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  1. Gemini Observatory |

    Science.gov Websites

    Now Open Operations View All Observing databases offline May 30 Status of Gemini North eNewscast View Gemini Observatory Strategic Vision PDF Gemini North with open wind vents and observing slit at sunset . Gemini South with star-trails of the South Celestial Pole overhead. Gemini Science Meeting Open For

  2. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) www.psrd.hawaii.edu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L.; Taylor, J.

    2010-12-01

    NASA's Year of the Solar System is celebrating not only Solar System mission milestones but also the collective data reduction and analysis that happens here on Earth. The Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's Science Mission Directorate takes a direct approach to enhance student learning and engage the public in the latest research on meteorites, asteroids, planets, moons, and other materials in our Solar System with the website known as PSRD. The Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website at www.psrd.hawaii.edu explores the science questions that researchers are actively pursuing about our Solar System and explains how the answers are discovered and what they mean. The site helps to convey the scientific basis for sample study to the broader scientific community and the excitement of new results in cosmochemistry to the general public. We share with our broad audience the fascinating discoveries made by cosmochemists, increasing public awareness of the value of sample-focused research in particular and of fundamental scientific research and space exploration in general. The scope of the website covers the full range of cosmochemical research and highlights the investigations of extraterrestrial materials that are used to better understand the origin of the Solar System and the processes by which planets, moons, and small bodies evolve. We relate the research to broader planetary science themes and mission results. Articles are categorized into: asteroids, comets, Earth, instruments of cosmochemistry, Jupiter system, Mars, Mars life issues, Mercury, meteorites, Moon, origins, and space weathering. PSRD articles are based on peer-reviewed, journal publications. Some PSRD articles are based on more than one published paper in order to present multiple views and outcomes of research on a topic of interest. To date, 150 PSRD articles have been based on 184 journal articles (and counting) written by some of the most active cosmochemists and planetary scientists

  3. Gemini Program Mission Report for Gemini-Titan 1 (GT-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The Gemini-Titan 1 (GT-1) space vehicle was comprised of the Gemini spacecraft and the Gemini launch vehicle. The Gemini launch vehicle is a two-stage modified Titan II ICBM. The major modifications are the addition of a malfunction detection system and a secondary flight controls system. The Gemini spacecraft, designed to carry a crew of two men on earth orbital and rendezvous missions, was unmanned for the flight reported herein (GT-1). There were no complete Gemini flight systems on board; however, the C-band transponder and telemetry transmitters were Gemini flight subsystems. Dummy equipment, having a mass and moment of inertia equal to flight system equipment, was installed in the spacecraft. The Spacecraft was instrumented to obtain data on spacecraft heating, structural loading, vibration, sound pressure levels, and temperature and pressure during the launch phase.

  4. Gemini Space Program emblem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The insignia of the Gemini space program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor.

  5. Gemini Program Mission Report: Gemini IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The second manned mission of the Gemini Program, Gemini IV, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy, Florida, at 10:16 a.m. e.s.t. on June 3, 1965. The mission was successfully concluded on June 7, 1965, with the recovery of the spacecraft by the prime recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp, at 27 deg 44' N. latitude, 74 deg 11' W. longitude at 2:28 p.m. e.s.t. This manned long-duration flight was accomplished 10 weeks after the three-orbit manned flight which qualified the Gemini spacecraft and systems for orbital flight. The spacecraft was manned by Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, and Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot. The flight crew completed the 4-day mission in excellent physical condition, and demonstrated full control of the spacecraft and competent management of all aspects of the mission.

  6. Hawaii's Annual Journey through the Universe Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Michaud, P.

    2013-04-01

    Hawaii's eighth annual Journey through the Universe, Gemini North's flagship local outreach program, engaged local as well as a host of visiting astronomy educators from across the country. Seventy-two educators enlightened over 8,000 students at 20 schools while visiting over 380 classrooms during “Journey Week” 2012. Gemini and the local observatories on Mauna Kea, the National Lunar Science Institute, the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, ‘Imiloa Astronomy Education Center and Hawaii's Department of Education made this possible and are currently working to further extend the Journey program. The next phase of the nationally recognized educational outreach initiative, Journey 2.0, continues to include assessment and will explore the viability of funding for longitudinal studies on both students and teachers. New in 2012, we invited the public to join the astronomers, teacher and principals for a one-day STEM workshop which featured a keynote address: “Science—It's Not a Book of Knowledge… It's a Journey” led by Dr. Jeff Goldstein, Director of the National Center for Earth and Space Science Education and founder of the national Journey through the Universe program. The 2013 Journey program is scheduled for March 7-13, 2013. More information for this program can be found online at www.gemini.edu/journey.

  7. Gemini Rendezvous Docking Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-11

    Gemini Rendezvous Docking Simulator suspended from the roof of the Langley Research Center s aircraft hangar. Francis B. Smith wrote: The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. This figure illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft. -- Published in Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 Francis B. Smith, Simulators for Manned Space Research, Paper presented at the 1966 IEEE International convention, March 21-25, 1966.

  8. Gemini 7 backup crew seen in white room during Gemini 7 simulation activity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-11-27

    S65-61837 (27 Nov. 1965) --- The Gemini-7 backup crew seen in the White Room atop Pad 19 during Gemini-7 simulation flight activity. McDonnell Aircraft Corporation technicians assist in the exercise. Astronaut Edward H. White II (in foreground) is the Gemini-7 backup crew command pilot; and astronaut Michael Collins (right background) is the backup crew pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI- INSIGNIA - SPACE PROGRAM - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-30

    S65-54354 (30 Aug. 1965) --- The insignia of the Gemini Space Program is a disc of dark blue as a background for a gold Zodiac Gemini symbol. A white star on each of the two vertical curves of the Gemini symbol represent the Gemini twins, Pollux and Castor. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  10. Gemini Program Mission Planning Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This report defines the Gemini Program objectives and presents guidelines for the individual Gemini missions. It provides general space vehicle configuration data, and descriptions of planned missions. Contingency mission requirements and extravehicular operations to be performed during specific missions are described in the last two sections of the basic document. Data on spacecraft weights and Gemini Launch Vehicle performance capabilities are provided in Appendix A, while Appendix B provides descriptions of onboard experiments to be conducted during Gemini missions.

  11. GEMINI-TITAN-8 - PRELAUNCH ACTIVITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-16

    S66-24439 (16 March 1966) --- The Gemini-8 prime crew, along with several fellow astronauts, have a hearty breakfast of steak and eggs on the morning of the Gemini-8 launch. Seated clockwise around the table, starting at lower left, are Donald K. Slayton, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Gemini-8 command pilot; scientist-astronaut F. Curtis Michel; astronaut R. Walter Cunningham; astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. (face obscured), Chief, MSC Astronaut Office; astronaut David R. Scott, Gemini-8 pilot; and astronaut Roger B. Chaffee. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Index maps for Gemini earth photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    Index maps for the Gemini missions are presented; these are for the Gemini 3 through Gemini 12 missions. The maps are divided into four sections: the whole earth; the Western Hemisphere and eastern Pacific Ocean; Africa, India, and the Near East; and Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Ocean.

  13. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - ATDA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37972 (3 June 1966) ?-- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) is photographed from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of three rendezvous occasions in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 35.5 feet apart in this view. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover on the ATDA to fully separate prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew members as an ?angry alligator.? Photo credit: NASA

  14. GEMINI RENDEZVOUS EVALUATION POD (REP) - ARTIST CONCEPT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-01

    S65-28653 (August 1965) --- Rendezvous Evaluation Pod (REP) in orbit is approached by Gemini spacecraft as seen in this artist's concept using an actual photograph taken on the Gemini-4 mission. The REP is superimposed over a Gemini-4 Earth-sky picture of cloud formations over an ocean. The REP will be used by the crew of the Gemini-5 spacecraft to practice rendezvous techniques.

  15. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - ATDA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37943 (3 June 1966) --- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter is photographed against the background of the blackness of space from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of their three rendezvous in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 71.5 feet apart. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover to fully separate on the ATDA prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew as an ?Angry Alligator.? Photo credit: NASA

  16. Gemini-Titan - Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-42738 (18 July 1966) --- Astronaut John W. Young, Gemini-10 command pilot, holds a pair of king-size pliers presented to him by the crew at Pad 19 for in-flight first-echelon maintenance of a spacecraft utility power cord Young earlier had difficulty in connecting. Gunther Wendt (right center background), Pad 19 leader, jokes with Young about the pliers. At right is Dr. Donald K. Slayton, MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations. At left is astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Gemini rendezvous docking simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-11-04

    Multiple exposure of Gemini rendezvous docking simulator. Francis B. Smith wrote in his paper "Simulators for Manned Space Research," "The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. [This figure] illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft." A.W. Vogeley further described the simulator in his paper "Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators For Space Research," "Docking operations are considered to start when the pilot first can discern vehicle target size and aspect and terminate, of course, when soft contact is made. ... This facility enables simulation of the docking operation from a distance of 200 feet to actual contact with the target. A full-scale mock-up of the target vehicle is suspended near one end of the track. ... On [the Agena target] we have mounted the actual Agena docking mechanism and also various types of visual aids. We have been able to devise visual aids which have made it possible to accomplish nighttime docking with as much success as daytime docking." -- Published in Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203; Francis B. Smith, "Simulators for Manned Space Research," Paper presented at the 1966 IEEE International convention, March 21-25, 1966; A.W. Vogeley, "Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators For Space Research," Paper presented at

  18. Self-assembled Gemini surfactant film-mediated dispersion stability.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Y I; Kanicky, J R; Pandey, S; Oskarsson, H; Holmberg, K; Moudgil, B M; Shah, D O

    2005-08-15

    The force-distance curves of 12-2-12 and 12-4-12 Gemini quaternary ammonium bromide surfactants on mica and silica surfaces obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) were correlated with the structure of the adsorption layer. The critical micelle concentration was measured in the presence or absence of electrolyte. The electrolyte effect (the decrease of CMC) is significantly more pronounced for Gemini than for single-chain surfactants. The maximum compressive force, F(max), of the adsorbed surfactant aggregates was determined. On the mica surface in the presence of 0.1 M NaCl, the Gemini micelles and strong repulsive barrier appear at surfactant concentrations 0.02-0.05 mM, which is significantly lower than that for the single C(12)TAB (5-10 mM). This difference between single and Gemini surfactants can be explained by a stronger adsorption energy of Gemini surfactants. The low concentration of Gemini at which this surfactant forms the strong micellar layer on the solid/solution interface proves that Gemini aggregates (micelles) potentially act as dispersing agent in processes such as chemical mechanical polishing or collector in flotation. The AFM force-distance results obtained for the Gemini surfactants were used along with turbidity measurements to determine how adsorption of Gemini surfactants affects dispersion stability. It has been shown that Gemini (or two-chain) surfactants are more effective dispersing agents, and that in the presence of electrolyte, the silica dispersion stability at pH 4.0 can also be achieved at very low surfactant concentrations ( approximately 0.02 mM).

  19. PRESS CONFERENCE - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-39895 (1 Aug. 1966) --- Panel members of the Gemini-10 news conference held in the Building 1 auditorium were (from left) Dr. Robert C. Seamans Jr., NASA Deputy Administrator; astronaut John W. Young, Gemini-10 command pilot; astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Gemini-Titan (GT)-9 Test - Training - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-10

    S66-33406 (10 May 1966) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (on left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, in Gemini-9 spacecraft in the white room at Pad 19 during a Gemini-9/Agena simultaneous launch demonstration. This test is a coordinated dountdown of the Atlas-Agena and the Gemini-Titan vehicles. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Gemini surfactants from natural amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Lourdes; Pinazo, Aurora; Pons, Ramon; Infante, Mrosa

    2014-03-01

    In this review, we report the most important contributions in the structure, synthesis, physicochemical (surface adsorption, aggregation and phase behaviour) and biological properties (toxicity, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation) of Gemini natural amino acid-based surfactants, and some potential applications, with an emphasis on the use of these surfactants as non-viral delivery system agents. Gemini surfactants derived from basic (Arg, Lys), neutral (Ser, Ala, Sar), acid (Asp) and sulphur containing amino acids (Cys) as polar head groups, and Geminis with amino acids/peptides in the spacer chain are reviewed. © 2013.

  2. Gemini-Titan (GT)-8 - Lightweight Suit - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-06

    S65-60035 (6 Dec. 1965) --- The new light-weight spacesuit planned for possible use during the Gemini-7 mission is modeled by Fred R. Spross, Gemini Support Office, Crew Systems Division. The spacesuit weighs 16 pounds, including the aviator's crash helmet. The suit is designed so that it may be partially or completely removed during flight. It has two layers of material while the previously used Gemini spacesuit has four layers. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 6 prime crew in white room atop Pad 19 during Gemini 6 countdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell technicians assist the Gemini 6 prime crew into the spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19 during the Gemini 6 prelaunch countdown. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., command pilot, is on left; and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, is on the right. Between the two is a note attached to the capsule which reads 'Good Luck from 2nd Shift'. Liftoff was at 8:37 a.m., December 15, 1965.

  4. Women Astronomers at Gemini: A Success Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Jorgensen, I.; Barker, N.; Edwards, M.; Trancho, G.

    2010-01-01

    Gemini Observatory has been very successful at attracting, hiring and retaining female Scientists. We present data on the growth of the scientific staff since the start of the Observatory, and science fellow recruiting from 2006-2008. At Gemini 31% of the Science Staff holding PhDs are female compared with 13.9% within the United States. The Science Management is 75% female, as is 50% of the Gemini Directorate. This critical mass of female representation within the science staff and management appears to have had a positive effect on female recruitment and hiring. The science fellow recruitment during the past 3 years has attracted 21-38% female applicants and 57% of new hires during this period have been female scientists. Perhaps even more significant, the retention rate of female science staff at Gemini is 88%, compared to 64% for male science staff. There are likely many factors that contribute to this success, but the conclusion is that Gemini has earned a reputation in the scientific community as a place where female scientists are valued and can be successful.

  5. Docking - Gemini-Titan (GT)-11 - Outer Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54555 (14 Sept. 1966) --- The Gemini-11 spacecraft is docked to the Agena Target Vehicle in this photograph taken by astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot, as he stood in the open hatch of the Gemini-11 spacecraft during his extravehicular activity (EVA). Note Agena's L-band antenna. Taken during Gemini-11's 29th revolution of Earth, using a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Astronauts Grissom and Young in Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-05-22

    S64-25295 (March 1964) --- Astronauts Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom (right) and John W. Young, prime crew for the first manned Gemini mission (GT-3), are shown inside a Gemini mission simulator at McDonnell Aircraft Corp., St. Louis, MO. The simulator will provide Gemini astronauts and ground crews with realistic mission simulation during intensive training prior to actual launch.

  7. Liftoff of Gemini-Titan 3 mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-14150 (23 March 1965) --- Launch view of the Gemini-Titan 3 mission. The GT-3 liftoff was at 9:24 a.m. (EST) on March 23, 1965. The Gemini-3 spacecraft "Molly Brown" carried astronauts Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and John W. Young, pilot, on three orbits of Earth.

  8. The Transformation of Observatory Newsletters - A Gemini Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-01

    Astronomical observatories publish newsletters to communicate the observatory’s new discoveries and activities with its user communities, funding agencies, and general public. Gemini Observatory started publishing the newsletter in March 1992. Over the years, it transformed from a no-frills black and white publication to a full-color magazine type newsletter with a special name “GeminiFocus”. Since 2012, the contents of GeminiFocus moved from print to digital with an additional print issue of the Year in Review. The newsletter transformation is in sync with the rapid development of the internet technologies. We discuss here the evolvement of Gemini newsletter and the lessons learned.

  9. Gemini-Titan (GT)-7 of GT-6 Space Photography - Outer Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-64040 (15 Dec. 1965) --- Nose-on view of the Gemini-6 spacecraft against the blackness of space as seen from Gemini-7 spacecraft. The two spacecraft were approximately 38 feet apart. Astronauts Walter M. Schirra and Thomas P. Stafford were onboard the Gemini-6 spacecraft. Astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. were aboard the Gemini-7 spacecraft. A "Beat Army" sign can be seen in the Gemini-6 window. Photo credit: NASA

  10. New serine-derived gemini surfactants as gene delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-01-01

    Gemini surfactants have been extensively used for in vitro gene delivery. Amino acid-derived gemini surfactants combine the special aggregation properties characteristic of the gemini surfactants with high biocompatibility and biodegradability. In this work, novel serine-derived gemini surfactants, differing in alkyl chain lengths and in the linker group bridging the spacer to the headgroups (amine, amide and ester), were evaluated for their ability to mediate gene delivery either per se or in combination with helper lipids. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were characterized in terms of hydrodynamic diameter, surface charge, stability in aqueous buffer and ability to protect DNA. Efficient formulations, able to transfect up to 50% of the cells without causing toxicity, were found at very low surfactant/DNA charge ratios (1/1-2/1). The most efficient complexes presented sizes suitable for intravenous administration and negative surface charge, a feature known to preclude potentially adverse interactions with serum components. This work brings forward a new family of gemini surfactants with great potential as gene delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adsorption of dissymmetric cationic gemini surfactants at silica/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuhai; Feng, Yujun; Dong, Hongwei; Chen, Zhi

    2007-05-01

    Adsorption of a series of cationic gemini surfactants 12-2- m ( m = 8, 12, 16) on the surface of silica was investigated. The critical micelle concentrations, cmcs, of cationic gemini surfactants in the initial solutions and in the supernatants were measured by conductometry and tensiometer. The changes in cmc values indicate that the ion exchanges take place between polar groups of gemini surfactants adsorbed and ions bound on the surface of silica. The adsorption isotherms of cationic gemini surfactants were obtained by a solution depletion method. Based on the driving force, the adsorption includes two steps, one of which is ion exchange, and the other is hydrophobic interaction. In each step, the tendency of surfactant molecules in the solution to form aggregates or to be adsorbed on the silica varies with their structures. The maximum adsorption amount of gemini surfactants on the silica, τmax, decreases as increasing in the length of one alkyl chain, m, from 8, 12 to 16. So the results show that the adsorption behaviors of gemini surfactants are closely related to the dissymmetry of gemini molecules.

  12. Multiple Exposure of Rendezvous Docking Simulator - Gemini Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-02-07

    Multiple exposure of Rendezvous Docking Simulator. Francis B. Smith, described the simulator as follows: The rendezvous and docking operation of the Gemini spacecraft with the Agena and of the Apollo Command Module with the Lunar Excursion Module have been the subject of simulator studies for several years. This figure illustrates the Gemini-Agena rendezvous docking simulator at Langley. The Gemini spacecraft was supported in a gimbal system by an overhead crane and gantry arrangement which provided 6 degrees of freedom - roll, pitch, yaw, and translation in any direction - all controllable by the astronaut in the spacecraft. Here again the controls fed into a computer which in turn provided an input to the servos driving the spacecraft so that it responded to control motions in a manner which accurately simulated the Gemini spacecraft. -- Published in Barton C. Hacker and James M. Grimwood, On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini, NASA SP-4203 Francis B. Smith, Simulators for Manned Space Research, Paper presented at the 1966 IEEE International convention, March 21-25, 1966.

  13. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  14. Gemini 10 prime crew during post flight press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    At podium during Gemini 10 press conference are (l-r) Dr. Robert C. Seamans, Astronauts John Young and Michael Collins and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth (39895); Wide angle view of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) News Center during the Gemini 10 prime crew post flight press conference (38786); Astronaut Young draws diagram on chalk board of tethered extravehicular activity accomplished during Gemini 10 flight (39897).

  15. Photometric Calibration of the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Sarah Anne; Rodrigo Carrasco Damele, Eleazar; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is an instrument available on the Gemini South telescope at Cerro Pachon, Chile, utilizing the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS). In order to allow users to easily perform photometry with this instrument and to monitor any changes in the instrument in the future, we seek to set up a process for performing photometric calibration with standard star observations taken across the time of the instrument’s operation. We construct a Python-based pipeline that includes IRAF wrappers for reduction and combines the AstroPy photutils package and original Python scripts with the IRAF apphot and photcal packages to carry out photometry and linear regression fitting. Using the pipeline, we examine standard star observations made with GSAOI on 68 nights between 2013 and 2015 in order to determine the nightly photometric zero points in the J, H, Kshort, and K bands. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, processed using the Gemini IRAF and gemini_python packages, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  16. GEMINI-8 - TRAINING - WATER EGRESS TRAINING - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-15

    S66-17288 (15 Jan. 1966) --- Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot of the Gemini-8 prime crew, use a boilerplate model of a Gemini spacecraft during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Three Manned Spacecraft Center swimmers assist in the training exercise. Photo credit: NASA

  17. EduMOOs: Virtual Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Judy C.

    1998-01-01

    Multi-user Object Oriented Internet activities (MOOs) permit real time interaction in a text-based virtual reality via the Internet. This article explains EduMOOs (educational MOOs) and provides brief descriptions, World Wide Web addresses, and telnet addresses for selected EduMOOs. Instructions for connecting to a MOO and a list of related Web…

  18. Gemini 9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-31019 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears the Gemini-9 configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly. The legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the astronaut and suit from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU). Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear this spacesuit during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  19. GEMINI: Integrative Exploration of Genetic Variation and Genome Annotations

    PubMed Central

    Paila, Umadevi; Chapman, Brad A.; Kirchner, Rory; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Modern DNA sequencing technologies enable geneticists to rapidly identify genetic variation among many human genomes. However, isolating the minority of variants underlying disease remains an important, yet formidable challenge for medical genetics. We have developed GEMINI (GEnome MINIng), a flexible software package for exploring all forms of human genetic variation. Unlike existing tools, GEMINI integrates genetic variation with a diverse and adaptable set of genome annotations (e.g., dbSNP, ENCODE, UCSC, ClinVar, KEGG) into a unified database to facilitate interpretation and data exploration. Whereas other methods provide an inflexible set of variant filters or prioritization methods, GEMINI allows researchers to compose complex queries based on sample genotypes, inheritance patterns, and both pre-installed and custom genome annotations. GEMINI also provides methods for ad hoc queries and data exploration, a simple programming interface for custom analyses that leverage the underlying database, and both command line and graphical tools for common analyses. We demonstrate GEMINI's utility for exploring variation in personal genomes and family based genetic studies, and illustrate its ability to scale to studies involving thousands of human samples. GEMINI is designed for reproducibility and flexibility and our goal is to provide researchers with a standard framework for medical genomics. PMID:23874191

  20. Splashdown - Gemini-Titan (GT-12) Spacecraft - Mission Close - Atlantic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59986 (15 Nov. 1966) --- The Gemini spaceflight program concludes as the Gemini-12 spacecraft, with astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, aboard, nears touchdown in the Atlantic Ocean 2.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, USS Wasp. Gemini-12 splashed down at 2:21 p.m. (EST), Nov. 11, 1966, to conclude the four-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Gemini analogs of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Gonzalo; Rivadulla, Marcos L; Pérez-García, Xenxo; Gandara, Zoila; Pérez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini analogs are the last significant contribution to the family of vitamin D derivatives in medicine, for the treatment of cancer. The first Gemini analog was characterized by two symmetric side chains at C-20. Following numerous modifications, the most active analog bears a C-23-triple bond, C-26, 27- hexafluoro substituents on one side chain and a terminal trideuteromethylhydroxy group on the other side chain. This progression was possible due to improvements in the synthetic methods for the preparation of these derivatives, which allowed for increasing molecular complexity and complete diastereoselective control at C-20 and the substituted sidechains.

  2. Dicationic Alkylammonium Bromide Gemini Surfactants. Membrane Perturbation and Skin Irritation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, João A. S.; Faneca, Henrique; Carvalho, Rui A.; Marques, Eduardo F.; Pais, Alberto A. C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line), frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of 31P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by 31P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism. PMID:22102870

  3. PRESS CONFERENCE - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-39897 (1 Aug. 1966) --- Astronaut John W. Young, Gemini-10 command pilot, uses a chalk drawing on a blackboard to illustrate how astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot, looked when he inspected the Agena Target Docking Vehicle during his extravehicular activity. Young was discussing the mission before a gathering of news media representatives in the Building 1 auditorium. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Gemini Observatory base facility operations: systems engineering process and lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, Andy; Close, Madeline; Coulson, Dolores; Nitta, Atsuko; Nunez, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    Gemini North Observatory successfully began nighttime remote operations from the Hilo Base Facility control room in November 2015. The implementation of the Gemini North Base Facility Operations (BFO) products was a great learning experience for many of our employees, including the author of this paper, the BFO Systems Engineer. In this paper we focus on the tailored Systems Engineering processes used for the project, the various software tools used in project support, and finally discuss the lessons learned from the Gemini North implementation. This experience and the lessons learned will be used both to aid our implementation of the Gemini South BFO in 2016, and in future technical projects at Gemini Observatory.

  5. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EXTRAVEHICULAR (EVA) - MICROMETEOROID PACKAGE - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-63538 (11 Nov. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot for the Gemini-12 spaceflight, removes micrometeoroid package for return to the spacecraft during extravehicular activity (EVA) on the first day of the four-day mission. Command pilot for the Gemini-12 mission, the last in the Gemini series, was astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. Photo credit: NASA

  6. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Gemini Observation Log (CADC, 2001-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Association of Universities For Research in Astronomy

    2018-01-01

    This database contains a log of the Gemini Telescope observations since 2001, managed by the Canadian Astronomical Data Center (CADC). The data are regularly updated (see the date of the last version at the end of this file). The Gemini Observatory consists of twin 8.1-meter diameter optical/infrared telescopes located on two of the best observing sites on the planet. From their locations on mountains in Hawai'i and Chile, Gemini Observatory's telescopes can collectively access the entire sky. Gemini is operated by a partnership of five countries including the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Any astronomer in these countries can apply for time on Gemini, which is allocated in proportion to each partner's financial stake. (1 data file).

  8. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-8 - INSIGNIA - COLOR DESIGN - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-23978 (March 1966) --- Color design for the emblem of the Gemini-8 spaceflight. Roman numeral indicates the eighth flight in the Gemini series. Prime crewmen for the mission are astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, command pilot; and David R. Scott, pilot. The NASA insignia design for Gemini flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Gemini Model in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-09-21

    A researcher at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center examines a small-scale model of the Gemini capsule in the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel test section. Gemini was added to NASA’s manned space program after its predecessor, Mercury, and its antecedent, Apollo, were already established. Gemini was a transitional mission designed provide the astronauts with practice docking with other spacecraft and withstanding durations in space up to two weeks. The program was officially announced on December 7, 1961, but planning began in mid-1959. It was named Gemini after the zodiac twins because of the spacecraft’s two passenger capacity. The Gemini Program was the first program to start at the new Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, now the Johnson Space Center. Unlike Mercury and Apollo, Lewis had very little involvement with the Gemini Program. This model was tested in the 10- by 10 tunnel for several weeks in September 1962. Lewis began managing the Agena second-stage rocket program shortly after this photograph was taken. Agenas were used to launch a variety of spacecraft and satellites in the 1960s. They were also used on several Gemini missions to provide targets for the astronauts to practice their rendezvous maneuvers. Gemini had two unmanned and ten manned flights in 1965 and 1966. These yielded the first spacewalks, long-duration space missions, first onboard computer, docking with a second spacecraft, and rendezvous maneuvers.

  10. Radiation dosimetry for the Gemini program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    The principal source of radiation for low-earth-orbit, low inclination space flights is in the area of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly. None of the Gemini dose measurements reported in the paper are of high enough intensity to be considered hazardous. There is a trend toward larger doses as missions are flown higher and longer. Extended orbital operations between 1400 and 4400 kilometers would encounter high interior radiation levels. Pronounced spacecraft geometry effects have been measured in manned spacecraft. Instrumentation for radiation measurements on Gemini spacecraft is described.

  11. Summary analysis of the Gemini entry aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic data that were derived in 1967 from the analysis of flight-generated data for the Gemini entry module are presented. These data represent the aerodynamic characteristics exhibited by the vehicle during the entry portion of Gemini 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions. For the Gemini, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 missions, the flight-generated lift-to-drag ratios and corresponding angles of attack are compared with the wind tunnel data. These comparisons show that the flight generated lift-to-drag ratios are consistently lower than were anticipated from the tunnel data. Numerous data uncertainties are cited that provide an insight into the problems that are related to an analysis of flight data developed from instrumentation systems, the primary functions of which are other than the evaluation of flight aerodynamic performance.

  12. Instrument Performance Monitoring at Gemini North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emig, Kimberly; Pohlen, M.; Chene, A.

    2014-01-01

    An instrument performance monitoring (IPM) project at the Gemini North Observatory evaluates the delivered throughput and sensitivity of, among other instruments, the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS), the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS), and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS-N). Systematic observations of standard stars allow the quality of the instruments and mirror to be assessed periodically. An automated pipeline has been implemented to process and analyze data obtained with NIFS, GNIRS cross-dispersed (XD) and long slit (LS) modes, and GMOS (photometry and spectroscopy). We focus the discussion of this poster on NIFS and GNIRS. We present the spectroscopic throughput determined for ZJHK bands on NIFS, the XJHKLM band for GNIRS XD mode and the K band for GNIRS LS. Additionally, the sensitivity is available for the JHK bands in NIFS and GNIRS XD, and for the K band in GNIRS LS. We consider data taken as early as March 2011. Furthermore, the pipeline setup and the methods used to determine throughput and sensitivity are described.

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 PREFLIGHT ACTIVITY - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - MISC. - KSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-01-21

    S66-32044 (17 May 1966) --- Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (left), pilot, and Thomas P. Stafford, command pilot, discuss the postponed Gemini-9 mission just after egressing their spacecraft in the white room atop Pad 19. The Agena Target Vehicle failed to achieve orbit, causing a termination of the mission. The spaceflight (to be called Gemini-9A) has been rescheduled for May 31. A Gemini Augmented Target Docking Adapter will be used as the rendezvous and docking vehicle for the Gemini-9 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Gemini base facility operations environmental monitoring: key systems and tools for the remote operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, Martin; Serio, Andrew; Meza, Francisco; Arriagada, Gustavo; Swett, Hector; Ball, Jesse; Collins, Paul; Masuda, Neal; Fuentes, Javier

    2016-07-01

    In 2014 Gemini Observatory started the base facility operations (BFO) project. The project's goal was to provide the ability to operate the two Gemini telescopes from their base facilities (respectively Hilo, HI at Gemini North, and La Serena, Chile at Gemini South). BFO was identified as a key project for Gemini's transition program, as it created an opportunity to reduce operational costs. In November 2015, the Gemini North telescope started operating from the base facility in Hilo, Hawaii. In order to provide the remote operator the tools to work from the base, many of the activities that were normally performed by the night staff at the summit were replaced with new systems and tools. This paper describes some of the key systems and tools implemented for environmental monitoring, and the design used in the implementation at the Gemini North telescope.

  15. Novel fluorinated gemini surfactants with γ-butyrolactone segments.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Tokuzo; Okada, Kazuyuki; Oida, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    In this work, novel γ-butyrolactone-type monomeric and dimeric (gemini) surfactants with a semifluoroalkyl group [Rf- (CH2)3-; Rf = C4F9, C6F13, C8F17] as the hydrophobic group were successfully synthesized. Dimethyl malonate was dimerized or connected using Br(CH2)sBr (s = 0, 1, 2, 3) to give tetraesters, and they were bis-allylated. Radical addition of fluoroalkyl using Rf-I and an initiator, i.e., 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile for C4F9 or di-t-butyl peroxide for C6F13 and C8F17, was perform at high temperature, with prolonged heating, to obtain bis(semifluoroalkyl)-dilactone diesters. These dilactone diesters were hydrolyzed using KOH/EtOH followed by decarboxylation in AcOH to afford γ-butyrolactonetype gemini surfactants. Common 1 + 1 semifluoroalkyl lactone surfactants were synthesized using the same method. Their surfactant properties [critical micelle concentration (CMC), γCMC, pC20, ΓCMC, and AG] were investigated by measuring the surface tension of the γ-hydroxybutyrate form prepared in aqueous tetrabutylammonium hydroxide solution. As expected, the CMC values of the gemini surfactants were more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of the corresponding 1 + 1 surfactants. Other properties also showed the excellent ability of the gemini structure to reduce the surface tension. These surfactants were easily and quantitatively recovered by acidification. The monomeric surfactant was recovered in the γ-hydroxybutyric acid form, and the gemini surfactant as a mixture of γ-butyrolactone and γ-hydroxybutyric acid forms.

  16. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 ACTIVITY - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-12

    S65-62062 (12 Dec. 1965) --- Discussing the scrubbing of the planned National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-6 spaceflight are (from left) William C. Schneider (standing), deputy director, Gemini Program Office of Manned Spaceflight, NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C.; Eugene F. Kranz (seated), white team flight director; Christopher C. Kraft Jr., red team flight director; and John D. Hodge, blue team flight director. The Gemini-6 mission has been rescheduled for Dec. 15, 1965. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - TRAINING (PRIOR) - MISSION SIMULATOR

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-06

    S66-45579 (6 Sept. 1966) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (right), prime crew command pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, talks with Burton M. Gifford (left) and Duane K. Mosel (center), both with the Simulation Branch, Flight Crew Support Division. Lovell was preparing to undergo flight training in the Gemini Mission Simulator in Building 5, Mission Simulation and Training Facility. Photo credit: NASA

  18. GEMINI SPACECRAFT - ARTIST CONCEPT

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-01-01

    S64-22331 (1964) --- Artist concept illustrating the relative sizes of the one-man Mercury spacecraft, the two-man Gemini spacecraft, and the three-man Apollo spacecraft. Also shows line drawing of launch vehicles to show their relative size in relation to each other. Photo credit: NASA

  19. PRESS CONFERENCE - PUBLIC AFFAIRS OFFICE (PAO) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT) IX-A

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-17

    S66-39446 (17 June 1966) --- Movie film of the Gemini-9A and Augmented Target Docking Adapter rendezvous was shown at the Gemini-9A press conference in the MSC auditorium. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left) and Eugene A. Cernan discussed the Gemini-9A/ATDA rendezvous mission during the film. Pictured on the screen, shows a close-up of the ATDA, described by the astronauts as an "angry alligator." Photo credit: NASA

  20. Gemini 9 spacecraft during EVA as seen Astronaut Eugene Cernan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan took this view of the Gemini 9 spacecraft and his umbilical cord (right) over California, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, during his extravehicular activity on the Gemini 9 mission. Taken during the 32nd revolution of the flight.

  1. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-V - PILOT - SUITING-UP - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-19

    S65-46374 (21 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Gemini-5 pilot, is pictured during suiting up operations on the morning of the flight of Gemini-5. With him is Dr. Eugene Tubbs, a member of the medical team at Cape Kennedy. The mission was originally set for Aug. 19, 1965, but was scrubbed and reset for Aug. 21. Command pilot for the flight is astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr.

  2. Astronaut Eugene Cernan sits in Gemini boilerplate during water egress

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-04-09

    S66-29559 (9 April 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, prime crew pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration?s Gemini-9 spaceflight, sits in Gemini Boiler-plate during water egress training activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini Spectroscopic Survey of Young Intermediate-Mass Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, Michael; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2018-01-01

    The majority of stars form in embedded clusters. Current research into star formation has focused on either high-mass star-forming regions or low-mass star-forming regions. We present the results from a Gemini spectroscopic survey of young intermediate-mass star-forming regions. These are star forming regions selected to produce stars up to but not exceeding 8 solar masses. We obtained spectra of these regions with GNIRS on Gemini North and Flamingos-2 on Gemini South. We also combine this with near-infrared imaging from 2MASS, UKIDSS, and VVV to study the stellar content.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 (RECOVERY)- ASTRONAUT JOHN W. YOUNG - MISC. - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-21

    S66-42787 (21 July 1966) --- Twelve-year -old Billy Doyle of Virginia Beach, VA., shakes hands with astronaut Michael Collins, Gemini-10 pilot, aboard the recovery ship USS Guadalcanal. At right is John W. Young, command pilot of the Gemini-10 spaceflight. Billy represented 41 youngsters permitted aboard the Guadalcanal to witness the recovery with their Naval fathers or close relatives, marking the first time dependents have been permitted aboard a ship during a Gemini recovery operation. Photo credit: NASA

  5. GEMINI-4 - SPACE FOOD - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. A water gun is used to reconstitute the dehydrated food. MSC, HOUSTON, TX CN

  6. NASA Remembers Gemini, Apollo Astronaut Dick Gordon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-07

    Astronaut Dick Gordon, command module pilot on Apollo 12, the second lunar landing mission, died on Monday, November 6 at the age of 88. A native of Seattle, Washington and 1951 graduate of the University of Washington, Gordon became an astronaut in 1963 after a career as a naval aviator. He spent more than 316 hours in space on two missions. He was the pilot for the three-day Gemini 11 mission in 1966 and performed two spacewalks. At the time of the flight, Gemini 11 set the world altitude record of 850 miles. Gordon made a second flight in 1969 as command pilot on Apollo 12 with spacecraft commander, Pete Conrad and lunar module pilot, Alan Bean. Throughout the 31-hour lunar surface stay by Conrad and Bean, Gordon remained in orbit around the moon on the command module, "Yankee Clipper." In November 2005, NASA honored Gordon with an Ambassador of Exploration award. NASA presented these prestigious awards to the astronauts who took part in the nation's Mercury, Gemini and Apollo space programs from 1961 to 1972.

  7. Personnel discussing Gemini 11 space flight in Mission Control

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-12

    S66-52157 (12 Sept. 1966) --- Discussing the Gemini-11 spaceflight in the Mission Control Center are: (left to right) Christopher C. Kraft Jr., (wearing glasses), Director of Flight Operations; Charles W. Mathews (holding phone), Manager, Gemini Program Office; Dr. Donald K. Slayton (center, checked coat), Director of Flight Crew Operations; astronaut William A. Anders, and astronaut John W. Young. Photo credit: NASA

  8. Catanionic mixtures forming gemini-like amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hideki; Okabe, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sakai, Kenichi; Abe, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The properties of aqueous mixtures of cationic species with alkyl dicarboxylic acid compounds have been studied. The cationic compounds used in this study were tertiary amine-type N-methyl-N-(2,3-dioxypropyl)hexadecylamine (C16amine) and quaternary ammonium-type N,N-dimethyl-N-(2,3-dioxypropyl)hexadecylammonium chloride (C16Q). The alkyl dicarboxylic acid compounds used were HOOC(CH(2))(10)COOH (C12H) and its sodium salt (C12Na). Three aqueous mixtures were examined in this study: (System I) C16amine + C12H, (System II) C16Q + C12Na, and (System III) C16Q + C12H. The solution pH was set at 12 for System III. The combination of (1)H-NMR and mass spectroscopy data has suggested that a stoichiometric complex is formed in the aqueous solutions at a mole fraction of C12H (or C12Na) = 0.33. Here, the C12H (or C12Na) molecule added to the system bridges two cationic molecules, like a spacer of gemini surfactants. In fact, the static surface tensiometry has demonstrated that the stoichiometric complex behaves as gemini-like amphiphiles in aqueous solutions. Our current study offers a possible way for easily preparing gemini surfactant systems.

  9. A new approach for instrument software at Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Nunez, Arturo; Dunn, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    Gemini Observatory is now developing its next generation of astronomical instruments, the Aspen instruments. These new instruments are sophisticated and costly requiring large distributed, collaborative teams. Instrument software groups often include experienced team members with existing mature code. Gemini has taken its experience from the previous generation of instruments and current hardware and software technology to create an approach for developing instrument software that takes advantage of the strengths of our instrument builders and our own operations needs. This paper describes this new software approach that couples a lightweight infrastructure and software library with aspects of modern agile software development. The Gemini Planet Imager instrument project, which is currently approaching its critical design review, is used to demonstrate aspects of this approach. New facilities under development will face similar issues in the future, and the approach presented here can be applied to other projects.

  10. SciTech Connect

    W. Lynn Watney; John H. Doveton

    GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) is a public-domain web application focused on analysis and modeling of petroleum reservoirs and plays (http://www.kgs.ukans.edu/Gemini/index.html). GEMINI creates a virtual project by ''on-the-fly'' assembly and analysis of on-line data either from the Kansas Geological Survey or uploaded from the user. GEMINI's suite of geological and engineering web applications for reservoir analysis include: (1) petrofacies-based core and log modeling using an interactive relational rock catalog and log analysis modules; (2) a well profile module; (3) interactive cross sections to display ''marked'' wireline logs; (4) deterministic gridding and mapping of petrophysical data; (5) calculation and mappingmore » of layer volumetrics; (6) material balance calculations; (7) PVT calculator; (8) DST analyst, (9) automated hydrocarbon association navigator (KHAN) for database mining, and (10) tutorial and help functions. The Kansas Hydrocarbon Association Navigator (KHAN) utilizes petrophysical databases to estimate hydrocarbon pay or other constituent at a play- or field-scale. Databases analyzed and displayed include digital logs, core analysis and photos, DST, and production data. GEMINI accommodates distant collaborations using secure password protection and authorized access. Assembled data, analyses, charts, and maps can readily be moved to other applications. GEMINI's target audience includes small independents and consultants seeking to find, quantitatively characterize, and develop subtle and bypassed pays by leveraging the growing base of digital data resources. Participating companies involved in the testing and evaluation of GEMINI included Anadarko, BP, Conoco-Phillips, Lario, Mull, Murfin, and Pioneer Resources.« less

  11. Gemini experiment S026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medved, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    The results of the reduction and analysis of data obtained from the S026 experiment from Gemini 10 and 11 flights are presented. The electron and ion sensors were continuously operative throughout both missions from shroud removal (about 6 minutes after Agena liftoff to power-down conditions one week later). Data on ion and electron currents, electron temperature, and vehicle potential were obtained at a sample rate of 32 times per second on positive ions for each of two ion sensors and once every 1.067 seconds for the electron sensor. Only the data reduction of the Gemini plasma wake measurements comprising roughly twenty minutes of data for six maneuvers programed for wake measurements are considered. The intermediate depletion zone, between 1 and 10 vehicle radii downstream from the object, is emphasized. The smallest characteristic radius of interest is 1.34 feet and the largest is 5 feet. This implies a separation span extending from approximately 1.5 feet at the closest approach to at least 50 feet into the far field.

  12. LIFTOFF - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - ATLAS/AGENA - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-17

    S66-34610 (17 May 1966) --- An Agena Target Vehicle atop its Atlas Launch vehicle is launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Complex 14 at 10:15 am., May 17, 1966. The Agena was intended as a rendezvous and docking vehicle for the Gemini-9 spacecraft. However, since the Agena failed to achieve orbit, the Gemini-9 mission was postponed. Photo credit: NASA

  13. GORDON, RICHARD F., ASTRONAUT - MISC. - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-XI - RECOVERY - FROGMEN - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-15

    S66-50759 (15 Sept. 1966) --- Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot of the Gemini-11 spaceflight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the prime recovery ship USS Guam. Gemini-11 splashed down in the western Atlantic recovery area at 9 a.m. (EST), Sept. 15, 1966, to conclude the three-day mission in space. Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr. (out of frame) is the Gemini-11 command pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EARTH-SKY - AUGMENTED TARGET DOCKING ADAPTER (ATDA) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-06

    S66-37923 (3 June 1966) --- The Augmented Target Docking Adapter (ATDA) as seen from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during one of their three rendezvous in space. The ATDA and Gemini-9 spacecraft are 66.5 feet apart. Failure of the docking adapter protective cover to fully separate on the ATDA prevented the docking of the two spacecraft. The ATDA was described by the Gemini-9 crew as an "angry alligator." Photo credit: NASA

  15. A novel type of highly effective nonionic gemini alkyl O-glucoside surfactants: a versatile strategy of design.

    PubMed

    Liu, Songbai; Sang, Ruocheng; Hong, Shan; Cai, Yujing; Wang, Hua

    2013-07-09

    A novel type of highly effective gemini alkyl glucosides has been rationally designed and synthesized. The gemini surfactants have been readily prepared by glycosylation of the gemini alkyl chains that are synthesized with regioselective ring-opening of ethylene glycol epoxides by the alkyl alcohols. The new gemini alkyl glucosides exhibit significantly better surface activity than the known results. Then rheological, DLS, and TEM studies have revealed the intriguing self-assembly behavior of the novel gemini surfactants. This study has proved the effectiveness of the design of gemini alkyl glucosides which is modular, extendable, and synthetically simple. The new gemini surfactants have great potential as nano carriers in drug and gene delivery.

  16. Gemini 7 prime crew during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. (left), Gemini 7 prime crew pilot, talks with NASA space suit technician Clyde Teague during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. Lovell wears the new lightweight space suit planned for use during the Gemini 7 mission (61756); Astronaut Frank Borman, comand pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, undergoes suiting up operations in Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Medical biosensors are attached to his scalp (61757).

  17. Summary of CPAS EDU Testing Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Davidson, John.; Engert, Meagan E.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Galaviz, Fernando S.; Galvin, Patrick J.; Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The Orion program's Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) project is currently conducting its third generation of testing, the Engineering Development Unit (EDU) series. This series utilizes two test articles, a dart-shaped Parachute Compartment Drop Test Vehicle (PCDTV) and capsule-shaped Parachute Test Vehicle (PTV), both of which include a full size, flight-like parachute system and require a pallet delivery system for aircraft extraction. To date, 15 tests have been completed, including six with PCDTVs and nine with PTVs. Two of the PTV tests included the Forward Bay Cover (FBC) provided by Lockheed Martin. Advancements in modeling techniques applicable to parachute fly-out, vehicle rate of descent, torque, and load train, also occurred during the EDU testing series. An upgrade from a composite to an independent parachute simulation allowed parachute modeling at a higher level of fidelity than during previous generations. The complexity of separating the test vehicles from their pallet delivery systems necessitated the use the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) simulator for modeling mated vehicle aircraft extraction and separation. This paper gives an overview of each EDU test and summarizes the development of CPAS analysis tools and techniques during EDU testing.

  18. Personnel - Gemini-Titan (GT)-10 - Mission Control Center (MCC) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-43377 (18 July 1966) --- Standing at the flight director's console, viewing the Gemini-10 flight display in the Mission Control Center, are (left to right) William C. Schneider, Mission Director; Glynn Lunney, Prime Flight Director; Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director of Flight Operations; and Charles W. Mathews, Manager, Gemini Program Office. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Gemini Capsule and Rendezvous Docking Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-12-19

    Practicing with a full-scale model of the Gemini Capsule in Langley's Rendezvous Docking Simulator. -- Caption and photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, (page 89), by James Schultz.

  20. Confirmation of 5 SN in the Kepler/K2 C16 Field with Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, S.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S.; Kasen, D.; Shaya, E.; Mushotzky, R.; Olling, R.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by KEGS of supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler/K2 Campaign 16 field using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on both the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, and the Gemini South Observatory on Cerro Pachon.

