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Sample records for uv ceti stars

  1. Kinematics, ages, and evolutionary status of UV Ceti stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, A.; Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Cordero, G.; Lavalley, C.

    1996-04-01

    The kinematic properties of 93 UV Ceti stars of the solar neighborhood are studied, based on a list of flares within 25 pc of the Sun (π>=0.04"). With updated values for their distances, proper motions and radial velocities, space velocity dispersions are calculated for these stars. It is found that the total velocity dispersion of the flare stars (σ=30+/-3km/s) is similar to that of the F5 V stars from the same catalogue, for which the conventionally estimated mean age is about 3x10^9^yr. Membership of the flare stars to some well-identified kinematic groups and superclusters is studied. A number of flares are identified as members of the Hyades, Sirius or Pleiades groups. The velocity dispersions found for the nearby flare stars and the membership of some of them to young kinematic groups indicate that they belong to the young disk population. The evolutionary status of the UV Ceti stars is discussed on the basis of these results. It is concluded that they do not differ significantly from the flash stars and that, indeed, they may be identified with the older remnants of the flash population of galactic clusters long ago disrupted. A small number (7) of UV Ceti stars have kinematics corresponding to thick disk or halo population. Their long-lived chromospheric activity is interpreted as due to coalescence of old short-period binaries. The question of the age of Proxima Centauri is examined in the context of our results, and found to be compatible with the ages of Alpha Centauri A and B.

  2. Nucleosynthesis of Li-7 in flares on UV Ceti stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, J. T.; Worden, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    The possible production of Li-7 by nuclear reactions in UV Ceti flares has been considered. By utilizing solar observations and theory, a relationship is derived between flare energy and production rates for Li-7; approximately 100 erg of total flare energy is found to denote the formation of a Li-7 atom. Based on this value and best estimates of UV Ceti-type flare rates, it is concluded that less than 10% of the Li-7 observed in the intestellar medium may have been produced by this mechanism. Formation of significant amounts of interstellar deuterium by this method is ruled out.

  3. Optical microflaring on the nearby flare star binary UV Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Kanbach, G.; Rau, A.; Steinle, H.

    2016-05-01

    We present extremely high time resolution observations of the visual flare star binary UV Cet obtained with the Optical Pulsar Timing Analyzer (OPTIMA) at the 1.3 m telescope at Skinakas Observatory (SKO) in Crete, Greece. OPTIMA is a fiber-fed optical instrument that uses Single Photon Avalanche Diodes to measure the arrival times of individual optical photons. The time resolution of the observations presented here was 4 μs, allowing to resolve the typical millisecond variability time scales associated with stellar flares. We report the detection of very short impulsive bursts in the blue band with well resolved rise and decay time scales of about 2 s. The overall energetics put these flares at the lower end of the known flare distribution of UV Cet.

  4. A search for X-rays from UV Ceti flare stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Markert, T. H.; Moffett, T. J.; Spangler, S. R.

    1975-01-01

    A search of MIT/OSO-7 data was made for evidence of X-ray emission from flares of UV Ceti flare stars. Observations from McDonald Observatory were used to identify the times of optical flares. The only instance of coincident coverage occurred on 1974 January 21 UT at 03:43:26 GMT for delta m(u)=0.86 flare of YZ CMi. No radio coverage of this particular event was obtained. Upper limits (3 sigma) of 0.8, 1.0, and 0.7 photons/sq cm-sec on the observed X-ray flux were set for the energy ranges greater than or approximately equal to 15, greater than or approximately equal to 3, and 1-10 keV, respectively.

  5. UV Spectroscopy of Star-grazing Comets Within the 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2016-06-01

    We present the analysis of time-variable Doppler-shifted absorption features in far-UV spectra of the unusual 49 Ceti debris disk. This nearly edge-on disk is one of the brightest known and is one of the very few containing detectable amounts of circumstellar (CS) gas as well as dust. In our two visits of Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra, variable absorption features are seen on the wings of lines arising from Cii and Civ but not for any of the other CS absorption lines. Similar variable features have long been seen in spectra of the well-studied β Pictoris debris disk and attributed to the transits of star-grazing comets. We calculated the velocity ranges and apparent column densities of the 49 Cet variable gas, which appears to have been moving at velocities of tens to hundreds of km s-1 relative to the central star. The velocities in the redshifted variable event seen in the second visit show that the maximum distances of the infalling gas at the time of transit were about 0.05-0.2 au from the central star. A preliminary attempt at a composition analysis of the redshifted event suggests that the C/O ratio in the infalling gas is super-solar, as it is in the bulk of the stable disk gas.

  6. UV Spectroscopy of Star-grazing Comets Within the 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2016-06-01

    We present the analysis of time-variable Doppler-shifted absorption features in far-UV spectra of the unusual 49 Ceti debris disk. This nearly edge-on disk is one of the brightest known and is one of the very few containing detectable amounts of circumstellar (CS) gas as well as dust. In our two visits of Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra, variable absorption features are seen on the wings of lines arising from Cii and Civ but not for any of the other CS absorption lines. Similar variable features have long been seen in spectra of the well-studied β Pictoris debris disk and attributed to the transits of star-grazing comets. We calculated the velocity ranges and apparent column densities of the 49 Cet variable gas, which appears to have been moving at velocities of tens to hundreds of km s‑1 relative to the central star. The velocities in the redshifted variable event seen in the second visit show that the maximum distances of the infalling gas at the time of transit were about 0.05–0.2 au from the central star. A preliminary attempt at a composition analysis of the redshifted event suggests that the C/O ratio in the infalling gas is super-solar, as it is in the bulk of the stable disk gas.

  7. A NEW METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING FLARES OF UV Ceti TYPE STARS: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SLOW AND FAST FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Dal, H. A.; Evren, S.

    2010-08-15

    In this study, a new method is presented to classify flares derived from the photoelectric photometry of UV Ceti type stars. This method is based on statistical analyses using an independent samples t-test. The data used in analyses were obtained from four flare stars observed between 2004 and 2007. The total number of flares obtained in the observations of AD Leo, EV Lac, EQ Peg, and V1054 Oph is 321 in the standard Johnson U band. As a result flares can be separated into two types, slow and fast, depending on the ratio of flare decay time to flare rise time. The ratio is below 3.5 for all slow flares, while it is above 3.5 for all fast flares. Also, according to the independent samples t-test, there is a difference of about 157 s between equivalent durations of slow and fast flares. In addition, there are significant differences between amplitudes and rise times of slow and fast flares.

  8. Detection of a compact companion of the mild barium star Xi-1 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Johnson, H. R.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper, the observation of a white dwarf companion of the mild Ba star Xi-1 Ceti (= 65 Ceti = HR 649 = HD 13611) is reported, taking into account also the properties of the mild Ba star and of its companion. The UV spectrum of Xi-1 Ceti is discussed along with an interpretation of this spectrum. Attention is given to the effective temperature of the companion, the absorption bands in the spectrum, the radius and mass of the Xi-1 Ceti companion, and questions regarding the obscuration of the companion by the atmosphere of the Ba star. It is found that the overall energy distribution of the Xi-1 Ceti companion can best be matched with a 14,000 K DA white dwarf of log g = 8 or less. However, the absolute intensity is too small and would require a radius too small and a mass too large for such a gravity.

  9. Discovery of eleven new ZZ Ceti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Mullally, F.; Winget, D. E.; Koester, D.; Voss, B.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Napiwotzki, R.; Reimers, D.

    2006-04-01

    We report the discovery of eleven new ZZ Cetis using telescopes at OPD (Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA) in Brazil, the 4.1 m SOAR (Southern Astrophysical Research) telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, and the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald observatory. The candidates were selected from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) and SPY (ESO SN Ia progenitor survey), based on their Teff obtained from optical spectra fitting. This selection criterion yields the highest success rate of detecting new ZZ Cetis, above 90% in the Teff range from 12 000 to 11 000 K. We also report on a DA not observed to vary, with a Teff placing the star close to the blue edge of the instability strip. Among our new pulsators, one is slightly cooler than this star for which pulsations were not detected. Our observations are an important constraint on the location of the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Partially based on observations at Observatório do Pico dos Dias/LNA, the Southern Astrophysical Research telescope, a collaboration between CNPq-Brazil, NOAO, UNC and MSU, and McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin.

  10. Mira Ceti and the Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    We consider the probability that the Gospel of Matthew could report the earliest observation of Mira Ceti. Some biblical remarks have to be considered in order to distinguish a scientific text in the modern acceptation and the content of Gospels regarding some astronomical arguments. Mira fulfills the basic requirements to be the Star of Bethlehem as described in the Gospel according to Matthew (Mt 2:1-12). In fact it was visible at least two times with a time interval (not specified in Mt text) in which it disappeared. Moreover Mira was close to the position were the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in the years 7-6 b. C. and it could be observed during that period by ancient astronomers. The discovery of Mira in 1596 and its second observation 12.5 years later, made by David Fabricius, occurred when Jupiter approached it. Because of those reasons we study the maxima of Mira in order to evaluate both the frequency of one and of two consecutive bright apparitions eventually as observed by the Magi. We did an evaluation of the correlation between two following maxima in order to verify the probability of occurrence of two consecutive bright maxima, because that condition would have been indeed the most favorable for the candidature of Mira as the Bethlehem Star. Analyzing the maxima of Mira we found a probability of seeing it brighter than α Ceti once every 21 years. In this case, as in February 1997, Mira can be detected at the first sight as a new component near the most significant asterism in its zone, composed by α, γ and δ Ceti. This condition could have happened in the case of the Bethlehem Star. We found also a correlation between the magnitude of two consecutive maxima: if a bright maximum occurs it is more probable that the following is a faint one.

  11. Mira Ceti and the Star of Bethlehem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    We consider the probability that the Gospel of Matthew could report the earliest observation of Mira Ceti. Some biblical remarks have to be considered in order to distinguish a scientific text in the modern acceptation and the content of Gospels regarding some astronomical arguments. Mira fulfills the basic requirements to be the Star of Bethlehem as described in the Gospel according to Matthew (Mt 2:1-12). In fact it was visible at least two times with a time interval (not specified in Mt text) in which it disappeared. Moreover Mira was close to the position were the triple conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn occurred in the years 7-6 b. C. and it could be observed during that period by ancient astronomers. The discovery of Mira in 1596 and its second observation 12.5 years later, made by David Fabricius, occurred when Jupiter approached it. Because of those reasons we study the maxima of Mira in order to evaluate both the frequency of one and of two consecutive bright apparitions eventually as observed by the Magi. We did an evaluation of the correlation between two following maxima in order to verify the probability of occurrence of two consecutive bright maxima, because that condition would have been indeed the most favorable for the candidature of Mira as the Bethlehem Star. Analyzing the maxima of Mira we found a probability of seeing it brighter than alpha Ceti once every 21 years. In this case, as in February 1997, Mira can be detected at the first sight as a new component near the most significant asterism in its zone, composed by alpha, gamma and delta Ceti. This condition could have happened in the case of the Bethlehem Star. We found also a correlation between the magnitude of two consecutive maxima: if a bright maximum occurs it is more probable that the following is a faint one.

  12. Pioneer 10 observations of the Beta Cephei stars Gamma Pegasi and Delta Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Ogawa, H. S.; Judge, K. S.; Judge, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of analyzing broad-band Pioneer 10 photometric observations of the low-amplitude pulsating Beta Cephei stars Gamma Pegasi and Delta Ceti are reported. Periods and light curve amplitudes of 3.649 + or - 0.020 hr, 0.05 + or - 0.02 mag for Gamma Peg and 3.869 + or - 0.020 hr, 0.13 + or - 0.02 mag for Delta Ceti are obtained; a power spectrum analysis of the data reveals no other periods. No evidence is found for a phase shift between the light curve maxima in the UV and visible regions. The observed amplitudes combined with published visual and near-UV data suggest a flux and temperature variability of about 200 solar luminosities and 250 K for Gamma Peg and about 600 solar luminosities and 450 K for Delta Cet. These results are compared with others obtained with satellite and ground-based instrumentation.

  13. Amplitude Modulation in the ZZ Ceti Star GD 244

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bognár, Zs.; Paparó, M.; Molnár, L.; Plachy, E.; Sódor, Á.

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies of GD 244 revealed seven pulsation frequencies (two doublets and three single periods) in the light variations of the star. The data obtained at McDonald Observatory between 2003 and 2006, and our additional measurements in 2006 and 2007 at Konkoly Observatory, allow the investigation of the long-term pulsational behaviour of GD 244. We found that the 307.1 s period component of one of the doublets show long-term, periodic amplitude modulation with a time scale of ˜ 740 days. Possible explanations are that nonlinear resonant mode coupling is operating among the rotationally split frequency components, or two modes, unresolved in the yearly data are excited at ˜ 307.1 s. This is the first time that such long-term periodic amplitude modulation is published on a ZZ Ceti star.

  14. Constraints on possible long-term variability of ZZ Ceti stars

    SciTech Connect

    Liller, M.H.; Hesser, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Magnitude estimates for 15 ZZ Ceti (white-dwarf) variable stars determined from plates in the Harvard collection reveal no evidence for variability in excess of measurement errors (about 0.15m) since the 1890s. This suggests that these DA variables are not distinguished from their nonvariable counterparts of any large-amplitude, low-frequency, or secular variations.

  15. The search for ZZ Ceti stars in the original Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Raddi, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Breedt, E.; Ramsay, G.; Koester, D.; Carter, P. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of 42 white dwarfs in the original Kepler mission field, including nine new confirmed pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars). Guided by the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey, we selected white dwarf candidates on the basis of their U - g, g - r, and r - Hα photometric colours. We followed up these candidates with high-signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Using ground-based, time series photometry, we put our sample of new spectroscopically characterized white dwarfs in the context of the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. Prior to our search, only two pulsating white dwarfs had been observed by Kepler. Ultimately, four of our new ZZ Cetis were observed from space. These rich data sets are helping initiate a rapid advancement in the asteroseismic investigation of pulsating white dwarfs, which continues with the extended Kepler mission, K2.

  16. Asteroseismological study of massive ZZ Ceti stars with fully evolutionary models

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2013-12-10

    We present the first asteroseismological study for 42 massive ZZ Ceti stars based on a large set of fully evolutionary carbon-oxygen core DA white dwarf models characterized by a detailed and consistent chemical inner profile for the core and the envelope. Our sample comprises all of the ZZ Ceti stars with spectroscopic stellar masses between 0.72 and 1.05 M {sub ☉} known to date. The asteroseismological analysis of a set of 42 stars enables study of the ensemble properties of the massive, pulsating white dwarf stars with carbon-oxygen cores, in particular the thickness of the hydrogen envelope and the stellar mass. A significant fraction of stars in our sample have stellar mass that is high enough to crystallize at the effective temperatures of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, which enables us to study the effects of crystallization on the pulsation properties of these stars. Our results show that the phase diagram presented in Horowitz et al. seems to be a good representation of the crystallization process inside white dwarf stars, in agreement with the results from white dwarf luminosity function in globular clusters.

  17. Ultraviolet Spectra of Star-Grazing Comets in the 49 Ceti Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2015-01-01

    49 Ceti is a young star that hosts a debris disk with an unusually large amount of carbon monoxide gas. This excess gas has been attributed to frequent collisions of comets within the disk. (Zuckerman & Song, 2012). Since 49 Ceti disk is nearly edge-on to our line of sight, it is a prime target to observe disk gas and evaporated material from star-grazing comets using absorption spectroscopy, as shown by detection of time-variable circumstellar absorption in optical spectra of the star (Montgomery & Welsh 2012). Here we discuss ultraviolet spectra of 49 Ceti taken using the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during two separate visits six days apart. The spectra show time-variable and highly Doppler shifted absorption features from ionized gaseous species. The maximum velocity of the time-variable gas corresponds to a minimum distance from the star of 0.06 AU. These features very likely come from star-grazing comets. Lower limits on element abundances in the gas were found using the apparent optical depth method. The variable comet gas appears carbon rich, despite the disk gas as a whole showing strong absorption features from both carbon and oxygen (Roberge et al., 2014, in press).

  18. X-ray emission from an Ap star /Phi Herculis/ and a late B star /Pi Ceti/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, W.; Snow, T. P., Jr.; Charles, P.

    1979-01-01

    Using the HEAO 1 soft X-ray sky survey, a search was conducted for X-ray emission from 18 stars in the spectral range B5-A7. The detection of 0.25 keV X-ray sources consistent with the positions of Pi Ceti, a normal B7 V star, and Phi Herculis, a classic Ap star was reported. The detection of these stars argues for large mass motions in the upper layers of stars in this spectral range, and argues against radiative diffusion as the source of abundance anomalies in Ap stars.

  19. 94 Ceti: a triple star with a planet and dust disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegert, J.; Faramaz, V.; Cruz-Saenz de Miera, F.

    2016-10-01

    94 Ceti is a triple star system with a circumprimary gas giant planet and far-infrared excess. Such excesses around main sequence stars are likely due to debris discs, and are considered as signposts of planetary systems and, therefore, provide important insights into the configuration and evolution of the planetary system. Consequently, to learn more about the 94 Ceti system, we aim to model the dust emission precisely to fit its observed spectral energy distribution and to simulate its orbital dynamics. We interpret our APEX bolometric observations and complement them with archived Spitzer and Herschel bolometric data to explore the stellar excess and to map out background sources in the fields. Dynamical simulations and 3D radiative transfer calculations were used to constrain the debris disc configurations and model the dust emission. The best-fitting dust disc model for 94 Ceti implies a circumbinary disc around the secondary pair, limited by dynamics to radii smaller than 40 au and with a grain-size power-law distribution of ˜a-3.5. This model exhibits a dust-to-star luminosity ratio of 4.6 ± 0.4 × 10-6. The system is dynamically stable and N-body symplectic simulation results are consistent with semi-analytical equations that describe orbits in binary systems. In the observations, we also find tentative evidence of a circumtertiary ring that could be edge-on.

  20. On the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae stars - UU Ceti, RV Phoenicis, and W Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciari, C.; Clementini, G.; Fernley, J. A.

    1992-09-01

    IR JHK light curves are presented for the RRab Lyrae stars UU Ceti, RV Phoenicis, and W Tucanae. These stars have similar periods and metallicities data, together with BVRI photometry and CORAVEL radial velocity data and Walraven photometry are used to derive absolute magnitudes for the stars using two formulations of the Baade-Wesselink method: (1) the infrared flux version and (2) the surface brightness version. The two methods are directly compared and their respective advantages and shortcomings are discussed. Finally, a comparison is made with previous results on the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae variables.

  1. The effective temperature of the white-dwarf star and ZZ Ceti candidate Wolf 485A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Previous multichannel observations of W485A (WD 1327-08) have placed it in the instability strip, the effective temperature range 11,000-13,000 K. In the instability strip, most of the stars (the ZZ Ceti stars) are variable, but W485A has not been detected to be variable. In this paper, high-resolution spectra of W485A and improved hydrogen-line broadening routines are used in the ATLAS model-atmospheres program to find the temperature of W485A; the estimate of effective temperature most consistent with the other data on the star is 14,600 K, outside the instability strip.

  2. THE STRUCTURE OF THE ZZ CETI STARS L 19-2 AND GD165

    SciTech Connect

    P. BRADLEY

    2000-11-01

    We infer the structure of the ZZ Ceti stars L 19-2 and GD 165 by comparing the observed periods with periods predicted from an extensive grid of evolutionary white dwarf models. The observed period structure of these two stars is similar, and the models for both stars have a helium layer mass of about 10{sup {minus}2}M* and a hydrogen layer mass of about 10{sup {minus}4}M*. The core of these models is 20:80 C/O that extends to 0.60 to 0.65M* with a linear ramp to pure carbon by 0.90M*. The differences in the observed effective temperature, log g, and periods imply different stellar masses for these two stars. L 19-2 has a favored stellar mass of 0.72M{circle_dot} and GD 165 has a favored stellar mass range of 0.65 to 0.68M*.

  3. δ Ceti Is Not Monoperiodic: Seismic Modeling of a β Cephei Star from MOST Space-based Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, C.; Marchenko, S. V.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Walker, G. A. H.; Weiss, W. W.

    2006-05-01

    The β Cephei star δ Ceti was considered one of the few monoperiodic variables in its class. Despite (or perhaps because of) its apparently simple oscillation spectrum, it has been challenging and controversial to identify this star's pulsation mode and constrain its physical parameters seismically. Broadband time-resolved photometry of δ Ceti spanning 18.7 days with a duty cycle of about 65% obtained by the Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST) satellite-the first scientific observations ever obtained by MOST-reveals that the star is actually multiperiodic. Besides the well-known dominant frequency of f1=6.205886 day-1, we have discovered in the MOST data its first harmonic 2f1 and three other frequencies (f2=3.737, f3=3.673, and f4=0.318 day-1), all detected with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>4. In retrospect, f2 was also present in archival spectral line-profile data but at lower S/N. We present seismic models whose modes match exactly the frequencies f1 and f2. Only one model falls within the common part of the error boxes of the star's observed surface gravity and effective temperature from photometry and spectroscopy. In this model, f1 is the radial (l=0) first overtone, and f2 is the g2 (l=2, m=0) mode. This model has a mass of 10.2+/-0.2 Msolar and an age of 17.9+/-0.3 Myr, making δ Ceti an evolved β Cephei star. If f2 and f3 are rotationally split components of the same g2 mode, then the star's equatorial rotation velocity is either 27.6 km s-1 or half this value. Given its vsini of about 1 km s-1, this implies that we are seeing δ Ceti nearly pole-on. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  4. Outer atmospheres of cool stars. XIV - A model for the chromosphere and transition region of Beta Ceti (G9.5 III)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, K.; Linsky, J. L.; Simon, T.

    1983-01-01

    In the present chromospheric and transition region model for Beta Ceti, which is consistent with IUE spectra of the Mg II, C II, and C IV resonance lines, the Mg II h and k lines are treated in partial redistribution and the C II and C IV lines in complete redistribution. Computed line fluxes are presented for a range of models to show the range of permitted temperature structures. A comparison of the Beta Ceti model to models previously computed in a similar way for other stars shows a trend of decreasing chromospheric pressures and increasing geometric scales as single stars evolve across the transition region boundary. The present analysis also suggests that transition region pressures drastically decrease and geometric scales rapidly increase as single giant stars evolve to the right, toward the boudnary. Beta Ceti's exceptional X-ray brightness is discussed.

  5. G 207-9 and LP 133-144: light-curve analysis and asteroseismology of two ZZ Ceti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bognár, Zs.; Paparó, M.; Molnár, L.; Pápics, P. I.; Plachy, E.; Verebélyi, E.; Sódor, Á.

    2016-10-01

    G 207-9 and LP 133-144 are two rarely observed ZZ Ceti stars located in the middle and close to the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability domain, respectively. We aimed to observe them at least during one observing season at Konkoly Observatory with the purpose of extending the list of known pulsation modes for asteroseismic investigations and detect any significant changes in their pulsational behaviour. We determined five and three new normal modes of G 207-9 and LP 133-144, respectively. In LP 133-144, our frequency analysis also revealed that at least at three modes there are actually triplets with frequency separations of ˜ 4 μHz. The rotational period of LP 133-144 based on the triplets is ≃42 h. The preliminary asteroseismic fits of G 207-9 predict Teff = 12 000 or 12 400 K and M_{ast }=0.855-0.870 M_{⊙} values for the effective temperature and mass of the star, depending on the assumptions on the spherical degree (l) values of the modes. These results are in agreement with the spectroscopic determinations. In the case of LP 133-144, the best-fitting models prefer Teff = 11 800 K in effective temperature and M* ≥ 0.71 M⊙ stellar masses, which are more than 0.1 M⊙ larger than the spectroscopic value.

  6. Differential Rotation of the Active G5 V Star κ1 Ceti: Photometry from the MOST Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kuschnig, Rainer; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Marchenko, Sergey; Bohlender, David A.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2004-12-01

    About 30.5 days of nearly uninterrupted broadband photometry of the solar-type star κ1 Ceti, obtained with the MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars) satellite, shows evidence for two large starspots with different rotation periods of 8.9 and ~9.3 days (ΔΩ/Ω~=4%). Ground-based measurements of Ca II H and K emission in 2002 and 2003 reveal variations in chromospheric activity with a period of about 9.3 days. The data were obtained during the MOST commissioning phase. When the data are combined with historical observations, they indicate that the 9.3 day spot has been stable in its period for over 30 yr. The photometry, with a sampling rate of approximately once per minute, was also used to search for acoustic (p-mode) oscillations in the star. We detect no clear evidence for p-modes in the κ1 Ceti photometry, with a noise level around 7-9 μmag at frequencies in the range of 0.5-4 mHz (3 σ detection limit of 21-27 μmag). There were no flares or planetary transits during 30.5 days of MOST monitoring with light amplitudes greater than 2 mmag (durations >200 minutes) and 3 mmag (2-200 minute durations). While this rules out any close-in planets with Jupiter diameters >=0.5 and orbital inclinations close to 90°, the scatter in differential radial velocities permit a close giant planet in a more highly inclined orbit. Based on data obtained with the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission jointly operated by Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia.

  7. A 40 Myr OLD GASEOUS CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AT 49 CETI: MASSIVE CO-RICH COMET CLOUDS AT YOUNG A-TYPE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Song, Inseok E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu

    2012-10-20

    The gaseous molecular disk that orbits the main-sequence A-type star 49 Ceti has been known since 1995, but the stellar age and the origin of the observed carbon monoxide molecules have been unknown. We now identify 49 Ceti as a member of the 40 Myr old Argus Association and present a colliding comet model to explain the high CO concentrations seen at 49 Ceti and the 30 Myr old A-type star HD 21997. The model suggests that massive-400 Earth mass-analogs of the Sun's Kuiper Belt are in orbit around some A-type stars, that these large masses are composed primarily of comet-like objects, and that these objects are rich in CO and perhaps also CO{sub 2}. We identify additional early-type members of the Argus Association and the Tucana/Horologium and Columba Associations; some of these stars display excess mid-infrared emission as measured with the Widefield Infrared Survey Explorer.

  8. UV-bright stars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper highlights globular cluster studies with Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) in three areas: the discrepancy between observed ultraviolet HB magnitudes and predictions of theoretical HB models; the discovery of two hot subdwarfs in NGC 1851, a globular not previously known to contain such stars; and spectroscopic follow up of newly identified UV-bright stars in M79 and w Cen. I also present results of a recent observation of NGC 6397 with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer.

  9. Constraining the Evolution of ZZ Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Kepler, S. O.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Kilic, M.; Mullally, F.; vonHippel, T.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Guzik, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report our analysis of the stability of pulsation periods in the DAV star (pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf) ZZ Ceti, also called R548. On the basis of observations that span 31 years, we conclude that the period 213.13 s observed in ZZ Ceti drifts at a rate dP/dt 5 (5.5 plus or minus 1.9) x 10(exp -15) ss(sup -1), after correcting for proper motion. Our results are consistent with previous P values for this mode and an improvement over them because of the larger time base. The characteristic stability timescale implied for the pulsation period is |P||P(raised dot)|greater than or equal to 1.2 Gyr, comparable to the theoretical cooling timescale for the star. Our current stability limit for the period 213.13 s is only slightly less than the present measurement for another DAV, G117-B15A, for the period 215.2 s, establishing this mode in ZZ Ceti as the second most stable optical clock known, comparable to atomic clocks and more stable than most pulsars. Constraining the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti aids theoretical evolutionary models and white dwarf cosmochronology. The drift rate of this clock is small enough that we can set interesting limits on reflex motion due to planetary companions.

  10. ASCA X-ray spectra of the active single stars Beta Ceti and pi(1) Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, S. A.; Singh, K. P.; White, N. E.; Simon, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    We present X-ray spectra obtaiined by ASCA of two single, active stars, the G dwarf pi(1) UMa, and the G9/K0 giant Beta Cet. The spectra of both stars require the presence of at least two plasma components with different temperatures, 0.3-0.4 keV and approximately 0.7 keV, in order for acceptable fits to be obtained. The spectral resolving power and signal-to-noise ratio of the solid state imaging spectrometer (SIS) spectra allow us to formally constrain the coronal abundances of a number of elements. In Beta Cet, we find Mg to be overabundant, while other elements such as O, Ne, and N are underabundant, relative to the solar photospheric values. From the lower signal-to-noise ratio SIS spectrum of pi(1) UMa, we find evidence for underabundances of O, Ne, and Fe. These results are discussed in the context of the present understanding of elemental abundances in solar and stellar coronae.

  11. Pre main sequence stars as UV sources for the World Space Observatory-UV mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez de Castro, Ana I.; Lamzin, Sergei A.

    2011-09-01

    Pre-main sequence stars are bright UV (UV) sources compared with their main sequence analogues. The source of this excess is the high energy processes associated with the physics of accretion/outflow during early stellar evolution. In this review, the main sources of UV excess are described as well as the most significant "unknowns" in the field. Special emphasis is made on the results from the last observations carried out with the Hubble Space Telescope and on the relevance of future dedicated monitoring programs with the World Space Observatory-UV.

  12. A Complete UV Atlas of Standard Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Chi-Chao

    2000-01-01

    The general objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive ultraviolet spectral atlas of stars based on the data in the IUE Final Archive. The data have been uniformly processed by the IUE NEWSIPS pipeline system. The NEWSIPS gives an improved signal to noise ratio for the data that will be especially beneficial to low signal portions of the spectra; and it also gives more accurate fluxes for stars by adopting the latest absolute calibration and measured instrument parameters. Our new atlas, therefore, provides more uniform and accurate data than the version previously published. In addition, considerable efforts were devoted to obtain reliable spectral types, V,B-V, and E(B-V). Our goal is to provide the information which can be used with reasonable confidence by scientists.

  13. VOLATILE-RICH CIRCUMSTELLAR GAS IN THE UNUSUAL 49 CETI DEBRIS DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, Aki; Grady, Carol A.; Welsh, Barry Y.; Kamp, Inga; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2014-11-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph far-UV spectra of the edge-on disk around 49 Ceti, one of the very few debris disks showing submillimeter CO emission. Many atomic absorption lines are present in the spectra, most of which arise from circumstellar gas lying along the line-of-sight to the central star. We determined the line-of-sight C I column density, estimated the total carbon column density, and set limits on the O I column density. Surprisingly, no line-of-sight CO absorption was seen. We discuss possible explanations for this non-detection, and present preliminary estimates of the carbon abundances in the line-of-sight gas. The C/Fe ratio is much greater than the solar value, suggesting that 49 Cet harbors a volatile-rich gas disk similar to that of β Pictoris.

  14. Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties, and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type, and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings, and death. PMID:22919595

  15. Brucella ceti and brucellosis in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo

    2012-01-01

    Since the first case of brucellosis detected in a dolphin aborted fetus, an increasing number of Brucella ceti isolates has been reported in members of the two suborders of cetaceans: Mysticeti and Odontoceti. Serological surveys have shown that cetacean brucellosis may be distributed worldwide in the oceans. Although all B. ceti isolates have been included within the same species, three different groups have been recognized according to their preferred host, bacteriological properties, and distinct genetic traits: B. ceti dolphin type, B. ceti porpoise type, and B. ceti human type. It seems that B. ceti porpoise type is more closely related to B. ceti human isolates and B. pinnipedialis group, while B. ceti dolphin type seems ancestral to them. Based on comparative phylogenetic analysis, it is feasible that the B. ceti ancestor radiated in a terrestrial artiodactyl host close to the Raoellidae family about 58 million years ago. The more likely mode of transmission of B. ceti seems to be through sexual intercourse, maternal feeding, aborted fetuses, placental tissues, vertical transmission from mother to the fetus or through fish or helminth reservoirs. The B. ceti dolphin and porpoise types seem to display variable virulence in land animal models and low infectivity for humans. However, brucellosis in some dolphins and porpoises has been demonstrated to be a severe chronic disease, displaying significant clinical and pathological signs related to abortions, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings, and death. PMID:22919595

  16. DISCOVERY OF A ZZ CETI IN THE KEPLER MISSION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Mullally, Fergal; Howell, Steve B.; Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Telting, John; Southworth, John; Everett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first identified pulsating DA white dwarf, WD J1916+3938 (Kepler ID 4552982), in the field of the Kepler mission. This ZZ Ceti star was first identified through ground-based, time-series photometry, and follow-up spectroscopy confirms that it is a hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf with T {sub eff} = 11,129 {+-} 115 K and log g = 8.34 {+-} 0.06, placing it within the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. The object shows up to 0.5% amplitude variability at several periods between 800 and 1450 s. Extended Kepler observations of WD J1916+3938 could yield the best light curve, to date, of any pulsating white dwarf, allowing us to directly study the interior of an evolved object representative of the fate of the majority of stars in our Galaxy.

  17. Joint Discussion 4 UV astronomy: stars from birth to death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Barstow, Martin A.

    2007-08-01

    The scientific program is presented as well a the abstracts of the contributions. An extended account is published in “The Ultraviolet Universe: stars from birth to death” (Ed. Gómez de Castro) published by the Editorial Complutense de Madrid (UCM), that can be accessed by electronic format through the website of the Network for UV Astronomy (www.ucm.es/info/nuva). There are five telescopes currently in orbit that have a UV capability of some description. At the moment, only FUSE provides any medium- to high-resolution spectroscopic capability. GALEX, the XMM UV-Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the Swift. UVOT mainly delivers broad-band imaging, but with some low-resolution spectroscopy using grisms. The primary UV spectroscopic capability of HST was lost when the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph failed in 2004, but UV imaging is still available with the HST-WFPC2 and HST-ACS instruments. With the expected limited lifetime of sl FUSE, UV spectroscopy will be effectively unavailable in the short-term future. Even if a servicing mission of HST does go ahead, to install COS and repair STIS, the availability of high-resolution spectroscopy well into the next decade will not have been addressed. Therefore, it is important to develop new missions to complement and follow on from the legacy of FUSE and HST, as well as the smaller imaging/low resolution spectroscopy facilities. This contribution presents an outline of the UV projects, some of which are already approved for flight, while others are still at the proposal/study stage of their development. This contribution outlines the main results from Joint Discussion 04 held during the IAU General Assembly in Prague, August 2006, concerning the rationale behind the needs of the astronomical community, in particular the stellar astrophysics community, for new UV instrumentation. Recent results from UV observations were presented and future science goals were laid out. These goals will lay the framework for future

  18. The UV + IR Hybrid Star Formation Rate Across NGC6946

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; Lehmer, Bret; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies is essential to understand galaxy evolution and thus determining reliable, simple tracers of star-forming activity is of paramount importance to astrophysics. For instance, intrinsic ultraviolet (UV) emission from young stars is an excellent tracer of the SFR. Observed UV luminosities, however, have been strongly attenuated by intervening interstellar dust. Since emission from hot dust is readily available from IRAS, Spitzer, and WISE, it is common practice to combine mid-IR emission (around 25 μm) with observed UV in order to obtain an SFR diagnostic of the form Lobs(FUV) + acorr × Lobs(25 μm). Conventionally, a single correction acorr, previously determined for a sample of galaxies, is used. Here we test the reliability of this hybrid SFR diagnostic, allowing for a variable correction factor acorr. For this, we have performed broadband UV-to-IR SED fittings in order to model the star formation histories across the spiral galaxy NGC6946. We have obtained SFRs and stellar masses across the galaxy, from physical scales of 5 kpc down to 500 pc. We find that acorr varies significantly across the galaxy and increases with increasing specific star formation rate (sSFR), the ratio of SFR and stellar mass (or the ratio of young and old stars). The correction acorr does not seem to be correlated to the amount of attenuation AV. Variation of acorr is most likely caused by different mixes of young and old stellar populations across the galaxy. This finding agrees well with our previous results for the interacting spiral galaxy NGC 6872, for which we have demonstrated the variation of acorr and a its correlation with sSFR. Our results show the need of caution when using only two broadband filters in order to determine SFR of individual galaxies or sub-galactic regions. The dust emission most likely overestimates SFR for highly star-forming, high sSFR regions, and underestimates it for more quiescent, low sSFR regions.

  19. The CP Galium Stars in the UV. I. HD 168733

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; López García, Z.; Levato, H.; Malaroda, S.

    HD 168733 is a magnetic CP star with an unusual spectrum. It was not possible to assign this star to the Si or HgMn group. Jaschek & Jaschek (A&A, 171, 380, 1987) have included this star in a list of objects having strong UV Gallium lines. In order to get some clues about the real nature of this star, we are performing an elemental abundance analysis of this star using spectrograms obtained with EBASIM spectrograph attached to CASLEO 2.15 m telescope. The reduction of the observational material and the measurements of the equivalent widths were carried out using the appropriate IRAF tasks. The atmospheric parameters Teff and log g were determined using uvbybeta photometry and TemLogG code with the corrections suggested by Adelman & Rayle (A&A 447, 685, 2000) for magnetic CP stars. The adopted values are: Teff = 13274 K, log g = 3.58. The chemical abundances are being calculating using WIDTH9 code.

  20. CALIBRATING UV STAR FORMATION RATES FOR DWARF GALAXIES FROM STARBIRDS

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2015-08-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color–magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV–SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is ∼53% larger than previous relations.

  1. The UV silicon spectra of early B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.

    1989-01-01

    Equivalent widths of UV silicon lines obtained from high dispersion IUE SWP spectra for a sample of 37 mid- to early B stars are presented. These are compared to other atmospheric diagnostics and to model atmosphere calculations. It is found that some of the UV silicon lines are extremely sensitive to stellar temperature and luminosity over the range B5-B0.5, or roughly a factor of two in effective temperature. The potential usefulness of these lines is stressed, and it is demonstrated that they could determine temperatures and surface gravities to the same accuracy as other commonly used diagnostics once adequate models become available. Although the available models fail to predict the quantitative behavior of the line strengths, they do, in most instances, describe their qualitative behavior. Since the existing models are somewhat out of date, the results suggest that models based upon more complete opacity tables may be quite reliable.

  2. UV-selected Young Massive Star Cluster Populations in Nearby Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Linda J.

    2015-08-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is an HST Treasury program aimed at the investigation of star-formation and its relationship to environment in nearby galaxies. The results of a UV-selected study of young massive star clusters in a sample of nearby galaxies (< 10 Mpc) using detections based on the WFC3/UVIS F275W filter will be presented. Previous studies have used V or I-band detections and tend to ignore clusters younger than 10 Myr old. This very young population, which represents the most recent cluster-forming event in the LEGUS galaxies will be discussed.This poster is presented on behalf of the LEGUS team (PI Daniela Calzetti).

  3. HAZMAT. I. The evolution of far-UV and near-UV emission from early M stars

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Barman, Travis S. E-mail: barman@lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a 'saturated' level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t {sup –1}. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models.

  4. HAZMAT I: The Evolution of X-ray, Far-UV and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, E.; Barman, T.

    2014-03-01

    With the recent discoveries of several super-earths orbiting M dwarfs well within their habitable zones (0.1 to 0.4 AU), and with many more such planets to come, it is critical to assess the evolution of the high-energy radiation environment of these systems. We have begun the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) program by first measuring the drop in near-UV and far-UV flux in early M stars from 10 Myr to several Gyr using photometry from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We focus this study on the confirmed low-mass members of nearby young moving groups, the Hyades cluster, and old field stars. We show a relatively slow decline in UV flux up until at least 650 Myr with a sharper drop in the old M dwarfs. Yet without confirmed M dwarfs in nearby star clusters with ages of 1-2 Gyr, mapping the precise evolution at these older ages is not currently possible. The UV data also provide much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which are currently insufficient for predicting UV emission from M dwarfs. Our analysis will aid empirically motivated upper-atmospheric modeling for the young and old M stars, which can then be used to predict the extreme-UV fluxes most critical to the evolution of a planetary atmosphere. (See HAZMAT II abstract by Peacock et al.) The HAZMAT program is the first comprehensive study of the UV history of M stars.

  5. KIC 11911480: the second ZZ Ceti in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Steeghs, D.; Koester, D.; Ramsay, G.; Barclay, T.; Townsley, D. M.

    2014-03-01

    We report the discovery of the second pulsating hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarf in the Kepler field, KIC 11911480. It was selected from the Kepler-INT Survey (KIS) on the basis of its colours and its variable nature was confirmed using ground-based time series photometry. An atmosphere model fit to an intermediate-resolution spectrum of KIC 11911480 places this DA white dwarf close to the blue edge of the empirical boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip: Teff = 12 160 ± 250 K and log g = 7.94 ± 0.10. Assuming a mass-radius relation and cooling models for DA white dwarfs, the atmospheric parameters yield: MWD = 0.57 ± 0.06 M⊙. We also obtained two quarters (Q12 and Q16) of nearly uninterrupted short-cadence Kepler data on this star. We detect a total of six independent pulsation modes with a ≥3σ confidence in its amplitude power spectrum. These pulsations have periods ranging between 172.9 and 324.5 s, typical of the hotter ZZ Ceti stars. Our preliminary asteroseismic study suggests that KIC 11911480 has a rotation rate of 3.5±0.5 days.

  6. Ultraviolet Morphology and Unobscured UV Star Formation Rates of CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donahue, Megan; Connor, Thomas; Fogarty, Kevin; Li, Yuan; Voit, G. Mark; Postman, Marc; Koekemoer, Anton; Moustakas, John; Bradley, Larry; Ford, Holland

    2015-06-01

    Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble (CLASH) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Ultraviolet morphologies among the BCGs with strong UV excesses exhibit distinctive knots, multiple elongated clumps, and extended filaments of emission that distinctly differ from the smooth profiles of the UV-quiet BCGs. These structures, which are similar to those seen in the few star-forming BCGs observed in the UV at low redshift, are suggestive of bi-polar streams of clumpy star formation, but not of spiral arms or large, kiloparsec-scale disks. Based on the number of streams and lack of culprit companion galaxies, these streams are unlikely to have arisen from multiple collisions with gas-rich galaxies. These star-forming UV structures are morphologically similar to the cold-gas structures produced in simulations of precipitation-driven active galactic nucleus feedback in which jets uplift low-entropy gas to greater altitudes, causing it to condense. Unobscured star formation rates estimated from CLASH UV images using the Kennicutt relation range up to 80 {{M}⊙ } y{{r}-1} in the most extended and highly structured systems. The circumgalactic gas-entropy threshold for star formation in CLASH BCGs at z ˜ 0.2-0.5 is indistinguishable from that for clusters at z\\lt 0.2.

  7. HAZMAT. I. The Evolution of Far-UV and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Barman, Travis S.

    2014-10-01

    The spectral energy distribution, variability, and evolution of the high-energy radiation from an M dwarf planet host is crucial in understanding the planet's atmospheric evolution and habitability and in interpreting the planet's spectrum. The star's extreme-UV (EUV), far-UV (FUV), and near-UV (NUV) emission can chemically modify, ionize, and erode the atmosphere over time. This makes determining the lifetime exposure of such planets to stellar UV radiation critical for both the evolution of a planet's atmosphere and our potential to characterize it. Using the early M star members of nearby young moving groups, which sample critical ages in planet formation and evolution, we measure the evolution of the GALEX NUV and FUV flux as a function of age. The median UV flux remains at a "saturated" level for a few hundred million years, analogous to that observed for X-ray emission. By the age of the Hyades Cluster (650 Myr), we measure a drop in UV flux by a factor of 2-3 followed by a steep drop from old (several Gyrs) field stars. This decline in activity beyond 300 Myr follows roughly t -1. Despite this clear evolution, there remains a wide range, of 1-2 orders of magnitude, in observed emission levels at every age. These UV data supply the much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which will provide empirically motivated EUV predictions and more accurate age-dependent UV spectra as inputs to planetary photochemical models. Based on observations made with the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). GALEX was operated for NASA by the California Institute of Technology under NASA contract NAS5-98034.

  8. UV habitability and dM stars: an approach for evaluation of biological survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, Ximena C.; Cortón, Eduardo; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2010-02-01

    Dwarf M stars comprise about 75 percent of all stars in the galaxy. For several years planets orbiting M stars have been discarded as suitable places for development of life. This paradigm now has changed and terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars are reconsidered as possible hosts for life as we know it. Nevertheless, large amount of UV radiation is emitted during flares by this stars, and it is uncertain how these events could affect biological systems. In particular UV-C λ < 290nm) exhibits the most damaging effects for living organisms. To analyze the hypothesis that UV could set a limit for the development of extraterrestrial life, we studied the effect of UV-C treatment on halophile archaea cultures. Halophile archaea are extremophile organisms, they are exposed to intense solar UV radiation in their natural environment so they are generally regarded as relatively UV tolerant. Halophiles inhabits in hipersaline environments as salt lakes but also have been found in ancient salt deposits as halites and evaporites on Earth. Since evaporites have been detected in Martian meteorites, these organisms are proposed as plausible inhabitants of Mars-like planets. Our preliminary results show that even after UV damage, the surviving cells were able to resume growth with nearly normal kinetics.

  9. UV Light from Old Stellar Populations: A Census of UV Bright Stars in `Blue Tail' Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2000-07-01

    We propose observations of UV-bright stars in 7 Galactic Globular Clusters {GGCs}. These will complement data obtained during Cycles 5 and 6. Our goals are multifold: {a} to observe the morphology in the faint blue tails {BTs} of GGC horizontal branches {HBs}; {b} to explore the relationship between the HB mass distribution in BT clusters to the clusters' structural and dynamical properties; {c} to gain further samples of Blue Straggler Stars and the long-sought Cataclysmic Variables in GGC cores; and {d} to obtain relatively large samples of post main sequence stars. All the targets have a BT which reaches at least to or beyond the turnoff in V; the actual extent can only be determined from the uncrowded UV observations. Our observations will allow a number of studies which cannot be done using ground-based observations: {a} and {b} will indirectly probe the mass loss process close to the tip of the red giant branch {RGB}, which our data {from previous cycles} suggest to be often multimodal; {c} provides a complete survey of these peculiar UV stellar types, along with their radial distributions, will provide fundamental data for internal cluster dynamics. The observations will add to an archive of HST data on GGC's optimized for the study of hot stellar populations. This data set, beyond the study of GGCs, will be fundamental to the understanding of the origin of UV light from elliptical galaxies.

  10. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. I. BRIGHT UV STARS IN THE BULGE OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenfield, Philip; Johnson, L. Clifton; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Girardi, Leo; Bressan, Alessandro; Lang, Dustin; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dorman, Claire E.; Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Bell, Eric F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Caldwell, Nelson; Dolphin, Andrew; Kalirai, Jason; Larsen, Soren S.; Rix, Hans-Walter; and others

    2012-08-20

    As part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury multi-cycle program, we observed a 12' Multiplication-Sign 6.'5 area of the bulge of M31 with the WFC3/UVIS filters F275W and F336W. From these data we have assembled a sample of {approx}4000 UV-bright, old stars, vastly larger than previously available. We use updated Padova stellar evolutionary tracks to classify these hot stars into three classes: Post-AGB stars (P-AGB), Post-Early AGB (PE-AGB) stars, and AGB-manque stars. P-AGB stars are the end result of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and are expected in a wide range of stellar populations, whereas PE-AGB and AGB-manque (together referred to as the hot post-horizontal branch; HP-HB) stars are the result of insufficient envelope masses to allow a full AGB phase, and are expected to be particularly prominent at high helium or {alpha} abundances when the mass loss on the red giant branch is high. Our data support previous claims that most UV-bright sources in the bulge are likely hot (extreme) horizontal branch (EHB) stars and their progeny. We construct the first radial profiles of these stellar populations and show that they are highly centrally concentrated, even more so than the integrated UV or optical light. However, we find that this UV-bright population does not dominate the total UV luminosity at any radius, as we are detecting only the progeny of the EHB stars that are the likely source of the UV excess. We calculate that only a few percent of main-sequence stars in the central bulge can have gone through the HP-HB phase and that this percentage decreases strongly with distance from the center. We also find that the surface density of hot UV-bright stars has the same radial variation as that of low-mass X-ray binaries. We discuss age, metallicity, and abundance variations as possible explanations for the observed radial variation in the UV-bright population.

  11. Formation of Massive Primordial Stars: Intermittent UV Feedback with Episodic Mass Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Hirano, Shingo; Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering 10 {M}ȯ ≲ M * ≲ 103 {M}ȯ . The formation of very massive (≳250 {M}ȯ ) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few ×10 {M}ȯ ) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. This may explain the peculiar abundance pattern of a Galactic metal-poor star recently reported by Aoki et al., possibly the observational signature of very massive precursor primordial stars. Weak UV feedback occurs in cases of variable accretion, in particular when repeated short accretion bursts temporarily exceed 0.01 {M}ȯ {{{yr}}}-1, causing the protostar to inflate. In the bloated state, the protostar has low surface temperature and UV feedback is suppressed until the star eventually contracts, on a thermal adjustment timescale, to create an H ii region. If the delay time between successive accretion bursts is sufficiently short, the protostar remains bloated for extended periods, initiating at most only short periods of UV feedback. Disk fragmentation does not necessarily reduce the final stellar mass. Quite the contrary, we find that disk fragmentation enhances episodic accretion as many fragments migrate inward and are accreted onto the star, thus allowing continued stellar mass growth under conditions of intermittent UV feedback. This trend becomes more prominent as we improve the resolution of our simulations. We argue that simulations with significantly higher resolution than reported previously are needed to derive accurate gas mass accretion rates onto primordial protostars.

  12. Formation of Massive Primordial Stars: Intermittent UV Feedback with Episodic Mass Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, Takashi; Hirano, Shingo; Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Omukai, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Naoki

    2016-06-01

    We present coupled stellar evolution (SE) and 3D radiation-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the evolution of primordial protostars, their immediate environment, and the dynamic accretion history under the influence of stellar ionizing and dissociating UV feedback. Our coupled SE RHD calculations result in a wide diversity of final stellar masses covering 10 {M}⊙ ≲ M * ≲ 103 {M}⊙ . The formation of very massive (≳250 {M}⊙ ) stars is possible under weak UV feedback, whereas ordinary massive (a few ×10 {M}⊙ ) stars form when UV feedback can efficiently halt the accretion. This may explain the peculiar abundance pattern of a Galactic metal-poor star recently reported by Aoki et al., possibly the observational signature of very massive precursor primordial stars. Weak UV feedback occurs in cases of variable accretion, in particular when repeated short accretion bursts temporarily exceed 0.01 {M}⊙ {{{yr}}}-1, causing the protostar to inflate. In the bloated state, the protostar has low surface temperature and UV feedback is suppressed until the star eventually contracts, on a thermal adjustment timescale, to create an H ii region. If the delay time between successive accretion bursts is sufficiently short, the protostar remains bloated for extended periods, initiating at most only short periods of UV feedback. Disk fragmentation does not necessarily reduce the final stellar mass. Quite the contrary, we find that disk fragmentation enhances episodic accretion as many fragments migrate inward and are accreted onto the star, thus allowing continued stellar mass growth under conditions of intermittent UV feedback. This trend becomes more prominent as we improve the resolution of our simulations. We argue that simulations with significantly higher resolution than reported previously are needed to derive accurate gas mass accretion rates onto primordial protostars.

  13. UV Surface Environment of Earth-like Planets Orbiting FGKM Stars through Geological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D.

    2015-06-01

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth-Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth-Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  14. UV SURFACE ENVIRONMENT OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING FGKM STARS THROUGH GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Sasselov, D.; Segura, A.; Kaltenegger, L.

    2015-06-10

    The UV environment of a host star affects the photochemistry in the atmosphere, and ultimately the surface UV environment for terrestrial planets and therefore the conditions for the origin and evolution of life. We model the surface UV radiation environment for Earth-sized planets orbiting FGKM stars in the circumstellar Habitable Zone for Earth through its geological evolution. We explore four different types of atmospheres corresponding to an early-Earth atmosphere at 3.9 Gyr ago and three atmospheres covering the rise of oxygen to present-day levels at 2.0 Gyr ago, 0.8 Gyr ago, and modern Earth. In addition to calculating the UV flux on the surface of the planet, we model the biologically effective irradiance, using DNA damage as a proxy for biological damage. We find that a pre-biotic Earth (3.9 Gyr ago) orbiting an F0V star receives 6 times the biologically effective radiation as around the early Sun and 3520 times the modern Earth–Sun levels. A pre-biotic Earth orbiting GJ 581 (M3.5 V) receives 300 times less biologically effective radiation, about 2 times modern Earth–Sun levels. The UV fluxes calculated here provide a grid of model UV environments during the evolution of an Earth-like planet orbiting a range of stars. These models can be used as inputs into photo-biological experiments and for pre-biotic chemistry and early life evolution experiments.

  15. UV Spectrophotometry of the Hottest Stars from the Southern HK Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drilling, John S.; Beers, Timothy C.

    1995-06-01

    Low-resolution UV spectra have been obtained with the long- and short-wavelength lUE cameras for seven of the hottest stars identified in the ongoing HK objective-prism/interference-filter survey begun by Beers, Preston, & Shectman. These stars are a subset of a sample of some 25,000 stars at high galactic latitude whose objective-prism spectra indicate that they are hotter than the Population II main-sequence turnoff in the magnitude range 11 ≤ B ≤ 15.5. The UV fluxes have been corrected for interstellar reddening using a standard reddening law, and comparison of the integrated fluxes in the two lUE cameras indicates that the effective temperatures of these stars range from 40,000 K to 80,000 K. The UV absorption spectra of six of the seven stars are characterized by a strong He II λ1640 line and 3-n series of He II. Five of these stars show strong C IV λ1550 absorption. The low-resolution UV spectrum of the remaining object is featureless.

  16. Mining the HST "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) - Hot Stars": The High Definition UV Spectrum of the Ap Star HR 465

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Ayres, T. R.; Nielsen, K. E.; Kober, G. V.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Adelman, S. J.; Cowley, C. R.

    2014-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Hot Stars" is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 21 Treasury Program (GO-13346: Ayres PI). It is designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution ( 30,000-100,000), high signal/noise (S/N>100), and full UV coverage 1200 - 3000 A) spectra of 21 early-type stars, utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The targets span the range of spectral types between early-O and early-A, including both main sequence and evolved stars, fast and slow rotators, as well as chemically peculiar (CP) and magnetic objects. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra will be available from the HST archive and, in post-processed and merged form, at http://casa.colorado.edu ayres/ASTRAL/. The UV "atlases" produced by this program will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar, and beyond -- for many years to come. We offer a first look at one of the earliest datasets to come out of this observing program, a "high definition" UV spectrum of the Ap star HR 465, which was chosen as a prototypical example of an A-type magnetic CP star. HR 465 has a global magnetic field of ~2200 Gauss. Earlier analyses of IUE spectra show strong iron-peak element lines, along with heavy elements such as Ga and Pt, while being deficient in the abundance of some ions of low atomic number, such as carbon. We demonstrate the high quality of the ASTRAL data and present the identification of spectral lines for a number of elements. By comparison of the observed spectra with calculated spectra, we also provide estimates of element abundances, emphasizing heavy elements, and place these measurements in the context of earlier results for this and other Ap stars.

