltaic module designs.

  4. Systems and methods for photovoltaic string protection

    SciTech Connect

    Krein, Philip T.; Kim, Katherine A.; Pilawa-Podgurski, Robert C. N.

    A system and method includes a circuit for protecting a photovoltaic string. A bypass switch connects in parallel to the photovoltaic string and a hot spot protection switch connects in series with the photovoltaic string. A first control signal controls opening and closing of the bypass switch and a second control signal controls opening and closing of the hot spot protection switch. Upon detection of a hot spot condition the first control signal closes the bypass switch and after the bypass switch is closed the second control signal opens the hot spot protection switch.

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic and thermoelectric module for high concentration solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Ryo; Toyoda, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoichi; Matoba, Akinari; Minamikawa, Toshiharu; Tokuda, Masayuki; Masui, Megumi; Okada, Yoshitaka

    2017-09-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric (TE) hybrid module was developed for application to high concentration solar systems. The waste heat from the solar cells under concentrated light illumination was utilized to generate additional electricity by assembling TE devices below the multi-junction solar cells (MJSCs). Considering the high operating temperature of the PV and TE hybrid module compared with conventional concentrator PV modules, the TE device could compensate a part of the MJSC efficiency degradation at high temperature. The performance investigation clarified the feasibility of the hybrid PV and TE module under highly concentrated sunlight illumination.

  6. Photovoltaic sheathing element with one or more tabs

    SciTech Connect

    Keenihan, James R; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo C.

    2017-02-07

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly that includes at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure. The shingle including at least a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly. Wherein the body portion includes one or more top peripheral tabs each capable of fitting under one or more vertically adjoining devices.

  7. Design of a photovoltaic system for a southeast all-electric residence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Tully, G. F.; Johnson, J.; Truncellito, N.; Schaeffer, R.; Parker, J.

    1982-01-01

    A photovoltaic system was developed and integrated into a single-story residence suitable for the Southeast region of the country. The design addresses an integral mounted array which displaces conventional roof sheathing, roofing felt and shingles. The array has a rated power output of 5.6 kW and covers 86 sq.m. of roof area. A 6 kW utility-tied inverter is used in the power conversion subsystem, representative of a lower cost version, currently available hardware. The system provides feedback of excess energy to the utility, which is the most promising approach for grid-connected systems in the mid-1980's. The complete system and house design are described, including all the pertinent installation and construction drawings. Specific performance results are presented for the Miami, Florida, and Charleston, SC, regions.

  8. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  9. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  10. Development of photovoltaic array and module safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.

  11. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Monitoring potential ecological impacts of a utility-scale photovoltaic panel facility on a creosote-bursage plant community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apodaca, L.; Devitt, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    High energy demands and greater financial viability have propelled recent growth in the solar energy market. Southern Nevada is poised to become a major contributor of green energy through the commissioning of public and private lands for solar development, but there exists a pressing need to better understand the ecological consequences of these facilities as documentation of the impacts of large-scale solar operations on surrounding environments is severely lacking. The Copper Mountain 2 (CM2) solar facility in Eldorado Valley, Nevada, USA utilizes nearly 1.8 square kilometers of photovoltaic panels to generate enough energy to power about 50,000 homes and is situated within a predominately creosote (Larrea tridentata) and white bursage (Ambrosia dumosa) habitat. Currently, the potential impacts on the local environment related to this massive development are being studied from two perspectives: microclimate effects and alteration of surface hydrology. A series of meteorological towers and ibuttons are being used to monitor microclimate changes in the area of CM2 and the adjacent natural habitat as localized climate within the facility may be altering growing conditions in nearby desert plant communities. Because the placement of CM2 represents a major obstacle to established surface water flow, a transect of soil moisture probe access tubes have been placed in association with creosote plants along a downslope gradient from the facility to observe changes to soil water storage. Individual creosote and bursage plant physiologies are also being monitored to study any potential increase in plant stress influenced by the CM2 solar facility. Most measurements have been ongoing for at least one year. Greater details on the research infrastructure will be presented along with the latest observational data.

  13. Photovoltaic Manufacturing R&D Project | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Photovoltaic (PV) Manufacturing Research and Development (R&D) Project was a cost-shared partnership between NREL and a number of private-sector solar companies. The primary project goals were to reduce costs for consumers and solar companies by improving products and manufacturing processes and ensure the

  14. The electrodeposition of multilayers on a polymeric substrate in flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Andre F. S.; Guedes, Vilmar P.; Souza, Monica L.; Tartari, Simone; Cunha, Idaulo J.

    2015-09-01

    Flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells have drawn intense attention due to their advantages over competing solar cell technologies. The method utilized to deposit as well as to integrate solutions and processed materials, manufacturing organic solar cells by the Electrodeposition System, has been presented in this research. In addition, we have demonstrated a successful integration of a process for manufacturing the flexible organic solar cell prototype and we have discussed on the factors that make this process possible. The maximum process temperature was 120°C, which corresponds to the baking of the active polymeric layer. Moreover, the new process of the Electrodeposition of complementary active layer is based on the application of voltage versus time in order to obtain a homogeneous layer with thin film. This thin film was not only obtained by the electrodeposition of PANI-X1 on P3HT/PCBM Blend, but also prepared in perchloric acid solution. Furthermore, these flexible organic photovoltaic solar cells presented power conversion efficiency of 12% and the inclusion of the PANI-X1 layer reduced the effects of degradation on these organic photovoltaic panels induced by solar irradiation. Thus, in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), these studies have revealed that the surface of PANI-X1 layers is strongly conditioned by the dielectric surface morphology.

  15. Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration Experiment. Final report for Phase-I system design, 6 June 1978-28 February 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Marcy, W.M.; Dudek, R.A.

    1979-03-30

    The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentrating Experiment is the design of a 200 kWe peak photovoltaic concentrating system applied to deep well irrigation in the Trans-Pecos region of Texas. The site selected is typical of deep well irrigation in arid regions of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The existing well utilizes a 200 horse power, three phase, 480 volt induction motor to lift water 540 feet to irrigate 380 acres. The Trans-Pecos Photovoltaic Concentration (PVC) system employs a two axis (azimuth-elevation) tracking parabolic concentrator module that focuses sunlight at 38X concentration on two strings of actively cooled silicon solar cells. The directmore » current from a field of 102 collector modules is converted by a maximum power point electric power conditioning system to three phase alternating current. The power from the power conditioning system is connected through appropriate switchgear in parallel with the utility grid to the well's induction motor. The operational philosophy of the experiment is to displace daytime utility power with solar generated electric power. The solar system is sized to provide approximately 50 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor. This requires an energy exchange with the utility since peak solar power (200 kWe) generated exceeds the peak motor demand (149.2 kWe). The annual energy production is projected to be 511 Mwh using El Paso, Texas solar TMY data. System electrical power production efficiency is projected to be 7.4 percent at the design point, and 7.0 percent on an annual electrical energy production basis. The system is projected to provide 37.8 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10, excluding energy delivered to the grid in excess of motor demand. The total energy produced is projected to be 39.0 percent of the 24 hour energy demand of the motor at the design point of March 10.« less

  16. Photovoltaic power systems workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killian, H. J.; Given, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Discussions are presented on apparent deficiencies in NASA planning and technology development relating to a standard power module (25-35 kW) and to future photovoltaic power systems in general. Topics of discussion consider the following: (1) adequate studies on power systems; (2) whether a standard power system module should be developed from a standard spacecraft; (3) identification of proper approaches to cost reduction; (4) energy storage avoidance; (5) attitude control; (6) thermal effects of heat rejection on solar array configuration stability; (7) assembly of large power systems in space; and (8) factoring terrestrial photovoltaic work into space power systems for possible payoff.

  17. Photovoltaic roofing tile systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchior, B.

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in architecture is discussed. A PV-solar roofing tile system with polymer concrete base; PV-roofing tile with elastomer frame profiles and aluminum profile frames; contact technique; and solar cell modules measuring technique are described. Field tests at several places were conducted on the solar generator, electric current behavior, battery station, electric installation, power conditioner, solar measuring system with magnetic bubble memory technique, data transmission via telephone modems, and data processing system. The very favorable response to the PV-compact system proves the commercial possibilities of photovoltaic integration in architecture.

  18. Recent Advances in Morphology Optimization for Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansol; Park, Chaneui; Sin, Dong Hun; Park, Jong Hwan; Cho, Kilwon

    2018-06-19

    Organic photovoltaics are an important part of a next-generation energy-harvesting technology that uses a practically infinite pollutant-free energy source. They have the advantages of light weight, solution processability, cheap materials, low production cost, and deformability. However, to date, the moderate photovoltaic efficiencies and poor stabilities of organic photovoltaics impede their use as replacements for inorganic photovoltaics. Recent developments in bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaics mean that they have almost reached the lower efficiency limit for feasible commercialization. In this review article, the recent understanding of the ideal bulk-heterojunction morphology of the photoactive layer for efficient exciton dissociation and charge transport is described, and recent attempts as well as early-stage trials to realize this ideal morphology are discussed systematically from a morphological viewpoint. The various approaches to optimizing morphologies consisting of an interpenetrating bicontinuous network with appropriate domain sizes and mixed regions are categorized, and in each category, the recent trends in the morphology control on the multilength scale are highlighted and discussed in detail. This review article concludes by identifying the remaining challenges for the control of active layer morphologies and by providing perspectives toward real application and commercialization of organic photovoltaics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, D.C.; Fox, R.J.

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semi-conductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  20. Cadmium telluride photovoltaic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.; Fox, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    A dosimetry-type radiation detector is provided which employs a polycrystalline, chlorine-compensated cadmium telluride wafer fabricated to operate as a photovoltaic current generator used as the basic detecting element. A photovoltaic junction is formed in the wafer by painting one face of the cadmium telluride wafer with an n-type semiconductive material. The opposite face of the wafer is painted with an electrically conductive material to serve as a current collector. The detector is mounted in a hermetically sealed vacuum containment. The detector is operated in a photovoltaic mode (zero bias) while DC coupled to a symmetrical differential current amplifier having a very low input impedance. The amplifier converts the current signal generated by radiation impinging upon the barrier surface face of the wafer to a voltage which is supplied to a voltmeter calibrated to read quantitatively the level of radiation incident upon the detecting wafer.

  1. Firefighter safety and photovoltaic installations research project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backstrom, Robert; Dini, Dave

    2012-10-01

    Under the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Assistance to Fire Fighters grant, UL LLC examined fire service concerns of photovoltaic (PV) systems. These concerns included firefighter vulnerability to electrical and casualty hazards when mitigating a fire involving photovoltaic (PV) modules systems. Findings include: 1. The electric shock hazard due to application of water is dependent on voltage, water conductivity, distance and spray pattern of the suppression stream. 2. Outdoor weather exposure rated electrical enclosures are not resistant to water penetration by fire hose streams. 3. Firefighter's gloves and boots afford limited protection against electrical shock provided the insulating surface is intact and dry. 4. "Turning off" an array is not a simple matter of opening a disconnect switch. 5. Tarps offer varying degrees of effectiveness. 6. Fire equipment scene lighting and exposure fires may illuminate PV systems sufficiently to cause a lock-on hazard. 7. Severely damaged PV arrays are capable of producing hazardous conditions. 8. Damage to modules from tools may result in both electrical and fire hazards. 9. Severing of conductors in both metal and plastic conduit results in electrical and fire hazards. 10. Responding personnel must stay away from the roofline in the event of modules or sections of an array sliding off the roof. 11. Fires under an array but above the roof may breach roofing materials and decking allowing fire to propagate into the attic space. Several tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from the experiments.

  2. Basic research challenges in crystalline silicon photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, J.H.

    1995-08-01

    Silicon is abundant, non-toxic and has an ideal band gap for photovoltaic energy conversion. Experimental world record cells of 24 % conversion efficiency with around 300 {mu}m thickness are only 4 % (absolute) efficiency points below the theoretical Auger recombination-limit of around 28 %. Compared with other photovoltaic materials, crystalline silicon has only very few disadvantages. The handicap of weak light absorbance may be mastered by clever optical designs. Single crystalline cells of only 48 {mu}m thickness showed 17.3 % efficiency even without backside reflectors. A technology of solar cells from polycrystalline Si films on foreign substrates arises at themore » horizon. However, the disadvantageous, strong activity of grain boundaries in Si could be an insurmountable hurdle for a cost-effective, terrestrial photovoltaics based on polycrystalline Si on foreign substrates. This talk discusses some basic research challenges related to a Si based photovoltaics.« less

  3. Band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for highly efficient near-infrared responsive PbS quantum dot photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ru; Niu, Haihong; Ji, Fengwei; Wan, Lei; Mao, Xiaoli; Guo, Huier; Xu, Jinzhang; Cao, Guozhong

    2016-11-01

    PbS is a promising light harvester for near-infrared (NIR) responsive quantum dot (QD) photovoltaics due to its narrow bulk band gap (0.41 eV) and large exciton Bohr radius (18 nm). However, the relatively low conduction band (CB) and high-density surface defects of PbS as two major drawbacks for its use in solar cells severely hamper the photovoltaic performance enhancement. In this work, a modified solution-based successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) utilizing mixed cationic precursors of Pb2+ and Cd2+ is explored, and such a scheme offers two benefits, band-structure tailoring and surface passivation. In-situ deposited CdS suppresses the excessive growth of PbS in the mesopores, thereby facilitating the favorable electron injection from PbS to TiO2 in view of the up-shifted CB level of QDs; the intimate interpenetration of two sulfides with each other leads to superior passivation of trap state defects on PbS, which suppresses the interfacial charge recombination. With the construction of photovoltaics based on such a hybrid (Pb,Cd)S/CdS configuration, impressive power conversion efficiency up to 4.08% has been reached, outperforming that of the conventional PbS/CdS pattern (2.95%). This work highlights the great importance of band-structure tailoring and surface passivation for constructing highly efficient PbS QD photovoltaics.