  1. Remote Operations of Laser Guide Star Systems: Gemini Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, Richard J.; Fesquet, Vincent; Wyman, Robert; D'Orgeville, Celine

    2011-03-01

    The Gemini North telescope, equipped with a 14W laser, has been providing Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGS AO) regular science queue observations for worldwide astronomers since February 2007. The new 55W laser system for MCAO was installed on the Gemini South telescope in May 2010. In this paper, we comment on how Gemini Observatory developed regular remote operation of the Laser Guide Star Facility and high-power solid-state laser as routine normal operations. Fully remote operation of the LGSF from the Hilo base facility HBF was initially trialed and then optimized and became the standard operating procedure (SOP) for LGS operation in December 2008. From an engineering perspective remote operation demands stable, well characterized and base-lined equipment sets. In the effort to produce consistent, stable and controlled laser parameters (power, wavelength and beam quality) we completed a failure mode effect analysis of the laser system and sub systems that initiated a campaign of hardware upgrades and procedural improvements to the routine maintenance operations. Finally, we provide an overview of normal operation procedures during LGS runs and present a snapshot of data accumulated over several years that describes the overall LGS AO observing efficiency at the Gemini North telescope.

  2. Adsorptive removal of naphthalene induced by structurally different Gemini surfactants in a soil-water system.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jia; Li, Jun; Huang, Guohe; Wang, Xiujie; Chen, Guanghui; Zhao, Baihang

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of surfactant, Gemini surfactants, have been synthesized and have attracted the attention of various industrial and academic research groups. This study focused on the use of symmetric and dissymmetric quaternary ammonium Gemini surfactants to immobilize naphthalene onto soil particles, and is used as an example of an innovative application to remove HOC in situ using the surfactant-enhanced sorption zone. The sorption capacity of modified soils by Gemini surfactant and natural soils was compared and the naphthalene sorption efficiency, in the absence and presence of Gemini surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths, was investigated in the soil-water system. The results have shown that the increased added Gemini surfactant formed admicelles at the interface of soil/water having superior capability to retard contaminant. Symmetric and dissymmetric Gemini surfactants have opposite effect on the aspect of removing of PAH attributing to their solubilization and sorption behavior in soil-water system. Compared with the natural soil, sorption of naphthalene by Gemini-modified soil is noticeably enhanced following the order of C12-2-16 < C12-2-12 < C12-2-8. However, the symmetric Gemini surfactant C12-2-12 is the optimized one for in situ barrier remediation, which is not only has relative high retention ability but also low dosage.

  3. The Gemini Science User Support Department: A community-centered approach to user support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chené, André-Nicolas; Thomas-Osip, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The Gemini Science User Support Department (SUSD) was formed a little more than a year ago to create a collaborative community of users and staff and to consolidate existing post-observing support throughout the observatory for more efficient use of resources as well as better visibility amongst our user community. This poster is an opportunity to exchange ideas about how Gemini can improve your experience while working with the Observatory and present details about new avenues of post-observing support coming soon. We encourage your feedback at any time.Shortly after its creation, the SUSD conducted a complete revision of the communication cycle between Gemini and its community of researchers. The cycle was then revisited from the perspective of an astronomer interested in using Gemini for their research. This exercise led to a series of proposed changes that are currently under development, and the implementation of a sub-selection is expected in 2016, including the following. (1) Email notifications: Gemini users will receive new forms of email communications that are more instructive and tailored to their program. The objective is to direct the users more efficiently toward the useful links and documentation all along the lifecycle of the program, from phaseII to after the data are completely reduced. (2) HelpDesk system: The HelpDesk will become more user-friendly and transparent. (3) Webpages: The organization of the Gemini webpages will be redesigned to optimize navigation; especially for anything regarding more critical periods likes phaseIs and phaseIIs. (4) Data Reduction User Forum: Following recommendations from Gemini users, new capabilities were added to the forum, like email notifications, and a voting system, in order to make it more practical. This forum's objective is to bring the Gemini community together to exchange their ideas, thoughts, questions and solutions about data reduction, a sort of Reddit, StackOverflow or Slashdot for Gemini data.

  4. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity <4% (requirement) or <2% (goal) if silver coatings are used. The instrument complement is diverse, including near- and mid-IR imagers, and near-IR and optical spectrographs. Both telescopes are equipped with f/16 articulated secondaries, and a future upgrade path to a wide-field f/6 configuration is provided. The northern telescope also includes a natural-guide-star adaptive optics system. Up to five instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the Cassegrain instrument interface. Approximately 50% of the telescope time will be flexibly scheduled, allowing most efficient utilization of the times of best conditions and facilitating programs which are difficult to schedule, such as synoptic and target-of-opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U

  5. Novel gemini cationic lipids with carbamate groups for gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Qureshi, Farooq; Zhang, Shu-Biao; Cui, Shao-Hui; Wang, Bing; Chen, Hui-Ying; Lv, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Fen; Huang, Leaf

    2014-01-01

    To obtain efficient non-viral vectors, a series of Gemini cationic lipids with carbamate linkers between headgroups and hydrophobic tails were synthesized. They have the hydrocarbon chains of 12, 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms as tails, designated as G12, G14, G16 and G18, respectively. These Gemini cationic lipids were prepared into cationic liposomes for the study of the physicochemical properties and gene delivery. The DNA-bonding ability of these Gemini cationic liposomes was much better than their mono-head counterparts (designated as M12, M14, M16 and M18, respectively). In the same series of liposomes, bonding ability declined with an increase in tail length. They were tested for their gene-transferring capabilities in Hep-2 and A549 cells. They showed higher transfection efficiency than their mono-head counterparts and were comparable or superior in transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity to the commercial liposomes, DOTAP and Lipofectamine 2000. Our results convincingly demonstrate that the gene-transferring capabilities of these cationic lipids depended on hydrocarbon chain length. Gene transfection efficiency was maximal at a chain length of 14, as G14 can silence about 80 % of luciferase in A549 cells. Cell uptake results indicate that Gemini lipid delivery systems could be internalised by cells very efficiently. Thus, the Gemini cationic lipids could be used as synthetic non-viral gene delivery carriers for further study. PMID:25045521

  6. Synthesis and aggregation properties of dissymmetric phytanyl-gemini surfactants for use as improved DNA transfection vectors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitang; Wettig, Shawn D

    2011-01-14

    Improvements in transfection efficiency are required in order to make the goal of cellular gene delivery by non-viral vectors realizable. Novel derivatives of gemini surfactants having dissymmetric tail groups have been designed specifically as a means to improve DNA transfection; the micelle and interfacial properties are reported herein. The effect of these substitutions on the aggregation properties of the gemini surfactants is discussed in the context of results for the m-3-m gemini series, previously reported in the literature. Phytanyl substitution results in lower cmc and higher micelle ionization. In addition, the phytanyl substituted gemini surfactants form vesicles at room temperature. Preliminary in vitro transfection assays showed the phytanyl substituted gemini surfactants to be more efficient transfection vectors as compared to symmetric gemini surfactants.

  7. eduSPIM: Light Sheet Microscopy in the Museum

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light Sheet Microscopy in the Museum Light sheet microscopy (or selective plane illumination microscopy) is an important imaging technique in the life sciences. At the same time, this technique is also ideally suited for community outreach projects, because it produces visually appealing, highly dynamic images of living organisms and its working principle can be understood with basic optics knowledge. Still, the underlying concepts are widely unknown to the non-scientific public. On the occasion of the UNESCO International Year of Light, a technical museum in Dresden, Germany, launched a special, interactive exhibition. We built a fully functional, educational selective plane illumination microscope (eduSPIM) to demonstrate how developments in microscopy promote discoveries in biology. Design Principles of an Educational Light Sheet Microscope To maximize educational impact, we radically reduced a standard light sheet microscope to its essential components without compromising functionality and incorporated stringent safety concepts beyond those needed in the lab. Our eduSPIM system features one illumination and one detection path and a sealed sample chamber. We image fixed zebrafish embryos with fluorescent vasculature, because the structure is meaningful to laymen and visualises the optical principles of light sheet microscopy. Via a simplified interface, visitors acquire fluorescence and transmission data simultaneously. The eduSPIM Design Is Tailored Easily to Fit Numerous Applications The universal concepts presented here may also apply to other scientific approaches that are communicated to laymen in interactive settings. The specific eduSPIM design is adapted easily for various outreach and teaching activities. eduSPIM may even prove useful for labs needing a simple SPIM. A detailed parts list and schematics to rebuild eduSPIM are provided. PMID:27560188

  8. Astronaut Virgil Grissom shown through window of open hatch on Gemini craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot of the Gemini-Titan 3 three orbit mission, is shown through the window of the open hatch on Gemini spacecraft in the white room on the mornining of the launch.

  9. Photometric Calibrations of Gemini Images of NGC 6253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Sean; Jeffery, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our analysis of the metal-rich open cluster NGC 6253 using imaging data from GMOS on the Gemini-South Observatory. These data are part of a larger project to observe the effects of high metallicity on white dwarf cooling processes, especially the white dwarf cooling age, which have important implications on the processes of stellar evolution. To standardize the Gemini photometry, we have also secured imaging data of both the cluster and standard star fields using the 0.6-m SARA Observatory at CTIO. By analyzing and comparing the standard star fields of both the SARA data and the published Gemini zero-points of the standard star fields, we will calibrate the data obtained for the cluster. These calibrations are an important part of the project to obtain a standardized deep color-magnitude diagram to analyze the cluster. We present the process of verifying our standardization process. With a standardized CMD, we also present an analysis of the cluster's main sequence turn off age.

  10. Gemini 3 prime crew egress throught command pilot's hatch during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Both members of the Gemini-Titan 3 prime crew egress through the left, or command pilot's hatch, into the Gulf of Mexico during specialized training in egress from the Gemini spacecraft. Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom, the command pilot, has already climbed into a raft, as Astronaut John W. Young, the pilot, egresses from the spacecraft.

  11. Astronaut Gene Cernan poses in front of Gemini Mission Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-09

    S66-32698 (17 June 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan discusses his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity before a gathering of news media representatives in the MSC auditorium. In the background is an Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) mock-up mounted in a mock-up of a Gemini spacecraft adapter equipment section. Astronauts Cernan and Thomas P. Stafford completed their three-day mission in space on June 6, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  12. eduSPIM: Light Sheet Microscopy in the Museum.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Weber, Michael; Huisken, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light sheet microscopy (or selective plane illumination microscopy) is an important imaging technique in the life sciences. At the same time, this technique is also ideally suited for community outreach projects, because it produces visually appealing, highly dynamic images of living organisms and its working principle can be understood with basic optics knowledge. Still, the underlying concepts are widely unknown to the non-scientific public. On the occasion of the UNESCO International Year of Light, a technical museum in Dresden, Germany, launched a special, interactive exhibition. We built a fully functional, educational selective plane illumination microscope (eduSPIM) to demonstrate how developments in microscopy promote discoveries in biology. To maximize educational impact, we radically reduced a standard light sheet microscope to its essential components without compromising functionality and incorporated stringent safety concepts beyond those needed in the lab. Our eduSPIM system features one illumination and one detection path and a sealed sample chamber. We image fixed zebrafish embryos with fluorescent vasculature, because the structure is meaningful to laymen and visualises the optical principles of light sheet microscopy. Via a simplified interface, visitors acquire fluorescence and transmission data simultaneously. The universal concepts presented here may also apply to other scientific approaches that are communicated to laymen in interactive settings. The specific eduSPIM design is adapted easily for various outreach and teaching activities. eduSPIM may even prove useful for labs needing a simple SPIM. A detailed parts list and schematics to rebuild eduSPIM are provided.

  13. The Software Distribution for Gemini Observatory's Science Operations Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoenig, M. D.; Clarke, M.; Pohlen, M.; Hirst, P.

    2014-05-01

    Gemini Observatory consists of two telescopes in different hemispheres. It also operates mostly on a queue observing model, meaning observations are performed by staff working shifts as opposed to PIs. For these two reasons alone, maintaining and distributing a diverse software suite is not a trivial matter. We present a way to make the appropriate tools available to staff at Gemini North and South, whether they are working on the summit or from our base facility offices in Hilo, Hawai'i and La Serena, Chile.

  14. Use of the antiozonant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Italy: verification of the effects of ambient ozone on crop plants and trees and investigation of EDU's mode of action.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Elena; Contran, Nicla; Manning, William J; Ferrara, Anna M

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four experiments where EDU was used to protect plants from ozone (O(3)) in Italy are reviewed. Doses of 150 and 450 ppm EDU at 2-3 week intervals were successfully applied to alleviate O(3)-caused visible injury and growth reductions in crop and forest species respectively. EDU was mainly applied as soil drench to crops and by stem injection or infusion into trees. Visible injury was delayed and reduced but not completely. In investigations on mode of action, EDU was quickly (<2h) uptaken and translocated to the leaf apoplast where it persisted long (>8 days), as it cannot move via phloem. EDU did not enter cells, suggesting it does not directly affect cell metabolism. EDU delayed senescence, did not affect photosynthesis and foliar nitrogen content, and stimulated antioxidant responses to O(3) exposure. Preliminary results suggest developing an effective soil application method for forest trees is warranted.

  15. GEMINI: a computationally-efficient search engine for large gene expression datasets.

    PubMed

    DeFreitas, Timothy; Saddiki, Hachem; Flaherty, Patrick

    2016-02-24

    Low-cost DNA sequencing allows organizations to accumulate massive amounts of genomic data and use that data to answer a diverse range of research questions. Presently, users must search for relevant genomic data using a keyword, accession number of meta-data tag. However, in this search paradigm the form of the query - a text-based string - is mismatched with the form of the target - a genomic profile. To improve access to massive genomic data resources, we have developed a fast search engine, GEMINI, that uses a genomic profile as a query to search for similar genomic profiles. GEMINI implements a nearest-neighbor search algorithm using a vantage-point tree to store a database of n profiles and in certain circumstances achieves an [Formula: see text] expected query time in the limit. We tested GEMINI on breast and ovarian cancer gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project and show that it achieves a query time that scales as the logarithm of the number of records in practice on genomic data. In a database with 10(5) samples, GEMINI identifies the nearest neighbor in 0.05 sec compared to a brute force search time of 0.6 sec. GEMINI is a fast search engine that uses a query genomic profile to search for similar profiles in a very large genomic database. It enables users to identify similar profiles independent of sample label, data origin or other meta-data information.

  16. Gemini-IFU Spectroscopy of HH 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Feitosa, J.; Plana, H.

    2015-03-01

    We present new optical observations of the Herbig-Haro (HH) 111 jet using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph in its Integral Field Unit mode. Eight fields of 5\\prime\\prime × 3\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5 have been positioned along and across the HH 111 jet, covering the spatial region from knot E to L in HH 111 (namely, knots E, F, G, H, J, K, and L). We present images and velocity channel maps for the [O i] 6300+6360, Hα, [N ii] 6548+6583, and [S ii] 6716+6730 lines, as well as for the [S ii] 6716/6730 line ratio. We find that the HH 111 jet has an inner region with lower excitation and higher radial velocity, surrounded by a broader region of higher excitation and lower radial velocity. Also, we find higher electron densities at lower radial velocities. These results imply that the HH 111 jet has a fast, axial region with lower velocity shocks surrounded by a lower velocity sheath with higher velocity shocks. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-01

    S66-46054 (18 July 1966) --- Venezuela, British Guyana, Surinam and Trinidad, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. On the left is the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela. Mouth of Essequibo River in British Guyana is in right center. Photo credit: NASA

  18. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - NORTHERN SONORA, MEXICO - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-62794 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Northern portion of Sonora, Mexico; southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 30th revolution of Earth. Includes the Tucson, Phoenix, Mogollon Rim, and Painted Desert areas. A 100-foot tether line connects the Agena Target Docking Vehicle with the Gemini-12 spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA.

  19. Gemini Simulator and Neil Armstrong

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-11-06

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong (left) was one of 14 astronauts, 8 NASA test pilots, and 2 McDonnell test pilots who took part in simulator studies. Armstrong was the first astronaut to participate (November 6, 1963). A.W. Vogeley described the simulator in his paper "Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators For Space Research," "Many of the astronauts have flown this simulator in support of the Gemini studies and they, without exception, appreciated the realism of the visual scene. The simulator has also been used in the development of pilot techniques to handle certain jet malfunctions in order that aborts could be avoided. In these situations large attitude changes are sometimes necessary and the false motion cues that were generated due to earth gravity were somewhat objectionable; however, the pilots were readily able to overlook these false motion cues in favor of the visual realism." Roy F. Brissenden, noted in his paper "Initial Operations with Langley's Rendezvous Docking Facility," "The basic Gemini control studies developed the necessary techniques and demonstrated the ability of human pilots to perform final space docking with the specified Gemini-Agena systems using only visual references. ... Results... showed that trained astronauts can effect the docking with direct acceleration control and even with jet malfunctions as long as good visual conditions exist.... Probably more important than data results was the early confidence that the astronauts themselves gained in their ability to perform the maneuver in the ultimate flight mission." Francis B. Smith, noted in his paper "Simulators for Manned Space Research," "Some major areas of interest in these flights were fuel requirements, docking accuracies, the development of visual aids to assist alignment of the vehicles, and investigation of alternate control techniques with partial failure modes. However, the familiarization and confidence developed by the astronaut through flying and safely docking the

  20. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Doveton, John H.; Watney, W. Lynn

    The program, for development and methodologies, was a 3-year interdisciplinary effort to develop an interactive, integrated Internet Website named GEMINI (Geo-Engineering Modeling through Internet Informatics) that would build real-time geo-engineering reservoir models for the Internet using the latest technology in Web applications.

  1. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - AGENA ON TETHER - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63517 (13 Nov. 1966) --- The Gulf of California area as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during its 30th revolution of Earth. Baja California Sur is the peninsula on the left. At lower left is the mainland of Mexico. A 100-foot tether line connects the Agena Target Docking Vehicle with the Gemini-12 spacecraft. View is looking south. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Mexico, Arizona and New Mexico as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Northern portion of Sonora, Mexico; southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft during its 30th revolution of the earth. Includes the Tucson, Phoenix, Mogollon Rim, and Painted Desert areas. A 100 ft. tether line connects the Agena Target Docking Vehicle with the Gemini 12 spacecraft.

  3. A comparison of Gemini and ERTS imagery obtained over southern Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Anderson, A. T.

    1973-01-01

    A mosaic constructed from three ERTS MSS band 5 images enlarged to 1:500,000 compares favorably with a similar scale geologic map of southern Morocco, and a near-similar scale Gemini 5 photo pair. A comparative plot of lineations and generalized geology on the three formats show that a significantly greater number of probable fractures are visible on the ERTS imagery than on the Gemini photography, and that both orbital formats show several times more lineaments than were previously mapped. A plot of mineral occurrences on the structural overlays indicates that definite structure-mineralization relationships exist; this finding is used to define underdeveloped areas which are prospective for mineralization. More detailed mapping is possible using MSS imagery than on Gemini 5 photographs, and in addition, the ERTS format is not restricted to limited coverage.

  4. FROGMEN - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59987 (15 Nov. 1966) --- A Navy frogman leaps from a recovery helicopter into the water to assist in the Gemini-12 recovery operations. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr., command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just completed their four-day space mission. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Design and analysis of the Gemini chain system in dual clutch transmission of automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yabing; Guo, Haitao; Fu, Zhenming; Wan, Nen; Li, Lei; Wang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Chain drive system is widely used in the conditions of high-speed, overload, variable speed and load. Many studies are focused on the meshing theory and wear characteristics of chain drive system, but system design, analysis, and noise characteristics of the chain drive system are weak. System design and noise characteristic are studied for a new type Gemini chain of dual-clutch automatic transmission. Based on the meshing theory of silent chain, the design parameters of the Gemini chain system are calculated and the mathematical models and dynamic analysis models of the Gemini chain system are established. Dynamic characteristics of the Gemini chain system is simulated and the contact force of plate and pin, plate and sprockets, the chain tension forces, the transmission error and the stress of plates and pins are analyzed. According to the simulation results of the Gemini chain system, the noise experiment about system is carried out. The noise values are tested at different speed and load and spectral characteristics are analyzed. The results of simulation and experimental show that the contact forces of plate and pin, plate and sprockets are smaller than the allowable stress values, the chain tension force is less than ultimate tension and transmission error is limited in 1.2%. The noise values can meet the requirements of industrial design, and it is proved that the design and analysis method of the Gemini chain system is scientific and feasible. The design and test system is built from analysis to test of Gemini chain system. This research presented will provide a corresponding theoretical guidance for the design and dynamic characteristics and noise characteristics of chain drive system.

  6. A Virtual Field Trip to the Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. Scott; Michaud, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Live from Gemini (LfG) is a virtual field trip using video conferencing technology to connect primary, secondary and post-secondary students with scientists and educators at the Gemini Observatory. As a pilot project, LfG is rapidly becoming one of the observatory's most often-requested educational programs for learners of all ages. The program aligns exceptionally well with national science (and technology) standards, as well as existing school curricula. This combination makes it easy for teachers to justify participation in the program, especially as the necessary video conferencing technology becomes ever more ubiquitous in classrooms and technology learning centers around the world. In developing and testing this pilot project, a programmatic approach and philosophy evolved that includes post-field-trip educational materials, multi-disciplinary subject matter (astronomy, geology, mathematics, meteorology, engineering and even language - the program is offered in Spanish from Gemini South in Chile), and the establishment of a personal connection and rapport with students. The presenters work to create a comfortable interaction despite the perceived technological barriers. The authors’ experiences with the LfG pilot project convince us that this model is viable for almost any astronomical observatory and should be considered by any dynamic, technology- and education-oriented facility.

  7. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    PubMed

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous.

  8. Requirements management for Gemini Observatory: a small organization with big development projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Madeline; Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin; Hardie, Kayla

    2016-08-01

    Gemini Observatory is an astronomical observatory operating two premier 8m-class telescopes, one in each hemisphere. As an operational facility, a majority of Gemini's resources are spent on operations however the observatory undertakes major development projects as well. Current projects include new facility science instruments, an operational paradigm shift to full remote operations, and new operations tools for planning, configuration and change control. Three years ago, Gemini determined that a specialized requirements management tool was needed. Over the next year, the Gemini Systems Engineering Group investigated several tools, selected one for a trial period and configured it for use. Configuration activities including definition of systems engineering processes, development of a requirements framework, and assignment of project roles to tool roles. Test projects were implemented in the tool. At the conclusion of the trial, the group determined that the Gemini could meet its requirements management needs without use of a specialized requirements management tool, and the group identified a number of lessons learned which are described in the last major section of this paper. These lessons learned include how to conduct an organizational needs analysis prior to pursuing a tool; caveats concerning tool criteria and the selection process; the prerequisites and sequence of activities necessary to achieve an optimum configuration of the tool; the need for adequate staff resources and staff training; and a special note regarding organizations in transition and archiving of requirements.

  9. Synthesis and crystal structures of gold nanowires with Gemini surfactants as directing agents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Hou, Hao; Gao, Zhinong

    2014-12-15

    The preparation of crystalline gold nanowires (NWs) by using gemini surfactants as directing agents through a three-step seed-mediated method is reported. Unlike the nanorods with relatively low aspect ratios (typically below 20) obtained by using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a directing agent, the NWs obtained in this investigation can reach up to 4.4 μm, and the largest aspect ratio is calculated to be 210. For this, each of seven different gemini surfactants are utilized as directing agents, and the length and/or aspect ratio of the NWs can be tuned by varying the hydrocarbon chain lengths of the gemini surfactants. Both single and twinned crystalline structures are elucidated by selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies. The use of gemini surfactants not only advances the synthesis of gold nanostructures, but improves the understanding of the growth mechanism for seed-mediated growth. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Dietician prepares Gemini 7 crew preflight breakfast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-56311 (2 Dec. 1965) --- Kennedy Space Center food specialists prepare an Earth-bound meal for Gemini-7 astronauts. Astronauts' diet is strictly controlled before and during spaceflights to avoid interfering with planned medical experiments. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Cationic gemini surfactants with cleavable spacer: chemical hydrolysis, biodegradation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tehrani-Bagha, A R; Holmberg, K; van Ginkel, C G; Kean, M

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes synthesis and characterization of a new type of cationic gemini surfactant, which has dodecyl tails and a spacer that contains an ester bond. The nomenclature used to describe the structure is 12Q2OCO1Q12, with Q being a quaternary ammonium group and the numbers indicating the number of methylene or methyl groups. Due to the close proximity to the two quaternary ammonium groups, the ester bond is very stable on the acid side and very labile already at slightly alkaline conditions. The hydrolysis products are two single chain surfactants (i.e. 12Q2OH and 12Q1COOH) which are less surface active than the intact gemini surfactant. 12Q2OCO1Q12 was found to be readily biodegradable, i.e. it gave more than 60% biodegradation after 28 days. This is interesting because similar gemini surfactants but with ester bonds in the tails instead of the spacer, have previously been found not to be readily biodegradable. The gemini surfactant was found to be toxic to aquatic organisms (ErC50 value of 0.27 mg/l), although less toxic than the two hydrolysis products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. View of the nose of the Gemini 9 spacecraft taken from hatch of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot of the Gemini 9-A space flight, took this picture of the nose of the Gemini 9 spacecraft while standing in hatch of spacecraft. Area of earth below is the Pacific Ocean.

  13. Modern Gemini-Approach to Technology Development for Human Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold

    2010-01-01

    In NASA's plan to put men on the moon, there were three sequential programs: Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo. The Gemini program was used to develop and integrate the technologies that would be necessary for the Apollo program to successfully put men on the moon. We would like to present an analogous modern approach that leverages legacy ISS hardware designs, and integrates developing new technologies into a flexible architecture This new architecture is scalable, sustainable, and can be used to establish human exploration infrastructure beyond low earth orbit and into deep space.

  14. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - ETHIOPIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63162 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Central area of Ethiopia, south of Addis Ababa, showing Lakes Zwai, Langana, and Shala, as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  15. Gemini-Titan (GT)-4 Foods - Documentary Use

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-07

    S65-10971 (March 1965 ) --- Food packets for use on the Gemini-3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  16. Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishvakarma, Vijay K.; Kumari, Kamlesh; Patel, Rajan; Dixit, V. S.; Singh, Prashant; Mehrotra, Gopal K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Chakrawarty, Anand Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Surfactants are used to prevent the irreversible aggregation of partially refolded proteins and they also assist in protein refolding. We have reported the design and screening of gemini surfactant to stabilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the help of computational tool (iGEMDOCK). A series of gemini surfactant has been designed based on bis-N-alkyl nicotinate dianion via varying the alkyl group and anion. On changing the alkyl group and anion of the surfactant, the value of Log P changes means polarity of surfactant can be tuned. Further, the virtual screening of the gemini surfactant has been carried out based on generic evolutionary method. Herein, thermodynamic data was studied to determine the potential of gemini surfactant as BSA stabilizer. Computational tools help to find out the efficient gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA rather than to use the surfactant randomly and directionless for the stabilization. It can be confirmed through the experimental techniques. Previously, researcher synthesized one of the designed and used gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA and their interactions were confirmed through various techniques and computational docking. But herein, the authors find the most competent gemini surfactant to stabilize BSA using computational tools on the basis of energy score. Different from the single chain surfactant, the gemini surfactants exhibit much stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the protein and are thus effective at much lower concentrations. Based on the present study, it is expected that gemini surfactants may prove useful in the protein stabilization operations and may thus be effectively employed to circumvent the problem of misfolding and aggregation.

  17. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A (SUITING-UP) - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - MISC. - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-34060 (3 June 1966) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Gemini-9A prime crew command pilot, adjusts a sleeve of his spacesuit during suiting up procedures at Launch Complex 16, Kennedy Space Center. The Gemini-9A liftoff was at 8:39 a.m. (EST), June 3, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  18. bHROS: A New High-Resolution Spectrograph Available on Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, S. J.; Gemini bHROS Team

    2005-12-01

    The Gemini bench-mounted High-Resolution Spectrograph (bHROS) is available for science programs beginning in 2006A. bHROS is the highest resolution (R=150,000) optical echelle spectrograph optimized for use on an 8-meter telescope. bHROS is fiber-fed via GMOS-S from the Gemini South focal plane and is available in both a dual-fiber Object/Sky mode and a single (larger) Object-only mode. Instrument characteristics and sample data taken during commissioning will be presented.

  19. The Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Companion Detection Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Biller, Beth A.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Hartung, Markus; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-12-01

    We present high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. The Near-Infrared Coronographic Imager (NICI) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8 m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 mag at 0.''5 and 14.4 mag at 1'' separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V = 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the Locally Optimized Combination of Images (LOCI) algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  20. Gemini planet imager observational calibrations VII: on-sky polarimetric performance of the Gemini planet imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Perrin, Marshall D.; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Maire, Jérôme; Ingraham, Patrick; Savransky, Dmitry; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Draper, Zachary H.; Song, Inseok; Cardwell, Andrew; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Rantakyrö, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru

    2014-07-01

    We present on-sky polarimetric observations with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) obtained at straight Cassegrain focus on the Gemini South 8-m telescope. Observations of polarimetric calibrator stars, ranging from nearly un- polarized to strongly polarized, enable determination of the combined telescope and instrumental polarization. We find the conversion of Stokes I to linear and circular instrumental polarization in the instrument frame to be I --> (QIP, UIP, PIP, VIP) = (-0.037 +/- 0.010%, +0.4338 +/- 0.0075%, 0.4354 +/- 0.0075%, -6.64 +/- 0.56%). Such precise measurement of instrumental polarization enables ~0.1% absolute accuracy in measurements of linear polarization, which together with GPI's high contrast will allow GPI to explore scattered light from circumstellar disk in unprecedented detail, conduct observations of a range of other astronomical bodies, and potentially even study polarized thermal emission from young exoplanets. Observations of unpolarized standard stars also let us quantify how well GPI's differential polarimetry mode can suppress the stellar PSF halo. We show that GPI polarimetry achieves cancellation of unpolarized starlight by factors of 100-200, reaching the photon noise limit for sensitivity to circumstellar scattered light for all but the smallest separations at which the calibration for instrumental polarization currently sets the limit.

  1. Theoretical model to investigate the alkyl chain and anion dependent interactions of gemini surfactant with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Vishvakarma, Vijay K; Kumari, Kamlesh; Patel, Rajan; Dixit, V S; Singh, Prashant; Mehrotra, Gopal K; Chandra, Ramesh; Chakrawarty, Anand Kumar

    2015-05-15

    Surfactants are used to prevent the irreversible aggregation of partially refolded proteins and they also assist in protein refolding. We have reported the design and screening of gemini surfactant to stabilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the help of computational tool (iGEMDOCK). A series of gemini surfactant has been designed based on bis-N-alkyl nicotinate dianion via varying the alkyl group and anion. On changing the alkyl group and anion of the surfactant, the value of Log P changes means polarity of surfactant can be tuned. Further, the virtual screening of the gemini surfactant has been carried out based on generic evolutionary method. Herein, thermodynamic data was studied to determine the potential of gemini surfactant as BSA stabilizer. Computational tools help to find out the efficient gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA rather than to use the surfactant randomly and directionless for the stabilization. It can be confirmed through the experimental techniques. Previously, researcher synthesized one of the designed and used gemini surfactant to stabilize the BSA and their interactions were confirmed through various techniques and computational docking. But herein, the authors find the most competent gemini surfactant to stabilize BSA using computational tools on the basis of energy score. Different from the single chain surfactant, the gemini surfactants exhibit much stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the protein and are thus effective at much lower concentrations. Based on the present study, it is expected that gemini surfactants may prove useful in the protein stabilization operations and may thus be effectively employed to circumvent the problem of misfolding and aggregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - RECOVERY (HELICOPTER) - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-19229 (23 March 1965) --- The Gemini-Titan 3 spacecraft is shown in the water after the March 23rd four-hour and 53-minute flight. Two helicopters from the recovery ship, the USS Intrepid, hover over the scene for the pickup of the astronauts.

  3. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - MEDICAL - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 PRELAUNCH CHECKUP - TEMPERATURE CHECK - PILOT - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-59934 (4 Dec. 1965) --- Gemini-7 pilot James A. Lovell Jr. has a temperature check with an oral temperature probe attached to his spacesuit during a final preflight preparations for the Gemini-7 space mission. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has planned a 14-day mission for the Gemini-7. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts' body temperature at any time during the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  4. NMobTec-EnvEdu: M-Learning System for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced the implementation of a New Mobile Technologies and Environmental Education System (NMobTec-EnvEdu) designed for m-learning environments. The NMobTec-EnvEdu system has been developed to provide environmental education in a collaborative framework to undergraduate students through the Internet using mobile phones. The study…

  5. PTF discovers and follows-up nearby, young, Type II supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Quimby, R. M.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Green, Y.; Walker, E.; Mazzali, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Poznanski, D.; Howell, D. A.; Dilday, B.; Fox, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    On UT 2010 Sep 15.243, the Palomar Transient Factory discovered an optical transient, PTF10vdl at RA(J2000) = 23:05:49.001 and DEC(J2000)=03:31:20.50 near NGC 7483. We obtained Target Of Opportunity spectra with Gemini-S/GMOS (PI Kasliwal) on Sep 16.29. The spectrum was extremely blue (f_nu proportional to nu^4.5) and nearly featureless. We further obtained a spectrum with the TNG/DOLORES (PI Walker) on Sep 17.40 and P-Cygni profiles of four Balmer lines were clearly visible, consistent with the redshift of NGC 7483, suggesting this is a Type II supernova.

  6. Gemini 6 crew during press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-04-06

    S65-19406 (6 April 1965) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), pilot; and Walter M. Schirra Jr., command pilot, have been named as the prime crew for the Gemini-Titan 6 spaceflight. Schirra and Stafford served as the GT-3 backup crew. Their selection for the GT-6 flight was announced at an MSC news conference on April 6, 1965.

  7. GEMINI-TITAN-8 - TRAINING - WATER EGRESS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-15

    S66-17253 (15 Jan. 1966) --- Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott (right), pilot of the Gemini-8 prime crew, are suited up for water egress training aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico. At left is Dr. Kenneth N. Beers, M.D., Flight Medicine Branch, Center Medical Office. Photo credit: NASA

  8. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY - CANARY ISLANDS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63150 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Eddies in stratocumulus clouds over the Canary Islands as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  9. Thermodynamic investigation of the binding of dissymmetric pyrenyl-gemini surfactants to DNA.

    PubMed

    Wettig, Shawn D; Deubry, Rubena; Akbar, Javed; Kaur, Tranum; Wang, Haitang; Sheinin, Tatiana; Joseph, Jamie W; Slavcev, Roderick A

    2010-05-14

    Gemini surfactants have demonstrated significant potential for use in constructing non-viral transfection vectors for the delivery of genes into cells to induce protein expression. Previously, two asymmetric gemini surfactants containing pyrenyl groups in one of the alkyl tails of the surfactants were synthesized as fluorescence probes for use in mechanistic studies of the transfection process. Here we present the results of a thermodynamic investigation of the binding interaction(s) between the pyrenyl-modified surfactants and DNA. The thermodynamics of the interactions have been examined using isothermal titration calorimetry, light scattering, zeta potential, and circular dichroism measurements. Distinct differences are observed between the interaction of 12-s-12 vs. the pyrene modified py-s-12 surfactants with DNA; an intercalated binding is found for the py-s-12 surfactants that disrupts the typical interactions observed between DNA and gemini surfactants.

  10. Gemini Planet Imager coronagraph testbed results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Mey, Jacob L.; Brenner, Doug; Mandeville, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Neil; Macintosh, Bruce A.; Graham, James R.; Saddlemyer, Les; Bauman, Brian; Carlotti, Alexis; Pueyo, Laurent; Tuthill, Peter G.; Dorrer, Christophe; Roberts, Robin; Greenbaum, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is an extreme AO coronagraphic integral field unit YJHK spectrograph destined for first light on the 8m Gemini South telescope in 2011. GPI fields a 1500 channel AO system feeding an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph, and a nIR non-common-path slow wavefront sensor. It targets detection and characterizion of relatively young (<2GYr), self luminous planets up to 10 million times as faint as their primary star. We present the coronagraph subsystem's in-lab performance, and describe the studies required to specify and fabricate the coronagraph. Coronagraphic pupil apodization is implemented with metallic half-tone screens on glass, and the focal plane occulters are deep reactive ion etched holes in optically polished silicon mirrors. Our JH testbed achieves H-band contrast below a million at separations above 5 resolution elements, without using an AO system. We present an overview of the coronagraphic masks and our testbed coronagraphic data. We also demonstrate the performance of an astrometric and photometric grid that enables coronagraphic astrometry relative to the primary star in every exposure, a proven technique that has yielded on-sky precision of the order of a milliarsecond.

  11. GEMINI-7 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - LIMB - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-07

    S65-65257 (4-18 Dec. 1965) --- Sunrise and Earth's limb, as photographed by astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. during their Earth-orbital 14-day mission in the Gemini-7 (GT-7) spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA

  12. On the Shoulders of Titans: A History of Project Gemini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, B. C.

    1977-01-01

    Gemini was the intermediate manned space flight program between America's first steps into space with Mercury and the manned lunar expeditions of Apollo. Because of its position between these two other efforts, Gemini is probably less remembered. Still, it more than had its place in man's progress into this new frontier. Gemini accomplishments were manyfold. They included many firsts: first astronaut-controlled maneuvering in space; first rendezvous in space of one spacecraft with another; first docking of one spacecraft with a propulsive stage and use of that stage to transfer man to high altitude; first traverse of man into the earth's radiation belts; first extended manned flights of a week or more in duration; first extended stays of man outside his spacecraft; first controlled reentry and precision landing; and many more. These achievements were significant in ways one cannot truly evaluate even today, but two things stand out: (1) it was the time when America caught up and surpassed the Soviet Union in manned space flight, and (2) these demonstrations of capability were an absolute prerequisite to the phenomenal Apollo accomplishments then yet to come.

  13. Characterizing Dusty Debris Disks with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine; Arriaga, Pauline; Bruzzone, Sebastian; Choquet, Elodie; Debes, John H.; Donaldson, Jessica; Draper, Zachary; Duchene, Gaspard; Esposito, Thomas; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Golimowski, David A.; Hines, Dean C.; Hinkley, Sasha; Hughes, A. Meredith; Kalas, Paul; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Lawler, Samantha; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mazoyer, Johan; Metchev, Stanimir A.; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nesvold, Erika; Padgett, Deborah; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Rodigas, Timothy; Schneider, Glenn; Soummer, Remi; Song, Inseok; Stark, Chris; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-01-01

    We have been awarded 87 hours of Gemini Observatory time to obtain multi-wavelength observations of HST resolved debris disks using the Gemini Planet Imager. We have executed ~51 hours of telescope time during the 2015B-2016B semesters observing 12 nearby, young debris disks. We have been using the GPI Spec and Pol modes to better constrain the properties of the circumstellar dust, specifically, measuring the near-infrared total intensity and polarization fraction colors, and searching for solid-state spectral features of nearby beta Pic-like disks. We expect that our observations will allow us to break the degeneracy among the particle properties such as composition, size, porosity, and shape. We present some early results from our observations.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-34776 (3-7 June 1965) --- This photograph shows the Nile Delta, Egypt, the Suez Canal, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq as seen from the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spacecraft during its 12th revolution of Earth.

  15. Indonesian Islands as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54692 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Indonesian Islands (partial cloud cover): Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and Sumbawa, as photographed from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth, at an altitude of 570 nautical miles. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Meeting the challenges of bringing a new base facility operation model to Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Atsuko; Arriagada, Gustavo; Adamson, A. J.; Cordova, Martin; Nunez, Arturo; Serio, Andrew; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the Gemini Observatory's Base Facilities Project is to provide the capabilities to perform routine night time operations with both telescopes and their instruments from their respective base facilities without anyone present at the summit. Tightening budget constraints prompted this project as both a means to save money and an opportunity to move toward increasing remote operations in the future. We successfully moved Gemini North nighttime operation to our base facility in Hawaii in Nov., 2015. This is the first 8mclass telescope to completely move night time operations to base facility. We are currently working on implementing BFO to Gemini South. Key challenges for this project include: (1) This is a schedule driven project. We have to implement the new capabilities by the end of 2015 for Gemini North and end of 2016 for Gemini South. (2) The resources are limited and shared with operations which has the higher priority than our project. (3) Managing parallel work within the project. (4) Testing, commissioning and introducing new tools to operational systems without adding significant disruptions to nightly operations. (5) Staff buying to the new operational model. (6) The staff involved in the project are spread on two locations separated by 10,000km, seven time zones away from each other. To overcome these challenges, we applied two principles: "Bare Minimum" and "Gradual Descent". As a result, we successfully completed the project ahead of schedule at Gemini North Telescope. I will discuss how we managed the cultural and human aspects of the project through these concepts. The other management aspects will be presented by Gustavo Arriagada [2], the Project Manager of this project. For technical details, please see presentations from Andrew Serio [3] and Martin Cordova [4].

  17. Differential speckle and wide-field imaging for the Gemini-North and WIYN telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Nicholas J.; Howell, Steve B.; Horch, Elliott P.

    2016-07-01

    Two new instruments are currently being built for the Gemini-North and WIYN telescopes. They are based on the existing DSSI (Differential Speckle Survey Instrument), but the new dual-channel instruments will have both speckle and "wide-field" imaging capabilities. Nearly identical copies of the instrument will be installed as a public access permanent loan at the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes. Many exoplanet targets will come from the NASA K2 and TESS missions. The faint limiting magnitude, for speckle observations, will remain around 16 to 17th magnitude depending on observing conditions, while wide-field, high speed imaging should be able to go to 21+. For Gemini, the instrument will be remotely operable from either the mid-level facility at Hale Pohaku or the remote operations base in Hilo.

  18. The Gemini-South MCAO operational model: insights on a new era of telescope operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trancho, Gelys; Bec, Matthieu; Artigau, Etienne; d'Orgeville, Celine; Gratadour, Damien; Rigaut, Francois J.; Walls, Brian

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Observatory is implementing a Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system as a facility instrument for the Gemini South telescope (GeMS). The system will include 5 Laser Guide Stars, 3 Natural Guide Stars, and 3 deformable mirrors, optically conjugated at different altitudes, to achieve near-uniform atmospheric compensation over a one arc minute square field of view. This setup implies some level of operational complexity. In this paper we describe how GeMS will be integrated into the flow of Gemini operations, from the observing procedures necessary to execute the programs in the queue (telescope control software, observing tools, sequence executor) to the safety implementation needed such as spotters/ASCAM, space command and laser traffic control software.

  19. Gemini-Titan 3 spacecraft in water after flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The Gemini-Titan 3 spacecraft is shown in the water after the March 23rd four hour and 53 minute flight. Two helicopters from the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Intrepid, hover over the scene for the pickup of the astronauts.

  20. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - PREFLIGHT PREP - CHECKOUT - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-21

    S66-47635 (21 July 1966) --- McDonnell Aircraft Corporation personnel bolt the Gemini-11 spacecraft to a support ring for bore sighting in the Pyrotechnic Installation Building, Merritt Island, during checkout and preflight preparations at the Kennedy Space Center. Photo credit: NASA

  1. Astronaut Ed White - Gemini-4 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30432 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  2. Astronaut Edward White - Gemini IV Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30429 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  3. Speckle Imaging at Gemini and the DCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, E. P.; Löbb, J.; Howell, S. B.; van Altena, W. F.; Henry, T. J.; van Belle, G. T.

    2018-01-01

    A program of speckle observations at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) and the Gemini North and South Telescopes will be described. It has featured the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI), built at Southern Connecticut State University in 2008. DSSI is a dual-port system that records speckle images in two colors simultaneously and produces diffraction limited images to V˜ 16.5 mag at Gemini and V˜ 14.5 mag at the DCT. Of the several science projects that are being pursued at these telescopes, three will be highlighted here. The first is high-resolution follow-up observations for Kepler and K2 exoplanet missions, the second is a study of metal-poor spectroscopic binaries in an attempt to resolve these systems and determine their visual orbits en route to making mass determinations, and the third is a systematic survey of nearby late-type dwarfs, where the multiplicity fraction will be directly measured and compared to that of G dwarfs. The current status of these projects is discussed and some representative results are given.

  4. Perspectives for elucidating the ethylenediurea (EDU) mode of action for protection against O3 phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Evgenios

    2017-08-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) has been widely studied for its effectiveness to protect plants against injuries caused by surface ozone (O 3 ), however its mode of action remains unclear. So far, there is not a unified methodological approach and thus the methodology is quite arbitrary, thereby making it more difficult to generalize findings and understand the EDU mode of action. This review examines the question of whether potential N addition to plants by EDU is a fundamental underlying mechanism in protecting against O 3 phytotoxicity. Yet, this review proposes an evidence-based hypothesis that EDU may protect plants against O 3 deleterious effects upon generation of EDU-induced hormesis, i.e. by activating plant defense at low doses. This hypothesis challenges the future research directions. Revealing a hormesis-based EDU mode of action in protecting plants against O 3 toxicity would have further implications to ecotoxicology and environmental safety. Furthermore, this review discusses the need for further studies on plant metabolism under EDU treatment through relevant experimental approach, and attempts to set the bases for approaching a unified methodology that will contribute in revealing the EDU mode of action. In this framework, focus is given to the main EDU application methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Young family together after the Gemini 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini-Titan 3 Astronaut John W. Young is shown with his wife and children after his return to Cape Kennedy, March 25, from the recovery ship, U.S.S. Intrepid. Shown (left to right) are Young's daughter, Sandra; his son, John; and his wife Barbara.

  6. Biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants: Effect of the spacer on their ecological properties.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M Teresa; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumił; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    Aerobic biodegradability and aquatic toxicity of five types of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants have been examined. The effect of the spacer structure and the head group polarity on the ecological properties of a series of dimeric dodecyl ammonium surfactants has been investigated. Standard tests for ready biodegradability assessment (OECD 310) were conducted for C12 alkyl chain gemini surfactants containing oxygen, nitrogen or a benzene ring in the spacer linkage and/or a hydroxyethyl group attached to the nitrogen atom of the head groups. According to the results obtained, the gemini surfactants examined cannot be considered as readily biodegradable compounds. The negligible biotransformation of the gemini surfactants under the standard biodegradation test conditions was found to be due to their toxic effects on the microbial population responsible for aerobic biodegradation. Aquatic toxicity of gemini surfactants was evaluated against Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity values to Daphnia magna, IC50 at 48 h exposure, ranged from 0.6 to 1 mg/L. On the basis of these values, the gemini surfactants tested should be classified as toxic or very toxic to the aquatic environment. However, the dimeric quaternary ammonium-based surfactants examined result to be less toxic than their corresponding monomeric analogs. Nevertheless the aquatic toxicity of these gemini surfactants can be reduced by increasing the molecule hydrophilicity by adding a heteroatom to the spacer or a hydroxyethyl group to the polar head groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Technicians prepare to close hatches on Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Technicians prepare to close the hatches of the Gemini 12 spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19 after insertion of Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (leading), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot.

  8. Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU): M-Learning Applications for Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, M.; Gips, J.; Eagle, N.; Madan, A.; Caneel, R.; DeVaul, R.; Bonsen, J.; Pentland, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Mobile-IT Education (MIT.EDU) system, which demonstrates the potential of using a distributed mobile device architecture for rapid prototyping of wireless mobile multi-user applications for use in classroom settings. MIT.EDU is a stable, accessible system that combines inexpensive, commodity hardware, a flexible…

  9. Technicians close hatches on Gemini 11 spacecraft during countdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Technicians in the White Room atop Pad 19 prepare to close hatches on the Gemini 11 spacecraft during prelaunch countdown. Inside the spacecraft are Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot.