  17. HAZMAT I: The Evolution of Far- and Near-UV Emission from Early M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Barman, T. S.; Peacock, S.

    2014-01-01

    With the recent discoveries of several super-earths orbiting M dwarfs well within their habitable zones (0.1 to 0.4 AU), and with many more such planets to come, it is critical to assess the evolution of the high-energy radiation environment of these systems. We have begun the HAZMAT (Habitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) program by first measuring the drop in near-UV and far-UV flux in early M stars from 10 Myr to several Gyr using photometry from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). We focus this study on the confirmed low-mass members of nearby young moving groups, the Hyades cluster, and old field stars. We show a relatively slow decline in UV flux up until at least 650 Myr with a sharper drop in the old M dwarfs. Yet without confirmed M dwarfs in nearby star clusters with ages of 1-2 Gyr, mapping the precise evolution at these older ages is not currently possible. The UV data also provide much-needed constraints to M dwarf upper-atmosphere models, which are insufficient for predicting UV emission from M dwarfs. Our analysis will produce empirically-motivated chromospheric profiles for the young and old M stars, which can then be used to predict the extreme-UV fluxes most critical to the evolution of a planetary atmosphere. The HAZMAT program is the first comprehensive study of the UV history of M stars, and will ultimately tell us if a planet in the canonical habitable zone can indeed be habitable.

  18. Deriving extinction laws with O stars: from the IR to the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2015-05-01

    We have recently derived a family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus that provides better fits to the optical photometry of obscured stars in the Galaxy and the LMC. Simultaneously, we are extending our Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey ({http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011hsa6.conf..467M}{GOSSS}) to fainter, more extinguished stars to obtain accurate spectral types for massive stars with more than 6 magnitudes of V-band extinction. I have combined both lines of research with 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer photometry to obtain the 1-10 micron extinction law for O stars in the solar neighborhood. I present these results and compare them with the extinction laws in the same wavelength range derived from late-type stars and H II regions. I also discuss plans to extend the newly derived optical-IR extinction laws to the UV.

  19. Variable X-Ray and UV emission from AGB stars: Accretion activity associated with binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Sanz-Forcada, Jorge; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Almost all of our current understanding of the late evolutionary stages of (1 — 8) Mʘ stars is based on single-star models. However, binarity can drastically affect late stellar evolution, producing dramatic changes in the history and geometry of mass loss that occurs in stars as they evolve off the AGB to become planetary nebulae (PNe). A variety of binary models have been proposed, which can lead to the generation of accretion disks and magnetic fields, which in turn produce the highly collimated jets that have been proposed as the primary agents for the formation of bipolar and multipolar PNe. However, observational evidence of binarity in AGB stars is sorely lacking simply these stars are very luminous and variable, invalidating standard techniques for binary detection. Using an innovative technique of searching for UV emission from AGB stars with GALEX, we have identified a class of AGB stars with far- ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars), that are likely candidates for active accretion associated with a binary companion. We have carried out a pilot survey for X-ray emission from fuvAGB stars. The X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long times-scales, and simultaneous UV observations show similar variations in the UV fluxes. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a main-sequence companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  20. SPI or Spin-up? An UV Investigation of Activity on Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2010-01-01

    Using the near-UV and far-UV photometry of the GALEX All-sky Imaging Survey, we study the effects of tidal and magnetic star-planet interactions (SPI) on the stellar activity of the host stars. We compare samples of stars with close-in planets (a < 0.15 AU) to those with far-out planets (a > 1.5 AU) and show that the former group has on average several times the FUV and NUV luminosity of the latter sample. This is consistent with the X-ray results of Kashyap et al. (2008), who speculate that this may be due to the magnetic influence on the star by its innermost planet, as previously observed in several individual hot Jupiter systems. Our study suggests that increased stellar rotation rate due to the tidal interaction with the planet plays the dominant role in increasing the global stellar activity level. For the stars with close-in planets, the FUV and NUV fluxes are anti-correlated with the stellar synchronization time scales but are not correlated for stars with planets at larger orbital distances. Even though the stars with close-in planets are not fully synchronized (full synchronization in most cases will take longer than the age of the Universe), they have already undergone some increase in rotation rate. This result also suggests that the competing force of magnetic drag slowing down the stars is losing out to tidal spin-up in these systems.

  1. Simultaneous UV and optical study of O star winds and UV and optical covariability of O star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet and optical observations of 10 bright O stars were organized in several observing campaigns lasting 3-6 days each. The observing campaigns included 12 observatories in the Northern hemisphere obtaining high resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and polarimetry, as well as 24-hour coverage with the IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observatory. Over 600 high dispersion SWP spectra were acquired with IUE at both NASA and VILSPA for the completion of this work. The massive amount of data from these observing campaigns, both from IUE and the ground-based instruments, has been reduced and analyzed. The accompanying paper describes the data acquisition, analysis, and conclusions of the study performed. The most important results of this study are the strong confirmation of the ubiquitous variability of winds of O stars, and the critical correlation between rotation of the star and the wind variability as seen in the ultraviolet and optical spectral lines.

  2. Extreme horizontal branch stars - Puzzling objects dominating the UV-light in early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    Extreme horizontal branch stars (also known as hot subdwarf stars, sdO/Bs) are located at the bluest extension of the horizontal branch in the HR-diagram. They burn helium in their cores and are the sources of the UV-excess in elliptical galaxies and other old stellar populations. However, the formation of those stars is still unclear. SdO/B stars in the field show a high binary fraction and are likely formed via binary interactions with low-mass stars, substellar objects or compact stellar remnants. Similar objects in globular clusters on the other hand have a significantly lower binary fraction and might therefore be formed in a different way. I will review the state-of-the-art and confront theories of sdO/B formation with most recent observational evidence.

  3. A star-pointing UV-visible spectrometer for remote-sensing of the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Freshwater, Ray A.; Jones, Rod L.; Fish, Debbie J.; Harries, John E.; Wolfenden, Roger; Stone, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a novel instrument for ground-based remote sensing, by mounting a UV-visible spectrometer on a telescope and observing the absorption by atmospheric constituents of light from stars. Potentially, the instrument can observe stratospheric O3, NO3, NO2, and OClO.

  4. Quantifying Star Formation in Early-Type Galaxies using Spatially-Resolved UV-Optical Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of star formation in nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) has evolved rapidly in recent years, due to new UV data from GALEX and HST. Contrary to the classical notion of them being old, passively-evolving systems, recent work has demonstrated widespread late-epoch star formation in ETGs, which builds ~20% of their stellar mass after 1, via minor mergers between ETGs and gas-rich dwarfs. While survey data from GALEX has indicated the average properties of star formation in the ETG population as a whole, I demonstrate how spatially-resolved UV studies can offer detailed insights into the star formation histories of individual galaxies, using an HST-WFC3 case study of NGC 4150. Using a pixel-by-pixel analysis in 5 WFC3 filters, spanning UV to i-band, reveals a central 0.9 Gyr old young stellar population, with a median metallicity of 0.5 solar, that contributes around 3% of the stellar mass and coincides spatially with a small, kinematically-decoupled core (indicating a recent minor merger). Assuming that the metallicity of the young stars traces the gas-phase metallicity of the satellite that fuels the star formation, we use the mass-metallicity relation to estimate the mass ratio of the merger to be ~1:20. An WFC3 study of globular clusters reveals a substantial population of young star clusters coincident with the central region of star formation and indicates that the bulk of the stellar mass in this galaxy probably formed 6-8 Gyrs in the past. This study demonstrates the utility of high-resolution imaging from future instruments such as the extremely large telescopes. (Based on Early Release Science observations by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program.)

  5. The Disk and Planets of Solar Analogue τCeti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, S. M.; Francesco, J. Di; Kennedy, G.; Sibthorpe, B.; Booth, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Matthews, B.; Tuomi, M.

    2015-01-01

    τ Ceti is a nearby, mature star very similar to our Sun, with a massive Kuiper belt analogue tep{Greavesetal2004} and possible multiplanet system tep{Tuomietal2013} that has been compared to our Solar System. We present infrared and submillimeter observations of the debris disk from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). We find the best model of the disk is a wide annulus ranging from 5-55 AU, inclined from face-on by 30°. tet{Tuomietal2013} report five possible super-Earths tightly nestled inside 1.4 AU, and we model this planetary system and place dynamical constraints on the inner edge of the disk. We find that due to the low masses and fairly circular orbits of the planets, the disk could reach as close to the star as 1.5 AU, with some stable orbits even possible between the two outermost planets. The photometric modelling cannot rule out a disk inner edge as close to the star as 1 AU, though 5-10 AU produces a better fit to the data. Dynamical modelling shows that the 5 planet system is stable with the addition of a Saturn-mass planet on an orbit outside 5 AU, where the Tuomi et al. analysis would not have detected a planet of this mass.

  6. Heavy-elements in metal-poor stars: an UV perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira-Mello, C.; Barbuy, B.

    2014-11-01

    The site(s) of the r-process(es) is(are) not completely defined, and several models have been proposed. Observed abundances are the best clues to bring some light to this field, especially the study of the extremely metal-poor (EMP) Galactic halo stars. Many elements can be measured using ground-based facilities already available, but the ultraviolet window also presents a rich opportunity in terms of chemical abundances of heavy elements. In fact, for some elements only the UV transitions are strong enough to be useful. Focusing on the project of the Cassegrain U-Band Brazilian Spectrograph (CUBES), we discuss the science case for heavy elements in metal-poor stars, describing the useful lines of trans-Fe elements present in the UV region. Lines in the far UV are also discussed.

  7. The Dearth of UV-bright Stars in M32: Implications for Stellar Evolution Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.; Kimble, Randy A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2008-01-01

    Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained deep far ultraviolet images of the compact elliptical galaxy M32. When combined with earlier near-ultraviolet images of the same field, these data enable the construction of an ultraviolet color-magnitude diagram of the hot horizontal branch (HB) population and other hot stars in late phases of stellar evolution. We find few post-asymptotic giant branch (PAGB) stars in the galaxy, implying that these stars either cross the HR diagram more rapidly than expected, and/or that they spend a significant fraction of their time enshrouded in circumstellar material. The predicted luminosity gap between the hot HB and its AGB-Manque (AGBM) progeny is less pronounced than expected, especially when compared to evolutionary tracks with enhanced helium abundances, implying that the presence of hot HB stars in this metal-rich population is not due to (Delta)Y/(Delta)Z greater than or approx. 4. Only a small fraction (approx. 2%) of the HB population is hot enough to produce significant UV emission, yet most of the W emission in this galaxy comes from the hot HB and AGBM stars, implying that PAGB stars are not a significant source of W emission even in those elliptical galaxies with a weak W excess. Subject headings: galaxies: evolution - galaxies: stellar content - galaxies: individual (M32) - stars: evolution - stars: horizontal branch

  8. Spectral classification criteria for some early type stars in the UV region/atl>

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, M. A.; Abo Elazm, M. S.; Saad, S. M.; Nafie, H. O.; Abdel Baeth, H. E.

    The aim of this paper is to get new critertia for spectral classification of some early type stars which depend on the flux in the UV region λ λ 1500-2500 by carrying out spectrophotometric analysis of observational ultraviolet data of stars obtained by the S2/68 Ultraviolet Sky Survey Telescope (UVSST) aboard the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) Satellite TD1. We have developed these new criteria based on the Intrinsic Ultraviolet Colour Index (IUI), and the Intrinsic Flux Ratio (IFR). Using these quantities we are going to represent the results of spectral classification of 323 early type stars mainly from spectral type B and A. The results of calculations of the Intrinsic Flux Ratios for the stars under investigation together with their Colour Temperatures (Tc) are given. Comparison between our suggested two new criteria with the MK classification system and Cucchairo (1980) classification system was carried out.

  9. Thirty Days in the Life of Beta Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    Coronal flares are common among short-period RS CVn-type binaries; easy and valuable targets for EUVE. Less well known, but equally enigmatic, are flares on normal single stars; particularly G/K giants, whose coronal variability has been poorly documented. For such stars, flare-associated mass ejections might promote angular momentum loss, thereby controlling the lifetime of their magnetic activity (which possibly can be rejuvenated by cannibalism of hot Jupiters!). We propose to obtain an unprecedented 30-day history of the EUV behavior of the archetype active single K0 III giant, Beta Ceti. DS photometry will enable an inventory of flare sizes and frequencies, while the spectrometers will secure high-S/N emission line diagnostics during the quiescent periods, and hopefully also flare decays, for use in semiempirical modeling. The ability to record high-quality spectra over usefully-long time intervals is a unique, vital advantage of EUVE that should be exploited to the fullest extent possible during its final cycle. The study of magnetic activity, and its natural variability, impacts diverse fields of research including: stellar evolution, Sun-Earth relations, and ionizing radiation environments of evolving planetary systems.

  10. The formation of massive primordial stars in the presence of moderate UV backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, M. A.; Schleicher, D. R. G.; Bovino, S.; Grassi, T.; Spaans, M.

    2014-09-01

    Radiative feedback produced by stellar populations played a vital role in early structure formation. In particular, photons below the Lyman limit can escape the star-forming regions and produce a background ultraviolet (UV) flux, which consequently may influence the pristine halos far away from the radiation sources. These photons can quench the formation of molecular hydrogen by photodetachment of H{sup –}. In this study, we explore the impact of such UV radiation on fragmentation in massive primordial halos of a few times 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. To accomplish this goal, we perform high resolution cosmological simulations for two distinct halos and vary the strength of the impinging background UV field in units of J {sub 21} assuming a blackbody radiation spectrum with a characteristic temperature of T {sub rad} = 10{sup 4} K. We further make use of sink particles to follow the evolution for 10,000 yr after reaching the maximum refinement level. No vigorous fragmentation is observed in UV-illuminated halos while the accretion rate changes according to the thermal properties. Our findings show that a few 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4} solar mass protostars are formed when halos are irradiated by J {sub 21} = 10-500 at z > 10 and suggest a strong relation between the strength of the UV flux and mass of a protostar. This mode of star formation is quite different from minihalos, as higher accretion rates of about 0.01-0.1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} are observed by the end of our simulations. The resulting massive stars are potential cradles for the formation of intermediate-mass black holes at earlier cosmic times and contribute to the formation of a global X-ray background.

  11. The ZZ Ceti instability strip as seen by VLT-ULTRACAM.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvotti, R.; Pavlov, M.; Fontaine, G.; Marsh, T.; Dhillon, V.

    In this paper we present some preliminary results of a recent VLT/ULTRACAM run on a few DA white dwarfs located near the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. The DA white dwarf GD 133 (T_{eff}≃12300K, log g≃8.0), that was believed to be a stable star, shows short period oscillations at about 2 min with an amplitude of about 4 mma in the g band. Based on data obtained at the ESO Paranal Observatory (programme 075.D-0371)

  12. Morphology and kinematics of the gas envelope of Mira Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung, P. T.; Hoai, D. T.; Diep, P. N.; Phuong, N. T.; Thao, N. T.; Tuan-Anh, P.; Darriulat, P.

    2016-07-01

    Observations of 12CO(3-2) emission of the circumbinary envelope of Mira Ceti, made by Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array, are analysed. The observed Doppler velocity distribution is made of three components: a blueshifted south-eastern arc, which can be described as a ring in slow radial expansion, ˜1.7 km s-1, making an angle of ˜50° with the plane of the sky and born some 2000 years ago; a few arcs, probably born at the same epoch as the blueshifted arc, all sharing Doppler velocities redshifted by approximately 3±2 km s-1 with respect to the main star; thirdly, a central region dominated by the circumbinary envelope, displaying two outflows in the south-western and north-eastern hemispheres. At short distances from the star, up to ˜1.5 arcsec, these hemispheres display very different morphologies: the south-western outflow covers a broad solid angle, expands radially at a rate between 5 and 10 km s-1 and is slightly redshifted; the north-eastern outflow consists of two arms, both blueshifted, bracketing a broad dark region where emission is suppressed. At distances between ˜1.5 and ˜2.5 arcsec the asymmetry between the two hemispheres is significantly smaller and detached arcs, particularly spectacular in the north-eastern hemisphere are present. Close to the stars, we observe a mass of gas surrounding Mira B, with a size of a few tens of au, and having Doppler velocities with respect to Mira B reaching ±1.5 km s-1, which we interpret as gas flowing from Mira A towards Mira B.

  13. Resolving the Dusty Debris Disk of 49 Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Hughes, A. Meredith

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dispersal of primordial gas and dust from circumstellar disks is necessary for determining the timeline for giant planet formation. While the current assumption is that the gas and dust evolve simultaneously, there are a few systems that defy this paradigm. The nearby A star 49 Ceti, at a distance of 61 pc, hosts one of only a few known circumstellar disks that exhibits the dust qualities of an older debris disk but still displays a substantial mass of molecular gas, a characteristic normally associated with youth. We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations at 850μm and a spatial resolution of 0.47x0.39 arcsec that resolve emission from the dust disk for the first time. To investigate the properties of the dust grains and the morphology of the disk, we simultaneously model the high-resolution ALMA data and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The detected emission reveals a disk that extends from 1.16±0.12AU to 286±7AU with an increase in surface density at 113±2AU that is viewed at an inclination of 79.6±.4°. The increase in surface density corresponds to the inner radius of the gas disk, hinting that similar mechanisms may be responsible for sculpting the gas and dust disks at this late stage of disk evolution.

  14. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-12-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. Thirty are cluster member galaxies, and nine are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates between 8 and 525 Msolar yr-1. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J-band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, consistent with several previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell Cardiel et al.; Crawford et al.). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars and, therefore, recent star formation. Using the Starburst99 model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2-219 Msolar yr-1 for the cooling flow sample. For two-thirds of this sample, it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV-inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well-populated XMM UV cluster archive, and a more extensive follow-up study is currently underway.

  15. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  16. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  17. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme-UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, Sarah; Barman, Travis S.; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2015-01-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1-0.4 AU), increasing the probability of finding terrestrial planets located in these regions. While there is evidence that stars emit their highest levels of far and near ultraviolet (FUV; NUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres, we are currently unable to directly measure the extreme UV radiation (EUV). High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under-predict FUV and EUV emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona), from which this radiation is emitted. By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes, we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr - 1 Gyr. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres.

  18. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Data have been reduced and partially analyzed and models have been fitted. ASCA data indicate a metal-poor corona, with metals down by a factor of 3 or more relative to the photospheric values. EUVE data show a FIP effect, which is expected if the metals are enhanced rather than depleted. An absolute measure of the metal abundance has not yet been performed for the EUVE data. Either the FIP effect is in operation in the presence of a global depletion of metals, or the ASCA analysis is giving the wrong answer. The latter could be the case if the plasma models applied are incomplete. Further investigation into this is warranted prior to publication.

  19. Does UV CETI Suffer from the Mad Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analyzed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the (EUV) Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in metals in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere.

  20. Does UV CETI Suffer from the MAD Syndrome?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    1999-01-01

    Photometric data have been analysed and searched for events of flaring and other variability. Some flaring has been detected, though probably not at a level that will hinder our continuing spectral analysis. X-ray diagnostics for the very hot coronal emission measure are under investigation in order to determine whether or not the very hot coronal plasma contributes significantly to the observed X-ray flux in the EUV. The key test of the MAD syndrome lies in whether or not the coronal lines indicate a depletion in met- als in the corona relative to the underlying photosphere. While some progress has been made in this direction, not as much work has been accomplished as expected due to the increasing commitments of the PI to the CXO project as it nears launch. A no-cost extension has been granted in order to further the analysis and carry out the next stages of the investigation: to construct an emission measure distribution with which to compute a synthetic continuum to compare with the observed continuum.

  1. Constraints provided by star cluster spectra on the nature of the UV turn-up in giant elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, E.; Alloin, D.

    1988-03-01

    We have linked available ultraviolet observations to the visible and near infrared spectra of some objects from our star cluster and galaxy nucleus samples. We have analyzed the nature of the UV turn-up in giant elliptical galaxies (gE) in the light of our recent population synthesis results which are based upon a library of star cluster integrated spectra in the visible and near infrared. We also investigate how star clusters can provide information on the frequency of occurrence of particular types of stars with respect to the associated populations of a given age and metallicity. We definitely exclude the possibility that the UV turn-up in gE is caused by blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars associated with metal-poor components: even if they were a major contributor to the optical spectrum, their UV turn-up would be unable to account for that observed in gE, simply because it is not steep enough. Furthermore, our previous visible-near infrared synthesis has shown that only 10% of the flux originates from low metallicity components. On the contrary we find strong evidence that this UV turn-up is a result of on-going star formation in gE nuclei. Indeed, young blue clusters and/or H II region spectra match the UV turn-up quite well, without affecting much the optical range where their contribution is less than 2% at 5870 Å. Another possibility would be that the UV turn-up in gE is caused by post AGB stars from metal-rich components: data presently available about their frequency of occurrence in metal-rich galactic clusters, as well as about that of planetary nebulae in the bulge of M31 do not favour this interpretation however.

  2. Star formation rate in galaxies from UV, IR, and Hα estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirashita, H.; Buat, V.; Inoue, A. K.

    2003-10-01

    Infrared (IR) luminosity of galaxies originating from dust thermal emission can be used as an indicator of the star formation rate (SFR). Inoue et al. (\\cite{inoue00}, IHK) have derived a formula for the conversion from dust IR luminosity to SFR by using the following three quantities: the fraction of Lyman continuum luminosity absorbed by gas (f), the fraction of UV luminosity absorbed by dust (epsilon ), and the fraction of dust heating from old (ga 108 yr) stellar populations (eta ). We develop a method to estimate those three quantities based on the idea that the various way of SFR estimates from ultraviolet (UV) luminosity (2000 Å luminosity), Hα luminosity, and dust IR luminosity should return the same SFR. After applying our method to samples of galaxies, the following results are obtained in our framework. First, our method is applied to a sample of star-forming galaxies, finding that f ~ 0.6, epsilon ~ 0.5, and eta ~ 0.4 as representative values. Next, we apply the method to a starburst sample, which shows larger extinction than the star-forming galaxy sample. With the aid of f, epsilon , and eta , we are able to estimate reliable SFRs from UV and/or IR luminosities. Moreover, the Hα luminosity, if the Hα extinction is corrected by using the Balmer decrement, is suitable for a statistical analysis of SFR, because the same {correction factor for the Lyman continuum extinction (i.e. 1/f)} is applicable to both normal and starburst galaxies over all the range of SFR. The metallicity dependence of f and epsilon is also tested: Only the latter proves to have a correlation with metallicity. As an extension of our result, the local (z=0) comoving density of SFR can be estimated with our dust extinction corrections. We show that all UV, Hα , and IR comoving luminosity densities at z=0 give a consistent SFR per comoving volume ( ~ 3x 10-2h M_sun yr-1 Mpc-3). Useful formulae for SFR estimate are listed. Tables 1 and 2, and Appendix A are only available in

  3. THE AVERAGE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF THE UV-BRIGHTEST STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z {approx} 3.7

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Glikman, Eilat; Dey, Arjun; Reddy, Naveen; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Cooper, Michael C.; Fan Xiaohui; Bian Fuyan; Stern, Daniel; Brodwin, Mark; Cooray, Asantha

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the average physical properties and star formation histories (SFHs) of the most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 3.7. Our results are based on the average spectral energy distributions (SEDs), constructed from stacked optical-to-infrared photometry, of a sample of the 1913 most UV-luminous star-forming galaxies found in 5.3 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. We find that the shape of the average SED in the rest optical and infrared is fairly constant with UV luminosity, i.e., more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more luminous at longer wavelengths. In the rest UV, however, the spectral slope {beta} ({identical_to} dlogF{sub {lambda}}/dlog{lambda}; measured at 0.13 {mu}m < {lambda}{sub rest} < 0.28 {mu}m) rises steeply with the median UV luminosity from -1.8 at L {approx} L* to -1.2 (L {approx} 4-5L*). We use population synthesis analyses to derive their average physical properties and find that (1) L{sub UV} and thus star formation rates (SFRs) scale closely with stellar mass such that more UV-luminous galaxies are also more massive, (2) the median ages indicate that the stellar populations are relatively young (200-400 Myr) and show little correlation with UV luminosity, and (3) more UV-luminous galaxies are dustier than their less-luminous counterparts, such that L {approx} 4-5L* galaxies are extincted up to A(1600) = 2 mag while L {approx} L* galaxies have A(1600) = 0.7-1.5 mag. We argue that the average SFHs of UV-luminous galaxies are better described by models in which SFR increases with time in order to simultaneously reproduce the tight correlation between the UV-derived SFR and stellar mass and their universally young ages. We demonstrate the potential of measurements of the SFR-M{sub *} relation at multiple redshifts to discriminate between simple models of SFHs. Finally, we discuss the fate of these UV-brightest galaxies in the next 1-2 Gyr and their possible connection to the most massive galaxies at

  4. The Origin and Nature of UV Bright stars in Globular Clusters II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    1996-07-01

    We propose an investigation of the UV-bright stellar populations of NGC 1904, NGC 6254, and NGC 5904. These are Galactic globular clusters that are known to be bright at far-UV wavelengths, with the two known to possess extended blue HB tails. These observations will complement data obtained during Cycle 5 and during the UIT Astro-1 flight in December 1990. The object of this investigation is twofold: {a} to explore the relationship between the HB mass distribution in clusters with blue HB tails {BT clusters} to the clusters' structural and dynamical properties and {b} to gain further samples of blue straggler stars in the cores of such clusters. These observations will allow a probe of the variation in mass loss processes close to the tip of the red giant branch. The clusters have been selected as follows: NGC 1904 and NGC 6254 are similar in HB morphology to NGC 6205 for which we have scheduled Cycle 5 observations, and are both more centrally concentrated. In addition, UIT observations indicate a deficit of blue HB stars in the core of NGC1904. NGC 5904 has similar metallicity and concentration to both NGC 1904 & NGC 6254, and was observed by the ANS to be brighter in the far-UV than its optical HB morphology suggests. Our original target list contained also NGC 6266, which has a larger continuous range in HB colour than any other cluster, extending from the red to the blue extreme, and would have provided information about a cluster with high HB mass dispersion. However the exposure times that we derived in Phase 1 using the WFPC2 Exposure Time Calculator provided by the STScI resulted significantly underestimated because of an error in the ETC. As a result of that, we decided to drop NGC 6266, which is highly reddened and requires long exposure times, in order to obtain acceptably good photometric quality on the other 3 clusters.

  5. Effect of UV Radiation on the Spectral Fingerprints of Earth-like Planets Orbiting M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-01

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with Teff = 2300 K to Teff = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4-20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H2O, O3, CH4, N2O, and CH3Cl. To observe signatures of life—O2/O3 in combination with reducing species like CH4—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O2 spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N2O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH3Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N2O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  6. EFFECT OF UV RADIATION ON THE SPECTRAL FINGERPRINTS OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING M STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Segura, A.; Linsky, J.; Mohanty, S.

    2015-08-10

    We model the atmospheres and spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting the entire grid of M dwarfs for active and inactive stellar models with T{sub eff} = 2300 K to T{sub eff} = 3800 K and for six observed MUSCLES M dwarfs with UV radiation data. We set the Earth-like planets at the 1 AU equivalent distance and show spectra from the visible to IR (0.4–20 μm) to compare detectability of features in different wavelength ranges with the James Webb Space Telescope and other future ground- and spaced-based missions to characterize exo-Earths. We focus on the effect of UV activity levels on detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}Cl. To observe signatures of life—O{sub 2}/O{sub 3} in combination with reducing species like CH{sub 4}—we find that early and active M dwarfs are the best targets of the M star grid for future telescopes. The O{sub 2} spectral feature at 0.76 μm is increasingly difficult to detect in reflected light of later M dwarfs owing to low stellar flux in that wavelength region. N{sub 2}O, another biosignature detectable in the IR, builds up to observable concentrations in our planetary models around M dwarfs with low UV flux. CH{sub 3}Cl could become detectable, depending on the depth of the overlapping N{sub 2}O feature. We present a spectral database of Earth-like planets around cool stars for directly imaged planets as a framework for interpreting future light curves, direct imaging, and secondary eclipse measurements of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone to design and assess future telescope capabilities.

  7. ALMA Observations of the Debris Disk of Solar Analog τ Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Lawler, Samantha M.; Wilner, David J.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant M.; Booth, Mark; Di Francesco, James

    2016-09-01

    We present 1.3 mm observations of the Sun-like star τ Ceti with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array that probe angular scales of ∼ 1\\prime\\prime (4 au). This first interferometric image of the τ Ceti system, which hosts both a debris disk and a possible multiplanet system, shows emission from a nearly face-on belt of cold dust with a position angle of 90^\\circ surrounding an unresolved central source at the stellar position. To characterize this emission structure, we fit parametric models to the millimeter visibilities. The resulting best-fit model yields an inner belt edge of {6.2}-4.6+9.8 au, consistent with inferences from lower resolution, far-infrared Herschel observations. While the limited data at sufficiently short baselines preclude us from placing stronger constraints on the belt properties and its relation to the proposed five planet system, the observations do provide a strong lower limit on the fractional width of the belt, {{Δ }}R/R\\gt 0.75 with 99% confidence. This fractional width is more similar to broad disks such as HD 107146 than narrow belts such as the Kuiper Belt and Fomalhaut. The unresolved central source has a higher flux density than the predicted flux of the stellar photosphere at 1.3 mm. Given previous measurements of an excess by a factor of ∼2 at 8.7 mm, this emission is likely due to a hot stellar chromosphere.

  8. Keck Observations of the UV-Bright Star Barnard 29 in the Globular Cluster M13 (NGC 6205)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Van Dyke; Chayer, Pierre; Reid, Iain N.

    2016-06-01

    In color-magnitude diagrams of globular clusters, stars brighter than the horizontal branch and bluer than the red-giant branch are known as UV-bright stars. Most are evolving from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the tip of the white-dwarf cooling curve. To better understand this important phase of stellar evolution, we have analyzed a Keck HIRES echelle spectrum of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 in M13. We begin by fitting the star's H I (Hα, Hβ, and Hγ) and He I lines with a grid of synthetic spectra generated from non-LTE H-He models computed using the TLUSTY code. We find that the shape of the star's Hα profile is not well reproduced with these models. Upgrading from version 200 to version 204M of TLUSTY solves this problem: the Hα profile is now well reproduced. TLUSTY version 204 includes improved calculations for the Stark broadening of hydrogen line profiles. Using these models, we derive stellar parameters of Teff = 21,100 K, log g = 3.05, and log (He/H) = -0.87, values consistent with those of previous authors. The star's Keck spectrum shows photospheric absorption from N II, O II, Mg II, Al III, Si II, Si III, S II, Ar II, and Fe III. The abundances of these species are consistent with published values for the red-giant stars in M13, suggesting that the star's chemistry has changed little since it left the AGB.

  9. Fluorescence processes and line identifications in the UV spectra of cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Johansson, Sveneric

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescence processes active in the outer atmospheres of noncoronal cool stars and the UV lines they produce are summarized. Eight pumping processes and 21 fluorescent line products are discussed. The processes, which produce 12 lines, involves energy levels not previously known to be radiatively populated. Four of these are examples of self-fluorescence, whereby one or more lines of Fe II photo-excite through coincident lines the upper levels of other Fe II lines lines seen in emission, while two others explain the selective excitation of solitary Ni II and Si I lines. Nine of the line products are decays from levels in Fe I and Fe II already known to be radiatively populated.

  10. Star Formation in the Galaxy and the Fluctuating UV Radiation Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Parravano, A.; McKee, C.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We examine the formation of massive stars in the Galaxy, the resultant fluctuating UV radiation field, and the effect of this Field on the star-forming interstellar medium. Following previous researchers such as Habing (1968), we calculate the average interstellar radiation field at the Solar Circle of the Galaxy. However, our new calculations follow more closely the time dependence of the field at any point. We show that there is a significant difference between the mean field and the median field, and that there are substantial fluctuations of the field (on timescales of order 100 million years) at a given point. Far Ultraviolet Radiation (FUV, photon energies of 6 eV - 13.6 eV) has been recognized as the main source of heating of the neutral interstellar gas. Given the pressure of the interstellar medium (ISM) the FUV field determines whether the thermal balance of the neutral gas results in cold (T approximately 50 - 100 K) clouds (CNM), warm (T about 10,000 K) (WNM), for a combination of the two (the two phase ISM) We present results for the time history of the FUV field for points in the local ISM of the Milky Way Galaxy. The presence of this fluctuating heating rate converts CNM to WNM and vice versa. We show how to calculate the average fractions of the gas in the CNM and WNM when the interstellar gas is subject to this fluctuating FUV field. The knowledge of how these fractions depend on the gas properties (i.e. mean density and composition) and on the FUV-sources (i.e. the star formation rate, or the IMF, or the size distribution of associations) is a basic step in building any detailed model of the large scale behavior of the ISM and the mutual relation between the ISM and the SFR.

  11. (F)UV Spectral Analysis of 15 Hot, Hydrogen-Rich Central Stars of PNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Marc

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was the precise determination of basic stellar parameters and metal abundances for a sample of 15 ionizing stars of gaseous nebulae. Strategic lines of metals for the expected parameter range are located in the ultraviolet (UV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) range. Thus high-resolution, high-S/N UV and FUV observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) were used for the analysis. For the calculation of the necessary spectral energy distributions the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) was used. The model atmospheres included most elements from H - Ni in order to account for line-blanketing effects. For each object a small grid of model atmospheres was calculated. As the interstellar medium (ISM) imprints its influence in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and especially the FUSE range, the program OWENS was employed to calculate the interstellar absorption features. Both, the photospheric model spectral energy distribution (SED) as well as the ISM models were combined to enable the identification of most of the observed absorption lines. The analyzed sample covers a range of 70 kK < Teff < 136 kK, and surface gravities from log (g/cm/sec^2) = 5.4 - 7.4, thus representing different stages of stellar evolution. For a large number of elements, abundances were determined for the first time in these objects. Lines of C, N, O, F, Ne, Si, P, S, and Ar allowed to determine the corresponding abundances. For none of the objects lines of Ca, Sc, Ti, and V could be found. Only a few objects were rich in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni lines. Most of the analyzed stars exhibited only lines of Fe (ionization stages V - VIII) from the iron-group elements. No signs for gravitational settling (the gravitational force exceeds the radiation pressure and elements begin to sink from the atmosphere into deeper layers) were found. This is expected as the values of the surface gravities of

  12. Ten years of the international review meetings on Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence /CETI/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesek, R.; Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of ideas on CETI within the international community over the past five years is reviewed, and the outlook for future CETI activities is discussed. The growth of review sessions on CETI held annually by the International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) is considered, with particular attention given to the issue of radio frequency allocation for the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. CETI activities outside the IAA are then examined, including the Viking search for life on Mars, Project Orion for the detection of extrasolar planetary systems, SETI programs undertaken in the U.S. and Soviet Union, and the development of multispectral spectrum analyzers and signal processors. The expected future development of CETI strategies, techniques and instrumentation as well as popular and scientific interest in SETI are discussed, and it is noted that the IAA sessions remain the only regular international forum for the exchange of data on all aspects of CETI.

  13. The effective temperature and surface gravity of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 of Messier 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Aikman, G. C. L.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of optical region spectrophotometry, IUE low dispersion fluxes, and the H-gamma profile with the predictions of metal-poor model atmospheres were used to derive the photospheric parameters of the UV-bright star Barnard 29. These were found to be T(eff) - 20, 250 K, log g - 3.15 after the application of reddening corrections. A solar He/H ratio and the metallicity of Messier 13 were assumed.

  14. Pathology of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) infected with Brucella ceti.

    PubMed

    González-Barrientos, R; Morales, J-A; Hernández-Mora, G; Barquero-Calvo, E; Guzmán-Verri, C; Chaves-Olarte, E; Moreno, E

    2010-05-01

    Seventeen striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) displaying swimming disorders compatible with neurological syndromes were investigated for Brucella infection. Sixteen dolphins had meningoencephalomyelitis. Serum antibody against Brucella antigen was detected in all 14 animals tested and Brucella ceti was isolated from eight out of nine animals. Brucella antigen was detected in the brain by immunofluorescence, but not by immunohistochemical labelling. By contrast, Brucella antigen was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of animals with severe placentitis and in the mitral valve of animals with myocarditis. The microscopical lesions observed in the tissues of the infected dolphins were similar to those of chronic brucellosis in man. The severity of brucellosis in S. coeruleoalba indicates that this dolphin species is highly susceptible to infection by B. ceti. PMID:19954790

  15. UV spectral variability in the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. 11: The accretion interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, M. R.; Grady, C. A.; The, P. S.

    1993-01-01

    We report recent IUE high- and low-dispersion observations with the IUE long wavelength camera (LWP) and short wavelength camera (SWP) of the Herbig Ae star HR 5999. We have found a dramatic change in the structure of the Mg II h and k lines (2795.5, 2802.7 A) along with some continuum flux excesses especially at the short end of the SWP camera. LWP high dispersion observations of HR 5999 obtained between 1979 and 1990, at times of comparatively low UV continuum fluxes, exhibit P Cygni type m profiles in the Mg II resonance doublet. In contrast, observations made from September 1990 through March 16-18, 1992, with high W continuum fluxes, present Mg II lines with reverse P Cygni profiles indicative of some active episodic accretion. Accreting gas can also be detected in the additional red wings of the various Fe II and Mn II absorption lines, with velocities up to +300-350 km/s (September 1990). By September 10, 1992 the Mg II profile had returned to the type III P Cygni profile similar to those from earlier spectra. The correlation between the presence of large column densities of accreting gas and the continuum light variations supports suggestions by several authors that HR 5999 is surrounded by an optically thick, viscously heated accretion disk. Detection of accreting gas in the line of sight to HR 5999 permits us to place constraints on our viewing geometry for this system. A discussion is included comparing the spectral and physical similarities between HR 5999 and the more evolved proto-planetary candidate system, beta Pictoris.

  16. The MOSDEF Survey: The Strong Agreement Between Hα and UV-To-FIR Star Formation Rates for z ~ 2 Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaei, Irene; Reddy, Naveen; Kriek, Mariska T.; Shapley, Alice E.; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian D.; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona; Freeman, William R.; Azadi, Mojegan

    2016-06-01

    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic SED-based star-formation rates (SFRs) for z ~ 2 galaxies. While dust-corrected SFRs(Hα,Hβ) using Balmer decrements are commonly used at low redshift, it has been argued that Balmer lines may miss optically thick star-forming regions at high redshifts. In order to investigate this possible bias, we compare the SFRs(Hα,Hβ) with independently measured UV-to-far-IR SFRs for star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2. For this comparison we use a sample of galaxies selected from the unique spectroscopic dataset of the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. The MOSDEF survey is a multi-year project that uses the near-IR MOSFIRE spectrograph on the 10-m Keck I telescope to characterize the gaseous and stellar contents of ~ 1500 rest-frame optically selected galaxies at 1.37 ≤ z ≤ 3.80. In addition to the rest-frame optical spectra, we use data from Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm, Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm, and Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 μm to measure mid- and far-IR fluxes. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with the state-of-the-art flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models, which utilize energy balance to fit the stellar and dust emission simultaneously. Comparing the SFR(Hα,Hβ) with the robust UV-to-far-IR SED inferrred SFRs, show us how accurately Balmer decrements predict the obscuration of the nebular lines in order to robustly calculate SFRs for star-forming galaxies at high redshift. Furthermore, we use our data to assess SFR indicators based on modeling the UV-to-mid-IR SEDs or by adding SFR(UV) and SFR(IR), for which the latter is based on the empirical conversions from mid-IR to total IR luminosity. This study shed light on the validity of various SFR indicators, specifically the nebular emission lines, for galaxies at z ~ 2.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Far-UV spectral atlas of O-type stars (Smith, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we present a spectral atlas covering the wavelength interval 930-1188Å for O2-O9.5 stars using Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer archival data. The stars selected for the atlas were drawn from three populations: Galactic main-sequence (classes III-V) stars, supergiants, and main-sequence stars in the Magellanic Clouds, which have low metallicities. For several of these stars, we have prepared FITS files comprised of pairs of merged spectra for user access via the Multimission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST). We chose spectra from the first population with spectral types O4, O5, O6, O7, O8, and O9.5 and used them to compile tables and figures with identifications of all possible atmospheric and interstellar medium lines in the region 949-1188Å. Our identified line totals for these six representative spectra are 821 (500), 992 (663), 1077 (749), 1178 (847), 1359 (1001), and 1798 (1392) lines, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses are the totals of lines formed in the atmospheres, according to spectral synthesis models. The total number of unique atmospheric identifications for the six main-sequence O-star template spectra is 1792, whereas the number of atmospheric lines in common to these spectra is 300. The number of identified lines decreases toward earlier types (increasing effective temperature), while the percentages of "missed" features (unknown lines not predicted from our spectral syntheses) drop from a high of 8% at type B0.2, from our recently published B-star far-UV atlas (Cat. J/ApJS/186/175), to 1%-3% for type O spectra. The percentages of overpredicted lines are similar, despite their being much higher for B-star spectra. (4 data files).

  18. STAR FORMATION AND UV COLORS OF THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES IN THE REPRESENTATIVE XMM-NEWTON CLUSTER STRUCTURE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Megan; Bruch, Seth; Wang, Emily; Voit, G. Mark; Hicks, Amalia K.; Haarsma, Deborah B.; Croston, Judith H.; Pratt, Gabriel W.; O'Connell, Robert W.

    2010-06-01

    We present UV broadband photometry and optical emission-line measurements for a sample of 32 brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in clusters of the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) with z = 0.06-0.18. The REXCESS clusters, chosen to study scaling relations in clusters of galaxies, have X-ray measurements of high quality. The trends of star formation and BCG colors with BCG and host properties can be investigated with this sample. The UV photometry comes from the XMM-Newton Optical Monitor, supplemented by existing archival Galaxy Evolution Explorer photometry. We detected H{alpha} and forbidden line emission in seven (22%) of these BCGs, in optical spectra obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research Goodman spectrograph. All of these emission-line BCGs occupy clusters classified as cool cores (CCs) based on the central cooling time in the cluster core, for an emission-line incidence rate of 70% for BCGs in REXCESS CC clusters. Significant correlations between the H{alpha} equivalent widths, excess UV production in the BCG, and the presence of dense, X-ray bright intracluster gas with a short cooling time are seen, including the fact that all of the H{alpha} emitters inhabit systems with short central cooling times and high central intracluster medium densities. Estimates of the star formation rates based on H{alpha} and UV excesses are consistent with each other in these seven systems, ranging from 0.1to8 solar masses per year. The incidence of emission-line BCGs in the REXCESS sample is intermediate, somewhat lower than in other X-ray-selected samples ({approx}35%), and somewhat higher than but statistically consistent with optically selected, slightly lower redshift BCG samples ({approx}10%-15%). The UV-optical colors (UVW1 - R {approx}4.7 {+-} 0.3) of REXCESS BCGs without strong optical emission lines are consistent with those predicted from templates and observations of ellipticals dominated by old stellar populations. We see no

  19. Probing the Peak Epoch of Cosmic Star Formation (1Star-forming Galaxies Behind the Lensing Clusters: UV Luminosity Function and the Dust Attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alavi, Anahita; Siana, Brian D.; Richard, Johan; Rafelski, Marc; Jauzac, Mathilde; Limousin, Marceau; Stark, Daniel; Teplitz, Harry I.

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining a complete census of cosmic star formation requires an understanding of faint star-forming galaxies that are far below the detection limits of current surveys. To search for the faint galaxies, we use the power of strong gravitational lensing from foreground galaxy clusters to boost the detection limits of HST to much fainter luminosities. Using the WFC3/UVIS on board the HST, we obtain deep UV images of 4 lensing clusters with existing deep optical and near-infrared data (three from Frontier Fields survey). Building multiband photometric catalogs and applying a photometric redshift selection, we uncover a large population of dwarf galaxies (-18.5star formation (1star-forming galaxies keeps increasing steeply toward very faint magnitudes (MUV=-12.5). As an important implication of a steep faint-end slope LF, we show that the faint galaxies (-18.5UV background (>50%) at these redshifts. We use this unique sample to investigate further the various properties of dwarf galaxies as it is claimed to deviate from the trends seen for the more massive galaxies. Recent hydro-dynamical simulations and observations of local dwarfs show that these galaxies have episodic bursts of star formation on short time scales (< 10 Myr). We find that the bursty star formation histories (SFHs) cause a large intrinsic scatter in UV colors (β) at MUV > -16, comparing a sample of low mass galaxies from simulations with bursty SFHs with our comprehensive measurements of the observed β values. As this scatter can also be due to the dust extinction, we distinguish these two effects by measuring the dust attenuation using Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ) ratios from our MOSFIRE/Keck spectroscopy.

  20. On the Discovery of Massive ZZ Ceti Variables and the Peculiar Light Curve of SDSS J1529

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curd, Brandon; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with masses greater than one solar mass. We identified these white dwarfs through SDSS Data Release 7 spectroscopy. All three objects show monoperiodic oscillations with periods ranging from 203 s to 11 min. With follow-up observations of the confirmed ZZ Ceti stars, it should be possible to detect lower amplitude pulsation modes in order to conduct an in depth asteroseismological analysis and estimate the fraction of their core mass that is crystallized. We also present and discuss the peculiar light curve of J1529, which shows eclipse-like events every 38 min. We compare the light curve of J1529 to that of GD 394 which has similar characteristics (despite being four times hotter) which are thought to be caused by a metal-rich dark spot on the star's surface.

  1. The MOSDEF Survey: The Strong Agreement between Hα and UV-to-FIR Star Formation Rates for z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivaei, Irene; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Shapley, Alice E.; Barro, Guillermo; Conroy, Charlie; Coil, Alison L.; Freeman, William R.; Mobasher, Bahram; Siana, Brian; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H.; Azadi, Mojegan; Pasha, Imad; Inami, Hanae

    2016-04-01

    We present the first direct comparison between Balmer line and panchromatic spectral energy distribution (SED)-based star formation rates (SFRs) for z˜ 2 galaxies. For this comparison, we used 17 star-forming galaxies selected from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey, with 3σ detections for Hα and at least two IR bands (Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 μm, and in some cases Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 μm). The galaxies have total IR (8-1000 μm) luminosities of ˜ 1011.4-1012.4 L⊙ and SFRs of ˜ 30-250 M⊙ yr-1. We fit the UV-to-far-IR SEDs with flexible stellar population synthesis (FSPS) models—which include both stellar and dust emission—and compare the inferred SFRs with the SFR(Hα, Hβ) values corrected for dust attenuation using Balmer decrements. The two SFRs agree with a scatter of 0.17 dex. Our results imply that the Balmer decrement accurately predicts the obscuration of the nebular lines and can be used to robustly calculate SFRs for star-forming galaxies at z˜ 2 with SFRs up to ˜ 200 M⊙ yr-1. We also use our data to assess SFR indicators based on modeling the UV-to-mid-IR SEDs or by adding SFR(UV) and SFR(IR), for which the latter is based on the mid-IR only or on the full IR SED. All these SFRs show a poorer agreement with SFR(Hα, Hβ) and in some cases large systematic biases are observed. Finally, we show that the SFR and dust attenuation derived from the UV-to-near-IR SED alone are unbiased when assuming a delayed exponentially declining star formation history. Based on observations made with the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. Utilizing Synthetic Spectra to Refine Lambda Boo Stars' UV Classification Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik; Romo, Christopher; Steele, Patricia; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly-imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. This possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Bootis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. The Lambda Boo label has been applied to almost any peculiar A-type stars that do not fit elsewhere. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars' unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. Using observed and synthetic spectra, we explored the classification of Lambda Boo stars and developed quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. With model spectra, we demonstrated that the (C I 1657 Angstrom)/ (Al II 1671 Angstrom) line ratio is the best single criterion to distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and metal weak stars, and that one cannot use a single C I/Al II cut-off value as a Lambda Boo classification criterion. The C I/Al II cut-off value is a function of a star's effective temperature and metallicity. Using these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we concluded that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  3. An archival search for UV spectroscopic variability of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Louis, N.; Willis, Alan J.; Smith, L. J.

    1988-06-01

    In order to assess the ubiquity of stellar wind variability in Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, spectroscopic variability for all galactic WR stars observed more than once at high resolution with IUE, excluding the well known spectroscopic binaries, was studied. This involved dearchiving, reducing on Starlink, and examining every HIRES WR image secured to date, embracing 15 stars and 111 spectra. A survey of the SWP spectra available is presented. Evidence of significant P Cygni profile variability is found in WR 22 (=HD 92740) and WR 137 (=HD 192641), but not in the other stars in the sample.

  4. UV-B and B-band Optical Flare Search in AR Lacertae, II Pegasi, and UX Arietis Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Haagen, G. A.

    2013-11-01

    A high-cadence search was conducted on the known RS CVn-type flare stars AR Lac, II Peg, and UX Ari. Two optical flares were observed in the B-band on AR Lac at 5 milliseconds (ms) resolution for a rate of 0.04 fl/hr. Flare energy of the two B-band fast-flares ranged from 0.55 to 16.7 × 1033 ergs. The UV-B and B-band search of II Peg for 44.5 hours at 5 and 10 ms resolution and UV-B band search of UX Ari for 25.6 hours at 10 ms resolution detected no flare activity.

  5. 3D-HST emission line galaxies at z ∼ 2: discrepancies in the optical/UV star formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gebhardt, Henry; Gronwall, Caryl; Schneider, Donald P.; Hagen, Alex; Bridge, Joanna S.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Feldmeier, John

    2014-08-01

    We use Hubble Space Telescope near-IR grism spectroscopy to examine the Hβ line strengths of 260 star-forming galaxies in the redshift range 1.90 < z < 2.35. We show that at these epochs, the Hβ star formation rate (SFR) is a factor of ∼1.8 higher than what would be expected from the systems' rest-frame UV flux density, suggesting a shift in the standard conversion between these quantities and SFR. We demonstrate that at least part of this shift can be attributed to metallicity, as Hβ is more enhanced in systems with lower oxygen abundance. This offset must be considered when measuring the SFR history of the universe. We also show that the relation between stellar and nebular extinction in our z ∼ 2 sample is consistent with that observed in the local universe.

  6. The Differential Rotation of κ1 Ceti as Observed by MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gordon A. H.; Croll, Bryce; Kuschnig, Rainer; Walker, Andrew; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner W.

    2007-04-01

    We first reported evidence for differential rotation of κ1 Ceti in Paper I. In this paper we demonstrate that the differential rotation pattern closely matches that for the Sun. This result is based on additional MOST observations in 2004 and 2005, as well as those from 2003. Using StarSpotz, a program developed specifically to analyze MOST photometry, we have solved for k, the differential rotation coefficient, and Peq, the equatorial rotation period using the light curves from all three years. The absolute range in spot latitudes is 10°-75° and k=0.090+0.006-0.005, less than the solar value but consistent with the younger age of the star; k is also well constrained by the independent spectroscopic estimate of vsini. We demonstrate independently that the pattern of differential rotation with latitude is indeed solar. Details are given of the parallel tempering formalism used in finding the most robust solution, which gives Peq=8.77+0.03-0.04 days, smaller than that usually adopted, implying an age <750 My. Our values of Peq and k can explain the range of rotation periods others have found by spots or activity at a variety of latitudes. Historically, Ca II activity seems to occur consistently between latitudes 50° and 60°, which might indicate a permanent magnetic feature. Knowledge of k and Peq is key to understanding the dynamo mechanism and rotation structure in the convective zone, as well assessing age for solar-type stars. We recently published values of k and Peq for ɛ Eri based on MOST photometry and expect to analyze MOST light curves for several more spotted, solar-type stars. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia with the assistance of the University of Vienna.

  7. The Copernicus observations - Interstellar or circumstellar material. [UV spectra of early stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that the sharp absorption lines observed in the ultraviolet spectra of early-type stars by the Copernicus satellite may be entirely accounted for by the circumstellar material in the H II regions and associated transition zones around the observed stars. If this interpretation is correct, the Copernicus results yield little information on the state of any interstellar (as opposed to circumstellar) gas and, in particular, shed little light on the degree of element depletion in interstellar space.

  8. Predicting the Extreme-UV and Lyman-α Fluxes Received by Exoplanets from their Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme-UV (EUV) radiation from the chromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of host stars (spectral types F, G, K, and M) ionize and heat the outer atmospheres of exoplanets leading to mass loss that is observed during transits and can change the exoplanet's atmosphere. Lyman-α emission from host stars controls the photochemistry in the upper layers of planetary atmospheres by photodissociating important molecules including H_2O, CO_2, CH_4, thereby increasing the oxygen and ozone mixing ratios important for habitability. Both the EUV and strong Lyman-α radiation are largely absorbed by the interstellar medium and must be reconstructed or estimated to understand the radiation environment of exoplanets. In two recent papers, tet{Linsky2013} and tet{Linsky2014}, we have presented robust methods for predicting the intrinsic Lyman-α and EUV fluxes from main sequence cool stars. Solar models and satellite observations (HST, FUSE, and EUVE) provide tests for the feasibility of these methods.

  9. A NEW ANALYSIS OF THE TWO CLASSICAL ZZ CETI WHITE DWARFS GD 165 AND ROSS 548. I. PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2015-12-10

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ≥ S/N ≥ 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs.

  10. A New Analysis of the Two Classical ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs GD 165 and Ross 548. I. Photometry and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Pfeiffer, B.; Vauclair, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ≥ S/N ≥ 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs.

  11. Impacts of fragmented accretion streams onto classical T Tauri stars: UV and X-ray emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, S.; Orlando, S.; Peres, G.; Argiroffi, C.; Reale, F.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The accretion process in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) can be studied through the analysis of some UV and X-ray emission lines which trace hot gas flows and act as diagnostics of the post-shock downfalling plasma. In the UV-band, where higher spectral resolution is available, these lines are characterized by rather complex profiles whose origin is still not clear. Aims: We investigate the origin of UV and X-ray emission at impact regions of density structured (fragmented) accretion streams. We study if and how the stream fragmentation and the resulting structure of the post-shock region determine the observed profiles of UV and X-ray emission lines. Methods: We modeled the impact of an accretion stream consisting of a series of dense blobs onto the chromosphere of a CTTS through two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. We explored different levels of stream fragmentation and accretion rates. From the model results, we synthesize C IV (1550 Å) and O VIII (18.97 Å) line profiles. Results: The impacts of accreting blobs onto the stellar chromosphere produce reverse shocks propagating through the blobs and shocked upflows. These upflows, in turn, hit and shock the subsequent downfalling fragments. As a result, several plasma components differing for the downfalling velocity, density, and temperature are present altoghether. The profiles of C IV doublet are characterized by two main components: one narrow and redshifted to speed ≈ 50 km s-1 and the other broader and consisting of subcomponents with redshift to speed in the range 200-400 km s-1. The profiles of O VIII lines appear more symmetric than C IV and are redshifted to speed ≈ 150 km s-1. Conclusions: Our model predicts profiles of C IV line remarkably similar to those observed and explains their origin in a natural way as due to stream fragmentation. Movies are available at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Total ozone measured during EASOE by a UV-visible spectrometer which observes stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, D.J.; Jones, R.L.; Freshwater, R.A. ); Roscoe, H.K.; Oldham, D.J. ); Harries, J.E. )

    1994-06-22

    This paper presents the results of ground based measurement of column ozone from Abisko, Sweden (68.4[degrees]N), by means of a novel absorption spectroscopy technique. The instrument uses starlight, and moon glow as sources of UV and visible light for the absorption technique. These measurements were compared with ozonesonde measurements, and with space borne instruments.