  4. Utilizing drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with substance use disorders: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2012-09-01

    Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs.

  5. The role of development of photovoltaics for Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Enebish, N.; Agchbayar, D.; Baatarkhuu, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes an assessment of the potential applications of photovoltaic technology in Mongolia. Socio-economic conditions of the pastoral culture are described and it is shown that the photovoltaic system is the most suitable source of electricity and has potential for wide application. One application identified is for powering communications systems for herdspeople and other decentralized communities of Mongolian rural areas. Some strategies for the future development and application of photovoltaic systems in Mongolia are discussed.

  6. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Muljadi, Eduard; Taylor, Roger W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load.

  7. Photovoltaics and the automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    For years people have been in love with the automobile. Some people just enjoy using the automobile as transportation while others also enjoy the workings and operation of this fascinating machine. The automobile is not without problems of pollution and energy consumption. These problems are changing its design and construction. New clean energy sources are being analyzed and applied to power the modern automobile. A space age energy source now being considered by some and used by others to power the automobile is photovoltaics. Photovoltaics (PV) is the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity. There are a number of devicesmore » in the modern car that are electrically powered. PV could provide a clean endless supply of electricity for air conditioning, radios and other electrical components of a car. Most people have never heard of photovoltaics (PV). There has been a great deal of research in PV among energy experts. The automobile is known the world over in both use and operation. The author describes how the merging of these two technologies will benefit mankind and without damaging the environment. 12 refs.« less

  8. Vacuum-Ultraviolet Photovoltaic Detector.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Lin, Richeng; Ran, Junxue; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ji, Xu; Huang, Feng

    2018-01-23

    Over the past two decades, solar- and astrophysicists and material scientists have been researching and developing new-generation semiconductor-based vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detectors with low power consumption and small size for replacing traditional heavy and high-energy-consuming microchannel-detection systems, to study the formation and evolution of stars. However, the most desirable semiconductor-based VUV photovoltaic detector capable of achieving zero power consumption has not yet been achieved. With high-crystallinity multistep epitaxial grown AlN as a VUV-absorbing layer for photogenerated carriers and p-type graphene (with unexpected VUV transmittance >96%) as a transparent electrode to collect excited holes, we constructed a heterojunction device with photovoltaic detection for VUV light. The device exhibits an encouraging VUV photoresponse, high external quantum efficiency (EQE) and extremely fast tempera response (80 ns, 10 4 -10 6 times faster than that of the currently reported VUV photoconductive devices). This work has provided an idea for developing zero power consumption and integrated VUV photovoltaic detectors with ultrafast and high-sensitivity VUV detection capability, which not only allows future spacecraft to operate with longer service time and lower launching cost but also ensures an ultrafast evolution of interstellar objects.

  9. Space power technology 21: Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Joseph

    1989-04-01

    The Space Power needs for the 21st Century and the program in photovoltaics needed to achieve it are discussed. Workshops were conducted in eight different power disciplines involving industry and other government agencies. The Photovoltaics Workshop was conducted at Aerospace Corporation in June 1987. The major findings and recommended program from this workshop are discussed. The major finding is that a survivable solar power capability is needed in photovoltaics for critical Department of Defense missions including Air Force and Strategic Defense Initiative. The tasks needed to realize this capability are described in technical, not financial, terms. The second finding is the need for lightweight, moderately survivable planar solar arrays. High efficiency thin III-V solar cells can meet some of these requirements. Higher efficiency, longer life solar cells are needed for application to both future planar and concentrator arrays with usable life up to 10 years. Increasing threats are also anticipated and means for avoiding prolonged exposure, retraction, maneuvering and autonomous operation are discussed.

  10. Organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng

    2013-12-01

    Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption [1]. But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters [2]. The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most

  11. Apparatus and method for maximizing power delivered by a photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Muljadi, E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1998-05-05

    A method and apparatus for maximizing the electric power output of a photovoltaic array connected to a battery where the voltage across the photovoltaic array is adjusted through a range of voltages to find the voltage across the photovoltaic array that maximizes the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array and then is held constant for a period of time. After the period of time has elapsed, the electric voltage across the photovoltaic array is again adjusted through a range of voltages and the process is repeated. The electric energy and the electric power generated by the photovoltaic array is delivered to the battery which stores the electric energy and the electric power for later delivery to a load. 20 figs.

  12. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levins, A.; Smoot, A.; Wagner, R.

    1984-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications are investigated. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaic systems is made. A discussion of the Underwriters Laboratory UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the proposed UL standard for plat plate photovoltaic modules and panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit groundings, and the type of circuit ground are covered.

  13. Photovoltaic sheathing element with a flexible connector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Langmaid, Joseph A; Keenihan, James R; Mills, Michael E

    2016-07-12

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly including at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the sheathing element including at least: a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; at least a first and a second connector assembly disposed on opposing sides of the sheathing element and capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to at least two adjoining devices that are affixed to the building structure and wherein at least one of the connector assemblies includes amore » flexible portion; one or more connector pockets disposed in the body portion the pockets capable of receiving at least a portion of the connector assembly.« less

  14. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  15. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  17. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  18. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  19. Three phase power conversion system for utility interconnected PV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, David G.

    1999-03-01

    Omnion Power Engineering Corporation has developed a new three phase inverter that improves the cost, reliability, and performance of three phase utility interconnected photovoltaic inverters. The inverter uses a new, high manufacturing volume IGBT bridge that has better thermal performance than previous designs. A custom easily manufactured enclosure was designed. Controls were simplified to increase reliability while maintaining important user features.

  20. Comparative PV LCOE calculator | Photovoltaic Research | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Use the Comparative Photovoltaic Levelized Cost of Energy Calculator (Comparative PV LCOE Calculator) to calculate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for photovoltaic (PV) systems based on cost effect on LCOE to determine whether a proposed technology is cost-effective, perform trade-off analysis

  1. Photovoltaics: A Solar Technology for Powering Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Photovoltaics, the technology that converts sunlight directly into electricity, may soon be a reliable power source for the world's poor. The one major challenge is cost reduction. Many topics are discussed, including solar powering the Third World, designing the solar building, investing in the sun, and the future of photovoltaics. (NW)

  2. Photovoltaic power system for a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karia, Kris

    An assessment is provided of the viability of using photovoltaic power technology for lunar base application during the initial phase of the mission. The initial user power demands were assumed to be 25 kW (daytime) and 12.5 kW (night time). The effect of lunar adverse environmental conditions were also considered in deriving the photovoltaic power system concept. The solar cell array was found to impose no more design constraints than those solar arrays currently being designed for spacecraft and the Space Station Freedom. The long lunar night and the need to store sufficient energy to sustain a lunar facility during this period was found to be a major design driver. A photovoltaic power system concept was derived using high efficiency thin GaAs solar cells on a deployable flexible Kapton blanket. The solar array design was sized to generate sufficient power for daytime use and for a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) energy storage system to provide power during the night. Solar array sun-tracking is also proposed to maximize the array power output capability. The system launch mass was estimated to be approximately 10 metric tons. For mission application of photovoltaic technology other issues have to be addressed including the constraints imposed by launch vehicle, safety, and cost. For the initial phase of the mission a photovoltaic power system offers a safe option.

  3. Fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors for organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Mi, Dongbo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hee Un; Xu, Fei; Hwang, Do-Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Energy is currently one of the most important problems humankind faces. Depletion of traditional energy sources such as coal and oil results in the need to develop new ways to create, transport, and store electricity. In this regard, the sun, which can be considered as a giant nuclear fusion reactor, represents the most powerful source of energy available in our solar system. For photovoltaic cells to gain widespread acceptance as a source of clean and renewable energy, the cost per watt of solar energy must be decreased. Organic photovoltaic cells, developed in the past two decades, have potential as alternatives to traditional inorganic semiconductor photovoltaic cells, which suffer from high environmental pollution and energy consumption during production. Organic photovoltaic cells are composed of a blended film of a conjugated-polymer donor and a soluble fullerene-derivative acceptor sandwiched between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)-coated indium tin oxide positive electrode and a low-work-function metal negative electrode. Considerable research efforts aim at designing and synthesizing novel fullerene derivatives as electron acceptors with up-raised lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, better light-harvesting properties, higher electron mobility, and better miscibility with the polymer donor for improving the power conversion efficiency of the organic photovoltaic cells. In this paper, we systematically review novel fullerene acceptors synthesized through chemical modification for enhancing the photovoltaic performance by increasing open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and fill factor, which determine the performance of organic photovoltaic cells.

  4. A comparison of quality and utilization problems in large and small group practices.

    PubMed

    Gleason, S C; Richards, M J; Quinnell, J E

    1995-12-01

    Physicians practicing in large, multispecialty medical groups share an organizational culture that differs from that of physicians in small or independent practices. Since 1980, there has been a sharp increase in the size of multispecialty group practice organizations, in part because of increased efficiencies of large group practices. The greater number of physicians and support personnel in a large group practice also requires a relatively more sophisticated management structure. The efficiencies, conveniences, and management structure of a large group practice provide an optimal environment to practice medicine. However, a search of the literature found no data linking a large group practice environment to practice outcomes. The purpose of the study reported in this article was to determine if physicians in large practices have fewer quality and utilization problems than physicians in small or independent practices.

  5. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 1: Guidelines for evaluating the management and operations planning of photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).

  6. Case manager-reported utilization of support group, substance use and mental health services among HIV-positive women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kupprat, Sandra A; Dayton, Alex; Guschlbauer, Andrea; Halkitis, Perry N

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective, longitudinal analysis of case management and medical charts was used to evaluate utilization of support group, mental health, and substance abuse treatment services among HIV-positive women in New York City. Analyses of 4134 case management and supportive service transactions revealed that 70% utilized support groups over the two-year study period. In contrast, only 35% utilized mental health services (therapy) and of those identified as using substances, only 48% utilized substance abuse treatment services. Considering the high prevalence of mental illness (63%, n=29) and substance use (54%, n=25) in the sample, the low utilization rates highlight unmet needs for service. Significant differences were found in utilization of mental health and substance abuse treatment services, with those who received services at a medical model agency (integrated care) being more likely to receive both types of treatment. In contrast, participants attending support groups in non-medical model agencies (77.8%, n=7) were significantly more likely to be retained in group (i.e., attend 11 or more sessions) than those at medical model agencies (39.1%, n=9). Based on the higher utilization rates of support groups among seropositive women, perhaps these groups could be a vehicle for establishing rapport between mental health professionals and group members to bridge the utilization gap and reduce the stigma associated with therapy and substance abuse treatment services. These findings both taut the success and highlight weaknesses regarding accessing mental health and substance abuse care, and support group retention. Sharing of information regarding recruitment and retention efforts between agencies of different modalities would be beneficial and also could identify service niches that capitalize on their subsequent strengths.

  7. Simulation Suggests That Medical Group Mergers Won’t Undermine The Potential Utility Of Health Information Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric C.; Volk, Lynn A.; Szolovits, Peter; Salzberg, Claudia A.; Simon, Steven R.; Bates, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial resources are being invested in health information exchanges (HIE), community-based consortia that enable independent health-care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups may merge and support private HIE, reducing the potential utility of community HIEs. Simulations of “care transitions” based on data from 10 Massachusetts communities suggest that mergers would have to be considerable to substantially reduce the potential utility of an HIE. Nonetheless, simulations also suggest that HIEs will need to recruit a large proportion of the medical groups in a community, as hospitals and the largest groups account for only 10 to 20% of care transitions in communities. PMID:22392665

  8. Charging a Capacitor with a Photovoltaic Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía; Maldonado, Rigoberto Franco; Navarro, Luis Barba

    2017-01-01

    Charging a capacitor with a photovoltaic module is an experiment which reveals a lot about the modules characteristics. It is customary to represent these characteristics with an equivalent circuit whose elements represent its physical parameters. The behavior of a photovoltaic module is very similar to that of a single cell but the electric…

  9. Photovoltaic effect in Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} photorefractive crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ivan de, E-mail: ivan@ft.unicamp.brg; Capovilla, Danilo Augusto; Carvalho, Jesiel F.