  10. Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packages for use on the Gemini 4 flight. Packages include beef and gravy, peaches, strawberry cereal cubes and beef sandwiches. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open the packages.

  11. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-34670 (3-7 June 1965) --- Richat crater in northwest Africa taken from the Gemini-4 spacecraft. Photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman color film, ASA 64, at a lens setting of 250th of a second at f/11.

  12. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH - SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-01

    S66-45951 (18-21 July 1966) --- China, Fukien and Kwangtung provinces, Formosa Strait, Pescadores Island, Quemoy Island, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54643 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Western half of Australia, including the coastline from Perth to Port Darwin, looking west, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft at a record-high apogee of 740 nautical miles during its 26th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Gemini photographs of the world: A complete index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The most authoritative catalogs of photographs of all Gemini missions are assembled. Included for all photographs are JSC (Johnson Space Center) identification number, percent cloud cover, geographical area in sight, and miscellaneous information. In addition, details are given on cameras, filters, films, and other technical details.

  15. EdU induces DNA damage response and cell death in mESC in culture.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Fanni; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Jackson, Dean A

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel DNA replication precursor analogue called 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) has been widely used to monitor DNA synthesis as an alternative to bromodeoxyuridine. Use of EdU benefits from simplicity and reproducibility and the simple chemical detection systems allows excellent preservation of nuclear structure. However, the alkyne moiety is highly reactive, raising the possibility that incorporation might compromise genome stability. To assess the extent of possible DNA damage, we have analysed the effect of EdU incorporation into DNA during short- and long-term cell culture using a variety of cell lines. We show that EdU incorporation has no measurable impact on the rate of elongation of replication forks during synthesis. However, using different cell lines we find that during long-term cell culture variable responses to EdU incorporation are seen, which range from delayed cell cycle progression to complete cell cycle arrest. The most profound phenotypes were seen in mouse embryonic stem cells, which following incorporation of EdU accumulated in the G2/M-phase of the cell cycle before undergoing apoptosis. In long-term cell culture, EdU incorporation also triggered a DNA damage response in all cell types analysed. Our study shows that while EdU is extremely useful to tag sites of on-going replication, for long-term studies (i.e. beyond the cell cycle in which labelling is performed), a careful analysis of cell cycle perturbations must be performed in order to ensure that any conclusions made after EdU treatment are not a direct consequence of EdU-dependent activation of cell stress responses.

  16. Measurements of airglow on Maunakea at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine C.; Smith, Adam; Stephens, Andrew; Smirnova, Olesja

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory on Maunakea has been collecting optical and infrared science data for almost 15 years. We have begun a program to analyze imaging data from two of the original facility instruments, GMOS and NIRI, in order to measure sky brightness levels in multiple infrared and optical broad-band filters. The present work includes data from mid-2016 back through late-2008. We present measured background levels as a function of several operational quantities (e.g. moon phase, hours from twilight, season). We find that airglow is a significant contributor to background levels in several filters. Gemini is primarily a queue scheduled telescope, with observations being optimally executed in order to provide the most efficient use of telescope time. We find that while most parameters are well-understood, the atmospheric airglow remains challenging to predict. This makes it difficult to schedule observations which require dark skies in these filters, and we suggest improvements to ensure data quality.

  17. Gemini IV Mission Image - EVA over Texas coast

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    View of Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 space flight, as he floats in zero gravity of space. The extravehicular activity was performed during the third revolution of the Gemini 4 spacecraft. White is attached to the spacecraft by a 25-ft. umbilical line and a 23-ft. tether line,both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand White carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU). The visor of his helmet is gold plated to protect him from the unfiltered rays of the sun. Photo was taken on June 3,1965. G.E.T. time was 4:45 / GMT time was 20:00. Original magazine number was GEM04-16-34642, taken with a Hasselblad camera and a 70mm lens. Film type was Kodak Ektachrome MS (S.O. -217). The original photo was a color negative. It's image number is S65-34642.

  18. China, India, and Nepal as seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54839 (14 Sept. 1966) --- China, India, and Nepal, looking east, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 37th revolution of Earth. The Great Himalaya Mountain Range is clearly visible. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Food packets for use on the Gemini 3 flight including dehydrated beef pot roast, bacon and egg bites, toasted bread cubes, orange juice and a wet wipe. Water is being inserted into the pouch of dehydrated food.

  20. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - MEDICAL - PREFLIGHT (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-7) - EYES EXAMINED - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    S65-66703 (18 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spaceflight, undergoes an eye examination during a postflight medical checkup aboard the aircraft carrier USS Wasp. Gemini-7 splashed down in the western Atlantic recovery area at 9:05 a.m. (EST) Dec. 16, 1965, after a 14-day mission in space. Photo credit: NASA

  1. The 7th Transgenic Technology meeting: debut for "down under" (http://www.tasq.uq.edu.au/TT2007).

    PubMed

    Gertsenstein, Marina; Vintersten, Kristina

    2007-10-01

    The 7th Transgenic Technology meeting was held in Brisbane, Australia on February 12-14, 2007. Not only did this gathering mark a milestone as it was hosted outside the European continent for the first time, but also because it was the initial meeting to be held on behalf of the new International Society for Transgenic Technologies (ISTT, http://www.transtechsociety.org/ ). As in previous years, the topics were aimed towards both a scientific as well as a technical audience. The subjects covered a wide range of cutting edge applications in the field of genetic modifications in animal models, with the focus on (but by no means limited to) mice. True to the meetings tradition, a large emphasis was also laid on discussions about the management of transgenic production units. With the beautiful Australian sun shining over the venue, and a large number of exceptional speakers, this was a most pleasant and informative conference.

  2. Astronaut David Scott practicing for Gemini 8 EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-01

    S66-19284 (1 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut David R. Scott practicing for Gemini-8 extravehicular activity (EVA) in building 4 of the Manned Spacecraft Center on the air bearing floor. He is wearing the Hand-Held Maneuvering Unit which he will use during the EVA. Photo credit: NASA

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54548 (12-15 Sept. 1966) --- This photograph, taken during one of the 44 orbits the Gemini-11 crew made around Earth, shows the Indian Ocean west of Australia looking northwest. The crew consisted of astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. and Richard F. Gordon Jr. Photo credit: NASA

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - TRAINING - GULF OF MEXICO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-20

    S65-22656 (14 April 1965) --- The Gemini-Titan 4 prime crew, astronauts Edward H. White II (left), pilot, and James A. McDivitt, command pilot, pictured aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Open Access Meets Discoverability: Citations to Articles Posted to Academia.edu

    PubMed Central

    Niyazov, Yuri; Vogel, Carl; Price, Richard; Lund, Ben; Judd, David; Akil, Adnan; Mortonson, Michael; Schwartzman, Josh; Shron, Max

    2016-01-01

    Using matching and regression analyses, we measure the difference in citations between articles posted to Academia.edu and other articles from similar journals, controlling for field, impact factor, and other variables. Based on a sample size of 31,216 papers, we find that a paper in a median impact factor journal uploaded to Academia.edu receives 16% more citations after one year than a similar article not available online, 51% more citations after three years, and 69% after five years. We also found that articles also posted to Academia.edu had 58% more citations than articles only posted to other online venues, such as personal and departmental home pages, after five years. PMID:26886730

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 COMMAND PILOT (FAMILIARIZATION) - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - TRAINING - MCDONNELL AIRCRAFT CORP. (MDAC), MO

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-08

    S66-23592 (8 Feb. 1966) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, command pilot of the Gemini-9 prime crew, undergoes familiarization training with the Gemini-9 spacecraft at the McDonnell plant in St. Louis. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Observations Of The LCROSS Impact With NIFS On The Gemini North Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Katherine; Stephens, A. W.; Trujillo, C. A.; McDermid, R. M.; Woodward, C. E.; Walls, B. D.; Coulson, D. M.; Matulonis, A. C.; Ball, J. G.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted a permanently shadowed crater near the south pole of the Moon at 11:31 UTC 2009 October 09. Gemini, one of several telescopes in a coordinated network observing the impact, conducted observations using NIFS to obtain 3D K-band imaging spectroscopy to detect water ice in the ejected plume of material. The spectral slope of the NIFS data can constrain the grain size and height distribution as the plume evolves, measuring the total mass and the water ice concentration in the plume. These observations provided an engineering challenge for Gemini, including the need to track non-sidereal with constantly changing track rates and guide on small bright moon craters, in order to keep the impact site within the NIFS field-of-view. High quality images taken by GMOS-N, NIRI and the acquisition camera during engineering periods at specific lunar libration and illumination were also used by the LCROSS ground based observing team to supplement slit positioning and offset plans for other ground based observatories. LCROSS mission support and engineering has resulted in improved telescope functionality for non-sidereal targets, including the ability to upload and import target ephemerides directly into the TCS, starting in semester 2010B. In this poster we present the engineering results and observing improvements which will facilitate enhanced user capabilities of the Gemini telescopes arising from the intensive LCROSS support challenge. Gemini Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the STFC (United Kingdom), the NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the ARC (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). In part this research was supported by NASA through contracts to SWRI and NSF grant AST-0706980 to the U

  8. Induction of antioxidant enzyme activities by a phenylurea derivative, EDU.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T M; Boswell, G A; Adler, R; Ackerman, N R; Kerr, J S

    1988-10-01

    Oxygen free radicals have the potential to mediate cell injury. Defenses against such radicals include the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). The purposes of this study were (1) to develop an in vitro model using human cells in which to investigate a potential pharmacologic agent as an inducer of these antioxidant enzymes; (2) to investigate the phenylurea derivative N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolindinyl)ethyl]-N-phenylurea (EDU) in this model with paraquat (PQ) serving as the positive control; and (3) to determine if induction of the antioxidant enzymes by EDU occurs in vivo. Human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-1) were used as the target cell in vitro; PQ and EDU, an inducer of SOD and CAT activities in plants, were evaluated as antioxidant enzyme inducers. Total SOD activity in Gin-1 cells increased 2-fold (p less than 0.05) in the presence of 1.0 mM PQ for 18-48 hr compared with untreated controls. Gin-1 cells incubated with 0.25-2.0 mM PQ for 24 hr had significantly increased total SOD (1.5 to 2.0-fold; p less than 0.05). CAT activity increased with 1.0 and 2.0 mM PQ (p less than 0.05). In the presence of PQ, GSH-PX activity decreased (p less than 0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating inactivation of this enzyme. No toxicity, indicated by lactate dehydrogenase released into the incubation medium, was noted at PQ concentrations below 5.0 mM. In the presence of 0.125-2.0 mM EDU, total SOD activity in Gin-1 cells significantly increased (1.5 to 2.0-fold; p less than 0.05). CAT activity significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner (p less than 0.05), while GSH-PX activity remained constant following exposure to 0.125-2.0 mM EDU. Intraperitoneal administration of EDU to rats twice a day for 2 days at 100 mg/kg induced SOD activity in heart, liver, and lung compared to controls (p less than 0.05). CAT activity increased in the liver 56% and in the lung 36% (p less than 0.05). GSH-PX activity

  9. Action of Monomeric/Gemini Surfactants on Free Cells and Biofilm of Asaia lannensis.

    PubMed

    Koziróg, Anna; Kręgiel, Dorota; Brycki, Bogumił

    2017-11-22

    We investigated the biological activity of surfactants based on quaternary ammonium compounds: gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis-( N,N -dimethyl- N -dodecylammonium bromide) (C6), synthesized by the reaction of N,N -dimethyl- N- dodecylamine with 1,6-dibromohexane, and its monomeric analogue dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB). The experiments were performed with bacteria Asaia lannensis , a common spoilage in the beverage industry. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined using the tube standard two-fold dilution method. The growth and adhesive properties of bacterial cells were studied in different culture media, and the cell viability was evaluated using plate count method. Both of the surfactants were effective against the bacterial strain, but the MIC of gemini compound was significantly lower. Both C6 and DTAB exhibited anti-adhesive abilities. Treatment with surfactants at or below MIC value decreased the number of bacterial cells that were able to form biofilm, however, the gemini surfactant was more effective. The used surfactants were also found to be able to eradicate mature biofilms. After 4 h of treatment with C6 surfactant at concentration 10 MIC, the number of bacterial cells was reduced by 91.8%. The results of this study suggest that the antibacterial activity of the gemini compound could make it an effective microbiocide against the spoilage bacteria Asaia sp. in both planktonic and biofilm stages.

  10. D-glucose derived novel gemini surfactants: synthesis and study of their surface properties, interaction with DNA, and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikash; Chatterjee, Amrita; Kumar, Nupur; Ganguly, Anasuya; Chakraborty, Indranil; Banerjee, Mainak

    2014-10-09

    Four new D-glucose derived m-s-m type gemini surfactants with variable spacer and tail length have been synthesized by a simple and efficient synthetic methodology utilizing the free C-3 hydroxy group of diisopropylidene glucose. The synthetic route to these gemini surfactants with a quaternary ammonium group as polar head group involves a sequence of simple reactions including alkylation, imine formation, quaternization of amine etc. The surface properties of the new geminis were evaluated by surface tension and conductivity measurements. These gemini surfactants showed low cytotoxicity by MTT assay on HeLa cell line. The DNA binding capabilities of these surfactants were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis, fluorescence titration, and DLS experiments. The preliminary studies by agarose gel electrophoresis indicated chain length dependent DNA binding abilities, further supported by ethidium bromide exclusion experiments. Two of the D-glucose derived gemini surfactants showed effective binding with pET-28a plasmid DNA (pDNA) at relatively low N/P ratio (i.e., cationic nitrogen/DNA phosphate molar ratio). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tumbling and spaceflight: the Gemini VIII experience.

    PubMed

    Mohler, S R; Nicogossian, A E; McCormack, P D; Mohler, S R

    1990-01-01

    A malfunctioning orbital flight attitude thruster during the flight of Gemini VIII led to acceleration forces on astronauts Neil Armstrong (commander) and David Scott (pilot) that created the potential for derogation of oculo-vestibular and eye-hand coordination effects. The spacecraft attained an axial tumbling rotation of 50 rpm and would have exceeded this had not the commander accurately diagnosed the problem and taken immediate corrective action. By the time counter-measure controls were applied, both astronauts were experiencing vertigo and the physiological effects of the tumbling acceleration. Data from the recorders reveal that one astronaut experienced -Gy of 0.92 G-units, and the other +Gy of 0.92 for approximately 46 s. Both received a -Gz of 0.89 G-units from the waist up with a +Gz of 0.05 from the waist down. A substantial increase of time and/or an increase in rpm would ultimately have produced incapacitation of both astronauts. NASA corrected the Gemini thruster problem by changing the ignition system wiring. Future space-craft undertaking long-term missions could be equipped with unambiguous thruster fault displays and could have computer-controlled automatic cutoffs to control excessive thruster burns.

  12. A Gemini snapshot survey for double degenerates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Gianninas, A.; Curd, Brandon; Bell, Keaton J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present the results from a Gemini snapshot radial-velocity survey of 44 low-mass white-dwarf candidates selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. To find sub-hour orbital period binary systems, our time-series spectroscopy had cadences of 2-8 min over a period of 20-30 min. Through follow-up observations at Gemini and the MMT, we identify four double-degenerate binary systems with periods ranging from 53 min to 7 h. The shortest period system, SDSS J123549.88+154319.3, was recently identified as a sub-hour period detached binary by Breedt and collaborators. Here, we refine the orbital and physical parameters of this system. High-speed and time-domain survey photometry observations do not reveal eclipses or other photometric effects in any of our targets. We compare the period distribution of these four systems with the orbital period distribution of known double white dwarfs; the median period decreases from 0.64 to 0.24 d for M = 0.3-0.5 M⊙ to M < 0.3 M⊙ white dwarfs. However, we do not find a statistically significant correlation between the orbital period and white-dwarf mass.

  13. Implementing an Education and Outreach Program for the Gemini Observatory in Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    Beginning in 2001, the Gemini Observatory began the development of an innovative and aggressive education and outreach program at its Southern Hemisphere site in northern Chile. A principal focus of this effort is centered on local education and outreach to communities surrounding the observatory and its base facility in La Serena Chile. Programs are now established with local schools using two portable StarLab planetaria, an internet-based teacher exchange called StarTeachers and multiple partnerships with local educational institutions. Other elements include a CD-ROM-based virtual tour that allows students, teachers and the public to experience the observatory's sites in Chile and Hawaii. This virtual environment allows interaction using a variety of immersive scenarios such as a simulated observation using real data from Gemini. Pilot projects like "Live from Gemini" are currently being developed which use internet videoconferencing technologies to bring the observatory's facilities into classrooms at universities and remote institutions. Lessons learned from the implementation of these and other programs will be introduced and the challenges of developing educational programming in a developing country will be shared.

  14. Modeling and Analysis of Chill and Fill Processes for the EDU Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; Leclair, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC), is a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article, comprises a flight like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen in a space-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with liquid hydrogen as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the liquid hydrogen supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The modeling description and comparison of model predictions with the test data will be presented in the final paper.

  15. (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-6 PREFLIGHT ACTIVITY) (PILOT INSIDE SPACECRAFT) - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - MISC. - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-15

    S65-59961 (15 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, is pictured in the Gemini-6 spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19 prior to the closing of the hatches during the Gemini-6 prelaunch countdown. In the background (partially out of view) is astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., command pilot. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  16. ASTRONAUT SCOTT, DAVID R. - INTERIOR - WATER EGRESS TRAINING (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-8 PRIME CREW) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-05

    S66-15743 (5 Jan. 1966) --- Astronaut David R. Scott, pilot of the Gemini-8 prime crew, undergoes water egress training in a special tank in building 260A at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), Houston, Texas. An MSC swimmer assists in the training exercise. A boilerplate model of a Gemini spacecraft floats in the water beside Scott. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Gemini surfactants mediate efficient mitochondrial gene delivery and expression.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Cruz, A Rita; Cardoso, Ana L; Silva, Sandra G; do Vale, M Luísa; Marques, Eduardo F; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2015-03-02

    Gene delivery targeting mitochondria has the potential to transform the therapeutic landscape of mitochondrial genetic diseases. Taking advantage of the nonuniversal genetic code used by mitochondria, a plasmid DNA construct able to be specifically expressed in these organelles was designed by including a codon, which codes for an amino acid only if read by the mitochondrial ribosomes. In the present work, gemini surfactants were shown to successfully deliver plasmid DNA to mitochondria. Gemini surfactant-based DNA complexes were taken up by cells through a variety of routes, including endocytic pathways, and showed propensity for inducing membrane destabilization under acidic conditions, thus facilitating cytoplasmic release of DNA. Furthermore, the complexes interacted extensively with lipid membrane models mimicking the composition of the mitochondrial membrane, which predicts a favored interaction of the complexes with mitochondria in the intracellular environment. This work unravels new possibilities for gene therapy toward mitochondrial diseases.

  18. The Near-Earth Encounter of 2005 YU55: Thermal Infrared Observations from Gemini North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, Joshua P.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Granvik, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    As part of a multi-observatory campaign to observe 2005 YU55 during its November 2011 encounter with the Earth, thermal infrared photometry and spectroscopy (7.9- 14 and 18-22 micron) were conducted using the Michelle instrument at Gemini North. Reduction of the 8.8 flm photometry and the spectroscopy from UT Nov-IO as well as of all the Gemini data from UT Nov-9 is in progress. Results will be discussed.

  19. Florida, Bahama Islands, Cuba as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63418 (13 Nov. 1966) --- Florida (south half), Bahamas Islands (Andros-Grand Bahamas-Bimini), and Cuba, looking south as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 15th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Development of amino acid substituted gemini surfactant-based mucoadhesive gene delivery systems for potential use as noninvasive vaginal genetic vaccination.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagbir; Michel, Deborah; Getson, Heather M; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2015-02-01

    Recently, we synthesized amino acid- and peptide-substituted gemini surfactants, 'biolipids' that exhibited high transfection efficiency in vitro. In this study, we developed these plasmid DNA and gemini surfactant lipid particles for noninvasive administration in vaginal cavity. Novel formulations of these gene delivery systems were prepared with poloxamer 407 to induce in situ gelling of the formulation and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether to improve their penetration across mucosal tissue. Poloxamer at 16% w/v concentration in diethylene glycol monoethyl ether aqueous solution produced dispersions that gelled near body temperature and had a high yield value, preventing leakage of the formulation from the vaginal cavity. Intravaginal administration in rabbits showed that the glycyl-lysine-substituted gemini surfactant led to a higher gene expression compared with the parent unsubstituted gemini surfactant. This provides a proof-of-concept that amino acid substituted gemini surfactants can be used as noninvasive mucosal (vaginal) gene delivery systems to treat diseases associated with mucosal epithelia.

  1. First light of the Gemini Planet imager.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B R; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-09-02

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 10(6) at 0.75 arcseconds and 10(5) at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of [Formula: see text] near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.

  2. Stardial -- an autonomous astronomical camera on the WWW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullough, P. R.; Thakkar, U.

    1997-05-01

    The use of an autonomous electronic camera, called ``Stardial,'' for undergraduate instruction is described. Stardial delivers images of the night sky nearly in real-time to the world wide web (www.astro.uiuc.edu/stardial/). The remote instrumentation of Stardial is robust, inexpensive, and accomodates many students asynchronously with respect to the instructor(s). The guiding philosophy of the curriculum is to provide students with authentic astronomical data so that they may learn about science by doing it themselves on the internet. Students respond favorably to the opportunity to learn from their own experiences with genuine data, complete with its irregularities and its surprises. Perhaps surprisingly, 9 of 10 self-selected student volunteers in our pilot project were female. Stardial's instrumentation is similar to that of Gaustad et al., and to that of Richmond, Droege, et al. (both at this same meeting). Stardial has benefitted from contributions from students, especially Lawrence Tan, Troy Klyber, Jim Pulokas, Jim Waldemer, and Diana Lopez, and from a number of professionals, especially G.T. Becker, Mike Newberry, John Dolby, Tom Droege, Bob Mutel, Mike Richmond, John Thorstensen, and Rick White. Stardial is funded by the University of Illinois, primarily from the office of the Vice President for Academic Affairs. We welcome participation from amateur astronomers and other educators.

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - EARTH SKY - AGENA RENDEZVOUS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-62755 (11 Nov. 1966) --- Excellent stereo and side view of the Agena Target Docking Vehicle as seen from the Gemini-12 spacecraft during rendezvous and docking mission in space. The two spacecraft are 50 feet apart. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Gemini 8 prime and backup crews during press conference

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-26

    S66-24380 (26 Feb. 1966) --- Gemini-8 prime and backup crews during press conference. Left to right are astronauts David R. Scott, prime crew pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, prime crew command pilot; Charles Conrad Jr., backup crew command pilot; and Richard F. Gordon Jr., backup crew pilot. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Diagnosing ozone stress and differential tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) with ethylenediurea (EDU).

    PubMed

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lubna, Farzana Afrose; Holtkamp, Felix; Manning, William J; Kraska, Thorsten; Frei, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Rising tropospheric ozone concentrations in Asia necessitate the breeding of adapted rice varieties to ensure food security. However, breeding requires field-based evaluation of ample plant material, which can be technically challenging or very costly when using ozone fumigation facilities. The chemical ethylenediurea (EDU) has been proposed for estimating the effects of ozone in large-scale field applications, but controlled experiments investigating constitutive effects on rice or its suitability to detect genotypic differences in ozone tolerance are missing. This study comprised a controlled open top chamber experiment with four treatments (i) control (average ozone concentration 16 ppb), (ii) control with EDU application, (iii) ozone stress (average 77 ppb for 7 h daily throughout the season), and (iv) ozone stress with EDU application. Three contrasting rice genotypes were tested, i.e. the tolerant line L81 and the sensitive Nipponbare and BR28. The ozone treatment had significant negative effects on plant growth (height and tillering), stomatal conductance, SPAD value, spectral reflectance indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), lipid peroxidation, as well as biomass and grain yields. These negative effects were more pronounced in the a priori sensitive varieties, especially the widely grown Bangladeshi variety BR28, which showed grain yield reductions by 37 percent. EDU application had almost no effects on plants in the absence of ozone, but partly mitigated ozone effects on foliar symptoms, lipid peroxidation, SPAD value, stomatal conductance, several spectral reflectance parameters, panicle number, grain yield, and spikelet sterility. EDU responses were more pronounced in sensitive genotypes than in the tolerant L81. In conclusion, EDU had no constitutive effects on rice and partly offset negative ozone effects, especially in sensitive varieties. It can thus be used to diagnose ozone damage in field grown rice and for

  6. Modulation of pyridinium cationic lipid-DNA complex properties by pyridinium gemini surfactants and its impact on lipoplex transfection properties

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Lees, Julia; Hoffman, Nicholas E.; Brailoiu, Eugen; Madesh, Muniswamy; Wunder, Stephanie L.; Ilies, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the effects of blending a cationic gemini surfactant into cationic lipid bilayers and its impact towards plasmid DNA compaction and delivery process. Using nanoDSC, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential and electrophoretic mobility measurements, together with transfection (2D- and 3D-) and viability assays, we identified the main physicochemical parameters of the lipid bilayers, liposomes and lipoplexes that are affected by the gemini surfactant addition. We also correlated the cationic bilayer composition with the dynamics of the DNA compaction process, and with transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity and internalization mechanism of the resultant nucleic acid complexes. We found that blending of gemini surfactant into the cationic bilayers fluidized the supramolecular assemblies, reduced the amount of positive charge required to fully compact the plasmid DNA and, in certain cases, changed the internalization mechanism of the lipoplexes. Transfection efficiency of select ternary lipoplexes derived from cationic gemini surfactants and lipids was several times superior to transfection efficiency of corresponding binary lipoplexes, also surpassing standard transfection systems. The overall impact of gemini surfactants into the formation and dynamic of cationic bilayers was found to depend heavily on the presence of co-lipids, their nature and amount present into lipoplexes. The study confirmed the possibility of combining the specific properties of pyridinium gemini surfactants and cationic lipids synergistically for obtaining efficient synthetic transfection systems with negligible cytotoxicity useful for therapeutic gene delivery. PMID:24377350

  7. Structure-delivery relationships of lysine-based gemini surfactants and their lipoplexes.

    PubMed

    Damen, Mark; Cristóbal-Lecina, Edgar; Sanmartí, Glòria Colom; van Dongen, Stijn F M; García Rodríguez, Cristina L; Dolbnya, Igor P; Nolte, Roeland J M; Feiters, Martin C

    2014-08-21

    The synthesis and properties of gemini surfactants of the type (R(1)(CO)-Lys(H)-NH)2(CH2)n are reported. For a spacer length of n = 6, the hydrophobic acyl tail was varied in length (R(1) = C8, C10, C12, C14, C16, and C18) and, for R(1) = C18, the degree of unsaturation. For R(1)(CO) = oleoyl (C18:1 Z) the spacer length (n = 2-8) and the stereochemistry of the lysine building block were varied; a 'half-gemini' derivative with a single oleoyl tail and head group was also prepared. The potential of the gemini surfactants to transfer polynucleotides across a cell membrane was investigated by transfection of HeLa cells with beta-galactosidase, both in the presence and absence of the helper lipid DOPE. Oleoyl was found to be by far the best hydrophobic tail for this biological activity, whereas the effect of the lysine stereochemistry was less pronounced. The effect of an optimum spacer length (n = 6) was observed only in the absence of helper lipid. The most active surfactant, i.e. the one with oleoyl chains and n = 6, formed liposomes with sizes in the range of 60-350 nm, and its lipoplex underwent a transition from a lamellar to a hexagonal morphology upon lowering the pH from 7 to 3.

  8. Asp-Gly based peptides confined at the surface of cationic gemini surfactant aggregates.

    PubMed

    Brizard, Aurélie; Dolain, Christel; Huc, Ivan; Oda, Reiko

    2006-04-11

    Cationic gemini surfactants complexed with anionic oligoglycine-aspartate (called gemini peptides hereafter) were synthesized, and their aggregation behaviors were studied. The effects of the hydrophobic chain length (C10-C22) and the length of the oligoglycine (0-4) were investigated, and it was clearly shown by critical micellar concentration, Krafft temperature, and isothermal surface pressure measurements that the hydrophobic effect and interpeptidic interaction influence the aggregation behavior in a cooperative manner. Below their Krafft temperatures, some of them formed both hydro- and organogels with three-dimensional networks and the Fourier transform infrared measurements show the presence of interpeptidic hydrogen bonds.

  9. Edu-Mining for Book Recommendation for Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagata, Ryo; Takeda, Keigo; Suda, Koji; Kakegawa, Junichi; Morihiro, Koichiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for recommending books to pupils based on a framework called Edu-mining. One of the properties of the proposed method is that it uses only loan histories (pupil ID, book ID, date of loan) whereas the conventional methods require additional information such as taste information from a great number of users which…

  10. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-01-01

    S65-30433 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his right hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  11. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  12. Growth Behavior, Geometrical Shape, and Second CMC of Micelles Formed by Cationic Gemini Esterquat Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bergström, L Magnus; Tehrani-Bagha, Alireza; Nagy, Gergely

    2015-04-28

    Micelles formed by novel gemini esterquat surfactants have been investigated with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The growth behavior of the micelles is found to differ conspicuously depending on the length of the gemini surfactant spacer group. The gemini surfactant with a long spacer form rather small triaxial ellipsoidal tablet-shaped micelles that grow weakly with surfactant concentration in the entire range of measured concentrations. Geminis with a short spacer, on the other hand, form weakly growing oblates or tablets at low concentrations that start to grow much more strongly into polydisperse rodlike or wormlike micelles at higher concentrations. The latter behavior is consistent with the presence of a second CMC that marks the transition from the weakly to the strongly growing regime. It is found that the growth behavior in terms of aggregation number as a function of surfactant concentration always appear concave in weakly growing regimes, while switching to convex behavior in strongly growing regimes. As a result, we are able to determine the second CMC of the geminis with short spacer by means of suggesting a rather precise definition of it, located at the point of inflection of the growth curve that corresponds to the transition from concave to convex growth behavior. Our SANS results are rationalized by comparison with the recently developed general micelle model. In particular, this theory is able to explain and reproduce the characteristic appearances of the experimental growth curves, including the presence of a second CMC and the convex strongly growing regime beyond. By means of optimizing the agreement between predictions from the general micelle model and results from SANS experiments, we are able to determine the three bending elasticity constants spontaneous curvature, bending rigidity, and saddle-splay constant for each surfactant.

  13. Hawaii's Annual Journey Through the Universe Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, J.; Daou, D.; Day, B.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe program is a flagship Gemini public education and outreach event that engages the public, teachers, astronomers, engineers, thousands of local students and staff from all of the Mauna Kea Observatories. The program inspires, educates, and engages teachers, students, and their families as well as the community. From February 10-18, 2011, fifty-one astronomy educators from observatories on Mauna Kea and across the world visited over 6,500 students in 310 classrooms at 18 schools. Two family science events were held for over 2,500 people at the 'Imiloa Astronomy Education Center and the University of Hawaii at Hilo. The local Chamber of Commerce(s) held an appreciation celebration for the astronomers attended by over 170 members from the local government and business community. Now going into its eighth year in Hawaii, the 2012 Journey Through the Universe program will continue working with the observatories on Mauna Kea and with the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). As a new partner in our Journey program, NLSI will join the Journey team (Janice Harvey, Gemini Observatory, Journey Team Leader) and give an overview of the successes and future developments of this remarkable program and its growth. The future of America rests on our ability to train the next generation of scientists and engineers. Science education is key and Journey through the Universe opens the doors of scientific discovery for our students. www.gemini.edu/journey

  14. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    PubMed Central

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; Konopacky, Quinn; Marois, Christian; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa; Bauman, Brian; Barman, Travis; Burrows, Adam S.; Cardwell, Andrew; Chilcote, Jeffrey; De Rosa, Robert J.; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, Rene; Dunn, Jennifer; Erikson, Darren; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Gavel, Donald; Goodsell, Stephen; Hartung, Markus; Hibon, Pascale; Kalas, Paul; Larkin, James; Maire, Jerome; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; McBride, James; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Morzinski, Katie; Norton, Andrew; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Palmer, David; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Rantakyro, Fredrik; Sadakuni, Naru; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Savransky, Dmitry; Serio, Andrew; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Song, Inseok; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Wolff, Schuyler

    2014-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 106 at 0.75 arcseconds and 105 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, in a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0−0.4+0.8 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. The observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017. PMID:24821792

  15. First light of the Gemini Planet Imager

    DOE PAGES

    Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Ingraham, Patrick; ...

    2014-05-12

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a dedicated facility for directly imaging and spectroscopically characterizing extrasolar planets. It combines a very high-order adaptive optics system, a diffraction-suppressing coronagraph, and an integral field spectrograph with low spectral resolution but high spatial resolution. Every aspect of the Gemini Planet Imager has been tuned for maximum sensitivity to faint planets near bright stars. During first-light observations, we achieved an estimated H band Strehl ratio of 0.89 and a 5-σ contrast of 10 6 at 0.75 arcseconds and 10 5 at 0.35 arcseconds. Observations of Beta Pictoris clearly detect the planet, Beta Pictoris b, inmore » a single 60-s exposure with minimal postprocessing. Beta Pictoris b is observed at a separation of 434 ± 6 milliarcseconds (mas) and position angle 211.8 ± 0.5°. Fitting the Keplerian orbit of Beta Pic b using the new position together with previous astrometry gives a factor of 3 improvement in most parameters over previous solutions. The planet orbits at a semimajor axis of 9.0 +0.8 –0.4 AU near the 3:2 resonance with the previously known 6-AU asteroidal belt and is aligned with the inner warped disk. In conclusion, the observations give a 4% probability of a transit of the planet in late 2017.« less

  16. How "Edu-Babble" Turns Pupils into "Customers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    The Report of the Nuffield Review of 14-19 education, described by its Lead Director Professor Richard Pring of Oxford University in the last number of FORUM (Volume 51, Number 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/forum.2009.51.2.197), highlights the increasing use of what can be described as "edu-dabble" by sectors of the education establishment.

  17. TRAINING - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-5 - TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-18

    S65-35563 (18 June 1965) --- Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. (left), command pilot; and Charles Conrad Jr., pilot, the prime crew of the Gemini-5 spaceflight, prepare their cameras while aboard a C-130 aircraft flying near Laredo, Texas. The two astronauts are taking part in a series of visual acuity experiments to aid them in learning to identify known terrestrial features under controlled conditions. Knowledge gained from these experiments will have later application for space pilots identifying terrestrial features from space. Dr. John Billingham, chief, Environmental Physiology Branch, Crew Systems Division, is in charge of the Visual Acuity Experiments.

  18. Gemini Observatory Takes its Local Communities on an Expanding Journey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Janice; Michaud, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Currently in its 7th year (2011) Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe (JttU) program is a flagship Gemini Observatory public education/outreach initiative involving a broad cross-section of the local Hawai'i Island astronomical community, the public, educators, businesses, local government officials, and thousands of local students. This paper describes the program, its history, planning, implementation, as well as the program's objectives and philosophy. The success of this program is documented here, as measured by continuous and expanding engagement of educators, the community, and the public, along with formal evaluation feedback and selected informal verbal testimony. The program's success also serves as justification for the planned adaptation of a version of the program in Chile in 2011 (adapted for Chilean educational and cultural differences). Finally, lessons learned are shared which have refined the program for Gemini's host communities but can also apply to any institution wishing to initiate a similar program.

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54706 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Western half of Australia, including the coastline from Perth to Port Darwin, looking west, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth. Photograph was made while the spacecraft was at a record-high apogee of 740 nautical miles. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  20. PRELAUNCH - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - LEAVE TRAILER - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-59916 (11 Nov. 1966) --- Prime crew for the Gemini-12 spaceflight, astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (leading), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown. Moments later they entered a transport van which carried them to Pad 19 and their waiting spacecraft. The liftoff was at 3:46 p.m. (EST), Nov. 11, 1966. Photo credit: NASA

  1. News from Online: Industrial Chemicals and Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-02-01

    Paper or plastic? I am asked this question every time I go grocery shopping. Asked another way, the question is, "Which polymer do you want?" To learn about polymers, go shopping at a great site from the University of Southern Mississippi, The Macrogalleria, a cyberwonderland of polymer fun at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/index.html . Plan to spend some time here. Bring along Chime and Shockwave plug-ins or download them from The Macrogalleria. The Macrogalleria shopping mall is divided into five levels. On the first level, Polymers are Everywhere at http:/ /www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/floor1.html, you can visit stores selling sporting goods, food, and clothing. Learn about natural polymers in shoes and in French fries at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/natupoly.html . Find out about nylon in toothbrushes at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/nylon.html and about carbon fibers in tennis racquets at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog /carfib.html-great graphics and even better chemistry. Skip up to level three for How They Work at http:/ /www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/floor3.html. Take a look at the history of rubber on The Cross-linking Page at http:/ /www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/xlink.html. Move on to level four for Makin' Polymers at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog /floor4.html. Let's go right to the Ziegler-Natta Vinyl Polymerization at http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/ziegler.html . Don't miss the humor in the initial explanation of the process. This page is excellent-with graphics, reactions, and a movie of a polymerization ( http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/movies/zns.html ). This movie is worth seeing several times. Next take a look at another catalyst metallocene at http:/ /www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/mcene.html. Explanations, graphics, and mechanisms help make this site worth visiting and great for teaching. Several people contributed to The Macrogalleria, with major contributions from Mark Michalovic of the University of Southern Mississippi. Grants were from POLYED, a joint committee

  2. Amino acid-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles as safe and versatile gene delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagbir; Yang, Peng; Michel, Deborah; Verrall, Ronald E; Foldvari, Marianna; Badea, Ildiko

    2011-05-01

    Gene based therapy represents an important advance in the treatment of diseases that heretofore have had either no treatment or cure. To capitalize on the true potential of gene therapy, there is a need to develop better delivery systems that can protect these therapeutic biomolecules and deliver them safely to the target sites. Recently, we have designed and developed a series of novel amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants with the general chemical formula C(12)H(25) (CH(3))(2)N(+)-(CH(2))(3)-N(AA)-(CH(2))(3)-N(+) (CH(3))(2)-C(12)H(25) (AA= glycine, lysine, glycyl-lysine and, lysyl-lysine). These compounds were synthesized and tested in rabbit epithelial cells using a model plasmid and a helper lipid. Plasmid/gemini/lipid (P/G/L) nanoparticles formulated using these novel compounds achieved higher gene expression than the nanoparticles containing the parent unsubstituted compound. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of P/G/L nanoparticles and explored the relationship between transfection efficiency/toxicity and their physicochemical characteristics (such as size, binding properties, etc.). An overall low toxicity is observed for all complexes with no significant difference among substituted and unsubstituted compounds. An interesting result revealed by the dye exclusion assay suggests a more balanced protection of the DNA by the glycine and glycyl-lysine substituted compounds. Thus, the higher transfection efficiency is attributed to the greater biocompatibility and flexibility of the amino acid/peptide-substituted gemini surfactants and demonstrates the feasibility of using amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants as gene carriers for the treatment of diseases affecting epithelial tissue.

  3. www.p2p.edu: Rip, Mix & Burn Your Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Thom

    2001-01-01

    Discusses peer to peer technology which allows uploading files from one hard drive to another. Topics include the client/server model for education; the Napster client/server model; Gnutella; Freenet and other projects to allow the free exchange of information without censorship; bandwidth problems; copyright issues; metadata; and the United…

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EXTRAVEHICULAR LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM (ELSS) - ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-01

    S66-33162 (May 1966) --- Test subject Fred Spross, Crew Systems Division, wears configured extravehicular spacesuit assembly and Extravehicular Life Support System chest pack. The spacesuit legs are covered with Chromel R, which is a cloth woven from stainless steel fibers, used to protect the suit and astronaut from the hot exhaust thrust of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit backpack. The Gemini spacesuit, backpack and chest pack comprise the AMU, a system which is essentially a miniature manned spacecraft. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan will wear the AMU during his Gemini-9A extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA

  5. Effects of AlcoholEdu for College on Alcohol-Related Problems Among Freshmen: A Randomized Multicampus Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: AlcoholEdu for College is a 2- to 3-hour online course for incoming college freshmen. This study was the first multicampus trial to examine effects of AlcoholEdu for College on alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Method: Thirty universi participated in the study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive AlcoholEdu, and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. AlcoholEdu was implemented by intervention schools during the summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university beginning before the intervention in spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in fall 2008/2009 and spring 2009/2010. The surveys included questions about the past-30-day frequency of 28 alcohol-related problems, from which we created indices for the total number of problems and problems in seven domains: physiological, academic, social, driving under the influence/riding with drinking drivers, aggression, sexual risk taking, and victimization. Multilevel Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine intent-to-treat and dosage effects of AlcoholEdu for College on these outcomes. Results: Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the risk for past-30-day alcohol problems in general and problems in the physiological, social, and victimization domains during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist in the spring semester. Additional analyses suggested stronger AlcoholEdu effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No AlcoholEdu effects were observed for alcohol-related problems in the other four domains. Conclusions: AlcoholEdu for College appears to have beneficial short-term effects on victimization and the most common types of alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Universities may benefit the most by mandating AlcoholEdu for College for all incoming freshmen and

  6. Astronaut Gordon Cooper receives preflight medical exam for Gemini 5 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-17

    S65-28710 (17 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., command pilot for the Gemini-5 spaceflight, has his blood pressure checked by Dr. Charles A. Berry, chief, Center Medical Programs, Manned Spacecraft Center, during a preflight physical examination.

  7. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 TEST - ASTRONAUT EUGENE A. WHITE -- PERSONAL - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-03

    S66-34051 (3 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford and Eugene A. Cernan arrive in the White Room atop Pad 19 at the Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the launch of the Gemini-9 spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  8. The opto-mechanical design for GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.

  9. Gemini 9 crew in spacecraft with technicians closing hatches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Technicians prepare to close the hatches on the Gemini 9-A spacecraft in the White Room atop Pad 19 after insertion of Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left) and Eugene A. Cernan. Liftoff was at 8:39 a.m., June 3, 1966. Humorous sign from backup crew, James A. Lovell Jr. and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., was taped to the spacecraft.

  10. Performance of the Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics system

    DOE PAGES

    Poyneer, Lisa A.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce; ...

    2016-01-07

    The Gemini Planet Imager’s adaptive optics (AO) subsystem was designed specifically to facilitate high-contrast imaging. We give a definitive description of the system’s algorithms and technologies as built. Ultimately, the error budget indicates that for all targets and atmospheric conditions AO bandwidth error is the largest term.

  11. Microwave Synthesis and Characterization of Waste Soybean Oil-Based Gemini Imidazolinium Surfactants with Carbonate Linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Divya Bajpai; Mishra, Anuradha

    Gemini surfactants are presently gaining attention due to their unusual self-assembling characteristics and incomparable interfacial activity. Current research work involves the cost-effective microwave (MW) synthesis of waste soybean oil-based gemini imidazolinium surfactants (GIS) having a carbonate linkage in its spacer moiety. Structural characterizations of the materials have been done using FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Using indigenous and natural material as base and MW as energy source for synthesizing the GIS with easily degradable chemical moiety make them to be labeled as green surfactants.

  12. TVB-EduPack—An Interactive Learning and Scripting Platform for The Virtual Brain

    PubMed Central

    Matzke, Henrik; Schirner, Michael; Vollbrecht, Daniel; Rothmeier, Simon; Llarena, Adalberto; Rojas, Raúl; Triebkorn, Paul; Domide, Lia; Mersmann, Jochen; Solodkin, Ana; Jirsa, Viktor K.; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Ritter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Brain (TVB; thevirtualbrain.org) is a neuroinformatics platform for full brain network simulation based on individual anatomical connectivity data. The framework addresses clinical and neuroscientific questions by simulating multi-scale neural dynamics that range from local population activity to large-scale brain function and related macroscopic signals like electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. TVB is equipped with a graphical and a command-line interface to create models that capture the characteristic biological variability to predict the brain activity of individual subjects. To enable researchers from various backgrounds a quick start into TVB and brain network modeling in general, we developed an educational module: TVB-EduPack. EduPack offers two educational functionalities that seamlessly integrate into TVB's graphical user interface (GUI): (i) interactive tutorials introduce GUI elements, guide through the basic mechanics of software usage and develop complex use-case scenarios; animations, videos and textual descriptions transport essential principles of computational neuroscience and brain modeling; (ii) an automatic script generator records model parameters and produces input files for TVB's Python programming interface; thereby, simulation configurations can be exported as scripts that allow flexible customization of the modeling process and self-defined batch- and post-processing applications while benefitting from the full power of the Python language and its toolboxes. This article covers the implementation of TVB-EduPack and its integration into TVB architecture. Like TVB, EduPack is an open source community project that lives from the participation and contribution of its users. TVB-EduPack can be obtained as part of TVB from thevirtualbrain.org. PMID:26635597

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - EARTH- SKY VIEW

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-18740 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut John W. Young took this picture during the second orbit of the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission as the spacecraft "Molly Brown" passed over Northern Mexico at an altitude of 90 miles. The light-brown circular area at the lower right is the Sonoran Desert. The lower portion of the picture is Mexico, and the upper part is California. Young used a hand-held modified 70mm Hasselblad camera with color film. The lens setting was 250th of a second at f/11.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4 - EARTH-SKY VIEW

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-01

    S65-34661 (3-7 June 1965) --- Among the photographs of Earth's terrain taken from the Gemini-4 spacecraft during its orbital mission was this view of the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula with the Gulf of Oman at upper right. Seif dunes (sand) at lower left. This picture was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman color film, ASA 64 at a setting of 250th of a second at f/11. Dr. Paul Lowman Jr., NASA geologist, was in charge of the Synoptic Terrain Photography.

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - WEIGHTLESSNESS EXPERIMENT - AMES RESEARCH CENTER (ARC), CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-01

    S65-18762 (March 1965) --- Effects of the weightless environment on cell division, the basic growth process for living tissue, will be studied during the Gemini-Titan 3 flight scheduled for March 23, 1965. A spiny black sea urchin (upper left) is stimulated by mild electric shock or potassium chloride. As a result it sheds many thousands of eggs. When fertilized, these eggs become actively dividing cells very similar in basic processes to cells of other animals, including humans. These pictures show stages of cell division. At upper right is a single cell; at lower right cell divisions have produced many cells. Cell photos are magnified about 700 times, and all cells shown are too small to be seen by the naked eye. (Photos at upper right and lower left are of sea urchin eggs. Group of cells at lower right are from a sand dollar, which like the sea urchin, is an Echinoderm. Its eggs are virtually identical and are used interchangeably with those of the sea urchin in NASA Ames Center weightlessness experiments.) The Gemini experiment will involve cell division like that shown here. This will take place during several hours of weightlessness aboard the Gemini spacecraft. The experiment will be flown back to laboratories at Cape Kennedy after spacecraft recovery. It has been designed so that any abnormal cell division found by postflight analysis should suggest that the weightless environment has effects on individual cells. This might mean hazards for prolonged periods of manned spaceflight.