  13. HAZMAT II: Modeling the Evolution of Extreme--UV Radiation from M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, S.; Barman, T.; Shkolnik, E.

    2014-03-01

    M dwarf stars make up nearly 75% of the Milky Way's stellar population. Due to their low luminosities, the habitable zones around these stars are very close in (~0.1--0.4 AU), which makes it easier to find terrestrial planets located in these regions. Stars emit their highest levels of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in the earliest stages of their evolution while planets are simultaneously forming and accumulating their atmospheres. High levels of EUV radiation can alter the abundance of important molecules such as H2O, changing the chemistry in extrasolar planet atmospheres. This research is the next major step in the HAZMAT (HAbitable Zones and M dwarf Activity across Time) project to analyze how the habitable zone evolves with the evolving properties of stellar and planetary atmospheres. Most previous stellar atmosphere models under--predict far ultraviolet (FUV) emission from M dwarfs; here we present new models for M stars that include prescriptions for the hot, lowest density, atmospheric layers (chromosphere, transition region and corona). By comparing our model spectra to GALEX near and far ultraviolet fluxes (see HAZMAT 1 abstract by Shkolnik et al.), we are able to predict the evolution of EUV radiation for M dwarfs from 10 Myr -- 1 Gyr. The results of the HAZMAT project will tell if a planet in the canonical habitable zone is truly habitable by understanding the evolution of planetary atmospheres as they are subject to large amounts of high--energy radiation.

  14. MEASURING THE EVOLUTIONARY RATE OF COOLING OF ZZ Ceti

    SciTech Connect

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Fraser, Oliver; Riecken, T. S.; Kronberg, M. E.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Corsico, A. H.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, K. I.; Falcon, Ross E.; Reaves, D.; Kepler, S. O.; Romero, A. D.; Chandler, D. W.; Kuehne, J. W.; Sullivan, D. J.; Von Hippel, T.; Mullally, F.; Shipman, H.; and others

    2013-07-01

    We have finally measured the evolutionary rate of cooling of the pulsating hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarf ZZ Ceti (Ross 548), as reflected by the drift rate of the 213.13260694 s period. Using 41 yr of time-series photometry from 1970 November to 2012 January, we determine the rate of change of this period with time to be dP/dt = (5.2 {+-} 1.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} employing the O - C method and (5.45 {+-} 0.79) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} using a direct nonlinear least squares fit to the entire lightcurve. We adopt the dP/dt obtained from the nonlinear least squares program as our final determination, but augment the corresponding uncertainty to a more realistic value, ultimately arriving at the measurement of dP/dt = (5.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. After correcting for proper motion, the evolutionary rate of cooling of ZZ Ceti is computed to be (3.3 {+-} 1.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1}. This value is consistent within uncertainties with the measurement of (4.19 {+-} 0.73) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} s s{sup -1} for another similar pulsating DA white dwarf, G 117-B15A. Measuring the cooling rate of ZZ Ceti helps us refine our stellar structure and evolutionary models, as cooling depends mainly on the core composition and stellar mass. Calibrating white dwarf cooling curves with this measurement will reduce the theoretical uncertainties involved in white dwarf cosmochronometry. Should the 213.13 s period be trapped in the hydrogen envelope, then our determination of its drift rate compared to the expected evolutionary rate suggests an additional source of stellar cooling. Attributing the excess cooling to the emission of axions imposes a constraint on the mass of the hypothetical axion particle.

  15. Isolation of Brucella ceti from a Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas) and a Sowerby's Beaked Whale (Mesoploden bidens).

    PubMed

    Foster, Geoffrey; Whatmore, Adrian M; Dagleish, Mark P; Baily, Johanna L; Deaville, Rob; Davison, Nicholas J; Koylass, Mark S; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma J; Reid, Robert J; Brownlow, Andrew C

    2015-10-01

    Brucella ceti is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that has been recovered from several species of cetaceans in the world's oceans over the past 20 yr. We report the recovery of B. ceti from a Sowerby's beaked whale (Mesoploden bidens) and a long-finned pilot whale (Globicehala melas). Recovery from the testis of a long-finned pilot whale provides further evidence of potential for B. ceti infection to impact the reproductive success of cetaceans, many of which are threatened species. The addition of another two cetacean species to the growing number from which B. ceti has been recovered also further emphasizes the concern for human infections with this organism.

  16. FUV, UV, and Optical Observations of the He-sdO Star BD+39 3226

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, Pierre; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-01-01

    Based on observations carried out with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, the MMT Observatory, and the Keck telescope HIRES spectrograph, we present a spectral analysis of the He-sdO star BD+39 3226. By fitting the MMT spectrum we obtain a gravity that is 0.7 dex higher than the one reported in the literature. The new atmospheric parameters will have an impact on the measurement of the HI column density toward BD+39 3226, and by this very fact on the deuterium abundance. The high-resolution spectra show stellar absorption lines coming from C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe, and Ni. The spectra also show lines from heavy elements such as Ge, As, and Sn. On the other hand, neither Zr nor Pb absorption lines are detected. The non-detection of lead in BD+39 3226 indicates that the star does not belong to the newly discovered group of lead-rich He-sdO stars. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a Public Works and Government Services of Canada contract.

  17. Extragalactic Backgrounds in the Far UV and Exploring Star Formation at High Redshifts with Gamma-ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the intergalactic photon densities from the FIR to the UV which is produced by stellar emission and dust reradiation at various redshifts can provide an independent measure of the star formation history of the universe. Using recent Spitzer and GALEX data in conjunction with other observational inputs, Stecker, Malkan and Scully have calculated the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 < zeta < 6 for photon energies from 0.003 eV to the Lyman limit cutoff at 13.6 eV in a ACDM universe with Omega(sub Lambda) = 0.7 and Omega(sub m) = 0.3. Their results are based on backwards evolution models for galaxies which were developed by Malkan and Stecker previously. The calculated background SEDs at zeta = 0 are in good agreement with the present observational data and limits. The calculated intergalactic photon densities as a function of redshift were used to predict to extend the absorption of high energy 7-rays in intergalactic space from sources such as blazars and quasars, this absorption being produced by interactions the y-rays with the intergalactic FIR-UV photons having the calculated densities. The results are in excellent agreement with absorption features found in the low gamma-ray spectra of Mkn 421, Mkn 501 at, zeta = 0.03 and PKS

  18. Paschen beta emission in the spectrum of Omicron Ceti.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovar, R. P.; Potter, A. E.; Kovar, N. S.; Trafton, L.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of three infrared spectra of Omicron Ceti obtained on Aug. 7 to 11, 1969. The equivalent width of the Paschen beta emission line in these spectra was found to vary by a factor of 2 during this time period. The variation was similar to that for H gamma and H delta as measured by Odell et al. (1970) for the same time span. The equivalent widths of Paschen beta and H gamma on August 7 were used to estimate an opacity ratio of kappa (1.28 micron)/kappa (0.43 micron) about equal to 1:30 and a molecular/atomic hydrogen ratio of about 10. The variation in the strength of Paschen beta and H delta lines is considered to be intrinsic and to have a time scale of less than or about equal to 100,000 sec.

  19. A Debris Disk Case Study: 49 Ceti with Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from one debris disk, Beta Pictoris. Here I discuss a well-known debris disk system in the GASPS survey, 49 Ceti. It serves as a case study for modeling low-density gas in optically thin disks. The dust disk appears to be spatially resolved at 70 um. Most interestingly, there appears to be a hint of ClI 158 urn emission at the roughly 2 sigma level. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission from this system with the weak or non-existent far-IR atomic lines may require an unusual chemical composition in the gas of this disk.

  20. New binaries among UV-selected, hot subdwarf stars and population properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawka, A.; Vennes, S.; O'Toole, S.; Németh, P.; Burton, D.; Kotze, E.; Buckley, D. A. H.

    2015-07-01

    We have measured the orbital parameters of seven close binaries, including six new objects, in a radial velocity survey of 38 objects comprising a hot subdwarf star with orbital periods ranging from ˜0.17 to 3 d. One new system, GALEX J2205-3141, shows reflection on an M dwarf companion. Three other objects show significant short-period variations, but their orbital parameters could not be constrained. Two systems comprising a hot subdwarf paired with a bright main-sequence/giant companion display short-period photometric variations possibly due to irradiation or stellar activity and are also short-period candidates. All except two candidates were drawn from a selection of subluminous stars in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer ultraviolet sky survey. Our new identifications also include a low-mass subdwarf B star and likely progenitor of a low-mass white dwarf (GALEX J0805-1058) paired with an unseen, possibly substellar, companion. The mass functions of the newly identified binaries imply minimum secondary masses ranging from 0.03 to 0.39 M⊙. Photometric time series suggest that, apart from GALEX J0805-1058 and J2205-3141, the companions are most likely white dwarfs. We update the binary population statistics: close to 40 per cent of hot subdwarfs have a companion. Also, we found that the secondary mass distribution shows a low-mass peak attributed to late-type dwarfs, and a higher mass peak and tail distribution attributed to white dwarfs and a few spectroscopic composites. Also, we found that the population kinematics imply an old age and include a few likely halo population members.

  1. UV circular polarisation in star formation regions: the origin of homochirality?

    PubMed

    Lucas, P W; Hough, J H; Bailey, Jeremy; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Gledhill, T M; McCall, Alan

    2005-02-01

    Ultraviolet circularly polarised light has been suggested as the initial cause of the homochirality of organic molecules in terrestrial organisms, via enantiomeric selection of prebiotic molecules by asymmetric photolysis. We present a theoretical investigation of mechanisms by which ultraviolet circular polarisation may be produced in star formation regions. In the scenarios considered here, light scattering produces only a small percentage of net circular polarisation at any point in space, due to the forward throwing nature of the phase function in the ultraviolet. By contrast, dichroic extinction can produce a fairly high percentage of net circular polarisation ( approximately 10%) and may therefore play a key role in producing an enantiomeric excess.

  2. UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator and the Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z=5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, Andreas; Capak, Peter L.; Davidson, Iary; Kakazu, Yuko; Salvato, Mara; Laigle, Clotilde; Onodera, Masato; Masters, Daniel; COSMOS Team

    2016-01-01

    Probing the metal content of high redshift galaxies is essential to study their formation and evolution in the early universe. However, the spectral features used to measure the metallicity are shifted out of the wavelength range of current spectrographs at high-z and therefore alternative methods must be used.We measure the relation between four prominent UV absorption complexes and metallicity for more than 50 local galaxies and, by using a sample of more than 20 galaxies at z ~ 2 - 3, verify that this relation holds up to z ˜ 3. We then apply this method to a sample of ˜ 220 galaxies at 3.5 < z < 6.0 in COSMOS, for which unique UV spectra from DEIMOS and accurate stellar mass estimates from SPLASH are available. The z ~ 5 galaxies at 9 < log(m/M⊙) < 11 are characterized by 0.3 - 0.4 dex (in units of 12 + log(O/H)) lower metallicities than galaxies at z ˜ 2 but comparable to z ˜ 3 - 3.5 galaxies. In the same stellar mass range, we do not find a significant relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation), suggesting that the MZ relation at z ~ 5 is very shallow or breaking down. Since we verify a correlation between dust obscuration (measured by β) and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), we argue that the process of dust production and metal enrichment in the first billion years of galaxy formation is more stochastic than at later times. Using a "bathtub" model approach, we find that an exponential build up of stellar mass within a short time of several 100 Myr can explain a shallow MZ relation at z ˜ 5. Furthermore, we find a weak anti-correlation between star-formation rates and UV absorption strength (i.e., metallicity), indicative of these galaxies being fueled by the inflow of pristine (metal-poor) gas. The galaxy sample presented in this work is unique to further test these scenarios using ALMA and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope.

  3. GalevNB: a conversion from N-BODY simulations to observations—its application on the study of UV-excess in star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaoying; Olczak, Christoph; Guo, Difeng; Spurzem, Rainer

    2015-08-01

    We present GalevNB (Galev for N-body simulations), an utility that converts fundamental stellar properties of N-body simulations into observational properties using the GALEV (GAlaxy EVolutionary synthesis models) package, and thus allowing direct comparisons between observations and N-body simulations. It works by converting fundamental stellar properties, such as stellar mass, temperature, luminosity and metallicity into observational magnitudes for a variety of filters of mainstream instruments/telescopes, such as HST, ESO, SDSS, 2MASS, etc., and into spectra that spans from far-UV (90 Å) to near-IR (160 μm). As an application, we use GalevNB to investigate the secular evolution of spectral energy distribution (SED) and color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of a simulated star cluster over a few hundred million years. The model cluster in this work is evolved using the most recent version of NBODY6++ utilizing many GPU cores in parallel to accelerate multi-node multi-core simulations (Wang et al. 2015), which is the MPI parallel version based on the state-of-the-art direct N-body integrator NBODY6GPU. With the results given by GalevNB, we discover an UV-excess in the integrated SED of the cluster over the whole simulation time. We also identify four candidates that contribute to the FUV peak, core helium burning stars, thermal pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TPAGB) stars, white dwarfs and naked helium stars. Among them, TAGB is a favorable candidate from theoretical point of view (O’connell 1999). On the contrary, white dwarf’s candidate position is controversial (Magris & Bruzual 1993, Landsman et al. 1998) because of low luminosity. The life time of massive star descendants: core helium burning stars and naked helium stars, is very short. Though both of they are very bright at the UV at the early age, their short-term emission makes them become insignificant candidates.

  4. The Outer Disks of Herbig Stars From the UV to NIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C.; Fukagawa, M.; Maruta, Y.; Ohta, Y.; Wisniewski, J.; Hashimoto, J.; Okamoto, Y.; Momose, M.; Currie, T.; Mcelwain, M.; Muto, T.; Kotani, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Kudo, T.; Hayashi, M.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Morino, J.-I.; Suenaga, T.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Takami, H.; Usuda, T.; Tamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    Spatially-resolved imaging of Herbig stars and related objects began with HST, but intensified with commissioning of high-contrast imagers on 8-m class telescopes. The bulk of the data taken from the ground have been polarized intensity imagery at H-band, with the majority of the sources observed as part of the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) survey. Sufficiently many systems have been imaged that we discuss disk properties in scattered, polarized light in terms of groups defined by the IR spectral energy distribution. We find novel phenomena in many of the disks, including spiral density waves, and discuss the disks in terms of clearing mechanisms. Some of the disks have sufficient data to map the dust and gas components, including water ice dissociation products.

  5. A New Analysis of the Two Classical ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs GD 165 and Ross 548. II. Seismic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.

    2016-03-01

    We present the second of a two-part seismic analysis of the bright, hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this second part, we report the results of detailed searches in parameter space for identifying an optimal model for each star that can account well for the observed periods, while being consistent with the spectroscopic constraints derived in our first paper. We find optimal models for each target that reproduce the six observed periods well within ∼0.3% on the average. We also find that there is a sensitivity on the core composition for Ross 548, while there is practically none for GD 165. Our optimal model of Ross 548, with its thin envelope, indeed shows weight functions for some confined modes that extend relatively deep into the interior, thus explaining the sensitivity of the period spectrum on the core composition in that star. In contrast, our optimal seismic model of its spectroscopic sibling, GD 165 with its thick envelope, does not trap/confine modes very efficiently, and we find weight functions for all six observed modes that do not extend into the deep core, hence accounting for the lack of sensitivity in that case. Furthermore, we exploit after the fact the observed multiplet structure that we ascribe to rotation. We are able to map the rotation profile in GD 165 (Ross 548) over the outermost ∼20% (∼5%) of its radius, and we find that the profile is consistent with solid-body rotation.

  6. Completing The Characterization Of Stellar Populations In The Galaxy: Final Catalogs Of Unique Galex Uv Sources And Of Milky Way Hot Stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first extensive surveys in the Ultraviolet (UV), filling the last gap in our view of the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum. Its legacy is an unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV and near-UV. The UV surveys offer unique sensitivity for identifying and studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, both stellar and extra- galactic, notably hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and QSOs (redshift ≤sssim2.4). In order to examine the overall content and distribution of UV sources over the sky, and to classify them by astrophysical class, we propose to construct final catalogs of UV unique sources with homogeneous quality (eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source, excluding artifacts, adding science flags, etc). Such catalogs will facilitate a variety of science investigations on UV-selected samples by the community, in addition to our own science goal, as well as planning of observations with future instruments. We will build the catalogs (high-level science product) using recipes developed for our early version (Bianchi et al. 2011a) but with expanded tools, science flags, and corollary data, in addition to the much larger area coverage with respect to our early version. To facilitate UV source classification and characterization, we will also match the catalogs of unique UV sources with existing ground-based surveys, adding optical and infrared magnitudes to the two UV GALEX magnitudes, and construct flags to identify sources with multiple matches. These products will allow us (and the community) to extract UV-selected samples for several projects. We will use our catalogs for our own science goal: an unbiased census of Milky Way hot white dwarfs (WD). Hot WDs are elusive at all wavelengths except the UV, given their very high temperatures to which optical colors are insensitive, and low optical luminosity. From our proposed UV catalogs we will be

  7. Sensitivity of biosignatures on Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of cool M-dwarf Stars to varying stellar UV radiation and surface biomass emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenfell, J. L.; Gebauer, S.; v. Paris, P.; Godolt, M.; Rauer, H.

    2014-08-01

    We find that variations in the UV emissions of cool M-dwarf stars have a potentially large impact upon atmospheric biosignatures in simulations of Earth-like exoplanets i.e. planets with Earth's development, and biomass and a molecular nitrogen-oxygen dominated atmosphere. Starting with an assumed black-body stellar emission for an M7 class dwarf star, the stellar UV irradiation was increased stepwise and the resulting climate-photochemical response of the planetary atmosphere was calculated. Results suggest a "Goldilocks" effect with respect to the spectral detection of ozone. At weak UV levels, the ozone column was weak (due to weaker production from the Chapman mechanism) hence its spectral detection was challenging. At strong UV levels, ozone formation is stronger but its associated stratospheric heating leads to a weakening in temperature gradients between the stratosphere and troposphere, which results in weakened spectral bands. Also, increased UV levels can lead to enhanced abundances of hydrogen oxides which oppose the ozone formation effect. At intermediate UV (i.e. with ×10 the stellar UV radiative flux of black body Planck curves corresponding to spectral class M7) the conditions are "just right" for spectral detection. Results suggest that the planetary ozone profile is sensitive to the UV output of the star from ~200-350 nm.We also investigated the effect of increasing the top-of-atmosphere incoming Lyman-α radiation but this had only a minimal effect on the biosignatures since it was efficiently absorbed in the uppermost planetary atmospheric layer, mainly by abundant methane. Earlier studies have suggested that the planetary methane is an important stratospheric heater which critically affects the vertical temperature gradient, hence the strength of spectral emission bands. We therefore varied methane and nitrous oxide biomass emissions, finding e.g. that a lowering in methane emissions by ×100 compared with the Earth can influence temperature

  8. THE UV CONTINUUM OF z > 1 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN THE HUBBLE ULTRAVIOLET ULTRADEEP FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, Eric; Rafelski, Marc; Teplitz, Harry I.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Brown, Thomas M.; Coe, Dan; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; De Mello, Duilia F.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Lee, Kyoung-soo; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian D.

    2014-09-20

    We estimate the UV continuum slope, β, for 923 galaxies in the range 1 < z < 8 in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at 1 < z < 2 down to an absolute magnitude M{sub UV}=−14(∼0.006 L{sub z=1}{sup ∗};0.02 L{sub z=0}{sup ∗}), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range 1 < z < 2 are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values <β > = – 1.382(– 1.830) ± 0.002 (random) ± 0.1 (systematic). We find comparable scatter in β (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than z > 2 galaxies. We study the trends of β with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, dβ/dM = –0.11 ± 0.01, and no evolution in dβ/dM with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, ΔE(B – V) ∼ 0.1, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at z < 2, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At z > 2, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range 1 < z < 8, we find a color evolution with redshift, dβ/dz = –0.09 ± 0.01 for low luminosity (0.05 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}), and dβ/dz = –0.06 ± 0.01 for medium luminosity (0.25 L{sub z=3}{sup ∗}) galaxies.

  9. Rest-UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator: The Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Davidzon, I.; Salvato, M.; Laigle, C.; Ilbert, O.; Onodera, M.; Hasinger, G.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Sanders, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Yan, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We measure a relation between the depth of four prominent rest-UV absorption complexes and metallicity for local galaxies and verify it up to z˜ 3. We then apply this relation to a sample of 224 galaxies at 3.5\\lt z\\lt 6.0 (< z> =4.8) in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), for which unique UV spectra from the Deep Imaging Multi-object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) and accurate stellar masses from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) are available. The average galaxy population at z˜ 5 and {log}(M/{M}⊙ )\\gt 9 is characterized by 0.3-0.4 dex (in units of 12+{log}({{O/H}})) lower metallicities than at z ˜ 2, but comparable to z˜ 3.5. We find galaxies with weak or no Lyα emission to have metallicities comparable to z ˜ 2 galaxies and therefore may represent an evolved subpopulation of z˜ 5 galaxies. We find a correlation between metallicity and dust in good agreement with local galaxies and an inverse trend between metallicity and star-formation rate consistent with observations at z ˜ 2. The relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation) is similar to z˜ 3.5, but there are indications of it being slightly shallower, in particular for the young, Lyα-emitting galaxies. We show that, within a “bathtub” approach, a shallower MZ relation is expected in the case of a fast (exponential) build-up of stellar mass with an e-folding time of 100-200 Myr. Because of this fast evolution, the process of dust production and metal enrichment as a function of mass could be more stochastic in the first billion years of galaxy formation compared to later times.

  10. Rest-UV Absorption Lines as Metallicity Estimator: The Metal Content of Star-forming Galaxies at z ~ 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Davidzon, I.; Salvato, M.; Laigle, C.; Ilbert, O.; Onodera, M.; Hasinger, G.; Kakazu, Y.; Masters, D.; McCracken, H. J.; Mobasher, B.; Sanders, D.; Silverman, J. D.; Yan, L.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2016-05-01

    We measure a relation between the depth of four prominent rest-UV absorption complexes and metallicity for local galaxies and verify it up to z˜ 3. We then apply this relation to a sample of 224 galaxies at 3.5\\lt z\\lt 6.0 (< z> =4.8) in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), for which unique UV spectra from the Deep Imaging Multi-object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) and accurate stellar masses from the Spitzer Large Area Survey with Hyper-Suprime-Cam (SPLASH) are available. The average galaxy population at z˜ 5 and {log}(M/{M}ȯ )\\gt 9 is characterized by 0.3–0.4 dex (in units of 12+{log}({{O/H}})) lower metallicities than at z ˜ 2, but comparable to z˜ 3.5. We find galaxies with weak or no Lyα emission to have metallicities comparable to z ˜ 2 galaxies and therefore may represent an evolved subpopulation of z˜ 5 galaxies. We find a correlation between metallicity and dust in good agreement with local galaxies and an inverse trend between metallicity and star-formation rate consistent with observations at z ˜ 2. The relation between stellar mass and metallicity (MZ relation) is similar to z˜ 3.5, but there are indications of it being slightly shallower, in particular for the young, Lyα-emitting galaxies. We show that, within a “bathtub” approach, a shallower MZ relation is expected in the case of a fast (exponential) build-up of stellar mass with an e-folding time of 100–200 Myr. Because of this fast evolution, the process of dust production and metal enrichment as a function of mass could be more stochastic in the first billion years of galaxy formation compared to later times.

  11. MODELING THE NEAR-UV BAND OF GK STARS. II. NON-LTE MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Short, C.; Campbell, Eamonn A.; Pickup, Heather; Hauschildt, Peter H. E-mail: yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.de

    2012-03-10

    We present a grid of atmospheric models and synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for late-type dwarfs and giants of solar and 1/3 solar metallicity with many opacity sources computed in self-consistent non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE), and compare them to the LTE grid of Short and Hauschildt (Paper I). We describe, for the first time, how the NLTE treatment affects the thermal equilibrium of the atmospheric structure (T({tau}) relation) and the SED as a finely sampled function of T{sub eff}, log g, and [A/H] among solar metallicity and mildly metal-poor red giants. We compare the computed SEDs to the library of observed spectrophotometry described in Paper I across the entire visible band, and in the blue and red regions of the spectrum separately. We find that for the giants of both metallicities, the NLTE models yield best-fit T{sub eff} values that are 30-90 K lower than those provided by LTE models, while providing greater consistency between log g values, and, for Arcturus, T{sub eff} values, fitted separately to the blue and red spectral regions. There is marginal evidence that NLTE models give more consistent best-fit T{sub eff} values between the red and blue bands for earlier spectral classes among the solar metallicity GK giants than they do for the later classes, but no model fits the blue-band spectrum well for any class. For the two dwarf spectral classes that we are able to study, the effect of NLTE on derived parameters is less significant. We compare our derived T{sub eff} values to several other spectroscopic and photometric T{sub eff} calibrations for red giants, including one that is less model dependent based on the infrared flux method (IRFM). We find that the NLTE models provide slightly better agreement to the IRFM calibration among the warmer stars in our sample, while giving approximately the same level of agreement for the cooler stars.

  12. Empirically Estimated Far-UV Extinction Curves for Classical T Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJunkin, Matthew; France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Herczeg, Gregory; Schneider, P. Christian; Brown, Alex

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of extinction curves toward young stars are essential for calculating the intrinsic stellar spectrophotometric radiation. This flux determines the chemical properties and evolution of the circumstellar region, including the environment in which planets form. We develop a new technique using H2 emission lines pumped by stellar Lyα photons to characterize the extinction curve by comparing the measured far-ultraviolet H2 line fluxes with model H2 line fluxes. The difference between model and observed fluxes can be attributed to the dust attenuation along the line of sight through both the interstellar and circumstellar material. The extinction curves are fit by a Cardelli et al. (1989) model and the A V (H2) for the 10 targets studied with good extinction fits range from 0.5 to 1.5 mag, with R V values ranging from 2.0 to 4.7. A V and R V are found to be highly degenerate, suggesting that one or the other needs to be calculated independently. Column densities and temperatures for the fluorescent H2 populations are also determined, with averages of log10(N(H2)) = 19.0 and T = 1500 K. This paper explores the strengths and limitations of the newly developed extinction curve technique in order to assess the reliability of the results and improve the method in the future.

  13. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moor, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the “Gas in Protoplanetary Systems” (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 micron image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [O i] 63 micron and [C ii] 158 micron. The C ii line was detected at the 5 sigma level—the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the Oi line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra. We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the C ii emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.

  14. Investigation Jet Rotation in Young Stars via High Resolution UV Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacciotti, Francesca

    2009-07-01

    In recent years we have successfully harnessed the high resolution of STIS in the optical to reveal asymmetries in Doppler shifts transverse to the flow direction in 8 T Tauri jets {Bacciotti ea 2002; Woitas ea 2005; Coffey ea 2004; 2007}. We interpret the findings, just 100 AU above the disk, as signatures of jet rotation. The significance of these results is considerable. They form the only existing observational indications supporting the theory that jets extract angular momentum from star-disk systems. Furthermore, they hold the potential to discriminate between the main model contenders: X-wind and Disk-wind {Ferreira ea 2006}. Although our results are encouraging, it is evident that we are only marginally resolving the effects of rotation because of the limiting resolution {spatially and spectrally} of STIS in the optical. Therefore, in Cycle 12 we proposed to extend this study into the near-ultraviolet {NUV}, giving double the spatial and spectral resolution {proposal ID 9807}. Unfortunately, only 3 targets in our survey were observed before the failure of STIS {Coffey ea 2007}. Nevertheless, the results were very exciting. Agreement was found between the optical and NUV results in terms of the magnitude and sense of the Doppler shift gradient across the jet. Furthermore, the NUV lines indicated that the observed high velocity gas was launched from about 0.2-0.5 AU, compared to the lower velocity gas traced in optical lines which originates from as far as 2 AU. This puts a strong contraint on MHD launch models, and indeed holds the potential to differentiate between them. Given that the strength of a rotation argument lies in the survey nature of the findings, we need to resume this program in order to see if the same rotation signatures are commonly seen in the NUV, as they are in the optical. Furthermore, the higher spatial and spectral resolution of STIS in the NUV will allow us to more accurately quantify the variation in toroidal velocity as a function

  15. Analysis of flares in the chromosphere and corona of main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo-Chacón, I.

    2015-11-01

    This Ph.D. Thesis revolves around flares on main- and pre-main-sequence M-type stars. We use observations in different wavelength ranges with the aim of analysing the effects of flares at different layers of stellar atmospheres. In particular, optical and X-ray observations are used so that we can study how flares affect, respectively, the chromosphere and the corona of stars. In the optical range we carry out a high temporal resolution spectroscopic monitoring of UV Ceti-type stars aimed at detecting non-white-light flares (the most typical kind of solar flares) in stars other than the Sun. With these data we confirm that non-white-light flares are a frequent phenomenon in UV Ceti-type stars, as observed in the Sun. We study and interpret the behaviour of different chromospheric lines during the flares detected on AD Leo. By using a simplified slab model of flares (Jevremović et al. 1998), we are able to determine the physical parameters of the chromospheric flaring plasma (electron density and electron temperature), the temperature of the underlying source, and the surface area covered by the flaring plasma. We also search for possible relationships between the physical parameters of the flaring plasma and other properties such as the flare duration, area, maximum flux and released energy. This work considerably extends the existing sample of stellar flares analysed with good quality spectroscopy in the optical range. In X-rays we take advantage of the great sensitivity, wide energy range, high energy resolution, and continuous time coverage of the EPIC detectors - on-board the XMMNewton satellite - in order to perform time-resolved spectral analysis of coronal flares. In particular, in the UV Ceti-type star CC Eri we study two flares that are weaker than those typically reported in the literature (allowing us to speculate about the role of flares as heating agents of stellar atmospheres); while in the pre-main-sequence M-type star TWA 11B (with no signatures of

  16. Meningoencephalitis and arthritis associated with Brucella ceti in a short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis).

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Barnett, James E F; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dawson, Claire E; Perkins, Matthew W; Deaville, Robert C; Jepson, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    Brucella species infection in marine mammal species has been reported to have a global distribution. In 2007, the description of Brucella ceti was published and formally adopted for those isolates originating from cetaceans and pathologic lesions similar to those seen in terrestrial mammals infected with Brucella spp. have been associated with its isolation. Brucella ceti infection specific to the central nervous system has been described in two species of cetacean: striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in Europe and Costa Rica and an Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus) in the UK. We describe the first report, to our knowledge, of B. ceti-associated meningitis and arthritis in a third species, the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), in an animal that stranded in the UK. PMID:23778612

  17. Flavobacterium ceti sp. nov., isolated from beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris).

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Fernandez, A; Sánchez-Porro, C; Sierra, E; Mendez, M; Arbelo, M; Ventosa, A; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2007-11-01

    Three isolates of a Gram-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, isolated from the lung and liver of two beaked whales, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. Based on cellular morphology and biochemical criteria, the isolates were tentatively assigned to the family Flavobacteriaceae, although they did not appear to correspond to any recognized species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the three new isolates shared 100% sequence similarity. The unknown bacterium was phylogenetically closely related to, but distinct from the type strains of Flavobacterium johnsoniae (93.7% sequence similarity), Flavobacterium frigidimaris (93.4%), Flavobacterium aquidurense (93.4%), Flavobacterium hibernum (93.4%) and Flavobacterium degerlachei (93.4%). The novel isolates were readily distinguished from these and other related Flavobacterium species by physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown isolates from whales are classified as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, Flavobacterium ceti sp. nov. The type strain is 454-2T (=CECT 7184T=CCUG 52969T).

  18. Lactobacillus ceti sp. nov., isolated from beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris).

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Fernandez, A; Espinosa de los Monteros, A; Goyache, J; Herraez, P; Tames, B; Cruz, F; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2008-04-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on three isolates of an unknown Gram-positive, catalase-negative and rod-shaped organism isolated from the lungs and liver of two beaked whales. The organisms were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus spp. based on cellular morphology and biochemical tests. 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the provisional identification of the novel isolates as members of the genus Lactobacillus, but the isolates did not correspond to any recognized species of this genus. The novel strains shared the same phenotypic characteristics and exhibited 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The nearest phylogenetic relatives of the novel isolates were Lactobacillus satsumensis DSM 16230T (94.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Lactobacillus salivarius JCM 1047 (94.0 %), Lactobacillus nagelii ATCC 700692T (94.0 %) and Lactobacillus saerimneri DSM 16049T (93.8 %). The novel isolates could be distinguished from these species and other related species of the genus Lactobacillus by physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of these phenotypic, physiological and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the new isolates from whales be classified as a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus ceti sp. nov. The type strain is 142-2T (=CECT 7185T=CCUG 53626T).

  19. High Speed Optical Observations of Cataclysmic Variables: FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Paul A.; Gomez, S.; Robinson, E. L.; Andronov, I. L.; Gonzalez, R. I.

    2013-01-01

    We present photometric data on three cataclysmic variables. Broad-band CCD observations of FL Ceti, BY Cam, and DQ Her were obtained with 1-3s integrations at the Otto Struve, 2.1m, Telescope of McDonald Observatory. High speed optical photometry reveals details in these cataclysmic variables not possible using longer time integrations. In FL Ceti, the shortest period eclipsing polar known, the eclipse of two separate well localized accretion regions is resolved. In BY Cam and DQ Her, the spin period of the white dwarf is revealed. We discuss model constrains provided by these observations.

  20. Dust Obscuration and Metallicity at High Redshift: New Inferences from UV, Hα, and 8 μm Observations of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Naveen A.; Erb, Dawn K.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.; Shapley, Alice E.

    2010-04-01

    We use a sample of 90 spectroscopically confirmed Lyman break galaxies with Hα measurements and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm observations to constrain the relationship between rest-frame 8 μm luminosity (L 8) and star formation rate (SFR) for L* galaxies at z ~ 2. We find a tight correlation with 0.24 dex scatter between L 8 and Hα luminosity/SFR for z ~ 2 galaxies with 1010 L sun <~ L IR <~ 1012 L sun. Employing this relationship with a larger sample of 392 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts, we find that the UV slope β can be used to recover the dust attenuation of the vast majority of moderately luminous L* galaxies at z ~ 2 to within a 0.4 dex scatter using the local correlation. Separately, young galaxies with ages lsim100 Myr appear to be less dusty than their UV slopes would imply based on the local trend and may follow an extinction curve that is steeper than what is typically assumed. Consequently, very young galaxies at high redshift may be significantly less dusty than inferred previously. Our results provide the first direct evidence, independent of the UV slope, for a correlation between UV and bolometric luminosity (L bol) at high redshift, in the sense that UV-faint galaxies are on average less infrared and less bolometrically luminous than their UV-bright counterparts. The L bol-L UV relation indicates that as the SFR increases, L UV turns over (or "saturates") around the value of L* at z ~ 2, implying that dust obscuration may be largely responsible for modulating the bright end of the UV luminosity function. Finally, dust attenuation is found to correlate with oxygen abundance at z ~ 2. Accounting for systematic differences in local and high-redshift metallicity calibrations, we find that L* galaxies at z ~ 2, while at least an order of magnitude more bolometrically luminous, exhibit ratios of metals to dust that are similar to those of local starbursts. This result is expected if high-redshift galaxies are forming their stars in a less metal

  1. Utilizing Synthetic UV Spectra to Explore the Physical Basis for the Classification of Lambda Boötis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind; Steele, Patricia A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  2. Diagnostic tools for rapid detection and quantification of Weissella ceti NC36 infections in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weissellosis in rainbow trout is caused by the gram-positive bacteria Weissella ceti and has been reported in China, Brazil and the United States. This disease can result in high mortality in market-sized fish and thus causes significant losses. Thus far, phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA seq...

  3. Brucella ceti from two striped dolphins stranded on the Apulia coastline, Italy.

    PubMed

    Garofolo, Giuliano; Zilli, Katiuscia; Troiano, Pasquale; Petrella, Antonio; Marotta, Francesca; Di Serafino, Gabriella; Ancora, Massimo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2014-02-01

    Since 1994, when Brucella ceti was first isolated from an aborted dolphin fetus, several cases have been reported worldwide. The first case of B. ceti in the Mediterranean (and in Italy), however, was recorded only in 2012, off the coast of Tuscany. Extensive studies, using serological and microbiological methods, have documented this bacterium in dolphins and demonstrated its zoonotic potential. We describe the typing of two B. ceti strains isolated from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded on the southern Apulia coastline. B. ceti isolates were conventionally typed, and then genotyped by both the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the multilocus variable number of tandem repeats typing (MLVA) methodologies to infer phylogeny and potential epidemiological links between the two cases. The two isolates were identified through MLST analysis as belonging to the common sequence type 26 (ST26), while MLVA analysis, having established that the two isolates have identical profiles, assigned them to a novel genotype within cluster A - a unique representative of a new Mediterranean subcluster. The results thus revealed a link between the two cases studied, demonstrating the usefulness of MLST and MLVA for the epidemiological investigation of brucellae among marine mammals.

  4. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  5. Asteroseismology of DAV White Dwarf Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Paul A.

    1997-12-31

    The author reviews the seismological structural determinations of ZZ Ceti stars done to date, and supplement these with additional preliminary determinations of his own. He compares the constraints on the hydrogen layer mass to see what trends emerge and also determines if the observed hydrogen layer masses are consistent with proposed theories. He then looks ahead to the prospects of further DAV white dwarf seismology.

  6. A line identification study of the IUE SWP high dispersion spectrum of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 of Messier 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.; Cacciari, C.; Leckrone, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    A line identification study was performed of the coaddition of three SWP high dispersion IUE exposures of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 of Messier 13. One of these images took two IUE shifts. The previous study by de Boer and Savage (1983) was extended and stellar lines of C I, C II, C III, C IV, N I, N III, O I, O III, O IV,Al III, Si II, Si III, Si IV, P III, S II, and S III and interstellar lines of C I, C II, C IV, N I, N III, N IV, N V, O I, Al II, Al III, Si II, Si IV, S II, and Fe II were found. These lines are the strongest expected lines in a hot Population II star. Apparent intensity minima corresponding to interstellar features are noted, especially those matching a high velocity cloud found by de Boer and Savage.

  7. HST/COS Observations of the UV-Bright Star Y453 in the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William V. D.; Chayer, Pierre; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-AGB stars represent a short-lived phase of stellar evolution during which stars cross the optical color-magnitude diagram from the cool, red tip of the assymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the hot, blue tip of the white-dwarf cooling curve. Their surface chemistry reflects the nuclear-shell burning, mixing, and mass-loss processes characteristic of AGB stars, and their high effective temperatures allow the detection of elements that are unobservable in cool giants. Post-AGB stars in globular clusters offer the additional advantages of known distance, age, and initial chemistry. To better understand the AGB evolution of low-mass stars, we have observed the post-AGB star Y453 in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121) with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The star, which has an effective temperature of at least 60,000 K, shows absorption from He, C, N, O, Ne, Si, S, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Ga. While the star's C and O abundances are consistent with those measured in a sample of nitrogen-poor RGB stars in M4, its N abundance is considerably enhanced. The star's low C abundance suggests that it left the AGB before the onset of third dredge-up.This work was supported by NASA grant HST-GO-13721.001-A to the University of Wisconsin, Whitewater. P.C. is supported by the Canadian Space Agency under a contract with NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  8. HERSCHEL DETECTION OF DUST EMISSION FROM UV-LUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Alberts, Stacey; Pope, Alexandra; Atlee, David; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Reddy, Naveen; Brown, Michael J. I.

    2012-10-20

    We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L {approx}> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3. Our sample of 1913 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates is selected over an area of 5.3 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at {lambda}{sub rest} {approx}> 100 {mu}m suggesting dust temperatures (T{sub d} = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX {identical_to} L{sub IR}/L{sub UV}) is low ( Almost-Equal-To 3-4) compared with that observed for z Almost-Equal-To 2 LBGs (IRX{sub z{approx}2} Almost-Equal-To 7.1 {+-} 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.

  9. A coincidence of disturbed morphology and blue UV colour: minor-merger-driven star formation in early-type galaxies at z˜ 0.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Tan, Kok-Meng; Ellis, Richard S.; Silk, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    We exploit multiwavelength photometry of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) to demonstrate that the low-level star formation activity in the ETG population at intermediate redshift is likely to be driven by minor mergers. Splitting the ETGs into galaxies that show disturbed morphologies indicative of recent merging and those that appear relaxed, we find that ˜32 per cent of the ETG population appears to be morphologically disturbed. While the relaxed objects are almost entirely contained within the UV red sequence, their morphologically disturbed counterparts dominate the scatter to blue UV colours, regardless of luminosity. Empirically and theoretically determined major-merger rates in the redshift range z < 1 are several times too low to account for the fraction of disturbed ETGs in our sample, suggesting that minor mergers represent the principal mechanism driving the observed star formation activity in our sample. The young stellar components forming in these events have ages between 0.03 and 0.3 Myr and typically contribute ≤ 10 per cent of the stellar mass of the remnant. Together with recent work which demonstrates that the structural evolution of nearby ETGs is consistent with one or more minor mergers, our results indicate that the overall evolution of massive ETGs may be heavily influenced by minor merging at late epochs and highlights the need to systematically study this process in future observational surveys.

  10. Discovering Mira Ceti: Celestial Change and Cosmic Continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Robert Alan

    In the short narrative that follows I introduce two new heroes. Although we begin with Fabricius's first sighting in 1596, the new pivot point in the drama is the collaboration between Hevelius and Boulliau that began around 1660. As it happens, Learned Europe paid little attention to Mira in the generation after the first scattered sightings of 1596, indeed, nearly 70 years passed before the New Star was given a working identity. Like Columbus discovering America, Fabricius and Holwarda saw different things - for convenience, I call them Fabricius's Star and Holwarda's Star. Hevelius's Historiola (Danzig, 1662) and Boulliau's Ad astronomos (Paris, 1667) presented a different vision. It made Mira famous. As I shall argue, if Hevelius gave Mira a history, Boulliau gave Mira a future.5 In the end, the New Star not only challenged the ancient cosmos, it became an enduring icon for the New Science, a returning reminder of celestial continuity and cosmic order.

  11. a Search for Companions around Stars Within Five Parsecs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, Giovanni; Megeath, Tom

    2004-09-01

    Each star known within 5 parsecs of the Sun will be observed with IRAC to discover very low mass companions. Simply because of their proximity, these targets promise to provide one of the most sensitive experiments possible with IRAC --- the detection of super-Jupiters around the nearest stars. Depending on distance and separation from the stars, companions with masses as low as 5-20 Mjup can be detected. The sample of 60 stars in 44 systems within 5 parsecs requires 45 IRAC pointings (Proxima Cen requires its own pointing because it is two degrees from alpha Cen). The sample includes 4 white dwarfs, 1 A star (Sirius), 1 F star (Procyon), 2 G stars (alpha Cen A and tau Ceti), 6 K stars, and 46 M stars. These stars comprise 30 single systems, 10 doubles, and 3 triples, as well as the nearest star with a probable extrasolar planet, Gl 876.

  12. Far-UV Spectroscopy of the Planet-hosting Star WASP-13: High-energy Irradiance, Distance, Age, Planetary Mass-loss Rate, and Circumstellar Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossati, L.; France, K.; Koskinen, T.; Juvan, I. G.; Haswell, C. A.; Lendl, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several transiting hot Jupiters orbit relatively inactive main-sequence stars. For some of those, the {log}{R}{HK}\\prime activity parameter lies below the basal level (-5.1). Two explanations have been proposed so far: (i) the planet affects the stellar dynamo, (ii) the {log}{R}{HK}\\prime measurements are biased by extrinsic absorption, either by the interstellar medium (ISM) or by material local to the system. We present here Hubble Space Telescope/COS far-UV spectra of WASP-13, which hosts an inflated hot Jupiter and has a measured {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value (-5.26), well below the basal level. From the star’s spectral energy distribution we obtain an extinction E(B - V) = 0.045 ± 0.025 mag and a distance d = 232 ± 8 pc. We detect at ≳4σ lines belonging to three different ionization states of carbon (C i, C ii, and C iv) and the Si iv doublet at ˜3σ. Using far-UV spectra of nearby early G-type stars of known age, we derive a C iv/C i flux ratio-age relation, from which we estimate WASP-13's age to be 5.1 ± 2.0 Gyr. We rescale the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the C iv 1548 doublet. By integrating the rescaled solar spectrum, we obtain an XUV flux at 1 AU of 5.4 erg s-1 cm-2. We use a detailed model of the planet’s upper atmosphere, deriving a mass-loss rate of 1.5 × 1011 g s-1. Despite the low {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value, the star shows a far-UV spectrum typical of middle-aged solar-type stars, pointing toward the presence of significant extrinsic absorption. The analysis of a high-resolution spectrum of the Ca ii H&K lines indicates that the ISM absorption could be the origin of the low {log}{R}{HK}\\prime value. Nevertheless, the large uncertainty in the Ca ii ISM abundance does not allow us to firmly exclude the presence of circumstellar gas. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities

  13. The star formation rate cookbook at 1 < z < 3: Extinction-corrected relations for UV and [OII]λ3727 luminosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talia, M.; Cimatti, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Gruppioni, C.; Pozzi, F.; Daddi, E.; Maraston, C.; Mignoli, M.; Kurk, J.

    2015-10-01

    Aims: In this paper we use a well-controlled spectroscopic sample of galaxies at 1 star formation rate (SFR) estimators. In particular, we use infrared (IR) data to derive empirical calibrations to correct ultraviolet (UV) and [OII]λ3727 luminosities for dust extinction and dust-corrected estimates of SFR. Methods: We selected 286 star-forming galaxies with spectroscopic redshift 1 UV and [OII]λ3727 luminosities for dust extinction. Results: Through the analyses of the correlations between different dust attenuation probes, a set of relations is provided that allows the recovery of the total unattenuated SFR for star-forming galaxies at 1 UV and [OII]λ3727 luminosities. The relation between AIRX and UV continuum slope (β) was tested for our sample and found to be broadly consistent with the literature results at the same redshift, though with a larger dispersion with respect to UV-selected samples. We find a correlation between the rest

  14. A NON-LTE ANALYSIS OF THE HOT SUBDWARF O STAR BD+28 Degree-Sign 4211. I. THE UV SPECTRUM

    SciTech Connect

    Latour, M.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Chayer, P.

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed analysis of the UV spectrum of the calibration star BD+28 Degree-Sign 4211 using high-quality spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellites. To this aim, we compare quantitatively the observed data with model spectra obtained from state-of-the-art non-LTE metal line-blanketed model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated with TLUSTY and SYNSPEC. We thus determine in a self-consistent way the abundances of 11 elements with well-defined lines in the UV, namely those of C, N, O, F, Mg, Si, P, S, Ar, Fe, and Ni. The derived abundances range from about solar to 1/10 solar. We find that the overall quality of the derived spectral fits is very satisfying. Our spectral analysis can be used to constrain rather tightly the effective temperature of BD+28 Degree-Sign 4211 to a value of T{sub eff} = 82, 000 {+-} 5000 K. We also estimate conservatively that its surface gravity falls in the range log g = 6.2{sub -0.1}{sup +0.3}. Assuming that the Hipparcos measurement for BD+28 Degree-Sign 4211 is fully reliable and that our model atmospheres are reasonably realistic, we can reconcile our spectroscopic constraints with the available parallax measurement only if the mass of BD+28 Degree-Sign 4211 is significantly less than the canonical value of 0.5 M{sub Sun} for a representative post-extended horizontal branch star.

  15. THE UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES VIA DROPOUT SELECTION AT REDSHIFTS z {approx} 7 AND 8 FROM THE 2012 ULTRA DEEP FIELD CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Robertson, Brant E.; Schneider, Evan; Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Stark, Daniel P.; McLure, Ross J.; Dunlop, James S.; Bowler, Rebecca A. A.; Curtis-Lake, Emma; Rogers, Alexander B.; Cirasuolo, Michele; Koekemoer, Anton; Charlot, Stephane; Furlanetto, Steven R.

    2013-05-10

    We present a catalog of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected to lie within the redshift range z {approx_equal} 7-8 using the Ultra Deep Field 2012 (UDF12), the deepest near-infrared (near-IR) exposures yet taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As a result of the increased near-IR exposure time compared to previous HST imaging in this field, we probe {approx}0.65 (0.25) mag fainter in absolute UV magnitude, at z {approx} 7 (8), which increases confidence in a measurement of the faint end slope of the galaxy luminosity function. Through a 0.7 mag deeper limit in the key F105W filter that encompasses or lies just longward of the Lyman break, we also achieve a much-refined color-color selection that balances high redshift completeness and a low expected contamination fraction. We improve the number of dropout-selected UDF sources to 47 at z {approx} 7 and 27 at z {approx} 8. Incorporating brighter archival and ground-based samples, we measure the z {approx_equal} 7 UV luminosity function to an absolute magnitude limit of M{sub UV} = -17 and find a faint end Schechter slope of {alpha}=-1.87{sup +0.18}{sub -0.17}. Using a similar color-color selection at z {approx_equal} 8 that takes our newly added imaging in the F140W filter into account, and incorporating archival data from the HIPPIES and BoRG campaigns, we provide a robust estimate of the faint end slope at z {approx_equal} 8, {alpha}=-1.94{sup +0.21}{sub -0.24}. We briefly discuss our results in the context of earlier work and that derived using the same UDF12 data but with an independent photometric redshift technique.

  16. First report of Brucella ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas.

    PubMed

    Davison, Nicholas J; Brownlow, Andrew; McGovern, Barry; Dagleish, Mark P; Perrett, Lorraine L; Dale, Emma-Jane; Koylass, Mark; Foster, Geoffrey

    2015-10-27

    Fatal Brucella ceti infection with histological lesions specific to the central nervous system has been described in only 3 species of cetaceans: striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba, Atlantic white-sided dolphins Lagenorhynchus acutus and short-beaked common dolphins Delphinus delphis. This paper describes the first report of a B. ceti-associated meningoencephalitis in a long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, showing the increasing range of species susceptibility. Brucella was recovered in larger numbers from cerebrospinal fluid than from brain tissue and is the sample of choice for isolation. PMID:26503778

  17. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  18. A search variability in the UV spectrum of Pi Aquarii and Fe 3 shell lines of Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Several short U1 and U2 observations of Be stars are obtained with the Copernicus satellite. Pi Aquarii (B1 IV-Ve) is observed with the U1 and U2 spectrometers. These scans are compared with earlier observations. Variations in the strengths and profiles of selected shell and photospheric features are examined. In order to study possible changes in the temperature of the circumstellar envelope, features covering a wide range in ionization are observed. Included in the observing program are lines of O VI, N V, Si IV, Si III, S III, Fe III, and N I.

  19. Quantitative UV spectroscopy of early O stars on the Magellanic Clouds: The determination of the stellar metallicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haser, Stefan M.; Pauldrach, Adalbert W. A.; Lennon, Danny J.; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Lennon, Maguerite; Puls, Joachim; Voels, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of four O stars in the Magellanic Clouds obtained with the faint object spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope are analyzed with respect to their metallicity. The metal abundances are derived from the stellar parameters and the mass loss rate with a two step procedure: hydrodynamic radiation-driven wind models with metallicity as a free parameter are constructed to fit the observed wind momentum rate and thus yield a dynamical metallicity, and synthetic spectra are computed for different metal abundances and compared to the observed spectra in order to obtain a spectroscopic metallicity.

  20. Rest-frame UV-Optically Selected Galaxies at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5: Searching for Dusty Star-forming and Passively Evolving Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cassata, Paolo; Ferguson, Henry C.; Williams, Christina C.; Dickinson, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton; Grogin, Norman A.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Messias, Hugo; Tundo, Elena; Lin, Lihwai; Lee, Seong-Kook; Salimbeni, Sara; Fontana, Adriano; Grazian, Andrea; Kocevski, Dale; Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Villanueva, Edward; van der Wel, Arjen

    2012-04-01

    A new set of color selection criteria (VJL) analogous with the BzK method is designed to select both star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and passively evolving galaxies (PEGs) at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5 by using rest-frame UV-optical (V - J versus J - L) colors. The criteria are thoroughly tested with theoretical stellar population synthesis models and real galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts to evaluate their efficiency and contamination. We apply the well-tested VJL criteria to the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science field and study the physical properties of selected galaxies. The redshift distribution of selected SFGs peaks at z ~ 2.7, slightly lower than that of Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3. Comparing the observed mid-infrared fluxes of selected galaxies with the prediction of pure stellar emission, we find that our VJL method is effective at selecting massive dusty SFGs that are missed by the Lyman break technique. About half of the star formation in massive (M star > 1010 M ⊙) galaxies at 2.3 <~ z <~ 3.5 is contributed by dusty (extinction E(B - V) > 0.4) SFGs, which, however, only account for ~20% of the number density of massive SFGs. We also use the mid-infrared fluxes to clean our PEG sample and find that galaxy size can be used as a secondary criterion to effectively eliminate the contamination of dusty SFGs. The redshift distribution of the cleaned PEG sample peaks at z ~ 2.5. We find six PEG candidates at z > 3 and discuss possible methods to distinguish them from dusty contamination. We conclude that at least part of our candidates are real PEGs at z ~ 3, implying that these types of galaxies began to form their stars at z >~ 5. We measure the integrated stellar mass density (ISMD) of PEGs at z ~ 2.5 and set constraints on it at z > 3. We find that the ISMD grows by at least about a factor of 10 in 1 Gyr at 3 < z <5 and by another factor of 10 in the next 3.5 Gyr (1 < z < 3).

  1. The UV to hard X-ray continuum of a Seyfert galaxy scrutinized by XMM and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Pierre-Olivier

    2013-10-01

    We propose to perform a unique XMM-NuSTAR monitoring with 5 repeated observations of 20 ks spaced by a few days of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4593. This is the best Seyfert candidate to obtain high sensitivity measurements on a day time scale over the entire high energy spectrum. This is an absolute prerequisite 1) to correctly disentangle the different spectral components present in this energy band, and 2) to reveal their complex interdependences and variability behavior. This study will allow us i) to constrain the physical parameters of the Comptonizing corona; ii) to investigate the nature of the soft X-ray excess; iii) to put firm conclusions on the distance, nature and geometry of the reflecting material(s).