    2015-10-12

    We report on the presence of a strong photovoltaic effect on nominally undoped photorefractive Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} crystals and estimated their Glass photovoltaic constant and photovoltaic field for λ = 532 nm illumination. We directly measured the photovoltaic-based photocurrent in this material under λ = 532 nm wavelength laser light illumination and compared its behavior with that of a well known photovoltaic Fe-doped Lithium Niobate crystal. We also show the photovoltaic current to strongly depend on the polarization direction of light. Holographic diffraction efficiency oscillation during recording and the behavior of fringe-locked running holograms in self-stabilized experiments are also demonstrated here as additional indirect proofs ofmore » the photovoltaic nature of this material.« less

  10. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    DOE PAGES

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; ...

    2016-09-27

    Presented in this work is the Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15), a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  11. Recycling Of Cis Photovoltaic Waste

    DOEpatents

    Drinkard, Jr., William F.; Long, Mark O.; Goozner; Robert E.

    1998-07-14

    A method for extracting and reclaiming metals from scrap CIS photovoltaic cells and associated photovoltaic manufacturing waste by leaching the waste with dilute nitric acid, skimming any plastic material from the top of the leaching solution, separating glass substrate from the leachate, electrolyzing the leachate to plate a copper and selenium metal mixture onto a first cathode, replacing the cathode with a second cathode, re-electrolyzing the leachate to plate cadmium onto the second cathode, separating the copper from selenium, and evaporating the depleted leachate to yield a zinc and indium containing solid.

  12. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Steven A; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Simm, Gregor N; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-09-27

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications.

  13. Proceedings of the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports from the 15th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference included topics on space solar cell research, space photovoltaics, multibandgap cells,thermophotovoltaics,flight experiments, environmental effects; calibration and characterization; and photovoltaics for planetary surfaces.

  14. Photovoltaic balance-of-system designs and costs at PVUSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. B.; Jennings, C.

    1995-05-01

    This report is one in a series of 1994-1995 PVUSA reports that document PVUSA lessons learned at demonstration sites in California and Texas. During the last 7 years (1988 to 1994), 16 PV systems ranging from 20 kW to 500 kW have been installed. Six 20-kW emerging module technology (EMT) arrays and three turnkey (i.e., vendor designed and integrated) utility-scale systems were procured and installed at PVUSA's main test site in Davis, California. PVUSA host utilities have installed a total of seven EMT arrays and utility-scale systems in their service areas. Additional systems at Davis and host utility sites are planned. One of PVUSA's key objectives is to evaluate the performance, reliability, and cost of PV balance-of-system (BOS). In the procurement stage PVUSA encouraged innovative design to improve upon present practice by reducing maintenance, improving reliability, or lowering manufacturing or construction costs. The project team worked closely with suppliers during the design stage not only to ensure designs met functional and safety specifications, but to provide suggestions for improvement. This report, intended for the photovoltaic (PV) industry and for utility project managers and engineers considering PV plant construction and ownership, documents PVUSA utility-scale system design and cost lessons learned. Complementary PVUSA topical reports document: construction and safety experience; five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid-support PV plant benefits; PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  15. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila; Landis, Geoffrey; Hepp, Aloysius; Raffaelle, Ryne

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses requirements for large earth orbiting power stations that can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or for beaming power to the earth itself. The current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies that may impact the future choice of space solar cells for high power mission applications are addressed.

  16. The development and performance of smud grid-connected photovoltaic projects

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, D.E.; Collier, D.E.

    1995-11-01

    The utility grid-connected market has been identified as a key market to be developed to accelerate the commercialization of photovoltaics. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has completed the first two years of a continuing commercialization effort based on two years of a continuing commercialization effort based on the sustained, orderly development of the grid-connected, utility PV market. This program is aimed at developing the experience needed to successfully integrate PV as distributed generation into the utility system and to stimulate the collaborative processes needed to accelerate the cost reductions necessary for PV to be cost-effective in these applications bymore » the year 2000. In the first two years, SMUD has installed over 240 residential and commercial building, grid-connected, rooftop, {open_quotes}PV Pioneer{close_quotes} systems totaling over 1MW of capacity and four substation sited, grid-support PV systems totaling 600 kW bringing the SMUD distributed PV power systems to over 3.7 MW. The 1995 SMUD PV Program will add another approximately 800 kW of PV systems to the District`s distributed PV power system. SMUD also established a partnership with its customers through the PV Pioneer {open_quotes}green pricing{close_quotes} program to advance PV commercialization.« less

  17. Sun-to-Wheels Exergy Efficiencies for Bio-Ethanol and Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric; Sekar, Ashok; Matteson, Schuyler; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-06-02

    The two main paths to power vehicles with sunlight are to use photosynthesis to grow biomass, converting to a liquid fuel for an internal combustion engine or to generate photovoltaic electricity that powers the battery of an electric vehicle. While the environmental attributes of these two paths have been much analyzed, prior studies consider the current state of technology. Technologies for biofuel and photovoltaic paths are evolving; it is critical to consider how progress might improve environmental performance. We address this challenge by assessing the current and maximum theoretical exergy efficiencies of bioethanol and photovoltaic sun-to-wheels process chains. The maximum theoretical efficiency is an upper bound stipulated by physical laws. The current net efficiency to produce motive power from silicon photovoltaic modules is estimated at 5.4%, much higher than 0.03% efficiency for corn-based ethanol. Flat-plate photovoltaic panels also have a much higher theoretical maximum efficiency than a C4 crop plant, 48% versus 0.19%. Photovoltaic-based power will always be vastly more efficient than a terrestrial crop biofuel. Providing all mobility in the U.S. via crop biofuels would require 130% of arable land with current technology and 20% in the thermodynamic limit. Comparable values for photovoltaic-based power are 0.7% and 0.081%, respectively.

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  19. Photovoltaic research and development in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1983-01-01

    The status of the Japanese photovoltaic (PV) R&D activities was surveyed through literature searches, private communications, and site visits in 1982. The results show that the Japanese photovoltaic technology is maturing rapidly, consistent with the steady government funding under the Sunshine Project. Two main thrusts of the Project are: (1) completion of the solar panel production pilot plants using cast ingot and sheet silicon materials, and (2) development of large area amorphous silicon solar cells with acceptable efficiency (10 to 12%). An experimental automated solar panel production plant rated at 500 kW/yr is currently under construction for the Sunshine Project for completion in March 1983. Efficiencies demonstrated by experimental large are amorphous silicon solar cells are approaching 8%. Small area amorphous silicon solar cells are, however, currently being mass produced and marketed by several companies at an equivalent annual rate of 2 MW/yr for consumer electronic applications. There is no evidence of an immediate move by the Japanese PV industry to enter extensively into the photovoltaic power market, domestic or otherwise. However, the photovoltaic technology itself could become ready for such an entry in the very near future, especially by making use of advanced process automation technologies.

  20. Photovoltaic venture analysis. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, D.; Posner, D.; Schiffel, D.

    1978-07-01

    The objective of the study, government programs under investigation, and a brief review of the approach are presented. Potential markets for photovoltaic systems relevant to the study are described. The response of the photovoltaic supply industry is then considered. A model which integrates the supply and demand characteristics of photovoltaics over time was developed. This model also calculates the economic benefits associated with various government subsidy programs. Results are derived under alternative possible supply, demand, and macroeconomic conditions. A probabilistic analysis of the costs and benefits of a $380 million federal photovoltaic procurement initiative, as well as certain alternative strategies,more » is summarized. Conclusions and recommendations based on the analysis are presented.« less

  1. Photovoltaic refrigeration application: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Poley, W. A.; Scudder, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    This foreign and domestic market assessment was performed as part of the Tests and Applications Project being conducted by NASA-LeRC as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaic Program. One of the objectives of that program was to stimulate the demand for photovoltaic power systems so that appropriate markets would be developed in concert with the increasing photovoltaic production capacity. The refrigeration application represented a possible market for photovoltaics; hence, a brief survey of potential applications was conducted. Both refrigerators and refrigeration systems were considered in the assessment although the primary emphasis is on refrigerators of 9 cu ft of less. Three user sectors were examined: (1) government, (2) commercial/institutional, and (3) general public.

  2. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  3. Semiconductors: In Situ Processing of Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    The possible processing of semiconductor photovoltaic devices is discussed. The requirements for lunar PV cells is reviewed, and the key challenges involved in their manufacturing are investigated. A schematic diagram of a passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) is presented. The possible fabrication of large photovoltaic arrays in space from lunar materials is also discussed.

  4. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOEpatents

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C [Danvers, MA

    2007-07-03

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  5. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  6. Brief review of emerging photovoltaic absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Zakutayev, Andriy

    2017-02-08

    Photovoltaic solar cells have recently made significant commercial progress and are on track toward meeting more than 1% of global energy demand. However, further research is needed on photovoltaic technologies that face no scalability constraints in generating more than 10% of the world's electricity. This 2017 article briefly reviews emerging photovoltaic absorber materials, focusing on research progress over the past 2-3 years. Particular emphasis is given to emerging solar cell absorbers -- for example, SnS, Sb 2Se 3, Cu 2SnS 3, and CuSbSe 2 -- related to established solar cell technologies such as CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se 2, and CH 3NH 3PbImore » 3. Lastly, the general publication and performance trends are discussed, and the promising future research directions are pointed out.« less

  7. Inaugural History of the National Center for Photovoltaics | Photovoltaic

    Science.gov Websites

    technology and disseminating information about photovoltaics (PV) in the United States. When created, the NCPV's long-term goals were for PV modules and systems to reach still higher efficiencies with improved , industry, and other federal programs into a united effort and accelerating the advance of PV as an industry

  8. Duke Energy Photovoltaic Integration Study: Carolinas Service Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Meng, Da

    2014-03-01

    Solar energy collected using photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and renewable energy source that offers multiple benefits to the electric utility industry and its customers, such as cost predictability, reduced emissions, and loss reduction by distributed installations. Renewable energy goals established in North Carolina Senate Bill 3 (SB3), in combination with the state tax credit and decreases in the cost of energy from PV panels, have resulted in rapid solar power penetration within the Carolinas services areas of Duke Energy. Continued decreases in PV prices are expected to lead to greater PV penetration rates than currently required in SB3.more » Despite the potential benefits, significant penetration of PV energy is of concern to the utility industry because of its impact on operating reliability and integration cost to customers, and equally important, how any additional costs may be allocated to different customer groups. Some of these impacts might become limiting factors for PV energy, especially growing distributed generation installed at customer sites. Recognizing the importance of renewable energy developments for a sustainable energy future and economic growth, Duke Energy has commissioned this study to simulate the effects of high-PV penetration rates and to initiate the process of quantifying the impacts. The objective of the study is to inform resource plans, guide operation improvements, and drive infrastructure investments for a steady and smooth transition to a new energy mix that provides optimal values to customers. The study team consists of experts from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Power Costs, Inc. (PCI), Clean Power Research (CPR), Alstom Grid, and Duke Energy. PNNL, PCI, and CPR performed the study on generation impacts; Duke Energy modeled the transmission cases; and distribution simulations were conducted by Alstom Grid. PNNL analyzed the results from each work stream and produced the report.« less

  9. The status of photovoltaic concentrator development

    SciTech Connect

    Maish, A. B.

    1992-10-01

    Several companies in the United States are actively pursuing the commercialization of photovoltaic concentrator technology. Under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Concentrator Initiative, the Electric Power Research Institute`s High Concentration Photovoltaic Program and several privately funded programs, these companies are developing a range of designs from low-concentration linear-focus to high-concentration point-focus cells and collectors. Design details and status of each development program is presented.

