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Sample records for vaccine booster dose

  1. Hepatitis B vaccine booster dose: low-dose recombinant hepatitis B vaccines as a booster dose.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J P; MacArthy, P; Rudock, A; Fogarty, J P; Dowd, H; Legters, L J; Perine, P L

    1997-06-01

    The timing and best regimen for a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine have not been determined. Two studies were conducted to determine the response to a booster dose of 5 micrograms recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. In the first study, a 5 micrograms (0.5 ml) dose of Recombivax HB was administered intramuscularly 38 months after the initial dose to 71 volunteers. In a second study, we offered a 5 micrograms dose recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, either Recombivax HB (0.5 ml) or Engerix B (0.25 ml), to students who had previously been immunized with three doses of vaccine. In the first study, among the 44 persons for whom postbooster sera were available, the geometric mean concentration of anti-hepatitis B surface antigens increased from 42 to 2090 mIU/ml after the 5 micrograms (0.5 ml) dose of Recombivax. In the second study, after a 5 micrograms (0.5 ml) dose of Recombivax, the geometric mean concentration increased from 43 to 990 mIU/ml (n = 48), and in the group that received a 5 micrograms (0.25 ml) dose of Engerix B, the concentration increased from 83 to 2337 mIU/ml (n = 45) (p = 0.18 for postdose concentrations). A 5 micrograms dose of recombinant vaccine results in an excellent booster response at a cost one fourth to one half that of a full 1 ml dose of vaccine.

  2. Booster dose vaccination for preventing hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Hooshmand, Elham

    2016-06-07

    Antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) wane over time following hepatitis B immunisation; hence, it is unclear whether people vaccinated in three-dose or four-dose schedules of the hepatitis B vaccine are still immune when the hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) level in their body is undetectable, or lower than the level usually considered protective. This question may potentially be answered indirectly by measuring the anamnestic immune response to a booster dose of vaccine. The term 'booster' (or revaccination) refers to an additional dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) given some time post-primary vaccination to induce immune memory and improve protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. To assess the benefits and harms of booster dose hepatitis B vaccination, more than five years after the primary vaccination, for preventing HBV infection in healthy individuals previously vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine, and with hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels below 10 mIU/mL. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, conference databases, and reference lists of articles to January 2016. We also contacted authors of articles. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials (May 2016). Randomised clinical trials addressing anamnestic immune response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine, more than five years after the primary vaccination, in apparently healthy participants, vaccinated in a three-dose or four-dose schedule of the hepatitis B vaccine during the primary vaccination, without receiving an additional dose or immunoglobulin. Both review authors decided if the identified studies met the inclusion criteria or not. Primary outcomes included the proportion of participants

  3. Booster and higher antigen doses of inactivated influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica A; Tincher, Lindsey B; Lowe, Denise K

    2013-12-01

    To review the literature regarding booster or higher doses of influenza antigen for increasing immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013) was searched using the terms immunize, influenza, vaccine, and HIV or AIDS in combination with two-dose, booster-dose, increased antigen, or high-dose. One trial of booster dosing with standard doses (SDs) of IIV, trivalent (IIV3); 2 trials of booster dosing with intermediate doses (ID) of H1N1 IIV or IIV3; and 1 trial of high-dose (HD) IIV3 were identified. Trials administering 2-dose, booster-dose, or increased antigen of influenza vaccine to patients with HIV were reviewed. Because adjuvanted IIV is not available and IIV, quadrivalent was recently approved in the United States, studies evaluating these vaccines were excluded. HIV-infected individuals are at high risk for influenza-related complications; however, vaccination with SD IIV may not confer optimal protection. It has been postulated that booster or higher doses of influenza antigen may lead to increased immunogenicity. When ID and SD or ID with boosters were evaluated in HIV-infected patients, significant increases in surrogate markers for influenza protection were not achieved. However, HD IIV3 did result in significant increases in seroprotective antibody levels, though 'clinical' influenza was not evaluated. Currently, evidence is insufficient to reach conclusions about the efficacy of booster dosing, ID, or HD influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Trials evaluating booster or higher-antigen doses of IIV for 'clinical' influenza are necessary before routinely recommending for HIV-infected patients.

  4. [Immune response to one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in college students].

    PubMed

    Liao, Z; Feng, X W; Liu, X E; Zhou, Y S; Wen, H R; Peng, S H; Zhang, Y X; Xu, B; Zhuang, H; Chen, H Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Methods: The subjects were selected from participants in the clinical trial of immunogenicity of inactivated and attenuated live hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Eligible subjects were those who had received one dose of inactivated or attenuated hepatitis A vaccine, could be contacted and were sero-negative before primary vaccination. All qualified subjects were immunized with one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. The blood samples were collected before booster dose vaccination and 28 days after the immunization. Anti-HAV antibody titer ≥20 mIU/ml was considered to be sero-protected against hepatitis A virus. Results: The GMCs in the inactivated HAV vaccine group and attenuated live vaccine group before booster dose vaccination were 70.80 mIU/ml and 50.12 mIU/ml, respectively, and the sero-protection rates were 94.7 % and 65.0 % , respectively. After the vaccination of the booster dose, the sero-protection rates in both groups were 100.0 % , and the GMCs were 2 816.09 mIU/ml and 2 654.55 mIU/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The GMCs and sero-protection rates of anti-HAV antibody in young adults declined after three years of the primary vaccination. However, the higher GMC and sero-protection rate were observed in the inactivated vaccine group than in the attenuated live vaccine group. Significant increases of GMC levels were observed in both groups after one booster dose vaccination.

  5. The effect of a booster dose of quadrivalent or bivalent HPV vaccine when administered to girls previously vaccinated with two doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Vladimir; Sauvageau, Chantal; Boulianne, Nicole; De Serres, Gatson; Crajden, Mel; Ouakki, Manale; Trevisan, Andrea; Dionne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, blinded study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of Gardasil (qHPV) or Cervarix (bHPV) when administered to 12-13 year-old girls who were vaccinated at the age of 9-10 with 2 doses of qHPV (0-6 months). 366 out of 416 eligible girls participated in this follow-up study. Antibody titers were measured just before and one month post-booster. A Luminex Total IgG assay was used for antibody assessment and results are presented in Liminex Units (LU). Three years post-primary vaccination, 99-100% of subjects had detectable antibodies to 4HPV genotypes included in the qHPV with GMTs varying from 50 to 322 LU depending on genotype. After a booster dose of qHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to genotypes included in the vaccine was observed in 88-98% of subjects. Post-booster GMTs varied from 1666 to 4536 LU depending on genotype. These GMTs were 1.1 to 1.8-fold higher when compared to those observed one month post-second dose. After a booster of bHPV, a ≥4 fold increase of antibody titers to HPV16 and HPV18 was observed in 93-99% of subjects. The anti-HPV16 and HPV18 GMTs were 5458 and 2665 LU, respectively. These GMTs were 1.2 and 1.8 higher than those observed in the qHPV group (both P < 0.01). In bHPV group a 1.4-1.6-fold increase of antibody GMTs to HPV6 and HPV11was also observed (P < 0.001). The safety profile was acceptable for both vaccines. Both qHPV and bHPV increase antibody titers when given as a booster to girls previously vaccinated with 2 doses of qHPV. The magnitude of the immune response after booster is vaccine-dependent and has the same pattern as that reported after primary vaccination with qHPV or bHPV. When given as a booster, both vaccines have an acceptable safety profile. Longer follow-up studies are warranted to assess the need of booster doses.

  6. Long-term immunogenicity of an initial booster dose of an inactivated, Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-VC) and the safety and immunogenicity of a second JE-VC booster dose in children previously vaccinated with an inactivated, mouse brain-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ki Wook; Lee, Hoan Jong; Park, Ji Young; Cho, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Nam Hee; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Hwang Min; Cha, Sung-Ho

    2018-03-07

    This study was performed with the aim of determining the long-term immunogenicity of an inactivated, Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine (JE-VC) and an inactivated, mouse brain-derived JE vaccine (JE-MB) after the 1st booster dose at 2 years of age, as well as the safety and immunogenicity of the 2nd booster dose of JE-VC at 6 years of age, in children primed and given a 1st booster dose of either JE-VC or JE-MB. In this multicenter, open-label clinical trial, the study population consisted of healthy Korean children (aged 6 years) who participated in the previous JE vaccine trial. All subjects were subcutaneously vaccinated once for the booster immunization with Boryung Cell Culture Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine® (JE-VC). Approximately 4 years after the 1st booster dose of JE-VC, the seroprotection rate (SPR) and geometric mean titer (GMT) of the neutralizing antibody were 100% and 1113.8, respectively. In children primed and given a 1st booster dose of JE-MB, the SPR and GMT were 88.5% and 56.3, respectively. After the 2nd booster dose of JE-VC, all participants primed and given a 1st booster dose of either JE-MB or JE-VC were seroprotective against JE virus. The GMT of the neutralizing antibody was higher in children primed and given a 1st booster dose of JE-VC (8144.1) than in those primed and given a 1st booster dose of JE-MB (942.5) after the vaccination (p < 0.001). In addition, the 2nd booster dose of JE-VC showed a good safety profile with no serious vaccine-related adverse events. The 1st booster dose of JE-VC and JE-MB showed long-term immunogenicity of at least 4 years, and the 2nd booster dose of JE-VC showed a good safety and immunogenicity profile in children primed and given a 1st booster dose of either JE-VC or JE-MB. ClinicalTtrials.gov Identifier: NCT02532569. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Safety and immunogenicity of a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevenar) booster dose in healthy Chinese toddlers].