  2. Radiation-driven winds of hot luminous stars. XVIII. The unreliability of stellar and wind parameter determinations from optical vs. UV spectral analysis of selected central stars of planetary nebulae and the possibility of some CSPNs as single-star supernova Ia progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kaschinski, C. B.

    2016-08-01

    Context. The uncertainty in the degree to which radiation-driven winds of hot stars might be affected by small inhomogeneities in the density leads to a corresponding uncertainty in the determination of the atmospheric mass loss rates from the strength of optical recombination lines and - since the mass loss rate is not a free parameter but a function of the stellar parameters mass, radius, luminosity, and abundances - in principle also in the determination of these stellar parameters. Furthermore, the optical recombination lines also react sensitively to even small changes in the density structure resulting from the (often assumed instead of computed) velocity law of the outflow. This raises the question of how reliable the parameter determinations from such lines are. Aims: The currently existing severe discrepancy between central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) stellar and wind parameters derived from model fits to the optical spectra and those derived using hydrodynamically consistent model fits to the UV spectra is to be reassessed via a simultaneous optical/UV analysis using a state-of-the-art model atmosphere code. Methods: We have modified our hydrodynamically consistent model atmosphere code with an implementation of the usual ad hoc treatment of clumping (small inhomogeneities in the density) in the wind. This allows us to re-evaluate, with respect to their influence on the appearance of the UV spectra and their compatibility with the observations, the parameters determined in an earlier study that had employed clumping in its models to achieve a fit to the observed optical spectra. Results: The discrepancy between the optical and the UV analyses is confirmed to be the result of a missing consistency between stellar and wind parameters in the optical analysis. While clumping in the wind does significantly increase the emission in the optical hydrogen and helium recombination lines, the influence of the density (velocity field) is of the same order as

  3. Chromospherically active stars. 11: Giant with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromsopherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (KO III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (KO III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35,000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  4. Chromospherically active stars. 6: Giants with compact hot companions and the barium star scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Busby, Michael R.; Eitter, Joseph J.

    1993-01-01

    We have determined spectroscopic orbits for three chromospherically active giants that have hot compact companions. They are HD 160538 (K0 III + wd, P = 904 days), HD 165141 (G8 III + wd, P approximately 5200 days), and HD 185510 (K0 III + sdB, P = 20.6619 days). By fitting an IUE spectrum with theoretical models, we find the white dwarf companion of HD 165141 has a temperature of about 35000 K. Spectral types and rotational velocities have been determined for the three giants and distances have been estimated. These three systems and 39 Ceti are compared with the barium star mass-transfer scenario. The long-period mild barium giant HD 165141 as well as HD 185510 and 39 Ceti, which have relatively short periods and normal abundance giants, appear to be consistent with this scenario. The last binary, HD 160538, a system with apparently near solar abundances, a white dwarf companion, and orbital characteristics similar to many barium stars, demonstrates that the existence of a white-dwarf companion is insufficient to produce a barium star. The paucity of systems with confirmed white-dwarf companions makes abundance analyses of HD 160538 and HD 165141 of great value in examining the role of metallicity in barium star formation.

  5. A Unique Gas-Rich Debris Disk: Herschel Imaging and Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from only one or two debris disks, Beta Pictoris being one of them. Here we present Herschel GASPS observations of a well-known debris disk system, 49 Ceti. The dust disk is spatially resolved in thermal emission at 70 _m. Most interestingly, weak far-IR gas emission is detected. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission seen from this system with the far-IR gas detection and upper limits requires a low gas-to-dust ratio and possibly an unusual gas composition.

  6. UV-TO-FIR ANALYSIS OF SPITZER/IRAC SOURCES IN THE EXTENDED GROTH STRIP. II. PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFTS, STELLAR MASSES, AND STAR FORMATION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Barro, G.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Kajisawa, M.; Yamada, T.; Miyazaki, S.

    2011-04-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Paper I), we present a detailed spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6 + 4.5 {mu}m selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] {<=} 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 deg{sup 2}. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is {Delta}z/(1 + z) = 0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and initial mass functions in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic differences and goodness of the different SFR estimations using the deep FIDEL 70 {mu}m data available in the Extended Groth Strip. Typical random uncertainties of the IR-bases SFRs are a factor of two, with non-negligible systematic effects at z {approx}> 1.5 observed when only MIPS 24 {mu}m data are available. All data products (SEDs, postage stamps from imaging data, and different estimations of the photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and SFRs of each galaxy) described in this and the companion paper are publicly available, and they can be accessed through our the Web interface utility Rainbow-navigator.

  7. Ferromagnetic quantum critical behavior in heavy-fermion compounds CeTi1‑x Ni x Ge3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rajwali; Yang, Jinhu; Wang, Hangdong; Mao, Qianhui; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Binjie; Zhou, Yuxing; Zhang, Yannan; Chen, Bin; Fang, Minghu

    2016-10-01

    The measurements on magnetization (M), resistivity (ρ) and specific heat (C) were carried out for the ferromagnetic CeTi{}1-x Ni x Ge3 (0.0 ≤slant x ≤slant 0.45) system. It was found that the Curie temperature, T C, decreases with increasing Ni content, x, and reaches zero kelvin near a critical content x cr = 0.44. A new phase diagram is constructed based on these measurements. The non-Fermi liquid (nFL) behavior in ρ(T), and {log}(T 0/T) relationship in C/T in the samples near x cr, demonstrate that strong spin fluctuation emerges in these samples, indicating that they are near a quantum critical point (QCP). Our results indicate that CeTi{}1-x Ni x Ge3 may provide another platform to study exotic quantum phenomena near ferromagnetic QCP.

  8. THE EVOLUTION OF THE FAR-UV LUMINOSITY FUNCTION AND STAR FORMATION RATE DENSITY OF THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH FROM z = 0.2 TO 1.2 WITH SWIFT/UVOT

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, Lea M. Z.; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; Siegel, Michael H.; Hagen, Alex; Hoversten, Erik A.; Page, Mathew

    2015-08-01

    We use deep Swift UV/Optical Telescope (UVOT) near-ultraviolet (1600–4000 Å) imaging of the Chandra Deep Field South to measure the rest-frame far-UV (FUV; 1500 Å) luminosity function (LF) in four redshift bins between z = 0.2 and 1.2. Our sample includes 730 galaxies with u < 24.1 mag. We use two methods to construct and fit the LFs: the traditional V{sub max} method with bootstrap errors, and a maximum likelihood estimator. We observe luminosity evolution such that M* fades by ∼2 mag from z ∼ 1 to z ∼ 0.3, implying that star formation activity was substantially higher at z ∼ 1 than today. We integrate our LFs to determine the FUV luminosity densities and star formation rate densities (SFRDs) from z = 0.2 to 1.2. We find evolution consistent with an increase proportional to (1 + z){sup 1.9} out to z ∼ 1. Our luminosity densities and star formation rates are consistent with those found in the literature but are, on average, a factor of ∼2 higher than previous FUV measurements. In addition, we combine our UVOT data with the MUSYC survey to model the galaxies’ ultraviolet-to-infrared spectral energy distributions and estimate the rest-frame FUV attenuation. We find that accounting for the attenuation increases the SFRDs by ∼1 dex across all four redshift bins.

  9. An observational study of dust nucleation in Mira (o Ceti). I. Variable features of AlO and other Al-bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Wong, K. T.; Schmidt, M. R.; Müller, H. S. P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Cherchneff, I.; Menten, K. M.; Keller, D.; Brünken, S.; Winters, J. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Dust is efficiently produced by cool giant stars, but the condensation of inorganic dust is poorly understood. Observations of key aluminum bearing molecules around evolved stars has enabled us to investigate the nucleation of alumina (Al2O3) dust in the gas. Aims: We aim to identify and characterize aluminum bearing species in the circumstellar gas of Mira (o Ceti) in order to elucidate their role in the production of Al2O3 dust. Methods: We used multiepoch spectral line observations at (sub-)millimeter, far-infrared, and optical wavelengths including: maps with ALMA that probe the gas distribution in the immediate vicinity of the star at ~30 mas; observations with ALMA, APEX, and Herschel in 2013-2015 for studying cycle and inter-cycle variability of the rotational lines of Al-bearing molecules; optical records as far back as 1965 to examine variations in electronic transitions over time spans of days to decades; and velocity measurements and excitation analysis of the spectral features that constrain the physical parameters of the gas. Results: Three diatomic molecules AlO, AlOH, and AlH, and atomic Al i are the main observable aluminum species in Mira, although a significant fraction of aluminum might reside in other species that have not yet been identified. Strong irregular variability in the (sub-)millimeter and optical features of AlO (possibly the direct precursor of Al2O3) indicates substantial changes in the excitation conditions, or varying abundance that is likely related to shocks in the star. The inhomogeneous distribution of AlO might influence the spatial and temporal characteristics of dust production. Conclusions: We are unable to quantitatively trace aluminum depletion from the gas, but the rich observational material constrains time-dependent chemical networks. Future improvements should include spectroscopic characterization of higher aluminum oxides, coordinated observations of dust and gas species at different variability phases

  10. Detection of Variable Gaseous Absorption Features in the Debris Disks Around Young A-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Sharon L.; Welsh, Barry Y.

    2012-10-01

    We present medium resolution (R = 60,000) absorption measurements of the interstellar Ca II K line observed towards five nearby A-type stars (49 Ceti, 5 Vul, ι Cyg, 2 And, and HD 223884) suspected of possessing circumstellar gas debris disks. The stars were observed on a nightly basis during a six night observing run on the 2.1-meter Otto Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory, Texas. We have detected nightly changes in the absorption strength of the Ca II K line observed near the stellar radial velocity in three of the stars (49 Ceti, i Cyg and HD 223884). Such changes in absorption suggest the presence of a circumstellar (atomic) gas disk around these stars. In addition to the absorption changes in the main Ca II K line profile, we have also observed weak transient absorption features that randomly appear at redshifted velocities in the spectra of 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And. These absorption features are most probably associated with the presence of falling evaporated bodies (exo-comets) that liberate evaporating gas on their approach to the central star. This now brings the total number of systems in which exocomet activity has been observed at Ca II or Na I wavelengths on a nightly basis to seven (β Pic, HR 10, HD 85905, β Car, 49 Ceti, 5 Vul, and 2 And), with 2 And exhibiting weaker and less frequent changes. All of the disk systems presently known to exhibit either type of short-term variability in Ca II K line absorption are rapidly rotating A-type stars (V sin i > 120 km s-1). Most exhibit mid-IR excesses, and many of them are very young (< 20 Myr), thus supporting the argument that many of them are transitional objects between Herbig Ae and "Vega-like" A-type stars with more tenuous circumstellar disks. No mid-IR excess (due to the presence of a dust disk) has yet been detected around either 2 And or HD 223884, both of which have been classified as λ Boötis-type stars. This may indicate that the observed changes in gas absorption for these two

  11. Identification of new fluorescence processes in the UV spectra of cool stars from new energy levels of Fe II and Cr II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Sveneric; Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    1988-01-01

    Two fluorescence processes operating in atmospheres of cool stars, symbiotic stars, and the Sun are presented. Two emission lines, at 1347.03 and 1360.17 A, are identified as fluorescence lines of Cr II and Fe II. The lines are due to transitions from highly excited levels, which are populated radiatively by the hydrogen Lyman alpha line due to accidental wavelength coincidences. Three energy levels, one in Cr II and two in Fe II, are reported.

  12. Local Interstellar Medium Properties and Deuterium Abundances for the Lines of Sight Toward HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai; Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Dempsey, Robert C.; Ayres, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze Goddard High-Resolution Spectrograph data to infer the properties of local interstellar gas and the Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) ratio for lines of sight toward four nearby late-type stars-HR 1099, 31 Comae, beta Ceti, and beta Cassiopeiae. The data consist of spectra of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) lines, and echelle spectra of the Mg IIh and k lines toward all stars except beta Cas. Spectra of the RS CVn-type spectroscopic binary system HR 1099 were obtained near opposite quadratures to determine the intrinsic stellar emission line profile and the interstellar absorption separately. Multiple-velocity components were found toward HR 1099 and beta Cet. The spectra of 31 Com and beta Cet are particularly interesting because they sample lines of sight toward the north and south Galactic poles, respectively, for which H I and D I column densities were not previously available. The north Galactic pole appears to be a region of low hydrogen density like the 'interstellar tunnel' toward epsilon CMa. The temperature and turbulent velocities of the Local InterStellar Medium (LISM) that we measure for the lines of sight toward HR 1099, 31 Com, beta Cet, and beta Cas are similar to previously measured values (T approx.7000 K and xi = 1.0-1.6 km/s). The deuterium/hydrogen ratios found for these lines of sight are also consistent with previous measurements of other short lines of sight, which suggest D/H approx. 1.6 x 10(sup -5). In contrast, the Mg abundance measured for the beta Cet line of sight (implying a logarithmic depletion of D(Mg) = +0.30 +/- 0.15) is about 5 times larger than the Mg abundance previously observed toward alpha Cen, and about 20 times larger than all other previous measurements for the LISM. These results demonstrate that metal abundances in the LISM vary greatly over distances of only a few parsecs.

  13. Amphritea ceti sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, Sooyeon; Kim, Doo Nam; Nam, Bo-Hye; Won, Sung-Min; An, Du Hae; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated RA1(T), was isolated from faeces collected from Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in Yeosu aquarium, South Korea. Strain RA1(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain RA1(T) joins the cluster comprising the type strains of three species of the genus Amphritea, with which it exhibited 95.8-96.0 % sequence similarity. Sequence similarities to the type strains of other recognized species were less than 94.3 %. Strain RA1(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain RA1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of strain RA1(T) was 47.4 mol%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain RA1(T) is separated from other species of the genus Amphritea. On the basis of the data presented, strain RA1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Amphritea, for which the name Amphritea ceti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA1(T) ( = KCTC 42154(T) = NBRC 110551(T)).

  14. Amphritea ceti sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, Sooyeon; Kim, Doo Nam; Nam, Bo-Hye; Won, Sung-Min; An, Du Hae; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, non-flagellated and rod-shaped or ovoid bacterial strain, designated RA1(T), was isolated from faeces collected from Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) in Yeosu aquarium, South Korea. Strain RA1(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain RA1(T) joins the cluster comprising the type strains of three species of the genus Amphritea, with which it exhibited 95.8-96.0 % sequence similarity. Sequence similarities to the type strains of other recognized species were less than 94.3 %. Strain RA1(T) contained Q-8 as the predominant ubiquinone and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), C18 : 1ω7c and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids of strain RA1(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. The DNA G+C content of strain RA1(T) was 47.4 mol%. The differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, revealed that strain RA1(T) is separated from other species of the genus Amphritea. On the basis of the data presented, strain RA1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Amphritea, for which the name Amphritea ceti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA1(T) ( = KCTC 42154(T) = NBRC 110551(T)). PMID:25237149

  15. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  16. The presence of Brucella ceti ST26 in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) with meningoencephalitis from the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricia; Terracciano, Giuliana; Franco, Alessia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Fichi, Gianluca; Eleni, Claudia; Zygmunt, Michel S; Cloeckaert, Axel; Battisti, Antonio

    2013-05-31

    Brucella spp. was isolated from brain, lung and intestinal lymph nodes of a dead adult male striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded on the Tyrrhenian coast (Tuscany, Italy) of the Mediterranean Sea in February 2012. Brucella spp. was associated with moderate to severe lesions of meningoencephalitis. A co-infection by Toxoplasma gondii was also demonstrated at brain level by means of molecular and histopathologic methods. The Brucella isolate was further characterized based on a fragment-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach, consisting of a set of five specific PCRs, targeting specific chromosomal IS711 locations for marine mammal Brucellae, as described previously. The isolate was thus classified as Brucella ceti I; V fragment-positive (or B. ceti dolphin type), according to previous studies. Multi Locus Sequence Analysis demonstrated that the isolate belongs to Sequence Type 26, while omp2 (omp2a and omp2b genes) sequence analysis further confirmed the isolate belonged to this group of strains. This is the first report of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in the Mediterranean Sea, and represents a further observation that this strain group is associated with hosts of the Family Delphinidae, and particularly with the striped dolphins, also in the Mediterranean area, thus constituting a further biological hazard of concern for this vulnerable subpopulation. PMID:23419820

  17. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  18. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant

    2013-02-01

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  19. Statistical error analysis in CCD time-resolved photometry with applications to variable stars and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Warnock, Archibald, III; Mitchell, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    Differential photometric time series obtained from CCD frames are tested for intrinsic variability using a newly developed analysis of variance technique. In general, the objects used for differential photometry will not all be of equal magnitude, so the techniques derived here explicitly correct for differences in the measured variances due to photon statistics. Other random-noise terms are also considered. The technique tests for the presence of intrinsic variability without regard to its random or periodic nature. It is then applied to observations of the variable stars ZZ Ceti and US 943 and the active extragalactic objects OQ 530, US 211, US 844, LB 9743, and OJ 287.

  20. Pulsational mode-typing in line profile variables. I - Four Beta Cephei stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campos, A. J.; Smith, M. A.

    1980-01-01

    The detailed variations of line profiles in the Beta Cephei-type variable stars Gamma Pegasi, Beta Cephei, Delta Ceti and Sigma Scorpii are modeled throughout their pulsation cycles in order to classify the dominant pulsation mode as radial or nonradial. High-dispersion Reticon observations of the variables were obtained for the Si III line at 4567 A, and line profiles broadened by radial or nonradial pulsations, rotation and radial-tangential macroturbulence were calculated based on a model atmosphere. It is found that only a radial pulsation mode can reproduce the radial velocity amplitude, changes in line asymmetry and uniform line width observed in all four stars. Results are in agreement with the color-to-light arguments of Stamford and Watson (1978), and suggest that radial pulsation plays the dominant role in the observed variations in most Beta Cephei stars. Evidence for shocks or moving shells is also found in visual line data for Sigma Scorpii and an ultraviolet line of Beta Cephei, together with evidence of smooth, secular period changes in Beta Cephei and Delta Ceti.

  1. The History of Variable Stars: A Fresh Look

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) For historians of astronomy, variable stars are important for a simple reason - stars change. But good evidence suggests this is a very modern idea. Over the millennia, our species has viewed stars as eternal and unchanging, forever fixed in time and space - indeed, the Celestial Dance was a celebration of order, reason, and stability. But everything changed in the period between Copernicus and Newton. According to tradition, two New Stars announced the birth of the New Science. Blazing across the celestial stage, Tycho's Star (1572) and Kepler's Star (1604) appeared dramatically - and just as unexpectedly - disappeared forever. But variable stars were different. Mira Ceti, the oldest, brightest, and most controversial variable star, was important because it appeared and disappeared again and again. Mira was important because it did not go away. The purpose of this essay is to take a fresh look at the history of variable stars. In re-thinking the traditional narrative, I begin with the first sightings of David Fabricius (1596) and his contemporaries - particularly Hevelius (1662) and Boulliau (1667) - to new traditions that unfolded from Newton and Maupertuis to Herschel (1780) and Pigott (1805). The essay concludes with important 19th-century developments, particularly by Argelander (1838), Pickering (1888), and Lockyer (1890). Across three centuries, variable stars prompted astronomers to re-think all the ways that stars were no longer "fixed." New strategies were needed. Astronomers needed to organize, to make continuous observations, to track changing magnitudes, and to explain stellar phases. Importantly - as Mira suggested from the outset - these challenges called for an army of observers with the discipline of Spartans. But recruiting that army required a strategy, a set of theories with shared expectations. Observation and theory worked hand-in-hand. In presenting new historical evidence from neglected printed sources and unpublished

  2. UV SPECTRAL SYNTHESIS OF VEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, E. L.

    2010-12-20

    We show that the UV spectrum (1280-3200 A) of the 'superficially normal' A-star Vega, as observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite at a resolution comparable to the star's rotational broadening width, can be fit remarkably well by a single-temperature synthetic spectrum based on LTE atmosphere models and a newly constructed UV line list. If Vega were a normal, equator-on, slow-rotating star, then its spectrum and our analysis would indicate a temperature of T{sub eff} {approx_equal}9550 K, surface gravity of log g {approx_equal}3.7, general surface metallicity of [m/H] {approx_equal}-0.5, and a microturbulence velocity of v{sub turb} {approx_equal}2.0 km s{sup -1}. Given its rapid rotation and nearly pole-on orientation, however, these parameters must be regarded as representing averages across the observed hemisphere. Modeling the complex UV line spectrum has allowed us to determine the specific surface abundances for 17 different chemical elements, including CNO, the light metals, and the iron group elements. The resultant abundance pattern agrees in general with previous results, although there is considerable scatter in the literature. Despite its peculiarities, Vega has turned out to provide a powerful test of the extent of our abilities to model the atmospheric properties of the early A-stars, particularly the detailed UV line spectrum. The value of the measurements from this pilot study will increase as this analysis is extended to more objects in the rich high-dispersion IUE data archive, including both normal and peculiar objects.

  3. IUE observations of central stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    IUE satellite data on sixty galactic planetary nebulae (PN) and three PNs in the Magellanic clouds are examined to establish a mass distribution among the central star types. An evolutionary lineage was determined for the observed central stars, based on UV magnitudes, demonstrating that central stars in optically thin nebulae have a narrow distribution around 0.58 solar mass, whereas stars in optically thick nebulae exhibited the highest masses of the sample, implying that highest mass stars in PN are the most difficult to detect. No definitive correlation was found between the mass of an object and its spectral type.

  4. Precise radial velocities of giant stars. VI. A possible 2:1 resonant planet pair around the K giant star η Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Trifon; Reffert, Sabine; Tan, Xianyu; Lee, Man Hoi; Quirrenbach, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of a new planetary system around the K giant η Cet (HIP 5364, HD 6805, HR 334) based on 118 high-precision optical radial velocities taken at Lick Observatory since July 2000. Since October 2011 an additional nine near-infrared Doppler measurements have been taken using the ESO CRIRES spectrograph (VLT, UT1). The visible data set shows two clear periodicities. Although we cannot completely rule out that the shorter period is due to rotational modulation of stellar features, the infrared data show the same variations as in the optical, which strongly supports that the variations are caused by two planets. Assuming the mass of η Cet to be 1.7 M⊙, the best edge-on coplanar dynamical fit to the data is consistent with two massive planets (mb sini = 2.6 ± 0.2 MJup, mc sini = 3.3 ± 0.2 MJup), with periods of Pb = 407 ± 3 days and Pc = 740 ± 5 days and eccentricities of eb = 0.12 ± 0.05 and ec = 0.08 ± 0.04. These mass and period ratios suggest possible strong interactions between the planets, and a dynamical test is mandatory. We tested a wide variety of edge-on coplanar and inclined planetary configurations for stability, which agree with the derived radial velocities. We find that for a coplanar configuration there are several isolated stable solutions and two well defined stability regions. In certain orbital configurations with moderate eb eccentricity, the planets can be effectively trapped in an anti-aligned 2:1 mean motion resonance that stabilizes the system. A much larger non-resonant stable region exists in low-eccentricity parameter space, although it appears to be much farther from the best fit than the 2:1 resonant region. In all other cases, the system is categorized as unstable or chaotic. Another conclusion from the coplanar inclined dynamical test is that the planets can be at most a factor of ~1.4 more massive than their suggested minimum masses. Assuming yet higher inclinations, and thus larger planetary masses, leads to instability in all cases. This stability constraint on the inclination excludes the possibility of two brown dwarfs, and strongly favors a planetary system. Based on observations collected at Lick Observatory, University of California.Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under program IDs 088.D-0132, 089.D-0186, 090.D-0155 and 091.D-0365.

  5. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH). VI. Constraints on UV and X-ray irradiation from a survey of hydrides in low- to high-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, A. O.; Bruderer, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Melchior, M.; Wampfler, S. F.; van der Tak, F.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Indriolo, N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Lis, D. C.; Mottram, J. C.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Herpin, F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Hydrides are simple compounds containing one or a few hydrogen atoms bonded to a heavier atom. They are fundamental precursor molecules in cosmic chemistry and many hydride ions have become observable in high quality for the first time thanks to the Herschel Space Observatory. Ionized hydrides such as CH+ and OH+ (and also HCO+), which affect the chemistry of molecules such as water, provide complementary information on irradiation by far-UV (FUV) or X-rays and gas temperature. Aims: We explore hydrides of the most abundant heavier elements in an observational survey covering young stellar objects (YSOs) with different mass and evolutionary state. The focus is on hydrides associated with the dense protostellar envelope and outflows, contrary to previous work that focused on hydrides in diffuse foreground clouds. Methods: Twelve YSOs were observed with HIFI on Herschel in six spectral settings providing fully velocity-resolved line profiles as part of the Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) program. The YSOs include objects of low (Class 0 and I), intermediate, and high mass, with luminosities ranging from 4 L⊙ to 2 × 105 L⊙. Results: The targeted lines of CH+, OH+, H2O+, C+, and CH are detected mostly in blue-shifted absorption. H3O+ and SH+ are detected in emission and only toward some high-mass objects. The observed line parameters and correlations suggest two different origins related to gas entrained by the outflows and to the circumstellar envelope. The derived column densities correlate with bolometric luminosity and envelope mass for all molecules, best for CH, CH+, and HCO+. The column density ratios of CH+/OH+ are estimated from chemical slab models, assuming that the H2 density is given by the specific density model of each object at the beam radius. For the low-mass YSOs the observed ratio can be reproduced for an FUV flux of 2-400 times the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) at the location of the molecules. In two high

  6. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High angular resolution (sub)millimetre observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, now possible with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), allow direct imaging of these objects' photospheres. The physical properties of the molecular material around these regions, which until now has only been studied by imaging of maser emission and spatially unresolved absorption spectroscopy, can be probed with radiative transfer modelling and compared to hydrodynamical model predictions. The prototypical Mira variable, o Cet (Mira), was observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, offering the first opportunity to study these physical conditions in detail. Aims: With the longest baseline of 15 km, ALMA produces clearly resolved images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. Models are constructed for Mira's extended atmosphere to investigate the physics and molecular abundances therein. Methods: We imaged the data of 28SiO ν= 0, 2J = 5-4 and H2O v2 = 1JKa,Kc = 55,0-64,3 transitions and extracted spectra from various lines of sight towards Mira's extended atmosphere. In the course of imaging the emission/absorption, we encountered ambiguities in the resulting images and spectra that appear to be related to the performance of the CLEAN algorithm when applied to a combination of extended emission, and compact emission and absorption. We addressed these issues by a series of tests and simulations. We derived the gas density, kinetic temperature, molecular abundance, and outflow/infall velocities in Mira's extended atmosphere by modelling the SiO and H2O lines. Results: We resolve Mira's millimetre continuum emission and our data are consistent with a radio photosphere with a brightness temperature of 2611 ± 51 K. In agreement with recent results obtained with the Very Large Array, we do not confirm the existence of a compact region (<5 mas) of

  7. Chromospheres of chemically peculiar giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, P. G.

    1989-01-01

    The chromospheres of evolved stars with peculiar chemical abundances are reviewed, emphasizing the dependence of chromospheric properties on the evolutionary status of the stars. A sample of intermediate mass stars observed in the radio, IR and UV wavelength regions is compiled. The chromospheres of MS, S, and C stars are compared with one another. The sample is used to study the relationship between stellar parameters and chromospheric heating. The results are used to construct a scenario for AGB evolution.

  8. Star formation in dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shawfeng

    In this thesis, we examine the star formation history and stellar feedback effects of dwarf galaxies under the influence of extragalactic ultraviolet radiation, as well as the evolution of residual gas within tidally-limited dwarf galaxies and globular clusters. Previous work has indicated that the background UV flux can easily ionize the gas within typical dwarf galaxies, delaying or even preventing cooling and star formation within them. Many dwarf galaxies within the Local Group are, however, observed to contain multiple generations of stars, the oldest of which formed in the early epochs of cosmic evolution, when the background UV flux was intense. In order to address this paradox, we consider the dynamical evolution of gas in dwarf galaxies using a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian numerical scheme which also computes the effects of radiative transfer and photoionization. We include in the scheme a physically-motivated star formation recipe and consider the effects of feedback. This scheme allows us to follow the history of the gas and of star formation within dwarf galaxies, as influenced by both external and internal UV radiation. Our results indicate that star formation in the severe environment of dwarf galaxies is a difficult and inefficient process. In potentials with total mass less than a few 106 M⊙ , and velocity dispersion less than a few km s-1 , residual gas is efficiently photoionized by cosmic background UV radiation. For intermediate mass systems, such as the dSphs around the Galaxy, star formation can proceed within early cosmic epochs despite the intense background UV flux. Triggering processes such as merger events, collisions, and tidal disturbance can lead to density enhancements, reducing the recombination timescale, allowing gas to cool and star formation to proceed. However, the star formation and gas retention efficiency may vary widely in galaxies with similar dark matter potentials, because they depend on many

  9. Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy - Skylab Experiment S019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 photograph shows Skylab's Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy experiment, a scientific airlock-based facility/experiment that would study UV spectra of early-type stars and galaxies. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  10. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: 4-CHIP UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done for each CCD detector using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only during a UV campaign.

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Single Chip UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only following a UV decontamination.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR ACTIVITY OVER TIME AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. II. {kappa}{sup 1} Ceti, AN ANALOG OF THE SUN WHEN LIFE AROSE ON EARTH

    SciTech Connect

    Ribas, I.; Garces, A.; Porto de Mello, G. F.; Ferreira, L. D.; Hebrard, E.; Selsis, F.; Catalan, S.; Do Nascimento, J. D.; De Medeiros, J. R. E-mail: garces@ice.csic.e E-mail: leticia@astro.ufrj.b E-mail: eric.hebrard@obs.u-bordeaux1.f E-mail: dias@dfte.ufrn.b

    2010-05-01

    The early evolution of Earth's atmosphere and the origin of life took place at a time when physical conditions at the Earth were radically different from its present state. The radiative input from the Sun was much enhanced in the high-energy spectral domain, and in order to model early planetary atmospheres in detail, a knowledge of the solar radiative input is needed. We present an investigation of the atmospheric parameters, state of evolution, and high-energy fluxes of the nearby star {kappa}{sup 1} Cet, previously thought to have properties resembling those of the early Sun. Atmospheric parameters were derived from the excitation/ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II, profile fitting of H{alpha}, and the spectral energy distribution. The UV irradiance was derived from Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope data, and the absolute chromospheric flux from the H{alpha} line core. From careful spectral analysis and the comparison of different methods, we propose for {kappa}{sup 1} Cet the following atmospheric parameters: T{sub eff} = 5665 {+-} 30 K (H{alpha} profile and energy distribution), log g = 4.49 {+-} 0.05 dex (evolutionary and spectroscopic), and [Fe/H] = +0.10 {+-} 0.05 (Fe II lines). The UV radiative properties of {kappa}{sup 1} Cet indicate that its flux is some 35% lower than the current Sun's between 210 and 300 nm, it matches the Sun's at 170 nm, and increases to at least 2-7 times higher than the Sun's between 110 and 140 nm. The use of several indicators ascribes an age to {kappa}{sup 1} Cet in the interval {approx}0.4-0.8 Gyr and the analysis of the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (H-R) suggests a mass {approx}1.04 M{sub sun}. This star is thus a very close analog of the Sun when life arose on Earth and Mars is thought to have lost its surface bodies of liquid water. Photochemical models indicate that the enhanced UV emission leads to a significant increase in photodissociation rates compared with those

  13. The FK Comae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.; Stencel, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents IUE observations of three very rapidly rotating G-K giants (v sin i = 100 km/s). The UV spectra show strong chromospheric and transition region emission lines similar to (and in excess of) the RS CVn binaries. These stars show no evidence for radial velocity variations in excess of plus or minus 3 to plus or minus 20 km/s, arguing against duplicity. As a class, they lend support to the rotation-activity hypothesis. Coalesced W UMa binaries, rather than single stars, are the possible progenitors for these FK Com variables.

  14. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) Analysis (MLVA) approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16) that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two species, and their

  15. Star Light, Star Bright.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadevaia, David G.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for obtaining a rough measure of the brightness among different stars. Materials needed include a standard 35-mm camera, a plastic ruler, and a photo enlarger. Although a telescope can be used, it is not essential. (JN)

  16. UV Spectral Templates for High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara; Lindler, Don; Lanz, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    New instrumentation such as DEIMOS on Keck-II now enable deep spectral surveys, and thereby samples of galaxies at younger ages. At a redshift, z = 1, all galaxies are less than 6 Gyr old and hence, have not yet formed horizontal-branch stars. Also, at z = 1, the restframe-UV comes into view, and with it, a new set of spectral diagnostics. UV spectral features are especially important because most of the UV flux comes from stars at the main-sequence turnoff (MSTO). Hence, UV spectral diagnostics enable the ages of z = 1 galaxies to be estimated directly from MSTO stars. In preparation for these high-redshift spectral surveys, we are developing UV spectral templates for stellar populations younger than 6 Gyr using UV-optical spectra of stars observed by HST/STIS. We are also planning to supplement these observations with theoretical spectral grids of stars of various metallicities. In this paper, we present a progress report on the observation-based spectral templates and spectral diagnostics.

  17. Pulsaciones en estrellas variables ZZ Ceti masivas: las huellas del overshooting previo y la cristalización

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A.; Althaus, L.; Montgomery, M.; García-Berro, E.; Panei, J.; Isern, J.

    Prompted by recent claims that asteroseismolgy of ZZ Cet variable stars could supply valuable clues about the crystallization processes in the deep interior of massive white dwarf stars (Metcalfe, Montgomery & Kanaan 2004), we present in this work new pulsation calculations employing white dwarf models with carbon/oxygen cores representative of massive ZZ Cet pulsators. The effects of crystallization on the pulsation properties of our models have been assessed by means of a detailed analysis of the nonradial g-modes which are responsible for the observed periodicities in ZZ Cet stars.

  18. RADIATIVE AND KINETIC FEEDBACK BY LOW-MASS PRIMORDIAL STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, Daniel; Hueckstaedt, Robert M.; McConkie, Thomas O.

    2010-03-20

    Ionizing UV radiation and supernova (SN) flows amidst clustered minihalos at high redshift regulated the rise of the first stellar populations in the universe. Previous studies have addressed the effects of very massive primordial stars on the collapse of nearby halos into new stars, but the absence of the odd-even nucleosynthetic signature of pair-instability SNe in ancient metal-poor stars suggests that Population III stars may have been less than 100 M{sub sun}. We extend our earlier survey of local UV feedback on star formation to 25-80 M{sub sun} stars and include kinetic feedback by SNe for 25-40 M{sub sun} stars. We find radiative feedback to be relatively uniform over this mass range, primarily because the larger fluxes of more massive stars are offset by their shorter lifetimes. Our models demonstrate that prior to the rise of global UV backgrounds, Lyman-Werner (LW) photons from nearby stars cannot prevent halos from forming new stars. These calculations also reveal that violent dynamical instabilities can erupt in the UV radiation front enveloping a primordial halo, but that they ultimately have no effect on the formation of a star. Finally, our simulations suggest that relic H II regions surrounding partially evaporated halos may expel LW backgrounds at lower redshifts, allowing stars to form that were previously suppressed. We provide fits to radiative and kinetic feedback on star formation for use in both semianalytic models and numerical simulations.

  19. Protosteller Disks Under the Influence of Winds and UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yorke, H. W.

    2003-01-01

    Star formation and the creation of protostellar disks generally occur in a crowded environment. Nearby young stars and protostars can influence the disks of their closets neighbors by a combination of outflows and hard radiation. The central stars themselves can have a stellar wind and may produce sufficient UV and X-ray to ultimately destroy their surrounding disks. Here we describe the results of numerical simulations of the influence that an external UV source and a central star's wind can have on its circumstellar disk. The numerical method (axial symmetry assumed) is described elsewhere. We find that protostellar disks will be destroyed on a relatively short time scale ( 10(sup 5)yr) unless they are well shielded from O-stars. Initially isotropic T-Tauri winds do not significantly influence their disks, but instead are focused toward the rotation axis by the disk wind from photoevaporation.

  20. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  1. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  2. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok; Garud, Vikas

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  3. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  4. Triggered star formation in the environment of young massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Naab, T.; Heitsch, F.; Burkert, A.

    Recent observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope show clear evidence that star formation takes place in the surrounding of young massive O-type stars, which are shaping their environment due to their powerful radiation and stellar winds. In this work we investigate the effect of ionising radiation of massive stars on the ambient interstellar medium (ISM): In particular we want to examine whether the UV-radiation of O-type stars can lead to the observed pillar-like structures and can trigger star formation. We developed a new implementation, based on a parallel Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code (VINE), that allows an efficient treatment of the effect of ionising radiation from massive stars on their turbulent gaseous environment. Here we present first results at very high resolution. We show that ionising radiation can trigger the collapse of an otherwise stable molecular cloud. The arising structures resemble observed structures (e.g. the pillars of creation in the Eagle Nebula (M16) or the Horsehead Nebula B33). Including the effect of gravitation we find small regions that can be identified as formation places of individual stars. We conclude that ionising radiation from massive stars alone can trigger substantial star formation in molecular clouds.

  5. UV Observations of Three O Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmany, Catharine D.

    We propose to obtain coordinated time resolved IUE high resolution spectra, middle infrared (10 - 34 micron) photometry, and high resolution high SIN optical spectroscopy of three bright O giants. The program stars have been seen to exhibit rapid variations in the discrete absorption components in their UV spectra, are variable in the infrared region, and show variable He I optical lines in the form of "moving bumps." The planned observations are expected to constrain models for the physical origin of discrete absorption components, which are a very common phenomenon in UV P Cygni profiles of luminous O and B and Be stars. In particular we seek to establish the role of radially propagating density enhancements in the stellar wind and a possible relation with stellar surface phenomena.

  6. Sources of UV Flux in Early-Type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burstein, David

    In a paper in press (Burstein at al. 1988), we show that the level of far-UV flux (relative to optical flux) in 24 'normal' early-type galaxies is strongly correlated with their metallicity. The UV spectra of 4 'active' early-type galaxies show both similarities and differences compared to those of normal galaxies of similar overall UV flux, while the UV spectra of 'starforming' galaxies show clear evidence of ongoing star formation. However, the physical source(s) of UV flux in active and normal galaxies cannot yet be unambiguously identified for two reasons: a) similarity of UV energy distributions of hot stellar populations and b) missing and low SIN LW spectra of key active and mildly star-forming galaxies (e.g. N4486=M87; the hot stellar population contributes 50% of the flux at 2660 A). We propose here to obtain high SIN LWP spectra to better define the differences (and similarities) of the strong UV component among normal, active and star-forming galaxies. Four representative galaxies have been chosen for study: N4486, N1052, N4742 and N4111. Our analysis of these data should serve both to better define the mean temperatures of the main sequence turnoffs in these galaxies, as well as the presence (or absence) of special features in the spectral energy distributions, such as excess emission between 2000 -2500 A in active galaxies (the so-called 'blue bump').

  7. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  8. CO-SPATIAL LONG-SLIT UV/OPTICAL SPECTRA OF TEN GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH HST/STIS. II. NEBULAR MODELS, CENTRAL STAR PROPERTIES, AND He+CNO SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R. B. C.; Miller, T. R.; Balick, B.; Dufour, R. J.; Kwitter, K. B.; Shaw, R. A.; Buell, J. F.; Corradi, R. L. M.

    2015-11-10

    The goal of the present study is twofold. First, we employ new HST/STIS spectra and photoionization modeling techniques to determine the progenitor masses of eight planetary nebulae (IC 2165, IC 3568, NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662, and PB 6). Second, for the first time we are able to compare each object’s observed nebular abundances of helium, carbon, and nitrogen with abundance predictions of these same elements by a stellar model that is consistent with each object’s progenitor mass. Important results include the following: (1) the mass range of our objects’ central stars matches well with the mass distribution of other central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs; (2) He/H is above solar in all of our objects, in most cases likely due to the predicted effects of first dredge-up; (3) most of our objects show negligible C enrichment, probably because their low masses preclude third dredge-up; (4) C/O versus O/H for our objects appears to be inversely correlated, which is perhaps consistent with the conclusion of theorists that the extent of atmospheric carbon enrichment from first dredge-up is sensitive to a parameter whose value increases as metallicity declines; (5) stellar model predictions of nebular C and N enrichment are consistent with observed abundances for progenitor star masses ≤1.5 M{sub ⊙}. Finally, we present the first published photoionization models of NGC 5315 and NGC 5882.

  9. A connection between the instability strips of ZZ Ceti and V777 Herculis white dwarfs. Pulsating accreting GW Lib white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grootel, V.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2015-03-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the theoretical instability strips of white dwarfs with diverse H and He content in their atmospheres, from a solar composition to a H-depleted atmosphere. Pulsators with mixed H-He atmospheres are indeed known to exist, and these are the white dwarfs in cataclysmic accreting systems of the GW Lib type. We thus also aim to determine the range of periods of excited pulsation modes, and to qualitatively compare these to the observed periods in GW Lib white dwarf pulsators. Methods: In the first full nonadiabatic stability analysis of pulsators of this kind, we applied a time-dependent convection treatment and an energy leakage argument to compute, for cooling models of white dwarfs with various masses and envelope compositions, the location of the blue and the red edges, as well as the properties of pulsation modes. Results: We find that our derived instability strips form a true continuum in the log g-Teff plane and that their individual location depends uniquely on the assumed atmospheric composition, from the solar composition models at low effective temperatures to the H-depleted models at much higher temperatures. Taking into account our previous results from the ZZ Ceti (pure H atmosphere) and V777 Her (pure He atmosphere) white dwarf pulsators, this implies that all of these instability domains are connected via the same fundamental driving mechanism. Applying our results to the case of white dwarf pulsators of the GW Lib type, we find that our theoretical instability strips can qualitatively account for all of the known cases. The computed range of periods of excited modes also compares qualitatively very well to the observed ones. Conclusions: The GW Lib pulsators are very similar in nature to ZZ Ceti and V777 Her white dwarfs. It is the diverse chemical compositions in their atmosphere and envelope that defines their specific pulsation properties. Beyond GW Lib pulsators, white dwarfs can sometimes exhibit mixed H-He atmospheres

  10. Old stellar systems in UV: resolved and integrated properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessandro, E.

    2014-11-01

    The UV properties of old stellar populations have been subject of intense scrutiny from the late sixties, when the UV-upturn in early type galaxies was first discovered. Because of their proximity and relative simplicity, Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) are ideal local templates to understand how the integrated UV light is driven by hot stellar populations, primarily horizontal branch stars and their progeny. Our understanding of such stars is still plagued by theoretical uncertainties, which are partly due to the absence of an accurate, comprehensive, statistically representative homogeneous data-set. To move a step forward on this subject, we have combined the HST and GALEX capabilities and collected the largest data-base ever obtained for GGCs in UV. This data-base is best suited to provide insights on the HB second parameter problem and on the first stages of GCs formation and chemical evolution and to understand how they are linked to the observed properties of extragalactic systems.

  11. STAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, James E.

    The STAR System is a developmental guidance approach to be used with elementary school children in the 5th or 6th grades. Two basic purposes underlie STAR: to increase learning potential and to enhance personal growth and development. STAR refers to 4 basic skills: sensory, thinking, adapting, and revising. Major components of the 4 skills are:…

  12. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  13. Uncovering the nature of UV sources observed with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Lopes, de Oliveira, R.; Nuñez, R. N. E.; Montané, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present an ongoing project aiming to reveal the nature and study the variability of UV sources. The project explores emitters in a sample of more than 60 fields covering around symbiotic stars which were observed with the ultraviolet/optical telescope onboard the Swift satellite. Here we detail the procedures developed in order to search for variability in their flux, and the first results from the three fields already investigated. The UV sources identified are likely associated with cataclysmic variables, white dwarfs, and active stars.

  14. Science with a wide-field UV transient explorer

    SciTech Connect

    Sagiv, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Ofek, E. O.; Waxman, E.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Topaz, J.; Aharonson, O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Phinney, E. S.; Nakar, E.; Maoz, D.; Beichman, C.; Murthy, J.; Worden, S. P.

    2014-04-01

    The time-variable electromagnetic sky has been well-explored at a wide range of wavelengths. In contrast, the ultra-violet (UV) variable sky is relatively poorly explored, even though it offers exciting scientific prospects. Here, we review the potential scientific impact of a wide-field UV survey on the study of explosive and other transient events, as well as known classes of variable objects, such as active galactic nuclei and variable stars. We quantify our predictions using a fiducial set of observational parameters which are similar to those envisaged for the proposed ULTRASAT mission. We show that such a mission would be able to revolutionize our knowledge about massive star explosions by measuring the early UV emission from hundreds of events, revealing key physical parameters of the exploding progenitor stars. Such a mission would also detect the UV emission from many tens of tidal-disruption events of stars by supermassive black holes at galactic nuclei and enable a measurement of the rate of such events. The overlap of such a wide-field UV mission with existing and planned gravitational-wave and high-energy neutrino telescopes makes it especially timely.

  15. Hadron star models. [neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Boerner, G.

    1974-01-01

    The properties of fully relativistic rotating hadron star models are discussed using models based on recently developed equations of state. All of these stable neutron star models are bound with binding energies as high as about 25%. During hadron star formation, much of this energy will be released. The consequences, resulting from the release of this energy, are examined.

  16. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10-13.

  17. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10‑13.

  18. Star Formation Across Galactic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    2013-01-01

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in AGN-free and quasar host galaxies. These environments are both insightful; quasars are among the most violent objects known, reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to dwarf star-forming galaxies. The AGN-free galaxies are drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey, an Hα-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to avoid continuum luminosity bias. This work studies the KISS galaxies in mid- and far-IR using Spitzer IRAC and MIPS photometry. These IR bands are interesting because the UV light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-IR (24μm MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transition features in the mid-IR (8.0μm IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This work examines the efficiencies of PAH and dust emission as tracers of star-formation. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has no systematic dependance on galactic mass. My study of quasar host galaxies utilizes images of eight PG quasars from the WFPC2 and NICMOS instruments aboard HST. I use narrow-band images centered on the Hβ, [OII]λ3727, [OIII]λ5007, and Paα emission lines to construct extinction and star formation maps. Additionally, I use line-ratio maps to distinguish AGN-powered line emission from star formation powered line emission. I find star formation, albeit at rates are lower than expected, suggesting that quasar host galaxies are dynamically more advanced than suspected. Seven of the galaxies have higher mass-specific star-formation rates. Additionally, I see evidence of shocked gas, supporting the hypotheses from earlier works that AGN activity quenches star formation in host galaxies by disrupting gas reservoirs.

  19. Star Formation and Feedback in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shawfeng; Lin, D. N. C.; Murray, S. D.

    2003-10-01

    We examine the star formation history and stellar feedback effects of dwarf galaxies under the influence of extragalactic ultraviolet radiation. Previous work has indicated that the background UV flux can easily ionize the gas within typical dwarf galaxies, delaying or even preventing cooling and star formation within them. Many dwarf galaxies within the Local Group are, however, observed to contain multiple generations of stars, the oldest of which formed in the early epochs of cosmic evolution, when the background UV flux was intense. In order to address this paradox, we consider the dynamical evolution of gas in dwarf galaxies using a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian numerical scheme to compute the effects of radiative transfer and photoionization. We include a physically motivated star formation recipe and consider the effects of feedback. This scheme allows us to follow the history of the gas and of star formation within dwarf galaxies, as influenced by both external and internal UV radiation. Our results indicate that star formation in the severe environment of dwarf galaxies is a difficult and inefficient process. In potentials with total mass less than a few times 106 Msolar and velocity dispersion less than a few kilometers per second, residual gas is efficiently photoionized by cosmic background UV radiation. Since the density scale height of the gas within these galaxies is comparable to their size, gas may be tidally removed from them, leaving behind starless residual dark matter clumps. For intermediate-mass systems, such as the dSphs around the Galaxy, star formation can proceed within early cosmic epochs despite the intense background UV flux. Triggering processes such as merger events, collisions, and tidal disturbance can lead to density enhancements, reducing the recombination timescale, allowing gas to cool and star formation to proceed. However, the star formation and gas retention efficiency may vary widely in galaxies with

  20. Substantial reservoirs of molecular hydrogen in the debris disks around young stars.

    PubMed

    Thi, W F; Blake, G A; van Dishoeck, E F; van Zadelhoff, G J; Horn, J M; Becklin, E E; Mannings, V; Sargent, A I; van Den Ancker, M E; Natta, A

    2001-01-01

    Circumstellar accretion disks transfer matter from molecular clouds to young stars and to the sites of planet formation. The disks observed around pre-main-sequence stars have properties consistent with those expected for the pre-solar nebula from which our own Solar System formed 4.5 Gyr ago. But the 'debris' disks that encircle more than 15% of nearby main-sequence stars appear to have very small amounts of gas, based on observations of the tracer molecule carbon monoxide: these observations have yielded gas/dust ratios much less than 0.1, whereas the interstellar value is about 100 (ref. 9). Here we report observations of the lowest rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) that reveal large quantities of gas in the debris disks around the stars beta Pictoris, 49 Ceti and HD135344. The gas masses calculated from the data are several hundreds to a thousand times greater than those estimated from the CO observations, and yield gas/dust ratios of the same order as the interstellar value.

  1. Substantial reservoirs of molecular hydrogen in the debris disks around young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thi, W. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Zadelhoff, G. J.; Horn, J. M.; Becklin, E. E.; Mannings, V.; Sargent, A. I.; van Den Ancker, M. E.; Natta, A.

    2001-01-01

    Circumstellar accretion disks transfer matter from molecular clouds to young stars and to the sites of planet formation. The disks observed around pre-main-sequence stars have properties consistent with those expected for the pre-solar nebula from which our own Solar System formed 4.5 Gyr ago. But the 'debris' disks that encircle more than 15% of nearby main-sequence stars appear to have very small amounts of gas, based on observations of the tracer molecule carbon monoxide: these observations have yielded gas/dust ratios much less than 0.1, whereas the interstellar value is about 100 (ref. 9). Here we report observations of the lowest rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen (H2) that reveal large quantities of gas in the debris disks around the stars beta Pictoris, 49 Ceti and HD135344. The gas masses calculated from the data are several hundreds to a thousand times greater than those estimated from the CO observations, and yield gas/dust ratios of the same order as the interstellar value.

  2. Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy of three F + B binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.; Dempsey, Robert C.; Parsons, Sidney B.

    1991-01-01

    Optical and ultraviolet spectroscopy is presented for three F + B objects that are members of the first group of strongly interacting, F II + B systems. The data obtained confirm that HD 59771, HD 242257, and CoD -30 5135 are all binary star systems consisting of a luminous F-type component and a B star. Strong, variable H-alpha emission is seen in all the stars. It is found that the UV spectrum of HD 59771 resembles the spectrum of HD 207739. CoD -30 5135 has the most dramatic mid-UV spectrum seen among the scores of observed cool + hot star systems.

  3. Star Formation in Dwarf Galaxies: Life in a Rough Neighborhood

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S

    2003-10-16

    Star formation within dwarf galaxies is governed by several factors. Many of these factors are external, including ram-pressure stripping, tidal stripping, and heating by external UV radiation. The latter, in particular, may prevent star formation in the smallest systems. Internal factors include negative feedback in the form of UV radiation, winds and supernovae from massive stars. These act to reduce the star formation efficiency within dwarf systems, which may, in turn, solve several theoretical and observational problems associated with galaxy formation. In this contribution, we discuss our recent work being done to examine the importance of the many factors in the evolution of dwarf galaxies.

  4. UV-sensitive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Spivak, Graciela

    2005-09-01

    UV-sensitive syndrome (UV(S)S) is a human DNA repair-deficiency disorder with mild clinical manifestations. In contrast to other disorders with photosensitivity, no neurological or developmental abnormalities and no predisposition to cancer have been reported. The cellular and biochemical responses of UV(S)S and Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells to UV light are indistinguishable, and result from defective transcription-coupled repair of photoproducts in expressed genes [G. Spivak, T. Itoh, T. Matsunaga, O. Nikaido, P. Hanawalt, M. Yamaizumi, Ultra violet-sensitive syndrome cells are defective in transcription-coupled repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, DNA Repair, 1, 2002, 629-643]. The severe neurological and developmental deficiency characteristic of CS may arise from unresolved blockage of transcription at oxidative DNA lesions, which could result in excessive cell death and/or attenuated transcription. We have proposed that individuals with UV(S)S develop normally because they are proficient in repair of oxidative base damage or in transcriptional bypass of these lesions; consistent with this hypothesis, CS-B cells, but not UV(S)S cells, are deficient in host cell reactivation of plasmids containing oxidative base lesions [G. Spivak, P. Hanawalt, Host cell reactivation of plasmids containing oxidative DNA lesions is defective in Cockayne syndrome but normal in UV-sensitive syndrome, 2005, submitted for publication]. In this review, I will summarize the current understanding of the UV-sensitive syndrome and compare it with the Cockayne syndrome. PMID:15916784

  5. THE STAR FORMATION LAW AT LOW SURFACE DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Neill, James D.; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Milliard, Bruno; Heckman, Timothy M.; Szalay, Alex S.; Lee, Young-Wook; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Rich, R. Michael

    2009-05-10

    We investigate the nature of the star formation law at low gas surface densities using a sample of 19 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies with existing H I maps in the literature, UV imaging from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite, and optical images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All of the LSB galaxies have (NUV - r) colors similar to those for higher surface brightness star-forming galaxies of similar luminosity indicating that their average star formation histories are not very different. Based upon four LSB galaxies with both UV and far-infrared (FIR) data, we find FIR/UV ratios significantly less than 1, implying low amounts of internal UV extinction in LSB galaxies. We use the UV images and H I maps to measure the star formation rate (SFR) and hydrogen gas surface density within the same region for all the galaxies. The LSB galaxy star formation rate surface densities lie below the extrapolation of the power law fit to the SFR surface density as a function of the total gas density for higher surface brightness galaxies. Although there is more scatter, the LSB galaxies also lie below a second version of the star formation law in which the SFR surface density is correlated with the gas density divided by the orbital time in the disk. The downturn seen in both star formation laws is consistent with theoretical models that predict lower star formation efficiencies in LSB galaxies due to the declining molecular fraction with decreasing density.

  6. [Erythemogenic UV rays].