  10. The Synthesis and Photophysical Characterization of Porphyrin Photoactive Materials for Use as Sensitizers in Organic Photovoltaics and Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Dawn Marie

    Solar energy conversion and photodynamic therapy (PDT) are very different applications. However, both utilize very similar photoactive molecules called porphyrins. Porphyrins are structural analogs of chlorophyll and also function as prosthetic groups in some biological enzymes. Understanding the structure/function relationship of these molecules is crucial for enhancing the energy generation efficiency of molecular solar cells and improving chemotherapeutic activity in PDT. In this dissertation, two approaches were applied with the goal of increasing the efficiency of molecular semiconductors for these applications: the heavy atom effect and donor-acceptor molecules. We enhanced the efficiency of triplet excited state formation and singlet oxygen generation for porphyrin sensitizers using the heavy atom effect. The heavy atom effect induces spin-orbit coupling to promote intersystem crossing into the triplet state. In this study, a carbomethoxyphenyl substituent was replaced with either a bromophenyl or an iodophenyl substituent on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrin. The longer lifetimes obtained from the increase in the triplet excited state allow for longer exciton diffusion lengths and lower recombination rates in photovoltaics. Also, the enhanced intersystem crossing is beneficial for photodynamic therapy because it increases singlet oxygen generation, which destroys tumor cells. Optimizing photovoltaic performance and PDT efficacy can also be accomplished with donor-acceptor molecules because they have extended electronic pi bond delocalization across the molecule, which causes the molecule to absorb longer wavelengths of light. Donor-acceptor molecules should produce photovoltaic devices that absorb more of the solar spectrum and produce sensitizers that absorb wavelengths of light that can penetrate through tissues. Donor-acceptor molecules were synthesized using 5,15-bis(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)porphyrin as the acceptor and thiazolo[5,4-d

  11. Performance characteristics of a combination solar photovoltaic heat engine energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A combination solar photovoltaic heat engine converter is proposed. Such a system is suitable for either terrestrial or space power applications. The combination system has a higher efficiency than either the photovoltaic array or the heat engine alone can attain. Advantages in concentrator and radiator area and receiver mass of the photovoltaic heat engine system over a heat-engine-only system are estimated. A mass and area comparison between the proposed space station organic Rankine power system and a combination PV-heat engine system is made. The critical problem for the proposed converter is the necessity for high temperature photovoltaic array operation. Estimates of the required photovoltaic temperature are presented.

  12. Natural conditions and administrative settings for concentrating photovoltaics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ling; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Leutz, Ralf

    2012-10-01

    It is an inevitable trend for China to develop green technologies to help the country to produce cleaner energy and to consume it more efficiently, under the pressure of energy security concern, the nation's emissions trajectory and sustainable economic development. The abundant solar resources in West China provide a big potential to utilize the solar energy. Under the promotion of key incentive policies including both feed-in-tariff (FIT) mechanisms and government rebate programs, China has become a major global solar force in photovoltaic (PV) industry both in manufacturing and in the installation of flat-plate products, with 16 GW production and 2.75 GW installation achieved in the year 2011. As a branch of PV technology, concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology with several years' development history in China is presently moving from pilot facilities to commercial-scale applications. Several MW-CPV power plants have been installed by both domestic and western companies in China, factories with several hundred-MW production capacity are being planned or built. Sustainable performance and reliability improvement of CPV modules, a vertical integration of supply chain in CPV industry aiming at a cost reduction, a sufficient grid infrastructure for facilitating the West-East and North-South electricity transmission will promote Chinese CPV market to actually initiate, develop and mature.

  13. Lead Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic as a Model p-i-n Diode.

    PubMed

    Miyano, Kenjiro; Tripathi, Neeti; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-16

    ideal intrinsic semiconductor, which happens to be very robust against accidental doping, and that the perovskite photovoltaic cell is in fact a model p-i-n diode. The analytical methods and diagnostic tools available in the inorganic semiconductor PV cells are useful and should be fully exploited in the effort of improving the efficiency. One outstanding question is why the perovskite stays intrinsic. Considering the defects and impurities that must abound in the perovskite layers formed by the spin-coating process, for example, there must be physicochemical mechanism keeping it from being doped. This may be related to the special band structure making up the band gap in this ionic solid. Understanding the mechanism may open a door for the wider utility of this class of solid.

  14. NASA-OAST program in photovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullin, J. P.; Flood, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion includes research and technology development efforts on solar cells, blankets, and arrays. The overall objectives are to increase conversion efficiency, reduce mass, reduce cost, and increase operating life. The potential growth of space power requirements in the future presents a major challenge to the current state of technology in space photovoltaic systems.

  15. Polysaccharide utilization loci and nutritional specialization in a dominant group of butyrate-producing human colonic Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Paul O; Martin, Jennifer C; Lawley, Trevor D; Browne, Hilary P; Harris, Hugh M B; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Duncan, Sylvia H; O'Toole, Paul W; Scott, Karen P; Flint, Harry J

    2016-02-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the predominant bacterial phyla colonizing the healthy human large intestine. Whilst both ferment dietary fibre, genes responsible for this important activity have been analysed only in the Bacteroidetes , with very little known about the Firmicutes . This work investigates the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in a group of Firmicutes , Roseburia spp. and Eubacterium rectale , which play an important role in producing butyrate from dietary carbohydrates and in health maintenance. Genome sequences of 11 strains representing E. rectale and four Roseburia spp. were analysed for carbohydrate-active genes. Following assembly into a pan-genome, core, variable and unique genes were identified. The 1840 CAZyme genes identified in the pan-genome were assigned to 538 orthologous groups, of which only 26 were present in all strains, indicating considerable inter-strain variability. This analysis was used to categorize the 11 strains into four carbohydrate utilization ecotypes (CUEs), which were shown to correspond to utilization of different carbohydrates for growth. Many glycoside hydrolase genes were found linked to genes encoding oligosaccharide transporters and regulatory elements in the genomes of Roseburia spp. and E. rectale , forming distinct polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Whilst PULs are also a common feature in Bacteroidetes , key differences were noted in these Firmicutes , including the absence of close homologues of Bacteroides polysaccharide utilization genes, hence we refer to Gram-positive PULs (gpPULs). Most CAZyme genes in the Roseburia / E. rectale group are organized into gpPULs. Variation in gpPULs can explain the high degree of nutritional specialization at the species level within this group.

  16. Polysaccharide utilization loci and nutritional specialization in a dominant group of butyrate-producing human colonic Firmicutes

    PubMed Central

    O. Sheridan, Paul; Martin, Jennifer C.; Lawley, Trevor D.; Browne, Hilary P.; Harris, Hugh M. B.; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Duncan, Sylvia H.; O'Toole, Paul W.; J. Flint, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes are the predominant bacterial phyla colonizing the healthy human large intestine. Whilst both ferment dietary fibre, genes responsible for this important activity have been analysed only in the Bacteroidetes, with very little known about the Firmicutes. This work investigates the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in a group of Firmicutes, Roseburia spp. and Eubacterium rectale, which play an important role in producing butyrate from dietary carbohydrates and in health maintenance. Genome sequences of 11 strains representing E. rectale and four Roseburia spp. were analysed for carbohydrate-active genes. Following assembly into a pan-genome, core, variable and unique genes were identified. The 1840 CAZyme genes identified in the pan-genome were assigned to 538 orthologous groups, of which only 26 were present in all strains, indicating considerable inter-strain variability. This analysis was used to categorize the 11 strains into four carbohydrate utilization ecotypes (CUEs), which were shown to correspond to utilization of different carbohydrates for growth. Many glycoside hydrolase genes were found linked to genes encoding oligosaccharide transporters and regulatory elements in the genomes of Roseburia spp. and E. rectale, forming distinct polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs). Whilst PULs are also a common feature in Bacteroidetes, key differences were noted in these Firmicutes, including the absence of close homologues of Bacteroides polysaccharide utilization genes, hence we refer to Gram-positive PULs (gpPULs). Most CAZyme genes in the Roseburia/E. rectale group are organized into gpPULs. Variation in gpPULs can explain the high degree of nutritional specialization at the species level within this group. PMID:28348841

  17. Photovoltaic design optimization for terrestrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    As part of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Low-Cost Solar Array Project, a comprehensive program of module cost-optimization has been carried out. The objective of these studies has been to define means of reducing the cost and improving the utility and reliability of photovoltaic modules for the broad spectrum of terrestrial applications. This paper describes one of the methods being used for module optimization, including the derivation of specific equations which allow the optimization of various module design features. The method is based on minimizing the life-cycle cost of energy for the complete system. Comparison of the life-cycle energy cost with the marginal cost of energy each year allows the logical plant lifetime to be determined. The equations derived allow the explicit inclusion of design parameters such as tracking, site variability, and module degradation with time. An example problem involving the selection of an optimum module glass substrate is presented.

  18. A direct thin-film path towards low-cost large-area III-V photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Rehan; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Hsin-Hua H.; Zheng, Maxwell; Battaglia, Corsin; Hettick, Mark; Kiriya, Daisuke; Takei, Kuniharu; Lobaccaro, Peter; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Ager, Joel W.; Maboudian, Roya; Chrzan, Daryl C.; Javey, Ali

    2013-01-01

    III-V photovoltaics (PVs) have demonstrated the highest power conversion efficiencies for both single- and multi-junction cells. However, expensive epitaxial growth substrates, low precursor utilization rates, long growth times, and large equipment investments restrict applications to concentrated and space photovoltaics (PVs). Here, we demonstrate the first vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of high-quality III-V thin-films on metal foils as a promising platform for large-area terrestrial PVs overcoming the above obstacles. We demonstrate 1–3 μm thick InP thin-films on Mo foils with ultra-large grain size up to 100 μm, which is ~100 times larger than those obtained by conventional growth processes. The films exhibit electron mobilities as high as 500 cm2/V-s and minority carrier lifetimes as long as 2.5 ns. Furthermore, under 1-sun equivalent illumination, photoluminescence efficiency measurements indicate that an open circuit voltage of up to 930 mV can be achieved, only 40 mV lower than measured on a single crystal reference wafer. PMID:23881474

  19. Photovoltaic evaluation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G.; Heikkilae, M.; Melasuo, T.; Spanner, S.

    Realizing the value and potential of PV-power as well as the growing need for increased cooperation and sharing of knowledge in the field of photovoltaics, FINNIDA and UNICEF decided to undertake a study of selected PV-projects. There were two main objectives for the study: To gather, compile, evaluate and share information on the photovoltaic technology appropriate to developing countries, and to promote the interest and competence of Finnish research institutes, consultants and manufacturers in photovoltaic development. For this purpose a joint evaluation of significant, primarily UN-supported projects providing for the basic needs of rural communities was undertaken. The Gambia and Kenya offered a variety of such projects, and were chosen as target countries for the study. The projects were chosen to be both comparable and complimentary. In the Gambia, the main subject was a partially integrated health and telecommunications project, but a long-operating drinking water pumping system was also studied. In Kenya, a health project in the Turkana area was examined, and also a large scale water pumping installation for fish farming. Field visits were made in order to verify and supplement the data gathered through document research and earlier investigations. Individual data gathering sheets for the project form the core of this study and are intended to give the necessary information in an organized and accessible format. The findings could practically be condensed into one sentence: PV-systems work very well, if properly designed and installed, but the resources and requirements of the recipients must be considered to a higher degree.

  20. Safety-related requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levins, A.

    1984-03-01

    Underwriters Laboratories has conducted a study to identify and develop safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations for residential, intermediate, and large scale applications. Concepts for safety systems, where each system is a collection of subsystems which together address the total anticipated hazard situation, are described. Descriptions of hardware, and system usefulness and viability are included. This discussion of safety systems recognizes that there is little history on which to base the expected safety related performance of a photovoltaic system. A comparison of these systems, as against the provisions of the 1984 National Electrical Code covering photovoltaicmore » systems is made. A discussion of the UL investigation of the photovoltaic module evaluated to the provisions of the Proposed UL Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels is included. Grounding systems, their basis and nature, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are described. The meaning of frame grounding, circuit grounding, and the type of circuit ground are covered. The development of the Standard for Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels has continued, and with both industry comment and a product submittal and listing, the Standard has been refined to a viable document allowing an objective safety review of photovoltaic modules and panels. How this document, and other UL documents would cover investigations of certain other photovoltaic system components is described.« less

  1. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-12-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  2. Aternating current photovoltaic building block

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Ward Issac; Thomas, Michael G.; Ruby, Douglas S.

    2004-06-15

    A modular apparatus for and method of alternating current photovoltaic power generation comprising via a photovoltaic module, generating power in the form of direct current; and converting direct current to alternating current and exporting power via one or more power conversion and transfer units attached to the module, each unit comprising a unitary housing extending a length or width of the module, which housing comprises: contact means for receiving direct current from the module; one or more direct current-to-alternating current inverters; an alternating current bus; and contact means for receiving alternating current from the one or more inverters.

  3. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An advanced, universally-mountable, integrated residential photovoltaic array concept was defined based upon an in-depth formulation and evaluation of three candidate approaches which were synthesized from existing or proposed residential array concepts. The impact of module circuitry and process sequence is considered and technology gaps and performance drivers associated with residential photovoltaic array concepts are identified. The actual learning experience gained from the comparison of the problem areas of the hexagonal shingle design with the rectangular module design led to what is considered an advanced array concept. Building the laboratory mockup provided actual experience and the opportunity to uncover additional technology gaps.