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-cheng; Li, Feng-xiang; Li, Yan-ping

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the booster dose of 7 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) to the healthy Chinese toddlers who had received 3 primary doses. Four hundred and eighty-eight Chinese toddlers received a booster dose of PCV7 at age of 12-15 months following a primary series of the vaccine given at ages 3, 4, 5 months separately with Diphtheria Tetanus Acellular Pertussis Combined Vaccine (DTaP) in Group 1 or concurrently with DTaP in Group 2. Following the booster dose immunization, each subject was followed up for 30 days to observe the safety of the vaccine. Blood samples were taken from a subset of subjects prior and post 30 days the booster dose immunization to evaluate immunogenicity. A high proportion of subjects in Group 1 (89%) and Group 2 (91%) remained afebrile after the booster dose. Local reactions to the PCV7 booster dose were generally mild. For each serotype, the rise in GMC (post-/pre-vaccination) showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.0001) between both groups. PCV7 administered as a booster dose is generally safe, well tolerate, and immunogenic in healthy Chinese toddlers.

  8. Yellow Fever Vaccine Booster Doses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, 2015.

    PubMed

    Staples, J Erin; Bocchini, Joseph A; Rubin, Lorry; Fischer, Marc

    2015-06-19

    On February 26, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) voted that a single primary dose of yellow fever vaccine provides long-lasting protection and is adequate for most travelers. ACIP also approved recommendations for at-risk laboratory personnel and certain travelers to receive additional doses of yellow fever vaccine (Box). The ACIP Japanese Encephalitis and Yellow Fever Vaccines Workgroup evaluated published and unpublished data on yellow fever vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The evidence for benefits and risks associated with yellow fever vaccine booster doses was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. This report summarizes the evidence considered by ACIP and provides the updated recommendations for yellow fever vaccine booster doses.

  9. [Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of inactivated polio vaccine].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Zhu-jia-zi; Wang, Hai-hong; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Li-wen; Chu, Ping; Xu, Ying; Zhang, He-run; Li, Juan; Liu, Dong-lei; Lu, Li

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a boost dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) among children aged 18 months who had been administered with primary doses of IPV. Form 2011 to 2012, a total of 97 children were enrolled in the present study who were vaccinated with IPV at 2, 3, 4 months of age and boosted with the same vaccine at 18 months of age. Anti-poliovirus neutralizing antibody titers in serum were measured before and after booster vaccination, geometric mean titers (GMT) and seroprotection rate were calculated. Adverse events occurring within 30 days after booster vaccination were observed, including pain, redness/swelling and induration at the injection site, fever, vomit, abnormal crying, drowsiness, loss of appetite, irritability, and all other physical discomfort and related medications were also recorded. A descriptive analysis was performed for the safety assessment. Immunogenicity was assessed in 84 subjects. The pre-booster seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibody against poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 before booster were all 100% (84/84) and the corresponding GMT (95% CI) was 1: 148.5 (116.49-189.29) , 1: 237.68 (178.39-316.67) and 1: 231.87 (181.27-296.58) , respectively. The seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibody against the three types of poliovirus after booster were all 100% (84/84) and the corresponding GMT (95% CI) was 1: 1612.14 (1470.57-1767.34) , 1: 1854.92 (1715.83-2005.29) and 1: 1625.50 (1452.12-1819.58) , respectively. The pre-booster titer of neutralizing antibody against poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 mainly ranged 1: 128-1: 512, which accounted for 65% (55/84) , 55% (46/84) , 74% (62/84) in each type. After the booster immunization, titers of neutralizing antibody against type 1, 2, 3 were increased as subjects with titer ≥ 1: 1024 accounted for 94% (78/84) , 95% (80/84) , 92% (77/84) , respectively.Safety was evaluated in 96 subjects, of which 16 subjects reported adverse events with the rate of 17%. The observed local

  10. Antibody response and protective immunity of chickens vaccinated with booster dose of recombinant oil-adjuvanted Leucocytozoon caulleryi subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Umali, Dennis V; Ito, Akira; Del Valle, Fletcher P; Shirota, Kazutoshi; Katoh, Hiromitsu

    2014-12-01

    Leucocytozoon caulleryi is an economically important poultry pathogen that causes subclinical to fatal disease in chickens. Because of limited preventive and treatment options against this disease, an oil-adjuvanted recombinant vaccine (O-rR7) targeting the R7 protein of L. caulleryi second-generation schizonts was developed. Different vaccination programs, namely, single vaccination at 45 days (0.1-ml dose), single vaccination at 130 days (0.25 ml), and initial vaccination at 45 days (0.1 ml) followed by a booster dose at 130 days (0.25 ml) were explored to compare the effects of single and booster vaccination on antibody response, duration of protective immunity, and degree of clinical signs after experimental L. caulleryi infection. Of the three treatments groups, initial vaccination at 45 days followed by a booster vaccination at 130 days of age resulted to rapid increase in antibody titers, which persisted for up to 182 days. Antibody titers reached peak values 35 days and 14 days after initial and booster vaccination, respectively. In comparison, single vaccination at 45 days of age resulted in production of antibodies above 1600 ELISA units for 56 days postvaccination, and single vaccination at 130 days of age produced peak antibody titers 35 days postvaccination, which remained above 1600 ELISA units for 126 days. Experimental infection of L. caulleryi at 256 days, when antibody titers had waned, did not result to severe clinical disease in chickens that received booster vaccination, whereas mild to severe disease was observed in chickens that received a single vaccination. Evaluation of immune response at 15 and 21 days postinfection showed that chickens that received booster vaccination had a twofold increase (P < 0.01) in antibody titers as compared to those receiving a single vaccination. Administering booster shots of O-rR7 is therefore recommended, especially in farms located in areas where Leucocytozoon is endemic.

  11. Immune response to second vaccination series of hepatitis B virus among booster dose non-responders.

    PubMed

    Salama, Iman I; Sami, Samia M; Salama, Somaia I; Rabah, Thanaa Mahmoud; El Etreby, Lobna Ahmed; Abdel Hamid, Amany T; Elmosalami, Dalia; El Hariri, Hazem; Said, Zeinab N

    2016-04-07

    To evaluate the response to second vaccination series among post-booster sero-negative children who had previously received compulsory HBV vaccination. After given a booster dose to 1070 children, 103 of them failed to generate anamnestic response (anti-HBs <10 IU/L). Only 91/103 children received additional two doses of recombinant HBV vaccine (i.e. 2(nd) vaccination series) after 1 and 6 months post-booster. Blood sample was withdrawn aseptically one month later for quantitative assessment of anti-HBs to detect development of protective immune response (≥10 IU/L). Immunological vaccination failure was assigned to children who did not develop protective immune response after 2(nd) vaccination series. Protective immune response was detected among 84/91 children (92.3%). While 7/91 (7.7%) whose age were ≥10 years did not respond and had post-booster undetectable anti-HBs. About 80% of children with post-booster detectable anti-HBs showed significant protective immune response (anti-HBs ≥100 IU/L) and higher GMT (299.1 ± 3.6 IU/L) compared to those with undetectable 60% and 106.2 ± 12.9 IU/L respectively (P<0.05). No significant difference was detected as regards gender or residence, P>0.05. All children with history of rheumatic fever (7 children) or diabetes mellitus (1 child) developed immune response after 2(nd) vaccination series. A booster dose of HB vaccine may be unable to induce sufficient immunological response in children who had undetectable anti-HBs titers. Revaccination for non-responders is an important procedure to increase HBV protection rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody persistence of two pentavalent DTwP-HB-Hib vaccines to the age of 15-18 months, and response to the booster dose of quadrivalent DTwP-Hib vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hitt; Yadav, Sangeeta; Lalwani, Sanjay; Kapre, Subhash; Jadhav, Suresh; Parekh, Sameer; Palkar, Sonali; Ravetkar, Satish; Bahl, Sunil; Kumar, Rakesh; Shewale, Sunil