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2011-07-01

    The UV-index is an international standard measurement of the strength of erythemogenic ultraviolet radiation. It is often published in the media and then refers to the highest expected UV radiation for that day. The highest UV-index value measured in Iceland is seven. Although this is similar to the maximum values from southern Scandinavia, the average UV-index is lower in Iceland compared to other Nordic countries. Around solar noon the UV index is roughly equivalent to the Standard Erythema Dose (SED). During a bright summer day in Iceland the number of Standard Erythema doses can go as high as 32, but is on average in June around twenty. The typical Icelander gets red after 4-6 SED and it is obvious that during solar noon it is easy to sunburn in Iceland if you stay outside without sun protection. PMID:21849709

  7. MEASURING GALAXY STAR FORMATION RATES FROM INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY: INSIGHTS FROM COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF RESOLVED STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Benjamin D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dale, Daniel A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Lee, Janice C.; Skillman, Evan D.; Boquien, Mederic

    2013-07-20

    We use empirical star formation histories (SFHs), measured from Hubble-Space-Telescope-based resolved star color-magnitude diagrams, as input into population synthesis codes to model the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies (6.5 < log M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 8.5, with metallicities {approx}10% solar). In the presence of realistic SFHs, we compare the modeled and observed SEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared and assess the reliability of widely used UV-based star formation rate (SFR) indicators. In the FUV through i bands, we find that the observed and modeled SEDs are in excellent agreement. In the Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, we find that modeled SEDs systematically overpredict observed luminosities by up to {approx}0.2 dex, depending on treatment of the TP-AGB stars in the synthesis models. We assess the reliability of UV luminosity as a SFR indicator, in light of independently constrained SFHs. We find that fluctuations in the SFHs alone can cause factor of {approx}2 variations in the UV luminosities relative to the assumption of a constant SFH over the past 100 Myr. These variations are not strongly correlated with UV-optical colors, implying that correcting UV-based SFRs for the effects of realistic SFHs is difficult using only the broadband SED. Additionally, for this diverse sample of galaxies, we find that stars older than 100 Myr can contribute from <5%-100% of the present day UV luminosity, highlighting the challenges in defining a characteristic star formation timescale associated with UV emission. We do find a relationship between UV emission timescale and broadband UV-optical color, though it is different than predictions based on exponentially declining SFH models. Our findings have significant implications for the comparison of UV-based SFRs across low-metallicity populations with diverse SFHs.

  8. Spectroscopic Survey of Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, J.

    This program will obtain far-UV spectra of cool stars that span a broad range of spectral type and luminosity class. It is our intention to obtain these spectra early in the FUSE program and to provide the spectra quickly to the user community in order to guide potential guest investigators in designing their observing programs. The specific science objectives include: (1) studying transition region dynamics (winds and downflows), (2) modeling the thermal structure of transition regions, (3) measuring electron densities, (4) search for low temperature coronae, (5) studying molecular excitation and fluorescence processes, and (6) inferring how the transition regions of spectroscopic binary systems differ from those of single stars.

  9. Exotic UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brosch, Noah

    2009-04-01

    After considering a number of historical but somewhat “forgotten” UV astronomy experiments, I discuss a number of ways of non-conventional astronomy in the ultraviolet that, on first considerations, could be viable alternatives and valuable complements to classical space observations. These are (a) UV astronomy from the Antarctic or the Arctic regions that take advantage of the “ozone hole”, (b) the use of high-altitude stratospheric balloon-borne telescopes, and (c) the operation of UV telescopes on the Moon. The advantages of these options are discussed and evaluated against the costs of each option and, one by one, are mostly rejected as not fully justifying the specific alternative. The possibility to achieve valuable (but limited) UV science, such as imaging at ˜2000 Å, using long-duration stratospheric balloons is described. The option of lunar UV observatories is retained to be implemented for the case of a UV interferometer, where the stability of the lunar regolith is seen as a significant advantage in comparison to free-flying interferometers. A location beyond the main asteroid belt, where the background due zodiacal light may be negligible, is advocated as an ideal location for a UV observatory in the Solar System.

  10. The DQ Herculis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    We review the properties of the DQ Herculis stars: cataclysmic variables containing an accreting, magnetic, rapidly rotating white dwarf. These stars are characterized by strong X-ray emission, high-excitation spectra, and very stable optical and X-ray pulsations in their light curves. There is considerable resemblance to their more famous cousins, the AM Herculis stars, but the latter class is additionally characterized by spin-orbit synchronism and the presence of strong circular polarization. We list eighteen stars passing muster as certain or very likely DQ Her stars. The rotational periods range from 33 s to 2.0 hr. Additional periods can result when the rotating searchlight illuminates other structures in the binary. A single hypothesis explains most of the observed properties: magnetically channeled accretion within a truncated disk. Some accretion flow still seems to proceed directly to the magnetosphere, however. The white dwarfs' magnetic moments are in the range 10(sup 32) - 10(sup 34) G cc, slightly weaker than in AM Her stars but with some probable overlap. The more important reason why DQ Hers have broken synchronism is probably their greater accretion rate and orbital separation. The observed L(sub x)/L(sub V) values are surprisingly low for a radially accreting white dwarf, suggesting that most of the accretion energy is not radiated in a strong shock above the magnetic pole. The fluxes can be more satisfactorily explained if most of the radial infall energy manages to bypass the shock and deposit itse lf directly in the white dwarf photosphere, where it should emerge as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. This also provides an adequate source of ionizing photons to power the high-excitation optical and UV emission lines. This is probably the DQ Her analog to the famous 'soft X-ray excess' in AM Her stars. However, unlike the AM Her case, this radiation has not been directly observed, so the analogy must not (yet) be embraced too firmly. There is

  11. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB). PMID:23467762

  12. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  13. Ultraviolet emission from main-sequence companions of AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Roberto; Guerrero, Martín A.

    2016-09-01

    Although the majority of known binary asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are symbiotic systems (i.e. with a white dwarf as a secondary star), main-sequence companions of AGB stars can be more numerous, even though they are more difficult to find because the primary high luminosity hampers the detection of the companion at visual wavelengths. However, in the ultraviolet the flux emitted by a secondary with Teff > 5500 ˜ 6000 K may prevail over that of the primary, and then it can be used to search for candidates to binary AGB stars. In this work, theoretical atmosphere models are used to calculate the UV excess in the GALEX near- and far-UV bands due to a main-sequence companion. After analysing a sample of confirmed binary AGB stars, we propose as a criterium for binarity: (1) the detection of the AGB star in the GALEX far-UV band and/or (2) a GALEX near-UV observed-to-predicted flux ratio >20. These criteria have been applied to a volume-limited sample of AGB stars within 500 pc of the Sun; 34 out of the sample of 58 AGB stars (˜60 per cent) fulfill them, implying to have a main-sequence companion of spectral type earlier than K0. The excess in the GALEX near- and far-UV bands cannot be attributed to a single temperature companion star, thus suggesting that the UV emission of the secondary might be absorbed by the extended atmosphere and circumstellar envelope of the primary or that UV emission is produced in accretion flows.

  14. Evaporation flows driven by early B stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeters, Els

    2013-10-01

    Young massive OB stars significantly influence their environment as their far-UV photons (6 eV < E < 13.6 eV) dominate the physics and chemistry of the surrounding gas, creating PhotoDissociation Regions (PDRs). The incident FUV field heats and photo-dissociates the PDR and may create evaporation flows of the PDR surfaces. These photo-evaporated flows are fundamental to understanding proplyds, pillars, and the evolution of molecular clouds and hence may greatly influence the star and planet formation process. As the far-UV luminosity of the galaxy is dominated by later type B stars rather than O stars, understanding the interaction of B stars with nearby molecular clouds is key. However, for the majority of the PDRs -- those associated with lower mass B stars -- the photo-evaporation process and its relation with star formation are not well studied. Here, we propose a velocity-resolved study of the [CII] line at 158 micron with the GREAT spectrometer on board of SOFIA to study the dynamical interaction of the B2V star HD 39703 and the B0.5IVe star gamma Cas with the molecular cloud they illuminate. These regions are well-studied over a wide-wavelength range and have been observed by Spitzer/IRS in spectral mapping and Herschel/PACS in both photometry and line-mapping (cooling lines, CO). The goal of this combined SOFIA/Herschel/Spitzer study is to address the kinematic characteristics of the interaction of these two stars with the molecular cloud, determine the mass loss rate, and assess their role in triggering star formation in the PDR. In this way, we can assess the role of evaporation flows driven by early B stars in the evolution of molecular clouds.

  15. Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Cool stars edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.

    2013-02-01

    ASTRAL is a project to create high-resolution, high-S/N UV (1150-3200 Å) atlases of bright stars utilizing {HST}/STIS. During Cycle 18 (2010-2011), eight cool star targets were observed, including key objects like Procyon and Betelgeuse, churning through 146 orbits in the process. The new spectral atlases are publically available through the project website. Data were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  16. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  17. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  18. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  19. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. II - The pre-main-sequence G star HDE 283572

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Brown, A.; Linsky, J. L.; Rydgren, A. E.; Vrba, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the detection of HDE 283572, a ninth-magnitude G star 8 arcmin south of RY Tau, as a bright X-ray source. The observations reveal this object to be a fairly massive (about 2 solar masses) pre-main-sequence star associated with the Taurus-Auriga star formation complex. It exhibits few of the characteristics of the classical T Tauri stars and is a good example of a 'naked' T Tauri star. The star is a mid-G subgiant, of about three solar radii and rotates with a period of 1.5 d. The coronal and chromospheric surface fluxes are similar to those of the most active late type stars (excluding T Tauri stars). The X-ray and UV lines most likely arise in different atmospheric structures. Radiative losses are some 1000 times the quiet solar value and compare favorably with those of T Tauri stars.

  20. UV Completion of Axion

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kang-Sin

    2008-11-23

    A multiple number of global U(1)s, arising from accidental symmetries up to a certain order of the potential, enjoy lowering the axion decay constant from UV-scale and evading supersymmetric Fayet-Illiopoulos term constraints.

  1. Local character of the highest antiferromagnetic temperature of Ce systems in Sc-rich CeTi1 -xScxGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-05-01

    The highest antiferromagnetic (AFM) temperature in Ce based compounds has been reported for CeScGe with TN=47 K , but its local or itinerant nature has not been deeply investigated yet. In order to shed more light into this unusually high ordering temperature we have investigated structural, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of CeTi1 -xScxGe alloys within the range of stability of the CeScSi-type structure: 0.25 ≤x ≤1 . Along this concentration range, this strongly anisotropic system presents a complex magnetic phase diagram with a continuous modification of its magnetic behavior, from ferromagnetism for 0.25 ≤x ≤0.50 (with 7 K≤TC≤16 K ) to AFM for 0.60 ≤x ≤1 (with 19 K≤TN≤47 K ). The onset of the AFM phase is associated to a metamagnetic transition with a critical field increasing from Hcr=0 at x ≈0.55 to ≈6 T at x =1 , coincident with an increasing contribution of the first excited crystal electric field doublet. At a critical point xcr≈0.65 a second transition appears at TL≤TN . In contrast to observations in itinerant systems like CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2 , no evidences for significant hybridization of the 4 f electrons at large Sc contents were found. Therefore, the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe can be attributed to an increasing Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between Ce double layers as Sc content grows.

  2. UV Signature Mutations †

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  3. UV eclipse observations of CI Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michalitsianos, A. G.; Kafatos, M.; Stencel, R. E.; Boiarchuk, A. A.

    1982-01-01

    Low spectral resolution observations were obtained with the IUE during the eclipse phase. Additional data obtained by other IUE groups have been included in the eclipse observations, making it possible to examine the UV spectral properties of CI Cyg over nearly an entire orbit which spans early 1979 through mid 1981. Data obtained over this period suggest an overall decline in UV emission, consistent with the decline of optical emission following the outburst of 1975. The short-wavelength spectrum 1200-2000 A is characterized by numerous intense high-excitation emission lines which become more prominent out of eclipse. The LWR wavelength range 2000-3200 A exhibits a few more additional lines of O III, Mg II, and He II which are superimposed on continuum that rises gradually with increasing wavelength. The observations are consistent with a binary star model which involves mass transfer from the extended cool envelope of the primary to the compact secondary.

  4. STATISTICAL PROPERTIES OF GALACTIC {delta} SCUTI STARS: REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.-W.; Kim, D.-W.; Byun, Y.-I.; Protopapas, P. E-mail: kim@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2013-05-15

    We present statistical characteristics of 1578 {delta} Scuti stars including nearby field stars and cluster member stars within the Milky Way. We obtained 46% of these stars (718 stars) from work by Rodriguez and collected the remaining 54% of stars (860 stars) from other literature. We updated the entries with the latest information of sky coordinates, color, rotational velocity, spectral type, period, amplitude, and binarity. The majority of our sample is well characterized in terms of typical period range (0.02-0.25 days), pulsation amplitudes (<0.5 mag), and spectral types (A-F type). Given this list of {delta} Scuti stars, we examined relations between their physical properties (i.e., periods, amplitudes, spectral types, and rotational velocities) for field stars and cluster members, and confirmed that the correlations of properties are not significantly different from those reported in Rodriguez's work. All the {delta} Scuti stars are cross-matched with several X-ray and UV catalogs, resulting in 27 X-ray and 41 UV-only counterparts. These counterparts are interesting targets for further study because of their uniqueness in showing {delta} Scuti-type variability and X-ray/UV emission at the same time. The compiled catalog can be accessed through the Web interface http://stardb.yonsei.ac.kr/DeltaScuti.

  5. The UV limits of life on extrasolar planets: an experiment with halophile archaeabacteria at different UV doses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrevaya, X. C.; Adamo, H. P.; Cortó N, E.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Terrestial-type planets around M stars are proposed as feasible places for development of life as we know it. Nevertheless many dMe stars emit large amounts of UV radiation during flares and it is unknown if these events could be deleterious for life. Since terrestrial biological systems are particularly vulnerable to this kind of radiation, this fact could set a limit for habitability. Organisms as halophile archaeabacteria were found in ancient evaporites on Earth. Evaporites have been detected in Martian meteorites, so these organisms are proposed as plausible inhabitants of Mars-like planets or other extrasolar planets. We examine the effect of UV-C on the halophile archaea Natrialba magadii. Results show that these organisms are able to survive at the UV doses tested.

  6. Deep UV Luminosity Functions at the Infall Region of the Coma Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, D. M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Salim, S.; Smith, R.; Jenkins, L.; Mobasher, B.; Miller, N.; Ferguson, H.

    2011-01-01

    We have used deep GALEX observations at the infall region of the Coma cluster to measure the faintest UV luminosity functions (LFs) presented for a rich galaxy cluster thus far. The Coma UV LFs are measured to M(sub uv) = -10.5 in the GALEX FUV and NUV bands, or 3.5 mag fainter than previous studies, and reach the dwarf early-type galaxy population in Coma for the first time. The Schechter faint-end slopes (alpha approximately equal to -1.39 in both GALEX bands) are shallower than reported in previous Coma UV LF studies owing to a flatter LF at faint magnitudes. A Gaussian-plus-Schechter model provides a slightly better parametrization of the UV LFs resulting in a faint-end slope of alpha approximately equal to -1.15 in both GALEX bands. The two-component model gives faint-end slopes shallower than alpha = -1 (a turnover) for the LFs constructed separately for passive and star forming galaxies. The UV LFs for star forming galaxies show a turnover at M(sub UV) approximately equal to -14 owing to a deficit of dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma with stellar masses below M(sub *) = 10(sup 8) solar mass. A similar turnover is identified in recent UV LFs measured for the Virgo cluster suggesting this may be a common feature of local galaxy clusters, whereas the field UV LFs continue to rise at faint magnitudes. We did not identify an excess of passive galaxies as would be expected if the missing dwarf star forming galaxies were quenched inside the cluster. In fact, the LFs for both dwarf passive and star forming galaxies show the same turnover at faint magnitudes. We discuss the possible origin of the missing dwarf star forming galaxies in Coma and their expected properties based on comparisons to local field galaxies.

  7. A Type Stars as Probes of the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrero, R. F.; Ferlet, R.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim to sample the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it was proposed to use A stars as targets. The Mg II UV lines seem to be the best interstellar absorption candidates. Several hundreths of A stars can be reached within 100 pc. First preliminary results (20 lines of sight) are presented, based on previous Copernicus and actual IUE observations.

  8. Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope photometry of massive stars - The OB association NGC 206 in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Isensee, Joan E.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Neff, Susan G.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) obtained UV images of the giant M31 OB association NGC 206. Magnitudes in bands at 1520 and 2490 A were obtained for 30 massive stars, which demonstrate the effectiveness of UIT for photometry of moderately crowded hot stars to V about 21. The UV colors and magnitudes observed for stars in NGC 206 place them in the region of the color magnitude diagram occupied by evolutionary models for 30-60 solar mass stars, after correcting for extinction. The brighter stars are systematically redder than the fainter stars, indicating that they are supergiants of age about 4 Myr, while the fainter, bluer stars are nearer age zero. The relative numbers of probable supergiants measured by us and the number of probable main-sequence O stars measured from optical images are in agreement with the relative lifetimes. Calculated UIT colors are presented for a library of standard star spectra constructed from IUE and ground-based observations.

  9. Limits of detection in debris disks around young stars with NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.

    2014-09-01

    To understand the formation and evolution of solar systems and planets formations in the stars neighbourhood, we need to obtain information of their state at different time of their evolution. Here, we focus on debris disks around young stars aged of ten to few tens of Myr, we analyze NaCo/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM) observations in the L' band (3.8 μm) of eight objects (beta Pictoris, AU Mic, 49 Ceti, eta Tel, Fomalhaut, G Lupi, HD182327 and HR8799). The aim is to get limits of detection about the mass of the debris orbiting around their stars. The SAM technique consists in transforming a single telescope into a Fizeau interferometer using a non redundant mask inserted in a pupil plane of the instrument. The analysis of the observations was completed with the sparse aperture mode pipeline. Interference fringes are fitted to obtain complex visibilities of the object, then the closure phases are calibrated and evaluated. Finally, a map of the detection limits is obtained as it is related to the closure phases previously estimated. In order to obtain an estimation of the mass corresponding to the luminosity measured with the reduction pipeline we are using theoretical isochrones interpolated into synthetic color tables. The results are maps of detection limits in unit of Jupiter Mass in a range of up to 450 mas around the stars.

  10. UV filters for hair protection.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, P; Giesen, M; Hollenberg, D; Hubbuch, M; Kalhöfer, V; Maier, H E; Martin, V; Münzing, H P; Oelschläger, T; Schwan, A; Sperling, K; Tennigkeit, J

    1993-10-01

    Synopsis Hair damage, caused by sunlight, and the possibility to protect hair against sunlight by means of cosmetic formulations was studied. For this, five UV-filters were tested: benzophenone-3 (UV-A/UV-B); benzophenone-4 (UV-A/UV-B); phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (UV-B); butylmethoxydibenzoylmethane (UV-A); octyl dimethyl PABA (UV-B). The stability of the UV-filters was tested as pure substances as well as in two cosmetic formulations: a setting lotion and a shine spray. The degree of decolouration and stress strain behaviour were determined. The benzophenones had the best protection ability both on colour and on morphology. Stability data and UV-spectra are discussed.

  11. Ultraviolet photometry with the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite /ANS/ - Faint blue stars in the halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Wesselius, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Blue stars at high galactic latitudes have been observed with the UV telescope on board ANS. In this paper a subset of the collected data pertaining to the cooler stars is discussed. Most of them have energy distributions in general agreement with the visual spectral type. One star is exceptionally blue, and of seven possible horizontal-branch stars, two have UV energy distributions distinct from main-sequence stars in the sense that they have an excess at 1550 A and a large Balmer jump.

  12. STARS no star on Kauai

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem.

  13. UV Observations of the Galaxy Cluster Abell 1795 with the Optical Monitor on XMM-Newton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittaz, J. P. D.; Kaastra, J. S.; Tamura, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Mushotzky, F.; Peterson, J. R.; Ikebe, Y.; Lumb, D. H.; Paerels, F.; Stewart, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of broad band UV observations of the central regions of Abell 1795 observed with the optical monitor on XMM-Newton. As have been found with other UV observations of the central regions of clusters of galaxies, we find evidence for star formation. However, we also find evidence for absorption in the cD galaxy on a more extended scale than has been seen with optical imaging. We also report the first UV observation of part of the filamentary structure seen in H-alpha, X-rays and very deep U band imaging. The part of the filament we see is very blue with UV colours consistent with a very early (O/B) stellar population. This is the first direct evidence of a dominant population of early type stars at the centre of Abell 1795 and implies very recent star formation. The relationship of this emission to emission at other wavebands is discussed.

  14. Degradation of antipyrine by UV, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chaoqun; Gao, Naiyun; Deng, Yang; Zhang, Yongji; Sui, Minghao; Deng, Jing; Zhou, Shiqing

    2013-09-15

    Degradation of antipyrine (AP) in water by three UV-based photolysis processes (i.e., direct UV, UV/H₂O₂, UV/persulfate (UV/PS)) was studied. For all the oxidation processes, the AP decomposition exhibited a pseudo-first-order kinetics pattern. Generally, UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS significantly improved the degradation rate relevant to UV treatment alone. The pseudo-first-order degradation rate constants (kobs) were, to different degrees, affected by initial AP concentration, oxidant dose, pH, UV irradiation intensity, and co-existing chemicals such as humic acid, chloride, bicarbonate, carbonate and nitrate. The three oxidation processes followed the order in terms of treatment costs: UV/PS>UV>UV/H₂O₂ if the energy and chemical costs are considered. Finally, the AP degradation pathways in the UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS processes are proposed. Results demonstrated that UV/H₂O₂ and UV/PS are potential alternatives to control water pollution caused by emerging contaminants such as AP. PMID:23892168

  15. Integrated UV fluxes and the HB morphology of Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, W. B.; Catelan, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pereira, D.; Stecher, T. P.

    2001-12-01

    The UV ( ~ 1500 Å) flux of a globular cluster will be dominated by its blue horizontal branch (HB) population, provided that such a population is present. Thus, the integrated UV - V color of a globular cluster can provide an indication of its HB morphology, without the need to resolve the cluster into a color-magnitude diagram. To date, UV photometry of extragalactic clusters are available for only a few globulars in M31 (e.g. Bohlin et al. 1993, ApJ, 417, 127), but additional UV photometry of extragalactic globulars is soon expected from GALEX (Yi et al. 2001, AAS, 198, 5501), and from STIS FUV-MAMA observations of M87 (HST program 8643). Here we calibrate the relation between UV flux and HB morphology for Galactic globular clusters. The OAO-2 and ANS data tabulated by deBoer (1985, A&A, 142, 321) are supplemented with photometry of 14 globular clusters observed with the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT), and a few cluster cores observed with the STIS FUV-MAMA. The UIT data is especially useful since its 40' diameter FOV was sufficient to completely encompass most of the observed clusters, while allowing isolation of hot field and UV-bright stars. We compare the observed Galactic UV color - HB morphology relation with synthetic HB models as a function of age and metallicity. We also estimate the effect of radiative levitation of heavy metals in hot HB stars (e.g. Moehler et al. 2000, , A&A, 360, 120) on the integrated UV flux. This work is funded by STScI grant GO-8358.01.

  16. Highly ionized stellar winds in Be stars. II - Winds in B6-B9.5e stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Sonneborn, George; Bjorkman, K. S.; Snow, T. P.; Shore, Steven N.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a UV survey of stellar winds and circumstellar shells in 40 B6-B9.5e stars covering luminosity classes V-III are presented. A graph is presented of the region from 1520-1560 A, which includes both the Si II UV multiplet 2 transitions and the C IV resonance transition for selected Be stars in the sample. The detection of shortward-shifted discrete component absorption features in nine of the program stars suggests that the material is produced in a stellar wind, which attains velocities of at least a few hundred km/s.

  17. Really Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    ), very blue and very hot, with surface temperatures of a few tens of thousands of degrees. Another property of these exceptional stars is their very strong stellar winds: they continuously eject energetic particles - like the "solar wind" from the Sun - but some 10 to 1000 million times more intensely than our star! These powerful winds exert an enormous pressure on the surrounding interstellar material and forcefully shape those clouds into "bubbles". These photos have now provided the astronomers with sufficient information to understand exactly what is going on in three of those unusual nebulae - while one case still remains ambiguous. The nebulae around BAT99-2, BAT99-49 and AB7 BAT99-2 (cf. PR Photo 09b/03) is one of the hottest WR-stars known in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Before this star reached this phase of its short life, the strong stellar wind from its progenitor O-type star swept the interstellar medium and created a "bubble", much like a snowplough pushes aside the snow on a road. Part of this "bubble" can still be seen as a large half-ring to the south of the star. When the star did become a WR, the increasingly intense stellar wind impacted on the material previously ejected from the star. This created a new bubble, now visible as a small arc-like structure to the north-west of the star. We are appparently witnessing an ongoing merger of these two bubbles. With its strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, BAT99-2 is strongly heating its immediate surroundings, in particular the above mentioned arc-like feature that, due to the resulting high excitation, is seen as a violet-pink region in the colour image. The entire field is very complex - the presence of a supernova remnant (SNR) is revealed by a few faint red filaments rather close to the high excitation nebula, to the north-west of the arc-like structure. AB7 (PR Photo 09a/03) and BAT99-49 (PR Photo 09c/03) are both binary stars, consisting of one WR-star and a companion O-type star. Like in the case

  18. A Spectral Atlas of lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of lambda Bootes stars, a permanent confusion about their classification can be found in literature. This group of non-magnetic, Population I, metal-poor A to F-type stars, has often been used as some sort of trash can for "exotic" and spectroscopically dubious objects. Some attempts have been made to establish a homogeneous group of stars which share the same common properties. Unfortunately, the flood of "new" information (e.g. UV and IR data) led again to a whole zoo of objects classified as lambda Bootes stars, which, however, are apparent non-members. To overcome this unsatisfying situation, a spectral atlas of well established lambda Bootes stars for the classical optical domain was compiled. It includes intermediate dispersion (40 and 120 Å mm^{-1}) spectra of three lambda Bootes, as well as appropriate MK standard stars. Furthermore, "suspicious" objects, such as shell and Field Horizontal Branch stars, have been considered in order to provide to classifiers a homogeneous reference. As a further step, a high resolution (8 Å mm^{-1}) spectrum of one "classical" lambda Bootes star in the same wavelength region (3800-4600 Å) is presented. In total, 55 lines can be used for this particular star to derive detailed abundances for nine heavy elements (Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Sr and Ba).

  19. Are You UV Safe?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda; Thiel, Elizabeth Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Students may be slathered with SPF 30 sunscreen all summer at the beach or pool, but what do they know about ultraviolet (UV) light radiation and absorption? The authors of this article found the perfect opportunity to help students find out the science behind this important health precaution, when they developed a series of practical strategies…

  20. T Tauri stars observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-12-01

    Darryl Sergison (University of Exeter) has requested AAVSO assistance with a campaign he is carrying out on five T Tauri stars. This study is the one for which AAVSO observers carried out a preliminary campaign last year (see Alert Notice 473 and Special Notice #306). The star list is revised and expanded from last year's list of targets. This campaign will run from now at least through the end of the 2013-2014 observing season. This is part of an on-going study into the nature of pre-main-sequence low mass stars, using time series optical spectroscopy and UV-Visual-IR photometry and offers a great opportunity for professional-amateur collaboration as the objects (with V magnitudes of 10-13) are well within the reach of photometry by small telescopes. Amateur observations are uniquely useful in the study of chaotically variable young stars as they offer crucial datapoints in the light curve between observations made by professional telescopes. Targets are BP Tau, DN Tau, V827 Tau, V1068 Tau, and V1264 Tau. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and instructions.

  1. Hot Companions and Warm Disks Around Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    Almost all stars in the Universe end their lives quietly, evolving through the Red Giant Branch (RGB), Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), and planetary nebula (PN) evolutionary phases. Single-star evolutionary models tell us that most stars that leave the main sequence in less than a Hubble time will end their lives in this way, but will induce profound effects on their environment. The heavy mass loss which they experience at the end of their lives fundamentally affect their evolution, and makes them the main suppliers of dust and gas enriched by nucleosynthesis to the general interstellar medium (ISM). But our overall understanding of the late evolution of these stars are based on single-star models, when it is well-known that most stars begin their lives in binary systems, and binarity can drastically affect both mass-loss and late stellar evolution. The study of binarity in systems with low and intermediate-mass evolved stars can yield crucial information regarding the initial mass function near the bottom of the main-sequence and below, and the long-term stability and suvivability of low-mass objects in orbit around post-AGB stars.We propose a 3-year study which investigates binarity in two important classes of stars: AGB stars and dwarf carbon (dC) stars (and CH star: the immediate post-main sequence counterparts of dC stars), primarily using the GALEX and WISE databases. Direct observational evidence for binarity in AGB stars is of fundamental importance, but a huge challenge because of their high luminosities compared to their companions; only in the UV bands (observed with GALEX) there is a strong potential for finding the companions. The existence of dC stars has long been a mystery as carbon can only be produced in AGB stars -- it is believed that dC stars are normal dwarfs stars that became C-rich due to mass-transfer from a companion when it was a C-rich AGB star (but is now a white dwarf). The detection of a statistical sample of such objects in the UV

  2. UV extinction and IR emission in diffuse H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, Per A.

    1994-01-01

    During this period, much work was spent in an attempt to use theoretical UV line indices as a basis for spectral calibration of the program stars. Five line indices are shown as functions of effective temperature and log g, calculated with the spectral synthesis programs of Kurucz. Open stars and circles are observed values from Fanelli et al., using the spectral class-effective temperature calibration of Schmidt-Kaler. We conclude that these line indices may be used to determine an effective stellar temperature, but with uncertainties of approximately a few thousand degrees. Also, for the hotter stars, theoretical line opacities are systematically low compared to observations. We have also found that Kurucz's new models appear to represent hot stars very well, even at far-UV wavelengths. This is shown in an example where two spectra of mu Col (spectral class 09.5 V) are compared to a synthetic spectrum for T(sub eff) = 33,000 K, log g = 4.0. Also shown (uppermost curve) is an empirical estimate of the intrinsic flux distribution for 09.5 V stars from Papaj, Wegner, and Krelowski.

  3. Precision radial-velocity measurements on bright Sun-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Vaibhav; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Roy, Arpita; Dongre, Varun

    We at PRL have initiated for the first time in India an Exoplanet search program using the precision Radial Velocity (RV) technique. The program is called PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search) and consists of a high resolution, optical fiber-fed, cross-dispersed, Echelle spectrograph. The spectrograph works at a resolution (R) of 67000, in the wavelength range of 3700 Å -- 8400 Å and is coupled with the PRL Mt. Abu 1.2~m telescope. We present here time series RV measurements on RV standard stars like sigma Draconics, 47 UMa and tau Ceti at 2 to sub-2m/s precision. Thus, in principle PARAS can detect exoplanets of masses down to 10 Earth mass at 0.1AU distances or less around 1 to 0.5 Solar Mass stars. Since many of the bright G and K dwarfs are yet to be surveyed at sub-2m/s RV precision at high cadence, this opens up new science opportunities for highly stabilized high resolution spectrographs like PARAS attached to 1m-class telescopes. The PARAS echelle spectrograph is installed in a temperature controlled chamber (0.03C rms at 25C) and inside a vacuum vessel for both temperature and pressure stability.

  4. Subdwarf B and O Stars: Which Evolutionary Pathways?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiwotzki, R.

    2009-03-01

    Hot subdwarf stars (spectral types subdwarf B and O) are long lived stars producing a large amount of UV radiation. This makes them excellent candidates to explain the UV radiation observed in old populations. However, the origin of both classes of hot subdwarfs is unclear. I review possible single star and binary channels. High resolution observations of hot subdwarfs taken in the course of the Supernova type Ia Progenitor surveY (SPY) are presented. The SPY observations are used for a systematic assessment of the frequency of close binaries among hot subdwarfs. Results are a high binary fraction among the subdwarf B stars - albeit not as high as in a previous investigation, but a very low binary frequency in helium-rich hot subdwarf O stars. Implications for the evolutionary status of hot subdwarfs are discussed.

  5. UV curable materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.G.

    1996-12-01

    Adhesives, coatings, and inks were selected for evaluation based on literature search and possible production applications. A differential photocalorimeter was used to measure degree of cure and allow prediction of optimum processing conditions. UV cure equipment were characterized and the ability to size equipment to specific materials cure needs established. Adhesion tests procedures were developed for the adhesives and solvent resistance testing procedures developed for the coatings and inks.

  6. Star quality.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-09-20

    Around 150 wards are participating in the voluntary Star Wards scheme to provide mental health inpatients with more activities with therapeutic value. Suggested activities range from a library, to horse riding Internet access and comedy. Service users are particularly keen to have more exercise, which can be a challenge in inpatient settings. PMID:17970387

  7. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  8. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  9. Near-simultaneous ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Robert W.; Herbig, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    A set of near-simultaneous ultraviolet and optical spectra and UBVR(J)I(J) photometry of five T Tauri stars has been analyzed for the shape of the energy distribution shortward of 3000 A. The far-ultraviolet continua of these stars are very much stronger than the level of light scattered from longer wavelengths in the IUE spectrograph. The results, expressed as two-color plots, show that the UV colors of T Tauri stars differ significantly from those expected from their optical spectral types. Although these particular K-type T Tauri stars are not extreme members of the class, they have the UV colors of A stars. The spectral shape of this UV excess is approximately that expected from published chromospheric models of T Tauri stars.

  10. Transverse effects in UV FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Small, D.W.; Wong, R.K.; Colson, W.B.

    1995-12-31

    In an ultraviolet Free Electron Laser (UV FEL), the electron beam size can be approximately the same as the optical mode size. The performance of a UV FEL is studied including the effect of emittance, betatron focusing, and external focusing of the electron beam on the transverse optical mode. The results are applied to the Industrial Laser Consortium`s UV FEL.

  11. Standardization of UV LED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Larason, T. C.; Yoon, H. W.

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally used source spectral-distribution or detector spectral-response based standards cannot be applied for accurate UV LED measurements. Since the CIE standardized rectangular-shape spectral response function for UV measurements cannot be realized with small spectral mismatch when using filtered detectors, the UV measurement errors can be several times ten percent or larger. The UV LEDs produce broadband radiation and both their peaks or spectral bandwidths can change significantly. The detectors used for the measurement of these LEDs also have different spectral bandwidths. In the discussed example, where LEDs with 365 nm peak are applied for fluorescent crack-recognition using liquid penetrant (non-destructive) inspection, the broadband radiometric LED (signal) measurement procedure is standardized. A UV LED irradiance-source was calibrated against an FEL lamp standard to determine its spectral irradiance. The spectral irradiance responsivity of a reference UV meter was also calibrated. The output signal of the reference UV meter was calculated from the spectral irradiance of the UV source and the spectral irradiance responsivity of the reference UV meter. From the output signal, both the integrated irradiance (in the reference plane of the reference meter) and the integrated responsivity of the reference meter were determined. Test UV meters calibrated for integrated responsivity against the reference UV meter, can be used to determine the integrated irradiance from a field UV source. The obtained 5 % (k=2) measurement uncertainty can be decreased when meters with spectral response close to a constant value are selected.

  12. Enhanced UV inactivation of adenoviruses under polychromatic UV lamps.

    PubMed

    Linden, Karl G; Thurston, Jeanette; Schaefer, Raymond; Malley, James P

    2007-12-01

    Adenovirus is recognized as the most UV-resistant waterborne pathogen of concern to public health microbiologists. The U.S. EPA has stipulated that a UV fluence (dose) of 186 mJ cm(-2) is required for 4-log inactivation credit in water treatment. However, all adenovirus inactivation data to date published in the peer-reviewed literature have been based on UV disinfection experiments using UV irradiation at 253.7 nm produced from a conventional low-pressure UV source. The work reported here presents inactivation data for adenovirus based on polychromatic UV sources and details the significant enhancement in inactivation achieved using these polychromatic sources. When full-spectrum, medium-pressure UV lamps were used, 4-log inactivation of adenovirus type 40 is achieved at a UV fluence of less than 60 mJ cm(-2) and a surface discharge pulsed UV source required a UV fluence of less than 40 mJ cm(-2). The action spectrum for adenovirus type 2 was also developed and partially explains the improved inactivation based on enhancements at wavelengths below 230 nm. Implications for water treatment, public health, and the future of UV regulations for virus disinfection are discussed. PMID:17933932

  13. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Star formation and extinction in the M51 system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M51 with up to 15 arcsec resolution were obtained by a rocket-borne telescope. The bandwidth was 970 A with maximum response at 2650 A. The two most prominent features of M51 in the UV are the bright central region and a region of intense star formation about 2.5 NE of the nucleus toward the companion NGC 5195. This complex is the source of 20 percent of the total UV flux in M51. The companion is much less prominent in the UV than in optical bands. Spiral arms show much higher contrast in UV and U bands than in the R band. The nuclear region in the UV band shows clumped emission from probable star-forming regions, possibly associated with the inner Lindblad resonance. These regions are probably the UV counterparts of FIR sources discovered in an EW scan across the nucleus. UV/U colors of most bright H II regions with known extinction are consistent with O star spectra reddened by amounts estimated from radio and Balmer line measurements. However, some of the brightest H II regions have redder UV/U colors, probably indicating the presence of cooler stars which contribute in the U band. CO and IR observations indicate that the companion NGC 5195 may be a reddened starburst in spite of its faintness in the UV.

  14. UV Emission in Type Ia Supernova Elliptical Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Brad E.

    2015-03-01

    The current use of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) as standard candles is to measure the dark energy equation-of-state to better than 10%. However, we still lack a clear understanding of their progenitor systems. We analyze the host galaxies of type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) discovered by the ESSENCE survey using UV and optical data, as studying the environments of SN Ia is a great way to understand the progenitors. We developed a new method for determining the SED and rest-frame magnitudes of the host galaxies and we use empirical relations to derive stellar mass and star-formation rate (SFR) measurements of the host galaxies. We find a high rate of UV emission in our passive galaxies, suggesting current star-formation in these galaxies.

  15. IUE observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, M.

    1982-01-01

    The main photometric and spectroscopic characteristics in the ultraviolet and visual range of the most extensively studied symbiotic stars are reviewed. The main data obtained with IUE concern: (1) the determination of the shape of the UV continuum, which, in some cases, proves without doubt the presence of a hot companion; and the determination of the interstellar extinction by means of the lambda 2200 feature; (2) the measurement of emission lines, which enables us to derive the electron temperature and density of the circumstellar envelope, and, taken together with those lines observed in the visual, give more complete information on which spectroscopic mechanisms operate in the envelope; (3) the observation of absorption lines in the UV, which are present in just a few cases.

  16. When the UV Unveils the Largest Spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eufrasio, Rafael T.; De Mello, D. F.; Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Dwek, E.

    2013-01-01

    We used archival data GALEX (FUV and NUV), VLT (UBVRI), 2MASS (J,H,K), and Spitzer (IRAC) to investigate the nature of the giant spiral galaxy, NGC 6872, 65 Mpc away. It belongs to the southern Pavo group and is interacting with a small lenticular galaxy, IC4970. GALEX UV images show a very large part of the galaxy not seen before, making it one of the largest spiral galaxies known, with physical size greater than 150 kpc. We have convolved all the images to the same 5.3” FHWM spatial resolution, reprojected them to the same astrometric grid (pixel size of 1.0”) and obtained SED for each pixel. Photometry was performed across the galaxy in circular apertures with diameters of 32”(or 10 kpc at 65 Mpc). When the SEDs are normalized by the 4.5 micron fluxes, the FUV and NUV fluxes span a wide range of a thousand, while the main properties of the normalized SEDs are almost unchanged from the R band to 4.5 micron. We also find an intriguing symmetry between regions in the southwestern and the northeastern arms having nearly identical SEDs. Furthermore, we estimated the metallicity of 12 areas using multi-object spectra taken with Gemini GMOS and we find no clear signature of metallicity gradient, trend supported by numerical simulations (Rupke el at. 2010). As proposed by Mihos et al. (1993) and Horellou & Koribalski (2007), NGC 6872 suffered a major collision with IC 4970 around 130 Myr ago. Our results are consistent with a global mixing of the pre-collision stellar population all over the disk of NGC 6872 at the epoch of the collision and a consequent star formation propagation to the outskirts of the galaxy. This mixing may have contributed to triggering star formation, in agreement with what was predicted by Bastian et al. (2005). The last 40kpc of the northeastern arm is UV-brighter than any region in the other arm, having the youngest population and least contamination of pre-collision stars thrown there by the encounter. There is also a strong UV source at

  17. Electron stars for holographic metallic criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Tavanfar, Alireza

    2011-02-15

    We refer to the ground state of a gravitating, charged ideal fluid of fermions held at a finite chemical potential as an ''electron star.'' In a holographic setting, electron stars are candidate gravity duals for strongly interacting finite fermion density systems. We show how electron stars develop an emergent Lifshitz scaling at low energies. This IR scaling region is a consequence of the two-way interaction between emergent quantum critical bosonic modes and the finite density of fermions. By integrating from the IR region to an asymptotically AdS{sub 4} spacetime, we compute basic properties of the electron stars, including their electrical conductivity. We emphasize the challenge of connecting UV and IR physics in strongly interacting finite density systems.

  18. Chemical abundances in Hg-Mn stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacox, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    An abundance analysis has been conducted of 21 elements in 21 Hg-Mn, two Si-Cr, and six normal stars using model atmospheres and high-dispersion spectroscopy in the visible and UV. Manganese line strengths imply abundances that correlate well with stellar effective temperature. Within the studied sample of Hg-Mn stars there appears to be no correlation of abundances of any element with projected rotational velocity. Abundances in several Hg-Mn stars show patterns that are probably consistent with diffusion but difficult to reconcile with equilibrium nucleosynthesis. In general, no combination of gross stellar physical parameters is sufficient to characterize the patterns of line strengths observed in Hg-Mb Hg-Mn stars.

  19. UV radiation and the skin.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, John; Jarrett, Stuart; Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Scott, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation (UV) is classified as a "complete carcinogen" because it is both a mutagen and a non-specific damaging agent and has properties of both a tumor initiator and a tumor promoter. In environmental abundance, UV is the most important modifiable risk factor for skin cancer and many other environmentally-influenced skin disorders. However, UV also benefits human health by mediating natural synthesis of vitamin D and endorphins in the skin, therefore UV has complex and mixed effects on human health. Nonetheless, excessive exposure to UV carries profound health risks, including atrophy, pigmentary changes, wrinkling and malignancy. UV is epidemiologically and molecularly linked to the three most common types of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, which together affect more than a million Americans annually. Genetic factors also influence risk of UV-mediated skin disease. Polymorphisms of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene, in particular, correlate with fairness of skin, UV sensitivity, and enhanced cancer risk. We are interested in developing UV-protective approaches based on a detailed understanding of molecular events that occur after UV exposure, focusing particularly on epidermal melanization and the role of the MC1R in genome maintenance. PMID:23749111

  20. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  1. Characterizing Pale Blue Dots Around FGKM Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, S.; Kaltenegger, L.; Sasselov, D. D.; Segura, A.

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet characterization of small rocky worlds will be a main focus in the coming decades. For future telescopes like JWST and UVOIR/HDST, an exoplanet's host star will influence our ability to detect and interpret spectral features, including biosignatures. We present a complete suit of stellar models and a grid of model atmospheres for Earth-like planets at equivalent stages of geological evolution in their HZ for stellar effective temperature from Teff = 2300K to 7000K, sampling the entire FGKM stellar type range. Since M dwarfs are simultaneously the most numerous in the universe, the most active, and the most likely stars to host terrestrial exoplanets, we focus in particular on the range of UV emission possible in each sub M spectral class. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features of the planet. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by HST and IUE we model the effect of stellar activity on Earth-like planets. We also model the amount of UV flux reaching the surface for Earth-like planets at various geological epochs ranging from a pre-biotic world through the rise of oxygen and for Earth-like planets orbiting FGKM stars at equivalent stages of evolution. When modeling the remotely detectable spectra of these planets we focus on the primary detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O and CH3Cl. We model the emergent as well as transit spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting our grid of FGKM stars in the VIS/NIR (0.4 - 4 μm) and the IR (5 - 20 μm) range as input for future missions like JWST and concepts like UVOIR/HDST.

  2. Characterizing Pale Blue Dots Around FGKM Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugheimer, Sarah; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Sasselov, Dimitar; Segura, Antigona

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet characterization of small rocky worlds will be a main focus in the coming decades. For future telescopes like JWST and UVOIR/HDST, an exoplanet’s host star will influence our ability to detect and interpret spectral features, including biosignatures. We present a complete suit of stellar models and a grid of model atmospheres for Earth-like planets at equivalent stages of geological evolution in their HZ for stellar effective temperature from Teff = 2300K to 7000K, sampling the entire FGKM stellar type range. Since M dwarfs are simultaneously the most numerous in the universe, the most active, and the most likely stars to host terrestrial exoplanets, we focus in particular on the range of UV emission possible in each sub M spectral class. The UV emission from a planet's host star dominates the photochemistry and thus the resultant observable spectral features of the planet. Using the latest UV spectra obtained by HST and IUE we model the effect of stellar activity on Earth-like planets. We also model the amount of UV flux reaching the surface for Earth-like planets at various geological epochs ranging from a pre-biotic world through the rise of oxygen and for Earth-like planets orbiting FGKM stars at equivalent stages of evolution. When modeling the remotely detectable spectra of these planets we focus on the primary detectable atmospheric features that indicate habitability on Earth, namely: H2O, CO2, O3, CH4, N2O and CH3Cl. We model spectra of Earth-like planets orbiting our grid of FGKM stars in the VIS/NIR (0.4 - 4 μm) and the IR (5 - 20 μm) range as input for future missions and concepts like UVOIR/HDST and JWST.

  3. T Tauri stars observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2012-11-01

    Darryl Sergison (U. Exeter) requested AAVSO assistance with a campaign he is organizing on six T Tauri stars (RY Tau, DN Tau, DR Tau, and three to be announced). In September/October 2013 he and his Ph.D. supervisor Tim Naylor (U. Exeter) are undertaking a study into the nature of pre-main-sequence low mass stars, using time series optical spectroscopy and UV-Visual-IR photometry to build a clearer picture of the environment around young solar-type stars and characterize their various disc, accretion, and outflow structures. To begin building light curves in advance of the official study, visual observations and BVRcIc CCD photometry are requested from now through the 2013-2014 observing season at least. They are hoping to investigate periodicity for a range of phenomena on timescales of months to hours, so visual estimates ranging from monthly to twice in a night are requested. For photometry, low cadence is useful, higher cadence (hourly or long time series) is better! Spectroscopy is also requested, particularly around H-alpha (6563Å) if the resolution is greater than a few thousand. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  4. Hot Post-AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Gauba, G.; Fujii, T.; Nakada, Y.

    2001-08-01

    From the study of IRAS sources with far-IR colors similar to planetary nebulae (PNe), several proto-planetary nebulae with hot (OB) post-AGB central stars have been detected. These stars form an evolutionary link between the cooler G,F,A supergiant stars that have evolved off the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and the hot (OB) central stars of PNe. The optical spectra of these objects show strong Balmer emission lines and in some cases low excitation nebular emission lines such as [NII] and [SII] superposed on the OB stellar continuum. The absence of of [OIII] 5007Å line and the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines indicate that photoionisation has just started. The UV(IUE) spectra of some of these objects revealed violet shifted stellar wind P-Cygni profiles of CIV, SiIV and NV, indicating hot and fast stellar wind and post-AGB mass loss. These objects appear to be rapildy evolving into the early stages of PNe similar to that observed in the case of Hen1357 IRAS 17119-5926 (Stingray Nebula) and IRAS 18062+2410 SAO85766.

  5. Exceptional Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Hansen, B.; van Kerkwijk, M.; Phinney, E. S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of our Interdisciplinary Scientist effort (PI, Kulkarni) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) we proposed an investigation with SIM of a number of exceptional stars. With SIM we plan to observe dozens of nearby white dwarfs and search for planets surviving the evolution away from the main sequence as well as (newly formed) planets formed in the circumbinary disks of post-AGB binaries or as a result of white dwarf mergers. We propose to measure the proper motion of a sample of X-ray binaries and Be star binaries with the view of understanding the originof high latitude objects and inferring natal kicks and pre-supernova orbits. We plan to observe several compact object binaries to determine the mass of the compact star. Of particular importance is the proposed observation of SS 433 (for which we propose to use the spectrometer on SIM to measure the proper motion of the emission line clumps embedded in the relativistic jets). Separately we are investigating the issue of frame tie between SIM and the ecliptic frame (by observing binary millisecond pulsars with SIM; the position of these objects is very well determined by pulsar timing) and the degree to which highly precise visibility amplitude measurements can be inverted to infer binary parameters.

  6. Of-type stars HD 16691 and HD 190429 show WN-like spectra in infrared K band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Hanson, Margaret Murray; Morris, Patrick W.

    1995-01-01

    We present 2 micrometer K-band spectra of two early-type Of stars that have infrared emission-line morphology similar to that of WN stars. Archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra of these two stars indicate they appear to be Of type, rather than WN. Recently acquired optical spectra of these stars are quantitatively similar to that in the past, namely, Of attributes. We suggest that these two Of stars have stellar wind characteristics closer to WN type than other Of stars. We discuss the consequences for K-band classification of highly obscured hot stars that might not otherwise be visible in optical or UV wavelengths.

  7. The ultraviolet-bright stars of Omega Centauri, M3, and M13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne B.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Whitney, Jonathan H.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Hill, Robert S.; Maran, Stephen P.; Parise, Ronald A.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew A.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1992-01-01

    Two new UV-bright stars detected within 2 arcmin of the center of Omega Cen are spectroscopically investigated with the short-wavelength spectrograph of the IUE. The IUE spectra of the UV-bright stars UIT-1 and UIT-2 in the core of Omega Cen superficially resemble those of Population I mid-B stars. The absorption lines of the core UV-bright stars are significantly weaker than in Population I stars, consistent with their membership in the cluster. Synthetic spectra calculated from low-metallicity Kurucz model stellar atmospheres are compared with the spectra. These objects are insufficiently luminous to be classical hydrogen-burning post-AGB stars. They may be evolved hot horizontal branch stars which have been brightened by more than 3 mag since leaving the zero-age horizontal branch. It is inferred from the spectra and luminosity of the core UV-bright stars that similar objects could provide the source of the UV light in elliptical galaxies.

  8. Uvs Nuur, Mongolia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Uvs Nuur Basin in Mongolia and the Russian Federation is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, very important for migrating birds. Inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, the site is made up of twelve protected areas representing major biomes of eastern Eurasia. The steppe ecosystem supports a rich diversity of birds and the desert is home to a number of rare gerbil, jerboas and the marbled polecat. The mountains are an important refuge for the endangered snow leopard, mountain sheep, and the Asiatic ibex.

    The image covers an area of 46 x 47.8 km, was acquired on September 4, 2001, and is located near 50.3 degrees north latitude, 90.7 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Modelling the UV spectrum of SDSS-III/BOSS galaxies: hints towards the detection of the UV upturn at high-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Cras, Claire; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; York, Donald G.

    2016-09-01

    We exploit stellar population models of absorption line indices in the ultraviolet (from 2000 to 3200 Å) to study the spectra of massive galaxies. Our central aim is to investigate the occurrence at high redshift of the UV upturn, i.e. the increased UV emission due to old stars observed in massive galaxies and spiral bulges in the local Universe. We use a large (˜275 000) sample of z ˜ 0.6 massive (M*/M⊙ > 11.5) galaxies using both individual spectra and stacks and employ a suite of models including a UV contribution from old populations, spanning various effective temperatures, fuel consumptions and metallicities. We find that a subset of our indices; Mg I, Fe I, and BL3096, are able to differentiate between old and young UV ages. We find evidence for old stars contributing to the UV in massive galaxies, rather than star formation. The data favour models with low/medium upturn temperatures (10 000-25 000 K) consistent with local galaxies, depending on the assumed metallicity, and with a larger fuel (f ˜ 6.5× 10^{-2} {M}_{⊙}). Models with one typical temperature are favoured over models with a temperature range, which would be typical of an extended horizontal branch. Old UV-bright populations are found in the whole galaxy sample (92 per cent), with a mass fraction peaking around 20-30 per cent. Upturn galaxies are massive and have redder colours, in agreement with findings in the local Universe. We find that the upturn phenomenon appears at z ˜ 1 and its frequency increases towards lower redshift, as expected by stellar evolution of low-mass stars. Our findings will help constrain stellar evolution in the exotic UV upturn phase.

  10. UV extinction and IR emission in diffuse H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, Per A.

    1994-01-01

    HII regions occupy a unique position in our understanding of the physical relationships between stars, the interstellar medium, and galactic structure. Observations show a complex interaction between a newly formed hot star and its surroundings. In particular, the ultraviolet radiation from the stars modifies the pre-existing dust, which again affects both the amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by the gas, and the infrared spectrum emitted by the heated dust. The aim of this project was to use UV and far-UV observations to gain information on the nebular dust, and to use this dust to model the far-IR emission, for a consistent picture of a few selected diffuse HII regions. Using archival data from the IUE and Voyager data banks and computed model atmospheres, we have deduced extinction curves for early-types stars. The requisite spectral resolution turned out to be a major task. We have successfully modelled these curves in terms of a multi-component, multi-size distribution of dust grains, and interpret the differences in the curves as primarily due to the presence or non-presence of intermediate size grains (0.01 to 0.04 micron). Much smaller (0.005 micron) grains must also be present. Finally, we have made calculations of the temperature fluctuations and the corresponding infra-red emission in such small grains.

  11. UV extinction properties of carina nebular dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Derck

    1993-01-01

    I have performed an analysis of the UV extinction by dust along the line of sight to the young open cluster Tr 16. The observed curves are parameterized in order to extract quantitative information about the structure of the curves. Furthermore, by constructing differential extinction curves, obtained by differencing curves for stars which lie within a few arc seconds of each other on the sky, I was able to obtain a curve which is free of the effects of foreground extinction, and represents the extinction by the dust in the Tr 16 molecular cloud. I then show that this curve is nearly identical to one due to dust in the Orion molecular cloud. This result shows that dust in the Carina arm exhibits the same behavior as that in the local arm.

  12. UV light from old stellar populations: the HST and GALEX eyes on globular clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessandro, Emanuele

    The UV properties of old stellar populations have been subject of intense scrutiny from the late sixties, when the UV-upturn in early type galaxies was first discovered. Because of their proximity and relative simplicity, Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) are ideal local templates to understand how the integrated UV light is driven by hot stellar populations, primarily horizontal branch stars and their progeny. Our understanding of such stars is still plagued by theoretical uncertainties, which are partly due to the absence of an accurate, comprehensive, statistically representative homogeneous data-set. To move a step forward on this subject, we have combined the HST and GALEX capabilities and collected the largest data-base ever obtained for GGCs in UV. This data-base is best suited to provide insights on the HB second parameter problem and on the first stages of GCs formation and chemical evolution and to understand how they are linked to the observed properties of extragalactic systems.

  13. Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

    2005-12-01

    Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

  14. HD 207739 - A strange composite star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S. B.; Holm, A. V.; Kondo, Y.