  16. Gemini spectroscopy of the outer disk star cluster BH176

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharina, M. E.; Donzelli, C. J.; Davoust, E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Charbonnel, C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. BH176 is an old metal-rich star cluster. It is spatially and kinematically consistent with belonging to the Monoceros Ring. It is larger in size and more distant from the Galactic plane than typical open clusters, and it does not belong to the Galactic bulge. Aims: Our aim is to determine the origin of this unique object by accurately determining its distance, metallicity, and age. The best way to reach this goal is to combine spectroscopic and photometric methods. Methods: We present medium-resolution observations of red clump and red giant branch stars in BH176 obtained with the Gemini South Multi-Object Spectrograph. We derive radial velocities, metallicities, effective temperatures, and surface gravities of the observed stars and use these parameters to distinguish member stars from field objects. Results: We determine the following parameters for BH176: Vh = 0 ± 15 km s-1, [Fe/H] = -0.1 ± 0.1, age 7 ± 0.5 Gyr, E(V - I) = 0.79 ± 0.03, distance 15.2 ± 0.2 kpc, α-element abundance [α/Fe] ~ 0.25 dex (the mean of [Mg/Fe], and [Ca/Fe]). Conclusions: BH176 is a member of old Galactic open clusters that presumably belong to the thick disk. It may have originated as a massive star cluster after the encounter of the forming thin disk with a high-velocity gas cloud or as a satellite dwarf galaxy. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a next-generation coronagraph constructed for the Gemini Observatory. GPI will see first light this fall. It will be the most advanced planet-imaging system in operation - an order of magnitude more sensitive than any current instrument, capable of detecting and spectroscopically characterizing young Jovian planets 107 times fainter than their parent star at separations of 0.2 arcseconds. GPI was built from the beginning as a facility-class survey instrument, and the observatory will employ it that way. Our team has been selected by Gemini Observatory to carry out an 890-hour program - the GPI Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) campaign from 2014-2017. We will observe 600 stars spanning spectral types A-M. We will use published young association catalogs and a proprietary list in preparation that adds several hundred new young (<100 Myr, <75 pc) and adolescent (<300 Myr, <35 pc) stars. The range of separations studied by GPI is completely inaccessible to Doppler and transit techniques (even with Kepler or TESS)— GPI offers a new window into planet formation. We will use GPI to produce the first-ever robust census of giant planet populations in the 5-50 AU range, allowing us to: 1) illuminate the formation pathways of Jovian planets; 2) reconstruct the early dynamical evolution of systems, including migration mechanisms and the interaction with disks and belts of debris; and 3) bridge the gap between Jupiter and the brown dwarfs with the first examples of cool low- gravity planetary atmospheres. Simulations predict this survey will discover approximately 50 exoplanets, increasing the number of exoplanet images by an order of magnitude, enough for statistical investigation. This Origins of Solar Systems proposal will support the execution of the GPI Exoplanet Survey campaign. We will develop tools needed to execute the survey efficiently. We will refine the existing GPI data pipeline to a final version that robustly removes residual speckle

  18. Space Food Package - Gemini-Titan (GT)-4 Flight - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-01

    Food packages of beef and gravy fully reconstituted and ready to eat. An astronaut would squeeze food through opening at right side of package. Water gun is used to reconstitute dehydrated food. Scissors are used to open packages. This is the type of space food which will be used on the Gemini-Titan 4 spaceflight. MSC, Houston, TX *S65-24895 thru S65-24899

  19. Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity (IEVA) Russian and Gemini Spacesuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intra-vehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  20. GEMINI-6 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - AUSTRALIA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-16

    S65-63136 (16 Dec. 1965) --- Shark Bay area on the western coast of Western Australia as seen from the Gemini-6 spacecraft during its 16th revolution of Earth. City of Carnarven, where NASA has a tracking station, is located near the bottom of picture in lower left corner, near mouth of stream. Indian Ocean is body of water at upper right. South is toward top of picture. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  1. MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 - SCRUBBED - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-10-25

    S65-44401 (1965) --- A group of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) officials and personnel watch a Cape Kennedy press conference being telecast in the Mission Control Center (MCC) after the Gemini-6 mission was scrubbed due to the apparent failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to attain orbit.

  2. U.S. Air Force Radiation in Space experiment for Gemini 6 flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-58941 (27 Aug. 1965) --- U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory D-8 (Radiation in Space) experiment for Gemini-6 spaceflight. Kennedy Space Center alternative photo number is 104-KSC-65C-5533. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 11 prime crew during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Gemini 11 prime crew, Astronauts Richard F. Gordon Jr. (left), pilot, and Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot, relax on deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever after suiting up for water egress training in Gulf of Mexico.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9- TRAINING - AEROSPACE FLIGHT SIMULATOR - PILOT - TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-27990 (March 1966) --- Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot for the Gemini-9 spaceflight, works out procedures for his historic space excursion in a unique manned Aerospace Flight Simulator at LTV Corp. at Dallas, Texas. The LTV simulator is used frequently by NASA astronauts for a variety of space programs maneuvers to provide many of the sensations and visual scenes of actual spaceflight. Controlled through a complex of computers, the device makes it possible for the astronauts to work out procedures, solve problems and simulate missions in real time with great accuracy. The astronaut rides in a spacecraft-like gondola which moves in roll, pitch and yaw in response to his controls and accurate computer inputs. The simulator's usual spacecraft displays and canopy have been removed and AMU backpack complete with control electronics installed. The astronaut makes his simulated flight in an inflated pressure suit and with the NASA-developed Extravehicular Life Support system chest pack which will be used in the Gemini flight. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Binding behaviors of p-sulfonatocalix[4]arene with gemini guests.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hong-Xia; Guo, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Yu

    2013-02-14

    A dozen of homoditopic cations, possessing different spacer lengths and rigidities, as well as sizes, shapes, and charges of terminal groups, were synthesized as candidate gemini guests for the complexation of p-sulfonatocalix[4]arenes (SC4A). The 12 gemini guests are divided into five species according to the different terminal groups: imidazolium (G1-G3), pyridinium (G4-G6), quinolinium (G7), viologen (G8-G11), and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DBO, G12). Their binding structures and stoichiometries with SC4A were examined by NMR spectroscopy, which is helpful to construct diverse highly ordered assemblies. The obtained results show that the length of the linkers, as well as the charge numbers on the end groups have a pronounced effect on the binding stoichiometry, whereas the size and shape of the terminal groups have no significant influence. Furthermore, both the stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of SC4A with the terminal subunits were determined by the isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, which are valuable to understand the binding behavior, giving quantitatively deep insight.

  6. Effects of EDU and Ozoban on the growth of shortleaf pine seedlings in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Flagler, R.B.; Lock, J.E.

    Two field studies were conducted to determine the response of shortleaf pine seedlings planted in the field to ethylenediurea (EDU) and sodium erythorbate (Ozoban), both of which possess antioxidant properties, and were developed to protect plants from ozone (O[sub 3]). Seedlings originated from two half-sib families of shortleaf pine, S2PE3 and S3PE9, and a third [open quotes]woods-run[close quotes] selection. For the EDU study, the chemical treatment levels were 0 and 300 ppm EDU. For the Ozoban study, the chemical treatment levels were 0, 515, 1030, 1545, and 2060 ppm Ozoban. Seedlings were sprayed monthly with the appropriate concentration of antioxidantmore » chemical for two years. EDU increased leaf area and foliage, stem and root biomass for all three selections; the response of the woods-run selection was the greatest. Height growth was increased by EDU only in the woods-run selection. Diameter growth was not affected by EDU. In the Ozoban study, only family S2PE3 exhibited a biomass response to Ozobon, with increased biomass as Ozoban application rate increased up to the highest rat, at which point there was a small decrease. Height growth was not affected by Ozoban. Diameter growth of the woods-run selection increased as Ozoban applications rate increased, with a slight decrease at the highest application rate. Diameter of the other selections was not affected by Ozoban. Both chemicals appeared to provide some protection to shortleaf pine against ambient O[sub 3].« less

  7. View of food packets for the Gemini 7 space flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-61653 (1 Dec. 1965) --- Complete food supply for the two-man crew of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spaceflight as it appears prior to stowage in the spacecraft. The food packages are tied in sequence for 28-manned days or a complete supply for two men for a 14-day mission. Photo credit: NASA

  8. CMMI on the Web: Remastered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Patrick Kirwin: www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/webinars/18jul2008.cfm  Also see: www.sei.cmu.edu/prime  ISO 9001/15504/ 12207 /15288 Process...Improvement with CMMI V1.2 and ISO Standards by Boris Mutafelija and Harvey Stromberg (Book)  www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/presentations/Mutafelija

  9. GEMINI-TITAN (GT-11) - EARTH SKY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54677 (14 Sept. 1966) --- India and Ceylon as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft at an altitude of 410 nautical miles during its 26th revolution of Earth. The Indian Ocean is at bottom of picture; at left center is Arabian Sea; and at upper right is Bay of Bengal. The Maldives Islands are near nose of spacecraft. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS. (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Area of northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 12 spacecraft during its 16th revolution of the earth. View is looking northwest. Body of water in foreground is Gulf of California. Pacific Ocean is in background. Peninsula in center of picture is Baja California. States of Sonora (upper right) and Sinaloa (lower center) of Mexican mainland is in right foreground. City of Guaymas, Sonora, is near center of picture.

  11. Structural, biocomplexation and gene delivery properties of hydroxyethylated gemini surfactants with varied spacer length.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, Lucia Ya; Gabdrakhmanov, Dinar R; Ibragimova, Alsu R; Vasilieva, Elmira A; Nizameev, Irek R; Kadirov, Marsil K; Ermakova, Elena A; Gogoleva, Natalia E; Faizullin, Dzhigangir A; Pokrovsky, Andrey G; Korobeynikov, Vladislav A; Cheresiz, Sergey V; Zuev, Yuriy F

    2016-04-01

    Gemini surfactants with hexadecyl tails and hydroxyethylated head groups bridged with tetramethylene (G4), hexamethylene (G6) and dodecamethylene (G12) spacers were shown to self-assemble at the lower critical micelle concentration compared to their conventional m-s-m analogs. The lipoplex formation and the plasmid DNA transfer into different kinds of host cells were studied. In the case of eukaryotic cells, high transfection efficacy has been demonstrated for DNA-gemini complexes, which increased as follows: G6G4>G12 has been obtained in the case of transformation of bacterial cells with plasmid DNA-gemini complexes, mediated by electroporation technique. Solely G6 shows transformation efficacy exceeding the control result (uncomplexed DNA), while the inhibitory effect occurs for G4 and G12. Analysis of physico-chemical features of single surfactants and lipoplexes shows that compaction and condensation effects change as follows: G6gemini in the case of transformation of bacterial cells. They are (i) an unfavorable influence of cationic surfactants on the electroporation procedure due to depressing the electrophoretic effect; and (ii) antibacterial activity of cationic surfactants that may cause the disruption of integrity of cell membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Algeria- Gemini 7, Earth-Sky View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-05

    S65-63830 (5 Dec. 1965) --- Algeria, south-southeast of the Colomb Bechar area, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft. Sand dunes are 200 to 300 feet high in the Grand Erg Occidental area. The Quod Sacura River can be seen in the upper left corner. The white spot in the middle of the picture is the Sebcha el Malah salt beds. It should be noted that the area had just experienced very heavy rains (first in many years) and the stream and salt flat are inundated. This photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Enhancement of soil retention for phenanthrene in binary cationic gemini and nonionic surfactant mixtures: characterizing two-step adsorption and partition processes through experimental and modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan; Huang, Gordon; An, Chunjiang; Wei, Jia; Yao, Yao

    2015-04-09

    The enhancement of soil retention for phenanthrene (PHE) through the addition of a binary mixture of cationic gemini (12-2-12) and nonionic surfactants (C12E10) was investigated. The maximum apparent sorption coefficient Kd(*) reached 4247.8 mL/g through the addition of mixed 12-2-12 gemini and C12E10 surfactants, which was markedly higher than the summed individual results in the presence of individual 12-2-12 gemini (1148.6 mL/g) or C12E10 (210.0 mL/g) surfactant. However, the sorption of 12-2-12 gemini was inhibited by the increasing C12E10 dose; and a higher initial 12-2-12 gemini dose showed a higher "desorption" rate. The present study also addressed the sorption behavior of the single 12-2-12 gemini surfactant at the soil/aqueous interface. The sorption isotherm was divided into two steps to elucidate the sorption process; and the sorption schematics were proposed to elaborate the growth of surfactant aggregates corresponding to the various steps of the sorption isotherm. Finally, a two-step adsorption and partition model (TAPM) was developed to simulate the sorption process. Analysis of the equilibrium data indicated that the sorption isotherms of 12-2-12 gemini fitted the TAPM model better. Thermodynamic calculations confirmed that the 12-2-12 gemini sorption at the soil/aqueous interface was spontaneous and exothermic from 288 to 308K. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Moderate drought did not affect the effectiveness of ethylenediurea (EDU) in protecting Populus cathayana from ambient ozone.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yue; Yuan, Xiangyang; Shang, Bo; Manning, William J; Yang, Aizhen; Wang, Younian; Feng, Zhaozhong

    2016-11-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ambient ozone (O3) on an O3-sensitive poplar (Populus cathayana) by using ethylenediurea (EDU) as a chemical protectant under two soil water treatments (well-watered (WW) and moderate drought (MD, 50-60% of WW in volumetric soil water content). EDU was applied as foliar spray at 0, 300, 450, and 600ppm. Photosynthetic parameters, pigment contents, leaf nitrogen, antioxidant capacity, growth, and biomass were measured. The 8h (9:00-17:00) average ambient O3 concentration was 71.7ppb, and AOT40 was 29.2ppmh during the experimental period (9 June to 21 September), which was high enough to cause plant injury. MD had significantly negative effects on P. cathayana, as indicated by reduced photosynthesis, growth, and biomass, and higher MDA contents. On the other hand, EDU significantly increased photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll a fluorescence, Vcmax and Jmax, photosynthetic pigments, total antioxidant capacity, tree growth and biomass accumulation, and reduced lipid peroxidation, but there was no significant interaction between EDU and drought for most parameters, indicating that EDU can efficiently protect Populus cathayana against ambient O3 and the protection was not affected by soil water contents when soil water reached moderate drought level. Among all doses, EDU at 450ppm provided maximum protection. Comparison of EDU-treated and non-treated P. cathayana could be used as a biomarker system in risk assessment of the effects of ambient O3 on forest health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - PRELAUNCH ACTIVITY - COMMAND PILOT (LEAVES SUITING TRAILER) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-04

    S65-59932 (4 Dec. 1965) --- Prime crew for the Gemini-7 spaceflight astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (front), pilot, and Frank Borman, command pilot, leave the suiting trailer at Launch Complex 16 during prelaunch countdown at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Photo credit: NASA

  16. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - PERU - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38290 (5 June 1966) --- The north coastal area of Peru looking southeast across the Andes Mountains as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-9A spacecraft. The body of water is the Pacific Ocean. The image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft during its 32nd revolution of the earth. Large peninsula is Baja California. Body of water at lower right is Pacific Ocean. Land mass at upper left is State of Sonora. Gulf of California separates Sonora from peninsula. Nose of spacecraft is at left and at right is open hatch of spacecraft.

  18. Population-level administration of AlcoholEdu for college: an ARIMA time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Todd M; Dejong, William; Dixon, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    Autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) is a powerful analytic tool for conducting interrupted time-series analysis, yet it is rarely used in studies of public health campaigns or programs. This study demonstrated the use of ARIMA to assess AlcoholEdu for College, an online alcohol education course for first-year students, and other health and safety programs introduced at a moderate-size public university in the South. From 1992 to 2009, the university administered annual Core Alcohol and Drug Surveys to samples of undergraduates (Ns = 498 to 1032). AlcoholEdu and other health and safety programs that began during the study period were assessed through a series of quasi-experimental ARIMA analyses. Implementation of AlcoholEdu in 2004 was significantly associated with substantial decreases in alcohol consumption and alcohol- or drug-related negative consequences. These improvements were sustained over time as succeeding first-year classes took the course. Previous studies have shown that AlcoholEdu has an initial positive effect on students' alcohol use and associated negative consequences. This investigation suggests that these positive changes may be sustainable over time through yearly implementation of the course with first-year students. ARIMA time-series analysis holds great promise for investigating the effect of program and policy interventions to address alcohol- and drug-related problems on campus.

  19. Studying the silver nanoparticles influence on thermodynamic behavior and antimicrobial activities of novel amide Gemini cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Samy M; Abd-Elaal, Ali A

    2017-07-01

    Three novels amide Gemini cationic surfactants with various alkyl chains and their silver nanohybrid with silver nanoparticles were synthesized and a confirmation study for surfactant and their nanoparticles formation has been established using IR, 1 HNMR, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface-active properties of these surfactants and their nanoform were investigated through surface tension and electrical conductivity measurements and a comparative study has been established. The thermodynamic parameters of micellization and adsorption were assessed at temperatures range from 25 to 65°C. The effect of silver particles on the surface behavior of the synthesized surfactant has been discussed. The aggregation behavior of silver nanoparticles with these synthesized Gemini surfactants in water were investigated using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activities of these synthesized amide Gemini surfactants and their nanostructure with silver against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were also investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. EduCard. Adult Education Access Card. Policy Option Paper on Strategic Recommendation 4. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Dennis

    One recommendation of the 1989 California Strategic Plan for Adult Education is the use of EduCard. EduCard, the Adult Education Access Card, is a means of giving learners access to information about educational opportunities and providing administrators with machine-readable information on learners' prior education and traiing. Three models are:…

  1. ISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-30411 (9 June 1965) --- The families of Gemini 4 astronauts James A. McDivitt and Edward H. White II visited the Mission Control Center in Houston. In the foreground, left to right, are Mrs. Patricia McDivitt, daughter Bonnie White, Mrs. Patricia White, flight director Christopher C. Kraft Jr., and Edward White III. Each of the family members talked with the astronauts as they passed over the United States. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Cationic gemini surfactant-assisted synthesis of hollow Au nanostructures by stepwise reductions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Han, Yuchun; Tian, Maozhang; Fan, Yaxun; Tang, Yongqiang; Gao, Mingyuan; Wang, Yilin

    2013-06-26

    A novel synthetic approach was developed for creating versatile hollow Au nanostructures by stepwise reductions of Au(III) upon the use of cationic gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyl dimethylammonium bromide) (C12C6C12Br2) as a template agent. It was observed that the Au(I) ions obtained from the reduction of Au(III) by ascorbic acid can assist the gemini surfactant to form vesicles, capsule-like, and tube-like aggregates that subsequently act as soft templates for hollow Au nanostructures upon further reduction of Au(I) to Au(0) by NaBH4. It was demonstrated that the combination of C12C6C12Br2 and Au(I) plays a key role in regulating the structure of the hollow precursors not only because C12C6C12Br2 has a stronger aggregation ability in comparison with its single chain counterpart but also because the electrostatic repulsion between head groups of C12C6C12Br2 is greatly weakened after Au(III) is converted to Au(I), which is in favor of the construction of vesicles, capsule-like, and tube-like aggregates. Compared with solid Au nanospheres, the resultant hollow nanostructures exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activities in methanol oxidation, following the order of elongated nanocapsule > nanocapsule > nanosphere. Benefiting from balanced interactions between the gemini surfactant and Au(I), this soft-template method may present a facile and versatile approach for the controlled synthesis of Au nanostructures potentially useful for fuel cells and other Au nanodevices.

  3. The Next Linear Collider Program

    Science.gov Websites

    /graphics.htm Snowmass 2001 http://snowmass2001.org/ Electrical Systems Modulators http://www -project.slac.stanford.edu/lc/local/electrical/e_home.htm DC Magnet Power http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/lc/local /electrical/e_home.htm Global Systems http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/lc/local/electrical/e_home.htm

  4. IAU astroEDU: an open-access platform for peer-reviewed astronomy education activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenatigala, Thilina; Russo, Pedro; Strubbe, Linda; Gomez, Edward

    2015-08-01

    astroEDU is an open access platform for peer-reviewed astronomy education activities. It addresses key problems in educational repositories such as variability in quality, not maintained or updated regularly, limited content review, and more. This is achieved through a peer-review process similar to what scholarly articles are based on. Activities submitted are peer-reviewed by an educator and a professional astronomer which gives the credibility to the activities. astroEDU activities are open-access in order to make the activities accessible to educators around the world while letting them discover, review, distribute and remix the activities. The activity submission process allows authors to learn how to apply enquiry-based learning into the activity, identify the process skills required, how to develop core goals and objectives, and how to evaluate the activity to determine the outcome. astroEDU is endorsed by the International Astronomical Union meaning each activity is given an official stamp by the international organisation for professional astronomers.

  5. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for the cellular analysis of varying structures of gemini surfactants designed as nanomaterial drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Donkuru, McDonald; Michel, Deborah; Awad, Hanan; Katselis, George; El-Aneed, Anas

    2016-05-13

    Diquaternary gemini surfactants have successfully been used to form lipid-based nanoparticles that are able to compact, protect, and deliver genetic materials into cells. However, what happens to the gemini surfactants after they have released their therapeutic cargo is unknown. Such knowledge is critical to assess the quality, safety, and efficacy of gemini surfactant nanoparticles. We have developed a simple and rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of various structures of gemini surfactants in cells. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was employed allowing for a short simple isocratic run of only 4min. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 3ng/mL. The method was valid to 18 structures of gemini surfactants belonging to two different structural families. A full method validation was performed for two lead compounds according to USFDA guidelines. The HILIC-MS/MS method was compatible with the physicochemical properties of gemini surfactants that bear a permanent positive charge with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic elements within their molecular structure. In addition, an effective liquid-liquid extraction method (98% recovery) was employed surpassing previously used extraction methods. The analysis of nanoparticle-treated cells showed an initial rise in the analyte intracellular concentration followed by a maximum and a somewhat more gradual decrease of the intracellular concentration. The observed intracellular depletion of the gemini surfactants may be attributable to their bio-transformation into metabolites and exocytosis from the host cells. Obtained cellular data showed a pattern that grants additional investigations, evaluating metabolite formation and assessing the subcellular distribution of tested compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Unveiling Uranus' Clouds: New Observations From Gemini-North NIFS And NIRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Davis, G. R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G.; Tice, D.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of Uranus were made in September 2009 with the Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii, using both the NIFS and NIRI instruments. Adaptive optics were used to achieve a spatial resolution of approximately 0.1 arcsec. NIRI images were recorded with three spectral filters to constrain the overall appearance of the planet: J, H-continuum and CH4(long), and long slit spectra (1.49 to 1.79 microns) were obtained with the slit aligned on Uranus’ central meridian. In addition, the NIFS instrument was used to acquire spectra from other points on the planet, stepping the NIFS 3 x 3 arcsec field of view across Uranus’ disc. These observations were combined to yield complete images of Uranus at 2040 wavelengths between 1.476 and 1.803 microns with a spectral resolution of 5000. The observed spectra along Uranus central meridian were analyzed with the NEMESIS retrieval tool and used to infer the vertical/latitudinal variation in cloud optical depth. We find that the 2009 Gemini data perfectly complement our observations/conclusions from UKIRT/UIST observations made in 2006-2008 and show that the north polar zone at 45N has continued to steadily brighten while that at 45S has continued to fade. The improved spatial resolution of the Gemini observations compared with the non-AO UKIRT/UIST data remove many of the earlier ambiguities inherent in the previous analysis. Overall, Uranus appeared to be less convectively active in 2009 than in the previous 3 years, which suggests that now the equinox (which occurred in 2007) is over the atmosphere is settling back into the quiescent state seen by Voyager 2 in 1986. However, one discrete cloud was captured in the NIFS observations and was estimated to lie at a pressure level of 300-400 mbar.

  7. Geo-Engineering through Internet Informatics (GEMINI)

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W. Lynn; Doveton, John H.; Victorine, John R.

    GEMINI will resolve reservoir parameters that control well performance; characterize subtle reservoir properties important in understanding and modeling hydrocarbon pore volume and fluid flow; expedite recognition of bypassed, subtle, and complex oil and gas reservoirs at regional and local scale; differentiate commingled reservoirs; build integrated geologic and engineering model based on real-time, iterate solutions to evaluate reservoir management options for improved recovery; provide practical tools to assist the geoscientist, engineer, and petroleum operator in making their tasks more efficient and effective; enable evaluations to be made at different scales, ranging from individual well, through lease, field, to play and regionmore » (scalable information infrastructure); and provide training and technology transfer to evaluate capabilities of the client.« less

  8. Technicians prepare to close hatches on Gemini 11 spacecraft during countdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Technicians in the White Room atop Pad 19 prepare to close hatches on the Gemini 11 spacecraft during prelaunch countdown. Inside the spacecraft are Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot. There is a humorous sign stating 'This is ABSOLUTELY your Last Chance' being held by one of the technicians.

  9. Central portion of Florida, Gulf of Mexico seen from Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54565 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Central portion of Florida, Gulf of Mexico to Atlantic Ocean, Cape Kennedy is at left center of photo, as seen from the Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 29th revolution of Earth. Photo lacks detail due to low sun angle. Sunglint on lakes is visible. Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-7 - PREFLIGHT PHYSICAL - ASTRONAUT FRANK BORMAN - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-02

    S65-60603 (2 Dec. 1965) --- Astronaut Frank Borman, Gemini-7 command pilot, sits attentively as two scalp electrodes are attached to his head. The electrodes will allow doctors to record electrical activity of the astronaut's cerebral cortex during periods of weightlessness. The objectives of this in-flight experiment are to assess state of alertness, levels of consciousness, and depth of sleep. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Post-Coronagraph Wavefront Sensor for Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick; Pueyo, Laurent; Soummer, Remi; Shelton, Chris; Bartos, Randall; Fregoso, Felipe; Nemati, Bijan; Best, Paul; Angione, John

    2009-01-01

    The calibration wavefront system for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) will measure the complex wavefront at the apodized pupil and provide slow phase errors to the AO system to mitigate against image plane speckles that would cause a loss in contrast. This talk describes both the low-order and high-order sensors in the calibration wavefront sensor and how the information is combined to form the wavefront estimate before the coronagraph. We will show laboratory results from our calibration testbed that demonstrate the subsystem performance at levels commensurate with those required on the final instrument.

  12. SAR-EDU - An education initiative for applied Synthetic Aperture Radar remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckardt, Robert; Richter, Nicole; Auer, Stefan; Eineder, Michael; Roth, Achim; Hajnsek, Irena; Walter, Diana; Braun, Matthias; Motagh, Mahdi; Pathe, Carsten; Pleskachevsky, Andrey; Thiel, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2013-04-01

    Since the 1970s, radar remote sensing techniques have evolved rapidly and are increasingly employed in all fields of earth sciences. Applications are manifold and still expanding due to the continuous development of new instruments and missions as well as the availability of very high-quality data. The trend worldwide is towards operational employment of the various algorithms and methods that have been developed. However, the utilization of operational services does not keep up yet with the rate of technical developments and the improvements in sensor technology. With the enhancing availability and variety of space borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data and a growing number of analysis algorithms the need for a vital user community is increasing. Therefore the German Aerospace Center (DLR) together with the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (FSU) and the Technical University Munich (TUM) launched the education initiative SAR-EDU. The aim of the project is to facilitate access to expert knowledge in the scientific field of radar remote sensing. Within this effort a web portal will be created to provide seminar material on SAR basics, methods and applications to support both, lecturers and students. The overall intension of the project SAR-EDU is to provide seminar material for higher education in radar remote sensing covering the topic holistically from the very basics to the most advanced methods and applications that are available. The principles of processing and interpreting SAR data are going to be taught using test data sets and open-source as well as commercial software packages. The material that is provided by SAR-EDU will be accessible at no charge from a DLR web portal. The educational tool will have a modular structure, consisting of separate modules that broach the issue of a particular topic. The aim of the implementation of SAR-EDU as application-oriented radar remote sensing educational tool is to advocate the development and wider use of

  13. Egypt, Nile Valley, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini 12 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-13

    S66-63477 (13 Nov. 1966) --- United Arab Republic (Egypt), the Nile Valley from Luxor to Cairo, El Payium, Gulf of Suez, Sinai as seen from Gemini-12 spacecraft on its 25th revolution of Earth. Photo credit: NASA

  14. Suzaku Observations of the Monogem Ring and the Origin of the Gemini Hα Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, Jonathan R.; Sasaki, Manami; Plucinsky, Paul P.

    2018-04-01

    We present the analysis of Suzaku X-ray observations of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) 'Monogem Ring', a large structure observed in X-rays with an extent of ≈ 25°, located at an anti-centre position. One observation close to the shock also coincides with a large ring-like structure observed in Hα, which is called the 'Gemini Hα ring'. We investigate the origin of the ring-like structure and also possible interactions with the SNR. We show that the SNR is expanding in a region with a density gradient, which has an effect on the morphology of the SNR and the properties of the plasma. The X-ray spectra are fit well with a collisional ionisation equilibrium (CIE) model with a temperature of kT ≈ 0.3 keV. The spectra obtained at a position where the SNR coincides with the Gemini Hα ring are better described with non-equilibrium ionisation (NEI) with a temperature of kT ≈ 1.0 keV. Based on the spectral analysis results, we estimate an age of t ≈ 6.8 × 104 yr for a distance of ≈300 pc, using the Sedov-Taylor solution. We have identified several early-type stars in the Hipparcos catalogue at a distance of 200- 300pc, which have most likely formed the 'Gemini Hα ring' by their powerful stellar winds.

  15. Enhanced aqueous solubility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by green diester-linked cationic gemini surfactants and their binary solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Manorama; Fatma, Nazish; Kabir-ud-Din

    2016-07-01

    Three homologues of a novel biodegradable diester-linked cationic gemini surfactant series, CmH2m+1 (CH3)2N+(CH2COOCH2)2N+(CH3)2CmH2m+1.2Cl- (m-E2-m; m = 12, 14, 16), were used for investigation of the solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, anthracene and pyrene in single as well as binary surfactant solutions. Physicochemical parameters of the pure/mixed systems were derived by conductivity and surface tension measurements. Dissolution capacity of the equimolar binary surfactant solutions towards the PAHs was studied from the molar solubilization ratio (MSR), micelle-water partition coefficient (Km) and free energy of solubilization (ΔGs0) of the solubilizates. Influence of hydrophobic chain length of the dimeric surfactants on solubilization was characterized. Aqueous solubility of the PAHs was enhanced linearly with concentration of the surfactant in all the pure and mixed gemini-gemini surfactant systems.

  16. The optical design of GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Smee, Stephen A.; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    We present the optical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph. GMOX was selected as part of the Gemini Instrument Feasibility Study to develop capabilities and requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) for the observatory. We envision GMOX covering the entire optical/near-IR wavelength range accessible from the ground, from 3500 Å in the U band up to 2.4 μm in the K band, with nominal resolving power R≃5,000. To maximize efficiency, the bandpass is split into three spectrograph arms - blue, red, and near-infrared - with the near-infrared arm further split into three channels covering the Y+J, H, and K bands. At the heart of each arm is a Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) serving as a programmable slit array. This technology will enable GMOX to simultaneously acquire hundreds of spectra of faint sources in crowded fields with unparalleled spatial resolution, optimally adapting to both seeing-limited and diffraction limited conditions provided by ALTAIR and GeMS at Gemini North and South, respectively. Fed by GeMS at f/33, GMOX can synthesize slits as small as 40 mas (corresponding to a single HST/WFC3 CCD pixel) over its entire 85"x45" field of view. With either ALTAIR or the native telescope focal ratio of f/16, both the slit and field sizes double. In this paper we discuss the conceptual optical design of GMOX including, for each arm: the pre-slit optics, DMD slit array, off-axis Schmidt collimator, VPH grating, and refractive spectrograph and slit-viewing cameras.

  17. Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium: Gemini Missions III and IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    This is a compilation of papers on in-flight experiments presented at the first symposium of a series, Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The results of experiments conducted during the Gemini Missions III and IV are covered. These symposiums are to be conducted for the scientific community at regular intervals on the results of experiments carried out in conjunction with manned space flights.

  18. eduCRATE--a Virtual Hospital architecture.

    PubMed

    Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrimioara; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile; Berian, Dorin; Drăgan, Simona; Serban, Alexandru; Serban, Corina

    2014-01-01

    eduCRATE is a complex project proposal which aims to develop a virtual learning environment offering interactive digital content through original and integrated solutions using cloud computing, complex multimedia systems in virtual space and personalized design with avatars. Compared to existing similar products the project brings the novelty of using languages for medical guides in order to ensure a maximum of flexibility. The Virtual Hospital simulations will create interactive clinical scenarios for which students will find solutions for positive diagnosis and therapeutic management. The solution based on cloud computing and immersive multimedia is an attractive option in education because is economical and it matches the current working style of the young generation to whom it addresses.

  19. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH - SKY - DOCKING - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46144 (18 July 1966) --- The Gemini-10 spacecraft is successfully docked with the Agena Target Docking Vehicle 5005. The Agena display panel is clearly visible. After docking with the Agena, astronauts John W. Young, command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, fired the 16,000-pound thrust engine of Agena-10's primary propulsion system to boost the combined vehicles into an orbit with an apogee of 413 nautical miles to set a new altitude record for manned spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  20. Assessing ambient ozone injury in olive (Olea europaea L.) plants by using the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Basahi, J M; Ismail, I M; Haiba, N S; Hassan, I A; Lorenzini, G

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant chemical, ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU), was applied as stem injections or soil drenches to 5-year-old containerized plants of olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar Kalamata) in growth chambers in order to assess its ameliorative effects against realistic ozone (O3) stress. Visible injury symptoms were reduced greatly in individuals treated with EDU, with injection applications having greater protection than soil drenches. EDU application caused increases in the measured ecophysiological parameters compared to untreated individuals. In particular, the stem injection protected plants against photosynthetic impairment (unchanged net photosynthetic rates and intercellular CO2 concentration, in comparison to plants grown in filtered air). EDU application increased the protection of PSII from ambient O3 oxidative stress, although it did not retain the proportion of redox state of QA, pigment composition of photosynthetic apparatus and size of light-harvesting complex of PSII. However, the stem injection of plants with EDU induced lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in comparison to ambient air (-2 %), indicating a better photoprotection of PSII in comparison to soil drench application. EDU application caused increases in the morphological and biometric parameters compared to individuals exposed to ambient air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the protection of Kalamata olive trees due to EDU in terms of growth, yield, visible injury, and photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, this study proved that EDU could be a low-cost and a low-technology efficient tool for assessing O3 effects on plant performances in the field in Saudi Arabia.

  1. The Zwicky Transient Facility Public Alert Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masci, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Graham, M.; Prince, T.; Helou, G.

    2018-06-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF; ATel #11266) announces the start of public alerts. These alerts will originate from the ZTF public surveys (Bellm & Kulkarni 2017; Nature Astronomy 1, 71) as described at www.ztf.caltech.edu/page/msip Alerts are generated by the ZTF Science Data System housed at IPAC-Caltech (www.ipac.caltech.edu) using a realtime image-subtraction pipeline (Masci et al. 2018; www.ztf.caltech.edu/page/technical).

  2. GEMINI-TITAN (GT-10) - EARTH SKY - SAHARA - MAURITANIA - ALGERIA - MOROCCO - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46062 (18-21 July 1966) --- Area of the Spanish Sahara--Mauritania--Algeria--Morocco, looking north into Hamada Du Dra, as seen from the Gemini-10 spacecraft. Taken with a J.A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  3. Gemini 11 prime crew during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (right), prime crew for Gemini 11 space flight, practice water egress procedures in the Gulf of Mexico. Static Article 5 was used in the training exercise. A Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) swimmer is in the water assisting in the training.

  4. Gemini ester quat surfactants and their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Łuczyński, Jacek; Frąckowiak, Renata; Włoch, Aleksandra; Kleszczyńska, Halina; Witek, Stanisław

    2013-03-01

    Cationic gemini surfactants are an important class of surface-active compounds that exhibit much higher surface activity than their monomeric counterparts. This type of compound architecture lends itself to the compound being easily adsorbed at interfaces and interacting with the cellular membranes of microorganisms. Conventional cationic surfactants have high chemical stability but poor chemical and biological degradability. One of the main approaches to the design of readily biodegradable and environmentally friendly surfactants involves inserting a bond with limited stability into the surfactant molecule to give a cleavable surfactant. The best-known example of such a compound is the family of ester quats, which are cationic surfactants with a labile ester bond inserted into the molecule. As part of this study, a series of gemini ester quat surfactants were synthesized and assayed for their biological activity. Their hemolytic activity and changes in the fluidity and packing order of the lipid polar heads were used as the measures of their biological activity. A clear correlation between the hemolytic activity of the tested compounds and their alkyl chain length was established. It was found that the compounds with a long hydrocarbon chain showed higher activity. Moreover, the compounds with greater spacing between their alkyl chains were more active. This proves that they incorporate more easily into the lipid bilayer of the erythrocyte membrane and affect its properties to a greater extent. A better understanding of the process of cell lysis by surfactants and of their biological activity may assist in developing surfactants with enhanced selectivity and in widening their range of application.

  5. The influence of novel gemini surfactants containing cycloalkyl side-chains on the structural phases of DNA in solution.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kumita, Janet R; Dobson, Christopher M; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-07-01

    Very important to gene therapy is the delivery system of the nucleic acids (called a vector), which will enhance the efficiency of the transport of new DNA into cells whilst protecting against damage. A promising alternative to the currently used viral vectors are the systems based on amphiphilic compounds - lipoplexes. Among them, gemini surfactants, which consist of two hydrophobic chains and two cationic heads connected by a linker - spacer group, appear to be promising candidates. The subject of this study involves two gemini surfactants, alkoxy derivatives of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts, differing in the length of their spacer groups and how they interact with two types of salmon sperm DNA (low and high molecular weight (MW)) or plasmid DNA (pDNA). The mixtures of gemini surfactants with nucleic acids of differing p/n ratios (positive-to-negative charge ratio) were characterised by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of synchrotron radiation, dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and gel electrophoresis techniques. This analysis allows for the selection of the most suitable and promising candidates for non-viral vectors in gene therapy, determination of the conditions needed to form stable complexes, identification of conformational changes in the DNA molecules upon interactions with gemini surfactants and in some cases, determination of the structures formed in these lipoplexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. GeMS: Gemini Mcao System: current status and commissioning plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccas, Maxime; Rigaut, François; Gratadour, Damien; d'Orgeville, Céline; Bec, Matthieu; Daruich, Felipe; Perez, Gabriel; Arriagada, Gustavo; Bombino, Stacy; Carter, Chris; Cavedoni, Chas; Collao, Fabian; Collins, Paul; Diaz, Pablo; Ebbers, Angelic; Galvez, Ramon; Gausachs, Gaston; Hardash, Steve; James, Eric; Karewicz, Stan; Lazo, Manuel; Maltes, Diego; Mouser, Ron; Rogers, Rolando; Rojas, Roberto; Sheehan, Michael; Trancho, Gelys; Vergara, Vicente; Vucina, Tomislav

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics project was launched in April 1999 to become the Gemini South AO facility in Chile. The system includes 5 laser guide stars, 3 natural guide stars and 3 deformable mirrors optically conjugated at 0, 4.5 and 9km to achieve near-uniform atmospheric compensation over a 1 arc minute square field of view. Sub-contracted systems with vendors were started as early as October 2001 and were all delivered by July 2007, but for the 50W laser (due around September 2008). The in-house development began in January 2006, and is expected to be completed by the end of 2008 to continue with integration and testing (I&T) on the telescope. The on-sky commissioning phase is scheduled to start during the first half of 2009. In this general overview, we will first describe the status of each subsystem with their major requirements, risk areas and achieved performance. Next we will present our plan to complete the project by reviewing the remaining steps through I&T and commissioning on the telescope, both during day-time and at night-time. Finally, we will summarize some management activities like schedules, resources and conclude with some lessons learned.

  7. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - EARTH-SKY VIEWS - CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-18741 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut John W. Young took this picture during the Gemini-Titan 3 three-orbit mission as the spacecraft "Molly Brown" passed over Northern Mexico. The large light-brown area is the Sonoran Desert. The Colorado River runs from upper right to lower left. The lower portion of the picture is Mexico, the upper left is California, and the upper right is Arizona. The altitude of the spacecraft was 90 miles. Young used a hand-held modified 70mm Hasselblad camera with color film. The lens setting was 250th of a second at f/11.

  8. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activities of Novel Gemini 20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Analogs

    PubMed Central

    LIN, ZONGTAO; MAREPALLY, SRINIVASA R.; KIM, TAE-KANG; JANJETOVIC, ZORICA; OAK, ALLEN SW.; POSTLETHWAITE, ARNOLD E.; MYERS, LINDA K.; TUCKEY, ROBERT C.; SLOMINSKI, ANDRZEJ T.; MILLER, DUANE D.; LI, WEI

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D3 (D3) can be metabolized by cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) into 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20D3) as a major metabolite. This bioactive metabolite has shown strong antiproliferative, antifibrotic, pro-differentiation and anti-inflammatory effects while being non-toxic (non-calcemic) at high concentrations. Since D3 analogs with two symmetric side chains (Gemini analogs) result in potent activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), we hypothesized that the chain length and composition of these types of analogs also containing a 20-hydroxyl group would affect their biological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of Gemini 20D3 analogs. Biological tests showed that some of these analogs are partial VDR activators and can significantly stimulate the expression of mRNA for VDR and VDR-regulated genes including CYP24A1 and transient receptor potential cation channel V6 (TRPV6). These analogs inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells with potency comparable to that of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Moreover, these analogs reduced the level of interferon γ and up-regulated the expression of leukocyte associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 in splenocytes, indicating that they have potent anti-inflammatory activities. There are no clear correlations between the Gemini chain length and their VDR activation or biological activities, consistent with the high flexibility of the ligand-binding pocket of the VDR. PMID:26976974

  9. GEMINI SPECTROSCOPY OF ULTRACOMPACT DWARFS IN THE FOSSIL GROUP NGC 1132

    SciTech Connect

    Madrid, Juan P.; Donzelli, Carlos J.

    2013-06-20

    A spectroscopic follow-up of ultracompact dwarf (UCD) candidates in the fossil group NGC 1132 is undertaken with the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph. These new Gemini spectra prove the presence of six UCDs in the fossil group NGC 1132 at a distance of D {approx} 100 Mpc and a recessional velocity of v{sub r} = 6935 {+-} 11 km s{sup -1}. The brightest and largest member of the UCD population is an M32 analog with a size of 77.1 pc and a magnitude of M{sub V} = -14.8 mag with the characteristics in between those of the brightest UCDs and compactmore » elliptical galaxies. The ensemble of UCDs have an average radial velocity of (v{sub r} ) = 6966 {+-} 208 km s{sup -1} and a velocity dispersion of {sigma}{sub v} = 169 {+-} 18 km s{sup -1} similar to the one of poor galaxy groups. This work shows that UCDs can be used as test particles to determine the dynamical properties of galaxy groups. The presence of UCDs in the fossil group environment is confirmed and thus the fact that UCDs can form across diverse evolutionary conditions.« less

  10. Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during EVA on Gemini 4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-02

    Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit to be used during extravehicular activity (EVA) on Gemini 4 flight. It is an integral unit that contains its own high pressure metering valves and nozzles required to produce controlled thrust. A camera is mounted on the front of the unit.

  11. Using Gaming in Middle School Education: A Quantitative Study on Gender Engagement Differences When Using MinecraftEDU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Erin Maloney

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study examined differences in engagement among male and female middle school students when using MinecraftEDU as an instructional tool. Fifty-seven seventh grade students completed an Experience Sampling Form after completing classroom assignments using MinecraftEDU on two occasions. This study examined whether males and females…

  12. Heterocyclic cationic gemini surfactants: a comparative overview of their synthesis, self-assembling, physicochemical, and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Ilies, Marc A

    2014-01-01

    Gemini surfactants (GS) are presently receiving substantial attention due to their special self-assembling properties and unique interfacial activity. This comprehensive review is focused on positively charged heterocyclic GS, presenting their major synthetic access routes and examining the impact of structural elements on physicochemical and aggregation properties of this class of amphiphiles. Interaction of geminis surfactants with cells and their biological properties as novel transfection agents are emphasized through a detailed structure-activity relationship analysis. Throughout the review we have also presented the properties of selected ammonium GS, simple surfactants and lipid congeners, in order to emphasize the advantages conferred by using heterocyclic polar heads in GS design. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. ASTRONAUT WHITE, EDWARD H. II - GEMINI-IV - EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - CREW TRAINING - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-06-03

    S65-30431 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot of the Gemini IV four-day Earth-orbital mission, floats in the zero gravity of space outside the Gemini IV spacecraft. Behind him is the brilliant blue Earth and its white cloud cover. White wears a specially designed spacesuit; and the visor of the helmet is gold plated to protect him against the unfiltered rays of the sun. He wears an emergency oxygen pack, also. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line, both wrapped in gold tape to form one cord. In his left hand is a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) with which he controls his movements in space. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the mission, remained inside the spacecraft. Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut White died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 - MOCKUP - ADAPTER EQUIPMENT SECTION - FUEL CELL - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-01

    S66-22686 (March 1966) --- Mock-up of the adapter equipment section to be used on the Gemini-9 spaceflight. This section provides volume and attach points for several system modules, including Orbit Attitude Maneuver System, Environmental Control System primary oxygen supply, batteries, coolant, and electrical and electric components. This section will also hold the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit (AMU) backpack (center). Photo credit: NASA

  15. Di-Peptide-Modified Gemini Surfactants as Gene Delivery Vectors: Exploring the Role of the Alkyl Tail in Their Physicochemical Behavior and Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaymi, Mays A; Chitanda, Jackson M; Mohammed-Saeid, Waleed; Araghi, Hessamaddin Younesi; Verrall, Ronald E; Grochulski, Pawel; Badea, Ildiko

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to elucidate the structure-activity relationship of new peptide-modified gemini surfactant-based carriers. Glycyl-lysine modified gemini surfactants that differ in the length and degree of unsaturation of their alkyl tail were used to engineer DNA nano-assemblies. To probe the optimal nitrogen to phosphate (N/P) ratio in the presence of helper lipid, in vitro gene expression and cell toxicity measurements were carried out. Characterization of the nano-assemblies was accomplished by measuring the particle size and surface charge. Morphological characteristics and lipid organization were studied by small angle X-ray scattering technique. Lipid monolayers were studied using a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. The highest activity of glycyl-lysine modified gemini surfactants was observed with the 16-carbon tail compound at 2.5 N/P ratio, showing a 5- to 10-fold increase in the level of reporter protein compared to the 12 and 18:1 carbon tail compounds. This ratio is significantly lower compared to the previously studied gemini surfactants with alkyl or amino- spacers. In addition, the 16-carbon tail compound exhibited the highest cell viability (85%). This high efficiency is attributed to the lowest critical micelle concentration of the 16-tail gemini surfactant and a balanced packing of the nanoparticles by mixing a saturated and unsaturated lipid together. At the optimal N/P ratio, all nanoparticles exhibited an inverted hexagonal lipid assembly. The results show that the length and nature of the tail of the gemini surfactants play an important role in determining the transgene efficiency of the delivery system. We demonstrated here that the interplay between the headgroup and the nature of tail is specific to each series, thus in the process of rational design, the contribution of the latter should be assessed in the appropriate context.