    2013-01-07

    Antibody persistence in children following three doses of primary vaccination with diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell-pertussis (DTwP), hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines (SIIL Pentavac vaccine vs. Easyfive(®) of Panacea Biotec), and response to the booster dose of DTwP-Hib (Quadrovax(®)) vaccine. Children who completed their primary immunization were assessed for antibodies at 15-18 months of age, and then given a booster dose of DTwP-Hib vaccine. Reactogenicity and safety of the booster dose was evaluated. Both pentavalent vaccines demonstrated a good immune response at 15-18 months. Following the booster dose, all vaccinated subjects achieved protective titers against diphtheria, tetanus and Hib, whereas the response to pertussis antigen was ~78%. Fever and irritability was noted in 24%, local pain in 51%, and swelling in 36% of the children following booster dose. Primary immunization with either pentavalent vaccine induced an excellent immunity lasting till the second year of life. A booster dose with DTwP-Hib (Quadrovax(®)) vaccine effectuated a good anamnestic response to all vaccine components, being specially strong for Hib in children previously vaccinated with SIIL liquid pentavalent vaccine (Pentavac(®)). Also, the safety profile of SIIL quadrivalent vaccine (Quadrovax(®)) administered as booster dose was acceptable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Booster Vaccination: The Role of Reduced Antigen Content Vaccines as a Preschool Booster

    PubMed Central

    Conversano, Michele; Zivelonghi, Giambattista; Zoppi, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    The need for boosters for tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, and polio, starting from preschool age, is related to the waning immune protection conferred by vaccination, the elimination/reduction of natural boosters due to large-scale immunization programs, and the possibility of reintroduction of wild agents from endemic areas. Taking into account the relevance of safety/tolerability in the compliance with vaccination among the population, it have been assessed whether today enough scientific evidences are available to support the use of dTap-IPV booster in preschool age. The review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed search engine. A total of 41 works has been selected; besides, the documentation produced by the World Health Organization, the European Centre for Disease Control, and the Italian Ministry of Health has been consulted. Many recent papers confirm the opportunity to use a low antigenic dose vaccine starting from 4 to 6 years of age. There is also evidence that 10 years after immunization the rate of seroprotected subjects against diphtheria does not differ significantly between those vaccinated with paediatric dose (DTaP) or reduced dose (dTaP or dTap) product. The dTpa vaccine is highly immunogenic for diphtheria toxoids regardless of prior vaccination history (2 + 1 and 3 + 1 schedules). PMID:24678509

  14. Analysis of delayed TBE-vaccine booster after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Aerssens, Annelies; Cochez, Christel; Niedrig, Matthias; Heyman, Paul; Kühlmann-Rabens, Ilona; Soentjens, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    An open, uncontrolled single centre study was conducted in the Travel Clinic at the Military Hospital, Brussels. Eighty-eight subjects were recruited who had a primary series of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine more than 5 years ago and who never received a booster dose afterwards. Response rate after booster vaccination was very high: 84 out of 88 subjects (95.5%) had neutralizing antibodies on plaque reduction neutralization test and all (100%) had IgG antibodies on ELISA, on Day 21-28 after booster vaccination. This study adds valuable information to the common situation of delayed booster interval. The results of our study indicate that in young healthy travellers (<50 years), one booster vaccination after a primary series of TBE vaccine in the past is sufficient to obtain protective antibodies, even if primary vaccination is much longer than the recommended booster interval of 5 years. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Antibody persistence and the effect of a booster dose given 5, 10 or 15 years after vaccinating preadolescents with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gilca, Vladimir; De Serres, Gaston; Boulianne, Nicole; Murphy, Donald; De Wals, Philippe; Ouakki, Manale; Trudeau, Gisele; Massé, Richard; Dionne, Marc

    2013-01-07

    The persistence of antibody obtained post-vaccination of preadolescents with three doses of Engerix-B and the effect of a booster administered 5, 10 or 15 years later were monitored in 663 vaccinees. Five, 10 and 15 years post-vaccination >94% of subjects had detectable antibodies and 88.2%, 86.4% and 76.7% had a titre ≥10 IU/L; GMTs were 269 IU/L, 169 IU/L and 51 IU/L, respectively; 99.1-100% vaccinees reached a titre ≥10 IU/l post-booster. GMTs were 118012 IU/L, 32477 IU/L, and 13946 IU/L when the booster was administered 5, 10 or 15 years post-vaccination, respectively. We conclude that vaccination induces immunity in the great majority of vaccinees for at least 15 years. The response to a booster dose suggests persistence of immune memory in almost all vaccinees. Although a booster dose increases substantially anti-HBs titres, the clinical relevance of such an increase remains unknown. These results do not support the need of a booster for at least 15 years when vaccinating preadolescents with Engerix-B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of a Shingles Vaccine Booster for Currently Vaccinated Adults in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-12-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a single dose of the live attenuated herpes zoster vaccine in people aged ≥60 years. Because vaccine-induced protection decreases to zero after 10 years, many vaccinated people will soon be subject to an increased risk of the disease. The study objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of a herpes zoster vaccine booster and its optimal timing among immunocompetent adults first vaccinated at aged ≥60 years. A Markov model was built to follow vaccinated individuals for a lifetime. From the societal perspective, costs and quality-adjusted life years were compared between no booster versus booster options. A booster was given any time between 1 and 20 years after the first dose, and for those who had the first dose at different ages: 60, 70, and 80 years. Because people entered the model already vaccinated, costs and side effects of the first dose were not included. The booster was assumed to have the same efficacy and waning rate as the initial vaccination. Model inputs were based on published literature. A cost effectiveness threshold of $100,000/quality-adjusted life year was used. The analysis was conducted in 2016. Cost effectiveness of a booster varied by age and time since vaccination. The booster cost <$100,000/quality-adjusted life year if given >5 years after the initial dose, but was most cost effective at around 10 years. The finding was robust to wide variations in model inputs. Under current assumptions, a booster dose of herpes zoster vaccine would be cost effective for all vaccinated people 10 years after initial vaccination. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modelling the effects of booster dose vaccination schedules and recommendations for public health immunization programs: the case of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b.

    PubMed

    Charania, Nadia A; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2017-09-13

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) has yet to be eliminated despite the implementation of routine infant immunization programs. There is no consensus regarding the number of primary vaccine doses and an optimal schedule for the booster dose. We sought to evaluate the effect of a booster dose after receiving the primary series on the long-term disease incidence. A stochastic model of Hib transmission dynamics was constructed to compare the long-term impact of a booster vaccination and different booster schedules after receiving the primary series on the incidence of carriage and symptomatic disease. We parameterized the model with available estimates for the efficacy of Hib conjugate vaccine and durations of both vaccine-induced and naturally acquired immunity. We found that administering a booster dose substantially reduced the population burden of Hib disease compared to the scenario of only receiving the primary series. Comparing the schedules, the incidence of carriage for a 2-year delay (on average) in booster vaccination was comparable or lower than that observed for the scenario of booster dose within 1 year after primary series. The temporal reduction of symptomatic disease was similar in the two booster schedules, suggesting no superiority of one schedule over the other in terms of reducing the incidence of symptomatic disease. The findings underscore the importance of a booster vaccination for continued decline of Hib incidence. When the primary series provides a high level of protection temporarily, delaying the booster dose (still within the average duration of protection conferred by the primary series) may be beneficial to maintain longer-term protection levels and decelerate the decline of herd immunity in the population.

  18. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children

    PubMed Central

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36–42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing. PMID:23442823

  19. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children.

    PubMed

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36-42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing.

  20. Predictive factors for anti-HBs status after 1 booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Cheng; Jean, Mei-Chu Yen; Lin, Chi-Wei; Chen, Wei-Hung; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Lin, Chih-Wen; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In Taiwan, infants need to receive 3 doses of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine under the public health policy from the government. However, there are many young adults who even though received complete HBV vaccination in their childhood would lose the positive response of anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (HBs) and need the booster dose of HBV vaccine. The aim of our study is to determine the powerful predictive factor for screening the candidates who need only 1 booster dose of HB vaccine then they can regain positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL) or protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL).We recruited 103 university freshmen who were born after July 1986 with complete HBV vaccination in childhood, but displayed negative results for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs levels at their health examinations upon university entry. They received 1 booster dose of HB vaccine, and their anti-HBs titers were rechecked 4 weeks after the booster administration. Multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL, model 1) and protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL, model 2) was done with predictive factors of prebooster anti-HBs level, body mass index, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase level, and sex.Twenty-four students got positive postbooster anti-HBs status (10-100 mIU/mL) and 50 students got protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL). In the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for positive postbooster anti-HBs status (≧10 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was the strongest predictive factor. The odds ratio was 218.645 and the P value was 0.001. Even in the model of multivariate analysis logistic regression for protective postbooster anti-HBs status (≧100 mIU/mL), prebooster anti-HBs level was still the strongest predictive factor, but the odds ratio of a protective booster effect was 2.143, with 95% confidence interval between 1

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined DTaP-IPV vaccine compared with separate DTaP and IPV vaccines when administered as pre-school booster doses with a second dose of MMR vaccine to healthy children aged 4-6 years.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven; Friedland, Leonard R; Schuind, Anne; Howe, Barbara

    2006-08-28

    Combination vaccines represent one solution to the problem of increased numbers of injections during single clinic visits. A combined DTaP-IPV (Infanrix-IPV) vaccine has been developed for use as a pre-school booster. Four hundred healthy children aged 4-6 years previously primed with 4 doses of DTaP vaccine (Infanrix), 3 doses of poliovirus vaccine and 1 dose of MMR vaccine were randomized to receive single doses of either the combined DTaP-IPV vaccine or separate DTaP and IPV vaccines in a Phase II trial (DTaP-IPV-047). All children also received a second dose of MMR vaccine. Immunogenicity was assessed in serum samples taken before and 1 month after booster administration. Safety was actively assessed for 42 days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of the DTaP-IPV vaccine to separate DTaP and IPV vaccines was demonstrated for all DTaP antigen booster response rates and poliovirus geometric mean titers of antibody ratios. Post-vaccination, > or =99.4% of children in both groups had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibodies (> or =0.1IU/mL) and seroprotective anti-poliovirus antibody titers (> or =1:8). All children in both groups were seropositive for measles, mumps and rubella antibodies, with similar post-vaccination geometric mean concentrations/titers. No significant differences were observed in the incidence of solicited local or general symptoms, unsolicited symptoms and serious adverse events between the two groups. This combined DTaP-IPV appeared safe and immunogenic when given as a booster dose at 4-6 years of age. The DTaP-IPV vaccine had no negative effect on the response to co-administered MMR vaccine, making it well-suited for use as a pre-school booster.