  4. MOD silver metallization for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, G. M.; Vest, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The development of flat plate solar arrays is reported. Photovoltaic cells require back side metallization and a collector grid system on the front surface. Metallo-organic decomposition (MOD) silver films can eliminate most of the present problems with silver conductors. The objectives are to: (1) identify and characterize suitable MO compounds; (2) develop generic synthesis procedures for the MO compounds; (3) develop generic fabrication procedures to screen printable MOD silver inks; (4) optimize processing conditions to produce grid patterns and photovoltaic cells; and (5) develop a model which describes the adhesion between the fired silver film and the silicon surface.

  5. The Harvard organic photovoltaic dataset

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Steven A.; Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Simm, Gregor N.; Lutzow, Trevor; Li, Kewei; Seress, Laszlo R.; Hachmann, Johannes; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-01-01

    The Harvard Organic Photovoltaic Dataset (HOPV15) presented in this work is a collation of experimental photovoltaic data from the literature, and corresponding quantum-chemical calculations performed over a range of conformers, each with quantum chemical results using a variety of density functionals and basis sets. It is anticipated that this dataset will be of use in both relating electronic structure calculations to experimental observations through the generation of calibration schemes, as well as for the creation of new semi-empirical methods and the benchmarking of current and future model chemistries for organic electronic applications. PMID:27676312

  6. Financial impacts of net-metered PV on utilities and ratepayers: A scoping study of two prototypical U.S. utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Satchwell, Andrew; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen

    2014-09-19

    Deployment of customer-sited photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has expanded rapidly in recent years, driven in part by public policies premised on a range of societal benefits that PV may provide. With the success of these efforts, heated debates have surfaced in a number of U.S. states about the impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders and ratepayers, and such debates will likely become only more pronounced and widespread as solar costs continue to decline and deployment accelerates. To inform these discussions, we performed a scoping analysis to quantify the financial impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders andmore » ratepayers and to assess the potential efficacy of various options for mitigating those impacts.« less

  7. High-resolution global irradiance monitoring from photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, Tina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Siegmund, Alexander; Meilinger, Stefanie; Mayer, Bernhard; Pinitz, Sven; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Reliable and regional differentiated power forecasts are required to guarantee an efficient and economic energy transition towards renewable energies. Amongst other renewable energy technologies, e.g. wind mills, photovoltaic systems are an essential component of this transition being cost-efficient and simply to install. Reliable power forecasts are however required for a grid integration of photovoltaic systems, which among other data requires high-resolution spatio-temporal global irradiance data. Hence the generation of robust reviewed global irradiance data is an essential contribution for the energy transition. To achieve this goal our studies introduce a novel method which makes use of photovoltaic power generation in order to infer global irradiance. The method allows to determine high-resolution temporal global irradiance data (one data point every 15 minutes at each location) from power data of operated photovoltaic systems. Due to the multitude of installed photovoltaic systems (in Germany) the detailed spatial coverage is much better than for example only using global irradiance data from conventional pyranometer networks (e.g. from the German Weather Service). Our designated method is composed of two components: a forward component, i.e. to conclude from predicted global irradiance to photovoltaic (PV) power, and a backward component, i.e. from PV power with suitable calibration to global irradiance. The forward process is modelled by using the radiation transport model libRadtran (B. Mayer and A. Kylling (1)) for clear skies to obtain the characteristics (orientation, size, temperature dependence, …) of individual PV systems. For PV systems in the vicinity of a meteorological station, these data are validated against calibrated pyranometer readings. The forward-modelled global irradiance is used to determine the power efficiency for each photovoltaic system using non-linear optimisation techniques. The backward component uses the power efficiency

  8. Reverse bias protected solar array with integrated bypass battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for protecting the photovoltaic cells in a photovoltaic (PV) array from reverse bias damage by utilizing a rechargeable battery for bypassing current from a shaded photovoltaic cell or group of cells, avoiding the need for a bypass diode. Further, the method mitigates the voltage degradation of a PV array caused by shaded cells.

  9. Photovoltaic Pixels for Neural Stimulation: Circuit Models and Performance.

    PubMed

    Boinagrov, David; Lei, Xin; Goetz, Georges; Kamins, Theodore I; Mathieson, Keith; Galambos, Ludwig; Harris, James S; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Photovoltaic conversion of pulsed light into pulsed electric current enables optically-activated neural stimulation with miniature wireless implants. In photovoltaic retinal prostheses, patterns of near-infrared light projected from video goggles onto subretinal arrays of photovoltaic pixels are converted into patterns of current to stimulate the inner retinal neurons. We describe a model of these devices and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic circuits, including the electrode-electrolyte interface. Characteristics of the electrodes measured in saline with various voltages, pulse durations, and polarities were modeled as voltage-dependent capacitances and Faradaic resistances. The resulting mathematical model of the circuit yielded dynamics of the electric current generated by the photovoltaic pixels illuminated by pulsed light. Voltages measured in saline with a pipette electrode above the pixel closely matched results of the model. Using the circuit model, our pixel design was optimized for maximum charge injection under various lighting conditions and for different stimulation thresholds. To speed discharge of the electrodes between the pulses of light, a shunt resistor was introduced and optimized for high frequency stimulation.

  10. 76 FR 78313 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...)] Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules, provided... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Accordingly, effective October...

  11. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Appendix for Summary of Research. Appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    There are many different kinds of conjugated polymers that may be useful in photovoltaic devices. So far, the most popular and successful conjugated polymers used in photovoltaic devices include poly(1,4-)phenylenevinylenes (PPV), C60 and their derivatives. The discovery of electro-luminescence in PPV has stimulated a great deal of interest in developing "plastic" solid-state semiconductor devices. The overall synthetic methodology for the preparation of PPV can be divided into three main categories: (1) side chain derivatization, (2) precursor approach, and (3) in-situ polymerization. In this project, the first method was adopted. As discussed in project proposal and literatures, the overall efficiency of photovoltaic devices containing conjugated polymers is determined by the materials ability to generate excitons from incoming radiation, and then to separate the charges at donor/acceptor interfaces, and then to transport charges to respective electrodes. Given that effective exciton diffusion range are typical less then 30 nm, unique morphological structures are needed. This need led to several research groups to the idea that interpenetrating or bi-continuous networks of donor (electron donating) and acceptor (electron withdrawing) polymers should give better results. One approach involved the use of functionalized PPV. The attachment of electron withdrawing cyano groups to a PPV forms the CN-PPV, making it a strong electron acceptor. Underivatized PPV is a generally considered a hole-transporting material. Using blends of MEH-PPV, a soluble donor PPV derivative, as a hole transporter and CN-PPV as an electron transporter, a quantum efficiencies of up to 6% was achieved.

  12. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  13. Utilizing Interlayer Excitons in Bilayer WS2 for Increased Photovoltaic Response in Ultrathin Graphene Vertical Cross-Bar Photodetecting Tunneling Transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingqiu; Tan, Haijie; Sheng, Yuewen; Fan, Ye; Xu, Wenshuo; Warner, Jamie H

    2018-04-19

    Here we study the layer-dependent photoconductivity in Gr/WS 2 /Gr vertical stacked tunneling (VST) cross-bar devices made using two-dimensional (2D) materials all grown by chemical vapor deposition. The larger number of devices (>100) enables a statistically robust analysis on the comparative differences in the photovoltaic response of monolayer and bilayer WS 2 , which cannot be achieved in small batch devices made using mechanically exfoliated materials. We show a dramatic increase in photovoltaic response for Gr/WS 2 (2L)/Gr compared to monolayers because of the long inter- and intralayer exciton lifetimes and the small exciton binding energy (both interlayer and intralayer excitons) of bilayer WS 2 compared with that of monolayer WS 2 . Different doping levels and dielectric environments of top and bottom graphene electrodes result in a potential difference across a ∼1 nm vertical device, which gives rise to large electric fields perpendicular to the WS 2 layers that cause band structure modification. Our results show how precise control over layer number in all 2D VST devices dictates the photophysics and performance for photosensing applications.

  14. 77 FR 72884 - Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Silicon Photovoltaic Cells and Modules From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China, provided for in subheadings 8501... silicon photovoltaic cells and modules from China. Chairman Irving A. Williamson and Commissioner Dean A...

  15. Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Jared S.; Sheng, Xing; Meulblok, Bram M.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrating photovoltaics offer a way to lower the cost of solar power. However, the existing paradigm based on precise orientation of large-area concentrator modules towards the Sun limits their deployment to large, open land areas. Here, we explore an alternate approach using high-efficiency microcell photovoltaics embedded between a pair of plastic lenslet arrays to demonstrate quasi-static concentrating photovoltaic panels <1 cm thick that accomplish full-day tracking with >200x flux concentration ratio through small (<1 cm) lateral translation at fixed latitude tilt. Per unit of installed land area, cosine projection loss for fixed microtracking concentrating photovoltaic panels is ultimately offset by improved ground coverage relative to their conventional dual-axis counterparts, enabling a ~1.9x increase in daily energy output that may open up a new opportunity for compact, high-efficiency concentrating photovoltaics to be installed on rooftops and other limited-space urban environments.

  16. Wide-angle planar microtracking for quasi-static microcell concentrating photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Price, Jared S; Sheng, Xing; Meulblok, Bram M; Rogers, John A; Giebink, Noel C

    2015-02-05

    Concentrating photovoltaics offer a way to lower the cost of solar power. However, the existing paradigm based on precise orientation of large-area concentrator modules towards the Sun limits their deployment to large, open land areas. Here, we explore an alternate approach using high-efficiency microcell photovoltaics embedded between a pair of plastic lenslet arrays to demonstrate quasi-static concentrating photovoltaic panels <1 cm thick that accomplish full-day tracking with >200x flux concentration ratio through small (<1 cm) lateral translation at fixed latitude tilt. Per unit of installed land area, cosine projection loss for fixed microtracking concentrating photovoltaic panels is ultimately offset by improved ground coverage relative to their conventional dual-axis counterparts, enabling a ~1.9x increase in daily energy output that may open up a new opportunity for compact, high-efficiency concentrating photovoltaics to be installed on rooftops and other limited-space urban environments.

  17. Flat-plate photovoltaic array design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented which integrates the results of specific studies in the areas of photovoltaic structural design optimization, optimization of array series/parallel circuit design, thermal design optimization, and optimization of environmental protection features. The analysis is based on minimizing the total photovoltaic system life-cycle energy cost including repair and replacement of failed cells and modules. This approach is shown to be a useful technique for array optimization, particularly when time-dependent parameters such as array degradation and maintenance are involved.

  18. Catalyst-free, III-V nanowire photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, D. G.; Lambert, N.; Fry, P. W.; Foster, A.; Krysa, A. B.; Wilson, L. R.

    2014-05-01

    We report on room temperature, photovoltaic operation of catalyst-free GaAs p-i-n junction nanowire arrays. Growth studies were first performed to determine the optimum conditions for controlling the vertical and lateral growth of the nanowires. Following this, devices consisting of axial p-i-n junctions were fabricated by planarising the nanowire arrays with a hard baked polymer. We discuss the photovoltaic properties of this proof-of-concept device, and significant improvements to be made during the growth.

  19. Spatiotemporal characteristics of retinal response to network-mediated photovoltaic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Elton; Smith, Richard; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Galambos, Ludwig; Kamins, Theodore I; Harris, James; Mathieson, Keith; Palanker, Daniel; Sher, Alexander

    2018-02-01

    Subretinal prostheses aim at restoring sight to patients blinded by photoreceptor degeneration using electrical activation of the surviving inner retinal neurons. Today, such implants deliver visual information with low-frequency stimulation, resulting in discontinuous visual percepts. We measured retinal responses to complex visual stimuli delivered at video rate via a photovoltaic subretinal implant and by visible light. Using a multielectrode array to record from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the healthy and degenerated rat retina ex vivo, we estimated their spatiotemporal properties from the spike-triggered average responses to photovoltaic binary white noise stimulus with 70-μm pixel size at 20-Hz frame rate. The average photovoltaic receptive field size was 194 ± 3 μm (mean ± SE), similar to that of visual responses (221 ± 4 μm), but response latency was significantly shorter with photovoltaic stimulation. Both visual and photovoltaic receptive fields had an opposing center-surround structure. In the healthy retina, ON RGCs had photovoltaic OFF responses, and vice versa. This reversal is consistent with depolarization of photoreceptors by electrical pulses, as opposed to their hyperpolarization under increasing light, although alternative mechanisms cannot be excluded. In degenerate retina, both ON and OFF photovoltaic responses were observed, but in the absence of visual responses, it is not clear what functional RGC types they correspond to. Degenerate retina maintained the antagonistic center-surround organization of receptive fields. These fast and spatially localized network-mediated ON and OFF responses to subretinal stimulation via photovoltaic pixels with local return electrodes raise confidence in the possibility of providing more functional prosthetic vision. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Retinal prostheses currently in clinical use have struggled to deliver visual information at naturalistic frequencies, resulting in discontinuous percepts. We

  20. Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2007-04-15

    The Sun provides approximately 100,000 terawatts to the Earth which is about 10000 times more than the present rate of the world's present energy consumption. Photovoltaic cells are being increasingly used to tap into this huge resource and will play a key role in future sustainable energy systems. So far, solid-state junction devices, usually made of silicon, crystalline or amorphous, and profiting from the experience and material availability resulting from the semiconductor industry, have dominated photovoltaic solar energy converters. These systems have by now attained a mature state serving a rapidly growing market, expected to rise to 300 GW by 2030. However, the cost of photovoltaic electricity production is still too high to be competitive with nuclear or fossil energy. Thin film photovoltaic cells made of CuInSe or CdTe are being increasingly employed along with amorphous silicon. The recently discovered cells based on mesoscopic inorganic or organic semiconductors commonly referred to as 'bulk' junctions due to their three-dimensional structure are very attractive alternatives which offer the prospect of very low cost fabrication. The prototype of this family of devices is the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), which accomplishes the optical absorption and the charge separation processes by the association of a sensitizer as light-absorbing material with a wide band gap semiconductor of mesoporous or nanocrystalline morphology. Research is booming also in the area of third generation photovoltaic cells where multi-junction devices and a recent breakthrough concerning multiple carrier generation in quantum dot absorbers offer promising perspectives.