    1983-01-01

    This star, classified F8 IIe + B:, has a very unusual ultraviolet spectrum, with abnormally strong and numerous absorption features in the far-UV and exceptionally strong Mg II emission. There is some resemblance to shell and pre-main-sequence B stars, but it more closely matches the strange spectra of the eclipsing systems VV Cep and SX Cas, and it probably has considerable circumstellar material at fairly high temperature. HD 207739 is probably an interacting binary and needs to be monitored for light and velocity variations.

  15. UVMag: stellar formation, evolution, structure and environment with space UV and visible spectropolarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Baade, D.; Fullerton, A.; Gry, C.; Hussain, G.; Lèbre, A.; Morin, J.; Petit, P.; Sundqvist, J. O.; ud-Doula, A.; Vidotto, A. A.; Wade, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Important insights into the formation, structure, evolution and environment of all types of stars can be obtained through the measurement of their winds and possible magnetospheres. However, this has hardly been done up to now mainly because of the lack of UV instrumentation available for long periods of time. To reach this aim, we have designed UVMag, an M-size space mission equipped with a high-resolution spectropolarimeter working in the UV and visible spectral range. The UV domain is crucial in stellar physics as it is very rich in atomic and molecular lines and contains most of the flux of hot stars. Moreover, covering the UV and visible spectral domains at the same time will allow us to study the star and its environment simultaneously. Adding polarimetric power to the spectrograph will multiply tenfold the capabilities of extracting information on stellar magnetospheres, winds, disks, and magnetic fields. Examples of science objectives that can be reached with UVMag are presented for pre-main sequence, main sequence and evolved stars. They will cast new light onto stellar physics by addressing many exciting and important questions. UVMag is currently undergoing a Research & Technology study and will be proposed at the forthcoming ESA call for M-size missions. This spectropolarimeter could also be installed on a large UV and visible observatory (e.g. NASA's LUVOIR project) within a suite of instruments.

  16. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  17. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  18. Diffuse UV Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn Henry, Richard; Murthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    The diffuse UV sky is expected to glow with significant amounts of starlight that is scattered from the interstellar dust. The albedo and scattering pattern of the dust in the ultraviolet are both well established, and are both fairly independent of wavelength from 912 Å to 3000 Å. We present 1943 Voyager spectra of the diffuse cosmic background radiation from 500 Å to 1200 Å, and we compare their brightnesses, and their distribution on the sky, to those observed (Murthy et al., ApJ 724, 1389, 2010) from the GALEX mission at longer wavelengths (1530 Å). Significant differences appear, suggesting that background radiation components in addition to dust-scattered starlight may be present in both spectral regions.

  19. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  20. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  1. DUST-SCATTERED ULTRAVIOLET HALOS AROUND BRIGHT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn

    2011-06-10

    We have discovered ultraviolet (UV) halos extending as far as 5 deg. around four (of six) bright UV stars using data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. These halos are due to scattering of the starlight from nearby thin, foreground dust clouds. We have placed limits of 0.58 {+-} 0.12 and 0.72 {+-} 0.06 on the phase function asymmetry factor (g) in the FUV (1521 A) and NUV (2320 A) bands, respectively. We suggest that these halos are a common feature around bright stars and may be used to explore the scattering function of interstellar grains at small angles.

  2. Fundamental Properties of O-Type Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lanz, Thierry; Hubeny, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high-resolution, far-ultraviolet HST STIS, FUSE, and optical spectra of 18 O stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our analysis is based on the OSTAR2002 grid of NLTE metal-line-blanketed model atmospheres calculated with our code TLUSTY. We systematically explore and present the sensitivity of various UV and optical lines to different stellar parameters. We have obtained consistent fits of the UV and the optical spectrum to derive the effective temperature, surface gravity, surface composition, and microturbulent velocity of each star. Stellar radii, masses, and luminosities follow directly. For stars of the same spectral subtype, we find a general good agreement between effective temperature determinations obtained with TLUSTY, CMFGEN, and FASTWIND models, which are all lower than the standard T(sub eff) calibration of O stars. We propose a new calibration between the spectral type and effective temperature based on our results from UV metal lines, as well as optical hydrogen and helium lines. The lower effective temperatures translate into ionizing luminosities that are smaller by a factor of 3 compared to luminosities inferred from previous standard calibrations. The chemical composition analysis reveals that the surface of about 80% of the program stars is moderately to strongly enriched in nitrogen, while showing the original helium, carbon, and oxygen abundances. Our results support the new stellar evolution models that predict that the surface of fast rotating stars becomes nitrogen-rich during the main-sequence phase because of rotationally induced mixing. Enrichment factors are, however, larger than predicted by stellar evolution models. Most stars exhibit the "mass discrepancy" problem, which we interpret as a result of fast rotation that lowers the measured effective gravity. Nitrogen enrichment and low spectroscopic masses are therefore two manifestations of fast rotation. Our study thus emphasizes the importance

  3. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 + or - 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 + or - 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 + or - 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  4. Star Formation Efficiency in the Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N.; Mushotzky, Richard; Reynolds, Christopher

    2011-06-01

    We have assembled a sample of high spatial resolution far-UV (Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel) and Hα (Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter) imaging for 15 cool core galaxy clusters. These data provide a detailed view of the thin, extended filaments in the cores of these clusters. Based on the ratio of the far-UV to Hα luminosity, the UV spectral energy distribution, and the far-UV and Hα morphology, we conclude that the warm, ionized gas in the cluster cores is photoionized by massive, young stars in all but a few (A1991, A2052, A2580) systems. We show that the extended filaments, when considered separately, appear to be star forming in the majority of cases, while the nuclei tend to have slightly lower far-UV luminosity for a given Hα luminosity, suggesting a harder ionization source or higher extinction. We observe a slight offset in the UV/Hα ratio from the expected value for continuous star formation which can be modeled by assuming intrinsic extinction by modest amounts of dust (E(B - V) ~ 0.2) or a top-heavy initial mass function in the extended filaments. The measured star formation rates vary from ~0.05 M sun yr-1 in the nuclei of non-cooling systems, consistent with passive, red ellipticals, to ~5 M sun yr-1 in systems with complex, extended, optical filaments. Comparing the estimates of the star formation rate based on UV, Hα, and infrared luminosities to the spectroscopically determined X-ray cooling rate suggests a star formation efficiency of 14+18 - 8%. This value represents the time-averaged fraction, by mass, of gas cooling out of the intracluster medium, which turns into stars and agrees well with the global fraction of baryons in stars required by simulations to reproduce the stellar mass function for galaxies. This result provides a new constraint on the efficiency of star formation in accreting systems.

  5. First-Ever Census of Variable Mira-Type Stars in Galaxy Outside the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    "variable star". The percentage is much higher among large, cool stars ("red giants") - in fact, almost all luminous stars of that type are variable. Such stars are known as Mira-variables ; the name comes from the most prominent member of this class, Omicron Ceti in the constellation Cetus (The Whale), also known as "Stella Mira" (The Wonderful Star). Its brightness changes with a period of 332 days and it is about 1500 times brighter at maximum (visible magnitude 2 and one of the fifty brightest stars in the sky) than at minimum (magnitude 10 and only visible in small telescopes) [2]. Stars like Omicron Ceti are nearing the end of their life. They are very large and have sizes from a few hundred to about a thousand times that of the Sun. The brightness variation is due to pulsations during which the star's temperature and size change dramatically. In the following evolutionary phase, Mira-variables will shed their outer layers into surrounding space and become visible as planetary nebulae with a hot and compact star (a "white dwarf") at the middle of a nebula of gas and dust (cf. the "Dumbbell Nebula" - ESO PR Photo 38a-b/98 ). Several thousand Mira-type stars are currently known in the Milky Way galaxy and a few hundred have been found in other nearby galaxies, including the Magellanic Clouds. The peculiar galaxy Centaurus A ESO PR Photo 14a/03 ESO PR Photo 14a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 53k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 528k] [Hi-Res - JPEG: 3612 x 4075 pix - 8.4M] ESO PR Photo 14b/03 ESO PR Photo 14b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 570 x 400 pix - 52k [Normal - JPEG: 1140 x 800 pix - 392k] ESO PR Photo 14c/03 ESO PR Photo 14c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 61k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 768k] ESO PR Photo 14d/03 ESO PR Photo 14d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 451 pix - 56k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 903 pix - 760k] Captions : PR Photo 14a/03 is a colour composite photo of the peculiar galaxy Centaurus A (NGC 5128) , obtained with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) cam

  6. Hot Stars: Old-Fashioned or Trendy? (With 24 Figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.

    Spectroscopic analyses with the intention of the interpretation of the UV-spectra of the brightest stars as individuals - supernovae - or as components of star-forming regions - massive O stars - provide a powerful tool with great astrophysical potential for the determination of extragalactic distances and of the chemical composition of star-forming galaxies even at high redshifts. The perspectives of already initiated work with the new generation of tools for quantitative UV-spectroscopy of Hot Stars that have been developed during the last two decades are presented and the status of the continuing effort to construct corresponding models for Hot Star atmospheres is reviewed. Because the physics of the atmospheres of Hot Stars are strongly affected by velocity expansion dominating the spectra at all wavelength ranges, hydrodynamic model atmospheres for O-type stars and explosion models for Supernovae of Type Ia are necessary as basis for the synthesis and analysis of the spectra. It is shown that stellar parameters, abundances and stellar wind properties can be determined by the methods of spectral diagnostics already developed. Additionally, it will be demonstrated that models and synthetic spectra of Type Ia Supernovae of required quality are already available that make it possible to tackle the question of whether Supernovae Ia are standard candles in a cosmological sense and the SN-luminosity distances thus indicate accelerated expansion of the universe.

  7. Beryllium and Boron abundances in population II stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The scientific focus of this program was to undertake UV spectroscopic abundance analyses of extremely metal poor stars with attention to determining abundances of light elements such as beryllium and boron. The abundances are likely to reflect primordial abundances within the early galaxy and help to constrain models for early galactic nucleosynthesis. The general metal abundances of these stars are also important for understanding stellar evolution.

  8. Young, Ultraviolet-bright Stars Dominate Dust Heating in Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A.

    2011-09-01

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region—the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  9. YOUNG, ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STARS DOMINATE DUST HEATING IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Ka-Hei; Gordon, Karl D.; Misselt, K. A. E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu

    2011-09-10

    In star-forming galaxies, dust plays a significant role in shaping the ultraviolet (UV) through infrared (IR) spectrum. Dust attenuates the radiation from stars, and re-radiates the energy through equilibrium and non-equilibrium emission. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), graphite, and silicates contribute to different features in the spectral energy distribution; however, they are all highly opaque in the same spectral region-the UV. Compared to old stellar populations, young populations release a higher fraction of their total luminosity in the UV, making them a good source of the energetic UV photons that can power dust emission. However, given their relative abundance, the question of whether young or old stellar populations provide most of these photons that power the IR emission is an interesting question. Using three samples of galaxies observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope and our dusty radiative transfer model, we find that young stellar populations (on the order of 100 million years old) dominate the dust heating in star-forming galaxies, and old stellar populations (13 billion years old) generally contribute less than 20% of the far-IR luminosity.

  10. Deep UV LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jung; Amano, Hiroshi; Schowalter, Leo

    2014-06-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photons interact strongly with a broad range of chemical and biological molecules; compact DUV light sources could enable a wide range of applications in chemi/bio-sensing, sterilization, agriculture, and industrial curing. The much shorter wavelength also results in useful characteristics related to optical diffraction (for lithography) and scattering (non-line-of-sight communication). The family of III-N (AlGaInN) compound semiconductors offers a tunable energy gap from infrared to DUV. While InGaN-based blue light emitters have been the primary focus for the obvious application of solid state lighting, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient UV and DUV light-emitting devices. In the past few years we have witnessed an increasing investment from both government and industry sectors to further the state of DUV light-emitting devices. The contributions in Semiconductor Science and Technology 's special issue on DUV devices provide an up-to-date snapshot covering many relevant topics in this field. Given the expected importance of bulk AlN substrate in DUV technology, we are pleased to include a review article by Hartmann et al on the growth of AlN bulk crystal by physical vapour transport. The issue of polarization field within the deep ultraviolet LEDs is examined in the article by Braut et al. Several commercial companies provide useful updates in their development of DUV emitters, including Nichia (Fujioka et al ), Nitride Semiconductors (Muramoto et al ) and Sensor Electronic Technology (Shatalov et al ). We believe these articles will provide an excellent overview of the state of technology. The growth of AlGaN heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy, in contrast to the common organo-metallic vapour phase epitaxy, is discussed by Ivanov et al. Since hexagonal boron nitride (BN) has received much attention as both a UV and a two-dimensional electronic material, we believe it serves readers well to include the

  11. Towards universal hybrid star formation rate estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, M.; Kennicutt, R.; Calzetti, D.; Dale, D.; Galametz, M.; Sauvage, M.; Croxall, K.; Draine, B.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Kumari, N.; Hunt, L.; De Looze, I.; Pellegrini, E.; Relaño, M.; Smith, J.-D.; Tabatabaei, F.

    2016-06-01

    Context. To compute the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies from the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), it is essential to take the obscuration by dust into account. To do so, one of the most popular methods consists in combining the UV with the emission from the dust itself in the infrared (IR). Yet, different studies have derived different estimators, showing that no such hybrid estimator is truly universal. Aims: In this paper we aim at understanding and quantifying what physical processes fundamentally drive the variations between different hybrid estimators. In so doing, we aim at deriving new universal UV+IR hybrid estimators to correct the UV for dust attenuation at local and global scales, taking the intrinsic physical properties of galaxies into account. Methods: We use the CIGALE code to model the spatially resolved far-UV to far-IR spectral energy distributions of eight nearby star-forming galaxies drawn from the KINGFISH sample. This allows us to determine their local physical properties, and in particular their UV attenuation, average SFR, average specific SFR (sSFR), and their stellar mass. We then examine how hybrid estimators depend on said properties. Results: We find that hybrid UV+IR estimators strongly depend on the stellar mass surface density (in particular at 70 μm and 100 μm) and on the sSFR (in particular at 24 μm and the total infrared). Consequently, the IR scaling coefficients for UV obscuration can vary by almost an order of magnitude: from 1.55 to 13.45 at 24 μm for instance. This result contrasts with other groups who found relatively constant coefficients with small deviations. We exploit these variations to construct a new class of adaptative hybrid estimators based on observed UV to near-IR colours and near-IR luminosity densities per unit area. We find that they can reliably be extended to entire galaxies. Conclusions: The new estimators provide better estimates of attenuation-corrected UV emission than classical hybrid estimators

  12. The void galaxy survey: Star formation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Jarrett, T. H.; Peletier, R.; van de Weygaert, R.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the star formation properties of 59 void galaxies as part of the Void Galaxy Survey (VGS). Current star formation rates are derived from H α and recent star formation rates from near-UV imaging. In addition, infrared 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer emission is used as star formation and mass indicator. Infrared and optical colours show that the VGS sample displays a wide range of dust and metallicity properties. We combine these measurements with stellar and H I masses to measure the specific SFRs (SFR/M*) and star formation efficiencies ({SFR/{M }_H I}). We compare the star formation properties of our sample with galaxies in the more moderate density regions of the cosmic web, `the field'. We find that specific SFRs of the VGS galaxies as a function of stellar and H I mass are similar to those of the galaxies in these field regions. Their SFR α is slightly elevated than the galaxies in the field for a given total H I mass. In the global star formation picture presented by Kennicutt-Schmidt, VGS galaxies fall into the regime of low average star formation and correspondingly low H I surface density. Their mean {SFR α /{M}_{H I} and SFR α/M* are of the order of 10- 9.9 yr- 1. We conclude that while the large-scale underdense environment must play some role in galaxy formation and growth through accretion, we find that even with respect to other galaxies in the more mildly underdense regions, the increase in star formation rate is only marginal.

  13. III-Nitride UV Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asif Khan, M.; Shatalov, M.; Maruska, H. P.; Wang, H. M.; Kuokstis, E.

    2005-10-01

    The need for efficient, compact and robust solid-state UV optical sources and sensors had stimulated the development of optical devices based on III-nitride material system. Rapid progress in material growth, device fabrication and packaging enabled demonstration of high efficiency visible-blind and solar-blind photodetectors, deep-UV light-emitting diodes with emission from 400 to 250 nm, and UV laser diodes with operation wavelengths ranging from 340 to 350 nm. Applications of these UV optical devices include flame sensing; fluorescence-based biochemical sensing; covert communications; air, water and food purification and disinfection; and biomedical instrumentation. This paper provides a review of recent advances in the development of UV optical devices. Performance of state-of-the-art devices as well as future prospects and challenges are discussed.

  14. Impact of UV-A radiation on erythemal UV and UV-index estimation over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Seo; Lee, Yun Gon; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Because total UV (TUV) in the UV-A region is 100 times higher than in the UV-B region, UV-A is a considerable component when calculating erythemal UV (EUV) and UV-index. The ratio of EUV to TUV in the UV-A value [EUV(A)/TUV(A)] is investigated to convert the EUV(A) from TUV(A) for broadband observation. The representative value of EUV(A)/TUV(A), from the simulation study, is 6.9×10-4, changing from 6.1×10-4 to 7.0×10-4 as aerosol optical depth, total ozone and solar zenith angle change. By adopting the observational data of EUV(B) and TUV(A) from UV-biometer measurements at Yonsei University [(37.57°N, 126.95°E), 84 m above sea level], the EUV irradiance increases to 15% of EUV(B) due to the consideration of EUV(A) from the data of TUV(A) observation. Compared to the total EUV observed from the Brewer spectrophotometer at the same site, the EUV(B) from the UV-biometer observes only 95% of total EUV, and its underestimation is caused by neglecting the effect of UV-A. However, the sum of EUV(B) and EUV(A) [EUV(A+B)] from two UV-biometers is 10% larger than the EUV from the Brewer spectrophotometer because of the spectral overlap effect in the range 320-340 nm. The correction factor for the overlap effect adjusts 8% of total EUV.

  15. The mechanisms of UV mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Ikehata, Hironobu; Ono, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light induces specific mutations in the cellular and skin genome such as UV-signature and triplet mutations, the mechanism of which has been thought to involve translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) over UV-induced DNA base damage. Two models have been proposed: "error-free" bypass of deaminated cytosine-containing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) by DNA polymerase η, and error-prone bypass of CPDs and other UV-induced photolesions by combinations of TLS and replicative DNA polymerases--the latter model has also been known as the two-step model, in which the cooperation of two (or more) DNA polymerases as misinserters and (mis)extenders is assumed. Daylight UV induces a characteristic UV-specific mutation, a UV-signature mutation occurring preferentially at methyl-CpG sites, which is also observed frequently after exposure to either UVB or UVA, but not to UVC. The wavelengths relevant to the mutation are so consistent with the composition of daylight UV that the mutation is called solar-UV signature, highlighting the importance of this type of mutation for creatures with the cytosine-methylated genome that are exposed to the sun in the natural environment. UVA has also been suggested to induce oxidative types of mutation, which would be caused by oxidative DNA damage produced through the oxidative stress after the irradiation. Indeed, UVA produces oxidative DNA damage not only in cells but also in skin, which, however, does not seem sufficient to induce mutations in the normal skin genome. In contrast, it has been demonstrated that UVA exclusively induces the solar-UV signature mutations in vivo through CPD formation.

  16. UV spectrum of Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrow, Mark; Clarke, John T.; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Noll, Keith S.

    2012-07-01

    We present a far ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum of Saturn’s moon Enceladus from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have put upper limits on emission from C, N, and O lines in Enceladus’ atmosphere and column densities for the C lines assuming solar resonance scattering. We find these upper limits to be relatively low-on the order of tens to thousands of Rayleighs and with C column densities on the order of 108-1015 cm-2, depending on the assumed source size. We also present a segment of a reflectance spectrum in the FUV from ∼1900-2130 Å. This region was sensitive to the different ice mixtures in the model spectra reported by Hendrix et al. (Hendrix, A.R., Hansen, C.J., Holsclaw, G.M. [2010]. Icarus, 206, 608). We find the spectrum brightens quickly longward of ∼1900 Å, constraining the absorption band observed by Hendrix et al. from ∼170 to 190 nm. We find our data is consistent with the suggestion of Hendrix et al. of the presence of ammonia ice (or ammonia hydrate) to darken that region, and also possibly tholins to darken the mid-UV, as reported by Verbiscer et al. (Verbiscer, A.J., French, R.G., McGhee, C.A. [2005]. Icarus, 173, 66).

  17. Applying Machine Learning to Star Cluster Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorenko, Kristina; Grasha, Kathryn; Calzetti, Daniela; Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Catalogs describing populations of star clusters are essential in investigating a range of important issues, from star formation to galaxy evolution. Star cluster catalogs are typically created in a two-step process: in the first step, a catalog of sources is automatically produced; in the second step, each of the extracted sources is visually inspected by 3-to-5 human classifiers and assigned a category. Classification by humans is labor-intensive and time consuming, thus it creates a bottleneck, and substantially slows down progress in star cluster research.We seek to automate the process of labeling star clusters (the second step) through applying supervised machine learning techniques. This will provide a fast, objective, and reproducible classification. Our data is HST (WFC3 and ACS) images of galaxies in the distance range of 3.5-12 Mpc, with a few thousand star clusters already classified by humans as a part of the LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey) project. The classification is based on 4 labels (Class 1 - symmetric, compact cluster; Class 2 - concentrated object with some degree of asymmetry; Class 3 - multiple peak system, diffuse; and Class 4 - spurious detection). We start by looking at basic machine learning methods such as decision trees. We then proceed to evaluate performance of more advanced techniques, focusing on convolutional neural networks and other Deep Learning methods. We analyze the results, and suggest several directions for further improvement.

  18. Disk Evaporation in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Young stars produce sufficient ultraviolet photon luminosity and mechanical luminosity in their winds to significantly affect the structure and evolution of the accretion disks surrounding them. The Lyman continuum photons create a nearly static, ionized, isothermal 10(exp 4) K atmosphere forms above the neutral disk at small distances from the star. Further out, they create a photoevaporative flow which relatively rapidly destroys the disk. The resulting slow (10-50 km/s) ionized outflow, which persists for approx. greater than 10(exp 5) years for disk masses M(sub d) approx. 0.3M(sub *), may explain the observational characteristics of many ultracompact HII regions. We compare model results to the observed radio free-free spectra and luminosities of ultracompact HII regions and to the interesting source MWC349, which is observed to produce hydrogen masers. We apply the results to Ae and Be stars in order to determine the lifetimes of disks around such stars. We also apply the results to the early solar nebula to explain the the dispersal of the solar nebula and the differences in hydrogen content in the giant planets. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1) C.

  19. Overview of the observations of symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viotti, Roberto

    1993-01-01

    The term Symbiotic stars commonly denotes variable stars whose optical spectra simultaneously present a cool absorption spectrum (typically TiO absorption bands) and emission lines of high ionization energy. This term is now used for the category of variable stars with composite spectrum. The main spectral features of these objects are: (1) the presence of the red continuum typical of a cool star, (2) the rich emission line spectrum, and (3) the UV excess, frequently with the Balmer continuum in emission. In addition to the peculiar spectrum, the very irregular photometric and spectroscopic variability is the major feature of the symbiotic stars. Moreover, the light curve is basic to identify the different phases of activity in a symbiotic star. The physical mechanisms that cause the symbiotic phenomenon and its variety are the focus of this paper. An astronomical phenomenon characterized by a composite stellar spectrum with two apparently conflicting features, and large variability has been observed. Our research set out to find the origin of this behavior and, in particular, to identify and measure the physical mechanism(s) responsible for the observed phenomena.

  20. Elemental Abundances of Mercury-Manganese Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.

    We propose to obtain a carefully planned set of multiple high dispersion exposures of three MercuryManganese stars in both the SWP and LWP cameras. These observations will be coadded to increase the S/N ratio so that accurate elemental abundances can be derived for these examples of HgMn stars, each of which represents some extreme class aspect. This will increase of sample of HgMn stars from four to seven. Of particular interest are the abundances of N and Co in which some HgMn stars have shown remarkable underabundances. Comparison of the UV and optical spectra features due to light elements such as N (and C and 0) provide an observational framework to test NLTE models such as those of Takada (1993). This work has already shed some light on some of earlier findings for normal stars. The ability to accurately determine the surface chemical composition of the late B stars through such studies will lead to better tests for theories purporting to explain the origin of the chemical peculiarities seen in this temperature domain.

  1. The sun, our star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noyes, R. W.

    Observational data, analytical models, and instrumentation used to study the sun and its evolution are detailed, and attention is given to techniques for converting solar energy to useful power on earth. The star ignited when the mutual gravitational attractions of dust and vapor in a primordial cloud in the Galaxy caused an in-rush of accelerating particles which eventually became dense enough to ignite. The heat grew until inward rushing matter was balanced by outward moving radiative forces. The planets formed from similar debris, and solar radiation is suggested to have triggered the chemical reactions giving rise to life on earth. Visual, spectroscopic, coronagraphic, and UV observations of the sun from the ground and from spacecraft, particularly Skylab, are described, together with features of the solar surface, magnetic field, sunspots, and coronal loops. Models for the processes that occur in the solar interior are explored, as are the causes of solar flares. Attention is given to solar cells, heliostat arrays, wind turbines, and water turbines as means to convert, either directly or indirectly, the earth-bound solar energy to electrical and thermal power. Finally, the life cycle of the sun, about 9 billion yr in duration, is summarized, noting the current status of midlife.

  2. Modelling of variability of the chemically peculiar star ϕ Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prvák, M.; Liška, J.; Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Lüftinger, T.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The presence of heavier chemical elements in stellar atmospheres influences the spectral energy distribution of stars. An uneven surface distribution of these elements, together with flux redistribution and stellar rotation, are commonly believed to be the primary causes of the variability of chemically peculiar (CP) stars. Aims: We aim to model the photometric variability of the CP star ϕ Dra based on the assumption of inhomogeneous surface distribution of heavier elements and compare it to the observed variability of the star. We also intend to identify the processes that contribute most significantly to its photometric variability. Methods: We use a grid of TLUSTY model atmospheres and the SYNSPEC code to model the radiative flux emerging from the individual surface elements of ϕ Dra with different chemical compositions. We integrate the emerging flux over the visible surface of the star at different phases throughout the entire rotational period to synthesise theoretical light curves of the star in several spectral bands. Results: The synthetic light curves in the visible and in the near-UV regions are in very good agreement with the observed variability of the star. The lack of usable far-UV measurements of the star precludes making any conclusions about the correctness of our model in this spectral region. We also obtained 194 new BVRI observations of ϕ Dra and improved its rotational period to P = 1 ḍ 716500(2). Conclusions: We show that the inhomogeneous distribution of elements, flux redistribution, and rotation of the star are fully capable of explaining the stellar variability in the visible and the near-UV regions. The flux redistribution is mainly caused by bound-free transitions of silicon and bound-bound transitions of iron. BVRI photometry of Phi Dra is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/584/A17

  3. The Galaxy UV Luminosity Function before the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Charlotte A.; Trenti, Michele; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    We present a model for the evolution of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function (LF) across cosmic time where star formation is linked to the assembly of dark matter halos under the assumption of a mass-dependent, but redshift-independent, efficiency. We introduce a new self-consistent treatment of the halo star formation history, which allows us to make predictions at z > 10 (lookback time ≲500 Myr), when growth is rapid. With a calibration at a single redshift to set the stellar-to-halo mass ratio, and no further degrees of freedom, our model captures the evolution of the UV LF over all available observations (0 ≲ z ≲ 10). The significant drop in luminosity density of currently detectable galaxies beyond z ˜ 8 is explained by a shift of star formation toward less massive, fainter galaxies. Assuming that star formation proceeds down to atomic cooling halos, we derive a reionization optical depth τ ={0.056}-0.010+0.007, fully consistent with the latest Planck measurement, implying that the universe is fully reionized at z={7.84}-0.98+0.65. In addition, our model naturally produces smoothly rising star formation histories for galaxies with L ≲ L* in agreement with observations and hydrodynamical simulations. Before the epoch of reionization at z > 10 we predict the LF to remain well-described by a Schechter function, but with an increasingly steep faint-end slope (α ˜ -3.5 at z ˜ 16). Finally, we construct forecasts for surveys with James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and predict that galaxies out to z ˜ 14 will be observed. Galaxies at z > 15 will likely be accessible to JWST and WFIRST only through the assistance of strong lensing magnification.

  4. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm).

  5. [Ozone decline and UV increase].

    PubMed

    Winkler, P; Trepte, S

    2004-02-01

    The following results have been obtained from long-term observations on the ozone layer and UV at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeigenberg:The seasonally varying decline of the ozone layer determines the maximum exposure to UV. Since ozone decline shows the highest rates in the spring months the UV exposure has most strongly increased in this time of the year. This is especially important because in spring the human skin is not adapted to UV exposure. Weather changes from day to day can induce rapid ozone reductions in spring about -30% which in turn is followed by an increase in UV of about 40%. Clouds, especially the transparent cirrus clouds (high clouds consisting of ice particles) have increased in frequency during spring and fall while a decrease is observed in summer. This change in cloudiness reduces the daily UV dose in spring and fall while it is enhanced in summer. With increasing height above sea level UV rises by roughly 10% per 1000 m (rule of thumb). Snow reflects the UV-radiation by up to 80% enhancing the UV-doses at relevant conditions. Strong volcano eruptions destroy ozone in the stratosphere additionally during 1-2 years after the eruption. Therafter the ozone layer recovers. In April 1993, after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo (1991), the UV burden was still 40% higher than average. Miniholes and streamers can appear unexpected on a short-time scale and cross over Central Europe within 1-2 days, thus enhancing UV irradiation. The human skin reacts to UV exposure depending on the type of skin. The campaign "Sonne(n) mit Verstand" of the Bavarian Ministries for Environment, for Health and for Education informs about the danger of UV radiation (see www.sonne-mit-ver-stand.de). The German Weather Service informs the public on present developments of the ozone layer and relevant topics byits ozone bulletin, which is also available via internet under (www.dwd.de/deFundE/Observator/MOHp/hp2/ozon/bulletin.htm). PMID:14770335

  6. IUE observations of new A star candidate proto-planetary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1994-01-01

    As a result of the detection of accreting gas in the A5e PMS Herbig Ae star, HR 5999, most of the observations for this IUE program were devoted to Herbig Ae stars rather than to main sequence A stars. Mid-UV emission at optical minimum light was detected for UX Ori (A1e), BF Ori (A5e), and CQ Tau (F2e). The presence of accreting gas in HD 45677 and HD 50138 prompted reclassification of these stars as Herbig Be stars rather than as protoplanetary nebulae. Detailed results are discussed.

  7. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  8. Deep X-ray and UV Surveys of Galaxies with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and GALEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Only with the deepest Chandra surveys has X-ray emission from normal and star forming galaxies (as opposed to AGN, which dominate the X-ray sky) been accessible at cosmologically interesting distances. The X-ray emission from accreting binaries provide a critical glimpse into the binary phase of stellar evolution and studies of the hot gas reservoir constrain past star formation. UV studies provide important, sensitive diagnostics of the young star forming populations and provide the most mature means for studying galaxies at 2 < zeta < 4. This talk will review current progress on studying X-ray emission in concert with UV emission from normal/star-forming galaxies at higher redshift. We will also report on our new, deep surveys with GALEX and XMM-Newton in the nearby Coma cluster. These studies are relevant to DEEP06 as Coma is the nearest rich cluster of galaxies and provides an important benchmark for high-redshift studies in the X-ray and UV wavebands. The 30 ks GALEX (note: similar depth to the GALEX Deep Imaging Survey) and the 110 ks XMM observations provide extremely deep coverage of a Coma outskirts field, allowing the construction of the UV and X-ray luminosity function of galaxies and important constraints on star formation scaling relations such as the X-ray-Star Formation Rate correlation and the X-ray/Stellar Mass correlation. We will discuss what we learn from these deep observations of Coma, including the recently established suppression of the X-ray emission from galaxies in the Coma outskirts that is likely associated with lower levels of past star formation and/or the results of tidal gas stripping.

  9. Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS): Revolutionary UV astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Leonardo

    2014-06-01

    The Treasury program LEGUS (HST/GO-13364) is a 154-orbit Hubble Space Telescope survey that is obtaining HST/WFC3 and HST/ACS NUV, U, B, V, and I-band imaging of 50 star-forming galaxies at distances of 4-12 Mpc. The LEGUS targets have been carefully selected to uniformly sample a full range of global galaxy properties such as morphology, star formation rate, mass, metallicity, internal structure, and interaction state.We provide a first taste of the type and quality of the data products that will be made available to the community through the website legus.stsci.edu. The data includes: state of the art science-ready mosaics in five wavelengths; band-merged catalogs of stellar sources (including location and photometry), band-merged catalogs of star clusters (locations, photometry, aperture corrections), catalogs of star cluster properties (ages, masses, extinction). and ancillary data available for this galaxy sample such as GALEX, Spitzer and WISE imaging.The above catalogs will enable a wide range of scientific applications, including color-magnitude diagrams and color-color diagrams of both stars and clusters, to derive star formation histories, cluster formation histories, the evolution of stars/association/cluster clustering, and the dependence of these on galactic environment. These are only a few of the potential applications enabled by a diverse sample like LEGUS.

  10. DEEP GALEX UV SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Manuel; Chávez, Miguel; Bertone, Emanuele; Lloyd, James; Mamajek, Eric E.; Martin, D. Christopher; Neill, James D.

    2015-11-10

    We report observations of a deep near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of the Kepler field made in 2012 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Complete All-Sky UV Survey Extension (CAUSE). The GALEX-CAUSE Kepler survey (GCK) covers 104 square degrees of the Kepler field and reaches a limiting magnitude of NUV ≃ 22.6 at 3σ. Analysis of the GCK survey has yielded a catalog of 669,928 NUV sources, of which 475,164 are cross-matched with stars in the Kepler Input Catalog. Approximately 327 of 451 confirmed exoplanet host stars and 2614 of 4696 candidate exoplanet host stars identified by Kepler have NUV photometry in the GCK survey. The GCK catalog should enable the identification and characterization of UV-excess stars in the Kepler field (young solar-type and low-mass stars, chromospherically active binaries, white dwarfs, horizontal branch stars, etc.), and elucidation of various astrophysics problems related to the stars and planetary systems in the Kepler field.

  11. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONS OF VARIABLE FIELD HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS: RR LYRAE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    For Biqing; Sneden, Christopher; Preston, George W.

    2011-12-01

    We present a detailed abundance study of 11 RR Lyrae ab-type variables: AS Vir, BS Aps, CD Vel, DT Hya, RV Oct, TY Gru, UV Oct, V1645 Sgr, WY Ant, XZ Aps, and Z Mic. High-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of these variables were obtained with the 2.5 m du Pont telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. We obtained more than 2300 spectra, roughly 200 spectra per star, distributed more or less uniformly throughout the pulsational cycles. A new method has been developed to obtain the initial effective temperatures of our sample stars at a specific pulsational phase. We find that the abundance ratios are generally consistent with those of similar metallicity field stars in different evolutionary states and throughout the pulsational cycles for RR Lyrae stars. TY Gru remains the only n-capture enriched star among the RRab in our sample. A new relation is found between microturbulence and effective temperature among stars of the horizontal-branch population. In addition, the variation of microturbulence as a function of phase is empirically shown to be similar to the theoretical variation. Finally, we conclude that the derived T{sub eff} and log g values of our sample stars follow the general trend of a single mass evolutionary track.

  12. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  13. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  14. Are many hot subdwarf stars hidden in binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Richard

    The Palomar-Green (PG) survey of UV-excess objects yielded an abundant harvest of hot subdwarf (sdO/sdB) stars. Based on visual and near IR (2MASS) colors, about one-third of these are binary (composite colors). Many additional candidate PG stars that might also be hot subdwarfs in binaries were rejected from the final PG catalog, because the Ca II K line appears in their spectra; this line was interpreted to mean that the candidates are cool metal-poor stars (sdF) with low UV line-blocking, so they were U-B color-selected for the wrong reason. An alternate explanation is that these objects are additional composite-spectrum binaries consisting of a hot subdwarf and a main sequence (A or F) star. Optical data alone cannot easily distinguish between these possibilities. A recent theory of binary sdB formation channels predicts that many sdB+A/F systems exist undiscovered, and the rejected PG stars are pointed to as a specific example of where they might be found. With a targeted archival study using GALEX imaging data to search for radiation from a hot star, we can learn whether or not these rejected objects from the PG survey are in fact mostly sdB binaries, with consequences for the origin and numbers of hot evolved stars.

  15. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  16. Neutrino signatures from the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Daigne, Frederic; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Olive, Keith A.; Sandick, Pearl

    2005-11-15

    Evidence from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization data indicates that the Universe may have been reionized at very high redshift. It is often suggested that the ionizing UV flux originates from an early population of massive or very massive stars. Depending on their mass, such stars can explode either as type II supernovae or pair-instability supernovae, or may entirely collapse into a black hole. The resulting neutrino emission can be quite different in each case. We consider here the relic neutrino background produced by an early burst of Population III stars coupled with a normal mode of star formation at lower redshift. The computation is performed in the framework of hierarchical structure formation and is based on cosmic star formation histories constrained to reproduce the observed star formation rate at redshift z < or approx. 6, the observed chemical abundances in damped Lyman alpha absorbers and in the intergalactic medium, and to allow for an early reionization of the Universe at z{approx}10-20. We find that although the high redshift burst of Population III stars does lead to an appreciable flux of neutrinos at relatively low energy (E{sub {nu}}{approx_equal}1 MeV), the observable neutrino flux is dominated by the normal mode of star formation. We also find that predicted fluxes are at the present level of the SuperK limit. As a consequence, the supernova relic neutrino background has a direct impact on models of chemical evolution and/or supernova dynamics.

  17. Mapping the Dark Matter From UV Light at High Redshift: An Empirical Approach to Understand Galaxy Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H; Ferguson, Henry C.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Dickinson, Mark E.; Urry, Claudia M.; /Yale Ctr. Astron. Astrophys.

    2009-08-03

    We present a simple formalism to interpret the observations of two galaxy statistics, the UV luminosity function (LF) and two-point correlation functions for star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4, 5 and 6 in the context of {Lambda}CDM cosmology. Both statistics are the result of how star formation takes place in dark matter halos, and thus are used to constrain how UV light depends on halo properties, in particular halo mass. The two physical quantities we explore are the star formation duty cycle, and the range of UV luminosity that a halo of mass M can have (mean and variance). The former directly addresses the typical duration of star formation activity in halos while the latter addresses the averaged star formation history and regularity of gas inflow into these systems. In the context of this formalism, we explore various physical models consistent with all the available observational data, and find the following: (1) the typical duration of star formation observed in the data is {approx}< 0.4 Gyr (1{sigma}), (2) the inferred scaling law between the observed L{sub UV} and halo mass M from the observed faint-end slope of the luminosity functions is roughly linear out to M {approx} 10{sup 11.5} - 10{sup 12} h{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}} at all redshifts probed in this work, and (3) the observed L{sub UV} for a fixed halo mass M decreases with time, implying that the star formation efficiency (after dust extinction) is higher at earlier times. We explore several different physical scenarios relating star formation to halo mass, but find that these scenarios are indistinguishable due to the limited range of halo mass probed by our data. In order to discriminate between different scenarios, we discuss the possibility of using the bright-faint galaxy cross-correlation functions and more robust determination of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias for future surveys.

  18. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  19. Testing the THINGS Star Formation Law in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Zheng, Z.; Zwaan, M.; Knezek, P.

    2010-01-01

    The star formation law (SFL) is an essential tool for understanding galaxy evolution. However, the star formation process is not well understood and the broadly used Schmidt-Kennicutt SFL is based on a biased sample of bright nearby spirals. Here we derive a star formation recipe based on the THINGS SFL of Leroy et. al (2008) and Bigiel et al.(2009), which can predict the star formation rate using the rotation curve and stellar mass profile as an input. We use optical and radio rotation curves combined with optical broad band images of HI selected galaxies to make predicted star formation profiles using this prescription which are then compared to our UV and H-alpha images from the SINGG and SUNGG surveys. We look at how the predictions compare to the observations in the two different tracers especially in the outer disks which were not accounted for when the THINGS SFL was derived.

  20. Perspectives for hot stars in the next decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.

    2016-06-01

    XMM-Newton has deeply changed our picture of X-ray emission of hot, massive stars. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy as well as monitoring of these objects revealed a number of previously unexpected features that challenge our understanding of the dynamics of the stellar winds of massive stars. In this contribution, I will briefly summarize the results obtained over the past 15 years and highlight the perspectives for the next decade. It is anticipated that coordinated (X-ray and optical or UV) monitoring and time-critical observations of either single or binary massive stars will become the most important topics in this field over the coming years. Synergies with existing or forthcoming X-ray observatories (NuStar, Astro-H, eROSITA) will also play a major role and will further enhance the importance of XMM-Newton in our quest for understanding the physics of hot, massive stars.

  1. The Moon in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    While the Moon has been observed in the UV for decades, the real utility of this spectral region for unlocking some of the Moon’s secrets has only recently been understood. Previously the domain of atmospheric studies, the UV has now emerged as an important spectral region for studying surfaces. The ultraviolet regime is very sensitive to both space weathering effects and composition, including hydration. This presentation will cover a review of early UV lunar observations (e.g., Apollo 17, International Ultraviolet Explorer), as well as early laboratory studies that first shone a light on the importance of this spectral region. The Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) instrument, currently in orbit on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft, is providing critical mapping capabilities of UV signatures, including signals from the permanently shadowed regions of the poles. I will discuss some of these exciting results, and extend these to implications for other airless bodies in the solar system.

  2. Tomographic separation of composite spectra - The components of the O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of the short-period, double-lined O-star spectroscopic binary AO Cas are analyzed. Archival data from IUE (16 spectra uniformly distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with a tomography algorithm to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, O9.5 III and O8 V, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. An intensity ratio of 0.5-0.7 (primary brighter) at 1600 A is compatible with the data.

  3. The Cambridge Double Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEvoy, Bruce; Tirion, Wil

    2015-12-01

    Preface; What are double stars?; The binary orbit; Double star dynamics; Stellar mass and the binary life cycle; The double star population; Detecting double stars; Double star catalogs; Telescope optics; Preparing to observe; Helpful accessories; Viewing challenges; Next steps; Appendices: target list; Useful formulas; Double star orbits; Double star catalogs; The Greek alphabet.

  4. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  5. STAR-FORMING GALAXY EVOLUTION IN NEARBY RICH CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K. D.; Rieke, G. H.; Bai, L.

    2013-08-20

    Dense environments are known to quench star formation in galaxies, but it is still unknown what mechanism(s) are directly responsible. In this paper, we study the star formation of galaxies in A2029 and compare it to that of Coma, combining indicators at 24 {mu}m, H{alpha}, and UV down to rates of 0.03 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We show that A2029's star-forming galaxies follow the same mass-SFR relation as the field. The Coma cluster, on the other hand, has a population of galaxies with star formation rates (SFRs) significantly lower than the field mass-SFR relation, indicative of galaxies in the process of being quenched. Over half of these galaxies also host active galactic nuclei. Ram-pressure stripping and starvation/strangulation are the most likely mechanisms for suppressing the star formation in these galaxies, but we are unable to disentangle which is dominating. The differences we see between the two clusters' populations of star-forming galaxies may be related to their accretion histories, with A2029 having accreted its star-forming galaxies more recently than Coma. Additionally, many early-type galaxies in A2029 are detected at 24 {mu}m and/or in the far-UV, but this emission is not directly related to star formation. Similar galaxies have probably been classified as star forming in previous studies of dense clusters, possibly obscuring some of the effects of the cluster environment on true star-forming galaxies.

  6. Constraining Galaxy Evolution Using Observed UV-Optical Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of galaxy evolution depends on model spectra of stellar populations, and the models are only as good as the observed spectra and stellar parameters that go into them. We are therefore evaluating modem UV-optical model spectra using Hubble's Next Generation Spectral Library (NGSL) as the reference standard. The NGSL comprises intermediate-resolution (R is approximately 1000) STIS spectra of 378 stars having a wide range in metallicity and age. Unique features of the NGSL include its broad wavelength coverage (1,800-10,100 A) and high-S/N, absolute spectrophotometry. We will report on a systematic comparison of model and observed UV-blue spectra, describe where on the HR diagram significant differences occur, and comment on current approaches to correct the models for these differences.

  7. The (BETA) Pictoris Phenomenon Among Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, M. R.; Talavera, A.; Bjorkman, K. S.; deWinter, D.; The, P.-S.; Molster, F. J.; vandenAncker, M. E.; Sitko, M. L.; Morrison, N. D.; Beaver, M. L.; McCollum, B.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of high dispersion UV and optical spectra of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars. We find accreting, circumstellar gas over the velocity range +100 to +400 km/s, and absorption profiles similar to those seen toward Beta Pic, in 36% of the 33 HAeBe stars with IUE data as well as in 3 non-emission B stars. We also find evidence of accretion in 7 HAeBe stars with optical data only. Line profile variability appears ubiquitous. As a group, the stars with accreting gas signatures have higher v sin i than the stars with outflowing material, and tend to exhibit large amplitude (greater than or equal to 1(sup m)) optical light variations. All of the program stars with polarimetric variations that are anti-correlated with the optical light, previously interpreted as the signature of a dust disk viewed close to equator-on, also show spectral signatures of accreting gas. These data imply that accretion activity in HAeBe stars is preferentially observed when the line of sight transits the circumstellar dust disk. Our data imply that the spectroscopic signatures of accreting circumstellar material seen in Beta Pic are not unique to that object, but instead are consistent with interpretation of Beta Pic as a comparatively young A star with its associated circumstellar disk.

  8. Optical, UV, and EUV Oscillations of SS Cygni in Outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Mauche, C W

    2003-12-19

    I provide a review of observations in the optical, UV (HST), and EUV (EUVE and Chandra LETG) of the rapid periodic oscillations of nonmagnetic, disk-accreting, high mass-accretion rate cataclysmic variables (CVs), with particular emphasis on the dwarf nova SS Cyg in outburst. In addition, I drawn attention to a correlation, valid over nearly six orders of magnitude in frequency, between the frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries. This correlation identifies the high frequency quasi-coherent oscillations (so-called ''dwarf nova oscillations'') of CVs with the kilohertz QPOs of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and the low frequency and low coherence QPOs of CVs with the horizontal branch oscillations (or the broad noise component identified as such) of LMXBs. Assuming that the same mechanisms produce the QPOs of white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binaries, this correlation has important implications for QPO models.

  9. Performance Results from In-Flight Commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2012-10-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS), results from the successful in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011, and some predictions of future Jupiter observations. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft, NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a rotationally stabilized spacecraft. The planned 2 rpm rotation rate for the primary mission results in integration times per spatial resolution element per spin of only 17 ms. Thus, data was retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up integration times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, map out scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately ±30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. We will describe our process for solving for the pointing of the scan mirror relative to the Juno spacecraft and present our initial half sky survey of UV bright stars complete with constellation overlays. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions and relate them to in situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will facilitate these measurements, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the surface positions of magnetic field lines Juno is flying through giving a direct connection between the particle measurements on the spacecraft to the observed reaction of Jupiter’s atmosphere to those particles. Finally, we will describe planned observations to be made during Earth flyby in October 2013 that will complete the in-flight characterization.

  10. The bolometric and UV attenuation in normal spiral galaxies of the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; De Looze, I.; Eales, S.; Fritz, J.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Madden, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Spinoglio, L.

    2016-02-01

    The dust in nearby galaxies absorbs a fraction of the UV-optical-near-infrared radiation produced by stars. This energy is consequently re-emitted in the infrared. We investigate the portion of the stellar radiation absorbed by spiral galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS) by modelling their UV-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions. Our models provide an attenuated and intrinsic spectral energy distribution (SED), from which we find that on average 32% of all starlight is absorbed by dust. We define the UV heating fraction as the percentage of dust luminosity that comes from absorbed UV photons and find this to be 56%, on average. This percentage varies with morphological type, with later types having significantly higher UV heating fractions. We find a strong correlation between the UV heating fraction and specific star formation rate and provide a power-law fit. Our models allow us to revisit the IRX - AFUV relations, and derive these quantities directly within a self-consistent framework. We calibrate this relation for different bins of NUV - r colour and provide simple relations to relate these parameters. We investigated the robustness of our method and conclude that the derived parameters are reliable within the uncertainties that are inherent to the adopted SED model. This calls for a deeper investigation of how well extinction and attenuation can be determined through panchromatic SED modelling. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  11. A quantitative study of O stars in NGC 2244 and the Monoceros OB2 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Mahy, L.; Hillier, D. J.; Rauw, G.

    2012-02-01

    Aims: Our goal is to determine the stellar and wind properties of seven O stars in the cluster NGC 2244 and three O stars in the OB association Mon OB2. These properties give us insight into the mass loss rates of O stars. They allow us to both check the validity of rotational mixing in massive stars and to better understand the effects of the ionizing flux and wind mechanical energy release on the surrounding interstellar medium and its influence on triggered star formation. Methods: We collected optical and UV spectra of the target stars that we analyzed by means of atmosphere models computed with the code CMFGEN. The spectra of binary stars were disentangled and the components studied separately. Results: All stars have an evolutionary age less than 5 million years, with the most massive stars being among the youngest. Nitrogen surface abundances show no clear relation with projected rotational velocities. Binaries and single stars show the same range of enrichment. This is attributed to the youth and/or wide separation of the binary systems in which the components have not (yet) experienced strong interaction. A clear trend toward greater enrichment in higher luminosity objects is observed, consistent with what evolutionary models with rotation predict for a population of O stars at any given age. We confirm the weakness of winds in late O dwarfs. In general, mass loss rates derived from UV lines are lower than mass loss rates obtained from Hα. The UV mass loss rates are even lower than the single-line driving limit in the latest type dwarfs. These issues are discussed in the context of the structure of massive stars winds. The evolutionary and spectroscopic masses are in agreement above 25 M⊙, but the uncertainties are large. Below this threshold, the few late-type O stars studied here indicate that the mass discrepancy still seems to hold. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Observations of stellar winds in early type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, P. S.

    1981-01-01

    The presented review is mainly concerned with the massive population I stars of spectral type OB and the Wolf-Rayet (WR) class. It is pointed out that stellar winds are a ubiquitous phenomenon among the early type stars. Methods to determine the mass loss rate are discussed, taking into account the UV method, the optical method, the infrared method, and the radio method. Current beliefs about early type stars are considered. It is thought that all have stellar winds. The winds are primarily driven by radiation pressure from the UV lines, but other, as yet unknown factors, may determine the density and hence the rates. The stellar winds are highly ionized, more so than would be inferred from their continuum radiation temperatures. The ionization equilibrium in the winds is affected by local X rays which have been detected by the Einstein satellite. Unresolved issues are also pointed out.

  13. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source; 2) close stellar encounters; 3) stellar winds; and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r approx. or less than 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r approx. or greater than 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed he solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ('proplyds') observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV (ultraviolet) photons from the nearby massive star Theta(1)C.

  14. Dispersal of Disks Around Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David

    2001-01-01

    We review the evidence pertaining to the lifetimes of planet-forming disks and discuss possible disk dispersal mechanisms: 1) viscous accretion of material onto the central source, 2) close stellar encounters, 3) stellar winds, and 4) photoevaporation by ultraviolet radiation. We focus on 3) and 4) and describe the quasi-steady state appearance and the overall evolution of disks under the influence of winds and radiation from the central star and of radiation from external OB stars. Viscous accretion likely dominates disk dispersal in the inner disk (r < or approx. equals 10 AU), while photoevaporation is the principal process of disk dispersal outside of r > or approx. equals 10 AU for low mass stars. Disk dispersal timescales are compared and discussed in relation to theoretical estimates for planet formation timescales. Photoevaporation may explain the large differences in the hydrogen content of the giant planets in the solar system. The commonly held belief that our early sun's stellar wind dispersed the solar nebula is called into question. Finally, we model the small bright objects ("proplyds") observed in the Orion Nebula as disks around young, low mass stars which are externally illuminated by the UV photons from the nearby massive star Theta(sup 1)C.

  15. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  16. The Pistol Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.

    1998-06-01

    Results of an spectroscopic investigation of the Pistol star are presented. The near-infrared spectra and photometry data are fit with stellar wind models to find that the star is extraordinarily luminous, L = 106.7±0.5 L⊙, making it one of the most luminous stars known. Coupled with the relatively cool temperature, Teff = 10^{4.17_{ - 0.06}^{ + 0.19} } K, the star is clearly in violation of the Humphreys-Davidson limit. The derived line of sight velocity of the star assures its membership in the Quintuplet cluster. This, along with the inferred extinction, places the star at the Galactic Center.

  17. Ultraviolet and X-ray Activity and Flaring on Low-Mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Brown, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to NUV) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential “biomarker” gases. We present results from the MUSCLES Treasury Survey, an ongoing study of time-resolved UV and X-ray spectroscopy of nearby M and K dwarf exoplanet host stars. This program uses contemporaneous Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra (or XMM) observations to characterize the time variability of the energetic radiation field incident on the habitable zones planetary systems at d < 15 pc. We find that all exoplanet host stars observed to date exhibit significant levels of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. M dwarf exoplanet host stars display 30 - 2000% UV emission line amplitude variations on timescales of minutes-to-hours. The relative flare/quiescent UV flux amplitudes on old (age > 1 Gyr) planet-hosting M dwarfs are comparable to active flare stars (e.g., AD Leo), despite their lack of flare activity at visible wavelengths. We also detect similar UV flare behavior on a subset of our K dwarf exoplanet host stars. We conclude that strong flares and stochastic variability are common, even on “optically inactive” M dwarfs hosting planetary systems. These results argue that the traditional assumption of weak UV fields and low flare rates on older low-mass stars needs to be revised.

  18. Are We Correctly Measuring the Star Formation in Galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, K. B. W.; Skillman, E. D.; Dolphin, A. E.; Mitchell, N. P.

    2016-06-01

    Integrating our knowledge of star formation (SF) traced by observations at different wavelengths is essential for correctly interpreting and comparing SF activity in a variety of systems and environments. This study compares extinction corrected integrated ultraviolet (UV) emission from resolved galaxies with color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based star formation rates (SFRs) derived from resolved stellar populations and CMD fitting techniques in 19 nearby starburst and post-starburst dwarf galaxies. The data sets are from the panchromatic Starburst Irregular Dwarf Survey and include deep legacy GALEX UV imaging, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Spitzer MIPS imaging. For the majority of the sample, the integrated near-UV fluxes predicted from the CMD-based SFRs—using four different models—agree with the measured, extinction corrected, integrated near-UV fluxes from GALEX images, but the far-UV (FUV) predicted fluxes do not. Furthermore, we find a systematic deviation between the SFRs based on integrated FUV luminosities and existing scaling relations, and the SFRs based on the resolved stellar populations. This offset is not driven by different SF timescales, variations in SFRs, UV attenuation, nor stochastic effects. This first comparison between CMD-based SFRs and an integrated FUV emission SFR indicator suggests that the most likely cause of the discrepancy is the theoretical FUV-SFR calibration from stellar evolutionary libraries and/or stellar atmospheric models. We present an empirical calibration of the FUV-based SFR relation for dwarf galaxies, with uncertainties, which is 53% larger than previous relations.