  2. Immunogenicity is not improved by increased antigen dose or booster dosing of seasonal influenza vaccine in a randomized trial of HIV infected adults.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Curtis; Thorne, Anona; Klein, Marina; Conway, Brian; Boivin, Guy; Haase, David; Shafran, Stephen; Zubyk, Wendy; Singer, Joel; Halperin, Scott; Walmsley, Sharon

    2011-03-25

    The risk of poor vaccine immunogenicity and more severe influenza disease in HIV necessitate strategies to improve vaccine efficacy. A randomized, multi-centered, controlled, vaccine trial with three parallel groups was conducted at 12 CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network sites. Three dosing strategies were used in HIV infected adults (18 to 60 years): two standard doses over 28 days, two double doses over 28 days and a single standard dose of influenza vaccine, administered prior to the 2008 influenza season. A trivalent killed split non-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Fluviral™) was used. Serum hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) activity for the three influenza strains in the vaccine was measured to assess immunogenicity. 297 of 298 participants received at least one injection. Baseline CD4 (median 470 cells/µL) and HIV RNA (76% of patients with viral load <50 copies/mL) were similar between groups. 89% were on HAART. The overall immunogenicity of influenza vaccine across time points and the three influenza strains assessed was poor (Range HAI ≥ 40 =  31-58%). Double dose plus double dose booster slightly increased the proportion achieving HAI titre doubling from baseline for A/Brisbane and B/Florida at weeks 4, 8 and 20 compared to standard vaccine dose. Increased immunogenicity with increased antigen dose and booster dosing was most apparent in participants with unsuppressed HIV RNA at baseline. None of 8 serious adverse events were thought to be immunization-related. Even with increased antigen dose and booster dosing, non-adjuvanted influenza vaccine immunogenicity is poor in HIV infected individuals. Alternative influenza vaccines are required in this hyporesponsive population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00764998.

  3. Long-Term Safety and Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine and Evaluation of a Booster Dose Administered to Healthy Thai Children

    PubMed Central

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Simasathien, Sriluck; Mammen, Mammen P.; Nisalak, Ananda; Tournay, Elodie; Kerdpanich, Phirangkul; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Putnak, Robert J.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Yoon, In-Kyu; Jarman, Richard G.; De La Barrera, Rafael; Moris, Philippe; Eckels, Kenneth H.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Innis, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of a live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine (F17/Pre formulation) and a booster dose in a dengue endemic setting in two studies. Seven children (7- to 8-year-olds) were followed for 1 year after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17/Pre formulation), and followed for four more years (Child study). In the Infant study, 49 2-year-olds, vaccinated as infants, were followed for approximately 3.5 years after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17) and followed for one additional year. Two clinically notable events were observed, both in dengue vaccine recipients in the Infant study: 1 case of dengue approximately 2.7 years after dose 2 and 1 case of suspected dengue after booster vaccinations. The booster vaccinations had a favorable safety profile in terms of reactogenicity and adverse events reported during the 1-month follow-up periods. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported during the studies. Neutralizing antibodies against dengue viruses 1–4 waned during the 1–3 years before boosting, which elicited a short-lived booster response but did not provide a long-lived, multivalent antibody response in most subjects. Overall, this candidate vaccine did not elicit a durable humoral immune response. PMID:27022153

  4. Long-Term Safety and Immunogenicity of a Tetravalent Live-Attenuated Dengue Vaccine and Evaluation of a Booster Dose Administered to Healthy Thai Children.

    PubMed

    Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Simasathien, Sriluck; Mammen, Mammen P; Nisalak, Ananda; Tournay, Elodie; Kerdpanich, Phirangkul; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Putnak, Robert J; Gibbons, Robert V; Yoon, In-Kyu; Jarman, Richard G; De La Barrera, Rafael; Moris, Philippe; Eckels, Kenneth H; Thomas, Stephen J; Innis, Bruce L

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of two doses of a live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine (F17/Pre formulation) and a booster dose in a dengue endemic setting in two studies. Seven children (7- to 8-year-olds) were followed for 1 year after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17/Pre formulation), and followed for four more years (Child study). In the Infant study, 49 2-year-olds, vaccinated as infants, were followed for approximately 3.5 years after dose 2 and then given a booster dose (F17) and followed for one additional year. Two clinically notable events were observed, both in dengue vaccine recipients in the Infant study: 1 case of dengue approximately 2.7 years after dose 2 and 1 case of suspected dengue after booster vaccinations. The booster vaccinations had a favorable safety profile in terms of reactogenicity and adverse events reported during the 1-month follow-up periods. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported during the studies. Neutralizing antibodies against dengue viruses 1-4 waned during the 1-3 years before boosting, which elicited a short-lived booster response but did not provide a long-lived, multivalent antibody response in most subjects. Overall, this candidate vaccine did not elicit a durable humoral immune response. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Persistence of antibodies six years after booster vaccination with inactivated vaccine against Japanese encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kundi, Michael; Zwazl, Ines; Seidl-Friedrich, Claudia; Jelinek, Tomas

    2015-07-09

    Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus occurs in wide regions of Asia with over 3 billion people living in areas at risk for JE. An estimated 68,000 clinical cases of JE occur every year, and vaccination is the most effective prophylactic measure. One internationally licensed vaccine containing the inactivated JE virus strain SA14-14-2 is Ixiaro (Valneva, Austria). According to recommendations, basic immunization consists of vaccinations on day 0, day 28, and a booster dose 12-24 months later. Protection in terms of neutralizing antibody titers has been assessed up to 12 months after the third dose of the vaccine. The current investigation was designed to evaluate antibody decline over time and to predict long-term duration of seroprotection after a booster dose. In a preceding trial, volunteers received basic immunization (day 0, day 28) and one booster dose against JE 15 months later. A follow up blood draw 6 years following their booster dose was carried out in 67 subjects. For antibody testing, a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50-test) was used. PRNT50 values of 10 and above are surrogate levels of protection according to WHO standards. Seventy-six months following the booster dose, 96% of the tested subjects had PRNT50 titers of 10 or higher. Geometric mean titer (GMT) was 148 (95% CI confidence interval: 107-207). Antibody titers were lower in volunteers 50 years of age and older. Vaccination history against other flaviviruses (yellow fever or tick borne encephalitis) did not significantly influence PRNT50 titers. A two-step log-linear decline model predicted protection against JE of approximately 14 years after the booster dose. Six years after a booster dose against JE, long-term protection could be demonstrated. According to our results, further booster doses should be scheduled 10 years following the first booster dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a 3-antigen Staphylococcus aureus vaccine (SA3Ag) in healthy adults: A randomized phase 1 study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; Richmond, Peter; Shakib, Sepehr; Jiang, Qin; Cooper, David; Rill, Denise; Baber, James; Eiden, Joseph; Gruber, William C; Jansen, Kathrin U; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Zito, Edward T; Girgenti, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    A 2-stage, phase 1, randomized, placebo-controlled study in healthy adults to assess immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose at three dose levels of a 3-antigen Staphylococcus aureus vaccine (SA3Ag) containing recombinant clumping factor A (ClfA) and capsular polysaccharides 5 and 8 (CP5 and CP8) conjugated to a diphtheria toxoid. Six months after initial single vaccination, in Stage 2, SA3Ag recipients were randomized (1:1) to booster vaccination or placebo, while Stage 1 placebo recipients received placebo again. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were analyzed. In Stage 2 (n = 345), pre-booster CP5 and CP8 titers remained high with no increase post-booster. ClfA titers remained high after initial vaccination and increased post-booster, approaching the peak response to the initial dose. Post-booster local reactions were more frequent and of greater severity than reported after the initial vaccination, particularly for the high-dose level recipients. Post hoc analysis showed no dose-response pattern and no obvious association between diphtheria toxoid titers and local reactions after initial or booster vaccination. Immune responses after the initial vaccination persisted for the 12 months studied, with little additional response after the booster dose at 6 months. Post-booster injection site reactions were more frequent and more severe but self-limiting. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01018641. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response to booster doses of hepatitis B vaccine among young adults who had received neonatal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Chan, Paul K S; Ngai, Karry L K; Lao, Terence T; Wong, Martin C S; Cheung, Theresa; Yeung, Apple C M; Chan, Martin C W; Luk, Scotty W C