  1. Enhanced EOS photovoltaic power system capability with InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Weinberg, Irving; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS), which is part of the International Mission to Planet Earth, is NASA's main contribution to the Global Change Research Program which opens a new era in international cooperation to study the Earth's environment. Five large platforms are to be launched into polar orbit, two by NASA, two by ESA, and one by the Japanese. In such an orbit the radiation resistance of indium phosphide solar cells combined with the potential of utilizing five micron cell structures yields an increase of 10 percent in the payload capability. If further combined with the advanced photovoltaic solar array the payload savings approaches 12 percent.

  2. Long-term leaching of photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nover, Jessica; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Feifel, Carolin; Koch, Michael; Metzger, Jörg W.; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    Some photovoltaic module technologies use toxic materials. We report long-term leaching on photovoltaic module pieces of 5 × 5 cm2 size. The pieces are cut out from modules of the four major commercial photovoltaic technologies: crystalline and amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride as well as from copper indium gallium diselenide. To simulate different environmental conditions, leaching occurs at room temperature in three different water-based solutions with pH 3, 7, and 11. No agitation is performed to simulate more representative field conditions. After 360 days, about 1.4% of lead from crystalline silicon module pieces and 62% of cadmium from cadmium telluride module pieces are leached out in acidic solutions. The leaching depends heavily on the pH and the redox potential of the aqueous solutions and it increases with time. The leaching behavior is predictable by thermodynamic stability considerations. These predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  3. Automated installation methods for photovoltaic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, R.; Daniels, A.; Greenaway, R.; Oster, J., Jr.; Racki, D.; Stoeltzing, R.

    1982-11-01

    Since installation expenses constitute a substantial portion of the cost of a large photovoltaic power system, methods for reduction of these costs were investigated. The installation of the photovoltaic arrays includes all areas, starting with site preparation (i.e., trenching, wiring, drainage, foundation installation, lightning protection, grounding and installation of the panel) and concluding with the termination of the bus at the power conditioner building. To identify the optimum combination of standard installation procedures and automated/mechanized techniques, the installation process was investigated including the equipment and hardware available, the photovoltaic array structure systems and interfaces, and the array field and site characteristics. Preliminary designs of hardware for both the standard installation method, the automated/mechanized method, and a mix of standard installation procedures and mechanized procedures were identified to determine which process effectively reduced installation costs. In addition, costs associated with each type of installation method and with the design, development and fabrication of new installation hardware were generated.

  4. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    DOE PAGES

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; ...

    2017-01-25

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. Furthermore, by analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. This method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenidesmore » such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W -1 . Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.« less

  5. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando; Coh, Sinisa; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-01-01

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. By analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. Our method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenides such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W−1. Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells. PMID:28120823

  6. Apparatus for encapsulating a photovoltaic module

    DOEpatents

    Albright, Scot P.; Dugan, Larry M.

    1995-10-24

    The subject inventions concern various photovoltaic module designs to protect the module from horizontal and vertical impacts and degradation of solar cell efficiency caused by moisture. In one design, a plurality of panel supports that are positioned adjacent to the upper panel in a photovoltaic module absorb vertical forces exerted along an axis perpendicular to the upper panel. Other designs employ layers of glass and tempered glass, respectively, to protect the module from vertical impacts. A plurality of button-shaped channels is used around the edges of the photovoltaic module to absorb forces applied to the module along an axis parallel to the module and direct moisture away from the module that could otherwise penetrate the module and adversely affect the cells within the module. A spacer is employed between the upper and lower panels that has a coefficient of thermal expansion substantially equivalent to the coefficient of thermal expansion of at least one of the panels.

  7. Design principles for shift current photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Ashley M.; M. Fregoso, Benjamin; de Juan, Fernando

    While the basic principles of conventional solar cells are well understood, little attention has gone towards maximizing the efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on shift currents. Furthermore, by analysing effective models, here we outline simple design principles for the optimization of shift currents for frequencies near the band gap. This method allows us to express the band edge shift current in terms of a few model parameters and to show it depends explicitly on wavefunctions in addition to standard band structure. We use our approach to identify two classes of shift current photovoltaics, ferroelectric polymer films and single-layer orthorhombic monochalcogenidesmore » such as GeS, which display the largest band edge responsivities reported so far. Moreover, exploring the parameter space of the tight-binding models that describe them we find photoresponsivities that can exceed 100 mA W -1 . Our results illustrate the great potential of shift current photovoltaics to compete with conventional solar cells.« less

  8. Polymer substrates for flexible photovoltaic cells application in personal electronic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znajdek, K.; Sibiński, M.; Strąkowska, A.; Lisik, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of polymeric materials for flexible substrates in photovoltaic (PV) structures that could be used as power supply in the personal electronic systems. Four types of polymers have been elected for testing. The first two are the most specialized and heat resistant polyimide films. The third material is transparent polyethylene terephthalate film from the group of polyesters which was proposed as a cheap and commercially available substrate for the technology of photovoltaic cells in a superstrate configuration. The last selected polymeric material is a polysiloxane, which meets the criteria of high elasticity, is temperature resistant and it is also characterized by relatively high transparency in the visible light range. For the most promising of these materials additional studies were performed in order to select those of them which represent the best optical, mechanical and temperature parameters according to their usage for flexible substrates in solar cells.

  9. Photovoltaic Roofs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, R. W., Jr.; Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Solar cells perform two functions: waterproofing roof and generating electricity. Sections through horizontal and slanting joints show overlapping modules sealed by L-section rubber strips and side-by-side modules sealed by P-section strips. Water seeping through seals of slanting joints drains along channels. Rooftop photovoltaic array used watertight south facing roof, replacing shingles, tar, and gravel. Concept reduces cost of residential solar-cell array.

  10. 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Thomas L. (Compiler)

    2005-01-01

    The 18th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVIII) Conference was held September 16 to 18, 2003, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar cell technology. This year s conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVII-the continued advances of thin-film and multijunction solar cell technologies and the new issues required to qualify those types of cells for space applications.

  11. NASA photovoltaic research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Dennis J.

    1988-01-01

    NASA photovoltaic R and D efforts address future Agency space mission needs through a comprehensive, integrated program. Activities range from fundamental studies of materials and devices to technology demonstrations of prototype hardware. The program aims to develop and apply an improved understanding of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and systems that will increase the performance, reduce the mass, and extend the lifetime of photovoltaic arrays for use in space. To that end, there are efforts aimed at improving cell efficiency, reducing the effects of space particulate radiation damage (primarily electrons and protons), developing ultralightweight cells, and developing advanced ray component technology for high efficiency concentrator arrays and high performance, ultralightweight arrays. Current goals that have been quantified for the program are to develop cell and array technology capable of achieving 300 watts/kg for future missions for which mass is a critical factor, or 300 watts/sq m for future missions for which array size is a major driver (i.e., Space Station). A third important goal is to develop cell and array technology which will survive the GEO space radiation environment for at least 10 years.

  12. Emerging Novel Metal Electrodes for Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifei; Ren, Xingang; Ouyang, Dan; Choy, Wallace C H

    2018-04-01

    Emerging novel metal electrodes not only serve as the collector of free charge carriers, but also function as light trapping designs in photovoltaics. As a potential alternative to commercial indium tin oxide, transparent electrodes composed of metal nanowire, metal mesh, and ultrathin metal film are intensively investigated and developed for achieving high optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Moreover, light trapping designs via patterning of the back thick metal electrode into different nanostructures, which can deliver a considerable efficiency improvement of photovoltaic devices, contribute by the plasmon-enhanced light-mattering interactions. Therefore, here the recent works of metal-based transparent electrodes and patterned back electrodes in photovoltaics are reviewed, which may push the future development of this exciting field. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  14. Effects of solar photovoltaic technology on the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liqiang; Zhang, Yajuan

    2017-10-01

    Among the various types of renewable energy, solar photovoltaic has elicited the most attention because of its low pollution, abundant reserve, and endless supply. Solar photovoltaic technology generates both positive and negative effects on the environment. The environmental loss of 0.00666 yuan/kWh from solar photovoltaic technology is lower than that from coal-fired power generation (0.05216 yuan/kWh). The negative effects of solar photovoltaic system production include wastewater and waste gas pollutions, the representatives of which contain fluorine, chromium with wastewater and hydrogen fluoride, and silicon tetrachloride gas. Solar panels are also a source of light pollution. Improper disposal of solar cells that have reached the end of their service life harms the environment through the stench they produce and the damage they cause to the soil. So, the positive and negative effects of green energy photovoltaic power generation technology on the environment should be considered.

  15. [Utilization of self-help groups and psychotherapy after psychosomatic-psychotherapeutic in-patient treatment].

    PubMed

    Höflich, Anke; Matzat, Jürgen; Meyer, Friedhelm; Knickenberg, Rudolf J; Bleichner, Franz; Merkle, Wolfgang; Reimer, Christian; Franke, Wolfram; Beutel, Manfred E

    2007-05-01

    Until now little is known about the role of participation in self-help groups alone or combined with psychotherapy in post-in-patient care. In the present study 2933 patients were questioned about their experience of self-help groups and psychotherapy after discharge from a clinic for psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Nearly 8 % of them utilized self-help groups (mostly combined with out-patient psychotherapy), and altogether 68 % out-patient psychotherapy following in-patient treatment. Patients without out-patient treatment were psychologically less burdened and had better resources than participants of self-help groups or psychotherapy. Self-help group members differed from patients in out-patient psychotherapy by expressing a more positive opinion of groupwork and higher openness to new experiences. Additionly, they had discussed the topic of self-help groups more frequently with their therapists. This may be a starting-point for promoting more self-help activities of patients in the future.

  16. Improved ATIR concentrator photovoltaic module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriani, Paul M.; Mao, Erwang

    2013-09-01

    Novel aggregated total internal reflection (ATIR) concentrator photovoltaic module design comprises 2-D shaped primary and secondary optics that effectively combine optical efficiency, low profile, convenient range of acceptance angles, reliability, and manufacturability. This novel optical design builds upon previous investigations by improving the shapes of primary and secondary optics to enable improved long-term reliability and manufacturability. This low profile, low concentration (5x to 10x) design fits well with one-axis trackers that are often used for flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in large scale ground mount installations. Standard mounting points, materials, and procedures apply without changes from flat plate modules.

  17. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan [Gaithersburg, MD; Kumar, Bikash [Bangalore, IN

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOEpatents

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  19. Superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, M.; So, L. C.; Leburton, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel class of photovoltaic cascade structures is introduced which features multijunction upper subcells. These superstructure high efficiency photovoltaics (SHEP's) exhibit enhanced upper subcell spectral response because of the additional junctions which serve to reduce bulk recombination losses by decreasing the mean collection distance for photogenerated minority carriers. Two possible electrical configurations were studied and compared: a three-terminal scheme that allows both subcells to be operated at their individual maximum power points and a two-terminal configuration with an intercell ohmic contact for series interconnection. The three-terminal devices were found to be superior both in terms of beginning-of-life expectancy and radiation tolerance. Realistic simulations of three-terminal AlGaAs/GaAs SHEP's show that one sun AMO efficiencies in excess of 26 percent are possible.