  16. Gemini primary mirror in situ wash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucina, Tomislav; Boccas, Maxime; Araya, Claudio; Ah Hee, Clayton; Cavedoni, Chas

    2008-07-01

    The Gemini twins were the first large modern telescopes to receive protected silver coatings on their mirrors in 2004. The low emissivity requirement is fundamental for the IR optimization. In the mid-IR a factor of two reduction in telescope emissivity is equivalent to increasing the collecting area by the same factor. Our emissivity maintenance requirement is very stringent: 0.5% maximum degradation during operations, at any single wavelength beyond 2.2 μm. We developed a very rigorous standard to wash the primary mirrors in the telescope without science down time. The in-situ washes are made regularly, and the reflectivity and emissivity gains are significant. The coating lifetime has been extended far more than our original expectations. In this report we describe the in-situ process and hardware, explain our maintenance plan, and show results of the coating performance over time.

  17. SN 1987A after 18 Years: Mid-Infrared Gemini and Spitzer Observations of the Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Patrice; Dwek, Eli; Danziger, John; Arendt, Richard G.; De Buizer, I. James M.; Park, Sangwook; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Challis, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Using the Gemini South 8 m telescope, we obtained high-resolution 11.7 and 18.3 μm mid-IR images of SN 1987A on day 6526 since the explosion. All the emission arises from the equatorial ring. Nearly contemporaneous spectra obtained at 5-38 μm with the Spitzer Space Telescope show that this is thermal emission from silicate dust that condensed out in the red giant wind of the progenitor star. The dust temperature is 166+18-12 K, and the emitting dust mass is 2.6+2.0-1.4×10-6 Msolar. Comparison of the Gemini 11.7 μm image with Chandra X-ray images, HST UV-optical images, and ATCA radio synchrotron images shows generally good correlation across all wavelengths. If the dust resides in the diffuse X-ray-emitting gas then it is collisionally heated. The IR emission can then be used to derive the plasma temperature and density, which were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the X-rays. Alternatively, the dust could reside in the dense UV-optical knots and be heated by the radiative shocks that are propagating through the knots. In either case the dust-to-gas mass ratio in the CSM around the supernova is significantly lower than that in the general interstellar medium of the LMC, suggesting either a low condensation efficiency in the wind of the progenitor star or the efficient destruction of the dust by the SN blast wave. Overall, we are witnessing the interaction of the SN blast wave with its surrounding medium, creating an environment that is rapidly evolving at all wavelengths. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the NSF (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and

  18. Impact of Ethylene diurea (EDU) on growth, yield and proteome of two winter wheat varieties under high ambient ozone phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sunil K; Sharma, Marisha; Majumder, Baisakhi; Maurya, Vivek K; Lohani, Meenakshi; Deeba, Farah; Pandey, Vivek

    2018-04-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of high ambient O 3 on morphological, physiological and biochemical traits and leaf proteome in two high-yielding varieties of wheat using ethylene diurea (EDU) as foliar spray (200 and 300 ppm). Average ambient ozone concentration was 60 ppb which was more than sufficient to cause phytotoxic effects. EDU treatment resulted in less lipid peroxidation along with increased chlorophyll content, biomass and yield. EDU alleviated the negative effects of ozone by enhancing activities of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes. Two dimensional electrophoresis (2DGE) analysis revealed massive changes in protein abundance in Kundan at vegetative stage (50% proteins were increased, 20% were decreased) and at flowering stage (25% increased, 18% decreased). In PBW 343 at both the developmental stages about 15% proteins were increased whereas 20% were decreased in abundance. Higher abundance of proteins related to carbon metabolism, defense and photorespiration conferred tolerance to EDU treated Kundan. In PBW343, EDU provided incomplete protection as evidenced by low abundance of many primary metabolism related proteins. Proteomic changes in response to EDU treatment in two varieties are discussed in relation to growth and yield. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gemini 4 prime crew with Official medical nurse for Astronaut crew members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 4 prime crew, Astronauts Edward H. White II, (left), and James A. McDivitt (right) are shown with Lt. Dolores (Dee) O'Hare, US Air Force, Center Medical Office, Flight Medicine Branch, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC). Lieutenant O'Hare has served during several space flights as Official medical nurse for the astronaut crew members on the missions.

  20. Three MSC officials hold discussion in Mission Control room during Gemini 11

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-12

    S66-52754 (12 Sept. 1966) --- Three key Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) officials hold discussion in the Mission Control room during Gemini-11 activity. Left to right, are Donald K. Slayton, MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Chief, MSC Astronaut Office; and George M. Low, MSC Deputy Director. Photo credit: NASA

  1. GORDON, RICHARD F., ASTRONAUT - TRAINING - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - WATER EGRESS - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-23

    S66-44497 (23 July 1966) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and Richard F. Gordon Jr. (right), prime crew for the Gemini-11 spaceflight, practice water egress procedures in the Gulf of Mexico. Static Article 5 was used in the training exercise. A MSC swimmer is in the water assisting in the training. Photo credit: NASA

  2. Diester-containing Zwitterionic Gemini Surfactants with Different Spacer and Its Impact on Micellization Properties and Viscosity of Aqueous Micellar Solution.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin Vasant; Patil, Sanyukta Arun; Pratap, Amit Prabhakar

    2016-09-01

    A series of diester containing zwitterionic gemini surfactants, N,N-dimethyl-N-alkyl-2-[[hydroxy (alkoxy) phosphinyl]oxy]-alkylammonium designated as C8(-)-S-Cn(+), S = 2 and 3, n = 12, 14 and 16, were synthesized and characterized by instrumental techniques namely FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (31)P NMR and Mass spectral studies. These new gemini surfactants further investigated for their various surfactant properties. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the effectiveness of surface tension reduction (Πcmc) were determined as a function of surfactant concentration by means of surface tension measurement. Micellization and viscosity properties were investigated by surface tension, electrical conductivity, dye micellization and rheology techniques. The findings of the aqueous surfactant system obtained were impacted by polarity, size and the nature of zwitterions as the surface. The thermodynamic and viscosity properties of these surfactants found to be based on the structures of gemini surfactants.

  3. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - EARTH SKY - RENDEZVOUS - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-18

    S66-46122 (18 July 1966) --- Agena Target Docking Vehicle 5005 is photographed from the Gemini-Titan 10 (GT-10) spacecraft during rendezvous in space. The two spacecraft are about 38 feet apart. After docking with the Agena, astronauts John W. Young, command pilot, and Michael Collins, pilot, fired the 16,000 pound thrust engine of Agena X's primary propulsion system to boost the combined vehicles into an orbit with an apogee of 413 nautical miles to set a new altitude record for manned spaceflight. Photo credit: NASA

  4. Organizational transformation to improve operational efficiency at Gemini South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hoeven, M.; Maltes, Diego; Rogers, Rolando

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we will describe how the Gemini South Engineering team has been reorganized from different functional units into a cross-disciplinary team while executing a transition plan that imposes several staff reductions, driven by budget reductions. Several factors are of critical importance to the success of any change in organization. Budgetary processes, staff diversity, leadership style, skill sets and planning are all important factors to take into account to achieve a successful outcome. We will analyze the organizational alignment by using some proven management models and concepts.

  5. WILLIAMS, CLIFTON C. ASTRONAUT - MISSION CONTROL CENTER (MCC) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-3 - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-23

    S65-18063 (23 March 1965) --- Astronaut Clifton C. Williams is shown at console in the Mission Control Center (MCC) in Houston, Texas during the Gemini-Titan 3 flight. The GT-3 flight was monitored by the MCC in Houston, but was controlled by the MCC at Cape Kennedy.

  6. The Gemini Planet Imager: integration and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Bruce A.; Anthony, Andre; Atwood, Jennifer; Barriga, Nicolas; Bauman, Brian; Caputa, Kris; Chilcote, Jeffery; Dillon, Daren; Doyon, René; Dunn, Jennifer; Gavel, Donald T.; Galvez, Ramon; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Graham, James R.; Hartung, Markus; Isaacs, Joshua; Kerley, Dan; Konopacky, Quinn; Labrie, Kathleen; Larkin, James E.; Maire, Jerome; Marois, Christian; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Nunez, Arturo; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Palmer, David W.; Pazder, John; Perrin, Marshall; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Quirez, Carlos; Rantakyro, Frederik; Reshtov, Vlad; Saddlemyer, Leslie; Sadakuni, Naru; Savransky, Dmitry; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Smith, Malcolm; Soummer, Remi; Thomas, Sandrine; Wallace, J. Kent; Weiss, Jason; Wiktorowicz, Sloane

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is a next-generation instrument for the direct detection and characterization of young warm exoplanets, designed to be an order of magnitude more sensitive than existing facilities. It combines a 1700-actuator adaptive optics system, an apodized-pupil Lyot coronagraph, a precision interferometric infrared wavefront sensor, and a integral field spectrograph. All hardware and software subsystems are now complete and undergoing integration and test at UC Santa Cruz. We will present test results on each subsystem and the results of end-to-end testing. In laboratory testing, GPI has achieved a raw contrast (without post-processing) of 10-6 5σ at 0.4", and with multiwavelength speckle suppression, 2x10-7 at the same separation.

  7. SPECTOMETER - BREMSSTRAHLUNG - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-XII ANALYZER PROCESSOR EXPERIMENT MSC 7 (M409) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-01

    S66-09382 (1 Oct. 1966) --- Gemini-12 Experiment MSC-7 Bremsstrahlung Spectrometer-Spectrometer Analyzer processor installed in cabin. Objective of experiment is to determine the gamma and beta flux and energy spectra induced inside the spacecraft by exterior electrons. Photo credit: NASA

  8. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - HIGH APOGEE - EARTH SKY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54530 --- Libyan Desert area of Sudan, foreground, and the United Arab Republic (Egypt), at lower left, as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft at an altitude of 300 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of Earth. In view is the Nile River from Biba in Egypt to Khartoum in the Sudan. The Red Sea is in the background. At upper left is the Arabian Peninsula. At top right is Ethiopia. Note L-band antenna of the Agena Target Vehicle. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  9. GEMINI-9 - EARTH SKY - NORTHWESTERN MEXICO, BAJA CALIFORNIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38070 (5 June 1966) --- Northwestern Mexico as seen from the Gemini-9A spacecraft during its 32nd revolution of Earth. The large penisula is Baja California. The body of water at lower right is the Pacific Ocean. The land mass at upper left is the State of Sonora. The Gulf of California separates Sonora from the peninsula. The nose of the spacecraft is at left; and at right is the open hatch of the spacecraft. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, took this picture with his modified 70mm Hasselblad EVA camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MISC. - EXPERIMENT D-16 - KNEE TETHER - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-01-28

    S66-00933 (28 Jan. 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment D-16 Knee Tether, sponsored by the Department of Defense and the United States Air Force. The astronaut tightens and loosens bolts in a prescribed pattern during his extravehicular activity, once with his body held to the spacecraft by a nine-inch tether looped around his knee and through the handrail, and once without the tether. Photo credit: NASA

  11. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 (RECOVERY) - ASTRONAUT JOHN W. YOUNG - MISC. - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-07-21

    S66-42772 (21 July 1966) --- A U.S. Navy frogman assist the Gemini-10 crew following splashdown at 4:07 p.m. (EST), July 21, 1966, about four miles from the recovery ship, USS Guadalcanal. Astronaut John W. Young (climbing from spacecraft), command pilot, and Michael Collins (in spacecraft), pilot, were later hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter and flown to the Guadalcanal. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Vesicles from pH-regulated reversible gemini amino-acid surfactants as nanocapsules for delivery.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi

    2016-10-01

    Reversible transition from micelles to vesicles by regulating pH were realized by gemini amino-acid surfactants N,N'-dialkyl-N,N'-diacetate ethylenediamine. Measurement results of ζ-potential at different pH and DLS at varying solvents revealed that the protonation between H(+) and double NCH2COO(-) groups (generating NH(+)CH2COO(-)), expressed as pKa1 and pKa2, is the key driving force to control the aggregation behaviors of gemini surfactant molecule. Effect of pH on the bilayer structure was studied in detail by using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy of hydrophobic pyrene and Coumarin 153 (C153) respectively and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from C153 to Rhodamine 6G (R6G). Various pH-regulated and pH-reversible self-assemblies were obtained in one surfactant system. Vitamin D3 was encapsulated in vesicle bilayers to form nano-VD3-capsules as VD3 supplement agent for health care products. By using the electrostatic attraction between Ca(2+) and double -COO(-) groups, nano-VD3-capsules with Ca(2+) coated outermost layers were prepared as a formulation for VD3 and calcium co-supplement agent. DLS and TEM were performed to check stability and morphology of the nano-capsules. It is concluded that the pH-regulated gemini amino-acid surfactants can be used to construct colloidal systems for delivering hydrophobic drugs or nutritions without lipids at human physiological pH level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Strategic Forum. Number 282, September 2013. Transitional Justice for Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    www.ndu.edu/ inss SF No. 282 1 Transitional justice is the provision of justice in the transition from one form of government, often perceived as...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 SF No. 282 www.ndu.edu/ inss Africa...fragile seldom lead to lasting democratic governance.”6 www.ndu.edu/ inss SF No. 282 3 Annan acknowledged that the task is politically delicate as

  14. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  15. ASTRONAUT JAMES A. LOVELL, JR. - RECOVERY - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 - ON BOARD CARRIER - ATLANTIC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-15

    S66-59997 (15 Nov. 1966) --- A happy Gemini-12 prime crew arrives aboard the aircraft carrier, USS Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Ultra-deep GEMINI Near-infrared Observations of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6624.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Miocchi, P.; Cohen, R. E.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2016-11-01

    We used ultra-deep J and K s images secured with the near-infrared (NIR) GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a (K s , J - K s ) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate NIR CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching K s ˜ 21.5, approximately 8 mag below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at K s ˜ 20 we detected the so-called MS “knee” in a purely NIR CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 (t age = 12.0 ± 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M ˜ 0.45 M⊙, finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances from the cluster center. This is a clear signature of mass segregation, confirming that NGC 6624 is in an advanced stage of dynamical evolution. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations gathered with ESO-VISTA telescope (program ID 179.B-2002).

  17. GRACES, the Gemini remote access CFHT ESPaDOnS spectrograph: initial design and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tollestrup, Eric V.; Pazder, John; Barrick, Gregory; Martioli, Eder; Schiavon, Ricardo; Anthony, André; Halman, Mark; Veillet, Christian

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Remote Access CFHT ESPaDOnS Spectrograph (GRACES) is an innovative instrumentation experiment that will demonstrate if ESPaDOnS, a bench-mounted high-resolution optical spectrograph at CFHT, can be fed by a 270-m long fiber from the Gemini-North telescope with low enough losses to remain competitive with conventional spectrographs on other 8 to 10-m telescopes. Detailed simulations have shown that GRACES should be more sensitive than the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory at wavelengths longer than about 600-700 nm. This result is possible by using FPB-type of optical fibers made by Polymicro Technologies and by keeping the critical focal ratio degradation (FRD) losses to less than 10%. Laboratory tests on these FPB optical fibers are underway and show that for 36-m lengths that the FRD losses are as low as 0.8% with a repeatability of 1%. Tests are currently underway on 280-m lengths.

  18. Small angle neutron scattering study of the gemini nonionic surfactant in heavy water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajewska, A.

    2012-03-01

    The nonionic gemini surfactant α α'-[2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7diyl]bis[ω hydroxyl-polyoxyethylene] (S-10) was investigated in heavy water solutions only for concentrations: 2.3%, 2.5%,3%, 3.4%, 4% and 5% at temperature 25°C with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) method. All of surfactants solutions were prepared using D2O (99.9% deuterated, Prikladnaia Chimia, St. Petersburg, Russia) as a solvent. The nonionic gemini surfactant S-10 was obtained from Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., and used without further purification. All SANS measurements were performed on V-4 SANS spectrometer at BENSC, Berlin (Germany). Neutrons were used in wavelength range of 0.02 - 4 nm-1. For the measurements quartz cells of were used during experiment. Up to 14 such cells were placed in a holder. Results from experiment was calculated and evaluated with PCG 2.0 program from Graz University (Austria). In the investigated solutions two axis ellipsoidal micelles was observed.

  19. Strategic Forum. Number 283, December 2013. Next Steps in Syria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    www.ndu.edu/ inss SF No. 283 1 Nearly 3 years since the start of the Syrian civil war, no clear winner is in sight. Assassinations and defections of...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 SF No. 283 www.ndu.edu/ inss ◆◆ U.S...in power and Russia and Iran quickly assert their influence through them to restrict www.ndu.edu/ inss SF No. 283 3 the scope of change. They

  20. JERHRE's New Web Pages.

    PubMed

    2006-06-01

    JERHRE'S WEBSITE, www.csueastbay.edu/JERHRE/ has two new pages. One of those pages is devoted to curriculum that may be used to educate students, investigators and ethics committee members about issues in the ethics of human subjects research, and to evaluate their learning. It appears at www.csueastbay.edu/JERHRE/cur.html. The other is devoted to emailed letters from readers. Appropriate letters will be posted as soon as they are received by the editor. Letters from readers appear at www.csueastbay.edu/JERHRE/let.html.

  1. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    Thomas Chasteen's site ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html) shows how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator. This graphic comes from his monochromator animation ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). Science Media's site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) includes spectroscopy tutorials by Brian Tissue. This graphic can be found at http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/light/graphics/em-rad.gif (©1998 B. M. Tissue, www.scimedia.com). All the colors in the rainbow! Now that is a good place to start. Go to About Rainbows ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/rnbw.html), a tutorial from astronomer Beverly Lynds, working with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. The tutorial begins with a historical perspective, complete with a sketch by René Descartes in 1637. The bibliography makes this tutorial a good starting point for color exploration. About Rainbows brings you questions to explorefor example, "What happens when you look at a rainbow through dark glasses?" Try the links to these other sites. Project SkyMath: Making Mathematical Connections ( http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/staff/blynds/Skymath.html) is especially for the middle school student. Reproducible masters of these teaching modules can be printed in English and Spanish. From Project SkyMath, you can go to Blue-Skies, a user-friendly graphical interface from The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan ( http://groundhog.sprl.umich.edu/BS.html). And speaking of blue skies, look at a great site, Why is the Sky Blue at http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/sky/sky.shtml. This is a super site from the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers, by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Arizona State University. If you go to Patterns in Nature: Light and Optics at http://acept.la.asu.edu

  2. OCTOCAM: A Workhorse Instrument for the Gemini Telescopes During the Era of LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter; van der Horst, Alexander; OCTOCAM Team

    2018-01-01

    The decade of the 2020s are planned to be an era of large surveys and giant telescopes. A trademark of this era will be the large number of interesting objects observed daily by high-cadence surveys, such as the LSST. Because of the sheer numbers, only a very small fraction of these interesting objects will be observed with extremely large telescopes. The follow up workhorses during this era will be the 8-meter class telescopes and corresponding instruments that are prepared to pursue these interesting objects. One such workhorse instrument is OCTOCAM, a highly efficient instrument designed to probe the time domain window with simulatenous broad-wavelength coverage. OCTOCAM optimizes the use of Gemini for broadband imaging and spectroscopic single-target observations. The instrument is designed for high temporal resolution, broad spectral coverage, and moderate spectral resolution. OCTOCAM was selected as part of the Gemini instrumentation program in early 2017. Here we provide a description of the science cases to be addressed, overall instrument design, and current status.

  3. Interfacial engineering of pyridinium gemini surfactants for the generation of synthetic transfection systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu D; Aifuwa, Eronmwon O; Heiney, Paul A; Ilies, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Pyridinium gemini surfactants possess a soft charge, a high charge/mass ratio and a high molecular flexibility - all key parameters that recommend their use in synthetic gene delivery systems with in vitro and in vivo efficiency. In present study we generated a DNA delivery system through interfacial engineering of pyridinium gemini surfactants at the level of linker, hydrophobic chains and counterions. The self-assembling of the pyridinium amphiphiles and the physicochemical properties of the resultant supra-molecular assemblies were studied in bulk and in solution through a combination of techniques that included DSC, X-ray diffraction, polarized microscopy, CMC, dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. We assessed the impact of different structural elements and formulation parameters of these pyridinium amphiphiles on their DNA compaction properties, transfection efficiency, cytotoxicity, in a complete structure-activity relationship study. This interfacial engineering process generated transfection systems with reduced cytotoxicity and high transfection efficiency in media containing elevated levels of serum that mimic the in vivo conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - MISC. EXPERIMENTS - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-22

    S66-02611 (22 March 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment S-13 Ultraviolet Astronomical Camera. It will be used to test the techniques of ultraviolet photography under vacuum conditions and obtain ultraviolet radiation observations of stars in wave length region of 2,000 to 4,000 Angstroms by spectral means. Equipment is the Maurer 70mm camera with UV lens (f3.3) and magazine, objective grating and objective prism, extended shuttle actuator, and mounting bracket. For the experiment, the camera is mounted on the centerline torque box to point through the opened right-hand hatch. Propellant expenditure is estimated at 4.5 pounds per night pass. Two night passes will be used to photograph probably six star fields. Sponsors are NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications and Northwestern University. Photo credit: NASA

  5. GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

  6. Optical Performance Of The Gemini Carbon Dioxide Laser Fusion System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, V. K.; Hayden, J. J.; Liberman, I.

    1980-11-01

    The performance of the Gemini two beam carbon dioxide laser fusion system was recently upgraded by installation of optical components with improved quality in the final amplifier. A theoretical analysis was conducted in conlunction with measurements of the new performance. The analysis and experimental procedures, and results obtained are reported and compared. Good agreement was found which was within the uncertainties of the analysis and the inaccuracies of the experiments. The focal spot Strehl ratio was between 0.24 and 0.3 for both beams.

  7. Computers-for-edu: An Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP) Teaching Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Todd A.

    2007-01-01

    The "Computers-for-edu" case is designed to provide students with hands-on exposure to creating Advanced Business Application Programming (ABAP) reports and dialogue programs, as well as navigating various mySAP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) transactions needed by ABAP developers. The case requires students to apply a wide variety…

  8. Hokupa'a-Gemini Discovery of Two Ultracool Companions to the Young Star HD 130948

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, D.; Martín, E. L.; Cushing, M. C.; Baudoz, P.; Brandner, W.; Guyon, O.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2002-03-01

    We report the discovery of two faint ultracool companions to the nearby (d~17.9 pc) young G2 V star HD 130948 (HR 5534, HIP 72567) using the Hokupa'a adaptive optics (AO) instrument mounted on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Both objects have the same common proper motion as the primary star as seen over a 7 month baseline and have near-IR photometric colors that are consistent with an early L classification. Near-IR spectra taken with the NIRSPEC AO instrument on the Keck II telescope reveal K I lines, FeH, and H2O band heads. Based on these spectra, we determine that both objects have a spectral type of dL2 with an uncertainty of two spectral subclasses. The position of the new companions on the H-R diagram in comparison with theoretical models is consistent with the young age of the primary star (<0.8 Gyr) estimated on the basis of X-ray activity, lithium abundance, and fast rotation. HD 130948B and C likely constitute a pair of young contracting brown dwarfs with an orbital period of about 10 yr and will yield dynamical masses for L dwarfs in the near future. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (US), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  9. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  10. Triply Periodic Multiply Continuous Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Derived from Gemini Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Gregory P.

    A subtle balance of non-covalent interactions directs the self-assembly of small molecule amphiphiles in aqueous media into supramolecular assemblies known as aqueous lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs). Aqueous LLCs form many intricate, ordered nanoscale morphologies comprising distinct and structurally periodic hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains. Triply periodic multiply continuous (TPMC) LLC morphologies, which exhibit continuous hydrophobic and aqueous domains that percolate in three-dimensions, are of particular interest by virtue of their potentially wide ranging technological applications including advanced membranes for electrical energy storage and utilization, therapeutic delivery, and templates for new organic and inorganic mesoporous materials. However, robust molecular design criteria for amphiphiles that readily form TMPC morphologies are notably lacking in the literature. Recent reports have described the increased propensity for quaternary ammonium and phosphonium gemini surfactants, derived from dimerization of traditional single-tail surfactants at or near the hydrophilic headgroups through a hydrophobic linker, to stabilize TMPC mesophases. The generality of this surfactant design strategy remains untested in other amphiphiles classes bearing different headgroup chemistries. In this thesis, we describe the unusual aqueous LLC phase behavior of series of gemini dicarboxylate amphiphiles as a function of the alkyl tail length, hydrophobic linker length, and the charge-compensating counterion. These dicarboxylate surfactants unexpectedly exhibit a strong propensity to form TPMC LLCs over amphiphile concentration windows as wide as 20 wt% over a temperature range T = 25--100 °C. Through systematic modifications of the length of the hydrophobic linker and alkyl tails, we use small-angle X-ray scattering to demonstrate that these surfactants adopt new LLC mesophases including the first report of a single-gyroid phase (I4132 symmetry) and a new

  11. Uranus’ cloud structure and seasonal variability from Gemini-North and UKIRT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N. A.; Davis, G. R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Tice, D.; Kyffin, A.

    2011-03-01

    Observations of Uranus were made in September 2009 with the Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii, using both the NIFS and NIRI instruments. Observations were acquired in Adaptive Optics mode and have a spatial resolution of approximately 0.1″. NIRI images were recorded with three spectral filters to constrain the overall appearance of the planet: J, H-continuum and CH4(long), and long slit spectroscopy measurements were also made (1.49-1.79 μm) with the entrance slit aligned on Uranus’ central meridian. To acquire spectra from other points on the planet, the NIFS instrument was used and its 3″ × 3″ field of view stepped across Uranus’ disc. These observations were combined to yield complete images of Uranus at 2040 wavelengths between 1.476 and 1.803 μm. The observed spectra along Uranus central meridian were analysed with the NEMESIS retrieval tool and used to infer the vertical/latitudinal variation in cloud optical depth. We find that the 2009 Gemini data perfectly complement our observations/conclusions from UKIRT/UIST observations made in 2006-2008 and show that the north polar zone at 45°N has continued to steadily brighten while that at 45°S has continued to fade. The improved spatial resolution of the Gemini observations compared with the non-AO UKIRT/UIST data removes some of the earlier ambiguities with our previous analyses and shows that the opacity of clouds deeper than the 2-bar level does indeed diminish towards the poles and also reveals a darkening of the deeper cloud deck near the equator, perhaps coinciding with a region of subduction. We find that the clouds at 45°N,S lie at slightly lower pressures than the clouds at more equatorial latitudes, which suggests that they might possibly be composed of a different condensate, presumably CH4 ice, rather than H2S or NH3 ice, which is assumed for the deeper cloud. In addition, analysis of the centre-to-limb curves of both the Gemini/NIFS and earlier UKIRT/UIST IFU observations shows that

  12. High doses of ethylenediurea (EDU) as soil drenches did not increase leaf N content or cause phytotoxicity in willow grown in fertile soil.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Evgenios; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Saitanis, Costas J; Koike, Takayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Ground-level ozone (O 3 ) levels are nowadays elevated in wide regions of the Earth, causing significant effects on plants that finally lead to suppressed productivity and yield losses. Ethylenediurea (EDU) is a chemical compound which is widely used in research projects as phytoprotectant against O 3 injury. The EDU mode of action remains still unclear, while there are indications that EDU may contribute to plants with nitrogen (N) when the soil is poor in N and the plants have relatively small leaf area. To reveal whether the N content of EDU acts as a fertilizer to plants when the soil is not poor in N and the plants have relatively large total plant leaf area, willow plants (Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schm) were exposed to low ambient O 3 levels and treated ten times (9-day interval) with 200mL soil drench containing 0, 800 or 1600mg EDU L -1 . Fertilizer was added to a nutrient-poor soil, and the plants had an average plant leaf area of 9.1m 2 at the beginning of EDU treatments. Indications for EDU-induced hormesis in maximum electron transport rate (J max ) and ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 concentration (C i :C a ) were observed at the end of the experiment. No other EDU-induced effects on leaf greenness and N content, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F v /F m ), gas exchange, growth and matter production suggest that EDU did not act as N fertilizer and did not cause toxicity under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Students’ Experiences with Web-Based Alcohol Prevention: A Qualitative Evaluation of AlcoholEdu

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Peter; Paschall, Mallie J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide more in-depth information about students’ experiences with AlcoholEdu and in particular to assess if students perceive that the course gives them tools to better control their drinking-related behavior. Methods Focus group interviews with freshmen at three California universities. Findings 1) The course provides so much information that everyone can find some of it relevant; 2) participants prefer information presented in ways they can identify with; 3) participants report problems with surveys in the program pointing to redundancy and length; and 4) participants did not expect the course to impact their behavior relating to alcohol. Conclusion AlcoholEdu provides valuable information for freshmen in college about how to avoid problems with alcohol. However, the course could have much more impact if closer to college reality. PMID:23185835

  14. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-XI - MISC. EXPERIMENTS - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-22

    S66-05515 (2 June 1966) --- Gemini-11 Experiment S-9 Nuclear Emulsion. This experiment will be used to study the cosmic radiation incident on Earth's atmosphere, to obtain detailed chemical composition of the heavy primary nuclei and to search for rare particles. Equipment is a rectangular package eight and a half by six by three inches weighing 15 pounds and including the nuclear emulsion film stack, motor to advance the emulsion and a timer to regulate the motor. The package is mounted atop the spacecraft retro adapter section prior to launch, is activated at insertion, and is retrieved by the EVA pilot. The experiment is conducted with the spacecraft in plus or minus 15 degrees of Earth's average magnetic field vector. Sponsors are NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications and the U.S. Naval Research Laboratories. Photo credit: NASA

  15. Arabian Peninsula and northeast Africa as seen from Gemini 11 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the Gemini 11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of the earth, looking southeast. Saudia Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean.

  16. EduGATE - basic examples for educative purpose using the GATE simulation platform.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Uwe; Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Axer, Markus; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Benoit, Didier; Gaens, Michaela

    2013-02-01

    EduGATE is a collection of basic examples to introduce students to the fundamental physical aspects of medical imaging devices. It is based on the GATE platform, which has received a wide acceptance in the field of simulating medical imaging devices including SPECT, PET, CT and also applications in radiation therapy. GATE can be configured by commands, which are, for the sake of simplicity, listed in a collection of one or more macro files to set up phantoms, multiple types of sources, detection device, and acquisition parameters. The aim of the EduGATE is to use all these helpful features of GATE to provide insights into the physics of medical imaging by means of a collection of very basic and simple GATE macros in connection with analysis programs based on ROOT, a framework for data processing. A graphical user interface to define a configuration is also included. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. Representation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    two weeks to arrive. Source: http://beergame.mit.edu/ Permission Granted – MIT Supply Chain Forum 2005 Professor Sterman –Sloan School of...Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html Rules of Engagement The MIT Beer Game Simulation 04-04 Slide Number 10 Professor...Sterman –Sloan School of Management - MITSource: http://web.mit.edu/jsterman/www/ SDG /beergame.html What is the Significance of Representation

  18. Gemini 9-A astronauts talk to reporters at Ellington field at end of mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 9-A prime crew, Astronauts Thomas Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene Cernan (right), pilot, express their feelings about being home to their families, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Officials, newsmen and well-wishers gathered at Ellington Air Force Base to welcome the astronauts home. At right is George M. Low, MSC Deputy Director.

  19. 16 febbraio 2004. 121 Hermione occulta la stella TYC 1905-00864-1 in Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbisiero, Massimo

    2005-04-01

    On 16 February 2004, the asteroid 121 Hermione occulted the star TYC 1905-00864-1 in Gemini: new astrometric observations and duplicity of the asteroid lead the UAI Occultation Section to launch a call for observations throughout Italy. Interesting results have been obtained along with new dimensions of the asteroid derived from positive observations.

  20. Air, telescope, and instrument temperature effects on the Gemini Planet Imager’s image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallis, Melisa; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Macintosh, Bruce; Hayward, Thomas L.; Chilcote, Jeffrey K.; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Savransky, Dmitry; Wang, Jason J.; GPIES Team

    2018-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of air, telescope, and instrument temperature effects on the Gemini Planet Imager’s (GPI) image quality. GPI is a near-infrared, adaptive optics-fed, high-contrast imaging instrument at the Gemini South telescope, designed to directly image and characterize exoplanets and circumstellar disks. One key metric for instrument performance is “contrast,” which quantifies the sensitivity of an image in terms of the flux ratio of the noise floor vs. the primary star. Very high contrast signifies that GPI could succeed at imaging a dim, close companion around the primary star. We examine relationships between multiple temperature sensors placed on the instrument and telescope vs. image contrast. These results show that there is a strong correlation between image contrast and the presence of temperature differentials between the instrument and the temperature outside the dome. We discuss potential causes such as strong induced dome seeing or optical misalignment due to thermal gradients. We then assess the impact of the current temperature control and ventilation strategy and discuss potential modifications.

  1. Subaru And Gemini Observations Of SS 433: New Constraint On The Mass Of The Compact Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, K.; Ueda, Y.; Fabrika, S.; Medvedev, A.; Barsukova, E. A.; Sholukhova, O.; Goranskij, V. P.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of optical spectroscopic observations of the mass donor star in SS 433 with Subaru and Gemini, with an aim to best constrain the mass of the compact object. Subaru/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph observations were performed on four nights of 2007 October 6-8 and 10, covering the orbital phase of phi = 0.96 - 0.26. We first calculate the cross-correlation function (CCF) of these spectra with that of the reference star HD 9233 in the wavelength range of 4740-4840 Å. This region is selected to avoid "strong" absorption lines accompanied with contaminating emission components, which most probably originate from the surroundings of the donor star, such as the wind and gas stream. The same analysis is applied to archive data of Gemini/GMOS taken at phi = 0.84 - 0.30 by Hillwig & Gies. From the Subaru and Gemini CCF results, the amplitude of the radial velocity curve of the donor star is determined to be 58.3 ± 3.8 km s-1 with a systemic velocity of 59.2 ± 2.5 km s-1. Together with the radial velocity curve of the compact object, we derive the mass of the donor star and compact object to be M O = 12.4 ± 1.9 M sun and M X = 4.3 ± 0.6 M sun, respectively. We conclude, however, that these values should be taken as upper limits. From the analysis of the averaged absorption line profiles of strong lines (mostly ions) and weak lines (mostly neutrals) observed with Subaru, we find evidence for heating effects from the compact object. Using a simple model, we find that the true radial velocity amplitude of the donor star could be as low as 40 ± 5 km s-1 in order to produce the observed absorption-line profiles. Taking into account the heating of the donor star may lower the derived masses to M O = 10.4+2.3 -1.9 M sun and M X = 2.5+0.7 -0.6 M sun. Our final constraint, 1.9 M sun <=M X<= 4.9 M sun, indicates that the compact object in SS 433 is most likely a low mass black hole, although the possibility of a massive neutron star cannot be firmly

  2. GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Gazarik, Michael J.; Reisse, Robert A.; Johnson, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) SensorModule (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the GIFTS SM EDU Level 1B algorithms involved in the calibration. The GIFTS Level 1B calibration procedures can be subdivided into four blocks. In the first block, the measured raw interferograms are first corrected for the detector nonlinearity distortion, followed by the complex filtering and decimation procedure. In the second block, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the filtered and decimated complex interferograms. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected spectrum. The phase correction and spectral smoothing operations are performed on a set of interferogram scans for both ambient and hot blackbody references. To continue with the calibration, we compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. We now can estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. The correction schemes that compensate for the fore-optics offsets and off-axis effects are also implemented. In the third block, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a

  3. MAGNETOMETER - TRI-AXIS SENSOR UNIT - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-12 EXPERIMENT MSC-3 (M405) - MSC

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-10-01

    S66-09379 (1 Oct. 1966) --- Tri-Axis Magnetometer-Sensor Unit mounted on telescoping boom. Cable connects Sensor Unit with Electronics Unit mounted on retrograde beam in retrograde adapter section. Objective of experiment is to monitor the direction and amplitude of Earth's magnetic field (Gemini-12). Photo credit: NASA

  4. ASTRONAUT CERNAN, EUGENE A. - MISC. (WALK AWAY FROM PAD - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9 POSTPONED) - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-05-17

    S66-34559 (17 May 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (left), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, walk away from Pad 19 after the Gemini-9 mission was postponed. Failure of the Agena Target Vehicle to achieve orbit caused the postponement of the mission. Photo credit: NASA

  5. University of California, Davis | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Member Information Dr. Julie L. Sutcliffe Laboratory websiteshttps://bme.ucdavis.edu/sutcliffe/ http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/publish/providerbio/search/21751 https://bme.ucdavis.edu/people/departmental-faculty/julie-sutcliffe/ |

  6. Reaching the Diffraction Limit - Differential Speckle and Wide-Field Imaging for the Gemini-N Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Nic J.; Howell, Steve; Horch, Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Speckle imaging allows telescopes to achieve di raction limited imaging performance. The technique requires cameras capable of reading out frames at a very fast rate, e ectively `freezing out' atmospheric seeing. The resulting speckles can be correlated and images reconstructed that are at the di raction limit of the telescope. These new instruments are based on the successful performance and design of the Di erential Speckle Survey Instrument (DSSI) [2, 1]. The instruments are being built for the Gemini-N and WIYN telescopes and will be made available to the community via the peer review proposal process. We envision their primary use to be validation and characterization of exoplanet targets from the NASA K2 and TESS missions and RV discovered exoplanets. Such targets will provide excellent follow-up candidates for both the WIYN and Gemini telescopes [3]. Examples of DSSI data are shown in the gures below. We expect similar data quality in speckle imaging mode with the new instruments. Additionally, both cameras will have a wide- eld mode and standard SDSS lters. They will be highly versatile instruments and it is that likely many other science programs will request time on the cameras. The limiting magnitude for speckle observations, will remain around 13-14th at WIYN and 16-17th at Gemini, while wide- eld, normal CCD imaging operation should be able to go to much fainter, providing usual CCD imaging and photometric capabilities. The instruments will also have high utility as scoring cameras for telescope engineering purposes, or other applications where high time resolution is needed. Instrument support will be provided, including a software pipeline that takes raw speckle data to fully reconstructed images.

  7. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of novel peptide-modified gemini surfactants used as gene delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Al-Dulaymi, M; El-Aneed, A

    2017-06-01

    Diquaternary ammonium gemini surfactants have emerged as effective gene delivery vectors. A novel series of 11 peptide-modified compounds was synthesized, showing promising results in delivering genetic materials. The purpose of this work is to elucidate the tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) dissociation behavior of these novel molecules establishing a generalized MS/MS fingerprint. Exact mass measurements were achieved using a hybrid quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a multi-stage MS/MS analysis was conducted using a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Both instruments were operated in the positive ionization mode and are equipped with electrospray ionization. Abundant triply charged [M+H] 3+ species were observed in the single-stage analysis of all the evaluated compounds with mass accuracies of less than 8 ppm in mass error. MS/MS analysis showed that the evaluated gemini surfactants exhibited peptide-related dissociation characteristics because of the presence of amino acids within the compounds' spacer region. In particular, diagnostic product ions were originated from the neutral loss of ammonia from the amino acids' side chain resulting in the formation of pipecolic acid at the N-terminus part of the gemini surfactants. In addition, a charge-directed amide bond cleavage was initiated by the amino acids' side chain producing a protonated α-amino-ε-caprolactam ion and its complimentary C-terminus ion that contains quaternary amines. MS/MS and MS 3 analysis revealed common fragmentation behavior among all tested compounds, resulting in the production of a universal MS/MS fragmentation pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mississippi River delta as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Mississippi River delta, and Gulf coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft during its first revolution of the earth. Florida peninsula is seen at upper right corner of picture. lake Pontchartrain is at lower left. new orleans is located between the lake and the U-shaped bend in the river. Large bay at top left center is Mobile Bay. Apalachicola, Florida, is the point of land at top center of picture. Note alluvial deposit at mouths of Mississippi.

  9. Structural studies of the formation of lipoplexes between siRNA and selected bis-imidazolium gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewska, W; Pietralik, Z; Skupin, M; Kozak, M

    2016-10-01

    Dicationic (gemini) surfactants are agents that can be used for the preparation of stable complexes of nucleic acids, particularly siRNA for therapeutic purposes. In this study, we demonstrated that bis-imidazolium gemini surfactants with variable lengths of dioxyalkyl linker groups (from dioxyethyl to dioxydodecyl) and dodecyl side chains are excellent for the complexation of siRNA. All of these compounds effectively complexed siRNA in a charge ratio range (p/n) of 1.5-10. The low resolution structure of siRNA oligomers was characterised by small angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SR-SAXS) and ab initio modelling. The structures of the formed complexes were also analysed using SR-SAXS, circular dichroism studies and electrophoretic mobility tests. The most promising agents for complexation with siRNA were the surfactants that contained dioxyethyl and dioxyhexyl spacer groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - MISC. - INFLIGHT (MILKY WAY) - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-45314 (19 July 1966) --- Ultraviolet spectra of stars in the region of the Southern Cross. These objective-grating spectra were obtained by astronauts John W. Young and Michael Collins during Gemini-10 stand-up EVA on July 19, 1966, with a 70mm Maurer camera and its f/3.3 focal length lens. The spectra extends from 2,200 angstroms to about 4,000 angstroms. The spacecraft was docked to the horizon-stabilized Agena-10; thus giving an apparent field of rotation resulting from the four-degree-per-minute orbital motion during the 20-second exposure time. Photo credit: NASA

  11. MO-DE-BRA-03: TOPAS-edu: A Window Into the Stochastic World Through the TOPAS Tool for Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, J; Villagomez-Bernabe, B; Currell, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The stochastic nature of the subatomic world presents a challenge for physics education. Even experienced physicists can be amazed at the varied behavior of electrons, x-rays, protons, neutrons, ions and the any short-lived particles that make up the overall behavior of our accelerators, brachytherapy sources and medical imaging systems. The all-particle Monte Carlo particle transport tool, TOPAS Tool for Particle Simulation, originally developed for proton therapy research, has been repurposed into a physics teaching tool, TOPAS-edu. Methods: TOPAS-edu students set up simulated particle sources, collimators, scatterers, imagers and scoring setups by writing simple ASCII files (in the TOPAS Parametermore » Control System format). Students visualize geometry setups and particle trajectories in a variety of modes from OpenGL graphics to VRML 3D viewers to gif and PostScript image files. Results written to simple comma separated values files are imported by the student into their preferred data analysis tool. Students can vary random seeds or adjust parameters of physics processes to better understand the stochastic nature of subatomic physics. Results: TOPAS-edu has been successfully deployed as the centerpiece of a physics course for master’s students at Queen’s University Belfast. Tutorials developed there takes students through a step by step course on the basics of particle transport and interaction, scattering, Bremsstrahlung, etc. At each step in the course, students build simulated experimental setups and then analyze the simulated results. Lessons build one upon another so that a student might end up with a full simulation of a medical accelerator, a water-phantom or an imager. Conclusion: TOPAS-edu was well received by students. A second application of TOPAS-edu is currently in development at Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland. It is our eventual goal to make TOPAS-edu available free of charge to any non-profit organization

  12. Validation of a Monte Carlo simulation of the Philips Allegro/GEMINI PET systems using GATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamare, F.; Turzo, A.; Bizais, Y.; Cheze LeRest, C.; Visvikis, D.

    2006-02-01

    A newly developed simulation toolkit, GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission), was used to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of a fully three-dimensional (3D) clinical PET scanner. The Philips Allegro/GEMINI PET systems were simulated in order to (a) allow a detailed study of the parameters affecting the system's performance under various imaging conditions, (b) study the optimization and quantitative accuracy of emission acquisition protocols for dynamic and static imaging, and (c) further validate the potential of GATE for the simulation of clinical PET systems. A model of the detection system and its geometry was developed. The accuracy of the developed detection model was tested through the comparison of simulated and measured results obtained with the Allegro/GEMINI systems for a number of NEMA NU2-2001 performance protocols including spatial resolution, sensitivity and scatter fraction. In addition, an approximate model of the system's dead time at the level of detected single events and coincidences was developed in an attempt to simulate the count rate related performance characteristics of the scanner. The developed dead-time model was assessed under different imaging conditions using the count rate loss and noise equivalent count rates performance protocols of standard and modified NEMA NU2-2001 (whole body imaging conditions) and NEMA NU2-1994 (brain imaging conditions) comparing simulated with experimental measurements obtained with the Allegro/GEMINI PET systems. Finally, a reconstructed image quality protocol was used to assess the overall performance of the developed model. An agreement of <3% was obtained in scatter fraction, with a difference between 4% and 10% in the true and random coincidence count rates respectively, throughout a range of activity concentrations and under various imaging conditions, resulting in <8% differences between simulated and measured noise equivalent count rates performance. Finally, the image quality

  13. CHAMBER - IONIZATION - EXPERIMENT - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-6 EQUIPMENT - CAPE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-10

    S65-61788 (For release: 11 Dec. 1965) --- Close-up view of equipment which will be used in the D-8 (Radiation in Spacecraft) experiment on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-6 spaceflight. This experiment is designed to make highly accurate measurements of the absorbed dose rate of radiation which penetrates the Gemini spacecraft, and determine the spatial distribution of dose levels inside the spacecraft particularly in the crew area. This is experimentation of the U.S. Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland AFB, N.M. LOWER LEFT: The second ionization chamber, this one is unshielded. This chamber can be removed from its bracket by the astronaut who will periodically take measurements at various locations in the spacecraft. Nearby is Passive Dosimeter Unit which is one of five small packets each containing a standard pocket ionization chamber, gamma electron sensitive film, glass needles and thermo luminescent dosimeters which are mounted at various locations in the cabin. UPPER LEFT: Photo illustrates how ionization chamber can be removed from bracket for measurements. LOWER RIGHT: Shield of bulb-shaped chamber will be removed (shown in photo) as the spacecraft passes through the South Atlantic anomaly, the area where the radiation belt dips closest to Earth's surface. UPPER RIGHT: Dome-shaped object is shield covering one of two Tissue Equivalent Ionization Chambers (sensors) which will read out continuously the instantaneous rate at which dose is delivered during the flight. This chamber is mounted permanently. The information will be recorded aboard the spacecraft, and will also be received directly by ground stations. This chamber is shielded to simulate the amount of radiation the crew members are receiving beneath their skin. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  14. Management aspects of Gemini's base facility operations project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, Gustavo; Nitta, Atsuko; Adamson, A. J.; Nunez, Arturo; Serio, Andrew; Cordova, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Gemini's Base Facilities Operations (BFO) Project provided the capabilities to perform routine nighttime operations without anyone on the summit. The expected benefits were to achieve money savings and to become an enabler of the future development of remote operations. The project was executed using a tailored version of Prince2 project management methodology. It was schedule driven and managing it demanded flexibility and creativity to produce what was needed, taking into consideration all the constraints present at the time: Time available to implement BFO at Gemini North (GN), two years. The project had to be done in a matrix resources environment. There were only three resources assigned exclusively to BFO. The implementation of new capabilities had to be done without disrupting operations. And we needed to succeed, introducing the new operational model that implied Telescope and instrumentation Operators (Science Operations Specialists - SOS) relying on technology to assess summit conditions. To meet schedule we created a large number of concurrent smaller projects called Work Packages (WP). To be reassured that we would successfully implement BFO, we initially spent a good portion of time and effort, collecting and learning about user's needs. This was done through close interaction with SOSs, Observers, Engineers and Technicians. Once we had a clear understanding of the requirements, we took the approach of implementing the "bare minimum" necessary technology that would meet them and that would be maintainable in the long term. Another key element was the introduction of the "gradual descent" concept. In this, we increasingly provided tools to the SOSs and Observers to prevent them from going outside the control room during nighttime operations, giving them the opportunity of familiarizing themselves with the new tools over a time span of several months. Also, by using these tools at an early stage, Engineers and Technicians had more time for debugging

  15. Asiago spectroscopic classification of three SNe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias-Rosa, N.; Cappellaro, E.; Benetti, S.; Tomasella, L.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Tartaglia, L.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of three SNe. Informations on these transients are also available from the "Bright Supernova" website (http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/snimages/), the CBAT Transient Object Followup Reports (http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/index.html) and All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~assassin/index.shtml).