    2014-01-01

    Newborns who have received hepatitis B immunization in 1980s are now young adults joining healthcare disciplines. The need for booster, pre- and post-booster checks becomes a practical question. The aim of this study is to refine the HBV vaccination policy for newly admitted students in the future. A prospective study on medical and nursing school entrants to evaluate hepatitis B serostatus and the response to booster doses among young adults. Among 212 students, 17-23-year-old, born after adoption of neonatal immunization, 2 (0.9%) were HBsAg positive, 40 (18.9%) were anti-HBs positive. At 1 month after a single-dose booster for anti-HBs-negative students, 14.5% had anti-HBs <10 mIU/mL, 29.0% and 56.5% were 10-100 and >100 mIU/mL, respectively. The anti-HBs levels were significantly higher for females than males (mean [SD]: 431 [418] vs. 246 [339] mIU/mL, P = 0.047). At 2-4 month after the third booster dose, 97.1% had anti-HBs >100 mIU/mL and 2.9% had 10-100 mIU/mL. Pre-booster check is still worthwhile to identify carriers among newly recruited healthcare workers born after adoption of neonatal immunization. A 3-dose booster, rather than a single dose, is required for the majority to achieve an anti-HBs level >100 mIU/mL, as memory immunity has declined in a substantial proportion of individuals. Cost-effectiveness of post-booster check for anti-HBs is low and should be further evaluated based on contextual specific utilization of results.

  8. A booster dose of an inactivated enterovirus 71 vaccine in chinese young children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shenyu, Wang; Jingxin, Li; Zhenglun, Liang; Xiuling, Li; Qunying, Mao; Fanyue, Meng; Hua, Wang; Yuntao, Zhang; Fan, Gao; Qinghua, Chen; Yuemei, Hu; Xin, Yao; Huijie, Guo; Fengcai, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    A significant waning of enterovirus 71 (EV71) antibody titer after priming immunization with an inactivated EV71 vaccine implied the potential need for a booster dose. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we recruited participants who had received at least 1 dose of priming EV71 vaccine in an early phase 2 clinical trial that was conducted in healthy infants and children aged 6-35 months. All participants were grouped according to the priming EV71 vaccine formulations (160 U, 320 U, and 640 U with adjuvant and 640 U without adjuvant) and then randomly assigned (ratio, 2:1) to receive a booster dose of vaccine or placebo within each formulation group. The primary end point was the geometric mean titer 28 days after the booster dose. A total of 773 participants were enrolled. Significantly greater immunological responses were induced by the booster shot of all 4 formulations of EV71 vaccine, compared with that induced by placebo (P < .0001). The frequencies of adverse reactions were similar between vaccine and placebo groups within each formulation group. A booster dose of EV71 vaccine 1 year after the priming EV71 immunization shows excellent immunogenicity and good safety profile. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01734408. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a decennial booster dose of a combined reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis and inactivated poliovirus booster vaccine (dTpa-IPV) in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Martina; Rathi, Niraj; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin; Schwarz, Tino F

    2015-05-21

    Pertussis in adults and adolescents could be reduced by replacing traditional tetanus and diphtheria (Td) boosters with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccines. This study evaluated the administration of dTpa-IPV (dTpa-inactivated poliovirus) in adults ten years after they received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV in trial NCT01277705. Open multicentre, phase IV study (www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01323959) in which healthy adults, who had received a previous dose of dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV or Td-IPV ten years earlier, received a single decennial booster dose of dTpa-IPV (Boostrix-polio, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Blood samples were collected before and one month after booster vaccination. Antibody concentrations against all vaccine antigens were measured and reactogenicity and safety were assessed. A total of 211 subjects (mean age 50.3 years) received vaccination of whom 201 were included in the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity. Before the decennial dTpa-IPV booster, ≥71.0% subjects were seroprotected/seropositive against all vaccine antigens. One month after the booster dose, all subjects were seroprotected against tetanus and poliovirus types 2 and 3; ≥95.7% subjects were seroprotected against diphtheria and ≥98.3% against poliovirus type 1. Anti-pertussis booster responses for the various antigens were observed in ≥76.5% (pertussis toxoid; PT), ≥85.1% (filamentous haemagglutinin; FHA) and ≥63.2% (pertactin; PRN) of subjects. During the 4-day follow-up, the overall incidence of local AEs was 71.6%, 75.0% and 72.2% in dTpa-IPV, dTpa+IPV and Td-IPV groups, respectively. Pain was the most frequent solicited local adverse event (AE; ≥62.7% subjects) and fatigue the most frequent solicited general AE (≥18.5%). No serious AEs were reported during the study. A booster dose of dTpa-IPV was immunogenic and well tolerated in adults who had received a booster dose of either dTpa-IPV, d

  10. Use of a booster dose of capsular group C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine to demonstrate immunologic memory in children primed with one or two vaccine doses in infancy.

    PubMed

    Pace, David; Khatami, Ameneh; Attard-Montalto, Simon; Voysey, Merryn; Finn, Adam; Faust, Saul N; Heath, Paul T; Borrow, Ray; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-12-07

    Use of a polysaccharide vaccine challenge to demonstrate immunologic memory after priming with capsular group C meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MenCC) risks induction of immunologic hyporesponsiveness. For this reason, MenCC vaccines are now used as probes of immunologic memory, however, no studies have demonstrated their ability to distinguish primed from unprimed children. This study was part of a randomised controlled trial investigating the immunogenicity of a booster dose of the combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and MenC-tetanus toxoid vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) in infants receiving reduced dose MenCC vaccine priming schedules (one MenC-CRM/MenC-TT or two MenC-CRM vaccine doses) compared with an unprimed group. Antibody kinetics were studied in a subset of 269 children by measuring changes in the MenC serum bactericidal antibody, using rabbit complement, (MenC rSBA) titres and MenC specific IgG memory B-cells before and at 6 and 28days following the 12month booster vaccination. At 6days after the 12monthMenCC vaccine, the rise in MenC rSBA titres and MenC specific IgG memory B-cells of the primed groups were significantly higher than the infant MenCC naïve group. Participants primed with one MenC-TT dose had the highest increase in MenC rSBA titres compared with all other groups. The MenC rSBA titres at the 28th compared with the 6th day after boosting was significantly higher in those primed with a single MenC-TT/MenC-CRM vaccine in infancy compared with those who were not primed or who were primed with two doses of the MenC-CRM vaccine. Immunologic memory can be demonstrated by a MenCC booster vaccination but is affected by the type and number of MenCC doses used for infant priming. The MenC rSBA responses can be used to demonstrate successful immunologic priming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of three booster doses hepatitis B vaccine on the persistence of immune-protection among infants with normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination: a matched case-control study].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yi; Lyu, Jingjing; Liu, Jiaye; Yan, Bingyu; Song, Lizhi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Guomin; Wang, Fuzhen; Zhang, Li; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-04-01

    To examine the influence of three-booster-doses hepatitis B vaccines on children with normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination. Antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were detected after primary vaccination and children with normal or high response to hepatitis B primary vaccination at infancy, were identified. Children who were given three booster doses were selected to form the booster group and who were given no booster dose were 1∶1 matched with the same gender and residence to form the control group. Blood samples were obtained from all the participants and tested for anti-HBs and anti-HBc, 5 years after the primary vaccination. The positive rates of anti-HBs response to primary vaccination were 97.39% (224/230, 95% CI: 94.41%-99.04%) in the booster group and 53.91% (124/230, 95% CI: 47.24%-60.48%) in the control group (P<0.05), 5 years after the primary vaccination. Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HBs were 1 140.02 (887.46-1 464.46) mIU/ml in the booster group and 11.53 (8.73-15.23) mIU/ml in the control group (P<0.05). The prevalence rates of breakthrough HBV infection were 0.87% (2/230) in the booster group and 2.17%(5/230) in the control group (P>0.05). RESULTS from the multivariable analysis showed that the booster doses (OR=38.75, 95%CI: 16.23-92.54) and the level of anti-HBs after the primary vaccination (OR =3.06, 95%CI:1.51-6.17) were independently associated with the positive rates of anti-HBs, 5 years after the primary vaccination (P<0.05). Programs with three booster doses to children that showing normal and high antibody response to primary vaccination could improve the persistence of anti-HBs but possibly would not be able to prevent the HBV infection.