  20. Solar energy/utility interface - The technical issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabors, R. D.; White, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The technical and economic factors affecting an interface between solar/wind power sources and utilities are examined. Photovoltaic, solar thermal, and wind powered systems are subject to stochastic local climatic variations and as such may require full back-up services from utilities, which are then in a position of having reserve generating power and power lines and equipment which are used only part time. The low reliability which has degraded some economies of scale formerly associated with large, centralized power plants, and the lowered rate of the increase in electricity usage is taken to commend the inclusion of power sources with a modular nature such as is available from solar derived electrical generation. Technical issues for maintaining the quality of grid power and also effectively metering purchased and supplied back-up power as part of a homeostatic system of energy control are discussed. It is concluded that economic considerations, rather than technical issues, bear the most difficulty in integrating solar technologies into the utility network.

  1. Fluorinated tin oxide back contact for AZTSSe photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, Talia S.; Gunawan, Oki; Haight, Richard A.

    A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact comprising a stable low-work function material, a photovoltaic absorber material layer comprising Ag.sub.2ZnSn(S,Se).sub.4 (AZTSSe) on a side of the back contact opposite the substrate, wherein the back contact forms an Ohmic contact with the photovoltaic absorber material layer, a buffer layer or Schottky contact layer on a side of the absorber layer opposite the back contact, and a top electrode on a side of the buffer layer opposite the absorber layer.

  2. Cellules solaires photovoltaïques plastiques enjeux et perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicot, L.; Dumarcher, V.; Raimond, P.; Rosilio, C.; Sentein, C.; Fiorini, C.

    2002-04-01

    Après avoir détaillé le fonctionnement d'une cellule photovoltaïque plastique et les paramètres photovoltaïques permettant de caractéiser son efficacité, un état de l'art des technologies de fabrication des cellules est présenté. Des moyens d'amélioration des performances des cellules photovoltaïques organiques sont ensuite illustrés par l'étude de dispositifs développés au Laboratoire Composants Organiques (LCO) du CEA Saclay.

  3. Roadmap to Guide U.S. Photovoltaics Industry in 21st Century

    Science.gov Websites

    industry wants them to have it. Solar-cell manufacturers and suppliers see photovoltaics (PV) producing at Roadmap to Guide U.S. Photovoltaics Industry in 21st Century Solar energy will provide emergency Douglas Golden, Colo., Jan. 20, 2000 - Americans want clean solar electricity. The U.S. photovoltaics

  4. Photovoltaic (PV) Systems Comparison at Fort Hood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Monocrystalline PV panels • Energy Photovoltaics, EPV-42 Solar Modules: Thin film PV panels • OutBack Flexware PV Advanced Photovoltaic Combiner...energy for an administrative building – Compare the performance between two different PV technologies: thin film and crystalline PV panels • Demo Team...Center for Energy and Environment PV Technology • Monocrystalline silicon1 • Thin film2 1 “About Solar,” DBK Corporation, http://www.dbksolar.com

  5. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  6. Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehl, W. W., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    The COASTSYSTA designed, installed, and started up on 20 Jan. 1990, a state-of-the-art stand alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any auxiliary/battery backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS installed on 775' of steel sheet piling of a Navy bulkhead is continuing to provide complete, continuous corrosion protection. This has been well documented by COASTSYSTA and verified on-site by the U.S. Army Civil Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois and the Navy Energy Program Office-Photovoltaic Programs, China Lake, California. The Department of Defense (DoD) Photovoltaic Review Committee and Sandia National Laboratories consider this successful and cost effective system a major advance in the application of photovoltaic power. The PVCPSYS uses only renewable energy and is environmentally clean. A patent is pending on the new technology. Other possible PVCPSYS applications are mothballed ships, docks, dams, locks, bridges, marinas, offshore structures, and pipelines. The initial cost savings by installing a PVCPSYS vs. a conventional CP system was in excess of $46,000.00.

  7. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion in the '80s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, I.

    1981-04-01

    The potential for photovoltaic solar energy conversion in the generation of electricity to meet the needs of industrial and developing nations in the 1980s is discussed. The current technology of photovoltaic cells and modules, which are for the most part based on single crystal silicon and can deliver peak powers of 2 to 40 W at 6 to 12 V, is reviewed and prospects for cost reduction in the short- and medium-term by the development of new materials and production methods and increased cell efficiency and in the long term by the development of thin film cells, alternative compounds and mass production are indicated. Possible applications of photovoltaic-derived electricity are pointed out, including educational television receivers, rural telephones, refrigerators, water pumping and hospitals in developing nations and telecommunications, cathodic protection, signaling, telemetry and low-power pumping applications in industrial nations. Predictions of a photovoltaic peak Watt installed costing less than 10 francs by 1990 and a market above 100 MW in 1985 are pointed out.

  8. Photovoltaic power without batteries for continuous cathodic protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehl, W. W., Sr.

    1994-02-01

    The COASTSYSTA designed, installed, and started up on 20 Jan. 1990, a state-of-the-art stand alone photovoltaic powered impressed current cathodic protection system (PVCPSYS) not requiring any auxiliary/battery backup power for steel and iron submerged structures. The PVCPSYS installed on 775' of steel sheet piling of a Navy bulkhead is continuing to provide complete, continuous corrosion protection. This has been well documented by COASTSYSTA and verified on-site by the U.S. Army Civil Engineering Research Laboratory, Champaign, Illinois and the Navy Energy Program Office-Photovoltaic Programs, China Lake, California. The Department of Defense (DoD) Photovoltaic Review Committee and Sandia National Laboratories consider this successful and cost effective system a major advance in the application of photovoltaic power. The PVCPSYS uses only renewable energy and is environmentally clean. A patent is pending on the new technology. Other possible PVCPSYS applications are mothballed ships, docks, dams, locks, bridges, marinas, offshore structures, and pipelines. The initial cost savings by installing a PVCPSYS vs. a conventional CP system was in excess of $46,000.00.

  9. Application of compound parabolic concentrators to solar photovoltaic conversion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Graven, R.M.

    1977-02-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study of the application of nonimaging concentrators to solar photovoltaic conversion are presented. Two versions of the Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) were considered, the Dielectric Compound Parabolic Concentrator (DCPC) in which the concentrator is filled with a dielectric material that satisfies requirements for Total Internal Reflection (TIR), and a conventional CPC in which metallic reflection is used for the mirror surfaces. Two working prototype panels were constructed and tested during the course of the program. The first was a 1.22 m by 1.22 m DCPC panel that requires only ten adjustments/year, hasmore » a panel utilization factor (packing factor) of 96%, and delivered the equivalent of 138 W (peak) under 1 kW/m/sup 2/ direct insolation. The net energy conversion efficiency was 10.3% over the entire panel area. The second panel was a conventional CPC panel measuring 1.22 m by 1.22 m. This panel requires thirty-six adjustments per year, and delivers the equivalent of 97 W when under 1 kW/m/sup 2/ direct insolation. The results of a cost-effectiveness analysis of the concept of using nonimaging concentrators for photovoltaic conversion are also presented. The concentrator panels showed a decided savings in comparison to the cost of flat plate photovoltaic panels, both at present-day silicon costs ($2000/m/sup 2/) and projected lower silicon costs ($200/m/sup 2/). At a silicon cost of $200/m/sup 2/, a two-dimensional (cone) version of the collector has the potential for achieving from $0.60-2.00 per average watt (about $0.15-0.50 per peak watt) while requiring only crude (+-4.5/sup 0/) tracking.« less

  10. Intermediate load-center photovoltaic application experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A total of nine intermediate load-center photovoltaic systems were carried into the construction phase this year. These nine systems range in size from 20 to 225 kW/sub p/ electrical output and total almost 1 MW/sub p/. They are being installed in a diverse set of applications and locations and represent the bulk of the photovoltaic initial system evaluation experiments (ISEE) for the intermediate load-center sector. Each of these experiments are briefly described and the status of the construction phase is given for each project.

  11. Multijunction photovoltaic device and fabrication method

    DOEpatents

    Arya, Rajeewa R.; Catalano, Anthony W.

    1993-09-21

    A multijunction photovoltaic device includes first and second amorphous silicon PIN photovoltaic cells in a stacked arrangement. An interface layer, composed of a doped silicon compound, is disposed between the two cells and has a lower bandgap than the respective n- and p-type adjacent layers of the first and second cells. The interface layer forms an ohmic contact with the one or the adjacent cell layers of the same conductivity type, and a tunnel junction with the other of the adjacent cell layers. The disclosed device is fabricated by a glow discharge process.

  12. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The Fourteenth Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from October 24-26, 1995. The abstracts presented in this volume report substantial progress in a variety of areas in space photovoltaics. Technical and review papers were presented in many areas, including high efficiency GaAs and InP solar cells, GaAs/Ge cells as commercial items, high efficiency multiple bandgap cells, solar cell and array technology, heteroepitaxial cells, thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, and space radiation effects. Space flight data on a variety of cells were also presented.

  13. Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Fourteenth Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology conference was held at the NASA Lewis Research Center from October 24-26, 1995. The abstracts presented in this volume report substantial progress in a variety of areas in space photovoltaics. Technical and review papers were presented in many areas, including high efficiency GaAs and InP solar cells, GaAs/Ge cells as commercial items, high efficiency multiple bandgap cells, solar cell and array technology, heteroepitaxial cells, thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, and space radiation effects. Space flight data on a variety of cells were also presented.

  14. Monthly Solar Photovoltaic Module Shipments Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    This report contains newly collected monthly summary data beginning in January 2017, for the photovoltaic industry in the United States. The subset of respondents who now must report monthly represents approximately 90% of photovoltaic (PV) activity in the United States, based on prior year’s data. Data include manufacturing, imports, and exports of modules in the United States and its territories. Summary data include volumes in peak kilowatts and average prices. Where possible, imports and exports are listed by country, and shipments to the United States are listed by state.

  15. SAM Photovoltaic Model Technical Reference 2016 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, Paul; DiOrio, Nicholas A; Freeman, Janine M

    This manual describes the photovoltaic performance model in the System Advisor Model (SAM) software, Version 2016.3.14 Revision 4 (SSC Version 160). It is an update to the 2015 edition of the manual, which describes the photovoltaic model in SAM 2015.1.30 (SSC 41). This new edition includes corrections of errors in the 2015 edition and descriptions of new features introduced in SAM 2016.3.14, including: 3D shade calculator Battery storage model DC power optimizer loss inputs Snow loss model Plane-of-array irradiance input from weather file option Support for sub-hourly simulations Self-shading works with all four subarrays, and uses same algorithm for fixedmore » arrays and one-axis tracking Linear self-shading algorithm for thin-film modules Loss percentages replace derate factors. The photovoltaic performance model is one of the modules in the SAM Simulation Core (SSC), which is part of both SAM and the SAM SDK. SAM is a user-friedly desktop application for analysis of renewable energy projects. The SAM SDK (Software Development Kit) is for developers writing their own renewable energy analysis software based on SSC. This manual is written for users of both SAM and the SAM SDK wanting to learn more about the details of SAM's photovoltaic model.« less

  16. 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Phillip (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The 17th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology (SPRAT XVII) Conference was held September 11-13, 2001, at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Cleveland, Ohio. The SPRAT conference, hosted by the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center, brought together representatives of the space photovoltaic community from around the world to share the latest advances in space solar technology. This year's conference continued to build on many of the trends shown in SPRAT XVI; the use of new high-efficiency cells for commercial use and the development of novel array concepts such as Boeing's Solar Tile concept. In addition, new information was presented on space environmental interactions with solar arrays.

  17. Maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcidiacono, V.; Corsi, S.; Lambri, L.

    The paper describes two different closed-loop control criteria for the maximum power point tracking of the voltage-current characteristic of a photovoltaic generator. The two criteria are discussed and compared, inter alia, with regard to the setting-up problems that they pose. Although a detailed analysis is not embarked upon, the paper also provides some quantitative information on the energy advantages obtained by using electronic maximum power point tracking systems, as compared with the situation in which the point of operation of the photovoltaic generator is not controlled at all. Lastly, the paper presents two high-efficiency MPPT converters for experimental photovoltaic plants of the stand-alone and the grid-interconnected type.

  18. Simulated hail impact testing of photovoltaic solar panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D.; Wilson, A.; Ross, R.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques used to simulate and study the effect of hail on photovoltaic solar panels are described. Simulated hail stones (frozen ice spheres projected at terminal velocity) or steel balls were applied by air guns, gravity drop, or static loading. Tests with simulated hail and steel balls yielded different results. The impact strength of 10 commercially available flat-plate photovoltaic modules was tested. It was found that none of the six panel designs incorporating clear potting silicone material as the outermost layer remained undamaged by 1-in. simulated hailstones, while a photovoltaic module equipped with a 0.188-in.-thick acrylic cover sheet would be able to withstand the impact of a 2-in.-diameter hailstone.

  19. Photovoltaic Powering And Control System For Electrochromic Windows

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Stephen C.; Michalski, Lech A.; Volltrauer, Hermann N.; Van Dine, John E.