  16. ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - TRAINING (WATER EGRESS) (GEMINI-TITAN [GT]-6 PILOT)(HEAD SHOT) - GULF

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-23

    S65-43971 (23 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Gemini-6 prime crew pilot, is pictured onboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico during water egress training. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. (out of frame), prime crew command pilot, also took part in the training.

  17. RISK ASSESSMENT OF FOOD ALLERGENICITY BY A DATA BASE APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of the proposal is the further development of our Structural Database of Allergenic Proteins (SDAP) (edu/SDAP/">http://fermi.utmb.edu/SDAP/ www.epa.gov/epahome/exitepa.htm">www....

  18. Testing of the Gemini secondary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Wolfgang

    1999-09-01

    The first 1-m secondary mirror for the Gemini 8-m telescopes project was delivered by Zeiss in 1998, and 2nd mirror will be delivered in the summer of 1999. For first use during commissioning we produced an extreme lightweight Zerodur solution prefabricated at Schott. To reach the 85 percent weight reduction a novel etching technique was used. INterferometric testing was done performing full aperture measurements using a concave matrix. In progress with the fabrication process of the matrix we applied 3D-mechanical measurements, IR-interferometry, and VIS-interferometry using null lenses to reach the final intrinsic quality of 6 nm rms. For interferometric testing of the secondaries phase shifting interferometry with a tunable laser diode was applied. The optical test results of the secondaries show, that the mirrors are well within specification. The finally achieved intrinsic surface quality is 17 nm rms for Unit 1 and 13 nm rms for Unit 2, dominated by cutting effects which were introduced by removing the oversize at the inner and outer edge of the mirror after the final polishing step.

  19. The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Macintosh, Bruce; Graham, James R.; Barman, Travis S.; Doyon, Rene; Fabrycky, Daniel; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Kalas, Paul; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Marchis, Franck; Marley, Mark S.; Marois, Christian; Patience, Jenny; Perrin, Marshall D.; Oppenheimer, Rebecca; Song, Inseok; GPIES Team

    2017-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager Exoplanet Survey (GPIES) is one of the largest most sensitive direct imaging searches for exoplanets conducted to date, and having observed more than 300 stars the survey is halfway complete. We present highlights from the first half of the survey, including the discovery and characterization of the young exoplanet 51 Eri b and the brown dwarf HR 2562 B, new imaging of multiple disks, and resolving the young stellar binary V343 Nor for the first time. GPI has also provided new spectra and orbits of previous known planets and brown dwarfs and polarization measurements of a wide range of disks. Finally, we discuss the constraints placed by the first half of the GPIES campaign on the population of giant planets at orbital separations beyond that of Jupiter. Supported by NSF grants AST-0909188 and AST-1313718, AST-1411868, AST 141378, NNX11AF74G, and DGE-1232825, and by NASA grants NNX15AD95G/NEXSS and NNX11AD21G.

  20. Physical Characterization of Gemini Surfactant-Based Synthetic Vectors for the Delivery of Linear Covalently Closed (LCC) DNA Ministrings

    PubMed Central

    Sum, Chi Hong; Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick A.; Wettig, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    In combination with novel linear covalently closed (LCC) DNA minivectors, referred to as DNA ministrings, a gemini surfactant-based synthetic vector for gene delivery has been shown to exhibit enhanced delivery and bioavailability while offering a heightened safety profile. Due to topological differences from conventional circular covalently closed (CCC) plasmid DNA vectors, the linear topology of LCC DNA ministrings may present differences with regards to DNA interaction and the physicochemical properties influencing DNA-surfactant interactions in the formulation of lipoplexed particles. In this study, N,N-bis(dimethylhexadecyl)-α,ω-propanediammonium(16-3-16)gemini-based synthetic vectors, incorporating either CCC plasmid or LCC DNA ministrings, were characterized and compared with respect to particle size, zeta potential, DNA encapsulation, DNase sensitivity, and in vitro transgene delivery efficacy. Through comparative analysis, differences between CCC plasmid DNA and LCC DNA ministrings led to variations in the physical properties of the resulting lipoplexes after complexation with 16-3-16 gemini surfactants. Despite the size disparities between the plasmid DNA vectors (CCC) and DNA ministrings (LCC), differences in DNA topology resulted in the generation of lipoplexes of comparable particle sizes. The capacity for ministring (LCC) derived lipoplexes to undergo complete counterion release during lipoplex formation contributed to improved DNA encapsulation, protection from DNase degradation, and in vitro transgene delivery. PMID:26561857

  1. EduOpen: Italian Network for MOOCs, First Three Months Evaluation after Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Marina

    2016-01-01

    EduOpen is an Italian national network devoted to foster the MOOCs diffusion, not just another national provider, being mainly focused to intervene in some crucial fields such as: educational innovation, internationalization strategy, educational research on OER in order to build up some strategy of diffusion and also to make an effort of training…

  2. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  3. The Athabasca University eduSource Project: Building an Accessible Learning Object Repository

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland-Innes, Martha; McGreal, Rory; Anderson, Terry; Friesen, Norm; Ally, Mohamed; Tin, Tony; Graham, Rodger; Moisey, Susan; Petrinjak, Anita; Schafer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Athabasca University--Canada's Open University (AU) made the commitment to put all of its courses online as part of its Strategic University Plan. In pursuit of this goal, AU participated in the eduSource project, a pan-Canadian effort to build the infrastructure for an interoperable network of learning object repositories. AU acted as a leader in…

  4. Reporting the "Education Revolution": MySchool.edu.au in the Print Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Launched in January 2010, the MySchool.edu.au website, which ranks and compares schools on the basis of standardised literacy and numeracy tests, has been the subject of intense media coverage. This article examines 34 editorials focused on MySchool, published from October 2009 to August 2010, and identifies three key narratives in operation,…

  5. Cationic gemini surfactant as a dual linker for a cholic acid-modified polysaccharide in aqueous solution: thermodynamics of interaction and phase behavior.

    PubMed

    Bai, Guangyue; Wu, Hui; Lou, Pengxiao; Wang, Yujie; Nichifor, Marieta; Zhuo, Kelei; Wang, Jianji; Bastos, Margarida

    2017-01-04

    Understanding the thermodynamics of formation of biocompatible aggregates is a key factor in the bottom up approach to the development of novel types of drug carriers and their structural tuning using small amphiphilic molecules. We chose an anionic amphiphilic and biocompatible polymer that consists of a dextran and grafted cholic acid pendants, randomly distributed along the dextran backbone, with a degree of substitution (DS) of 15 mol% (designated Dex-15CACOONa). The thermodynamics of interaction and phase behavior of mixtures of this polyelectrolyte and a cationic gemini surfactant hexanediyl-α,ω-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (C 12 C 6 C 12 Br 2 ) or its monomer surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in aqueous solution were characterized by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and turbidity, together with cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM). The various critical concentrations and the enthalpy changes of the corresponding phase transitions for the oppositely charged system were obtained from the plots of the observed enthalpy change (ΔH obs ) and turbidity measurements as a function of gemini concentration. The morphologies of the aggregates in various phases were observed by Cryo-TEM. Altogether these results suggest the critical role of gemini as a dual linker. At the concentrations where the crosslink between the pendant aggregates happens, the free gemini concentration is proximately zero and the aggregate retains its negative charge. The analysis of various factors involved in the interaction allowed a rationalization of the driving forces for mixed aggregate formation, which will contribute to a subsequent rational design of drug delivery systems based on this polymer/surfactant system.

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-10 - MISC. - INFLIGHT (MILKY WAY) - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-01

    S66-45328 (19 July 1966) --- Ultraviolet spectra of stars in the Carina-Vela region of the southern Milky Way. These objective-grating spectra were obtained by astronauts John W. Young and Michael Collins during Gemini-10 stand-up EVA on July 19, 1966, with a 70mm Maurer camera and its f/3.3 focal length lens. The spectra extends from 2,200 angstroms to about 4,000 angstroms. The spacecraft was docked to the horizon-stabilized Agena-10; thus giving an apparent field of rotation resulting from the four-degree-per-minute orbital motion during the 20-second exposure time. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Sharing the skies: the Gemini Observatory international time allocation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheim, Steven J.

    2016-07-01

    Gemini Observatory serves a diverse community of four partner countries (United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina), two hosts (Chile and University of Hawaii), and limited-term partnerships (currently Australia and the Republic of Korea). Observing time is available via multiple opportunities including Large and Long Pro- grams, Fast-turnaround programs, and regular semester queue programs. The slate of programs for observation each semester must be created by merging programs from these multiple, conflicting sources. This paper de- scribes the time allocation process used to schedule the overall science program for the semester, with emphasis on the International Time Allocation Committee and the software applications used.

  8. Build a WWW Homepage for Your School!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrobak, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of World Wide Web (WWW) Homepage for school information. Topics include school sites; installation of a WWW browser; file tags; sites for beginner's guides to the language (HTML); two Usenet discussion groups; and a sample lesson plan including objective, procedure, and evaluation. (AEF)

  9. Gemini Follow-up of Two Massive H I Clouds Discovered with the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Lee-Waddell, Karen; Serra, Paolo; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Schirmer, Mischa; Spekkens, Kristine; Wang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Using the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) we search for optical counterparts of two massive (∼109 M ⊙) neutral hydrogen clouds near the spiral galaxy IC 5270, located in the outskirts of the IC 1459 group. These two H I clouds were recently discovered using the Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). Two low surface brightness optical counterparts to one of these H I clouds are identified in the new Gemini data that reaches down to magnitudes of ∼27.5 mag in the g-band. The observed H I mass-to-light ratio derived with these new data, {M}{{H}{{I}}}/{L}g=242, is among the highest reported to date. We are also able to rule out that the two H I clouds are dwarf companions of IC 5270. Tidal interactions and ram pressure stripping are plausible explanations for the physical origin of these two clouds.

  10. ASTRONAUT MANEUVERING UNIT (AMU) - GEMINI 12 - EVALUATION - ASTRONAUT ALDRIN - MCDONNELL AIRCRAFT CORP. (MDAC), M0

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-08-15

    S66-51073 (15 Aug. 1966) --- Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., prime crew pilot of the Gemini-12 spaceflight, undergoes evaluation procedures with the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit in the 30-foot altitude chamber at McDonnell. The suited Aldrin is wearing an AMU backpack and an Extravehicular Life Support System (ELSS) chest pack. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. - Misc. - Gemini-Titan (GT)-5 - Suiting-Up - Prime Crew - Cape

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-19

    S65-46367 (19 Aug. 1965) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (right) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. are pictured during suiting up operations before Gemini-5 spaceflight. Editor's note: The scheduled Aug. 19 launch was postponed due to weather conditions and problems with loading cryogenic fuel for the fuel cell. The launch occurred on Aug. 21, 1965.

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Developmental Milestones and Movement: Results from the Gemini Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lee; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H. M.; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fildes, Alison; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Variability in the timing of infant developmental milestones is poorly understood. We used a twin analysis to estimate genetic and environmental influences on motor development and activity levels in infancy. Method: Data were from the Gemini Study, a twin birth cohort of 2,402 families with twins born in the United Kingdom in 2007.…

  13. Bis-quaternary gemini surfactants as components of nonviral gene delivery systems: a comprehensive study from physicochemical properties to membrane interactions.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M; Morais, Catarina M; Silva, Sandra G; Marques, Eduardo F; de Lima, Maria C Pedroso; Jurado, Maria Amália S

    2014-10-20

    Gemini surfactants have been successfully used as components of gene delivery systems. In the present work, a family of gemini surfactants, represented by the general structure [CmH2m+1(CH3)2N(+)(CH2)sN(+)(CH3)2CmH2m+1]2Br(-), or simply m-s-m, was used to prepare cationic gene carriers, aiming at their application in transfection studies. An extensive characterization of the gemini surfactant-based complexes, produced with and without the helper lipids cholesterol and DOPE, was carried out in order to correlate their physico-chemical properties with transfection efficiency. The most efficient complexes were those containing helper lipids, which, combining amphiphiles with propensity to form structures with different intrinsic curvatures, displayed a morphologically labile architecture, putatively implicated in the efficient DNA release upon complex interaction with membranes. While complexes lacking helper lipids were translocated directly across the lipid bilayer, complexes containing helper lipids were taken up by cells also by macropinocytosis. This study contributes to shed light on the relationship between important physico-chemical properties of surfactant-based DNA vectors and their efficiency to promote gene transfer, which may represent a step forward to the rational design of gene delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. YouEDU: Addressing Confusion in MOOC Discussion Forums by Recommending Instructional Video Clips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, Akshay; Venkatraman, Jagadish; Leonard, Shane; Paepcke, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), struggling learners often seek help by posting questions in discussion forums. Unfortunately, given the large volume of discussion in MOOCs, instructors may overlook these learners' posts, detrimentally impacting the learning process and exacerbating attrition. In this paper, we present YouEDU, an…

  15. Experimenting with Synthesis and Analysis of Cationic Gemini Surfactants in a Second-Semester General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzovino, Mary E.; Greenberg, Andrew E.; Moore, John W.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which students synthesize a variety of cationic gemini surfactants and analyze their efficacy as fabric softeners. Students perform a simple organic synthesis reaction and two analytical tests (one qualitative and one quantitative), and use the class data to assess the synthesized products. The experiment…

  16. The Gemini Planet Imager Calibration Wavefront Sensor Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, J. Kent; Burruss, Rick S.; Bartos, Randall D.; Trinh, Thang Q.; Pueyo, Laurent A.; Fregoso, Santos F.; Angione, John R.; Shelton, J. Chris

    2010-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager is an extreme adaptive optics system that will employ an apodized-pupil coronagraph to make direct detections of faint companions of nearby stars to a contrast level of the 10(exp -7) within a few lambda/D of the parent star. Such high contrasts from the ground require exquisite wavefront sensing and control both for the AO system as well as for the coronagraph. Un-sensed non-common path phase and amplitude errors after the wavefront sensor dichroic but before the coronagraph would lead to speckles which would ultimately limit the contrast. The calibration wavefront system for GPI will measure the complex wavefront at the system pupil before the apodizer and provide slow phase corrections to the AO system to mitigate errors that would cause a loss in contrast. The calibration wavefront sensor instrument for GPI has been built. We will describe the instrument and its performance.

  17. Orienete Province, eastern end of Cuba as seen from Gemini 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-05

    S65-63826 (5 Dec. 1965) --- Oriente Province, eastern end of Cuba, as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft during its 14th revolution of Earth. Guantanamo Bay is in the center of the picture on the southern coast of Cuba. Santiago de Cuba is located about one inch from the bottom edge of the picture, or about three inches westward down the coast from Guantanamo. This photograph was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Quantification of residual EDU (N-ethyl-N'-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) hydrolyzed urea derivative) and other residual by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lei, Q Paula; Lamb, David H; Shannon, Anthony G; Cai, Xinxing; Heller, Ronald K; Huang, Michael; Zablackis, Earl; Ryall, Robert; Cash, Patricia

    2004-12-25

    An LC-MS/MS method for determination of the break down product of N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) urea derivative, EDU, has been developed and validated for monitoring the residual coupling reagents. Results indicate that the method exhibits suitable specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity and accuracy for quantification of residual EDU in the presence of meningococcal polysaccharide-diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine and other vaccine matrix compounds. The assay has been validated for a detection range of 10-100 ng/mL and then successfully transferred to quality control (QC) lab. This same method has also been applied to the determination of residual diaminohexane (DAH) in the presence of EDU. LC-MS/MS has proven to be useful as a quick and sensitive approach for simultaneous determination of multiple residual compounds in glycoconjugate vaccine samples.

  19. Breakthroughs In Low-profile Leaky-Wave HPM Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    this approach to help us finally to include, and manage quantitatively, this essential piece of the theoretical puzzle as we continue to revise and...appreciate ONR’s continuing support for this R&D. 10 http://www.uttyler.edu/ math /faculty...dkoslover.php & https://www.uttyler.edu/ math /curriculavitae/dkoslover.pdf 11 These include Variational Methods, Integral Equation Method, Equivalent

  20. 78 FR 40541 - GDT Tek, Inc., Gemini Explorations, Inc., Genetic Vectors, Inc., and Global Gate Property Corp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] GDT Tek, Inc., Gemini Explorations, Inc., Genetic Vectors, Inc., and Global Gate Property Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading July 2, 2013. It... Genetic Vectors, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended September 30...

  1. Gemini 8.2-m primary mirror no. 1 polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayrel, Marc; Beraud, P.; Paseri, Jacques; Dromas, E.

    1998-08-01

    The 8-m class primary mirrors of the GEMINI Telescopes are thin ULE menisci actively supported. The two mirror blanks are produced by CORNING, the optical figuring, manufacturing and assembling of interfaces are done by REOSC. REOSC is as well in charge of the transportation of the mirror blanks from CORNING to REOSC, and of the shipment of the finished optics to Hawaii and to Chile. The mirror assembly requirements are summarized, the manufacturing and testing methods are addressed. REOSC had to design and manufacture a dedicated active supporting system, representative of the one used at the telescope level. Its design and performance are presented. The manufacturing steps undertaken at REOSC and the results achieved are then detailed: mirror blank surface generating and grinding, polishing, testing. The current status of the mirrors is finally presented.

  2. Exploring Application, Attitudes and Integration of Video Games: MinecraftEdu in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáez-López, José-Manuel; Miller, John; Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; Domínguez-Garrido, María-Concepción

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the use of MinecraftEdu in classroom practice analyzing the outcomes and attitudes of all members of the educational community through a quasi-experimental approach. The research presents three dimensions oriented to assessing the use of this application in a didactic unit "History and Architecture"…

  3. Synthesis and surface activities of a novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiang F.; Hu, Xing Q.; Xia, Ji J.; Jia, Xue C.

    2013-04-01

    A series of novel di-hydroxyl-sulfate-betaine-type zwitterionic gemini surfactants of 1,2-bis[N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxyl-3-sulfopropyl)-alkylammonium] alkyl betaines (DBAs-n, where s and n represent the spacer length of 2, 4 and 6 and the hydrocarbon chain length of 8, 12, 14, 16 and 18, respectively) were synthesized by reacting alkylamine with sodium 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropanesulfonate (the alternative sulphonated agent), followed by the reactions with а,ω-dibromoalkyl and then ethyl bromide. Their adsorption and aggregation properties were investigated by means of equilibrium surface tension, dynamic light-scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). DBAs-n gemini surfactants showed excellent surface activities and packed tightly at the interface. For example, the minimum CMC value for DBAs-n series was of the order of 10-5 M and the surface tension of water can be decreased as low as 22.2 mN/m. It was also found that the aggregates of DBAs-n solutions were significantly dependent on their hydrocarbon chain lengths. The aggregates changed from vesicles to entangled fiber-like micelles as the chain length increased from dodecyl to tetradecyl.

  4. Multi-conjugated adaptive optics imaging of distant galaxies - a comparison of Gemini/GSAOI and VLT/HAWK-I data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mischa; Garrel, Vincent; Sivo, Gaetano; Marin, Eduardo; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2017-11-01

    Multi-conjugated adaptive optics (MCAO) yield nearly diffraction-limited images at 2 μm wavelengths. Currently, Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)/Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) at Gemini South is the only MCAO facility instrument at an 8-m telescope. Using real data, and for the first time, we investigate the gain in depth and signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) when MCAO is employed for Ks-band observations of distant galaxies. Our analysis is based on the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403, observed with GeMS/GSAOI (near diffraction-limited) and compared against Very Large Telescope/HAWK-I (natural seeing) data. Using galaxy number counts, we show that the substantially increased thermal background and lower optical throughput of the MCAO unit are fully compensated for by the wavefront correction because the galaxy images can be measured in smaller apertures with less sky noise. We also performed a direct comparison of the S/N of sources detected in both data sets. For objects with intrinsic angular sizes corresponding to half the HAWK-I image seeing, the gain in S/N is 40 per cent. Even smaller objects experience a boost in S/N by up to a factor of 2.5 despite our suboptimal natural guide star configuration. The depth of the near diffraction limited images is more difficult to quantify than that of seeing limited images, due to a strong dependence on the intrinsic source profiles. Our results emphasize the importance of cooled MCAO systems for Ks-band observations with future, extremely large telescopes.

  5. EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA) - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-4

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-03

    S65-29766 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spaceflight, floats in the zero-gravity of space during the third revolution of the GT-4 spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit. His face is shaded by a gold-plated visor to protect him from unfiltered rays of the sun. In his right hand he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) that gives him control over his movements in space. White also wears an emergency oxygen chest pack; and he carries a camera mounted on the HHSMU for taking pictures of the sky, Earth and the GT-4 spacecraft. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line. Both lines are wrapped together in gold tape to form one cord. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, remained inside the spacecraft during the extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  6. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford - Training - Parasail - Gemini-Titan (GT)-5 Pilot - Galveston Bay, TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-08-23

    S65-51948 (23 Aug. 1965) --- Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Gemini-6 prime crew pilot, stands ready to take part in parasail training in Galveston Bay, Texas. Wearing spacesuit, helmet and carrying water survival gear, he will be lifted into the air by a deployed parachute and guided over the Bay where he will drop into the water to test airdrop and water survival techniques. Photo credit: NASA or National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  7. 75 FR 14644 - Gemini Investors IV, L.P., Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 01/01-0410] Gemini Investors IV, L.P., Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby..., Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small Business Administration (``SBA'') Rules and...

  8. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  9. Multi-stage tandem mass spectrometric analysis of novel β-cyclodextrin-substituted and novel bis-pyridinium gemini surfactants designed as nanomedical drug delivery agents.

    PubMed

    Donkuru, McDonald; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; El-Aneed, Anas

    2014-04-15

    This study aimed at evaluating the collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometric (CID-MS/MS) fragmentation patterns of novel β-cyclodextrin-substituted- and bis-pyridinium gemini surfactants currently being explored as nanomaterial drug delivery agents. In the β-cyclodextrin-substituted gemini surfactants, a β-cyclodextrin ring is grafted onto an N,N-bis(dimethylalkyl)-α,ω-aminoalkane-diammonium moiety using variable succinyl linkers. In contrast, the bis-pyridinium gemini surfactants are based on a 1,1'-(1,1'-(ethane-1,2-diylbis(sulfanediyl))bis(alkane-2,1-diyl))dipyridinium template, defined by two symmetrical N-alkylpyridinium parts connected through a fixed ethane dithiol spacer. Detection of the precursor ion [M](2+) species of the synthesized compounds and the determination of mass accuracies were conducted using a QqTOF-MS instrument. A multi-stage tandem MS analysis of the detected [M](2+) species was conducted using the QqQ-LIT-MS instrument. Both instruments were equipped with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. Abundant precursor ion [M](2+) species were detected for all compounds at sub-1 ppm mass accuracies. The β-cyclodextrin-substituted compounds, fragmented via two main pathways: Pathway 1: the loss of one head-tail region produces a [M-(N(Me)2-R)](2+) ion, from which sugar moieties (Glc) are sequentially cleaved; Pathway 2: both head-tail regions are lost to give [M-2(N(Me)2-R)](+), followed by consecutive loss of Glc units. Alternatively, the cleavage of the Glc units could also have occurred simultaneously. Nevertheless, the fragmentation evolved around the quaternary ammonium cations, with characteristic cleavage of Glc moieties. For the bis-pyridinium gemini compounds, they either lost neutral pyridine(s) to give doubly charged ions (Pathway A) or formed complementary pyridinium alongside other singly charged ions (Pathway B). Similar to β-cyclodextrin-substituted compounds, the fragmentation was centered on the

  10. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics Ks-band Imaging of the Galaxy Clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Pessev, P.; Garrel, V.; Winge, C.; Neichel, B.; Vidal, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed two of the six Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744, using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). With 0.″ 08-0.″ 10 FWHM our data are nearly diffraction-limited over a 100\\prime\\prime × 100\\prime\\prime wide area. GeMS/GSAOI complements the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) redwards of 1.6 μm with twice the angular resolution. We reach a 5σ depth of {{K}s}˜ 25.6 mag (AB) for compact sources. In this paper, we describe the observations, data processing, and initial public data release. We provide fully calibrated, co-added images matching the native GSAOI pixel scale as well as the larger plate scales of the HST release, adding to the legacy value of the Frontier Fields. Our work demonstrates that even for fields at high galactic latitude where natural guide stars are rare, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8 m telescopes has opened a new window on the distant universe. Observations of a third Frontier Field, Abell 370, are planned. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile.

  11. Use for Teachers and Students | Galaxy of Images

    Science.gov Websites

    the website. Some Frequently Asked Questions by Students and Teachers May I put unaltered images, text Libraries (http://www.sil.si.edu). May I put unaltered images, text or content from this website on my should include a link back to Smithsonian Libraries (http://www.sil.si.edu). May I put images, text or

  12. Design Structure Matrix (DSM) Methods and Applications for Naval Ship Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Fax: 817-257-7227 E-mail: t.browninufetcu.edu Web : www. t vsonbrown i ng. com Administrative/Business Contact: Mrs. Teresa Miles Hendrix, MPA...mail: t.browninu(ajtcii.edu Web : www.tvsonbrownina.com Administrative/Business Contact: Mrs. Teresa Miles Hendrix, MPA Assistant Director of...STAKEHOLDER COM ABORDAGEM DE SISTEMAS ADAPTATIVOS A COMPLEXIDADE John Findlay, Ph D. e Abby Straus, M. Div. IMPLEMENTANDO FLEXIBILIDADE

  13. U.S.-China Maritime Confidence Building. Paradigms, Precedents, and Prospects (China Maritime Study, Number 6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    China Maritime Confidence Building www.usnwc.edu/Research--- Gaming /China-Maritime-Studies-Institute.aspx Paradigms, Precedents, and Prospects David...addressed to the director of the China Maritime Studies Institute, www.usnwc.edu/Research--- Gaming / China-Maritime-Studies-Institute.aspx. To...Businesspeople enjoying a drink in Shanghai, young women having their nails manicured in trendy Beijing salons , and poor peasant farmers in central China

  14. Interaction effects on galaxy pairs with Gemini/GMOS- III: stellar population synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbe, A. C.; Rosa, D. A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Hägele, G. F.; Cardaci, M. V.; Dors, O. L., Jr.; Winge, C.

    2017-05-01

    We present an observational study of the impacts of interactions on the stellar population in a sample of galaxy pairs. Long-slit spectra in the wavelength range 3440-7300 Å obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) at Gemini South for 15 galaxies in nine close pairs were used. The spatial distributions of the stellar population contributions were obtained using the stellar population synthesis code starlight. Taking into account the different contributions to the emitted light, we found that most of the galaxies in our sample are dominated by young/intermediate stellar populations. This result differs from the one derived for isolated galaxies, where the old stellar population dominates the disc surface brightness. We interpreted such different behaviour as being due to the effect of gas inflows along the discs of interacting galaxies on the star formation over a time-scale of the order of about 2 Gyr. We also found that, in general, the secondary galaxy of a pair has a higher contribution from the young stellar population than the primary one. We compared the estimated values of stellar and nebular extinction derived from the synthesis method and the Hα/Hβ emission-line ratio, finding that nebular extinctions are systematically higher than stellar ones by about a factor of 2. We did not find any correlation between nebular and stellar metallicities. Neither did we find a correlation between stellar metallicities and ages, while a positive correlation between nebular metallicities and stellar ages was obtained, with older regions being the most metal-rich.

  15. Understanding the effect of alkyl chains of gemini cations on the physicochemical and cellular properties of polyurethane micelles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhicheng; Fang, Danxuan; Song, Yuanqing; Song, Nijia; Ding, Mingming; Li, Jiehua; Luo, Feng; Li, Jianshu; Tan, Hong; Fu, Qiang

    2018-06-06

    Cationic gemini quaternary ammonium (GQA) has been used as a cell internalization promoter to improve the permeability of the cell membrane and enhance the cellular uptake. However, the effect of the alkyl chain length on the cellular properties of nanocarriers has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we developed a series of polyurethane micelles containing GQAs with various alkyl chain lengths. The alteration of the gemini alkyl chain length was found to change the distribution of GQA surfactants in the micellar structure and affect the surface charge exposure, stability, and the protein absorption properties of nanocarriers. Moreover, we also clarified the role of the alkyl chain length in tumor cell internalization and macrophage uptake of polyurethane micelles. This work provides a new understanding on the effect of the GQA alkyl chain length on the physicochemical and biological properties of nanomedicines, and offers guidance on the rational design of effective drug delivery systems where the issue of functional group exposure at the micellar surface should be considered.

  16. Making Dynamic Digital Maps Cross-Platform and WWW Capable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condit, C. D.

    2001-05-01

    High-quality color geologic maps are an invaluable information resource for educators, students and researchers. However, maps with large datasets that include images, or various types of movies, in addition to site locations where analytical data has been collected, are difficult to publish in a format that facilitates their easy access, distribution and use. The development of capable desktop computers and object oriented graphical programming environments has facilitated publication of such data sets in an encapsulated form. The original Dynamic Digital Map (DDM) programs, developed using the Macintosh based SuperCard programming environment, exemplified this approach, in which all data are included in a single package designed so that display and access to the data did not depend on proprietary programs. These DDMs were aimed for ease of use, and allowed data to be displayed by several methods, including point-and-click at icons pin-pointing sample (or image) locations on maps, and from clicklists of sample or site numbers. Each of these DDMs included an overview and automated tour explaining the content organization and program use. This SuperCard development culminated in a "DDM Template", which is a SuperCard shell into which SuperCard users could insert their own content and thus create their own DDMs, following instructions in an accompanying "DDM Cookbook" (URL http://www.geo.umass.edu/faculty/condit/condit2.html). These original SuperCard-based DDMs suffered two critical limitations: a single user platform (Macintosh) and, although they can be downloaded from the web, their use lacked an integration into the WWW. Over the last eight months I have been porting the DDM technology to MetaCard, which is aggressively cross-platform (11 UNIX dialects, WIN32 and Macintosh). The new MetaCard DDM is redesigned to make the maps and images accessible either from CD or the web, using the "LoadNGo" concept. LoadNGo allows the user to download the stand-alone DDM

  17. News from Online: More Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-09-01

    Absorption (one of three tools) (http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/Chem1A/solar/applets/absorption/ index.html).

    Evaporative cooling in a Bose-Einstein condensation ( http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/bec.html). Let's start with the spectrum--the electromagnetic spectrum, of course. Go to the EMSpectrum Explorer at http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/chemcnx/light_energy/EMSpectrum /emspectrum.html. Not only do you get information about wavelength, frequency, and energy, but you also get a handy converter that will calculate frequency, wavelength, and energy when one value is entered. And there is more. For example, clicking on red light of 680 nanometers reveals that mitochondria, the power plants of cells, are about the same size as this wavelength, which is also used for photosynthesis. Interesting food for thought! From the EMSpectrum Explorer, go to the Light and Energy page at http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/chemcnx/light_energy/index.html for three Colors of Light Tools. The Color from Emission tool ( http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/chemcnx/light_energy/applets/emission/index.html) illustrates additive color by mixing differing amounts of Red, Blue, and Green light. Then look at the Color from Absorption tool at http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/chemcnx/light_energy/applets/absorption/index.html. The image from the applet shows the white beam and three filters. Take out the blue, green, and red components by altering the scroll bars or text boxes. The third tool, Removing Color with a Single Filter from Colored Light at http://mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/chemcnx/light_energy/applets/single/index.html, uses a single filter to take out various colors. Excellent for explaining the theory behind the operation of a basic spectrometer. The Light and Energy tools module, which received support from the National Science

  18. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study.

    PubMed

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain).

  19. Mode changes associated with oil droplet movement in solutions of gemini cationic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banno, Taisuke; Miura, Shingo; Kuroha, Rie; Toyota, Taro

    2013-06-25

    Micrometer-sized self-propelled oil droplets in nonequilibrium systems have attracted much attention, since they form stable emulsions composed of oil, water, and surfactant which represent a primitive type of inanimate chemical machinery. In this work, we examined means of controlling the movement of oil droplets by studying the dynamics of n-heptyloxybenzaldehyde droplets in phosphate buffers containing alkanediyl-α,ω-bis(N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromide) (nG12) with either tetramethylene (4G12), octaethylene (8G12), or dodecamethylene (12G12) chains in the linker moiety. Significant differences in droplet dynamics were observed to be induced by changes in the linker structure of these gemini cationic surfactants. In a phosphate buffer containing 30 mM 4G12, self-propelled motion of droplets concurrent with the formation of molecular aggregates on their surfaces was observed, whereas the fusion of oil droplets was evident in both 8G12 and 12G12 solutions. We also determined that the surface activities and the extent of molecular self-assembly of the surfactants in phosphate buffer were strongly influenced by the alkyl chain length in the linker moiety. We therefore conclude that the surface activities of the gemini cationic surfactant have important effects on the oil-water interfacial tension of oil droplets and the formation of molecular aggregates and that both of these factors induce the unique movement of the droplets.

  20. Electrostatic Interactions Govern "Odd/Even" Effects in Water-Induced Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Mantha, Sriteja; McDaniel, Jesse G; Perroni, Dominic V; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Yethiraj, Arun

    2017-01-26

    Gemini surfactants comprise two single-tailed surfactants connected by a linker at or near the hydrophilic headgroup. They display a variety of water-concentration-dependent lyotropic liquid crystal morphologies that are sensitive to surfactant molecular structure and the nature of the headgroups and counterions. Recently, an interesting dependence of the aqueous-phase behavior on the length of the linker has been discovered; odd-numbered linker length surfactants exhibit characteristically different phase diagrams than even-numbered linker surfactants. In this work, we investigate this "odd/even effect" using computer simulations, focusing on experimentally studied gemini dicarboxylates with Na + counterions, seven nonterminal carbon atoms in the tails, and either three, four, five, or six carbon atoms in the linker (denoted Na-73, Na-74, Na-75, and Na-76, respectively). We find that the relative electrostatic repulsion between headgroups in the different morphologies is correlated with the qualitative features of the experimental phase diagrams, predicting destabilization of hexagonal phases as the cylinders pack close together at low water content. Significant differences in the relative headgroup orientations of Na-74 and Na-76 compared to those of Na-73 and Na-75 surfactants lead to differences in linker-linker packing and long-range headgroup-headgroup electrostatic repulsion, which affects the delicate electrostatic balance between the hexagonal and gyroid phases. Much of the fundamental insight presented in this work is enabled by the ability to computationally construct and analyze metastable phases that are not observable in experiments.

  1. NAFTA: A Partial Solution Not a Savior to Mexico’s Economic Woes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-28

    Mexico .” Economia Mexicana. 15 January 2004. http://www.economiamexicana.cide.edu/num_anteriores/XIV-2/LILIANA_MEZA.pdf (accessed: 28 October 2011... Mexico .” Economia Mexicana. 15 January 2004. http://www.economiamexicana.cide.edu/num_anteriores/XIV-2/LILIANA_MEZA.pdf (accessed: 28 October 2011...Trade Agreement, NAFTA, Mexico Economy, Trade Liberalization 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  2. Gemini IV Mission Image - Baja California, Colorado river and Sonora Desert

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-06-05

    S65-34673 (3-7 June 1965) --- This photograph shows the north end of the Gulf of California at the mouth of the Colorado River as it was seen from the Gemini-4 spacecraft during orbital flight June 3-7, 1965. This picture was part of the Synoptic Terrain Photography experiments conducted during the flight to obtain high quality photographs of large land areas already mapped by aerial photography. In charge of these experiments was Dr. Paul D. Lowman Jr., NASA geologist from Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. This picture was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera using Eastman color film, ASA 64 at a lens setting of 250th of a second at f/11.

  3. GEMINI-7 - EARTH-SKY VIEW - MIDDLE-EAST AREA - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-12-08

    S65-63849 (8 Dec. 1965) --- The eastern Mediterranean area as seen from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gemini-7 spacecraft. The Nile Delta in Egypt is at bottom. The Suez Canal, Gulf of Suez and Red Sea are in the center of the photograph. The Sinai Peninsula is in the upper right corner of the picture. The body of water at the top edge of the photograph is the Gulf of Aqaba. The Dead Sea can be seen at top center. Israel, Palestine, Jordan and Syria are also at top center. The Island of Cyprus is at extreme left. Astronauts Frank Borman and James A. Lovell Jr. took this picture using a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, with Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  4. WWW database of optical constants for astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, Th.; Il'In, V. B.; Krivova, N. A.; Michel, B.; Voshchinnikov, N. V.

    1999-04-01

    The database we announce contains references to the papers, data files and links to the Internet resources related to measurements and calculations of the optical constants of the materials of astronomical interest: different silicates, ices, oxides, sulfides, carbides, carbonaceous species from amorphous carbon to graphite and diamonds, etc. We describe the general structure and content of the database which has now free access via Internet: http://www.astro.spbu.ru/JPDOC/entry.html\\ or \\ http:// www. astro.uni-jena.de/Users/database/entry.html

  5. Gemini Surfactants Based on Bis-Imidazolium Alkoxy Derivatives as Effective Agents for Delivery of Nucleic Acids: A Structural and Spectroscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Pietralik, Zuzanna; Kołodziejska, Żaneta; Weiss, Marek; Kozak, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The success rate of gene therapy depends on the efficient transfection of genetic material into cells. The golden mean between harmlessness and high effectiveness can be provided by synthetic lipid-like molecules that are similar to the components of biological membranes. Cationic gemini surfactants are one such moiety and because of their favourable physicochemical properties (double positive electric charge, reduced toxicity, low values of critical micelle concentration), they show great potential as delivery system components for genetic material in gene therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of the complexation of cationic gemini surfactants with nucleic acids: double-stranded DNA of different sizes (21 bp, ~185 bp, ~20 kbp) and siRNA (21 bp). The tested series of dicationic surfactants consists of bis-imidazolium quaternary salts with varying lengths of hydrophobic side chains (m = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 16). On the basis of the data obtained by circular dichroism spectroscopy and electrophoresis, we concluded that the studied gemini surfactants with long side chains effectively bind nucleic acids at low concentrations, which leads to the formation of stable lipoplexes. Images obtained by atomic force microscopy also confirmed the formation of vesicular structures, i.e., complexes between DNA and surfactants. The cytotoxicity of selected surfactants was also tested on HeLa cells. The surfactant toxicity significantly depends on surfactant geometry (the length of hydrophobic chain). PMID:26641889

  6. Facile controlled synthesis of micro/nanostructure MCrO 4 (M = Ba, Pb) by using Gemini surfactant C 12-PEG-C 12 as a soft template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wengui; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Liu, Xue

    2010-04-01

    Gemini surfactants, double sodium α-sulfonic polyethylene glycol laurate (abbreviated C 12-PEG-C 12), were prepared and applied as soft templates in the controlled synthesis of BaCrO 4 and PbCrO 4 micro/nanocrystals. The template effects were investigated by adjusting the length of the spacer, using PEG400 and PEG4000, of the Gemini surfactant. The results indicated that the size and morphology of BaCrO 4 and PbCrO 4 micro/nanocrystals varied with the change in spacer length of C 12-PEG-C 12, suggesting that the different lengths of the polyethylene glycol group spacers in the Gemini surfactants played a key role in determining the size and shape of the MCrO 4 micro/nanoparticles. The dynamic process of the formation of the novel morphology BaCrO 4 crystals showed that the morphology grew from a round-bar polyhedron, to regular polyhedron, to approximate octahedron to a uniform pistachio nut shape. The growth mechanism of the BaCrO 4 micro/nanocrystals was explained that C 12-PEG-C 12 had a greater interfacial adsorption and would effectively control the shape evolution during the crystal growth, while PbCrO 4 could be explained that the Gemini surfactants can undergo liquid-crystalline phase transitions with long channels providing a soft template effect and derived the nanorods formation. Room temperature fluorescence spectra were studied and these showed that the pistachio-shaped BaCrO 4 microcrystals and PbCrO 4 nanorods possess photoactive luminescence properties with emission peaks at 470 and 549 nm, respectively.

  7. RENDEZVOUS: Self-Organizing Services in an Active Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    http://www.cs.washington.edu/research/networking/ants/, and http://www.cs.utah.edu/flux/janos/ants.html, 2001. [2] Krishna P. Gummadi, “King...Proceedings of the Tenth ACM SIGOPS European Workshop, September 2002. [9] Stefan Saroiu, P. Krishna Gummadi, Steven D. Gribble: A Measurement Study...Davis, Eric Lemar, and Brian Bershad. “Migration for Pervasive Applications.” Submitted to OSDI, June 2002. Gummadi, P. Krishna , Stefan Saroiu, and

  8. Evolution of Atmosphere and Ocean Boundary Layers from Aircraft Observations and Coupled COAMPS/NCOM

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    the NCAR EOL C-130 Investigator Handbook [Available at http://www.eol.ucar.edu/instrumentation/aircraft/C-130/documentation/c- 130-investigator...sensors are summarized in Table 1. Additional details are described in the NCAR EOL C-130 Investigator Handbook, Chapter 6 (NCAR EOL , 2012). The...during the GOTEX experiment. Additional information is available in the NCAR EOL C-130 Investigator Handbook [Available at http://www.eol.ucar.edu

  9. Surface properties and aggregate morphology of partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactants.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Tomokazu; Bong, Miri; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Honda, Chikako; Endo, Kazutoyo

    2009-11-01

    Three anionic homologues of a novel partially fluorinated carboxylate-type anionic gemini surfactant, N,N'-di(3-perfluoroalkyl-2-hydroxypropyl)-N,N'-diacetic acid ethylenediamine (2C(n)(F) edda, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the fluorocarbon chain (4, 6, and 8)) were synthesized. In these present gemini surfactants, the relatively small carboxylic acid moieties form hydrophilic head groups. The surface properties or structures of the aggregates of these surfactants are strongly influenced by the nonflexible fluorocarbons and small head groups; this is because these surfactants have a closely packed molecular structure. The equilibrium surface tension properties of these surfactants were measured at 298.2K for various fluorocarbon chain lengths. The plot of the logarithm of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) against the fluorocarbon chain lengths for 2C(n)(F) edda (n=4, 6, and 8) showed a minimum for n=6. Furthermore, the lowest surface tension of 2C(6)(F) edda at the cmc was 16.4mNm(-1). Such unique behavior has not been observed even in the other fluorinated surfactants. Changes in the shapes and sizes of these surfactant aggregate with concentration were investigated by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrographs showed that in an aqueous alkali solution, 2C(n)(F) edda mainly formed aggregates with stringlike (n=4), cagelike (n=6), and distorted bilayer structures (n=8). The morphological changes in the aggregates were affected by the molecular structure composed of nonflexible fluorocarbon chains and flexible hydrocarbon chains.

  10. Status of the secondary mirrors (M2) for the Gemini 8-m telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knohl, Ernst-Dieter; Schoeppach, Armin; Pickering, Michael A.

    1998-08-01

    The 1-m diameter lightweight secondary mirrors (M2) for the Gemini 8-m telescopes will be the largest CVD-SiC mirrors ever produced. The design and manufacture of these mirrors is a very challenging task. In this paper we will discuss the mirror design, structural and mechanical analysis, and the CVD manufacturing process used to produce the mirror blanks. The lightweight design consist of a thin faceplate (4-mm) and triangular backstructure cells with ribs of varying heights. The main drivers in the design were weight (40 kg) and manufacturing limitations imposed on the backstructure cells and mirror mounts. Finite element modeling predicts that the mirror design will meet all of the Gemini M2 requirements for weight, mechanical integrity, resonances, and optical performance. Special design considerations were necessary to avoid stress concentration in the mounting areas and to meet the requirement that the mirror survive an 8-g earthquake. The highest risk step in the mirror blank manufacturing process is the near-net-shape CVD deposition of the thin, curved faceplate. Special tooling and procedures had to be developed to produce faceplates free of fractures, cracks, and stress during the cool-down from deposition temperature (1350 C) to room temperature. Due to time delay with the CVD manufacturing process in the meantime a backup solution from Zerodur has been started. This mirror is now in the advanced polishing process. Because the design of both mirrors is very similar an excellent comparison of both solutions is possible.

  11. ACHP | Historic Preservation Organizations

    Science.gov Websites

    www.ahlp.org American Cultural Resources Association www.acra-crm.org American Institute of Architects www.aia.org National Alliance of Preservation Commissions http://napc.uga.edu/ National Association of Tribal

  12. The first toxicological study of the antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) using a Lemna minor L. bioassay: Hints to its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Agathokleous, Eugenios; Mouzaki-Paxinou, Akrivi-Chara; Saitanis, Costas J; Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant and research tool ethylene diurea (EDU) is widely studied as a phytoprotectant against the widespread pollutant ground-surface ozone. Although it has been extensively used, its potential toxicity in the absence of ozone is unknown and its mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this research was to toxicologically assess EDU and to further investigate its mode of action using Lemna minor L. as a model organism. Application of EDU concentrations greater than 593 mg L(-1) (practically 600 mg L(-1)) resulted in adverse inhibition of colony growth. As no-observed-toxic-effects concentration (NOEL) we recommend a concentration of 296 mg L(-1) (practically 300 mg L(-1)). A hormetic response was detected, i.e. stimulatory effects of low EDU concentrations, which may indicate overcompensation in response to disruption in homeostasis. Growth inhibition and suppressed biomass were associated with impacted chlorophyll a fluorescence (ΦPSII, qP and ETR). Furthermore, EDU increased mesophyll thickness, as indicated by frond succulence index. Applications of concentrations ≥593 mg L(-1) to uncontrolled environments should be avoided due to potential toxicity to sensitive organisms and the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Full spectroscopic data release of the SPT-GMOS (Bayliss+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    The data presented in this paper follow the same observational design described by Ruel et al. (2014ApJ...792...45R). The final Gemini-S observing allocation for SPT-GMOS concluded at the end of the 2015B semester. Over the course of the entire survey we observed 121 individual spectroscopic masks targeting 62 SPT-SZ galaxy clusters (see table 1). All final data products from SPT-GMOS are publicly released via the Harvard Dataverse Network (http://dataverse.harvard.edu/dataverse/SPT_Clusters). The galaxy clusters observed in the SPT-GMOS are all drawn from the SPT-SZ survey, completed in 2011 November. The full SPT-SZ survey covered approximately 2500deg2 of the southern sky at 95, 150, and 220GHz with an angular resolution of ~1'. (4 data files).