  19. Habitability around F-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, S.; Cuntz, M.; Guerra Olvera, C. M.; Jack, D.; Schröder, K.-P.

    2014-07-01

    We explore the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with masses between 1.2 and 1.5 M ⊙. Special consideration is given to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear main-sequence evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology may be most likely based on hydrocarbons. Consequently, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. We found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between a factor of 2.5 and 7.1 higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If attenuation is considered, smaller factors of damage are obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. This work is motivated by earlier studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-type stars is one of the most decisive factors in determining the suitability of exosolar planets and exomoons for biological evolution and sustainability.

  20. Hierarchical Star Formation in LEGUS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmegreen, Debra M.; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Star formation generally follows a hierarchical distribution in galaxies from kpc scales in giant star complexes down to sub-pc scales in embedded clusters. This hierarchy corresponds to a power law distribution function for the number of star forming regions as a function of size or luminosity. Using the Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey (LEGUS), we examine six galaxies, NGC 1566, NGC 1705, NGC 2500, NGC 5253, NGC 5477, and IC 4247, which span types from grand design and flocculent spirals to irregulars and starburst irregulars. Power law size and luminosity distributions were measured from Gaussian-blurred images in the NUV and UV using SExtractor. Slopes ranged from -1 to -1.8, with the steepest slopes corresponding to the starburst galaxies. The slopes did not vary from the NUV to the UV. The fraction of light contained within the largest scales ranged from 85 to 95 percent, independent of galaxy type. We acknowledge support from grant HST-GO-13364.

  1. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  2. Astrophysics: Stars fight back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies contain fewer stars than predicted. The discovery of a massive galactic outflow of molecular gas in a compact galaxy, which forms stars 100 times faster than the Milky Way, may help to explain why. See Letter p.68

  3. 'Polaris, Mark Kummerfeldt's Star, and My Star.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    1984-01-01

    In most astronomy courses, descriptions of stars and constellations reveal the western European origins of the astronomers who named them. However, it is suggested that a study of non-western views be incorporated into astronomy curricula. Descriptions of various stars and constellations from different cultures and instructional strategies are…

  4. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  5. First detection of nonflare microwave emissions from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, D. E.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for nonflare microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars comparable to the sun: single stars without evidence for either a large wind or circumstellar envelope. The observing program consisted of flux measurements of six stars over a 24-h period with the VLA in the C configuration at a wavelength of 6 cm with 50 MHz bandwidth. Positive detections at 6 cm were made for Chi 1 Ori (0.6 mJy) and the flare star UV Cet (1.55 mJy), and upper limits were obtained for the stars Pi 1 UMa, Xi Boo A, 70 Oph A and Epsilon Eri. It is suggested that Chi 1 Ori, and possibly UV Cet, represent the first detected members of a new class of radio sources which are driven by gyroresonance emission, i.e. cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons.

  6. Star formation in infrared bright and infrared faint starburst interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Susan A.; Bushouse, Howard A.; Towns, John W.

    1990-01-01

    Short wavelength IUE spectra of Arp 248b and UGC 8315N are combined with optical spectra and interpreted using a combination of spectrum synthesis and spectral diagnostics to place constraints on the massive star populations of the central regions of these galaxies and to deduce information about the star formation histories in the last 10(exp 8) years. The authors find that both galaxies have substantial fractions of their optical light coming from massive stars and that Arp 248b may be dominated in the UV by WR stars. The UV spectra are dominated by radiation from evolved massive stars and the authors place and age on the burst in Arp 248b of a few tens of millions of years.

  7. UV Raman spectroscopy of hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Loppnow, G R; Shoute, L; Schmidt, K J; Savage, A; Hall, R H; Bulmer, J T

    2004-11-15

    In this paper, the UV Raman spectra of a large number of saturated and alkyl-substituted monocyclic, bicyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are obtained at 220 and 233 nm excitation wavelengths. Also included are nitrogen- and sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. The spectra obtained are fluorescence free, even for such highly fluorescent compounds as perylene, consistent with earlier reports of UV Raman spectra of hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon UV Raman spectra exhibit greatly improved signal-to-noise ratio when in the neat liquid or solution state compared with the neat solid state, suggesting that some surface degradation occurs under the conditions used here. Assignments are given for most of the bands and clear marker bands for the different classes of hydrocarbons are readily observable, although their relative intensities vary greatly. These results are discussed in the context of structure and symmetry to develop a consistent, molecular-based model of vibrational group frequencies. PMID:15482987

  8. Classification and properties of UV extinction curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbaro, G.; Mazzei, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Patriarchi, P.; Perinotto, M.

    2001-01-01

    The catalog of Savage et al. (\\cite{ref27}) reporting colour excesses of 1415 stars from ANS photometry offers the opportunity to deeply investigate the characteristics of UV extinction curves which differ from the standard extinction of the diffuse interstellar medium. To this aim we have selected a sample of 252 curves, which have been compared with the relations derived by Cardelli et al. (\\cite{ref4}; CCM in the following) for a variety of R_V values in the range 2.4-5 and have been classified as normal if they fit at least one of the CCM curves or anomalous otherwise. We find that normal curves with small R_V are just as numerous as those with large R_V. The anomalous objects are arranged into two groups according to the strength of the bump at 0.217 mu . For a given value of c_2 this increases along the sequence: type A anomalous, normals and type B anomalous, suggesting that this sequence should correspond to an increase of the amount of small grains along the sightline. Considerations concerning the environmental characteristics indicate that the anomalous behaviour is not necessarily tied to the existence of dense gas clouds along the line of sight.

  9. About Exobiology: The Case for Dwarf K Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most fundamental topics of exobiology concerns the identification of stars with environments consistent with life. Although it is believed that most types of main-sequence stars might be able to support life, particularly extremophiles, special requirements appear to be necessary for the development and sustainability of advanced life forms. From our study, orange main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral type late-G to mid-K (with a maximum at early K), are most promising. Our analysis considers a variety of aspects, including (1) the frequency of the various types of stars, (2) the speed of stellar evolution in their lifetimes, (3) the size of the stellar climatological habitable zones (CLI-HZs), (4) the strengths and persistence of their magnetic-dynamo-generated X-ray–UV emissions, and (5) the frequency and severity of flares, including superflares; both (4) and (5) greatly reduce the suitability of red dwarfs to host life-bearing planets. The various phenomena show pronounced dependencies on the stellar key parameters such as effective temperature and mass, permitting the assessment of the astrobiological significance of various types of stars. Thus, we developed a “Habitable-Planetary-Real-Estate Parameter” (HabPREP) that provides a measure for stars that are most suitable for planets with life. Early K stars are found to have the highest HabPREP values, indicating that they may be “Goldilocks” stars for life-hosting planets. Red dwarfs are numerous, with long lifetimes, but their narrow CLI-HZs and hazards from magnetic activity make them less suitable for hosting exolife. Moreover, we provide X-ray–far-UV irradiances for G0 V–M5 V stars over a wide range of ages.

  10. About Exobiology: The Case for Dwarf K Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    2016-08-01

    One of the most fundamental topics of exobiology concerns the identification of stars with environments consistent with life. Although it is believed that most types of main-sequence stars might be able to support life, particularly extremophiles, special requirements appear to be necessary for the development and sustainability of advanced life forms. From our study, orange main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral type late-G to mid-K (with a maximum at early K), are most promising. Our analysis considers a variety of aspects, including (1) the frequency of the various types of stars, (2) the speed of stellar evolution in their lifetimes, (3) the size of the stellar climatological habitable zones (CLI-HZs), (4) the strengths and persistence of their magnetic-dynamo-generated X-ray-UV emissions, and (5) the frequency and severity of flares, including superflares; both (4) and (5) greatly reduce the suitability of red dwarfs to host life-bearing planets. The various phenomena show pronounced dependencies on the stellar key parameters such as effective temperature and mass, permitting the assessment of the astrobiological significance of various types of stars. Thus, we developed a “Habitable-Planetary-Real-Estate Parameter” (HabPREP) that provides a measure for stars that are most suitable for planets with life. Early K stars are found to have the highest HabPREP values, indicating that they may be “Goldilocks” stars for life-hosting planets. Red dwarfs are numerous, with long lifetimes, but their narrow CLI-HZs and hazards from magnetic activity make them less suitable for hosting exolife. Moreover, we provide X-ray-far-UV irradiances for G0 V-M5 V stars over a wide range of ages.

  11. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  12. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  13. STRONG VARIABLE ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM Y GEM: ACCRETION ACTIVITY IN AN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR WITH A BINARY COMPANION?

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Neill, James D.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Sanchez Contreras, Carmen

    2011-10-20

    Binarity is believed to dramatically affect the history and geometry of mass loss in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and post-AGB stars, but observational evidence of binarity is sorely lacking. As part of a project to look for hot binary companions to cool AGB stars using the Galaxy Evolution Explorer archive, we have discovered a late-M star, Y Gem, to be a source of strong and variable UV emission. Y Gem is a prime example of the success of our technique of UV imaging of AGB stars in order to search for binary companions. Y Gem's large and variable UV flux makes it one of the most prominent examples of a late-AGB star with a mass accreting binary companion. The UV emission is most likely due to emission associated with accretion activity and a disk around a main-sequence companion star. The physical mechanism generating the UV emission is extremely energetic, with an integrated luminosity of a few x L{sub sun} at its peak. We also find weak CO J = 2-1 emission from Y Gem with a very narrow line profile (FWHM of 3.4 km s{sup -1}). Such a narrow line is unlikely to arise in an outflow and is consistent with emission from an orbiting, molecular reservoir of radius 300 AU. Y Gem may be the progenitor of the class of post-AGB stars which are binaries and possess disks but no outflows.

  14. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  15. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  16. Managing the star performer.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas. PMID:23767124

  17. Effects of massive star radiation on circumstellar disks evolution in the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, Mario

    2007-09-01

    We will determine the frequency of disk and disk-less stars in the outer regions (relatively poor of massive stars) of the young cluster NGC 6611, with the aim to study the effects of UV flux due to massive stars on the evolution of circumstellar disks around low mass stars. Our previous results for the central region of the cluster show that this effect may be present, but we need to observe stars at larger distance from massive stars. This cluster is particularly well suited for our study, thanks to the irregular spatial distribution of its OB stars. CHANDRA observations are crucial for identifying the disk-less population undetectable with other method.

  18. Magnitude calibration of a fixed head star tracker using Astro-1 flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John M.; West, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    The Astro-1 UV astronomy mission was hampered by the failures of the automatic star acquisition procedure. The acquisition procedure depended on the Instrument Pointing Subsystem's Fixed Head Star Trackers (FHST) to acquire, track and identify guidestars of known visual magnitude. During the Astro-1 mission it was suspected that the star magnitudes measured by the FHST were much lower than predicted. A postflight investigation of the Astro-1 flight data confirmed and quantified this suspicion. Star magnitude calibration curves computed from the flight data depict the variance from the preflight calibration curves. These results are helping engineers to plan improvements to the acquisition procedure for the upcoming Astro-2 mission.

  19. Investigation of the shell stars omicron and theta Per, and of the eclipsing binary beta Lyr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M.

    1975-01-01

    All three stars showed rather complicated spectra, which require a very detailed spectroscopic analysis. The far UV spectrum of Beta Lyrae is clearly peculiar, with a multitude of emission lines not observed on any other star so far scanned with Copernicus. This made this star at once the most interesting and also, in a sense, easier to study. The other two stars display a spectrum rich in absorption lines, some of them being fairly broad (as expected for photospheric lines of rapidly rotating objects), some sharp. The later were clearly non-photospheric lines. An attempt was made to distinguish the circumstellar from the interstellar components.

  20. Constraining X-ray-Induced Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Orbiting Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzi, Kristina M.; Kastner, Joel H.; Rodriguez, David; Principe, David A.; Vican, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Low-mass, pre-main sequence stars possess intense high-energy radiation fields as a result of their strong stellar magnetic activity. This stellar UV and X-ray radiation may have a profound impact on the lifetimes of protoplanetary disks. We aim to constrain the X-ray-induced photoevaporation rates of protoplanetary disks orbiting low-mass stars by analyzing serendipitous XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of candidate nearby (D < 100 pc), young (age < 100 Myr) M stars identified in the GALEX Nearby Young-Star Survey (GALNYSS).

  1. Kinematics in the Interacting, Star-Forming Galaxies NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, Donna; Nelson, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that induced star formation is more sensitive to galaxy dynamics than to local phenomena and that enhanced star formation is found in galaxies with disturbed velocity structures. We are studying the stellar populations of several UV-bright, interacting galaxies to try to understand the detailed star formation process in these systems. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the kinematics of star-forming regions in the interacting systems NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995. Regions of powerful star formation are observed throughout these galaxies. The observatation will be used to investigate rotation curves in the galaxies and motion in the tidal tails.

  2. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  3. UV photobiochemistry under space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dose, K.; Bieger-Dose, A.; Dillmann, R.; Gill, M.; Kerz, O.; Klein, A.; Stridde, C.

    The response of spores of Bacillus subtilis, cells of Deinococcus radiodurans and conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus to actual and simulated space conditions (UV in combination with long-term exposure to extremely dry conditions, including vacuum) has been studied: The following effects have been analyzed: decrease of viability, occurrence of DNA double strand breaks, formation of DNA-protein cross-links and DNA-DNA cross-links. All organisms show an increased sensitivity to UV light in extreme dryness (dry argon or vacuum) compared to an irradiation in aqueous suspension. The UV irradiation leads in all cases to a variety of DNA lesions. Very conspicuous is the occurrence of double strand breaks. Most of these double strand breaks are produced by incomplete repair of other lesions, especially base damages. The increase in DNA lesions can be correlated to the loss in viability. The specific response of the chromosomal DNA to UV irradiation in extreme dryness, however, varies from species to species and depends on the state of dehydration. The formation of DNA double strand breaks and DNA-protein cross-links prevails in the case of B. subtilis spores. In cells of Deinococcus radiodurans DNA-DNA cross-links often predominate, in conidia of Aspergillus ochraceus double strand breaks. The results obtained by direct exposure to space conditions (EURECA mission and D2 mission) largely agree with the laboratory data.

  4. X-ray sources in regions of star formation. III - Naked T Tauri stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Brown, A.; Mathieu, R. D.; Myers, P. C.; Vrba, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-based and IRAS optical and IR spectroscopic and photometric observations are reported for 90 stars in or near 59 Einstein Observatory X-ray error circles in the Tau-Aur region. The data are presented in extensive tables and sample spectra and characterized in detail, with particular attention to 28 newly discovered 'naked' T Tau stars, which are shown to be normal stars with no significant IR or UV excess and ages of 1-40 Myr. These stars are found to outnumber normal T Tau stars by a factor of 10 in an area near the Tau-Aur dark clouds, and it is argued that their evolution toward the ZAMS is typical for low-mass stars. The implications of this finding for the time scales of circumstellar-disk dissipation and planet formation are discussed.

  5. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  6. Star field simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A Star Field Simulator has been developed to serve as a source of radiation for the ASTRO Star Tracker. The star tracker and simulator are components of a motion compensation test facility located at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Preflight tests and simulations using various levels of guide stars are performed in the test facility to establish performance of the motion compensation system before being used in a flight environment. The ASTRO Star Tracker operates over a wide dynamic range of irradiance corresponding to visual stellar magnitudes of -0.8 to 8. A minimum of three simulated guide stars with variable magnitudes are needed to fully test the Star Tracker performance under simulated mission conditions.

  7. The X-ray emission of the γ Cassiopeiae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Motch, C.

    2016-09-01

    Long considered as the "odd man out" among X-ray emitting Be stars, γ Cas (B0.5e IV) is now recognized as the prototype of a class of stars that emit hard thermal X-rays. Our classification differs from the historical use of the term " γ Cas stars" defined from optical properties alone. The luminosity output of this class contributes significantly to the hard X-ray production of massive stars in the Galaxy. The γ Cas stars have light curves showing variability on a few broadly-defined timescales and spectra indicative of an optically thin plasma consisting of one or more hot thermal components. By now 9-13 Galactic ≈ B0-1.5e main sequence stars are judged to be members or candidate members of the γ Cas class. Conservative criteria for this designation are for a ≈ B0-1.5e III-V star to have an X-ray luminosity of 1032-1033 ergs s-1, a hot thermal spectrum containing the short wavelength Lyα Fe XXV and Fe XXVI lines and the fluorescence FeK feature all in emission. If thermality cannot be demonstrated, for example from either the presence of these Lyα lines or curvature of the hard continuum of the spectrum of an X-ray active Be star, we call them γ Cas candidates. We discuss the history of the discovery of the complicated characteristics of the variability in the optical, UV, and X-ray domains, leading to suggestions for the physical cause of the production of hard X-rays. These include scenarios in which matter from the Be star accretes onto a degenerate secondary star and interactions between magnetic fields on the Be star and its decretion disk. The greatest aid to the choice of the causal mechanism is the temporal correlations of X-ray light curves and spectra with diagnostics in the optical and UV wavebands. We show why the magnetic star-disk interaction scenario is the most tenable explanation for the creation of hard X-rays on these stars.

  8. The chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660

    SciTech Connect

    Giarrusso, M.

    2014-05-09

    In this work I present the determination of chemical abundances of the Ap star HD94660, a possible rapid oscillating star. As all the magnetic chemically peculiar objects, it presents CNO underabundance and overabundance of iron peak elements of ∼100 times and of rare earths up to 4 dex with respect to the Sun. The determination was based on the conversion of the observed equivalent widths into abundances simultaneously to the determination of effective temperature and gravity. Since the Balmer lines of early type stars are very sensitive to the surface gravity while the flux distribution is sensitive to the effective temperature, I have adopted an iterative procedure to match the H{sub α} line profile and the observed UV-Vis-NIR magnitudes of HD94660 looking for a consistency between the metallicity of the atmosphere model and the derived abundances. From my spectroscopic analysis, this star belongs to the no-rapid oscillating class.

  9. IC 3418: STAR FORMATION IN A TURBULENT WAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, Janice A.; Neill, James D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Schiminovich, David; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-06-10

    Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations of IC 3418, a low surface brightness galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, revealed a striking 17 kpc UV tail of bright knots and diffuse emission. H{alpha} imaging confirms that star formation is ongoing in the tail. IC 3418 was likely recently ram pressure stripped on its first pass through Virgo. We suggest that star formation is occurring in molecular clouds that formed in IC 3418's turbulent stripped wake. Tides and ram pressure stripping (RPS) of molecular clouds are both disfavored as tail formation mechanisms. The tail is similar to the few other observed star-forming tails, all of which likely formed during RPS. The tails' morphologies reflect the forces present during their formation and can be used to test for dynamical coupling between molecular and diffuse gas, thereby probing the origin of the star-forming molecular gas.

  10. Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. II. Detection limits for the eight debris disks stars β Pic, AU Mic, 49 Cet, η Tel, Fomalhaut, g Lup, HD 181327 and HR 8799

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchet, L.; Lacour, S.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Ehrenreich, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Girard, J. H.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-10-01

    Context. The formation of planetary systems is a common, yet complex mechanism. Numerous stars have been identified to possess a debris disk, a proto-planetary disk or a planetary system. The understanding of such formation process requires the study of debris disks. These targets are substantial and particularly suitable for optical and infrared observations. Sparse aperture masking (SAM) is a high angular resolution technique strongly contributing to probing the region from 30 to 200 mas around the stars. This area is usually unreachable with classical imaging, and the technique also remains highly competitive compared to vortex coronagraphy. Aims: We aim to study debris disks with aperture masking to probe the close environment of the stars. Our goal is either to find low-mass companions, or to set detection limits. Methods: We observed eight stars presenting debris disks (β Pictoris, AU Microscopii, 49 Ceti, η Telescopii, Fomalhaut, g Lupi, HD 181327, and HR 8799) with SAM technique on the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: No close companions were detected using closure phase information under 0.5'' of separation from the parent stars. We obtained magnitude detection limits that we converted to Jupiter masses detection limits using theoretical isochrones from evolutionary models. Conclusions: We derived upper mass limits on the presence of companions in the area of a few times the telescope's diffraction limits around each target star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) during runs 087.C-0450(A), 087.C-0450(B) 087.C-0750(A), 088.C-0358(A).All magnitude detection limits maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/595/A31

  11. Hot, Massive Stars in I Zw 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Lindler, D.; Malumuth, E.

    2011-01-01

    I Zw 18 is one of the most primitive blue, compact dwarf galaxies. The ionized gas in I Zw 18 has a low oxygen abundance (O approx.1/30 Osun) and nitrogen abundance (N-1/100 Nsun) (Pequignot 2008). We have obtained a far-UV spectrum of the northwest massive star cluster of I Zw 18 using Hubble's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). The spectrum is compatible with continuous star-formation over the past approx.10 Myr, and a very low metallicity, log Z/Zsun 1.7, although the stellar surface may be enhanced in carbon. Stellar wind lines are very weak, and the edge velocity of wind lines is very low (approx.250 km/s).

  12. A SECOND NEUTRON STAR IN M4?

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozanska, A.; Rozyczka, M.; Krzeminski, W.; Thompson, Ian B.

    2012-05-01

    We show that the optical counterpart of the X-ray source CX 1 in M4 is a {approx}20th magnitude star, located in the color-magnitude diagram on (or very close to) the main sequence of the cluster, and exhibiting sinusoidal variations of the flux. We find the X-ray flux to be also periodically variable, with X-ray and optical minima coinciding. Stability of the optical light curve, lack of UV-excess, and unrealistic mean density resulting from period-density relation for semidetached systems speak against the original identification of CX 1 as a cataclysmic variable. We argue that the X-ray active component of this system is a neutron star (probably a millisecond pulsar).

  13. Ultraviolet Synthetic Spectra for Three Lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. We show that the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra (1280-3200 A) of Lambda Bootis, 29 Cygni (a "confirmed" Lambda Boo star), and Vega (a "mild" Lambda Boo star) can be fit remarkably well by single-temperature synthetic spectra. We computed the full resolution synthetic ultraviolet (UV) spectrum covering the IUE wavelength range using Gray's Stellar Spectral Synthesis Program SPECTRUM. To improve the synthetic spectra, we generated a grid of LTE atmosphere models with the appropriate stellar parameters using ATLAS9 and the existing Castelli and Kurucz 2004 models. One of the improvements of their opacity distribution functions (ODFs) is the addition to the line blanketing near 1400 A and 1600 A by the quasi-molecular absorptions of atomic hydrogen undergoing collisions with protons and other neutral hydrogen atoms. New-ODF fluxes reproduce the ultraviolet observations of Lambda Boo stars in a more realistic way than previous computations. We also constructed our own UV line list for the relevant set of absorption features. Modeling the UV line spectra of Lambda Boo stars allows us to confirm their published surface abundances, including CNO and the iron group elements. It also provides further insight into their photospheric conditions (e.g., Teff, log g, [M/H], micro turbulent velocity, etc.). About 40 percent of the published Lambda Boo candidates have existing IUE spectra. We plan to follow this pilot study and perform UV spectral synthesis for all of them.

  14. The Effects of Episodic Star Formation on the FUV-NUV Colors of Star Forming Regions in Outer Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Kate L.; van Zee, Liese; Dowell, Jayce D.

    2013-09-01

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10-8 to 4 × 10-9 yr-1. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L_{H_{\\alpha }}/L_{FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ~2 × 10-6 M ⊙ yr-1, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical evolution of spiral galaxies.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF EPISODIC STAR FORMATION ON THE FUV-NUV COLORS OF STAR FORMING REGIONS IN OUTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Kate L.; Van Zee, Liese; Dowell, Jayce D. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.edu

    2013-09-20

    We run stellar population synthesis models to examine the effects of a recently episodic star formation history (SFH) on UV and Hα colors of star forming regions. Specifically, the SFHs we use are an episodic sampling of an exponentially declining star formation rate (SFR; τ model) and are intended to simulate the SFHs in the outer disks of spiral galaxies. To enable comparison between our models and observational studies of star forming regions in outer disks, we include in our models sensitivity limits that are based on recent deep UV and Hα observations in the literature. We find significant dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of simulated star forming regions with frequencies of star formation episodes of 1 × 10{sup –8} to 4 × 10{sup –9} yr{sup –1}. The dispersion in UV colors is similar to that found in the outer disk of nearby spiral galaxies. As expected, we also find large variations in L{sub H{sub α}}/L{sub FUV}. We interpret our models within the context of inside-out disk growth, and find that a radially increasing τ and decreasing metallicity with an increasing radius will only produce modest FUV-NUV color gradients, which are significantly smaller than what is found for some nearby spiral galaxies. However, including moderate extinction gradients with our models can better match the observations with steeper UV color gradients. We estimate that the SFR at which the number of stars emitting FUV light becomes stochastic is ∼2 × 10{sup –6} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which is substantially lower than the SFR of many star forming regions in outer disks. Therefore, we conclude that stochasticity in the upper end of the initial mass function is not likely to be the dominant cause of dispersion in the FUV-NUV colors of star forming regions in outer disks. Finally, we note that if outer disks have had an episodic SFH similar to that used in this study, this should be taken into account when estimating gas depletion timescales and modeling chemical

  16. Advanced Spectral Library II: Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Stars are the bright matter of the Universe. Without them, it would be a dull and dreary place indeed: no light, no heavy elements, no planets, no life. It also is safe to say that stellar spectroscopy is a cornerstone of astrophysics, providing much of what we know concerning temperatures and masses of stars, their compositions, planets, and the dynamics and evolution of the galaxies they inhabit. This is especially true for the satellite ultraviolet, owing to the rich collection of atomic and ionic transitions found there. Unfortunately, the archive of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph rarely achieves the high S/N of the best ground-based spectra, and relatively few objects have the full wavelength coverage for which the powerful, highly multiplexed, second generation Hubble instrument was designed. Our aim is to collect STIS UV echelle spectra - comparable in S/N and resolution to the best ground-based material - for a diverse sample of representative stars, to build an Advanced Spectral Library; a foundation for astrophysical exploration: stellar, interstellar, and beyond. Our first effort, in Cycle 18, involved cool stars. Now we turn attention to the hot side of the H-R diagram.Our Treasury program will provide detailed stellar "atlases," based on advanced processing of the STIS echellegrams. Members of our broad collaboration will analyze these data for specific purposes, such as dynamics of O-star mass-loss; detection of rare species in sharp-lined B stars; and properties and kinematics of local interstellar clouds; but public release {based on the "ASTRAL-I" model} will enable many other investigations by a much wider community, for decades to come.

  17. Star formation in the Eagle Nebula and NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. M.; Jeffries, R. D.; van Loon, J. Th

    M16, also known as the Eagle Nebula, is a prime example for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. A rich young stellar population (NGC6611) has been identified. The well-known elephant trunks are striking examples of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. The detection of several water maser sources as well as embedded IR objects points at current star formation. I will present an overview of our recent observations that aim at characterising not only the young pre-main-sequence (PMS) and their disc, but also the still embedded population. We have discovered a rich population of low-mass PMS stars concentrated around the massive stars and the first results show that the IMF in NGC6611 is consistent with the IMF in less extreme star forming regions. I am using VLT/ VIMOS spectroscopy to determine reddening, effective temperature and gravity for a sample of ~260 cluster candidates to test the validity of the photometric techniques. We have been awarded HST observations to extend the optical and near-IR survey down to brown dwarfs and planetary mass objects. Recent theoretical developments propose that the density in the molecular cloud and/or the UV radiation from O-stars may play an role in shaping the low-mass IMF, with the signs of such influence enhanced in the brown-dwarf regime. Our HST observations will help disentangle these two effects on the IMF. We have also conducted a deep survey of the central area of NGC 6611 in L-band to determine the fraction of low-mass stars with circumstellar discs. The K-L colours indicate that 58% of objects retain their circumstellar discs, implying that the O-stars might not significantly hasten disc dissipation. We are complementing our data on NGC6611 with Spitzer/IRAC data for the outer regions where crowding is less severe, allowing us to investigate disc properties like inner disc temperature and geometry. Star formation is still ongoing in the denser

  18. The High-Energy Radiation Environment of Planets around Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya; Miles, Brittany; Barman, Travis; Peacock, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    Low-mass stars are the dominant planet hosts averaging about one planet per star. Many of these planets orbit in the canonical habitable zone (HZ) of the star where, if other conditions allowed, liquid water may exist on the surface.A planet’s habitability, including atmospheric retention, is strongly dependent on the star’s ultraviolet (UV) emission, which chemically modifies, ionizes, and even erodes the atmosphere over time including the photodissociation of important diagnostic molecules, e.g. H2O, CH4, and CO2. The UV spectral slope of a low-mass star can enhance atmospheric lifetimes, and increase the detectability of biologically generated gases. But, a different slope may lead to the formation of abiotic oxygen and ozone producing a false-positive biosignature for oxygenic photosynthesis. Realistic constraints on the incident UV flux over a planet’s lifetime are necessary to explore the cumulative effects on the evolution, composition, and fate of a HZ planetary atmosphere.NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) provides a unique data set with which to study the broadband UV emission from many hundreds of M dwarfs. The GALEX satellite has imaged nearly 3/4 of the sky simultaneously in two UV bands: near-UV (NUV; 175-275 nm) and far-UV (FUV; 135-175 nm). With these data these, we are able to calculate the mean UV emission and its level of variability at these wavelengths over critical planet formation and evolution time scales to better understand the probable conditions in HZ planetary atmospheres.In the near future, dedicated CubeSats (miniaturized satellites for space research) to monitor M dwarf hosts of transiting exoplanets will provide the best opportunity to measure their UV variability, constrain the probabilities of detecting habitable (and inhabited) planets, and provide the correct context within which to interpret IR transmission and emission spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets.

  19. Uv Imaging of Nearby Galaxies with FOC/96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan

    1991-07-01

    A random sample from among 256 nearby galaxies in the UGC and ESO catalogs will be imaged in the ultraviolet (2200 A) in a Snapshot Survey. Brief (10-minute) exposures will be obtained with the FOC in its F/96 mode with a 22"x22" field of view. The images will be used to search for low-luminosity AGNs that appear as unresolved UV point sources in the nuclei of galaxies. These weak AGNs, which can be detected directly only with HST, will help define the relations between quasars, active galaxies, and normal galaxies. The images will also be used to identify regions of active star formation and to search for compact galactic cores indicative of possible central massive black holes. The sample includes a variety of Hubble types of normal galaxies, as well as peculiar and interacting galaxies. For late-type galaxies, the visible-light leak to the detector will be small (a few %) and the UV light distribution will determine the spatial distribution of young stellar populations. The small field-of-view, high-resolution images will complement rocket-borne and ASTRO observations, and will provide the community with a valuable database. All objects that will be imaged in the UV by other Cycle 2 programs have been removed from the sample.

  20. Tunable UV source for UV fluorescence remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, R.D.; Lowenthal, D.D.; Raymond, T.D.; Alford, W.J.; Smith, A.V.; Johnson, M.S.

    1994-08-01

    Efficient generation of ultraviolet radiation tunable over the 240--410 nm range has been achieved in a system suitable for ultraviolet (uv) fluorescence remote sensing. Light from an Optical Parametric Oscillator/Amplifier turning in the 0.7--2.1 {mu}m range is mixed with the second or third harmonic from a Nd:YAG laser, to obtain up to 30 mJ of broadly tunable output in the ultraviolet.

  1. The NuSTAR Serendipitous Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansbury, George B.; NuSTAR

    2015-01-01

    A great breakthrough in studying the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) population is the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), the first focusing X-ray observatory with high sensitivity at > 10 keV. Here we present results from the NuSTAR serendipitous survey, the largest area (~7 deg2) component of the NuSTAR extragalactic survey programme. The source statistics are relatively good for a high energy X-ray survey, with ~150 detections and ~100 spectroscopically identified sources to-date. Studying the X-ray emission at > 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, allows intrinsic properties such as column densities and luminosities to be well constrained. The X-ray analysis is supplemented by broad-band UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution (SED) analyses. The dominant source population sampled by the NuSTAR serendipitous survey is quasars with L(10-40)keV > 1044 erg/s. This population is broadly similar to the population of nearby high-energy selected AGNs sampled by Swift/BAT, but scaled up in luminosity and mass.

  2. Line profile asymmetries in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Granados, Arno F.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    A powerful, new probe of chromospheric activity, cross-correlation, has been developed and applied to a variety of stars. In this particular application, an entire CCD spectrum of an active star is correlated with the spectrum of a narrow-line, inactive star of similar spectral type and luminosity class. Using a number of strong lines in this manner enables the detection of absorption profile asymmetries at moderate resolution (lambda/Delta lambda about 40,000) and S/N 150:1. This technique has been applied to 14 systems mostly RS CVn's, with 10 not greater than nu sin i not greater than 50 km/s and P not less than 7 d. Distortions were detected for the first time in five systems: Sigma Gem, IM Peg, GX Lib, UV Crb, and Zeta And. Detailed modeling, incorporating both spectral line profiles and broad-band photometry, is applied to Sigma Gem. Profile asymmetries for this star are fitted by two high-latitude spots covering 5 percent of the stellar surface. The derived spot temperature of 3400 K is lower than found in previous studies. In addition, two well-known systems have been studied: HD 199178 and V711 Tau. Polar spots are found on both.

  3. UV-RNA Immunoprecipitation (UV-RIP) Protocol in Neurons.

    PubMed

    Schaukowitch, Katie; Joo, Jae-Yeol; Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    With the many advances in genome-wide sequencing, it has been discovered that much more of the genome is transcribed into RNA than previously appreciated. These nonprotein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) come in many different forms, and they have been shown to have a variety of functions within the cell, influencing processes such as gene expression, mRNA splicing, and transport, just as a few examples. As we delve deeper into studying their mechanisms of action, it becomes important to understand how they play these roles, in particular by understanding what proteins these ncRNAs interact with. This protocol describes one technique that can be used to study this, ultra-violet light cross-linking RNA immunoprecipitation (UV-RIP), which uses an antibody to pull down a specific protein of interest and then detects RNA that is bound to it. This technique utilizes UV light to cross-link the cells, which takes advantage of the fact that UV light will only cross-link proteins and nucleic acids that are directly interacting. This approach can provide key mechanistic insight into the function of these newly identified ncRNAs. PMID:27662868

  4. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars. PMID:27214049

  5. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  6. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼1{{M}ȯ} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}ȯ} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}ȯ} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  7. Intergalactic Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boquien, Médéric

    2007-11-01

    The work presented here is about star formation in the unusual environment of collisional debris studied for the first time as such. These peculiar regions have an interstellar medium, and in particular a metallicity, similar to that of star forming regions in galactic discs while not undergoing similar environment effects such as density waves in the spiral arms for instance. This study has been conducted with a selection of exceptional systems that have ejected large quantities of gas into the intergalactic medium while also showing some intergalactic star forming regions. Principal Investigator as well as archive spectroscopy and imaging from multi-wavelength observations ranging from far ultraviolet to mid-infrared have been used. Withal a model has been built in order to reproduce the spectral energy distributions of intergalactic star forming regions and constrain the star formation histories, their extinctions and their fraction of stars coming from the parent galaxies' discs. Comparisons have been performed on the estimation of star formation rates between infrared, Halpha and ultraviolet wavelengths. This thesis has brought the following main new results: * some regions seem to be deprived of any old stellar population, and these are ideal laboratories in which to study star formation ; * the mid-infrared star formation rate estimator is as reliable as it is in spiral galaxies ; * the scatter in the estimation of star formation rates in various bands is similar to that of spiral galaxies and is mainly due to age effects ; * the combination of the extinction uncorrected Halpha line with mid-infrared yields a good estimation of the actual star formation rate ; * an important part of star formation, which can be as high as 85%, takes place in the intergalactic medium showing that in a young universe, in which this type of system is much more common than in the nearby universe, star formation from collisional debris can be an important factor of enrichment of

  8. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  9. The AFP-675 Far Ultraviolet Cameras experiment - Observations of the far-UV space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.; Morrill, Jeff S.; Dohne, Brian C.; Christensen, Susan A.

    1993-01-01

    The NRL's Far UV Cameras experiment flew aboard the Shuttle Orbiter on STS-39, in 1991: obtaining 105-200 nm measurements of the upper atmosphere, astronomical targets, and the Shuttle environment. Attention is presently given to observations of O2 density vs altitude in the nighttime atmosphere, the nocturnal ionosphere, Space Shuttle FUV glow, and photometry for both the stars and diffuse sources of 12 star fields at high and low galactic latitudes. The first FUV observations of the extended region of reflection nebulosity in Scorpius are included.

  10. What the UV SED Tells us About Stellar Populations and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    The UV SED parameter b as in f(sub 1) 1(sup b), is commonly used to estimate fundamental properties of high-redshift galaxies including age and metallicity. However, sources and processes other than age and metallicity can influence the value of b. We use the local starforming dwarf galaxy, I Zw 18, in a case study to investigate uncertainties in age and metallicity inferred from b due errors or uncertainties in: mode of star formation (instantaneous starburst vs. continuous SF), dust extinction, nebular continuous emission (2-photon emission, Balmer continuum flux), and presence of older stars.

  11. Star formation regions in galaxies: Star complexes and spiral arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Iurii N.

    This book describes observational data on star formation regions (from young star clusters to spiral arms) in the Milky Way and other galaxies. It is concluded that not only high-luminosity stars but also star clusters and associations are forming together in vast complexes. It is claimed that these complexes are the primary, fundamental entities of star formation.

  12. The Hot Stars in Symbiotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerset, Urs

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binaries, consisting of a late giant and a very hot companion, whose radiation ionizes the wind from the cool star. They strike the observers by their complex spectra and variability. A small subgroup, the symbiotic novae, undergo outbursts with an amplitude of several magnitudes and a duration of several decades. The ionizing binary component is usually too hot to be observed in the optical light. It emits mainly EUV photons, and in spectral regions better accessible to observers, nebula and cool star are much brighter than the hot star. Direct observations of hot components have therefore been restricted to special cases. Consequently, our knowledge about the hot components was poor. This thesis presents indirect methods allowing to extract crucial information on the ionizing star from the spectrum of the ionized nebula. Fundamental characteristics such as temperature, radius, and outburst energy are determined. They characterize the nature of the hot star, its outbursts, and the evolutionary status of the system. The IUE archive proved best suited as observational base. It contains thousands of far UV spectra of symbiotic stars. The UV continuum and the He II lambda-1640 recombination line turned out to be particularly sensitive to the hot star's parameters. For one object ROSAT observations of photospheric X-ray emission exist. They confirm the results obtained from IUE spectra. Unfortunately, only a subset of the symbiotics are bright enough to be observable in the UV, and moreover, the outburst of most symbiotic novae started long before the advent of space observatories. Possibilities to use optical spectroscopy are explored for these cases. T* can be derived from the observed ionization stages, and L* can be estimated from UBV magnitudes. The main result is displayed in Figure 1. Typically, the hot component of a symbiotic system has a radius ~0.1~R\\odot, a surface temperature ~100,000~K, and a luminosity ~1000~L\\odot. They

  13. AN ULTRAVIOLET INVESTIGATION OF ACTIVITY ON EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2013-03-20

    Using the far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) photometry from the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we searched for evidence of increased stellar activity due to tidal and/or magnetic star-planet interactions (SPI) in the 272 known FGK planetary hosts observed by GALEX. With the increased sensitivity of GALEX, we are able probe systems with lower activity levels and at larger distances than what has been done to date with X-ray satellites. We compared samples of stars with close-in planets (a < 0.1 AU) to those with far-out planets (a > 0.5 AU) and looked for correlations of excess activity with other system parameters. This statistical investigation found no clear correlations with a, M{sub p} , or M{sub p} /a, in contrast to some X-ray and Ca II studies. However, there is tentative evidence (at a level of 1.8{sigma}) that stars with radial-velocity-(RV)-detected close-in planets are more FUV-active than stars with far-out planets, in agreement with several published X-ray and Ca II results. The case is strengthened to a level of significance to 2.3{sigma} when transit-detected close-in planets are included. This is most likely because the RV-selected sample of stars is significantly less active than the field population of comparable stars, while the transit-selected sample is similarly active. Given the factor of 2-3 scatter in fractional FUV luminosity for a given stellar effective temperature, it is necessary to conduct a time-resolved study of the planet hosts in order to better characterize their UV variability and generate a firmer statistical result.

  14. CNO behaviour in planet-harbouring stars. I. Nitrogen abundances in stars with planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Andrés, L.; Israelian, G.; González Hernández, J. I.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Delgado Mena, E.; Santos, N. C.; Sousa, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen (CNO) are key elements in stellar formation and evolution, and their abundances should also have a significant impact on planetary formation and evolution. Aims: We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 74 solar-type stars, 42 of which are known to harbour planets. We determine the nitrogen abundances of these stars and investigate a possible connection between N and the presence of planetary companions. Methods: We used VLT/UVES to obtain high-resolution near-UV spectra of our targets. Spectral synthesis of the NH band at 3360 Å was performed with the spectral synthesis codes MOOG and FITTING. Results: We identify several spectral windows from which accurate N abundance can be obtained. Nitrogen distributions for stars with and without planets show that planet hosts are nitrogen-rich when compared to single stars. However, given the linear trend between [N/Fe] vs. [Fe/H], this fact can be explained as being due to the metal-rich nature of planet hosts. Conclusions: We conclude that reliable N abundances can be derived for metal-rich solar type stars from the near UV molecular band at 3360 Å. We confirm a linear trend between [N/Fe] and metallicity expected from standard models of Galactic chemical evolution. Based on observations collected with the UVES spectrograph at the 8-m Very Large Telescope (VLT) - program IDs: 074.C-0134(A), 075.D-0453(A), 086.D-0082(A), 093.D-0328(A), installed at the Cerro Paranal Observatory.

  15. UV and Optical Detectors: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodgate, Bruce; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    UV and visible detectors - status and prospects. The status and prospects for UV and visible detectors for space astrophysics missions will be described, based on the findings of the NASA working group roadmap report, hopefully updated.

  16. Dynamical Properties of z ~ 2 Star-forming Galaxies and a Universal Star Formation Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouché, N.; Cresci, G.; Davies, R.; Eisenhauer, F.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Gillessen, S.; Lehnert, M.; Lutz, D.; Nesvadba, N.; Shapiro, K. L.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.; Verma, A.; Cimatti, A.; Daddi, E.; Renzini, A.; Erb, D. K.; Shapley, A.; Steidel, C. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first comparison of the dynamical properties of different samples of z~1.4-3.4 star-forming galaxies from spatially resolved imaging spectroscopy from SINFONI/VLT integral field spectroscopy and IRAM CO millimeter interferometry. Our samples include 16 rest-frame UV-selected, 16 rest-frame optically selected, and 13 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). We find that rest-frame UV and optically bright (K<20) z~2 star forming galaxies are dynamically similar, and follow the same velocity-size relation as disk galaxies at z~0. In the theoretical framework of rotating disks forming from dissipative collapse in dark matter halos, the two samples require a spin parameter <λ> ranging from 0.06 to 0.2. In contrast, bright SMGs (S850μm>=5 mJy) have larger velocity widths and are much more compact. Hence, SMGs have lower angular momenta and higher matter densities than either the UV or optically selected populations. This indicates that dissipative major mergers may dominate the SMGs population, resulting in early spheroids, and that a significant fraction of the UV/optically bright galaxies have evolved less violently, either in a series of minor mergers, or in rapid dissipative collapse from the halo, given that either process may leads to the formation of early disks. These early disks may later evolve into spheroids via disk instabilities or mergers. Because of their small sizes and large densities, SMGs lie at the high surface density end of a universal (out to z=2.5) ``Schmidt-Kennicutt'' relation between gas surface density and star formation rate surface density. The best-fit relation suggests that the star formation rate per unit area scales as the surface gas density to a power of ~1.7, and that the star formation efficiency increases by a factor of 4 between non-starbursts and strong starbursts. Based on observations at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, under programs GTO 073.B-9018, 074.A-9011

  17. Fractal dust grains around R Coronae Borealis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    Discrete dipole approximation calculations of the optical properties of random fractal aggregates of graphite spheroids show a UV absorption feature that is too wide and centered at too long a wavelength to fit the observed interstellar 2200-A feature, but which is a good match to the 2400-A feature seen in the hydrogen-deficient R CrB stars reported by Hecht et al. (1984). Graphite fractal grains also match the UV bump and large long-wavelenvth extinction seen in laboratory studies of carbon smoke published by Bussoletti et al. (1987), which are usually attributed to amorphous carbon.

  18. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  19. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacca, William D.; Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates.

  20. IUE and Einstein survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars and the dividing line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard M.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Maggio, A.; Vaiana, G. S.; Bennett, Jeffrey O.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on an IUE UV survey of 255 late-type G, K, and M stars, complementing the Maggio et al. (1990) Einstein X-ray survey of 380 late-type stars. The large data sample of X-ray and UV detections make it possible to examine the activity relationship between the X-ray and the UV emissions. The results confirm previous finding of a trend involving a steeply-dropping upper envelope of the transition region line fluxes, f(line)/f(V), as the dividing line is approached. This suggests that a sharp decrease in maximum activity accompanies the advancing spectral type, with the dividing line corresponding to this steep gradient region. The results confirm the rotation-activity connection for stars in this region of the H-R diagram.

  1. WO-Type Wolf-Rayet Stars: the Last Hurrah of the Most Massive Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Philip

    2014-10-01

    WO-type Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars are considered the final evolutionary stage of the highest mass stars, immediate precursors to Type Ic (He-poor) core-collapse supernovae. These WO stars are rare, and until recently only 6 were known. Our knowledge about their physical properties is mostly based on a single object, Sand 2 in the LMC. It was the only non-binary WO star both bright and unreddened enough that its FUV and NUV spectra could be obtained by FUSE and HST/FOS. A non-LTE analysis showed that Sand 2 is very hot and its (C+O)/He abundance ratio is higher than that found in WC-type WRs, suggesting it is indeed highly evolved. However, the O VI resonance doublet in the FUV required a considerably cooler temperature (120,000 K) model than did the optical O VI lines (170,000 K). Further, the enhanced chemical abundances did not match the predictions of stellar evolutionary models. Another non-LTE study found a 3x higher (C+O)/He abundance ratio and a cooler temperature. We have recently discovered two other bright, single, and lightly reddened WOs in the LMC, allowing us to take a fresh look at these important objects. Our newly found WOs span a range in excitation type, from WO1 (the highest) to WO4 (the lowest). Sand 2 is intermediate (WO3). We propose to use COS to obtain FUV and NUV data of all three stars for as comprehensive a study as is currently possible. These UV data will be combined with our optical Magellan spectra for a detailed analysis with CMFGEN with the latest atomic data. Knowing the degree of chemical evolution of these WO stars is crucial to determining their evolutionary status, and thus in understanding the final stages of the most massive stars.

  2. STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?

    PubMed

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-04-01

    Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting.

  3. The First Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  4. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  5. Variable outflow in the O6ef star Lambda Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leep, E. M.; Conti, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper analyzes spectroscopic data from the UV region using the Copernicus satellite on six consecutive days in September, 1975. It is found that the P Cygni lines of C III at 1175 A and of N V at 1238 and 1242 A show little or no variation in their profiles. The results indicate that the changes in the 4686-A H II and H-alpha can be interpreted as a variable outflow near the surface of the star, either due to random density inhomogeneities propagating outward, or the effects of rotation of a nonspherical star, or both. Insufficient data exist at present to distinguish between periodic and random fluctuations.

  6. The unusual interacting S star binary HR 1105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, Thomas B., III; Johnson, Hollis R.; Bopp, Bernard W.

    1994-01-01

    IUE observations of HR 1105 over its 596-day orbit show strong orbital modulation of both continuum and emission lines. These are most intense just before both conjunctions and nearly disappear near quadratures, the most intense phase being just before the hot component passes in front of the S star. High dispersion observations exhibit a blue-shifted absorption feature in Mg II, representing an outflow of material of about 55 km/s. These observations are consistent with the UV source being an optically thin gas stream between the components of the system, which is partially eclipsed when the S star is in front.

  7. The Role of Radiation Pressure in Assembling Super Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsz-Ho Tsang, Benny; Milosavljevic, Milos

    2016-06-01

    Super star clusters are the most extreme star-forming regions of the Universe - they occupy the most massive end of the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, forming stars at exceptionally high rates and gas surface densities. The radiation feedback from the dense population of massive stars is expected to play a dynamic role during the assembly of the clusters, and represents a potential mechanism for launching large-scale galactic outflows. Observationally, large distances and dust obscuration have been withholding clues about the early stages of massive cluster formation; theoretically, the lack of accurate and efficient radiation transfer schemes in multi-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations has been deterring our understanding of radiative feedback. By extending the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH with a closure-free, Monte Carlo radiation transport scheme, we perform 3D radiation hydrodynamical simulations of super star cluster formation from the collapse of turbulent molecular clouds. Our simulations probe the star formation in densities typical for starbursts, with both non-ionizing UV and dust-reprocessed IR radiation treated self-consistently. We aim to determine the role of radiation pressure in regulating star formation, and its capacity in driving intense outflows.

  8. Strange nonchaotic stars.

    PubMed

    Lindner, John F; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G; Ditto, William L

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented light curves of the Kepler space telescope document how the brightness of some stars pulsates at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear dynamical system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies generically exhibits a strange but nonchaotic attractor. For Kepler's "golden" stars, we present evidence of the first observation of strange nonchaotic dynamics in nature outside the laboratory. This discovery could aid the classification and detailed modeling of variable stars.

  9. First supernova companion star found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 222 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Supernova 1993J exploding (artist’s impression) New observations with the Hubble Space Telescope allow a look into a supernova explosion under development. In this artist’s view the red supergiant supernova progenitor star (left) is exploding after having transferred about 10 solar masses of hydrogen gas to the blue companion star (right). This interaction process happened over about 250 years and affected the supernova explosion to such an extent that SN 1993J was later known as one of the most peculiar supernovae ever seen. Supernova 1993J exploding hi-res Size hi-res: 4200 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) The site of the Supernova 1993J explosion A virtual journey into one of the spiral arms of the grand spiral Messier 81 (imaged with the Isaac Newton Telescope on La Palma, left) reveals the superb razor-sharp imaging power of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (Hubble’s WFPC2 instrument, below). The close-up (with Hubble’s ACS, to the right) is centred on the newly discovered companion star to Supernova 1993J that itself is no longer visible. The quarter-circle around the supernova companion is a so-called light echo originating from sheets of dust in the galaxy reflecting light from the original supernova explosion. Supernova 1993J explosing site hi-res Size hi-res: 1502 kb Credits: ESA and Justyn R. Maund (University of Cambridge) Close-up of the Supernova 1993J explosion site (ACS/HRC image) This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the area in Messier 81 where Supernova 1993J exploded. The companion to the supernova ‘mother star’ that remains after the explosion is seen in the centre of the image. The image is taken with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys and is a combination of four exposures taken with ACS’ High Resolution Camera. The exposures were taken through two near-UV filters (250W

  10. Photolytic degradation of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim using UV-A, UV-C and vacuum-UV (VUV).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    The photolytic degradation of the non-degradable pharmaceuticals sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and trimethoprim (TMP) in an aqueous solution was investigated using three kinds of low-pressure mercury lamp UV-A (352 nm), UV-C (254 nm), and vacuum-UV (VUV, 185 nm and 254 nm). The degradation rates were highly dependent on the target compounds as well as the UV sources. No degradation of the target compounds was observed using UV-A treatment, because there was no overlap between the UV-A emission spectrum and absorption spectrum of the target compounds. On the other hand, UVC and VUV revealed higher reactivity. The results also indicated that SMX had a greater potential to react photochemically than TMP. Among the UV sources, VUV was the most effective process for the degradation of target compounds. Furthermore, the addition of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) to the reaction system improved the overall degradation rate significantly.The experimental results for the VUV-irradiated samples with the addition of methanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger revealed that hydroxyl radicals contribute significantly to the elimination of the target compound. Overall, the degradation rate of the target compounds was in the order: VUV = UV-C > UV-A for sulfamethoxazole and VUV/H2O2 > VUV/ Na2S2O8 > VUV >UV-C >UV-A for trimethoprim.

  11. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, Sara R.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Gaidos, Eric; Kasting, James; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have started a comprehensive, interdisciplinary study of the influence of solar ultraviolet radiation on the atmosphere of of the early Earth. We plan to model the chemistry of the Earth atmosphere during its evolution, using observed UV flux distributions of early solar analogs as boundary conditions in photochemical models of the Earth's atmosphere. The study has four distinct but interlinked parts: (1) Establishing the radiation of the early Sun; (2) Determining the photochemistry of the early Earth's atmosphere; (3) Estimating the rates of H2 loss from the atmosphere; and (4) Ascertaining how sensitive is the photochemistry to the metallicity of the Sun. We are currently using STIS and EUVE to obtain high-quality far-UV and extreme-UV observations of three early-solar analogs. We will perform a detailed non-LTE study of each stars, and construct theoretical model photosphere, and an empirical model chromospheres, which can be used to extrapolate the continuum to the Lyman continuum region. Given a realistic flux distribution of the early Sun, we will perform photochemical modeling of weakly reducing primitive atmospheres to determine the lifetime and photochemistry of CH4. In particular, we will make estimates of the amount of CH4 present in the prebiotic atmosphere, and estimate the atmospheric CH4 concentration during the Late Archean (2.5-3.0 b.y. ago) and determine whether it would have been sufficiently abundant to help offset reduced solar luminosity at that time. Having obtained a photochemical model, we will solve for the concentrations of greenhouse gasses and important pre-biotic molecules, and perform a detailed radiative transfer calculations to compute the UV flux reaching the surface.

  12. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  13. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one`s understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying {delta} Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for {delta} Scuti stars, using FG Vir, {delta} Scuti, and CD-24{degree} 7599 as examples.

  14. Massive soliton stars

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Hongyee )

    1990-05-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers. 27 refs.