  12. The effects of booster vaccination on hepatitis B vaccine in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Lv, Huakun; Cheng, Suyun; Ling, Luoya; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Yongdi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in anti-HBs IgG levels after booster vaccinations in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers. After primary vaccination, the immunization effects of different dosages of booster vaccinations of hepatitis B vaccine (CHO) were compared. A group of 472 newborns were vaccinated with three-dose hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 1 mo and 6 mo of age. Blood serum was collected within 6-12 mo after the third dose, and HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc levels were determined. Of this group, 101 infants who were both anti-HBs and HBsAg negative were revaccinated with 20 μg hepatitis B vaccine (CHO), and their antibody titers were monitored. Among these 101 infants, the anti- HBs positive rates (defined as anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml) differed after the first and the third dose (79% and 90%, respectively (p<0.05), while differences in the corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were not statistically significant (629 ± 3 mIU/ml and 572 ± 3 mIU/ml respectively, p<0.05). The anti-HBs GMTs after booster vaccination were 10-fold larger than those before booster vaccination. We conclude that a single booster dose is generally adequate for infants of HBsAg-positive mothers, whereas a further booster dose should be given for non-responders.

  13. Impact of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b with and without a booster dose on meningitis in four South American countries.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Salvador; Lagos, Rosanna; Muñoz, Alma; Picón, Teresa; Rosa, Raquel; Alfonso, Adriana; Abriata, Graciela; Gentile, Angela; Romanin, Viviana; Regueira, Mabel; Chiavetta, Laura; Agudelo, Clara Inés; Castañeda, Elizabeth; De la Hoz, Fernando; Higuera, Ana Betty; Arce, Patricia; Cohen, Adam L; Verani, Jennifer; Zuber, Patrick; Gabastou, Jean-Marc; Pastor, Desiree; Flannery, Brendan; Andrus, Jon

    2012-01-05

    To inform World Health Organization recommendations regarding use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in national immunization programs, a multi-country evaluation of trends in Hib meningitis incidence and prevalence of nasopharyngeal Hib carriage was conducted in four South American countries using either a primary, three-dose immunization schedule without a booster dose or with a booster dose in the second year of life. Surveillance data suggest that high coverage of Hib conjugate vaccine sustained low incidence of Hib meningitis and low prevalence of Hib carriage whether or not a booster dose was used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunogenicity, Safety and Antibody Persistence of a Booster Dose of Quadrivalent Meningococcal ACWY-tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine Compared with Monovalent Meningococcal Serogroup C Vaccine Administered Four Years After Primary Vaccination Using the Same Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Forsten, Aino; Bianco, Veronique; Van der Wielen, Marie; Miller, Jacqueline M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated safety, immunogenicity and antibody persistence of meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) booster vaccination 4 years after priming of toddlers. This phase III, open-label, controlled study in Finland (NCT00955682) enrolled children previously randomized (3:1) at 12-23 months (NCT00474266) to receive 1 dose of MenACWY-TT or MenC conjugate vaccine (MenC-CRM197). Serum bactericidal antibody titers using rabbit (rSBA, cut-off 1:8) and human complement (hSBA, cut-off 1:8) were assessed at year 3 and 4 after priming and 1 month and 1 year after administration of a booster dose of the same vaccine given for primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed, and vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded from the time of primary vaccination. Before booster (year 4), 74.1%, 40.4%, 49.3% and 58.2% of MenACWY-TT-recipients retained rSBA titers ≥1:8 for serogroups A, C, W and Y, respectively; 28.8%, 73.2%, 80.6% and 65.4% retained hSBA ≥1:8. Percentages for the MenC-CRM group were 35.6% (rSBA-MenC) and 46.9% (hSBA-MenC). After MenACWY-TT booster, ≥99.5% had rSBA ≥1:8 and hSBA ≥1:8 for each serogroup. After MenC-CRM197 booster, all children had rSBA-MenC ≥1:8 and hSBA-MenC ≥1:8. At year 5, percentages above the cut-off were ≥97.4% (rSBA) and ≥95.5% (hSBA) in MenACWY-TT-vaccinees for each serogroup. The MenACWY-TT booster dose had a clinically acceptable safety profile. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. There was evidence of antibody persistence 4 years after toddlers were primed with MenACWY-TT. Booster vaccination induced robust immune responses for all serogroups with an acceptable safety profile.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Nigerian children: Booster dose and 2-dose catch-up regimens in the second year of life.

    PubMed

    Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Kuyinu, Yetunde A; Kehinde, Omolara A; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15-21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15-21 and 17-23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ≥ 0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ≥ 8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ≥ 0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ≥8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D.

  16. Immunogenicity of a Booster Dose of Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Previously Immunized HIV-Infected Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, Meredith G; Siberry, George K; Williams, Paige; Decker, Michael D; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Lujan-Zilbermann, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    The US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4) after initial immunization for patients at high risk for meningococcal infection. The International Maternal Pediatric Adolescents AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1065 trial evaluated the use of MCV4 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and youth. The final step of this trial was an open-label study of an MCV4 booster dose 3.5 years after primary MCV4 immunization. Antibody titers were evaluated at the time of the booster vaccine and 1, 4, and 24 weeks after the booster. Immunogenicity was measured by rabbit serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) against each meningococcal serogroup. Immunologic memory was defined as either seroprotection (rSBA titer ≥1:128) or a ≥4-fold increase 1 week after the booster dose. Primary response was defined as either a ≥4-fold response or seropositivity 4 weeks after the booster in the absence of immunologic memory. Adverse events were assessed for 4 weeks after the booster dose. Of 174 participants with serology results at entry and 1 and 4 weeks later, the percentage with protective antibody levels at entry varied according to serogroup, ranging from a low of 26% for serogroup C to a high of 68% for serogroup A. A memory response to at least 1 serogroup occurred in 98% of the participants: 93% each for serogroups A and Y, 88% for serogroup C, and 94% for serogroup W-135; 83% had a memory response to all 4 serogroups. Overall, rates of any memory or primary response were ≥90% for all serogroups. No serious adverse events were encountered. A booster dose of MCV4 elicited a memory response in 88% to 94% of previously immunized HIV-infected participants depending on serogroup, including those who lacked a protective titer level for that serogroup before booster vaccination. © The Author 2017. Published by the Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric

  17. Lack of effect of a booster dose of influenza vaccine in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tanzi, Elisabetta; Amendola, Antonella; Pariani, Elena; Zappa, Alessandra; Colzani, Daniela; Logias, Franco; Perego, Angelo; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2007-08-01

    To assess whether the administration of a booster dose of influenza vaccine may enhance immune response in hemodialysis patients, 58 subjects were given two doses of the 2003/2004 season influenza vaccine, 1 month apart. "European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products" (EMEA) criteria were fully met in terms of percentage of response and of mean-fold increase of hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody titer, but not in terms of seroprotection rates (HI antibody titers > or =1:40). The second vaccine administration did not result in additional increase in seroprotection rate or in geometric mean titers. Protective immune response against the epidemic A/H3N2 Fujian-like strain, antigenically distant from that included in the vaccine (A/Panama/2007/99) was observed in 94.7% of vaccinees protected against the A/H3N2 vaccine strain 1 month after immunization. No adverse reactions were reported during follow-up. The study findings suggest that immune response to influenza vaccination may be suboptimal in hemodialysis patients and that the administration of an additional second dose of vaccine does not improve the humoral response.

  18. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses after a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected children, adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Giacomet, Vania; Masetti, Michela; Nannini, Pilar; Forlanini, Federica; Clerici, Mario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Trabattoni, Daria

    2018-01-01

    HBV vaccine induces protective antibodies only in 23-56% of HIV-infected children. The aim of our study is to evaluate the immunologic effects of a booster dose of HBV vaccine in HIV-infected youth. 53 young HIV-infected patients in whom HBV vaccination did not elicit protective Ab titers were enrolled. All patients were on ART with optimal immunological and viral response. All patients received a booster dose of HBV vaccine (HBVAXPRO 10 μg i.m.). HBV-specific Ab titer, viral load and CD4+ T cells were measured at baseline (T0), T1, T6 and T12 months. In a subgroup of 16 patients HBV-specific cell mediated immune responses were evaluated at baseline, at T1 and T6. The booster dose induced seroconversion in 51% of patients at T1, 57% at T6, and49% at T12; seroconversion rate was significantly correlated with CD4+T cells at T0 and to the CD4 nadir. The booster dose induced HBV-specific cell mediated immunity at T6 mainly in Responders (Rs): Effector Memory CD8+T cells, HBV-specific TNFα-, IFNγ-, granzyme secreting CD8+ T cells and IL2-secreting CD4+ T cells were significantly increased in Rs compared to T0. In Non Responders (NRs), HBV-specific IL2-secreting CD4+ T cells, Central and Effector Memory CD8+ T cells were the only parameters modified at T6. Seroconversion induced by a booster dose of vaccine correlates with the development of T cell immunological memory in HIV-infected patients who did not respond to the standard immunization. Alternate immunization schedules need to be considered in NRs.

  19. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  20. Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after pre-exposure prophylaxis with human diploid cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, F. M.; Mandke, V. B.; Roumiantzeff, M.; Rao, C. V.; Mehta, J. M.; Pavri, K. M.; Poonawalla, C.