  14. Role of spacer length in interaction between novel gemini imidazolium surfactants and Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    PubMed

    Adak, Sunita; Datta, Sougata; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Banerjee, Rintu

    2015-11-01

    An insight into the effects of new ionic liquid-type gemini imidazolium cationic surfactants on the structure and function of the lipases is of prime importance for their potential application. Changes in the activity, stability and structure of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in the presence of novel gemini surfactants, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 and [C16-12-C16im]Br2 were probed in the present study. Surfactant with shorter spacer length, [C16-3-C16im]Br2 was found to be better in improving the hydrolytic activity and thermal stability of the lipase. For both the surfactants, activation was concentration dependent. CD spectroscopy results showed a decrease in α-helix and an increase in β-sheet content in the presence of these surfactants. A higher structural change observed in presence of [C16-12-C16im]Br2 correlated with lower enzyme activity. Isothermal titration calorimetric studies showed the binding to be spontaneous in nature based on sequential two site binding model. The forces involved in binding were found to differ for the two surfactants proving that the spacer length is an important factor which governs the interaction. These surfactants could be used as promising components both in enzyme modification and media engineering for attaining the desired goals in biocatalytic reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiment T001: Entry communication on the Gemini 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, L. C.; Sims, T. E.; Cuddihy, W. F.

    1971-01-01

    Water addition to the Gemini 3 exhaust plasma was studied to determine its effectiveness in the establishment of communication links during the entry portion of the flight. Attenuation levels were measured with and without water injection at uhf frequencies of 230.4 and 296.8 megahertz and at the C-band frequency of 5690 megahertz. Ultrahigh frequency signals that had been blacked out were restored to significant levels, during early portions of the water-injection sequence, by the high flow rate injection. The C-band signal was enhanced by medium and high flow rate injections during the latter portion of the injection period. The uhf signal recovered during water injection resulted in an antenna pattern that was beamed in the radial direction of injection from the spacecraft. Postflight analysis showed that the uhf recovery data were consistent with injection-penetration theory.

  16. Observations of Rosetta Target (21) Lutetia with Keck and Gemini Adaptive Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, A. R.; Merline, W. J.; Drummond, J.; Carry, B.; Tamblyn, P. M.; Chapman, C. R.; Dumas, C.; Weaver, H. A.

    2009-12-01

    In support of the NASA/ESA Rosetta mission’s plans to observe asteroid (21) Lutetia during a 2010 July flyby, and in conjunction with a larger ground-based plus HST campaign to support this mission, we observed Lutetia from Keck and Gemini-North during several nights spanning 2008 Oct through 2009 Jan. Observations were made using adaptive optics in the near-IR, primarily at K-band (2.1 micron), and were timed to coincide with the asteroid's most recent opposition at a distance of about 1.4 AU. From these data, we determined Lutetia’s triaxial size and shape to be 132 x 101 x 76 km, with maximum expected uncertainties of 4 x 3 x 31 km. The spin pole is found to be at (RA, Dec) = (48, +9) deg or ecliptic (long, lat) = (49,-8) deg, with a formal uncertainty radius (not including systematics) of 3 deg. We have calibrated our technique of deriving dimensions of asteroids from AO images against Pluto and 4 satellites of Saturn with accurate diameters, and we expect that our systematics (included in the size uncertainties above) are no more than 3%. We also searched for satellites and our preliminary results indicate no detection of a satellite larger than about 1 km over a significant fraction of the Hill sphere (10-240 asteroid radii). Improved limits are expected from a more refined analysis. We are grateful for telescope time made available to us by S. Kulkarni and M. Busch (Cal Tech) for a portion of this dataset. We also thank our collaborators on Team Keck, the Keck science staff, for making possible some of these observations and for observing time granted at Gemini under NOAO time allocation. Plane-of-sky short and long axes of (21) Lutetia taken from Keck AO images on 2008 Dec 2.

  17. Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN) I: survey description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balogh, Michael L.; Gilbank, David G.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Cooper, Michael C.; Lidman, Chris; Biviano, Andrea; Demarco, Ricardo; McGee, Sean L.; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Old, Lyndsay; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Bellhouse, Callum; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Simpson, Rane; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Ziparo, Felicia; Alonso, María Victoria; Bower, Richard G.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Finoguenov, Alexis; Lambas, Diego Garcia; Muriel, Hernan; Parker, Laura C.; Rettura, Alessandro; Valotto, Carlos; Wetzel, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new Large Program in progress on the Gemini North and South telescopes: Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments (GOGREEN). This is an imaging and deep spectroscopic survey of 21 galaxy systems at 1 < z < 1.5, selected to span a factor >10 in halo mass. The scientific objectives include measuring the role of environment in the evolution of low-mass galaxies, and measuring the dynamics and stellar contents of their host haloes. The targets are selected from the SpARCS, SPT, COSMOS, and SXDS surveys, to be the evolutionary counterparts of today's clusters and groups. The new red-sensitive Hamamatsu detectors on GMOS, coupled with the nod-and-shuffle sky subtraction, allow simultaneous wavelength coverage over λ ˜ 0.6-1.05 μm, and this enables a homogeneous and statistically complete redshift survey of galaxies of all types. The spectroscopic sample targets galaxies with AB magnitudes z΄ < 24.25 and [3.6] μm < 22.5, and is therefore statistically complete for stellar masses M* ≳ 1010.3 M⊙, for all galaxy types and over the entire redshift range. Deep, multiwavelength imaging has been acquired over larger fields for most systems, spanning u through K, in addition to deep IRAC imaging at 3.6 μm. The spectroscopy is ˜50 per cent complete as of semester 17A, and we anticipate a final sample of ˜500 new cluster members. Combined with existing spectroscopy on the brighter galaxies from GCLASS, SPT, and other sources, GOGREEN will be a large legacy cluster and field galaxy sample at this redshift that spectroscopically covers a wide range in stellar mass, halo mass, and clustercentric radius.

  18. Synergistic Antileukemic Activity of Carnosic Acid-Rich Rosemary Extract and the 19-nor Gemini Vitamin D Analogue in a Mouse Model of Systemic Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shabtay, Ayelet; Sharabani, Hagar; Barvish, Zeev; Kafka, Michael; Amichay, Doron; Levy, Joseph; Sharoni, Yoav; Uskokovic, Milan R.; Studzinski, George P.; Danilenko, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective Differentiation therapy with the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3), is a promising approach to treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, 1,25D3 induces hypercalcemia at pharmacologically active doses. We investigated the in vitro and in vivoantileukemic efficacy of combined treatment with non-toxic doses of a low-calcemic 1,25D3 analogue, 1,25-dihydroxy-21(3-hydroxy-3-methyl-butyl)-19-nor-cholecalciferol (19-nor-Gemini; Ro27-5646), and rosemary plant agents in a mouse model of AML. Methods Proliferation and differentiation of WEHI-3B D– (WEHI) murine myelomonocytic leukemia cellsin vitro were determined by standard assays. Reactive oxygen species, glutathione and protein expression levels were measured by flow cytometry, enzymatic assay and Western blotting, respectively. Systemic AML was developed by intravenous injection of WEHI cells in syngeneic Balb/c mice. Results 19-nor-Gemini had a higher potency than its parent compounds, Gemini (Ro27-2310) and 1,25D3, in the induction of differentiation (EC50 = 0.059 ± 0.011, 0.275 ± 0.093 and 0.652 ± 0.085 nM, respectively) and growth arrest (IC50 = 0.072 ± 0.018, 0.165 ± 0.061 and 0.895 ± 0.144 nM, respectively) in WEHI cells in vitro, and lower in vivo toxicity. Combined treatment of leukemia-bearing mice with 19-nor-Gemini (injected intraperitoneally) and standardized rosemary extract (mixed with food) resulted in a synergistic increase in survival (from 42.2 ± 2.5 days in untreated mice to 66.5 ± 4.2 days, n = 3) and normalization of white blood cell and differential counts. This was consistent with strong cooperative antiproliferative and differentiation effects of low concentrations of 19-nor-Gemini or 1,25D3 combined with rosemary extract or its major polyphenolic component, carnosic acid, as well as with the antioxidant action of rosemary agents and vitamin D derivatives in WEHI cell cultures. Conclusion Combined effectiveness of 1,25D3 analogues and

  19. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 enterprise that supports the German Government in achieving its objectives in the field of international cooperation for...U.S. Government . 14. ABSTRACT A Network Science Center research team demonstrated a network analysis “tool kit” to the Political and Economic...by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a

  20. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Commercial Bank • White Collar Professional • Military Leader 18 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu...people within the social network (Van Der Gaag & Snijders, 2004). 2 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu...University, one of the leading universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The student body is energetic and tech savvy. 3 | P a g e Network Science

  1. Who do you know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Environment of Kampala, Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-04

    the Army Research Office. vii 1 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 May 2013 “Who do...own specific centrality metrics. 2 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Background The...of the world’s social and economic problems. Major international organizations such as the World Bank , International Monetary Fund, and the United

  2. Implementation Guidance for the Accelerated Improvement Method (AIM). Software Engineering Process Management: Special Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    PSP and TSP books by Watts Humphrey or in the TSP-MT (multi-team) process extension. A few additional items should be created, e.g., see OPD-2...Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2000. www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/reports/00tr023.cfm [ Humphrey 2005] Humphrey , Watts S . PSP : A Self... Humphrey 2006] Humphrey , Watts S . TSP: Coaching Development Teams. Addison Wesley, 2006 (ISBN 978- 0201731132). www.sei.cmu.edu/library/abstracts/

  3. Review of the Lightning Strike Incident at Launch Complex 37 on July 27, 1967, and Comparison to a Gemini Lightning Strike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    The Launch Complex 37 lightning strike of July 27, 1967, was reviewed and compared to a similar incident on the Gemini Program. Available data indicate little likelihood of damaging currents having been present in SA-204 Launch Vehicle or the ground equipment during the July 27th incident. Based on the results of subsystem and system testing after the strike, anticipated results of future testing, the six months elapsed time between the strike-and launch, and the fact that much of the critical airborne electrical/electronic equipment has been removed since the strike for other reasons, no new actions are considered necessary at this time in the Gemini case, significant failures occurred in both airborne and ground circuits. Due to the resultant semi, condlictor uncertainty, and the relatively' short time prior to planned launch, all critical airborne components containing semiconduetors were replaced, and a sophisticated data comparison task was implemented.

  4. Visible Spectroscopic Observation Of Asteroid 162173 (1999ju3) With The Gemini-s Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Seiji; Kuroda, D.; Kameda, S.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamata, S.; Abe, M.; Ishiguro, M.; Takato, N.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2012-10-01

    Asteroid 162173 (1999JU3; hereafter JU3) is the target of the Hayabusa-2 mission. Its visible reflectance spectra have been observed a few times [1,2], and obtained spectra exhibit a wide variety of spectral patterns ranging from a spectra with absorption in the UV region (May 1999) to a flat spectrum with a faint broad absorption centered around 0.6 microns (September 2007) and that with UV absorption and strong broad absorption centered around 0.7 micron (July 2007). The apparent large spectral variation may be due to variegation on the asteroid surface. Such variegation would make a large influence on remote sensing strategy for Hayabusa-2 before its sampling operations. In order to better constraint the spectral properties of JU3, we conducted visible spectroscopic observations at the GEMINI-South observatory 8.1-m telescope with the GMOS instrument. We could obtain three different sets of data in June and July 2012. Although the JU3 rotation phases of two of the observation are close to each other, the other is about 120 degrees away from the two. Our preliminary analyses indicate that these three spectra are slightly reddish but generally flat across the observed wavelength range (0.47 - 0.89 microns). The observed flat spectra are most similar to the spectrum obtained in September 2007, which probably has the highest signal-to-noise ratio among the previous three spectra. This result suggests that material with a flat spectrum probably covers a dominant proportion of the JU3 surface and that the other two types of previously obtained spectra may not cover a very large fraction of the JU3 surface. [1] Binzel, R. P. et al. (2001) Icarus, 151, 139-149; [2] Vilas, F. (2008) AJ, 135, 1101-1105.

  5. ResearchGate and Academia.edu as Networked Socio-Technical Systems for Scholarly Communication: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manca, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    ResearchGate and Academia.edu have been increasingly acknowledged as the most popular academic social network sites (ASNS) for scholarly communication. Along with their benefits for supporting communication and knowledge sharing within academic communities, concerns over quality and credibility remain a pertinent issue. In terms of research…

  6. Monomeric and gemini surfactants as antimicrobial agents - influence on environmental and reference strains.

    PubMed

    Koziróg, Anna; Brycki, Bogumił

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) belong to surfactant commonly used both, in the household and in different branches of industry, primarily in the process of cleaning and disinfection. They have several positive features inter alia effectively limiting the development of microorganisms on many surfaces. In the present work, two compounds were used as biocides: hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) that belongs to the gemini surfactant (GS), and its single analogue - dodecyl(trimethyl)ammonium bromide (DTAB). Two fold dilution method was used to determine the minimum concentration of compounds (MIC) which inhibit the growth of bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538 and an environmental strain), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 85327 and an environmental strain), and yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 11509 and an environmental strain). The viability of cells in liquid cultures with addition of these substances at ¼ MIC, ½ MIC and MIC concentrations were also determined. The obtained results show that DTAB inhibits the growth of bacteria at the concentration of 0.126-1.010 µM/ml, and gemini surfactant is active at 0.036-0.029 µM/ml. Therefore, GS is active at more than 17-70-fold lower concentrations than its monomeric analogue. Strains isolated from natural environment are less sensitive upon testing biocides than the references strains. Both compounds at the MIC value reduced the number of cells of all strains. The use of too low concentration of biocides can limit the growth of microorganisms, but often only for a short period of time in case of special environmental strains. Later on, they can adapt to adverse environmental conditions and begin to evolve defence mechanisms.

  7. In vitro disintegration of goat brain cystatin fibrils using conventional and gemini surfactants: Putative therapeutic intervention in amyloidoses.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Waseem Feeroze; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Bhat, Sheraz Ahmad; Bano, Bilqees

    2016-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases in mammalian system are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in amyloid fibrillar forms. Several therapeutic approaches include reduction in the production of the amyloidogenic form of proteins, increase in the clearance rate of misfolded or aggregated proteins, and direct inhibition of the self-assembly process have been explained. One of the possible remedial treatments for such disorders may be to identify molecules which are capable of either preventing formation of fibrils or disintegrating the formed fibrils. In this work, we have studied the effect of conventional surfactants; sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS), cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dicationic gemini (16-4-16) surfactant on the disintegration of the goat brain cystatin (GBC) fibrils above their critical micelle concentrations (CMC) using ThT fluorescence, CD, TEM, Congo red and turbidity approaches. The results obtained are significant and showing the best disintegrating potency on GBC fibrils with gemini surfactant. The outcome from this work will aid in the development and/or design of potential inhibitory agents against amyloid deposits associated with amyloid diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrostatic Interactions Govern “Odd/Even” Effects in Water-Induced Gemini Surfactant Self-Assembly

    DOE PAGES

    Mantha, Sriteja; McDaniel, Jesse G.; Perroni, Dominic V.; ...

    2016-12-27

    Gemini surfactants comprise two single-tailed surfactants connected by a linker at or near the hydrophilic headgroup. They display a variety of water concentration-dependent lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) morphologies that are sensitive to surfactant molecular structure, and na- ture of the headgroups and counterions. Recently, an interesting dependence of the aqueous phase behavior on the length of the linker has been discovered; odd-numbered linker length surfactants exhibit characteristically different phase diagrams than even-numbered linker sur- factants. In this work, we investigate this “odd/even effect” using computer simulations, focusing on experimentally studied gemini dicarboxylates with Na + counterions, 7 non-terminal carbon atomsmore » in the tails, and either 3, 4, 5, or 6 carbon atoms in the linker (denoted Na-73, Na-74, Na-75, and Na-76 respectively). We find that the relative electrostatic repulsion be- tween headgroups in the different morphologies is correlated with qualitative features of the experimental phase diagrams, predicting destabilization of hexagonal phases as the cylinders pack close together at low water content. Significant differences in the relative headgroup ori- entations of Na-74 and Na-76 compared to Na-73 and Na-75 surfactants lead to differences in linker-linker packing, and long-range headgroup/headgroup electrostatic repulsion, which affects the delicate electrostatic balance between hexagonal and gyroid phases. Finally, much of the fundamental insight presented in this work is enabled by the ability to computationally construct and analyze metastable phases that are not observable in experiments.« less

  9. A rapid non-radioactive technique for measurement of repair synthesis in primary human fibroblasts by incorporation of ethynyl deoxyuridine (EdU).

    PubMed

    Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Niimi, Atsuko; Fawcett, Heather; Lehmann, Alan; Yamashita, Shunichi; Ogi, Tomoo

    2009-03-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder. Afflicted patients show extreme sun-sensitivity and skin cancer predisposition. XP is in most cases associated with deficient nucleotide excision repair (NER), which is the process responsible for removing photolesions from DNA. Measuring NER activity by nucleotide incorporation into repair patches, termed 'unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS)', is one of the most commonly used assays for XP-diagnosis and NER research. We have established a rapid and accurate procedure for measuring UDS by replacement of thymidine with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). EdU incorporated into repair patches can be directly conjugated to fluorescent azide derivatives, thereby obviating the need for either radiolabeled thymidine or denaturation and antibody detection of incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). We demonstrate that the EdU incorporation assay is compatible with conventional techniques such as immunofluorescent staining and labeling of cells with micro-latex beads. Importantly, we can complete the entire UDS assay within half a day from preparation of the assay coverslips; this technique may prove useful as a method for XP diagnosis.

  10. Image Reference Database in Teleradiology: Migrating to WWW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqui, Valdo

    The paper presents a multimedia Image Reference Data Base (IRDB) used in Teleradiology. The application was developed at the University of Florence in the framework of the European Community TELEMED Project. TELEMED overall goals and IRDB requirements are outlined and the resulting architecture is described. IRDB is a multisite database containing radiological images, selected because their scientific interest, and their related information. The architecture consists of a set of IRDB Installations which are accessed from Viewing Stations (VS) located at different medical sites. The interaction between VS and IRDB Installations follows the client-server paradigm and uses an OSI level-7 protocol, named Telemed Communication Language. After reviewing Florence prototype implementation and experimentation, IRDB migration to World Wide Web (WWW) is discussed. A possible scenery to implement IRDB on the basis of WWW model is depicted in order to exploit WWW servers and browsers capabilities. Finally, the advantages of this conversion are outlined.

  11. EduSpeak[R]: A Speech Recognition and Pronunciation Scoring Toolkit for Computer-Aided Language Learning Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Horacio; Bratt, Harry; Rossier, Romain; Rao Gadde, Venkata; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Abrash, Victor; Precoda, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    SRI International's EduSpeak[R] system is a software development toolkit that enables developers of interactive language education software to use state-of-the-art speech recognition and pronunciation scoring technology. Automatic pronunciation scoring allows the computer to provide feedback on the overall quality of pronunciation and to point to…

  12. pH-induced motion control of self-propelled oil droplets using a hydrolyzable gemini cationic surfactant.

    PubMed

    Miura, Shingo; Banno, Taisuke; Tonooka, Taishi; Osaki, Toshihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji; Toyota, Taro

    2014-07-15

    Self-propelled motion of micrometer-sized substances has drawn much attention as an autonomous transportation system. One candidate vehicle is a chemically driven micrometer-sized oil droplet. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of a chemical reaction system controlling the three-dimensional motion of oil droplets underwater. In this study, we developed a molecular system that controlled the self-propelled motion of 4-heptyloxybenzaldehyde oil droplets by using novel gemini cationic surfactants containing carbonate linkages (2G12C). We found that, in emulsions containing sodium hydroxide, the motion time of the self-propelled oil droplets was longer in the presence of 2G12C than in the presence of gemini cationic surfactants without carbonate linkages. Moreover, in 2G12C solution, oil droplets at rest underwent unidirectional, self-propelled motion in a gradient field toward a higher concentration of sodium hydroxide. Even though they stopped within several seconds, they restarted in the same direction. 2G12C was gradually hydrolyzed under basic conditions to produce a pair of the corresponding monomeric surfactants, which exhibit different interfacial properties from 2G12C. The prolonged and restart motion of the oil droplets were explained by the increase in the heterogeneity of the interfacial tension of the oil droplets.

  13. Gemini Planet Imager Spectroscopy of the HR 8799 Planets c and d

    DOE PAGES

    Ingraham, Patrick; Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; ...

    2014-09-30

    During the first-light run of the Gemini Planet Imager we obtained K-band spectra of exoplanets HR 8799 c and d. Analysis of the spectra indicates that planet d may be warmer than planet c. Comparisons to recent patchy cloud models and previously obtained observations over multiple wavelengths confirm that thick clouds combined with horizontal variation in the cloud cover generally reproduce the planets’ spectral energy distributions.When combined with the 3 to 4μm photometric data points, the observations provide strong constraints on the atmospheric methane content for both planets. Lastly, the data also provide further evidence that future modeling efforts mustmore » include cloud opacity, possibly including cloud holes, disequilibrium chemistry, and super-solar metallicity.« less

  14. OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. IV. OBSERVATIONS OF KEPLER, CoRoT, AND HIPPARCOS STARS FROM THE GEMINI NORTH TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Horch, Elliott P.; Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of 71 speckle observations of binary and unresolved stars, most of which were observed with the DSSI speckle camera at the Gemini North Telescope in 2012 July. The main purpose of the run was to obtain diffraction-limited images of high-priority targets for the Kepler and CoRoT missions, but in addition, we observed a number of close binary stars where the resolution limit of Gemini was used to better determine orbital parameters and/or confirm results obtained at or below the diffraction limit of smaller telescopes. Five new binaries and one triple system were discovered, and first orbitsmore » are calculated for other two systems. Several systems are discussed in detail.« less

  15. Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-04-01

    MAY 2004 GARP's 3rd Credit & Counterparty Risk Summit, London, UK 21-23 May 2004 Andreas Simou (andreas.simou@garp.com), +44 (0)20 7626 9301, www.garp.com/events/3rdcred IMA Workshop 9: Financial Data Analysis and Applications, University of Minnesota, MN, USA 24-28 May 2004 www.ima.umn.edu/complex/spring/c9.html Global Derivatives & Risk Management 2004, NH Eurobuilding, Madrid, Spain 25-28 May 2004 Aden Watkins, ICBI (awatkins@iirltd.co.uk), +44 (0)20 7915 5198, www.icbi-uk.com/globalderivatives/ WEHIA'04 9th Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, Kyodai-Kaikan, Kyoto, Japan 27-29 May 2004 www.nda.ac.jp/cs/AI/wehia04/ JUNE 2004 Semimartingale Theory and Practice in Finance, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada 5-10 June 2004 www.pims.math.ca/birs/workshops/2004/04w5032/ MC2QMC 2004 International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Juan-les-Pins, Côte d'Azur, France 7-10 June 2004 Monique Simonetti (Monique.Simonetti@sophia.inria.fr), +33 4 92 38 78 64, www-sop.inria.fr/omega/MC2QMC2004/ GAIM'04 10th Annual Global Alternative Investment Management Forum, The Beaulieu Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland 8-11 June 2004 +44 (0)20 7915 5103, www.icbi-uk.com/gaim/ 3rd Annual Conference Ri$k Management 2004, Fairmont Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 12-15 June 2004 www.iirme.com/risk/ 10th Annual Risk USA Congress, Boston, MA, USA 21-24 June 2004 Aristotle Liu (aliu@riskwaters.com), +44 (0)207 484 9700, www.riskusa.com Mannheim Empirical Research Summer School, Mannheim University, Germany 22 June-2 July 2004 oliver@kirchkamp.de, www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de/merss 9th Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa, Cape Town, South Africa 30 June-2 July 2004 aesinfo@commerce.uct.ac.za, www.commerce.uct.ac.za/economics/AES2004Conference/ 4th Congress of Nonlinear Analysts. Special Session on Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Finance, Hyatt Grand Cypress Resort, Orlando, FL, USA 30 June-7 July

  16. Polarized Light Imaging of the HD 142527 Transition Disk with the Gemini Planet Imager: Dust around the Close-in Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodigas, Timothy J.; Follette, Katherine B.; Weinberger, Alycia; Close, Laird; Hines, Dean C.

    2014-08-01

    When giant planets form, they grow by accreting gas and dust. HD 142527 is a young star that offers a scaled-up view of this process. It has a broad, asymmetric ring of gas and dust beyond ~100 AU and a wide inner gap. Within the gap, a low-mass stellar companion orbits the primary star at just ~12 AU, and both the primary and secondary are accreting gas. In an attempt to directly detect the dusty counterpart to this accreted gas, we have observed HD 142527 with the Gemini Planet Imager in polarized light at Y band (0.95-1.14 μm). We clearly detect the companion in total intensity and show that its position and photometry are generally consistent with the expected values. We also detect a point source in polarized light that may be spatially separated by ~ a few AU from the location of the companion in total intensity. This suggests that dust is likely falling onto or orbiting the companion. Given the possible contribution of scattered light from this dust to previously reported photometry of the companion, the current mass limits should be viewed as upper limits only. If the dust near the companion is eventually confirmed to be spatially separated, this system would resemble a scaled-up version of the young planetary system inside the gap of the transition disk around LkCa 15. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministrio da Cincia, Tecnologia e Inovao (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin Productiva (Argentina).

  17. The Gemini NICI Planet-finding Campaign: Discovery of a Close Substellar Companion to the Young Debris Disk Star PZ Tel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Burrows, Adam; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Hartung, Markus; Males, Jared; Reid, I. Neill; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Skemer, Andrew; Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Artymowicz, Pawel; Boss, Alan; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Ida, Shigeru; Kuchner, Marc J.; Lin, Douglas; Toomey, Douglas

    2010-09-01

    We report the discovery of a tight substellar companion to the young solar analog PZ Tel, a member of the β Pic moving group observed with high-contrast adaptive optics imaging as part of the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager Planet-Finding Campaign. The companion was detected at a projected separation of 16.4 ± 1.0 AU (0farcs33 ± 0farcs01) in 2009 April. Second-epoch observations in 2010 May demonstrate that the companion is physically associated and shows significant orbital motion. Monte Carlo modeling constrains the orbit of PZ Tel B to eccentricities >0.6. The near-IR colors of PZ Tel B indicate a spectral type of M7 ± 2 and thus this object will be a new benchmark companion for studies of ultracool, low-gravity photospheres. Adopting an age of 12+8 -4 Myr for the system, we estimate a mass of 36 ± 6 M Jup based on the Lyon/DUSTY evolutionary models. PZ Tel B is one of the few young substellar companions directly imaged at orbital separations similar to those of giant planets in our own solar system. Additionally, the primary star PZ Tel A shows a 70 μm emission excess, evidence for a significant quantity of circumstellar dust that has not been disrupted by the orbital motion of the companion. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  18. Gemini/GMOS Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Merger Remnant Galaxy M85

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Youkyung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Sohn, Jubee; Lim, Sungsoon; Hwang, Narae

    2018-06-01

    M85 is a peculiar S0 galaxy in Virgo and a well-known merger remnant. We present the first spectroscopic study of globular clusters (GCs) in M85. We obtain spectra for 21 GC candidates and the nucleus of M85 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini North 8.1 m telescope. From their radial velocities, 20 of the GCs are found to be members of M85. We find a strong rotation signal of the M85 GC system with a rotation amplitude of 235 km s‑1. The rotation axis of the GC system has a position angle of about 161°, which is 51.°5 larger than that of the stellar light. The rotation-corrected radial velocity dispersion of the GC system is estimated to be {σ }{{r},{cor}}=160 km s‑1. The rotation parameter {{Ω }}{R}icor}/{σ }{{r},{cor}} of the GC system is derived to be {1.47}-0.48+1.05, which is one of the largest among known early-type galaxies. The ages and metallicities of the GCs, which show the same trend as the results based on Lick indices, are derived from full spectrum fitting (ULySS). About half of the GCs are an intermediate-age population whose mean age is ∼3.7 ± 1.9 Gyr, having a mean [Fe/H] value of ‑0.26. The other half are old and metal-poor. These results suggest that M85 experienced a wet merging event about 4 Gyr ago, forming a significant population of star clusters. The strong rotational feature of the GC system can be explained by an off-center major merging.

  19. A Means Towards Understanding: Reconnaissance and the Practice of Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Soviet Military Operational Art: In Pursuit of Deep Battle (London: Routledge, 1991), 256-257. 24Matthew K . Green, “Operational Reconnaissance: The...1946), 20-21, app. 3, 4, 5, http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/ eto /eto.asp (accessed 29 August 2011). 103James A. Huston, “Tactical Use of Air Power in World War...Nauheim, GE, 1945-1946), 9-11, http://www.cgsc.edu/carl/ eto /eto.asp (accessed 29 August 2011). 104Stephen E. Ambrose, D-Day June 6, 1944: The

  20. Who Do You Know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: Data Collection in the Tech Entrepreneurial Environment of Six African Cities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 4 1 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 January 2015...in detail in our 2 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 previous methodology paper. Based on...one of the leading universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The student body is energetic and tech savvy. 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point

  1. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Kampala, Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-15

    Leader • Someone in Social Network • Commercial Bank • White Collar Professional • Military Leader 16 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 ...regions, where the Lord’s Resistance Army 2 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 (LRA), a militant...Non-Governmental Organizations. Teddy Ruge Kanjokya Road in Kamwokya 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point

  2. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-08-26

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them.

  3. A Novel Surface Structure Consisting of Contact-active Antibacterial Upper-layer and Antifouling Sub-layer Derived from Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salt Polyurethanes

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Li, Jiehua; Gao, Yunlong; Luo, Feng; Tan, Hong; Wang, Kunjie; Fu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Contact-active antibacterial surfaces play a vital role in preventing bacterial contamination of artificial surfaces. In the past, numerous researches have been focused on antibacterial surfaces comprising of antifouling upper-layer and antibacterial sub-layer. In this work, we demonstrate a reversed surface structure which integrate antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer. These surfaces are prepared by simply casting gemini quaternary ammonium salt waterborne polyurethanes (GWPU) and their blends. Due to the high interfacial energy of gemini quaternary ammonium salt (GQAS), chain segments containing GQAS can accumulate at polymer/air interface to form an antibacterial upper-layer spontaneously during the film formation. Meanwhile, the soft segments composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) formed the antifouling sub-layer. Our findings indicate that the combination of antibacterial upper-layer and antifouling sub-layer endow these surfaces strong, long-lasting antifouling and contact-active antibacterial properties, with a more than 99.99% killing efficiency against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to them. PMID:27561546

  4. Teaching Strategies Mediated by Technologies in the EduLab Model: The Case of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Ana; Pombo, Lúcia

    2017-01-01

    The EduLab model is a "new" educational model that integrates technologies in educational contexts comprising full equipped classrooms with attractive and easy-to-use technological resources. This model tries to promote a dynamic and more effective teaching and learning process. For this purpose, the model provides teachers training and…

  5. Communication with Your Family and Your Doctor about Your Wishes

    MedlinePlus

    ... close to the end of your life. References: http://www.aarp.org/families/end_life/ http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/endoflifeissues.html http://agnewsarchive.tamu.edu/dailynews/stories/CFAM/Sep0407a.htm ...

  6. The New WWW: Whatever, Whenever, Wherever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Tom

    2006-01-01

    We are entering an age of instant media gratification, in which a "multimedia aura" will "accompany us wherever we go," writes Tom March. The New WWW, says March, offers us whatever we want, whenever and wherever we want it. The effect on our children may be unrealistic expectations, premature disillusionment, and unhappiness. To counterbalance…

  7. Ecological Risk Assessment of Perchlorate in Avian Species, Rodents, Amphibians and Fish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    http://www .indiana.edu/- axolotl ). 10.0 JUSTIFICATION OF TEST SYSTEM Perchlorate occurs in ground and surface waters in 44 states in the USA... axolotl ). * Sequentially numbered in order of the date that the change is effective Dept. of Biological Sciences (DBS) Box 43131 Lubbock, TX 79409...KCl, 0.025 giL; CaCh2 H20, 0.65 g/L; MgS04·7H20, 0.1 giL (http://www.indiana.edu/~ axolotl ). *Sequentially numbered in order of the date that the

  8. NAPLAN and the Role of Edu-Business: New Governance, New Privatisations and New Partnerships in Australian Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a critical analysis of the edu-businesses currently working in partnership with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority to deliver the Commonwealth government policy initiative of the National Assessment Program--Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). These emerging public--private partnerships (PPPs) exemplify…

  9. Employing Microsoft Live@edu Cloud Platform to Assist in Teaching Chinese Reading for Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ru-Chu; Cho, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Chih-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate junior high school students' learning attitudes and learning effectiveness through administering Microsoft Live@edu to assist in teaching Chinese reading. Quasi-experimental approach was used and a total of 63 eighth grade students were divided into the experimental group (N = 32) and control group (N = 31).…

  10. Large Vocabulary Audio-Visual Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-12

    www.is.cs.cmu.edu Email: waibel(a)cs.cmu~edu Inttractive Systenms Labs ttoctis Ssstms Labs Meeting Browser - -- Interpreting Human Communication "Why did...Speech Interacti Stams Labs t-cive Systms Focus of Attention Tracking Conclusion - Complete Model of Human Communication is Needed - Include all

  11. Direct observation of extrasolar planets and the development of the gemini planet imager integral field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilcote, Jeffrey Kaplan

    This thesis is focused on the development and testing of a new instrument capable of finding and characterizing recently-formed Jupiter-sized planets orbiting other stars. To observe these planets, I present the design, construction and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS). GPI is a facility class instrument for the Gemini Observatory with the primary goal of directly detecting young Jovian planets. The GPI IFS utilizes an infrared transmissive lenslet array to sample a rectangular 2.7 x 2.7 arcsecond field of view and provide low-resolution spectra across five bands between 1 and 2.5 mum. The dispersing element can be replaced with a Wollaston prism to provide broadband polarimetry across the same five filter bands. The IFS construction was based at the University of California, Los Angeles in collaboration with the Universite de Montreal, Immervision and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. I will present performance results, from in-lab testing, of the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) for the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). The IFS is a large, complex, cryogenic, optical system requiring several years of development and testing. I will present the design and integration of the mechanical and optical performance of the spectrograph optics. The IFS passed its pre-ship review in 2011 and was shipped to University of California, Santa Cruz for integration with the remaining sub-systems of GPI. The UCLA built GPI IFS was integrated with the rest of GPI and is delivering high quality spectral datacubes of GPI's coronagraphic field. Using the NIRC2 instrument located at the Keck Observatory, my collaborators and I observed the planetary companion to beta Pictoris in L' (3.5--4.1mum). Observations taken in the fall of 2009 and 2012 are used to find the location and inclination of the planet relative to the massive debris disk orbiting beta Pictoris. We find that the planet's orbit has a position angle on the sky of 211

  12. EARTH-SKY - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-9A - AREAS OF PERU, CHILE AND BOLIVIA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-05

    S66-38313 (5 June 1966) --- Areas of Peru (upper right), Chile (top center) and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini-9 spacecraft during its 35th revolution of Earth. The large body of water at lower right is Lake Titicaca. The smaller lake at left edge is Lake Poopo. Salar de Uyuni is the large light-colored area at upper left. At the bottom of the picture is the snow-capped Cordillera Real range of the Andes Mountains. The Pacific coastline of Peru and Chile is at upper right. The range running parallel with the coastline is the Cordillera Occidental. The image was taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome MS (S.O. 217) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Clarifying the Status of HD 100546 as Observed by the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Brittain, Sean; Grady, Carol A.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Muto, Takayuki

    2017-12-01

    HD 100546 is a young, early-type star and key laboratory for studying gas giant planet formation. GPI data taken in 2015 and reported by Currie et al. (2015) recover the previously-identified protoplanet candidate HD 100546 b and identify a second emission source at ~13--14 au: either a disk hot spot or a second protoplanetary candidate (HD 100546 "c"). In this short research note, we update the status of HD 100546 as observed by the Gemini Planet Imager by rereducing our original data using a different PSF subtraction method (KLIP instead of A-LOCI), rereducing recently public GPI Campaign Team (GPIES) data, and comparing the quality of the two data sets. Our results support the original findings in Currie et al. (2015).

  14. Calendar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04. 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004. 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004

  15. How to use the WWW to distribute STI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roper, Donna G.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation explains how to use the World Wide Web (WWW) to distribute scientific and technical information as hypermedia. WWW clients and servers use the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to transfer documents containing links to other text, graphics, video, and sound. The standard language for these documents is the HyperText MarkUp Language (HTML). These are simply text files with formatting codes that contain layout information and hyperlinks. HTML documents can be created with any text editor or with one of the publicly available HTML editors or convertors. HTML can also include links to available image formats. This presentation is available online. The URL is http://sti.larc.nasa. (followed by) gov/demos/workshop/introtext.html.

  16. Writing World-Wide Web CGI scripts in the REXX language

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.L.A.

    This talk is aimed at people who have experience with REXX and are interested in using it to write WWW CGI scripts. As part of this, the author describes several functions that are available in a library of REXX functions that simplify writing WWW CGI scripts. This library is freely available at //www.slac.standard.edu/slac/www/tool/cgi-rexx/.

  17. Dynamics of Water in Gemini Surfactant-Based Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    DOE PAGES

    McDaniel, Jesse G.; Mantha, Sriteja; Yethiraj, Arun

    2016-09-26

    The dynamics of water confined to nanometer-sized domains is important in a variety of applications ranging from proton exchange membranes to crowding effects in biophysics. In this work we study the dynamics of water in gemini surfactant-based lyotropic liquid crystals (LLCs) using molecular dynamics simulations. These systems have well characterized morphologies, e.g., hexagonal, gyroid, and lamellar, and the surfaces of the confining regions can be controlled by modifying the headgroup of the surfactants. This allows one to study the effect of topology, functionalization, and interfacial curvature on the dynamics of confined water. Through analysis of the translational diffusion and rotationalmore » relaxation we conclude that the hydration level and resulting confinement lengthscale is the predominate determiner of the rates of water dynamics, and other effects, namely surface functionality and curvature, are largely secondary. In conclusion, this novel analysis of the water dynamics in these LLC systems provides an important comparison for previous studies of water dynamics in lipid bilayers and reverse micelles.« less

  18. Reconstruction of Orion Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Parachute Inflation Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    The process of reconstructing inflation loads of Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) has been updated as the program transitioned to testing Engineering Development Unit (EDU) hardware. The equations used to reduce the test data have been re-derived based on the same physical assumptions made by simulations. Due to instrumentation challenges, individual parachute loads are determined from complementary accelerometer and load cell measurements. Cluster inflations are now simulated by modeling each parachute individually to better represent different inflation times and non-synchronous disreefing. The reconstruction procedure is tailored to either infinite mass or finite mass events based on measurable characteristics from the test data. Inflation parameters are determined from an automated optimization routine to reduce subjectivity. Infinite mass inflation parameters have been re-defined to avoid unrealistic interactions in Monte Carlo simulations. Sample cases demonstrate how best-fit inflation parameters are used to generate simulated drag areas and loads which favorably agree with test data.

  19. Synthesis and optimization of cholesterol-based diquaternary ammonium Gemini Surfactant (Chol-GS) as a new gene delivery vector.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bieong-Kil; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Bae, Yun-Ui; Seu, Young-Bae

    2011-01-01

    Amongst a number of potential nonviral vectors, cationic liposomes have been actively researched, with both gemini surfactants and bola amphiphiles reported as being in possession of good structures in terms of cell viability and in vitro transfection. In this study, a cholesterol-based diquaternary ammonium gemini surfactant (Chol-GS) was synthesized and assessed as a novel nonviral gene vector. Chol-GS was synthesized from cholesterol by way of four reaction steps. The optimal efficiency was found to be at a weight ratio of 1:4 of lipid:DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-L-alpha- glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine), and at a ratio of between 10:1~15:1 of liposome:DNA. The transfection efficiency was compared with commercial liposomes and with Lipofectamine, 1,2-dimyristyloxypropyl-3-dimethylhydroxyethylammonium bromide (DMRIE-C), and N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]- N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP). The results indicate that the efficiency of Chol-GS is greater than that of all the tested commercial liposomes in COS7 and Huh7 cells, and higher than DOTAP and Lipofectamine in A549 cells. Confirmation of these findings was observed through the use of green fluorescent protein expression. Chol-GS exhibited a moderate level of cytotoxicity, at optimum concentrations for efficient transfection, indicating cell viability. Hence, the newly synthesized Chol-GS liposome has the potential of being an excellent nonviral vector for gene delivery.

  20. Updated Astrometric Calibration of the Gemini Planet Imager: Application to the Theta1 Orionis B System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Debby; Konopacky, Quinn; GPIES Team

    2018-01-01

    The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), housed on the 8-meter Gemini South telescope in Chile, is an instrument designed to detect Jupiter-like extrasolar planets by direct imaging. It relies on adaptive optics to correct the effects of atmospheric turbulence, along with an advanced coronagraph and calibration system. One of the scientific goals of GPI is to measure the orbital properties of the planets it discovers. Because these orbits have long periods, precise measurements of the relative position between the star and the planet (relative astrometry) are required. In this poster, I will present the astrometric calibration of GPI. We constrain the plate scale and orientation of the camera by observing different binary star systems with both GPI and another well-calibrated instrument, NIRC2, at the Keck telescope in Hawaii. We measure their separations with both instruments and use that information to calibrate the plate scale. By taking these calibration measurements over the course of three years, we have measured the plate scale to 0.05% and shown that it is stable across multiple epochs. One of the calibrators for GPI is Theta1 Orionis B, one of the star systems in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion. Using GPI and Keck measurements taken over the past several years combined with astrometry from the literature spanning two decades, we can place new constraints on the orbital properties of this massive multiple system. We will present the best fit orbital properties for these objects, including updated mass estimates for the components.

  1. Organization and dissemination of multimedia medical databases on the WWW.

    PubMed

    Todorovski, L; Ribaric, S; Dimec, J; Hudomalj, E; Lunder, T

    1999-01-01

    In the paper, we focus on the problem of building and disseminating multimedia medical databases on the World Wide Web (WWW). The current results of the ongoing project of building a prototype dermatology images database and its WWW presentation are presented. The dermatology database is part of an ambitious plan concerning an organization of a network of medical institutions building distributed and federated multimedia databases of a much wider scale.

  2. The Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign: The Frequency of Planets around Young Moving Group Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Liu, Michael C.; Wahhaj, Zahed; Nielsen, Eric L.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Close, Laird M.; Chun, Mark; Ftaclas, Christ; Clarke, Fraser; Thatte, Niranjan; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Reid, I. Neill; Hartung, Markus; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Toomey, Douglas

    2013-11-01

    We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the β Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini/NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of ΔH = 13.9 mag at 1'' in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of ΔH = 15.1 mag at 2'' in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI Campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36 ± 6 M Jup, 16.4 ± 1.0 AU), CD-35 2722B (31 ± 8 M Jup, 67 ± 4 AU), HD 12894B (0.46 ± 0.08 M ⊙, 15.7 ± 1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20 ± 0.03 M ⊙, 12.5 ± 1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models. Our results strongly constrain the frequency of planets within semi-major axes of 50 AU as well. We restrict the frequency of 1-20 M Jup companions at semi-major axes from 10-50 AU to <21% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <7% at a 95.4% using COND models. This survey is the deepest search to date for giant planets around young moving group stars. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc

  3. The Gemini Planet-finding Campaign: The Frequency Of Giant Planets around Debris Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahhaj, Zahed; Liu, Michael C.; Nielsen, Eric L.; Biller, Beth A.; Hayward, Thomas L.; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Skemer, Andrew; Ftaclas, Christ; Chun, Mark; Thatte, Niranjan; Tecza, Matthias; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Kuchner, Marc; Reid, I. Neill; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.; Alencar, Silvia H. P.; Gregorio-Hetem, Jane; Boss, Alan; Lin, Douglas N. C.; Toomey, Douglas W.

    2013-08-01

    We have completed a high-contrast direct imaging survey for giant planets around 57 debris disk stars as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. We achieved median H-band contrasts of 12.4 mag at 0.''5 and 14.1 mag at 1'' separation. Follow-up observations of the 66 candidates with projected separation <500 AU show that all of them are background objects. To establish statistical constraints on the underlying giant planet population based on our imaging data, we have developed a new Bayesian formalism that incorporates (1) non-detections, (2) single-epoch candidates, (3) astrometric and (4) photometric information, and (5) the possibility of multiple planets per star to constrain the planet population. Our formalism allows us to include in our analysis the previously known β Pictoris and the HR 8799 planets. Our results show at 95% confidence that <13% of debris disk stars have a >=5 M Jup planet beyond 80 AU, and <21% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet outside of 40 AU, based on hot-start evolutionary models. We model the population of directly imaged planets as d 2 N/dMdavpropm α a β, where m is planet mass and a is orbital semi-major axis (with a maximum value of a max). We find that β < -0.8 and/or α > 1.7. Likewise, we find that β < -0.8 and/or a max < 200 AU. For the case where the planet frequency rises sharply with mass (α > 1.7), this occurs because all the planets detected to date have masses above 5 M Jup, but planets of lower mass could easily have been detected by our search. If we ignore the β Pic and HR 8799 planets (should they belong to a rare and distinct group), we find that <20% of debris disk stars have a >=3 M Jup planet beyond 10 AU, and β < -0.8 and/or α < -1.5. Likewise, β < -0.8 and/or a max < 125 AU. Our Bayesian constraints are not strong enough to reveal any dependence of the planet frequency on stellar host mass. Studies of transition disks have suggested that about 20% of stars are undergoing planet

  4. Nuclear Data on the WWW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Richard B.; Chu, S. Y. Frank; Ekstrom, L. Peter; Wu, Shiu-Chin; Singh, Balraj

    1997-10-01

    The Isotopes Project is developing Internet home pages to provide data for radioactive decay, nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, spontaneous fission, thermal neutron capture, and atomic masses. These home pages can be accessed from the Table of Isotopes home page at http://isotopes.lbl.gov/isotopes/toi.html. Data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) is now available on the WWW in Nuclear Data Sheet style tables, complete with comments and hypertext linked footnotes. Bibliographic information from the Nuclear Science Reference (NSR) file can be searched on the WWW by combinations of author, A, Z, reaction, and various keywords. Decay gamma-ray data from several databases can be searched by energy. The Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers is continously updated. Reaction rates from Hoffman and Woosley and from Thielemann, fission yields from England and Rider, thermal neutron cross-sections from BNL-325, atomic masses from Audi, and skeleton scheme drawings and nuclear charts from the Table of Isotopes are among the information available through these websites. The nuclear data home pages are accessed by over 3500 different users each month.