  15. Introduction to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-24

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  16. Strange Nonchaotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2015-08-01

    Exploiting the unprecedented capabilities of the planet-hunting Kepler space telescope, which stared at 150 000 stars for four years, we discuss recent evidence that certain stars dim and brighten in complex patterns with fractal features. Such stars pulsate at primary and secondary frequencies whose ratios are near the famous golden mean, the most irrational number. A nonlinear system driven by an irrational ratio of frequencies is generically attracted toward a “strange” behavior that is geometrically fractal without displaying the “butterfly effect” of chaos. Strange nonchaotic attractors have been observed in laboratory experiments and have been hypothesized to describe the electrochemical activity of the brain, but a bluish white star 16 000 light years from Earth in the constellation Lyra may manifest, in the scale-free distribution of its minor frequency components, the first strange nonchaotic attractor observed in the wild. The recognition of stellar strange nonchaotic dynamics may improve the classification of these stars and refine the physical modeling of their interiors. We also discuss nonlinear analysis of other RR Lyrae stars in Kepler field of view and discuss some toy models for modeling these stars.References: 1) Hippke, Michael, et al. "Pulsation period variations in the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878." The Astrophysical Journal 798.1 (2015): 42.2) Lindner, John F., et al. "Strange nonchaotic stars." Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 054101 (2015)

  17. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  18. X-shooter, NACO, and AMBER observations of the LBV Pistol Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Blomme, R.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Merand, A.; Montagnier, G.; Selman, F.; Girard, J.; Fox, A.; Baade, D.; Frémat, Y.; Lobel, A.; Martins, F.; Patru, F.; Rivinius, T.; Sana, H.; Stefl, S.; Zorec, J.; Semaan, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present multi-instrument and multi-wavelength observations of the famous LBV star Pistol Star. These observations are part of a larger program on early O stars at different metallicities. The Pistol Star has been claimed to be one of the most massive star known, with 250 solar masses. We present preliminary results based on X-shooter spectra, as well as observations performed with the VLTI-AMBER and the VLT-NACO adaptive optics. The X-shooter spectrograph provides simultaneously a spectrum from the UV to the K-band with a resolving power of ˜15000. The preliminary results obtained indicate that Pistol Star has similar properties to η Car, including shells of matter, but is also a binary.

  19. How Does Abundance Affect the Strength of UV Emission in Elliptical Galaxies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Brown, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    : the hot stars in M31 seem to have a similar carbon abundance to those stars in galaxies with much brighter UV emission. The fraction of these hot stars in a population should be a strong function of chemical abundances, so this finding warrants further exploration, and we are proceeding with our analysis. Because the UV emission in these galaxies comes from a population of extreme horizontal branch stars, the PI (Brown) presented this result at a June 2003 conference on such stars.

  20. A Comparative Study of Knots of Star Formation in Interacting versus Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Beverly J.; Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Struck, Curtis; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith

    2016-03-01

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  1. IR/UV and UV/UV double-resonance study of guaiacol and eugenol dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longarte, Asier; Redondo, Carolina; Fernández, José A.; Castaño, Fernando

    2005-04-01

    Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) molecules are biologically active phenol derivatives with an intramolecular -OH⋯OCH3 hydrogen bond (H bond). Pulsed supersonic expansions of mixtures of either of the two molecules with He yield weakly bound homodimers as well as other higher-order complexes. A number of complementary and powerful laser spectroscopic techniques, including UV-UV and IR-UV double resonances, have been employed to interrogate the species formed in the expansion in order to get information on their structures and spectroscopic properties. The interpretation of the spectra of eugenol dimer is complex and required a previous investigation on a similar but simpler molecule both to gain insight into the possible structures and support the conclusions. Guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) has been used for that purpose. The combination of the broad laser study combined with ab initio calculations at the Becke 3 Lee-Yang-Parr/6-31+G(d) level has provided the isomer structures, the potential-energy wells, and shed light on the inter- and intramolecular interactions involved. Guaiacol homodimer has been shown to have a single isomer whereas eugenol dimer has at least two. The comparison between the computed geometries of the dimers, their respective energies, and the vibrational normal modes permits the identification of the spectra.

  2. Radiative ablation of disks around massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Nathaniel Dylan

    Hot, massive stars (spectral types O and B) have extreme luminosities (10. 4 -10. 6 L?) that drive strong stellar winds through UV line-scattering.Some massive stars also have disks, formed by either decretion from the star (as in the rapidly rotating "Classical Be stars"), or accretion during the star's formation. This dissertation examines the role of stellar radiation in driving (ablating) material away from these circumstellar disks. A key result is that the observed month to year decay of Classical Be disks can be explained by line-driven ablation without, as previously done, appealing to anomalously strong viscous diffusion. Moreover, the higher luminosity of O stars leads to ablation of optically thin disks on dynamical timescales of order a day, providing a natural explanation for the lack of observed Oe stars. In addition to the destruction of Be disks, this dissertation also introduces a model for their formation by coupling observationally inferred non-radial pulsation modes and rapid stellar rotation to launch material into orbiting Keplerian disks of Be-like densities. In contrast to such Be decretion disks, star-forming accretion disks are much denser and so are generally optically thick to continuum processes. To circumvent the computational challenges associated with radiation hydrodynamics through optically thick media, we develop an approximate method for treating continuum absorption in the limit of geometrically thin disks. The comparison of ablation with and without continuum absorption shows that accounting for disk optical thickness leads to less than a 50% reduction in ablation rate, implying that ablation rate depends mainly on stellar properties like luminosity. Finally, we discuss the role of "thin-shell mixing" in reducing X-rays from colliding wind binaries. Laminar, adiabatic shocks produce well understood X-ray emission, but the emission from radiatively cooled shocks is more complex due to thin-shell instabilities. The parameter

  3. Are dusty galaxies blue? Insights on UV attenuation from dust-selected galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Cooray, A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Sanders, D. B.; Lee, N.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Capak, P.; Conley, A.; De Zotti, G.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Le Floc'h, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies' rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties are often used to directly infer the degree to which dust obscuration affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs). While much recent work has focused on calibrating dust attenuation in galaxies selected at rest-frame ultraviolet wavelengths, locally and at high-z, here we investigate attenuation in dusty, star forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected at far-infrared wavelengths. By combining multiwavelength coverage across 0.15-500 μm in the COSMOS field, in particular making use of Herschel imaging, and a rich data set on local galaxies, we find an empirical variation in the relationship between the rest-frame UV slope (β) and the ratio of infrared-to-ultraviolet emission (L {sub IR}/L {sub UV} ≡ IRX) as a function of infrared luminosity, or total SFR. Both locally and at high-z, galaxies above SFR ≳ 50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} deviate from the nominal IRX-β relation toward bluer colors by a factor proportional to their increasing IR luminosity. We also estimate contamination rates of DSFGs on high-z dropout searches of <<1% at z ≲ 4-10, providing independent verification that contamination from very dusty foreground galaxies is low in Lyman-break galaxy searches. Overall, our results are consistent with the physical interpretation that DSFGs, e.g., galaxies with >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, are dominated at all epochs by short-lived, extreme burst events, producing many young O and B stars that are primarily, yet not entirely, enshrouded in thick dust cocoons. The blue rest-frame UV slopes of DSFGs are inconsistent with the suggestion that most DSFGs at z ∼ 2 exhibit steady-state star formation in secular disks.

  4. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Temporally- and Spectrally-Resolved Irradiance from Low-mass Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin; Parke Loyd, R. O.; Youngblood, Allison; Linsky, Jeffrey; MUSCLES Treasury Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. High-energy photons (X-ray to near-UV; 5 - 3200 Ang) from these stars regulate the atmospheric temperature profiles and photochemistry on orbiting planets, influencing the production of potential "biomarker" gases. It has been shown that the atmospheric signatures of potentially habitable planets around low-mass stars may be significantly different from planets orbiting Sun-like stars owing to the different UV spectral energy distribution. I will present results from a panchromatic survey (Hubble/Chandra/XMM/optical) of M and K dwarf exoplanet hosts, the MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems). We reconstruct the Lyman-alpha and extreme-UV (100-900 Ang) radiation lost to interstellar attenuation and create 5 Angstrom to 5 micron stellar irradiance spectra; these data will be publically available as a High-Level Science Product on MAST. We find that all low-mass exoplanet host stars exhibit significant chromospheric/transition region/coronal emission -- no "UV inactive" M dwarfs are observed. The F(far-UV)/F(near-UV) flux ratio, a driver for possible abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, increases by ~3 orders of magnitude as the habitable zone moves inward from 1 to 0.1 AU, while the incident far-UV (912 - 1700 Ang) and XUV (5 - 900 Ang) radiation field strengths decrease by factors of a few across this range. Far-UV flare activity is common in 'optically inactive' M dwarfs; statistics from the entire sample indicate that large UV flares (E(300 - 1700 Ang) >= 10^31 erg) occur several times per day on typical M dwarf exoplanet hosts.

  5. Lyman-Alpha Observations of High Radial Velocity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    H I LYMAN -ALPHA (LY-A) IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LINES EMITTED BY PLASMA IN THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 7000 TO 10 TO THE FIFTH POWER K IN LATE-TYPE STARS. IT IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE TOTAL RADIATIVE LOSS RATE, AND IT PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN DETERMINING THE ATMOSPHERIC STRUCTURE AND IN FLUORESCING OTHER UV LINES. YET IT IS ALSO THE LEAST STUDIED MAJOR LINE IN THE FAR UV, BECAUSE MOST OF THE LINE FLUX IS ABSORBED BY THE ISM ALONG THE LINE OF SIGHT AND BECAUSE IT IS STRONGLY COMTAMINATED BY THE GEOCORONAL BACKGROUND. A KNOWLEDGE OF THE Ly-A PROFILE IS ALSO IMPORTANT FOR STUDIES OF DEUTERIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM. BY OBSERVING HIGH RADIAL VELOCITY STARS WE WILL OBTAIN FOR THE FIRST TIME HIGH RESOLUTION SPECTRA OF THE CORE OF A STELLAR H I LYMAN-A EMISSION LINE PROFILE.

  6. Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL): Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Co-Investigators, ASTRAL

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cycle 18 (2010-2011) Large Treasury Project, whose aim is to collect high-quality ultraviolet echelle spectra of bright stars utilizing the high-performance Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). In Cycle 18, ASTRAL focuses on eight iconic late-type objects -- all well-known bright stars with vaguely unpronounceable names like Procyon and Betelgeuse -- and will devote 146 HST orbits for the purpose. The objective is to record each of the targets with broad uninterrupted UV coverage (1150-3100 Angstroms) at the highest signal-to-noise and highest spectral resolution achievable within the available spacecraft time, and given a variety of observing constraints. The broad ultraviolet coverage will be achieved by splicing together echellegrams taken in multiple FUV and NUV prime echelle settings of STIS. The observing strategy was designed to maximize S/N, ensure accurate wavelength scales, and preserve the radiometric level of the UV spectral energy distribution. This is a progress report on the observational status of ASTRAL. Up-to-date information can be found at the project website:http://casa.colorado.edu/ ayres/ASTRAL/. Supported by grants from the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA for NASA.

  7. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu

    2009-07-20

    A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.

  8. The Pistol Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, Donald F.; Najarro, Francisco; Morris, Mark; McLean, Ian S.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Ghez, Andrea M.; Langer, Norbert

    1998-10-01

    We present new near-infrared data and analysis, which indicate that the Pistol Star is one of the most luminous stars known, adding another test point for massive star formation and stellar evolution theories. We estimate an extinction of AK = 3.2 +/- 0.5 using the near-infrared colors of the star and of surrounding stars in the young Quintuplet cluster. Using our wind/atmosphere code, we find two families of models that fit the spectral energy distribution and detailed line profiles. The lower luminosity models give L = 106.6+/-0.2 L⊙ and Teff = 104.15+/-0.01 K, while the higher luminosity models give L = 107.2+/-0.2 L⊙ and Teff = 104.33+/-0.01 K; the error in luminosity assumes an uncertainty of +/-0.5 in AK, while the error in Teff is constrained by detailed line modeling. The models also reveal a helium enriched surface. As previously existing stellar evolution models do not extend to such high luminosities, we employ new evolutionary tracks for very massive stars to determine the initial mass and age of the Pistol Star, and estimate Minitial = 200-250 M⊙ and an age of 1.7-2.1 Myr. The inferred luminosity and temperature place the star in a sparsely populated zone in the H-R diagram where luminous blue variables (LBVs) are often found. This is consistent with our evolutionary models, which predict that the star is in an unstable evolutionary stage. We interpret the star and its surrounding nebula as an LBV that has recently ejected large amounts of material. Our K-band speckle-imaging data reveal the star to be single down to a projected separation of 110 AU.

  9. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  10. Diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance of plants in naturally high UV environments.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Slusser, James R; Gao, Wei; Ryel, Ronald J

    2008-06-01

    Studies were conducted on three herbaceous plant species growing in naturally high solar UV environments in the subalpine of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA, to determine if diurnal changes in epidermal UV transmittance (T(UV)) occur in these species, and to test whether manipulation of the solar radiation regime could alter these diurnal patterns. Additional field studies were conducted at Logan, Utah, USA, to determine if solar UV was causing diurnal T(UV) changes and to evaluate the relationship between diurnal changes in T(UV) and UV-absorbing pigments. Under clear skies, T(UV), as measured with a UV-A-pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer for leaves of Verbascum thapsus and Oenothera stricta growing in native soils and Vicia faba growing in pots, was highest at predawn and sunset and lowest at midday. These patterns in T(UV) closely tracked diurnal changes in solar radiation and were the result of correlated changes in fluorescence induced by UV-A and blue radiation but not photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) or initial fluorescence yield (F(o)). The magnitude of the midday reduction in T(UV) was greater for young leaves than for older leaves of Verbascum. Imposition of artificial shade eliminated the diurnal changes in T(UV) in Verbascum, but reduction in solar UV had no effect on diurnal T(UV) changes in Vicia. In Vicia, the diurnal changes in T(UV) occurred without detectable changes in the concentration of whole-leaf UV-absorbing compounds. Results suggest that plants actively control diurnal changes in UV shielding, and these changes occur in response to signals other than solar UV; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for rapid changes in T(UV) remain unclear. PMID:18346077

  11. Dust around main-sequence and supergiant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, Roger James

    This thesis is a study of the properties of the dust around two rather different types of star. The first part is concerned with the mid-infrared emission from a sample of 16 M-type supergiants. As well as silicate emission features, seven of the stars showed the UIR (unidentified infrared) emission bands, associated with carbonaceous material. According to standard theory, all the carbon in the outflows from these oxygen-rich stars should be bound up in CO molecules, preventing the formation of carbonaceous dust. The results were interpreted in terms of a non-equilibrium chemical model, which invoked chromospheric UV photons to dissociate CO, allowing carbonaceous material to form, and to excite the observed UIR-band emission. The larger part of the thesis considers Vega-excess stars - main sequence stars with excess infrared emission from circumstellar dust discs. Photometric and spectroscopic observations were carried out. A number of the stars displayed excess near-IR emission, indicating the presence of hot material. Mid-infrared spectroscopy enabled the grain composition to be identified: both silicates and carbonaceous species were detected. Millimetre and submillimetre photometry indicated that large grains are present around many of our sources, implying that significant grain coagulation has occurred. Most of the sources were modelled using a radiative transfer code, with disc geometry and multiple grain sizes. Two grain materials, astronomical silicate and amorphous carbon, were considered. Successful fits to the spectral energy distributions at mid-IR and longer wavelengths were found. The temperatures needed to produce near-IR excess emission were too high for grains in thermal equilibrium to survive. A model was therefore developed with very small grains undergoing thermal spiking due to single-photon absorption, which provided satisfactory fits for the hottest stars; the others had insufficient UV flux to excite the small grains.

  12. Star Trek in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Describes specific educational programs for using the Star Trek TV program from kindergarten through college. For each grade level lesson plans, ideas for incorporating Star Trek into future classes, and reports of specific programs utilizing Star Trek are provided. (SL)

  13. Observations of FK Comae stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations on the FK Comae stars are described. FK Com, UZ Lib and HD 199178 are compared and related as a group of stars. The crucial observational tests of the proposed evolutionary status of these stars are noted.

  14. Neutron Star Compared to Manhattan

    NASA Video Gallery

    A pulsar is a neutron star, the crushed core of a star that has exploded. Neutron stars crush half a million times more mass than Earth into a sphere no larger than Manhattan, as animated in this s...

  15. FUV Emission from AGB Stars: Modeling Accretion Activity Associated with a Binary Companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Alyx Catherine; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that the late stages of evolution for Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars are influenced by the presence of binary companions. Unfortunately, there is a lack of direct observational evidence of binarity. However, more recently, strong indirect evidence comes from the discovery of UV emission in a subsample of these objects (fuvAGB stars). AGB stars are comparatively cool objects (< or =3000 K), thus their fluxes falls off drastically for wavelengths 3000 Angstroms and shorter. Therefore, ultraviolet observations offer an important, new technique for detecting the binary companions and/or associated accretion activity. We develop new models of UV emission from fuvAGB stars constrained by GALEX photometry and spectroscopy of these objects. We compare the GALEX UV grism spectra of the AGB M7 star EY Hya to predictions using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy, specifically investigating the ultraviolet wavelength range (1344-2831 Angstroms). We investigate models composed of contributions from a photoionized "hot spot" due to accretion activity around the companion, and "chromospheric" emission from collisionally ionized plasma, to fit the UV observations.

  16. Tomographic separation of composite spectra. I - The components of Plaskett's Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagnuolo, William G., Jr.; Gies, Douglas R.; Wiggs, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The UV photospheric lines of Plaskett's Star (HD 47129), a 14.4 day period, double lined O-type spectroscopic binary were analyzed. Archival data from IUE (17 spectra well distributed in orbital phase) were analyzed with several techniques. A cross correlation analysis, which showed that the secondary produces significant lines in the UV, indicates that the mass ratio is q = 1.18 +/- 0.12 (secondary slightly more massive). A tomography algorithm was used to produce the separate spectra of the two stars in six spectral regions. The interpolated spectral classifications of the primary and secondary, 07.3 I and 06.2 I, respectively, were estimated through a comparison of UV line ratios with those in spectral standard stars. The intensity ratio of the stars in the UV is 0.53 +/- 0.05 (primary brighter). The secondary lines appear rotationally broadened, and the projected rotational velocity V sin i for this star is estimated to be 310 +/- 20 km/s. The possible evolutionary history of this system is discussed through a comparison of the positions of the components and evolutionary tracks in the H-R diagram.

  17. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  18. Shocks, star formation and the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusdorf, A.

    2015-12-01

    The interstellar medium (ISM) is constantly evolving due to unremitting injection of energy in various forms. Energetic radiation transfers energy to the ISM: from the UV photons, emitted by the massive stars, to X- and γ-ray ones. Cosmic rays are another source of energy. Finally, mechanical energy is injected through shocks or turbulence. Shocks are ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of galaxies. They are associated to star formation (through jets and bipolar outflows), life (via stellar winds), and death (in AGB stellar winds or supernovae explosion). The dynamical processes leading to the formation of molecular clouds also generate shocks where flows of interstellar matter collide. Because of their ubiquity, the study of interstellar shocks is also a useful probe to the other mechanisms of energy injection in the ISM. This study must be conducted in order to understand the evolution of the interstellar medium as a whole, and to address various questions: what is the peculiar chemistry associated to shocks, and what is their contribution to the cycle of matter in galaxies ? What is the energetic impact of shocks on their surroundings on various scales, and hence what is the feedback of stars on the galaxies ? What are the scenarios of star formation, whether this star formation leads to the propagation of shocks, or whether it is triggered by shock propagation ? What is the role of shocks in the acceleration of cosmic rays ? Can they shed light on their composition and diffusion processes ? In order to progress on these questions, it is paramount to interpret the most precise observations with the most precise models of shocks. From the observational point of view, the James Webb Space Telescope represents a powerful tool to better address the above questions, as it will allow to observe numerous shock tracers in the infrared range at an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution.

  19. Scientific problems addressed by the Spektr-UV space project (world space Observatory—Ultraviolet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarchuk, A. A.; Shustov, B. M.; Savanov, I. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Bisikalo, D. V.; Mashonkina, L. I.; Wiebe, D. Z.; Shematovich, V. I.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Ryabchikova, T. A.; Chugai, N. N.; Ivanov, P. B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.; Gomez de Castro, A. I.; Lamzin, S. A.; Piskunov, N.; Ayres, T.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Jeffrey, S.; Zwintz, S. K.; Shulyak, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Hubert, B.; Fossati, L.; Lammer, H.; Werner, K.; Zhilkin, A. G.; Kaigorodov, P. V.; Sichevskii, S. G.; Ustamuich, S.; Kanev, E. N.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a review of scientific problems and methods of ultraviolet astronomy, focusing on perspective scientific problems (directions) whose solution requires UV space observatories. These include reionization and the history of star formation in the Universe, searches for dark baryonic matter, physical and chemical processes in the interstellar medium and protoplanetary disks, the physics of accretion and outflows in astrophysical objects, from Active Galactic Nuclei to close binary stars, stellar activity (for both low-mass and high-mass stars), and processes occurring in the atmospheres of both planets in the solar system and exoplanets. Technological progress in UV astronomy achieved in recent years is also considered. The well advanced, international, Russian-led Spektr-UV (World Space Observatory—Ultraviolet) project is described in more detail. This project is directed at creating a major space observatory operational in the ultraviolet (115-310 nm). This observatory will provide an effective, and possibly the only, powerful means of observing in this spectral range over the next ten years, and will be an powerful tool for resolving many topical scientific problems.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of summer wheat, grown under different realistic UV-B irradiation regimes.

    PubMed

    Zinser, Christian; Seidlitz, Harald K; Welzl, Gerhard; Sandermann, Heinrich; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter; Rau, Werner

    2007-07-01

    There is limited information on the impact of present-day ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on a reprogramming of gene expression in crops. Summer wheat was cultivated in controlled environmental facilities under simulated realistic climatic conditions. We investigated the effect of different regimes of UV-B radiation on summer wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Nandu, Star and Turbo. Until recently, these were most important in Bavaria. Different cultivars of crops often show great differences in their sensitivity towards UV-B radiation. To identify genes that might be involved in UV-B defence mechanisms, we first analyzed selected genes known to be involved in plant defence mechanisms. RNA gel blot analysis of RNA isolated from the flag leaf of 84-day-old plants showed differences in transcript levels among the cultivars. Flag leaves are known to be important for grain development, which was completed at 84 days post-anthesis. Catalase 2 (Cat2) transcripts were elevated by increased UV irradiation in all cultivars with highest levels in cv. Nandu. Pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) transcripts were elevated only in cv. Star. A minor influence on transcripts for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was observed in all three cultivars. This indicates different levels of acclimation to UV-B radiation in the wheat cultivars studied. To analyze these responses in more detail, UV-B-exposed flag leaves of 84-day-old wheat (cv. Nandu) were pooled to isolate cDNAs of induced genes by suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH). Among the initially isolated cDNA clones, 13 were verified by RNA gel blot analysis showing an up-regulation at elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Functional classification revealed genes encoding proteins associated with protein assembly, chaperonins, programmed cell death and signal transduction. We also studied growth, flowering time, ear development and yield as more typical agricultural parameters. Plant growth of young plants was reduced at

  1. Legacy extragalactic UV survey (LEGUS) with the Hubble space telescope. I. Survey description

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetti, D.; Andrews, J. E.; Lee, J. C.; Sabbi, E.; Ubeda, L.; Bright, S. N.; Aloisi, A.; Brown, T. M.; Christian, C.; Cignoni, M.; Adamo, A.; Smith, L. J.; Chandar, R.; Clayton, G. C.; Silva, R. da; Mink, S. E. de; Dobbs, C.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) is a Cycle 21 Treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope aimed at the investigation of star formation and its relation with galactic environment in nearby galaxies, from the scales of individual stars to those of ∼kiloparsec-size clustered structures. Five-band imaging from the near-ultraviolet to the I band with the Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3), plus parallel optical imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), is being collected for selected pointings of 50 galaxies within the local 12 Mpc. The filters used for the observations with the WFC3 are F275W(λ2704 Å), F336W(λ3355 Å), F438W(λ4325 Å), F555W(λ5308 Å), and F814W(λ8024 Å); the parallel observations with the ACS use the filters F435W(λ4328 Å), F606W(λ5921 Å), and F814W(λ8057 Å). The multiband images are yielding accurate recent (≲50 Myr) star formation histories from resolved massive stars and the extinction-corrected ages and masses of star clusters and associations. The extensive inventories of massive stars and clustered systems will be used to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of star formation within galaxies. This will, in turn, inform theories of galaxy evolution and improve the understanding of the physical underpinning of the gas–star formation relation and the nature of star formation at high redshift. This paper describes the survey, its goals and observational strategy, and the initial scientific results. Because LEGUS will provide a reference survey and a foundation for future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope and with ALMA, a large number of data products are planned for delivery to the community.

  2. A Complete Sample of Hot Post-AGB Stars in Globular Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, W.; Moehler, S.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Sweigart, A.; Catelan, M.; Stecher, T.

    1999-01-01

    Ultraviolet images of globular clusters are often dominated by one or two "UV-bright" stars. The most luminous of these are believed to be post-AGB stars, which go through a luminous UV-bright phase as they leave the AGB and move rapidly across the HR diagram toward their final white dwarf state. During the two flights of the ASTRO observatory in 1990 and 1995, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT, Stecher 1997, PASP, 109, 584) was used to obtained ultraviolet (1600 A) images of 14 globular clusters. These images provide a complete census of hot (> 8000 K) post-AGB stars in the observed globular clusters, because the 40' field of view of UIT is large enough to image the entire population of most Galactic globulars, and because the dominant cool star population is suppressed in ultraviolet images, allowing UV-bright stars to be detected into the cluster core. We have begun a program of optical and STIS ultraviolet spectroscopy to determine the fundamental stellar parameters (\\log L, T_eff, \\log g) of all the hot post-AGB candidates discovered on the UIT images. Among the goals of our program are to test theoretical post-AGB lifetimes across the HR diagram, and to estimate the mass of the currently forming white dwarfs in globular clusters. Two trends are already apparent in our survey. First, the UV-selected sample has removed a bias against the detection of the hottest post-AGB stars, and resulted in the discovery of five cluster post-AGB stars with Teff > 50,000 K. Second, most of the new discoveries have been lower luminosity (2.5 $<$\\log L $<$ 3.0) than expected for stars which leave the AGB during the thermally pulsating phase.

  3. Stepanian's star - The energy distribution reveals a nontypical cataclysmic variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szkody, P.

    1981-01-01

    Einstein, IUE, optical multichannel spectrophotometry, and IR observations of Stepanian's star are discussed in terms of other known cataclysmics. While the X-ray flux and IUE emission-line data are similar to that of dwarf novae, the total continuum flux distribution from uv-IR is cooler (peaking near a 10,000 K blackbody) and is unlike either a stellar component or a classic steady-state disk. The IR data show no evidence for a late-type component.

  4. Star formation in cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometry (wavelength = 3400-5100 A) has been obtained for the nuclei of 13 cD galaxies in cooling flows. Spectral anomalies are found in 8 of the objects, consisting of abnormally strong forbidden O II emission or excess flux effects. Consideration is given to metallicity effects, the relationship between UV excesses and the presence of massive OB stars formed from the cooling flows, and low-level effects related to accretion.

  5. Populations of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd Evans, T.

    2011-09-01

    Carbon stars in the Galaxy do not constitute a single family, but may be divided over several types with distinctive spectroscopic and photometric properties. A subtype of the N stars, characterised by high velocities and weak CN bands, may have been captured by the Milky Way from a cannibalised dwarf galaxy.

  6. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  7. Science through ARts (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…

  8. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  9. Party with the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaine, Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Star Party which involves comparing the different colors of the stars, demonstrating how astronomers measure the sky with degrees, determining the cardinal direction, discussing numerous stories that ancient civilizations gave to constellations, exercising science process skills, and using science instruments. (JRH)

  10. Science Through ARts (STAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  11. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in ALFALFA Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <107.7 M ⊙ and H I line widths <80 km s-1. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M *) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M * obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M * <~ 108 M ⊙ is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M * than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones. Based on observations made with the Arecibo Observatory and the NASA Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana and

  12. The Ultraviolet Radiation Environment around M Dwarf Exoplanet Host Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Stocke, John T.; Tian, Feng; Bushinsky, Rachel; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Mauas, Pablo; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2013-01-01

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No "UV-quiet" M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Lyman-alpha line fluxes comprise approximately 37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; approximately greater than 10(exp3) times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Lyman-alpha and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Lyman-alpha. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Lyman-alpha)/F(Mg II) = 10(exp3). The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O2 and O3, is shown to be approximately 0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, greather than 10(exp3) times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%.500% on 10(exp2)-10(exp3) s timescales. This effect should be taken

  13. THE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ENVIRONMENT AROUND M DWARF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    France, Kevin; Froning, Cynthia S.; Stocke, John T.; Bushinsky, Rachel; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Roberge, Aki; Tian, Feng; Desert, Jean-Michel; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2013-02-15

    The spectral and temporal behavior of exoplanet host stars is a critical input to models of the chemistry and evolution of planetary atmospheres. Ultraviolet photons influence the atmospheric temperature profiles and production of potential biomarkers on Earth-like planets around these stars. At present, little observational or theoretical basis exists for understanding the ultraviolet spectra of M dwarfs, despite their critical importance to predicting and interpreting the spectra of potentially habitable planets as they are obtained in the coming decades. Using observations from the Hubble Space Telescope, we present a study of the UV radiation fields around nearby M dwarf planet hosts that covers both far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) wavelengths. The combined FUV+NUV spectra are publicly available in machine-readable format. We find that all six exoplanet host stars in our sample (GJ 581, GJ 876, GJ 436, GJ 832, GJ 667C, and GJ 1214) exhibit some level of chromospheric and transition region UV emission. No 'UV-quiet' M dwarfs are observed. The bright stellar Ly{alpha} emission lines are reconstructed, and we find that the Ly{alpha} line fluxes comprise {approx}37%-75% of the total 1150-3100 A flux from most M dwarfs; {approx}>10{sup 3} times the solar value. We develop an empirical scaling relation between Ly{alpha} and Mg II emission, to be used when interstellar H I attenuation precludes the direct observation of Ly{alpha}. The intrinsic unreddened flux ratio is F(Ly{alpha})/F(Mg II) = 10 {+-} 3. The F(FUV)/F(NUV) flux ratio, a driver for abiotic production of the suggested biomarkers O{sub 2} and O{sub 3}, is shown to be {approx}0.5-3 for all M dwarfs in our sample, >10{sup 3} times the solar ratio. For the four stars with moderate signal-to-noise Cosmic Origins Spectrograph time-resolved spectra, we find UV emission line variability with amplitudes of 50%-500% on 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s timescales. This effect should be taken into account in future UV transiting

  14. Arches showing UV flaring activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The UVSP data obtained in the previous maximum activity cycle show the frequent appearance of flaring events in the UV. In many cases these flaring events are characterized by at least two footpoints which show compact impulsive non-simultaneous brightenings and a fainter but clearly observed arch developes between the footpoints. These arches and footpoints are observed in line corresponding to different temperatures, as Lyman alpha, N V, and C IV, and when observed above the limb display large Doppler shifts at some stages. The size of the arches can be larger than 20 arcsec.

  15. On the onset of secondary stellar generations in giant star-forming regions and massive star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-10

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ∼ 10{sup 4} K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ∼ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  16. On the Onset of Secondary Stellar Generations in Giant Star-forming Regions and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palouš, J.; Wünsch, R.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.

    2014-09-01

    Here we consider the strong evolution experienced by the matter reinserted by massive stars, both in giant star-forming regions driven by a constant star formation rate and in massive and coeval superstar clusters. In both cases we take into consideration the changes induced by stellar evolution on the number of massive stars, the number of ionizing photons, and the integrated mechanical luminosity of the star-forming regions. The latter is at all times compared with the critical luminosity that defines, for a given size, the lower mechanical luminosity limit above which the matter reinserted via strong winds and supernova explosions suffers frequent and recurrent thermal instabilities that reduce its temperature and pressure and inhibit its exit as part of a global wind. Instead, the unstable reinserted matter is compressed by the pervasive hot gas, and photoionization maintains its temperature at T ~ 104 K. As the evolution proceeds, more unstable matter accumulates and the unstable clumps grow in size. Here we evaluate the possible self-shielding of thermally unstable clumps against the UV radiation field. Self-shielding allows for a further compression of the reinserted matter, which rapidly develops a high-density neutral core able to absorb in its outer skin the incoming UV radiation. Under such conditions the cold (T ~ 10 K) neutral cores soon surpass the Jeans limit and become gravitationally unstable, creating a new stellar generation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. We present the results of several calculations of this positive star formation feedback scenario promoted by strong radiative cooling and mass loading.

  17. 'Marginal' BY Draconis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of 52 dK-dM stars, obtained at 640-665 nm (with spectral resolution 70-90 pm) using CCD detectors on the coude-feed telescope at KPNO since 1982, are reported. Data for four stars found to have diluted absorption or weak emission above continuum at H-alpha are presented in tables and spectra and discussed in detail. These objects (Gliese numbers 256, 425A, 900, and 907.1) are shown to be 'marginal' BY Dra stars, single objects of age 2.5-3 Gyr with activity and rotational velocity (3-5 km/s) between those of normal dM stars and those of true BY Dra stars. An explanation based on evolution from the BY Dra stage through marginal BY Dra to inactive dM is proposed.

  18. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  19. Abundances in Sagittarius Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Zaggia, S.; Sbordone, L.; Santin, P.; Monaco, L.; Monai, S.; Molaro, P.; Marconi, G.; Girardi, L.; Ferraro, F.; di Marcantonio, P.; Caffau, E.; Bellazzini, M.

    The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal is a very complex galaxy, which has undergone prolonged star formation. From the very first high resolution chemical analysis of Sgr stars, conducted using spectra obtained during the commissioning of UVES at VLT, it was clear that the star had undergone a high level of chemical processing, at variance with most of the other Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Thanks to FLAMES at VLT we now have accurate metallicities and abundances of alpha-chain elements for about 150 stars, which provide the first reliable metallicity distribution for this galaxy. Besides the already known high metallicity tail the existence of a metal-poor population has also been highlighted, although an assessment of the fraction of Sgr stars which belong to this population requires a larger sample. From our data it is also obvious that Sagittarius is a nucleated galaxy and that the centre of the nucleus coincides with M54, as already shown by Monaco et al.

  20. The Emission Signatures of Tidal Disrption Events in the UV and Optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallefors, Valentina; Arcavi, Iair

    2016-06-01

    A Tidal Disruption Event (TDE) occurs when a star approaching a Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) is torn apart by tidal forces. Sometimes these events are accompanied by X-ray, UV and/or optical flares. TDEs can help us study SMBHs, accretion physics and possibly galactic dynamics. Using observations obtained by the Swift Ultra-Violet Optical Telescope (UVOT), we study the emission of several TDEs classified by broad H and/or He II lines in their optical spectra. This recently-identified class of transients emits mostly in the UV. UV data is thus important for constraining the total luminosity and effective temperatures of these events - parameters crucial for modeling the still undetermined emission mechanisms.

  1. The UV to Near-IR Optical Properties of PAHs: A Semi-Empirical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Allamandola, L. J.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features represent an important and unique diagnostic tool of the chemical and physical conditions throughout the universe. However, one challenge facing the widely accepted PAH emission model has been the detection of infrared features in regions of low UV flux. Utilizing recently published laboratory Near Infrared VIR) PAH ion absorption data measured in our laboratory, we build upon previous models for PAH ion absorption in the UV-Vis to extrapolate a new model which incorporates PAH ion absorption in the NIR. This model provides a basis for comparing the relative energy absorption of PAH ions in the UV-Vis and NIR regions for a wide variety of stellar types. This model demonstrates that the radiation from late-type stars can pump the mid-IR PAH features.

  2. FIRST DETECTION OF ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION FROM A DETACHED DUST SHELL: GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER OBSERVATIONS OF THE CARBON ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR U Hya

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Enmanuel; Montez, Rodolfo Jr.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Ramstedt, Sofia

    2015-01-10

    We present the discovery of an extended ring of ultraviolet (UV) emission surrounding the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star U Hya in archival observations performed by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. This is the third discovery of extended UV emission from a carbon AGB star and the first from an AGB star with a detached shell. From imaging and photometric analysis of the FUV and NUV images, we determined that the UV ring has a radius of ∼110'', thus indicating that the emitting material is likely associated with the detached shell seen in the infrared. We find that scattering of the central point source of NUV and FUV emission by the dust shell is negligible. Moreover, we find that scattering of the interstellar radiation field by the dust shell can contribute at most ∼10% of the FUV flux. Morphological and photometric evidence suggests that shocks caused by the star's motion through space and, possibly, shock-excited H{sub 2} molecules are the most likely origins of the UV flux. In contrast to previous examples of extended UV emission from AGB stars, the extended UV emission from U Hya does not show a bow-shock-like structure, which is consistent with a lower space velocity and lower interstellar medium density. This suggests the detached dust shell is the source of the UV-emitting material and can be used to better understand the formation of detached shells.

  3. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  4. The Ultraviolet Sky: final catalogs of unique UV sources from GALEX, and characterization of the UV-emitting sources across the sky, and of the Milky Way extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Conti, A.; Shiao, B.; Keller, G. R.; Thilker, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The legacy of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), which imaged the sky at Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths for about 9 years, is its unprecedented database with more than 200 million source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), as well as wide-field imaging of extended objects. GALEX's data, the first substantial sky surveys at UV wavelengths, offer an unprecedented view of the sky and a unique opportunity for an unbiased characterization of several classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, QSOs at red-shift about 1, UV-peculiar QSOs, star-forming galaxies, among others. Bianchi et al. (2013, J. Adv. Space Res. (2013), DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.07.045) have constructed final catalogs of UV sources, with homogeneous quality, eliminating duplicate measurements of the same source ('unique' source catalogs), and excluding rim artifacts and bad photometry. The catalogs are constructed improving on the recipe of Bianchi et al. 2011 (MNRAS, 411, 2770, which presented the earlier version of these catalogs) and include all data for the major surveys, AIS and MIS. Considering the fields where both FUV and NUV detectors were exposed, the catalogs contain about 71 and 16.6 million unique sources respectively. We show several maps illustrating the content of UV sources across the sky, globally, and separately for bright/faint, hot, stellar/extragalactic objects. We matched the UV-source catalogs with optical-IR data from the SDSS, GSC2, 2MASS surveys. We are also in the process of matching the catalogs with preliminary PanSTARRS1 (PS1) 3pi survey photometry which already provides twice the sky coverage of SDSS, at slightly fainter magnitude limits. The sources' SED from FUV to optical wavelengths enables classification, derivation of the object physical parameters, and ultimately also a map of the Milky Way extinction. The catalogs will be available on MAST, Vizier (where the previous version already is), and in reduced form (for agile

  5. The swift UVOT stars survey. I. Methods and test clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Linevsky, Jacquelyn S.; Bond, Howard E.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Berrier, Joshua L.; Gronwall, Caryl A.; Holland, Stephen T.; Breeveld, Alice A.; Brown, Peter J. E-mail: blp14@psu.edu E-mail: caryl@astro.psu.edu E-mail: aab@mssl.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-12-01

    We describe the motivations and background of a large survey of nearby stellar populations using the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. UVOT, with its wide field, near-UV sensitivity, and 2.″3 spatial resolution, is uniquely suited to studying nearby stellar populations and providing insight into the near-UV properties of hot stars and the contribution of those stars to the integrated light of more distant stellar populations. We review the state of UV stellar photometry, outline the survey, and address problems specific to wide- and crowded-field UVOT photometry. We present color–magnitude diagrams of the nearby open clusters M67, NGC 188, and NGC 2539, and the globular cluster M79. We demonstrate that UVOT can easily discern the young- and intermediate-age main sequences, blue stragglers, and hot white dwarfs, producing results consistent with previous studies. We also find that it characterizes the blue horizontal branch of M79 and easily identifies a known post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  6. ON STAR FORMATION RATES AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF GALAXIES OUT TO z {approx} 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wuyts, Stijn; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Lutz, Dieter; Nordon, Raanan; Berta, Stefano; Genzel, Reinhard; Magnelli, Benjamin; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Altieri, Bruno; Andreani, Paola; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Cimatti, Andrea; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Maiolino, Roberto; McGrath, Elizabeth J.

    2011-09-01

    We compare multi-wavelength star formation rate (SFR) indicators out to z {approx} 3 in the GOODS-South field. Our analysis uniquely combines U to 8 {mu}m photometry from FIREWORKS, MIPS 24 {mu}m and PACS 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m photometry from the PEP, and H{alpha} spectroscopy from the SINS survey. We describe a set of conversions that lead to a continuity across SFR indicators. A luminosity-independent conversion from 24 {mu}m to total infrared luminosity yields estimates of L{sub IR} that are in the median consistent with the L{sub IR} derived from PACS photometry, albeit with significant scatter. Dust correction methods perform well at low-to-intermediate levels of star formation. They fail to recover the total amount of star formation in systems with large SFR{sub IR}/SFR{sub UV} ratios, typically occuring at the highest SFRs (SFR{sub UV+IR} {approx}> 100 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) and redshifts (z {approx}> 2.5) probed. Finally, we confirm that H{alpha}-based SFRs at 1.5 < z < 2.6 are consistent with SFR{sub SED} and SFR{sub UV+IR} provided extra attenuation toward H II regions is taken into account (A{sub V,neb} = A{sub V,continuum}/0.44). With the cross-calibrated SFR indicators in hand, we perform a consistency check on the star formation histories inferred from spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling. We compare the observed SFR-M relations and mass functions at a range of redshifts to equivalents that are computed by evolving lower redshift galaxies backward in time. We find evidence for underestimated stellar ages when no stringent constraints on formation epoch are applied in SED modeling. We demonstrate how resolved SED modeling, or alternatively deep UV data, may help to overcome this bias. The age bias is most severe for galaxies with young stellar populations and reduces toward older systems. Finally, our analysis suggests that SFHs typically vary on timescales that are long (at least several 100 Myr) compared to the galaxies' dynamical time.

  7. Copernicus ultraviolet observations of mass-loss effects in O and B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P., Jr.; Morton, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Far-UV spectra of 47 O, B, and A stars obtained with the Copernicus satellite are examined for P Cygni profiles. For all 40 stars with displaced absorption lines, values are given for the velocities of the short-wavelength edge, the line center, and the emission peak (if present). Parts of the spectra of 42 stars are reproduced, evidence for mass motions in ground-based spectra is discussed, and the best available data are summarized on the wavelengths and oscillator strengths of most lines likely to show mass-loss effects in either visual or UV spectra. The main conclusions are that: (1) the far-UV transitions, especially resonance lines, show that mass flow is present over a much wider group of stars than revealed by visible data on subordinate lines; (2) most of the line shifts imply mass motion away from the stars; (3) mass flow occurs in all but one star brighter than a bolometric magnitude of -6.0; and (4) the observed terminal velocities generally exhibit no significant correlation with temperature, luminosity, gravity, rotational velocity, or line strength.

  8. Hierarchical star formation across the ring galaxy NGC 6503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Thilker, David; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C.; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Cignoni, Michele; Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Gallagher, John S.; Grasha, Kathryn; Grebel, Eva K.; Davó, Artemio Herrero; Hunter, Deidre A.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Kim, Hwihyun; Nair, Preethi; Nota, Antonella; Pellerin, Anne; Ryon, Jenna; Sabbi, Elena; Sacchi, Elena; Smith, Linda J.; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo; Whitmore, Brad

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed clustering analysis of the young stellar population across the star-forming ring galaxy NGC 6503, based on the deep Hubble Space Telescope photometry obtained with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey. We apply a contour-based map analysis technique and identify in the stellar surface density map 244 distinct star-forming structures at various levels of significance. These stellar complexes are found to be organized in a hierarchical fashion with 95 per cent being members of three dominant super-structures located along the star-forming ring. The size distribution of the identified structures and the correlation between their radii and numbers of stellar members show power-law behaviours, as expected from scale-free processes. The self-similar distribution of young stars is further quantified from their autocorrelation function, with a fractal dimension of ˜1.7 for length-scales between ˜20 pc and 2.5 kpc. The young stellar radial distribution sets the extent of the star-forming ring at radial distances between 1 and 2.5 kpc. About 60 per cent of the young stars belong to the detected stellar structures, while the remaining stars are distributed among the complexes, still inside the ring of the galaxy. The analysis of the time-dependent clustering of young populations shows a significant change from a more clustered to a more distributed behaviour in a time-scale of ˜60 Myr. The observed hierarchy in stellar clustering is consistent with star formation being regulated by turbulence across the ring. The rotational velocity difference between the edges of the ring suggests shear as the driving mechanism for this process. Our findings reveal the interesting case of an inner ring forming stars in a hierarchical fashion.

  9. Transdermal penetration of UV filters.

    PubMed

    Klinubol, P; Asawanonda, P; Wanichwecharungruang, S P

    2008-01-01

    A penetration study of 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methyl benzylidenecamphor (MBC), butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMBM), 2-ethylhexyl-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (EHTMC) and di(2-ethylhexyl)-2,4,5-trimethoxybenzalmalonate (TMB) through baby mouse skin (Mus musculus Linn.) was carried out using a vertical Franz diffusion cell. At 4.4 mg/cm(2) coverage of UV filter on the skin, 2.98 +/- 0.38, 1.15 +/- 0.14 and 0.80 +/- 0.28% of the applied EHMC, MBC and BMBM were detected in the receptor fluid at 24 h after application. Penetrations of UV filter in an ethanolic solution and lotion forms were comparable. EHTMC and TMB showed insignificant penetration across the baby mouse skins. Baby mouse skins kept at 4, -20 and -80 degrees C gave similar EHMC penetration results. Penetrations of EHMC, BMBM, EHTMC and TMB across human epidermis were carried out upon 5 volunteers using the suction blister technique. The results also confirmed the significant penetrations of EHMC and BMBM and the insignificant penetrations of EHTMC and TMB.

  10. UV-induced cutaneous photobiology.

    PubMed

    Beissert, S; Granstein, R D

    1996-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) present in sunlight is a major environmental factor capable of affecting human health and well being. The organ primarily affected by UVR is the skin, which is composed of a variety of different cell types. Here, UVR is needed for production of active vitamin D as well as producing undesirable effects such as sunburn, premature cutaneous photoaging, and promoting skin cancer development. Depending on the radiation dose, UVR influences virtually every cutaneous cell type investigated differently. Since the end of the nineteenth century, sun exposure has been known to induce skin cancer, which is now the human malignancy with the most rapidly increasing incidence. In several experimental models, mid-range UVR has been demonstrated to be the major cause of UV-induced cutaneous tumors. The stratospheric ozone layer protecting the terrestrial surface from higher quantum energy solar radiation is being damaged by industrial activities resulting in the possibility of increased UVR exposure in the future. Investigations in the field of experimental dermatology have shown that within the skin an immunosurveillance system exists that may be able to detect incipient neoplasms and to elicit a host responses against it. This article reviews the literature on studies designed to investigate the effects of UVR on cutaneous cellular components, with special focus on the immune system within the skin and the development of UV-induced cancer.

  11. Feedback in Clouds II: UV Photoionisation and the first supernova in a massive cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geen, Sam; Hennebelle, Patrick; Tremblin, Pascal; Rosdahl, Joakim

    2016-09-01

    Molecular cloud structure is regulated by stellar feedback in various forms. Two of the most important feedback processes are UV photoionisation and supernovae from massive stars. However, the precise response of the cloud to these processes, and the interaction between them, remains an open question. In particular, we wish to know under which conditions the cloud can be dispersed by feedback, which in turn can give us hints as to how feedback regulates the star formation inside the cloud. We perform a suite of radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a 105 solar mass cloud with embedded sources of ionising radiation and supernovae, including multiple supernovae and a hypernova model. A UV source corresponding to 10% of the mass of the cloud is required to disperse the cloud, suggesting that the star formation efficiency should be on the order of 10%. A single supernova is unable to significantly affect the evolution of the cloud. However, energetic hypernovae and multiple supernovae are able to add significant quantities of momentum to the cloud, approximately 1043 g cm/s of momentum per 1051 ergs of supernova energy. We argue that supernovae alone are unable to regulate star formation in molecular clouds. We stress the importance of ram pressure from turbulence in regulating feedback in molecular clouds.

  12. Catch a Star!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  13. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life On Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Lanz, T.; Hubeny, I.; Gaidos, E.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We have obtained ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun We are making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. Once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to other metallicities and to unobserved spectral regions.

  14. Solar UV Radiation and the Origin of Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.; Gaidos, E.; Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T. M.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have embarked on a program aimed at understanding the atmosphere of the early Earth, because of its importance as a greenhouse, radiation shield, and energy source for life. Here, we give a progress report on the first phase of this program: to establish the UV radiation from the early Sun. We are presently obtaining ultraviolet spectra (STIS, FUSE, EUVE) of carefully selected nearby, young solar-type stars, which act as surrogates for the early Sun. We are currently making detailed non-LTE analyses of the spectra and constructing models of their photospheres + chromospheres. once validated, these models will allow us to extrapolate our theoretical spectra to unobserved spectral regions, and to proceed to the next step: to develop photochemical models of the pre-biotic and Archean atmosphere of the Earth.

  15. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forming galaxies of different morphological type and activity class using a sample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for a wide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presented in the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overall characteristics according to morphology and activity class and in the form of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption and emission features of individual objects. The data support the picture based on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of the Astronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubble class have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiral galaxies of earlier Hubble class.

  16. Performance results from in-flight commissioning of the Juno Ultraviolet Spectrograph (Juno-UVS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greathouse, T. K.; Gladstone, G. R.; Davis, M. W.; Slater, D. C.; Versteeg, M. H.; Persson, K. B.; Walther, B. C.; Winters, G. S.; Persyn, S. C.; Eterno, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present a description of the Juno ultraviolet spectrograph (Juno-UVS) and results from its in-flight commissioning performed between December 5th and 13th 2011 and its first periodic maintenance between October 10th and 12th 2012. Juno-UVS is a modest power (9.0 W) ultraviolet spectrograph based on the Alice instruments now in flight aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft, NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, and the LAMP instrument aboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. However, unlike the other Alice spectrographs, Juno-UVS sits aboard a spin stabilized spacecraft. The Juno-UVS scan mirror allows for pointing of the slit approximately +/-30° from the spacecraft spin plane. This ability gives Juno-UVS access to half the sky at any given spacecraft orientation. The planned 2 rpm spin rate for the primary mission results in integration times per 0.2° spatial resolution element per spin of only ~17 ms. Thus, for calibration purposes, data were retrieved from many spins and then remapped and co-added to build up exposure times on bright stars to measure the effective area, spatial resolution, scan mirror pointing positions, etc. The primary job of Juno-UVS will be to characterize Jupiter's UV auroral emissions and relate them to in-situ particle measurements. The ability to point the slit will make operations more flexible, allowing Juno-UVS to observe the atmospheric footprints of magnetic field lines through which Juno flies, giving a direct connection between energetic particle measurements on the spacecraft and the far-ultraviolet emissions produced by Jupiter's atmosphere in response to those particles.

  17. A Science-enhanced Database of GALEX UV spectra to Characterize Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) has performed the first surveys of the sky in the Ultraviolet (UV). Its unprecedented database, including almost 300 million photometric source measurements in far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV), offers unique sensitivity for studying selected classes of astrophysical objects, such as hot stars, star-forming galaxies, and z<2 QSOs. GALEX imaging data have been amply mined; science-enhanced source catalogs enable comprehensive investigations long after the mission is concluded. GALEX has also collected 125,564 UV spectra (range 1344-2831Ang; resolution about 200(FUV) - 120(NUV)): a homogeneous template tenfold larger and at fainter fluxes than the IUE target sample. Yet, this unique resource has hardly been exploited, due to poor calibration and lack of standard quality assessment of the complex grism spectral extraction. The homogeneous set of >120,000 UV spectra distributed all over the sky will enable - among other investigations - derivation of UV extinction curves for thousands of sightlines throughout the Milky Way (MW), yielding information on properties of interstellar dust that cannot be obtained otherwise, and, furthermore, validating extinction maps derived from vastly larger photometric samples. Our proposed map of MW dust properties will be 3D, since Gaia will provide accurate distances for all stellar sources. The first step to make this study possible will be to classify all sources in the [grism, hence serendipitous] GALEX spectroscopic sample, and to assess quality and flux calibration. We will combine multi-band photometry of the spectral sources (GALEX, SDSS, Pan-STARRs, ...), any existing information (e.g., from SIMBAD), available IUE spectra (about 100) and SDSS spectra (8,000), besides examining the UV spectral features. Hot stellar sources constitute over half of the GALEX spectroscopic sample. For those with spectra of sufficient quality (about 9,000 in NUV, >1,000 in FUV+NUV) we will derive UV extinction

  18. Extragalactic Star Clusters: Speculations on the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. S.; Grebel, E. K.

    We discuss the future possibilities for extragalactic star cluster research with the expected new ground-based and space-based telescopes and instrumentation. Significant gains are expected due to improved angular resolution, sensitivity, and area coverage particularly in the infrared and radio, accompanied by progress in evolutionary and dynamical modelling. Improvements in angular resolution are anticipated, especially through new adaptive optics systems (e.g., Keck, Gemini, VLT), and interferometry (e.g., Keck, VLT, LBT, ALMA, SMA, SkA), and space instrumentation (e.g., Chandra, NGST), enabling studies even of deeply embedded, forming extragalactic star clusters. Tidal disruption of Galactic clusters becomes observable through wide-area surveys such as the SDSS, VISTA, PRIME, including proper motion measurements through high-resolution imaging (e.g., HST, LBT, SIM, GAIA). Sensitive new optical and infrared spectrographs (e.g., HET, SALT, GranTeCan, Magellan, Keck, VLT, CELT, OWL, NGST) will push kinematic and abundance studies to new limits, allowing us detailed comparisons with model predictions. One important wavelength range for the study of young, massive star clusters, the far UV, appears to be neglected by future planned instrumentation.

  19. Making star teams out of star players.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing. PMID:23390743

  20. Star Formation in Dwarf-Dwarf Mergers: Fueling Hierarchical Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Patton, D. R.; Putman, M. E.; Besla, G.; Geha, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present early results from the first systematic study a sample of isolated interacting dwarf pairs and the mechanisms governing their star formation. Low mass dwarf galaxies are ubiquitous in the local universe, yet the efficiency of gas removal and the enhancement of star formation in dwarfs via pre-processing (i.e. dwarf-dwarf interactions occurring before the accretion by a massive host) are currently unconstrained. Studies of Local Group dwarfs credit stochastic internal processes for their complicated star formation histories, but a few intriguing examples suggest interactions among dwarfs may produce enhanced star formation. We combine archival UV imaging from GALEX with deep optical broad- and narrow-band (Halpha) imaging taken with the pre- One Degree Imager (pODI) on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope and with the 2.3-m Bok telescope at Steward Observatory to confirm the presence of stellar bridges and tidal tails and to determine whether dwarf-dwarf interactions alone can trigger significant levels of star formation. We investigate star formation rates and global galaxy colors as a function of dwarf pair separation (i.e. the dwarf merger sequence) and dwarf-dwarf mass ratio. This project is a precursor to an ongoing effort to obtain high spatial resolution HI imaging to assess the importance of sequential triggering caused by dwarf-dwarf interactions and the subsequent affect on the more massive hosts that later accrete the low mass systems.