    1987-01-01

    In 1978, 22 staff members of the National Institute of Virology, Pune, India, were given two doses of human diploid cell antirabies vaccine (HDCV) for primary pre-exposure prophylactic immunization; the interval between the two doses being approximately 4 weeks. Eighteen of these 22 vaccinees were given a booster dose 1 year later. All 18 vaccinees developed protective levels of antibody; most of them had antibody levels exceeding 10 IU/ml. In 1984, 5 years after the booster dose, 11 (79.0%) of 14 vaccinees tested still possessed neutralizing antibody levels ranging from 0.5 IU/ml to 10 IU/ml. Fourteen days after the administration of a booster dose, the antibody levels ranged from 10 to greater than or equal to 100 IU/ml for all except one vaccine (5.2 IU/ml). These findings demonstrate that the majority of vaccines retained detectable neutralizing antibody after pre-exposure prophylaxis for as long as 5 years and that a single booster dose thereafter evoked a good antibody response. PMID:3609177

  1. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease and Vaccine Booster Dose Deferral, United States, 1998–2009

    PubMed Central

    Briere, Elizabeth C.; Jackson, Michael; Shah, Shetul G.; Cohn, Amanda C.; Anderson, Raydel D.; MacNeil, Jessica R.; Coronado, Fatima M.; Mayer, Leonard W.; Clark, Thomas A.; Messonnier, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Since the introduction of effective vaccines, the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease among children <5 years of age has decreased by 99% in the United States. In response to a limited vaccine supply that began in 2007, Hib booster doses were deferred for 18 months. METHODS We reviewed national passive and active surveillance (demographic and serotype) and vaccination status data for invasive H. influenzae disease in children aged <5 years before (1998–2007) and during (2008–2009) the vaccine shortage years to assess the impact of the vaccine deferral on Hib disease. We estimated the average annual number of Hib cases misclassified as unknown (not completed or missing) serotype. RESULTS From 1998 to 2007 and 2008 to 2009, the annual average incidence of Hib disease per 100 000 population was 0.2 and 0.18, respectively; no significant difference in incidence was found by age group, gender, or race. Among Hib cases in both time periods, most were unvaccinated or too young to have received Hib vaccine. During 2001 to 2009, there were <53 Hib cases per year, with an estimated 6 to 12 Hib cases misclassified as unknown serotype. CONCLUSIONS The booster deferral did not have a significant impact on the burden of invasive Hib disease in children <5 years of age. Continued surveillance and serotype data are important to monitor changes in Hib incidence, especially during vaccine deferrals. Hib booster deferral is a reasonable short-term approach to a Hib vaccine shortage. PMID:22869828

  2. Five-year antibody persistence and safety following a booster dose of combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Merino, José Manuel; Moro, Manuel; Navarro, Maria-Luisa; Espín, José; Omeñaca, Félix; García-Sicilia, José; Moreno-Pérez, David; Ruiz-Contreras, Jesús; Centeno, Fernando; Barrio, Francisco; Cabanillas, Lucia; Muro, Marta; Esporrin, Carlos; De Torres, Maria Jose; Caubet, Magalie; Boutriau, Dominique; Miller, Jacqueline M; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2012-10-01

    Booster vaccination with the combined Haemophilus influenza type b-Neisseria meningitides serogroup C-tetanus toxoid vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) has been reported to induce different MenC antibody responses depending on the priming vaccines, with a possible impact on long-term protection. Here, the five-year persistence of immune responses induced by a booster dose of Hib-MenC-TT was evaluated in toddlers primed with either Hib-MenC-TT or MenC-TT. This is the follow-up of a phase III, open, randomized study, in which a Hib-MenC-TT booster dose was given at 13.14 months of age to toddlers primed with either 3 doses of Hib-MenC-TT or 2 doses of MenC-TT in infancy. Children in the control group had received 3 primary doses and a booster dose of MenC-CRM197. Functional antibodies against MenC were measured by a serum bactericidal assay with rabbit complement (rSBA-MenC) and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serious adverse events considered by the investigator to be possibly related to vaccination were to be reported throughout the study. At 66 months postbooster, rSBA-MenC titers ≥8 were retained by 82.6% of children primed with Hib-MenC-TT, 94.1% of children primed with MenC-TT, and 60.9% of children in the control group. All children who received the Hib-MenC-TT booster dose retained anti- polyribosylribitol phosphate concentrations ≥0.15 μg/mL. No serious adverse events considered possibly related to vaccination were reported. There is evidence of good antibody persistence against MenC and Hib for more than five years postbooster vaccination with Hib-MenC TT in toddlers primed with Hib-MenC-TT or MenC-TT.

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of meningococcal (groups A, C, W, and Y) polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Corwin A; Greenberg, David P; Hedrick, James; Pichichero, Michael; Decker, Michael D; Saunders, Martha

    2016-10-17

    Quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (MenACWY) were developed to offer long-term protection against invasive disease caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. Reduced MenACWY effectiveness within 5 years after primary vaccination (likely due to declining bactericidal antibody titers) has been described, particularly with respect to C and Y disease in the United States. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a single booster dose of quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-D) in adolescents and adults who received a previous dose 4-6 years earlier. This phase 2, open-label, multicenter study of 834 persons was conducted in the United States. Participants received a single 0.5-mL booster dose of MenACWY-D. Serogroup-specific bactericidal antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA). Proportions of participants achieving antibody titers of ⩾1:8 for each vaccine serogroup on Days 6 and 28 were determined. Rates of adverse events (AEs), including serious adverse events (SAEs), were also assessed. Before booster vaccination, 38.7-68.5% of participants had an hSBA titer ⩾1:8, depending on vaccine serogroup. By Day 6 post-vaccination, 98.2-99.1% of participants had hSBA titers ⩾1:8. By Day 28, >99% of participants achieved this threshold and the primary hypothesis (lower limit of the one-sided 95% confidence limit ⩾85% for each serogroup) was met. The GMT ratios (post-vaccination divided by pre-vaccination) at Day 28 ranged from 47.2 (serogroup A) to 209.1 (serogroup Y). Rates of AEs, including SAEs, were similar to those observed among adolescents and adults who received a primary dose of MenACWY-D in previous studies. There were no study discontinuations due to an AE and no deaths. Booster vaccination with MenACWY-D was safe and induced robust bactericidal antibody responses, consistent with immune memory, among adolescents and

  4. Booster vaccination of pre-school children with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ferrera, Giuseppe; Cuccia, Mario; Mereu, Gabriele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Marchetti, Federico; Messier, Marc; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Hardt, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pertussis occurs in older children, adolescents and adults due to waning immunity after primary vaccination. Booster vaccination for pre-school children has been recommended in Italy since 1999. In this study (NCT00871000), the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of reduced-antigen content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (dTpa-IPV; GSK Biologicals Boostrix™-Polio; 3-component pertussis) vs. full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine (sanofi-pasteur—MSD Tetravac™; 2-component pertussis) was evaluated in pre-school Italian children.   Methods: Healthy children aged 5–6 y primed in a routine vaccination setting with three doses of DTPa-based vaccines were enrolled and randomized (1:1) in this phase IIIb, booster study to receive a single dose of dTpa-IPV or DTPa-IPV; the MMRV vaccine was co-administered. Antibody concentrations/titers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliovirus 1–3 were measured before and one month post-booster. Reactogenicity and safety was assessed. Results: 305 subjects were enrolled of whom 303 (dTpa-IPV = 151; DTPa-IPV = 152) received booster vaccination. One month post-booster, all subjects were seroprotected/seropositive for anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-PT, anti-FHA and anti-poliovirus 1–3; 99.3% of dTpa-IPV and 60.4% of DTPa-IPV subjects were seropositive for anti-PRN; 98–100% of subjects were seropositive against MMRV antigens post-booster. Pain at the injection site (dTpa-IPV: 63.6%; DTPa-IPV: 63.2%) and fatigue (dTpa-IPV: 26.5%; DTPa-IPV: 23.7%) were the most commonly reported solicited local and general symptoms, during the 4-d follow-up period. No SAEs or fatalities were reported. Conclusions: The reduced-antigen-content dTpa-IPV vaccine was non-inferior to full-strength DTPa-IPV vaccine with respect to immunogenicity. The vaccine was well-tolerated and can be confidently used as a booster dose in pre-school children. PMID:22327497

  5. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Malian children.