  5. User Interface Design for WWW-Based Courses: Building upon Student Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rennes, Linda; Collis, Betty

    This paper describes how student reactions shaped the design of a WWW (World Wide Web)-based course environment at the University of Twente (Netherlands), using the example of a first year course. The first section discusses the importance of user interface (re)design for WWW-based courses. The University's focus on student evaluations of…

  6. THE AGES, METALLICITIES, AND ALPHA ELEMENT ENHANCEMENTS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE ELLIPTICAL NGC 5128: A HOMOGENEOUS SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY WITH GEMINI/GEMINI MULTI-OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, Kristin A.; Harris, William E.; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2010-01-10

    We present new integrated light spectroscopy of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 5128, a nearby giant elliptical galaxy less than 4 Mpc away, in order to measure radial velocities and derive ages, metallicities, and alpha-element abundance ratios. Using the Gemini South 8 meter telescope with the instrument Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, we obtained spectroscopy in the range of approx3400-5700 A for 72 GCs with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 30 A{sup -1}; and we have also discovered 35 new GCs within NGC 5128 from our radial velocity measurements. We measured and compared the Lick indices from Hdelta{sub A} through Fe5406 withmore » the single stellar population models of Thomas et al. in order to derive age, metallicity, and [alpha/Fe] values. We also measure Lick indices for 41 Milky Way GCs from Puzia et al. and Schiavon et al. with the same methodology for direct comparison. Our results show that 68% of the NGC 5128 GCs have old ages (>8 Gyr), 14% have intermediate ages (5-8 Gyr), and 18% have young ages (<5 Gyr). However, when we look at the metallicity of the GCs as a function of age, we find 92% of metal-poor GCs and 56% of metal-rich GCs in NGC 5128 have ages >8 Gyr, indicating that the majority of both metallicity subpopulations of GCs formed earlier, with a significant population of young and metal-rich GCs forming later. Our metallicity distribution function generated directly from spectroscopic Lick indices is clearly bimodal, as is the color distribution of the same set of GCs. Thus, the metallicity bimodality is real and not an artifact of the color to metallicity conversion. However, the metallicity distribution function obtained from comparison with the single stellar population models is consistent with a unimodal, bimodal, or multimodal shape. The [alpha/Fe] values are supersolar with a mean value of 0.14 +- 0.04, indicating a fast formation timescale. However, the GCs in NGC 5128 are not as [alpha/Fe] enhanced as the Milky Way GCs also

  7. Testing the Planet-Metallicity Correlation in M-dwarfs with Gemini GNIRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, M. J.; Jofré, E.; García, L.; Petrucci, R.; Gómez, M.

    2018-04-01

    While the planet-metallicity correlation for FGK main-sequence stars hosting giant planets is well established, it is less clear for M-dwarf stars. We determine stellar parameters and metallicities for 16 M-dwarf stars, 11 of which host planets, with near-infrared spectra from the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS). We find that M-dwarfs with planets are preferentially metal-rich compared to those without planets. This result is supported by the analysis of a larger catalogue of 18 M stars with planets and 213 M stars without known planets T15, and demonstrates the utility of GNIRS spectra to obtain reliable stellar parameters of M stars. We also find that M dwarfs with giant planets are preferentially more metallic than those with low-mass planets, in agreement with previous results for solar-type stars. These results favor the core accretion model of planetary formation.

  8. SPT-GMOS: A GEMINI/GMOS-SOUTH SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS IN THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg{sup 2} of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal ofmore » these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W , of [O ii] λλ 3727, 3729 and H- δ , and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m {sup ⋆}). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ∼20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.« less

  9. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters in the SPT-SZ survey

    DOE PAGES

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Here, we present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg 2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goalmore » of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m*). Lastly, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ~20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.« less

  10. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters in the SPT-SZ survey

    SciTech Connect

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.

    Here, we present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg 2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goalmore » of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m*). Lastly, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ~20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.« less

  11. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O II] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ∼20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  12. Improved CPAS Photogrammetric Capabilities for Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Eric S.; Bretz, David R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on two key improvements to the photogrammetric analysis capabilities of the Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) for the Orion vehicle. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) system deploys Drogue and Pilot parachutes via mortar, where an important metric is the muzzle velocity. This can be estimated using a high speed camera pointed along the mortar trajectory. The distance to the camera is computed from the apparent size of features of known dimension. This method was validated with a ground test and compares favorably with simulations. The second major photogrammetric product is measuring the geometry of the Main parachute cluster during steady-state descent using onboard cameras. This is challenging as the current test vehicles are suspended by a single-point attachment unlike earlier stable platforms suspended under a confluence fitting. The mathematical modeling of fly-out angles and projected areas has undergone significant revision. As the test program continues, several lessons were learned about optimizing the camera usage, installation, and settings to obtain the highest quality imagery possible.

  13. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OVERLAY - ARABIAN PENINSULA & NORTHEAST AFRICA - POINTS OF INTEREST - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54536 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Arabian Peninsula (on left) and northeast Africa (on right) as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft at an altitude of 340 nautical miles during its 27th revolution of Earth, looking southeast. Saudi Arabia, South Arabia, Yemen, and Aden Protectorate are at left. At bottom right is Ethiopia. French Somaliland is in center on right shore. Somali is at upper right. Body of water at bottom is Red Sea. Gulf of Aden is in center; and at top left is Indian Ocean. Taken with a modified 70mm Hasselblad camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  14. GIFTS SM EDU Data Processing and Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Johnson, David G.; Reisse, Robert A.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiances using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument employs three Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration stage. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three stages. In the pre-calibration stage, a phase correction algorithm is applied to the decimated and filtered complex interferogram. The resulting imaginary part of the spectrum contains only the noise component of the uncorrected spectrum. Additional random noise reduction can be accomplished by applying a spectral smoothing routine to the phase-corrected blackbody reference spectra. In the radiometric calibration stage, we first compute the spectral responsivity based on the previous results, from which, the calibrated ambient blackbody (ABB), hot blackbody (HBB), and scene spectra can be obtained. During the post-processing stage, we estimate the noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR) from the calibrated ABB and HBB spectra. We then implement a correction scheme that compensates for the effect of fore-optics offsets. Finally, for off-axis pixels, the FPA off-axis effects correction is performed. To estimate the performance of the entire FPA, we developed an efficient method of generating pixel performance assessments. In addition, a random pixel selection scheme is designed based on the pixel performance evaluation.

  15. The new Gemini Observatory archive: a fast and low cost observatory data archive running in the cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Paul; Cardenes, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    We have developed and deployed a new data archive for the Gemini Observatory. Focused on simplicity and ease of use, the archive provides a number of powerful and novel features including automatic association of calibration data with the science data, and the ability to bookmark searches. A simple but powerful API allows programmatic search and download of data. The archive is hosted on Amazon Web Services, which provides us excellent internet connectivity and significant cost savings in both operations and development over more traditional deployment options. The code is written in python, utilizing a PostgreSQL database and Apache web server.

  16. Assessing the performance of regional landslide early warning models: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, M.; Piciullo, L.

    2015-10-01

    The paper proposes the evaluation of the technical performance of a regional landslide early warning system by means of an original approach, called EDuMaP method, comprising three successive steps: identification and analysis of the Events (E), i.e. landslide events and warning events derived from available landslides and warnings databases; definition and computation of a Duration Matrix (DuMa), whose elements report the time associated with the occurrence of landslide events in relation to the occurrence of warning events, in their respective classes; evaluation of the early warning model Performance (P) by means of performance criteria and indicators applied to the duration matrix. During the first step, the analyst takes into account the features of the warning model by means of ten input parameters, which are used to identify and classify landslide and warning events according to their spatial and temporal characteristics. In the second step, the analyst computes a time-based duration matrix having a number of rows and columns equal to the number of classes defined for the warning and landslide events, respectively. In the third step, the analyst computes a series of model performance indicators derived from a set of performance criteria, which need to be defined by considering, once again, the features of the warning model. The proposed method is based on a framework clearly distinguishing between local and regional landslide early warning systems as well as among correlation laws, warning models and warning systems. The applicability, potentialities and limitations of the EDuMaP method are tested and discussed using real landslides and warnings data from the municipal early warning system operating in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  17. U.S. Democracy Promotion and Al Jazeera: A View into Arab Reactions and Opposing Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    New York Time, 13 April, 2000, http://www.stanford.edu/~wacziarg/articles/nytdemoc/nytdemoc.html (accessed 11 December 2004). 9. Amartya Sen ...February 12, 2005, 106 http://www.jsonline.com/news/editorials/feb05/301034.asp (accessed August 22, 2005). Sen , Amartya . “Democracy as a

  18. Websites of Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    This article features websites related to biochemistry and molecular biology education. They include: (1) Scitable (www.nature.com/scitable); (2) Educause (www.educause.edu); (3) The Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2729); (4) European Conference on eLearning…

  19. Russian and CIS Library Internet Service: An Analysis of WWW-Server Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shraiberg, Yakov

    This paper traces the expansion of the Internet into Russian and Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) libraries from basic access to the development of World Wide Web (WWW) servers. An analysis of the most representative groups of library WWW-servers arranged by projects, by corporate library network, or by geographical characteristics is…

  20. Phase behavior of gemini surfactant hexylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) and polyelectrolyte NaPAA.

    PubMed

    Pi, Yingying; Shang, Yazhuo; Peng, Changjun; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying; Jiang, Jianwen

    2006-07-01

    The phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of gemini surfactant hexylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (12-6-12) and oppositely charged polyelectrolyte sodium polyacrylate (NaPAA) has been studied experimentally. Compared to the mixtures of the traditional surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and NaPAA, the gel phase region in the 12-6-12/NaPAA solution is larger. Element analysis reveals that NaPAA in the gel phase tends to replace the counterions of surfactant micelle and to release its own counterions. Spherical aggregates are observed in either top or bottom gel phase as detected by transmission electron microscopy. The addition of sodium bromide (NaBr) leads to a decrease in the gel phase region and the occurrence of a new cream phase.

  1. Rapid Reaction Peacekeeping Under a Blue Flag: A Viable Response to Today’s Global Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-14

    Plutarch , On the Fortunes of Alexander. As cited in Martha Nussbaum. Partriotism and Cosmopolitanism, available from www.phil.uga.edu/faculty/wolf/nussbaum1...Challenges for the 21st Century. United Nations Foundation. http://www.unfoundation.org/programs/humanitarian/challenges_pshr.asp. 3/25/02 Plutarch , On the

  2. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    2001-05-01

    Literature Cited

    1. National Science Education Standards; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1996; http://www. nap.edu/readingroom/books/nses/.
    2. Principles and Standards for School Mathematics; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Washington, DC, 2000; http://standards.nctm.org/.
    Visit CLIC, an Online Resource for High School Teachers at http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/HS/

  3. Assessing the performance of regional landslide early warning models: the EDuMaP method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, M.; Piciullo, L.

    2016-01-01

    A schematic of the components of regional early warning systems for rainfall-induced landslides is herein proposed, based on a clear distinction between warning models and warning systems. According to this framework an early warning system comprises a warning model as well as a monitoring and warning strategy, a communication strategy and an emergency plan. The paper proposes the evaluation of regional landslide warning models by means of an original approach, called the "event, duration matrix, performance" (EDuMaP) method, comprising three successive steps: identification and analysis of the events, i.e., landslide events and warning events derived from available landslides and warnings databases; definition and computation of a duration matrix, whose elements report the time associated with the occurrence of landslide events in relation to the occurrence of warning events, in their respective classes; evaluation of the early warning model performance by means of performance criteria and indicators applied to the duration matrix. During the first step the analyst identifies and classifies the landslide and warning events, according to their spatial and temporal characteristics, by means of a number of model parameters. In the second step, the analyst computes a time-based duration matrix with a number of rows and columns equal to the number of classes defined for the warning and landslide events, respectively. In the third step, the analyst computes a series of model performance indicators derived from a set of performance criteria, which need to be defined by considering, once again, the features of the warning model. The applicability, potentialities and limitations of the EDuMaP method are tested and discussed using real landslides and warning data from the municipal early warning system operating in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

  4. Water Dynamics in Gyroid Phases of Self-Assembled Gemini Surfactants

    DOE PAGES

    Roy, Santanu; Skoff, David; Perroni, Dominic V.; ...

    2016-02-14

    Water-mediated ion transport through functional nanoporous materials depends on the dynamics of water confined within a given nanostructured morphology. In this study, we investigate hydrogen-bonding dynamics of interfacial water within a ‘normal’ (Type I) lyotropic gyroid phase formed by a gemini dicarboxylate surfactant self-assembly using a combina- tion of 2DIR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that water dynamics in the normal gyroid phase is one order of magnitude slower than that in bulk water, due to specific interactions between water, the ionic surfactant headgroups, and counterions. However, the dynamics of water in the normal gyroid phasemore » are faster than those of water confined in a reverse spherical micelle of a sulfonate surfactant, given that the water pool in the reverse micelle and the water pore in the gyroid phase have roughly the same diameters. This difference in confined water dynamics likely arises from the significantly reduced curvature- induced frustration at the convex interfaces of the normal gyroid, as compared to the concave interfaces of a reverse spherical micelle. These detailed insights into confined water dynamics may guide the future design of artificial membranes that rapidly transport protons and other ions.« less

  5. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z⊙) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]λ4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  6. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-11 - EARTH SKY - OVERLAY - SINAI PENINSULA - POINTS OF INTEREST - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-09-14

    S66-54893 (14 Sept. 1966) --- Near East area as seen from the orbiting Gemini-11 spacecraft during its 26th revolution of Earth. The United Arab Republic (Egypt) is in foreground. Triangular-shaped area is the Sinai Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is at upper right. The Mediterranean Sea is at upper left. The Gulf of Suez separates Egypt from the Sinai Peninsula. The Red Sea is at bottom right. The Gulf of Aqaba is the body of water in right center of photograph separating the Sinai Peninsula and the Arabian Peninsula. The Dead Sea, Sea of Galilee, Jordan and Israel are in top center of picture. Iraq is at top right edge of photograph. Taken with a J. A. Maurer 70mm camera, using Eastman Kodak, Ektachrome, MS (S.O. 368) color film. Photo credit: NASA

  7. Absorption-enhancing effects of gemini surfactant on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed hydrophilic drugs including peptide and protein drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Alama, Tammam; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-29

    In general, the intestinal absorption of small hydrophilic molecules and macromolecules like peptides, after oral administration is very poor. Absorption enhancers are considered to be one of the most promising agents to enhance the intestinal absorption of drugs. In this research, we focused on a gemini surfactant, a new type of absorption enhancer. The intestinal absorption of drugs, with or without sodium dilauramidoglutamide lysine (SLG-30), a gemini surfactant, was examined by an in situ closed-loop method in rats. The intestinal absorption of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) was significantly enhanced in the presence of SLG-30, such effect being reversible. Furthermore, the calcium levels in the plasma significantly decreased when calcitonin was co-administered with SLG-30, suggestive of the increased intestinal absorption of calcitonin. In addition, no significant increase in the of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity or in protein release from the intestinal epithelium was observed in the presence of SLG-30, suggestive of the safety of this compound. These findings indicate that SLG-30 is an effective absorption-enhancer for improving the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, without causing serious damage to the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantification of cell cycle kinetics by EdU (5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine)-coupled-fluorescence-intensity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Marisa; Bekman, Evguenia; Braga, José; Rino, José; Santus, Renè; Filipe, Paulo L.; Sousa, Ana E.; Ferreira, João A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel single-deoxynucleoside-based assay that is easy to perform and provides accurate values for the absolute length (in units of time) of each of the cell cycle stages (G1, S and G2/M). This flow-cytometric assay takes advantage of the excellent stoichiometric properties of azide-fluorochrome detection of DNA substituted with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). We show that by pulsing cells with EdU for incremental periods of time maximal EdU-coupled fluorescence is reached when pulsing times match the length of S phase. These pulsing times, allowing labelling for a full S phase of a fraction of cells in asynchronous populations, provide accurate values for the absolute length of S phase. We characterized additional, lower intensity signals that allowed quantification of the absolute durations of G1 and G2 phases. Importantly, using this novel assay data on the lengths of G1, S and G2/M phases are obtained in parallel. Therefore, these parameters can be estimated within a time frame that is shorter than a full cell cycle. This method, which we designate as EdU-Coupled Fluorescence Intensity (E-CFI) analysis, was successfully applied to cell types with distinctive cell cycle features and shows excellent agreement with established methodologies for analysis of cell cycle kinetics. PMID:28465489

  9. Asia-Pacific: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    www.rsis.edu.sg/publications/Perspective/RSIS0842009.pdf Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Avoiding a Tempest in the South China Sea." Council on Foreign Relations...September 2, 2010. http://www.cfr.org/china/avoiding- tempest -south-china- sea/p22858 Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Growing U.S. Role in South China Sea

  10. GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-III - WEIGHTLESSNESS EXPERIMENT - AMES RESEARCH CENTER (ARC), CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-03-19

    S65-18766 (March 1965) --- Diagram of experiment planned for the Gemini-Titan 3 mission scheduled on March 23, 1965, to find out if there are effects of weightlessness on individual living cells. The round canister (top) shows the experiment package. It will contain eight identical chambers, each with sections of sperm, eggs and fixative. Cells are eggs of the spiny, black sea animal, the sea urchin. Bottom panel shows the three stages of each chamber. From left in the first stage, sperm, eggs and fixative are separated. By turning the handle, astronauts will fertilize a certain portion of the eggs, which will begin to divide. At 20 minutes after launch, further turns of the handle will force fixative into two chambers and stop cell division. At 70 minutes after launch, cell division in four more chambers will be stopped, and just prior to re-entry, growth of the remaining two chambers will be terminated by a turn of the handle. This system will allow study after the flight of how cells divided after various time periods in weightlessness. Abnormalities would suggest weightlessness effects on living tissue and possible hazard to prolonged manned spaceflight.

  11. Effects of the Use of Lecture Method and Wordle on the Performance of Students Taught Curriculum Studies 1: EDU222

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afurobi, Ada; Izuagba, Angela; Obiefuna, Carol; Ifegbo, Perpetua

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to determine the effects of the use of Wordle and lecture method in teaching Curriculum Studies 1 EDU: 222 on students' performance. 100 students were purposively selected and to ensure homogeneity and consistency, the WRub was given to the 100 students and they were then grouped based on their performance--above average, average…

  12. CancerNet redistribution via WWW.

    PubMed

    Quade, G; Püschel, N; Far, F

    1996-01-01

    CancerNet from the National Cancer Institute contains nearly 500 ASCII-files, updated monthly, with up-to-date information about cancer and the "Golden Standard" in tumor therapy. Perl scripts are used to convert these files to HTML-documents. A complex algorithm, using regular expression matching and extensive exception handling, detects headlines, listings and other constructs of the original ASCII-text and converts them into their HTML-counterparts. A table of contents is also created during the process. The resulting files are indexed for full-text search via WAIS. Building the complete CancerNet WWW redistribution takes less than two hours with a minimum of manual work. For 26,000 requests of information from our service per month the average costs for the worldwide delivery of one document is about 19 cents.

  13. IDO1 in cancer: a Gemini of immune checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lijie; Ladomersky, Erik; Lenzen, Alicia; Nguyen, Brenda; Patel, Ricky; Lauing, Kristen L; Wu, Meijing; Wainwright, Derek A

    2018-01-29

    Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a rate-limiting metabolic enzyme that converts the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) into downstream catabolites known as kynurenines. Coincidently, numerous studies have demonstrated that IDO1 is highly expressed in multiple types of human cancer. Preclinical studies have further introduced an interesting paradox: while single-agent treatment with IDO1 enzyme inhibitor has a negligible effect on decreasing the established cancer burden, approaches combining select therapies with IDO1 blockade tend to yield a synergistic benefit against tumor growth and/or animal subject survival. Given the high expression of IDO1 among multiple cancer types along with the lack of monotherapeutic efficacy, these data suggest that there is a more complex mechanism of action than previously appreciated. Similar to the dual faces of the astrological Gemini, we highlight the multiple roles of IDO1 and review its canonical association with IDO1-dependent tryptophan metabolism, as well as documented evidence confirming the dispensability of enzyme activity for its immunosuppressive effects. The gene transcript levels for IDO1 highlight its strong association with T-cell infiltration, but the lack of a universal prognostic significance among all cancer subtypes. Finally, ongoing clinical trials are discussed with consideration of IDO1-targeting strategies that enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer patients.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 29 January 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.143.

  14. Asiago spectroscopic classification of PSN J02051332+0606084 as Type Ib/c supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, L.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Tomasella, L.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Terreran, G.; Turatto, M.

    2015-09-01

    The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic classification of PSN J02051332+0606084. Informations on this transient are also available from the "Bright Supernova" website (http://www.rochesterastronomy.org/snimages/), and the CBAT Transient Object Followup Reports (http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/index.html).

  15. The complex jet- and bar-perturbed kinematics in NGC 3393 as revealed with ALMA and GEMINI-GMOS/IFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlez, Carolina; Nagar, Neil M.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Lena, Davide; Mundell, C. G.; Elvis, Martin S.

    2018-06-01

    NGC 3393, a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy with nuclear radio jets, large-scale and nuclear bars, and a posited secondary super massive black hole, provides an interesting laboratory to test the physics of inflows and outflows. Here we present and analyse the molecular gas (ALMA observations of CO J:2-1 emission over a field of view (FOV) of 45" × 45", at 0."56 (143 pc) spatial and 5 km/s spectral resolution), ionised gas and stars (GEMINI-GMOS/IFU; over a FOV of 4" × 5", at 0."62 (159 pc) spatial and 23 km/s spectral resolution) in NGC 3393. The ionised gas emission, detected over the complete GEMINI-GMOS FOV, has three identifiable kinematic components. A narrow (σ < 115 km/s) component present in the complete FOV, which is consistent with rotation in the galaxy disk. A broad (σ > 115 km/s) redshifted component, detected near the NE and SW radio lobes; which we interpret as a radio jet driven outflow. And a broad (σ > 115 km/s) blueshifted component that shows high velocities in a region perpendicular to the radio jet axis; we interpret this as an equatorial outflow. The CO J:2-1 emission is detected in spiral arms on 5" - 20" scales, and in two disturbed circumnuclear regions. The molecular kinematics in the spiral arms can be explained by rotation. The highly disturbed kinematics of the inner region can be explained by perturbations induced by the nuclear bar and interactions with the large scale bar. We find no evidence for, but cannot strongly rule out, the presence of the posited secondary black hole.

  16. A WWW-Based Archive and Retrieval System for Multimedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyon, J.; Sorensen, S.; Martin, M.; Kawasaki, K.; Takacs, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the Data Distribution Laboratory (DDL) and discusses issues involved in building multimedia CD-ROMs. It describes the modeling philosophy for cataloging multimedia products and the worldwide-web (WWW)-based multimedia archive and retrieval system (Webcat) built on that model.

  17. A World Wide Web (WWW) server database engine for an organelle database, MitoDat.

    PubMed

    Lemkin, P F; Chipperfield, M; Merril, C; Zullo, S

    1996-03-01

    We describe a simple database search engine "dbEngine" which may be used to quickly create a searchable database on a World Wide Web (WWW) server. Data may be prepared from spreadsheet programs (such as Excel, etc.) or from tables exported from relationship database systems. This Common Gateway Interface (CGI-BIN) program is used with a WWW server such as available commercially, or from National Center for Supercomputer Algorithms (NCSA) or CERN. Its capabilities include: (i) searching records by combinations of terms connected with ANDs or ORs; (ii) returning search results as hypertext links to other WWW database servers; (iii) mapping lists of literature reference identifiers to the full references; (iv) creating bidirectional hypertext links between pictures and the database. DbEngine has been used to support the MitoDat database (Mendelian and non-Mendelian inheritance associated with the Mitochondrion) on the WWW.

  18. A Framework for WWW Query Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Binghui Helen; Wharton, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Query processing is the most common operation in a DBMS. Sophisticated query processing has been mainly targeted at a single enterprise environment providing centralized control over data and metadata. Submitting queries by anonymous users on the web is different in such a way that load balancing or DBMS' accessing control becomes the key issue. This paper provides a solution by introducing a framework for WWW query processing. The success of this framework lies in the utilization of query optimization techniques and the ontological approach. This methodology has proved to be cost effective at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC).

  19. Web-phreeq: a WWW instructional tool for modeling the distribution of chemical species in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini-Eidukat, Bernhardt; Yahin, Andrew

    1999-05-01

    A WWW-based tool, WEB-PHREEQ, was developed for classroom teaching and for routine calculation of low temperature aqueous speciation. Accessible with any computer that has an internet-connected forms-capable WWW-browser, WEB-PHREEQ provides user interface and other support for modeling, creates a properly formatted input file, passes it to the public domain program PHREEQC and returns the output to the WWW browser. Users can calculate the equilibrium speciation of a solution over a range of temperatures or can react solid minerals or gases with a particular water and examine the resulting chemistry. WEB-PHREEQ is one of a number of interactive distributed-computing programs available on the WWW that are of interest to geoscientists.

  20. Will the No Child Left Behind Act Promote Direct Instruction of Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hake, Richard

    2005-03-01

    Education research in physics at the high school and undergraduate level strongly suggests that interactive engagement enhances students' conceptual understanding much more than traditional Direct Science Instruction (DSI). Similar conclusions can be drawn from K-8 science-education research. Nevertheless, DSI predominates in CA because of the DSI- orientation of the CA State Board of Education and Curriculum Commission [1]. Likewise the U.S. Dept. of Education's (USDE's): (a) DSI-orientation as demonstrated by its recent national-education summit showcasing of the research of Klahr and Nigam [2]; and (b) science achievement testing starting in 2007; threatens to promote DSI nationwide. It might be hoped that NRC's expert science education committees will steer the USDE away from promoting DSI, the antithesis of the NRC's own recommendations for inquiry methods. [1] R.R. Hake. ``Direct Science Instruction Suffers a Setback in California - Or Does It?" (2004), <ł http://www.physics.indiana.edu/˜hake/DirInstSetback-041104f.pdf>. [2] Klahr, D. & M. Nigam. 2004. ``The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effects of direct instruction and discovery learning" (2004), www.psy.cmu.edu/faculty/klahr/papers.html http://www.psy.cmu.edu/faculty/klahr/papers.html>.

  1. The lick-index calibration of the Gemini multi-object spectrographs

    SciTech Connect

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Miller, Bryan W.; Trancho, Gelys

    2013-06-01

    We present the calibration of the spectroscopic Lick/IDS standard line-index system for measurements obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs known as GMOS-North and GMOS-South. We provide linear correction functions for each of the 25 standard Lick line indices for the B600 grism and two instrumental setups, one with 0.''5 slit width and 1 × 1 CCD pixel binning (corresponding to ∼2.5 Å spectral resolution) and the other with 0.''75 slit width and 2 × 2 binning (∼4 Å). We find small and well-defined correction terms for the set of Balmer indices Hβ, Hγ {sub A}, and Hδ {sub A} alongmore » with the metallicity sensitive indices Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406, Mg{sub 2}, and Mgb that are widely used for stellar population diagnostics of distant stellar systems. We find other indices that sample molecular absorption bands, such as TiO{sub 1} and TiO{sub 2}, with very wide wavelength coverage or indices that sample very weak molecular and atomic absorption features, such as Mg{sub 1}, as well as indices with particularly narrow passband definitions, such as Fe4384, Ca4455, Fe4531, Ca4227, and Fe5782, which are less robustly calibrated. These indices should be used with caution.« less

  2. Gemini Spectroscopy of Supernovae from the Supernova Legacy Survey: Improving High-Redshift Supernova Selection and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, D. A.; Sullivan, M.; Perrett, K.; Bronder, T. J.; Hook, I. M.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Balam, D.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Lafoux, H.; Neill, J. D.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Knop, R.; McMahon, R. G.; Perlmutter, S.; Walton, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    We present new techniques for improving the efficiency of supernova (SN) classification at high redshift using 64 candidates observed at Gemini North and South during the first year of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). The SNLS is an ongoing 5 year project with the goal of measuring the equation of state of dark energy by discovering and following over 700 high-redshift SNe Ia using data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. We achieve an improvement in the SN Ia spectroscopic confirmation rate: at Gemini 71% of candidates are now confirmed as SNe Ia, compared to 54% using the methods of previous surveys. This is despite the comparatively high redshift of this sample, in which the median SN Ia redshift is z=0.81 (0.155<=z<=1.01). These improvements were realized because we use the unprecedented color coverage and light curve sampling of the SNLS to predict whether a candidate is a SN Ia and to estimate its redshift, before obtaining a spectrum, using a new technique called the ``SN photo-z.'' In addition, we have improved techniques for galaxy subtraction and SN template χ2 fitting, allowing us to identify candidates even when they are only 15% as bright as the host galaxy. The largest impediment to SN identification is found to be host galaxy contamination of the spectrum-when the SN was at least as bright as the underlying host galaxy the target was identified more than 90% of the time. However, even SNe in bright host galaxies can be easily identified in good seeing conditions. When the image quality was better than 0.55", the candidate was identified 88% of the time. Over the 5 year course of the survey, using the selection techniques presented here, we will be able to add ~170 more confirmed SNe Ia than would be possible using previous methods. APC, 11 Place Marcelin Berthelot, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

  3. Study of Navy Recruiting Simulation Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    thinking” (p. 205). E. ROLE-PLAY Role-play “is a technology for intensifying and accelerating learning” (Blatner, 2009, p. 18). Adapted from psychodrama ...American Society of Group Psychotherapy and Psychodrama . (n.d.). Psychodrama . Retrieved March 5, 2010, from National Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies...nl.edu: http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_AdultLear ning.cfm 106 Casey, A. M. (2001). Psychodrama : Applied role

  4. Physical Modeling for Processing Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Hyperspectral Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    Physical Modeling for Processing Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer ( GIFTS ) Hyperspectral Data Dr. Allen H.-L. Huang...ssec.wisc.edu Award Number: N000140110850 Grant Number: 144KE70 http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/ gifts /navy/ LONG-TERM GOALS This Office of Naval...objective of this DoD research effort is to develop and demonstrate a fully functional GIFTS hyperspectral data processing system with the potential for a

  5. The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project: Redshift 0.2–1.0 Cluster Sample, X-Ray Data, and Optical Photometry Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Hibon, Pascale; Nielsen, Louise D.; Takamiya, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    The Gemini/HST Galaxy Cluster Project (GCP) covers 14 z = 0.2–1.0 clusters with X-ray luminosity of {L}500≥slant {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 in the 0.1–2.4 keV band. In this paper, we provide homogeneously calibrated X-ray luminosities, masses, and radii, and we present the complete catalog of the ground-based photometry for the GCP clusters. The clusters were observed with either Gemini North or South in three or four of the optical passbands g‧, r‧, i‧, and z‧. The photometric catalog includes consistently calibrated total magnitudes, colors, and geometrical parameters. The photometry reaches ≈25 mag in the passband closest to the rest-frame B band. We summarize comparisons of our photometry with data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We describe the sample selection for our spectroscopic observations, and establish the calibrations to obtain rest-frame magnitudes and colors. Finally, we derive the color–magnitude relations for the clusters, and briefly discuss these in the context of evolution with redshift. Consistent with our results based on spectroscopic data, the color–magnitude relations support passive evolution of the red sequence galaxies. The absence of change in the slope with redshift constrains the allowable age variation along the red sequence to <0.05 dex between the brightest cluster galaxies and those four magnitudes fainter. This paper serves as the main reference for the GCP cluster and galaxy selection, X-ray data, and ground-based photometry.

  6. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD): Effective Education and Outreach Website at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/PSRdiscoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2000-01-01

    Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website reports the latest research about planets, meteorites, and other solar system bodies being made by NASA-sponsored scientists. In-depth articles explain research results and give insights to contemporary questions in planetary science.

  7. EduGeoPark: international students exchanges for promoting Earth Science knowledge and Geoheritage awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Magagna, Alessandra; Dellarole, Edoardo; Kiuttu, Mikko

    2015-04-01

    Geoparks are the ideal destination for international study tours based on the sustainable tourism concept, in which the travel is conceived as an opportunity for sharing both scientific knowledge and intangible and tangible culture. Equally, they are the appropriate places for testing and practicing innovative educational strategies, shareable in an international context. The innovative idea of EduGeoPark project is to involve students and teachers in research activities in Geoparks, including sampling and digital mapping: practical field and laboratory activities for stimulating the geological interpretation of an unknown territory. An approach devoted to improve teamwork and problem solving competences. By means of a partnerships between the Rokua (Finland) and the Sesia-Val Grande (Italy) Geoparks, an exchange program for Secondary School's students started during 2014 (Vaala High School; I.I.S. Luigi Cobianchi High School in Verbania). The study and the visit of both territories was an opportunity for students to observe some relevant geological elements and processes that do not exist in their own country. Moreover, the hosting in families allowed them to feel the culture of the area. Teachers and staff of the Geoparks led field trips to the main geological and cultural attractions of both areas. During the activities, students used mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) and GPS to track field trips, to catch and gather georeferenced data and pictures. They acted as researchers, by using both digital and traditional tools: they observed, asked questions, gathered data, and made hypothesis. By sharing ideas, together with the local guides, they reconstructed the cultural and geological history of the area. Students appreciated the experience: not only they had the opportunity of visiting a different country, but also of deepening the geological awareness on their own territory. EduGeoPark project is opening the participation to other Geoparks, in order to

  8. Extending a Hands-On Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mestre, Neville

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a "hands-on task" called Number Tiles, which is Task 43 in the collection constructed for the Mathematics Task Centre Project, and available at www.blackdouglas.com.au or www.curriculum.edu.au. This task is rich in possibilities and directions. It should be used as a planned curriculum experience at several year levels to…

  9. Novel serine-based gemini surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers of local anesthetics: A comprehensive study on structure-activity relationships, molecular dynamics and dermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Raquel S; Cova, Tânia F G G; Silva, Sérgio M C; Oliveira, Rita; do Vale, M Luísa C; Marques, Eduardo F; Pais, Alberto A C C; Veiga, Francisco J B

    2015-06-01

    This work aims at studying the efficacy of a series of novel biocompatible, serine-based surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers for two different local anesthetics, tetracaine and ropivacaine, combining an experimental and computational approach. The surfactants consist of gemini molecules structurally related, but with variations in headgroup charge (nonionic vs. cationic) and in the hydrocarbon chain lengths (main and spacer chains). In vitro permeation and molecular dynamics studies combined with cytotoxicity profiles were performed to investigate the permeation of both drugs, probe skin integrity, and rationalize the interactions at molecular level. Results show that these enhancers do not have significant deleterious effects on the skin structure and do not cause relevant changes on cell viability. Permeation across the skin is clearly improved using some of the selected serine-based gemini surfactants, namely the cationic ones with long alkyl chains and shorter spacer. This is noteworthy in the case of ropivacaine hydrochloride, which is not easily administered through the stratum corneum. Molecular dynamics results provide a mechanistic view of the surfactant action on lipid membranes that essentially corroborate the experimental observations. Overall, this study suggests the viability of these serine-based surfactants as suitable and promising delivery agents in pharmaceutical formulations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. WWW Entrez: A Hypertext Retrieval Tool for Molecular Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Jonathan A.; Kans, Jonathan A.; Schuler, Gregory D.

    This article describes the World Wide Web (WWW) Entrez server which is based upon the National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Entrez retrieval database and software. Entrez is a molecular sequence retrieval system that contains an integrated view of portions of Medline and all publicly available nucleotide and protein databases,…

  11. ASTRONAUT EDWARD H. WHITE II - GEMINI-TITAN (GT)-IV - ZERO GRAVITY - OUTER SPACE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-20

    S65-30427 (3 June 1965) --- Astronaut Edward H. White II, pilot for the Gemini-Titan 4 (GT-4) spaceflight, floats in the zero-gravity of space during the third revolution of the GT-4 spacecraft. White wears a specially designed spacesuit. His face is shaded by a gold-plated visor to protect him from unfiltered rays of the sun. In his right hand he carries a Hand-Held Self-Maneuvering Unit (HHSMU) that gives him control over his movements in space. White also wears an emergency oxygen chest pack; and he carries a camera mounted on the HHSMU for taking pictures of the sky, Earth and the GT-4 spacecraft. He is secured to the spacecraft by a 25-feet umbilical line and a 23-feet tether line. Both lines are wrapped together in gold tape to form one cord. Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot, remained inside the spacecraft during the extravehicular activity (EVA). Photo credit: NASA EDITOR'S NOTE: Astronaut Edward H. White II died in the Apollo/Saturn 204 fire at Cape Kennedy on Jan. 27, 1967.

  12. Ionospheric Electron/Ion Densities Temperatures on CD-ROM and WWW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Papitashvili, Natasha; Schar, Bill; Grebowsky, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    As part of this project a large volume of ionospheric satellite insitu data from the sixties, seventies and early eighties were made accessible online in ASCII format for public use. This includes 14 data sets from the BE-B, Alouette 2, DME-A, AE-B, ISIS-1, ISIS-2, OGO-6, DE-2, AEROS-A, AE-C, AE-D, AE-E, and Hinotori satellites. The original data existed in various machine-specific, highly compressed, binary encoding on 7-, or 9-track magnetic tapes. The data were decoded and converted to a common ASCII data format, solar and magnetic indices were added, and some quality control measures were taken. The original intent of producing CD-ROMs with these data was overtaken by the rapid development of the Internet. Most users now prefer to obtain the data directly online and greatly value WWW-interfaces to browse, plot and subset the data. Accordingly the data were made available online on the anonymous ftp site of NASA's National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at ftp://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/ and on NSSDC's ATMOWeb (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmoweb/), a WWW-interface for plotting, subsetting, and downloading the data. Several new features were implemented into ATMOWeb as part of this project including a filtering and scatter plot capability. The availability of this new database and WWW system was announced through several electronic mailer (AGU, CEDAR, IRI, etc) and through talks and posters during scientific meetings.

  13. CFD Data Sets on the WWW for Education and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division at NASA Ames Research Center has begun the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) data set archive on the World Wide Web (WWW) at URL http://www.nas.nasa.gov/NAS/DataSets/. Data sets are integrated with related information such as research papers, metadata, visualizations, etc. In this paper, four classes of users are identified and discussed: students, visualization developers, CFD practitioners, and management. Bandwidth and security issues are briefly reviewed and the status of the archive as of May 1995 is examined. Routine network distribution of data sets is likely to have profound implications for the conduct of science. The exact nature of these changes is subject to speculation, but the ability for anyone to examine the data, in addition to the investigator's analysis, may well play an important role in the future.

  14. The WWW Cabinet of Curiosities: A Serendipitous Research Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes that the WWW is able to be fruitfully understood as a research tool when we utilise the metaphor of the cabinet of curiosities, the wunderkammer. It unpeels some of the research attributes of the metaphor as it reveals the multiplicity of connectivity on the web that provides serendipitous interactions between unexpected…

  15. High spatial and spectral resolution measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions using Gemini-North-TEXES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, J. A.; Orton, G. S.; Greathouse, T. K.; Lacy, J.; Giles, R.; Fletcher, L. N.; Vogt, M.; Irwin, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Jupiter exhibits auroral emission at a multitude of wavelengths. Auroral emission at X-ray, ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths demonstrate the precipitation of ion and electrons in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, at altitudes exceeding 250 km above the 1-bar level. Enhanced mid-infrared emission of CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and further hydrocarbons is also observed coincident with Jupiter's auroral regions. Retrieval analyses of infrared spectra from IRTF-TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility) indicate strong heating at the 1-mbar level and evidence of ion-neutral chemistry, which enriches the abundances of unsaturated hydrocarbons (Sinclair et al., 2017b, doi:10.1002/2017GL073529, Sinclair et al., 2017c (under review)). The extent to which these phenomena in the stratosphere are correlated and coupled physically with the shorter-wavelength auroral emission originating from higher altitudes has been a challenge due to the limited spatial resolution available on the IRTF. Smaller-scale features observed in the near-infrared and ultraviolet emission, such as the main `oval', transient `swirls' and dusk-active regions within the main oval (e.g. Stallard et al., 2014, doi:10.1016/j/Icarus.2015.12.044, Nichols et al., 2017, doi: 10.1002/2017GL073029) are potentially being blurred in the mid-infrared by the diffraction-limited resolution (0.7") of IRTF's 3-metre primary aperture. However, on March 17-19th 2017, we obtained spectral measurements of H2 S(1), CH4, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6 emission of Jupiter's high latitudes using TEXES on Gemini-North, which has a 8-metre primary aperture. This rare opportunity combines the superior spectral resolving power of TEXES and the high spatial resolution provided by Gemini-North's 8-metre aperture. We will perform a retrieval analyses to determine the 3D distributions of temperature, C2H2, C2H4 and C2H6. The morphology will be compared with near-contemporaneous measurements of H3+ emission from

  16. GNIRS-DQS: A Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph Distant Quasar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brandon; Shemmer, Ohad; Brotherton, Michael S.; Andruchow, Ileana; Boroson, Todd A.; Brandt, W. Niel; Cellone, Sergio; Ferrero, Gabriel; Gallagher, Sarah; Green, Richard F.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lira, Paulina; Myers, Adam D.; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Runnoe, Jessie; Schneider, Donald P.; Shen, Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Willott, Chris J.; Wills, Beverley J.

    2018-06-01

    We describe an ongoing three-year Gemini survey, launched in 2017, that will obtain near-infrared spectroscopy of 416 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars between redshifts of 1.5 and 3.5 in the ~1.0-2.5 μm band. These spectra will cover critical diagnostic emission lines, such as Mg II, Hβ, and [O III], in each source. This project will more than double the existing inventory of near-infrared spectra of luminous quasars at these redshifts, including the era of fast quasar growth. Additional rest frame ultraviolet coverage of at least the C IV emission line is provided by the SDSS spectrum of each source. We will utilize the spectroscopic inventory to determine the most accurate and precise quasar black hole masses, accretion rates, and redshifts, and use the results to derive improved prescriptions for UV-based proxies for these parameters. The improved redshifts will establish velocities of quasar outflows that interact with the host galaxies, and will help constrain how imprecise distance estimates bias quasar clustering measurements. Furthermore, our measurements will facilitate a more complete understanding of how the rest-frame UV-optical spectral properties depend on redshift and luminosity, and test whether the physical properties of the quasar central engine evolve over cosmic time. We will make our data immediately available to the public, provide reduced spectra via a dedicated website, and produce a catalog of measurements and fundamental quasar properties.

  17. Using Galaxy to Perform Large-Scale Interactive Data Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hillman-Jackson, Jennifer; Clements, Dave; Blankenberg, Daniel; Taylor, James; Nekrutenko, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Innovations in biomedical research technologies continue to provide experimental biologists with novel and increasingly large genomic and high-throughput data resources to be analyzed. As creating and obtaining data has become easier, the key decision faced by many researchers is a practical one: where and how should an analysis be performed? Datasets are large and analysis tool set-up and use is riddled with complexities outside of the scope of core research activities. The authors believe that Galaxy (galaxyproject.org) provides a powerful solution that simplifies data acquisition and analysis in an intuitive web-application, granting all researchers access to key informatics tools previously only available to computational specialists working in Unix-based environments. We will demonstrate through a series of biomedically relevant protocols how Galaxy specifically brings together 1) data retrieval from public and private sources, for example, UCSC’s Eukaryote and Microbial Genome Browsers (genome.ucsc.edu), 2) custom tools (wrapped Unix functions, format standardization/conversions, interval operations) and 3rd party analysis tools, for example, Bowtie/Tuxedo Suite (bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net), Lastz (www.bx.psu.edu/~rsharris/lastz/), SAMTools (samtools.sourceforge.net), FASTX-toolkit (hannonlab.cshl.edu/fastx_toolkit), and MACS (liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS), and creates results formatted for visualization in tools such as the Galaxy Track Browser (GTB, galaxyproject.org/wiki/Learn/Visualization), UCSC Genome Browser (genome.ucsc.edu), Ensembl (www.ensembl.org), and GeneTrack (genetrack.bx.psu.edu). Galaxy rapidly has become the most popular choice for integrated next generation sequencing (NGS) analytics and collaboration, where users can perform, document, and share complex analysis within a single interface in an unprecedented number of ways. PMID:18428782

  18. Discovery and spectroscopy of the young jovian planet 51 Eri b with the Gemini Planet Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, B.; Graham, J. R.; Barman, T.; De Rosa, R. J.; Konopacky, Q.; Marley, M. S.; Marois, C.; Nielsen, E. L.; Pueyo, L.; Rajan, A.; Rameau, J.; Saumon, D.; Wang, J. J.; Patience, J.; Ammons, M.; Arriaga, P.; Artigau, E.; Beckwith, S.; Brewster, J.; Bruzzone, S.; Bulger, J.; Burningham, B.; Burrows, A. S.; Chen, C.; Chiang, E.; Chilcote, J. K.; Dawson, R. I.; Dong, R.; Doyon, R.; Draper, Z. H.; Duchêne, G.; Esposito, T. M.; Fabrycky, D.; Fitzgerald, M. P.; Follette, K. B.; Fortney, J. J.; Gerard, B.; Goodsell, S.; Greenbaum, A. Z.; Hibon, P.; Hinkley, S.; Cotten, T. H.; Hung, L.-W.; Ingraham, P.; Johnson-Groh, M.; Kalas, P.; Lafreniere, D.; Larkin, J. E.; Lee, J.; Line, M.; Long, D.; Maire, J.; Marchis, F.; Matthews, B. C.; Max, C. E.; Metchev, S.; Millar-Blanchaer, M. A.; Mittal, T.; Morley, C. V.; Morzinski, K. M.; Murray-Clay, R.; Oppenheimer, R.; Palmer, D. W.; Patel, R.; Perrin, M. D.; Poyneer, L. A.; Rafikov, R. R.; Rantakyrö, F. T.; Rice, E. L.; Rojo, P.; Rudy, A. R.; Ruffio, J.-B.; Ruiz, M. T.; Sadakuni, N.; Saddlemyer, L.; Salama, M.; Savransky, D.; Schneider, A. C.; Sivaramakrishnan, A.; Song, I.; Soummer, R.; Thomas, S.; Vasisht, G.; Wallace, J. K.; Ward-Duong, K.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Wolff, S. G.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-10-01

    Directly detecting thermal emission from young extrasolar planets allows measurement of their atmospheric compositions and luminosities, which are influenced by their formation mechanisms. Using the Gemini Planet Imager, we discovered a planet orbiting the ~20-million-year-old star 51 Eridani at a projected separation of 13 astronomical units. Near-infrared observations show a spectrum with strong methane and water-vapor absorption. Modeling of the spectra and photometry yields a luminosity (normalized by the luminosity of the Sun) of 1.6 to 4.0 × 10-6 and an effective temperature of 600 to 750 kelvin. For this age and luminosity, “hot-start” formation models indicate a mass twice that of Jupiter. This planet also has a sufficiently low luminosity to be consistent with the “cold-start” core-accretion process that may have formed Jupiter.

  19. Achieving Agility and Stability in Large-Scale Software Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-16

    temporary team is assigned to prepare layers and frameworks for future feature teams. Presentation Layer Domain Layer Data Access Layer...http://www.sei.cmu.edu/training/ elearning ~ Software Engineering Institute CarnegieMellon

  20. 33 CFR 40.1 - Program for appointing cadets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appointed by the Superintendent of the Coast Guard Academy, which reviews each applicant's personal... appointment. Applications must be submitted online at http://www.uscga.edu using Coast Guard forms CGA-14, CGA...