    2000-04-25

    A sealed insulated glass unit is provided with an electrochromic device for modulating light passing through the unit. The electrochromic device is controlled from outside the unit by a remote control electrically unconnected to the device. Circuitry within the unit may be magnetically controlled from outside. The electrochromic device is powered by a photovoltaic cells. The photovoltaic cells may be positioned so that at least a part of the light incident on the cell passes through the electrochromic device, providing a form of feedback control. A variable resistance placed in parallel with the electrochromic element is used to control the response of the electrochromic element to changes in output of the photovoltaic cell.

  20. Photovoltaic battery & charge controller market & applications survey. An evaluation of the photovoltaic system market for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, R.L.; Turpin, J.F.; Corey, G.P.

    1996-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Battery Analysis and Evaluation Department and the Photovoltaic System Assistance Center of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) initiated a U.S. industry-wide PV Energy Storage System Survey. Arizona State University (ASU) was contracted by SNL in June 1995 to conduct the survey. The survey included three separate segments tailored to: (a) PV system integrators, (b) battery manufacturers, and (c) PV charge controller manufacturers. The overall purpose of the survey was to: (a) quantify the market for batteries shipped with (or for) PV systems in 1995, (b) quantify the PVmore » market segments by battery type and application for PV batteries, (c) characterize and quantify the charge controllers used in PV systems, (d) characterize the operating environment for energy storage components in PV systems, and (e) estimate the PV battery market for the year 2000. All three segments of the survey were mailed in January 1996. This report discusses the purpose, methodology, results, and conclusions of the survey.« less

  1. Molecular design toward highly efficient photovoltaic polymers based on two-dimensional conjugated benzodithiophene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Long; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Zhang, Maojie; Hou, Jianhui

    2014-05-20

    As researchers continue to develop new organic materials for solar cells, benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers have come to the fore. To improve the photovoltaic properties of BDT-based polymers, researchers have developed and applied various strategies leading to the successful molecular design of highly efficient photovoltaic polymers. Novel polymer materials composed of two-dimensional conjugated BDT (2D-conjugated BDT) have boosted the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs) to levels that exceed 9%. In this Account, we summarize recent progress related to the design and synthesis of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and discuss their applications in highly efficient photovoltaic devices. We introduce the basic considerations for the construction of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and systematic molecular design guidelines. For example, simply modifying an alkoxyl-substituted BDT to form an alkylthienyl-substituted BDT can improve the polymer hole mobilities substantially with little effect on their molecular energy level. Secondly, the addition of a variety of chemical moieties to the polymer can produce a 2D-conjugated BDT unit with more functions. For example, the introduction of a conjugated side chain with electron deficient groups (such as para-alkyl-phenyl, meta-alkoxyl-phenyl, and 2-alkyl-3-fluoro-thienyl) allowed us to modulate the molecular energy levels of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers. Through the rational design of BDT analogues such as dithienobenzodithiophene (DTBDT) or the insertion of larger π bridges, we can tune the backbone conformations of these polymers and modulate their photovoltaic properties. We also discuss the influence of 2D-conjugated BDT on polymer morphology and the blends of these polymers with phenyl-C61 (or C71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Finally, we summarize the various applications of the 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers in highly efficient PSC devices. Overall, this Account

  2. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-07-09

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time ( t ig ), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m². This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  3. Analysis of selected photovoltaic systems and storage options for residential applications in hot, humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, A. S.; Hill, J. M.; Ball, D. E.

    1982-08-01

    The relationship is studied between photovoltaic (PV) generated power and its on-site use as a function of total array size for an energy-efficient house in the hot, humid climates of Miami and Houston. Options in addition to be the full-roof system using a direct current (dc) to alternating current (ac) inverter are studied in an effort to identify applications which are less expensive and which rely less on utility sellback. The results show that common residential loads in this climate lead to high on-site utilization. For the various PV applications studied, array sizes are identified which can be fully potential is identified both in the house structure and the domestic water heater. Using projected 1986 costs, the economics of selected systems were studied for Miami. Only one of the system sizes was found to be marginally competitive with utility supplied power.

  4. Solar radiation on Mars: Stationary photovoltaic array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Sherman, I.; Landis, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    Solar energy is likely to be an important power source for surface-based operation on Mars. Photovoltaic cells offer many advantages. In this article we have presented analytical expressions and solar radiation data for stationary flat surfaces (horizontal and inclined) as a function of latitude, season and atmospheric dust load (optical depth). The diffuse component of the solar radiation on Mars can be significant, thus greatly affecting the optimal inclination angle of the photovoltaic surface.

  5. Results of the harmonics measurement program at the John F. Long photovoltaic house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campen, G. L.

    1982-03-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems used in single-family dwellings require an inverter to act as an interface between the direct-current (dc) power output of the PV unit and the alternating-current (ac) power needed by house loads. A type of inverter known as line commutated injects harmonic currents on the ac side and requires large amounts of reactive power. Large numbers of such PV installations could lead to unacceptable levels of harmonic voltages on the utility system, and the need to increase the utility's deliver of reactive power could result in significant cost increases. The harmonics and power-factor effects are examined for a single PV installation using a line-commutated inverter. The magnitude and phase of various currents and voltages from the fundamental to the 13th harmonic were recorded both with and without the operation of the PV system.

  6. Photovoltaic research needs industry perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, K. V.

    1982-01-01

    An industries perspective of photovoltaic research needs is presented. Objectives and features of industry needs are discussed for the materials, devices, processes, and reliability research categories.

  7. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOEpatents

    Branz, H.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1994-12-27

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer. 5 figures.

  8. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOEpatents

    Branz, Howard M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1994-01-01

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer.

  9. Radiation Effects in Dual Heat Sinks for Cooling of Concentrated Photovoltaics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Schematic of a Concentrated Photovoltaic System . Source: [4]..................2 Figure 2. Temperature-Efficiency Curves of Select Solar Cells. Adapted from...in contrast to conventional systems . Conventional photovoltaics simply have incident solar radiation impinge on a semiconductor, CPV uses magnifying...reduce system cost. Figure 1 shows a concept schematic of a basic CPV system . Figure 1. Schematic of a Concentrated Photovoltaic System . Source

  10. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years.more » 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.« less

  11. High voltage photovoltaic power converter

    DOEpatents

    Haigh, Ronald E.; Wojtczuk, Steve; Jacobson, Gerard F.; Hagans, Karla G.

    2001-01-01

    An array of independently connected photovoltaic cells on a semi-insulating substrate contains reflective coatings between the cells to enhance efficiency. A uniform, flat top laser beam profile is illuminated upon the array to produce electrical current having high voltage. An essentially wireless system includes a laser energy source being fed through optic fiber and cast upon the photovoltaic cell array to prevent stray electrical signals prior to use of the current from the array. Direct bandgap, single crystal semiconductor materials, such as GaAs, are commonly used in the array. Useful applications of the system include locations where high voltages are provided to confined spaces such as in explosive detonation, accelerators, photo cathodes and medical appliances.

  12. The Redox flow system for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new method of storage was applied to a solar photovoltaic system. The storage method is a redox flow system which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two soluble electrochemical redox couples for its storage capacity. The particular variant described separates the charging and discharging function of the system such that the electrochemical couples are simultaneously charged and discharged in separate parts of the system. The solar array had 12 solar cells; wired in order to give a range of voltages and currents. The system stored the solar energy so that a load could be run continually day and night. The main advantages of the redox system are that it can accept a charge in the low voltage range and produce a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity.

  13. ACCURATE BUILDING INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM (BIPV) ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the leading areas of renewable energy applications for the twenty-first century is building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV). Integrating photovoltaics into building structures allows the costs of the PV system to be partially offset by the solar modules also serving a s...

  14. Cost-utility analysis of meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    van der Spek, Nadia; Jansen, Femke; Holtmaat, Karen; Vos, Joël; Breitbart, William; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Cuijpers, Pim; Coupé, Veerle M H; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2018-04-06

    Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for cancer survivors (MCGP-CS) improves meaning, psychological well-being, and mental adjustment to cancer and reduces psychological distress. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the cost-utility of MCGP-CS compared with supportive group psychotherapy (SGP) and care-as-usual (CAU). In total, 170 patients were randomized to MCGP-CS, SGP, or CAU. Intervention costs, direct medical and nonmedical costs, productivity losses, and health-related quality of life were measured until 6 months follow-up, using the TIC-P, PRODISQ, data from the hospital information system, and the EQ-5D. The cost-utility was calculated by comparing mean cumulative costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Mean total costs ranged from €4492 (MCGP-CS) to €5304 (CAU). Mean QALYs ranged .507 (CAU) to .540 (MCGP-CS). MCGP-CS had a probability of 74% to be both less costly and more effective than CAU, and 49% compared with SGP. Sensitivity analyses showed these findings are robust. If society is willing to pay €0 for one gained QALY, MCGP-CS has a 78% probability of being cost-effective compared with CAU. This increases to 85% and 92% at willingness-to-pay thresholds of €10 000 and €30 000, which are commonly accepted thresholds. MCGP-CS is highly likely a cost-effective intervention, meaning that there is a positive balance between the costs and gains of MCGP-CS, in comparison with SGP and CAU. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Developmental trends in utilizing perceptual closure for grouping of shape: effects of spatial proximity and collinearity.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Kimchi, Ruth

    2006-11-01

    In two experiments, visual search was used to study the grouping of shape on the basis of perceptual closure among participants 5-23 years of age. We first showed that young children, like adults, demonstrate an efficient search for a concave target among convex distractors for closed connected stimuli but an inefficient search for open stimuli. Reliable developmental differences, however, were observed in search for fragmented stimuli as a function of spatial proximity and collinearity between the closure-inducing fragments. When only closure was available, search for all the age groups was equally efficient for spatially close fragments and equally inefficient for spatially distant fragments. When closure and collinearity were available, search for spatially close fragments was equally efficient for all the age groups, but search for spatially distant fragments was inefficient for younger children and improved significantly between ages 5 and 10. These findings suggest that young children can utilize closure as efficiently as can adults for the grouping of shape for closed or nearly closed stimuli. When the closure-inducing fragments are spatially distant, only older children and adults, but not 5-year-olds, can utilize collinearity to enhance closure for the perceptual grouping of shape.

  16. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  17. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  18. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  19. Towards designing polymers for photovoltaic applications: A DFT and experimental study of polyazomethines with various chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Iwan, Agnieszka; Pilch, Marek; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Wójcik, Kamil; Tazbir, Igor; Kaminska, Maria

    2017-06-15

    Theoretical studies of polyazomethines (PAZs) with various chemical structures designated for photovoltaic applications are presented. PAZ energy levels and optical properties were calculated within density-functional theory (DFT and TDDFT) framework for 28 oligomers (monomer, dimer and trimer) of PAZs. The correlations between chemical structure of PAZ and location of its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were examined. It turned out that the presence of triaminophenylene, dimethoxydiphenylene and fluorine group raises the orbital energies. As a consequence, it is a factor which improves the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cell built on the base of the corresponding PAZ and [6,6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). On the contrary, quinone, 1,3,5-triazine and perfluorophenylene groups lower orbital energies and have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency. Moreover, calculations for methyl, ethyl and butyl analogs of P3HT as well as polythiophenes were performed and compared with the results obtained for PAZs. In addition experimental data are presented, which cover optical, electrochemical and electrical transport properties of the studied PAZs, allowing to determine HOMO and LUMO energies of the polymers and their conductivity. Finally, comparison between calculated and experimental results were made and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Towards designing polymers for photovoltaic applications: A DFT and experimental study of polyazomethines with various chemical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtkiewicz, Jacek; Iwan, Agnieszka; Pilch, Marek; Boharewicz, Bartosz; Wójcik, Kamil; Tazbir, Igor; Kaminska, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Theoretical studies of polyazomethines (PAZs) with various chemical structures designated for photovoltaic applications are presented. PAZ energy levels and optical properties were calculated within density-functional theory (DFT and TDDFT) framework for 28 oligomers (monomer, dimer and trimer) of PAZs. The correlations between chemical structure of PAZ and location of its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels were examined. It turned out that the presence of triaminophenylene, dimethoxydiphenylene and fluorine group raises the orbital energies. As a consequence, it is a factor which improves the photovoltaic efficiency of solar cell built on the base of the corresponding PAZ and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). On the contrary, quinone, 1,3,5-triazine and perfluorophenylene groups lower orbital energies and have negative influence on the photovoltaic efficiency. Moreover, calculations for methyl, ethyl and butyl analogs of P3HT as well as polythiophenes were performed and compared with the results obtained for PAZs. In addition experimental data are presented, which cover optical, electrochemical and electrical transport properties of the studied PAZs, allowing to determine HOMO and LUMO energies of the polymers and their conductivity. Finally, comparison between calculated and experimental results were made and discussed.