    PubMed

    Dicko, Alassane; Santara, Gaoussou; Mahamar, Almahamoudou; Sidibe, Youssoufa; Barry, Amadou; Dicko, Yahia; Diallo, Aminata; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2013-02-01

    Primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was previously shown to be immunogenic and well tolerated in Malian children. Data on booster vaccination with a fourth consecutive dose of PHiD-CV are available for Europe, Asia and Latin America but are lacking for Africa. The present study evaluated further the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV. Low incidences of AEs with grade 3 intensity (2.1% of subjects) were observed. There were no reports of large swelling reactions and serious adverse events. One month post-booster vaccination, for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, at least 97.8% of subjects had antibody concentrations ≥ 0.2 μg/ml, and at least 97.1% of subjects had opsonophagocytic activity ≥ 8. From pre- to post-booster, a 12.3-fold increase in anti-protein D geometric mean concentration was observed. This phase III, open-label study was conducted in Ouelessebougou, Mali, between November 2009 and June 2010. The study population consisted of Malian children previously primed (3 doses) with PHiD-CV in study NCT00678301 receiving a fourth consecutive (booster) dose of PHiD-CV in the second year of life. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) with grade 3 intensity (primary objective) or of any intensity (secondary objective), and the immunogenicity (secondary objective) of the PHiD-CV booster dose were assessed. A booster dose of PHiD-CV was well tolerated when administered to Malian children in the second year of life and was highly immunogenic for all 10 vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and NTHi protein D. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00985465).

  6. Early and long term anamnestic response to HBV booster dose among fully vaccinated Egyptian children during infancy.

    PubMed

    Salama, Iman I; Sami, Samia M; Said, Zeinab N; Salama, Somaia I; Rabah, Thanaa M; Abdel-Latif, Ghada A; Elmosalami, Dalia M; Saleh, Rehan M; Abdel Mohsin, Aida M; Metwally, Ammal M; Hassanin, Amal I; Emam, Hanaa M; Hemida, Samia A; Elserougy, Safaa M; Shaaban, Fatma A; Fouad, Walaa A; Mohsen, Amira; El-Sayed, Manal H

    2018-04-05

    To evaluate early and long term anamnestic response to a booster dose of HBV vaccine among non-seroprotected children. A national community based project was carried out on 3600 children aged 9 months to 16 years, fully vaccinated during infancy. They were recruited from 6 governorates representing Egypt. It revealed that 1535 children (42.8%) had non sero-protective anti-HBs (<10 IU/L) and were HBsAg or anti-HBc negative. A challenging dose of 10 μg of mono-valent Euvax HBV vaccine was given to 1121/1535 children. Quantitative assessment of anti-HBs was performed to detect early (2-4 weeks) and long term (one year) anamnestic responses. Early anamnestic response developed among 967/1070 children (90.3%).Children having detectable anti-HBs (1-9 IU/L) significantly developed early anamnestic response (90%) compared to 85% with undetectable anti-HBs (<1 IU/L), P < 0.001. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that undetectable anti-HBs, living in rural residence and children aged 15-16 years were the most significant predicting risk factors for the absence of early anamnestic response (<10 IU/L), with AOR 2.7, 2.7 & 4.7 respectively. After one year, long term anamnestic response was absent among 15% of children who previously showed early response. Poor early anamnestic response and undetectable pre-booster anti-HBs were the significant predicting risk factors for absent long term anamnestic response, with AOR 18.7 & 2.7 respectively. Immunological memory for HBV vaccine outlasts the presence of anti- HBs and HBV vaccination program provides effective long term protection even in children showing waning or undetectable concentrations of anti-HBs. This signifies no need for a booster dose especially to healthy children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunogenicity of a Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine as a booster dose after primary vaccination with SA14-14-2 vaccine in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Janewongwirot, Pakpoom; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Anugulruengkitt, Suvaporn; Jantarabenjakul, Watsamon; Phasomsap, Chayapa; Chumket, Sompong; Yoksan, Sutee; Pancharoen, Chitsanu

    2016-10-17

    Japanese Encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) and SA14-14-2 vaccine are live-attenuated JE vaccines produced from the same virus strain. Data on interchangeability is limited. To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of JE-CV booster after primary vaccination with SA14-14-2 vaccine. This study was an open-label clinical trial in Thai children who had received a primary SA14-14-2 vaccination at 12-24monthsbefore enrollment (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02602652). JE-CV was administered. A 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 50 ) against three virus strains; JE-CV, SA-14-14-2andwild-type JE virus was measured before and 28-days post vaccination. The laboratory was performed at PRNT 50 titers ⩾10 (1/dil) were considered seroprotective against JE. Geometric mean titer (GMT) of PRNT 50 was calculated. Adverse events were observed for 28days. From March 2014 to June 2015, 50 children (64% male) were enrolled. Mean age and duration after primary vaccination was 26.9 (SD 4.6) and 12.8 (SD 2.7) months, respectively. The proportion of participants who had PRNT 50 pre and post-booster vaccination were 92% and 96% against JE-CV virus, 56% and 98% against SA-14-14-2 strain and 70% and 98% against wild-type JE virus, respectively. Solicited injection site reactions including erythema, pain and swelling occurred in 18%, 10% and 4% of subjects, respectively. Four children (8%) had fever (⩾37.7Celsius). Eight children (16%) had adverse events, which were not related to the vaccine. AJE-CV booster dose is highly immunogenic and safe among children who previously received SA14-14-2 vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate a Potential Hepatitis B Booster Vaccination Strategy Using Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Zhou, Youming; Chen, Lixin; Xia, Wei; Song, Yufei; Tan, Zhengliang; Gao, Lidong; Yang, Zhong; Zeng, Gang; Han, Xing; Li, Junhua; Li, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Booster doses could play a major role in no responders or low responders to primary hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. Planed time point for hepatitis A vaccination in China provides a good opportunity to carry out HB booster dose by using combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and safety of toddlers 18-24 months of age receiving 3 different vaccination regimens: 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (group 1), 1 dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine plus 1 dose of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 2) or 2 doses of combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (group 3). All 3 groups showed 100% seroprotection for antihepatitis A virus antibody after vaccination. Seroprotection rate for anti-HB antibody before vaccination ranged from 79.5% to 92.9% in the 3 groups. After second inoculation, anti-HBs seroprotection increased from 92.9% to 100% in group 2 with postvaccination geometric mean concentration (GMC) of 2258.3 mIU/mL and from 79.5% to 98.9% in group 3 with postvaccination GMC of 2055.3 mIU/mL. The adverse events were not statistically different among groups (P = 0.345). Combined hepatitis A and B vaccine could stimulate high level of both antihepatitis A virus and anti-HBs antibodies and not increase adverse events, providing a new choice for HB booster.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children primed with the 10-valent or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Urbancikova, Ingrid; Prymula, Roman; Goldblatt, David; Roalfe, Lucy; Prymulova, Karolina; Kosina, Pavel

    2017-09-12

    Although both the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are widely used, it is unclear how interchangeable they are in terms of immunogenicity. Two phase 3, open-label, multicenter studies were conducted to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of PCV13 in children primed with PHiD-CV or PCV13. In the Czech Republic, 12-15-month-old children received a PCV13 booster after 3-dose priming with either PHiD-CV or PCV13. In Slovakia, 11-12-month-old children received PCV13 following 2-dose priming with either PHiD-CV or PCV13. Serum IgG concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibodies were assessed by opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) before the booster and at 1 and 12months afterward. The primary objective of these studies was to assess non-inferiority of OPA titers for serotype 19A in PHiD-CV-primed subjects compared to those in PCV13-primed children 1month post-booster. A total of 98 subjects in the Czech Republic and 89 subjects in Slovakia were included. One month after the PCV13 booster dose, the IgG and OPA immune responses to serotype 19A in subjects primed with 2 or 3 doses of PHiD-CV were non-inferior to those in subjects primed with PCV13. Non-inferior and persistent immune responses to most other vaccine serotypes were also observed after the PCV13 booster in PHiD-CV-primed subjects. No safety issues were raised in either study. Overall, robust IgG and OPA immunological responses were observed after booster vaccination with PCV13 in children primed with 2 or 3 doses of PHiD-CV or PCV13, including for serotypes not included in PHiD-CV. These results suggest that these vaccines are interchangeable in terms of safety and immunogenicity and that PCV13 can be used as a booster in the context of mixed schedules. (EudraCT numbers: 2012-005366-35 and 2012-005367-27). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  10. The one year effects of three doses of hepatitis B vaccine as a booster in anti-HBs-negative children 11-15 years after primary immunization; China, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Shan, Huan; Chen, Yongdi; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Dai, Xue-wei; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels one year after hepatitis B booster vaccination in anti-HBs-negative (<10 mIU/mL) children 11-15 y after primary vaccination. Anti-HBs titers were examined in 235 children who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). The children were then divided into 3 groups based on their anti-HBs levels pre-booster: Group I, <0 .1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to <1 .0 mIU/mL; and Group III, 1.0 to <10 .0 mIU/mL. They were vaccinated with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 month, 20 ug), and anti-HBs levels were measured. One month after the first dose, the anti-HBs positive rates (≥ 10 mIU/mL) in Groups I-III were 56.14%, 83.61% and 100%. One month after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I-III were 96.49%, 98.36% and 100%. One year after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I-III were 73.68%, 75.41% and 98.29%, respectively. Protective levels declined more rapidly for those with lower titers. Children with pre-booster anti-HBs titers of 1-9.9 mIU/mL might not need any booster dose, and the children with pre-booster titers of 0.1-0.9 and <0 .1 mIU/mL might need more than one dose booster vaccination.

  11. [Mathematic modeling for prediction of waning immunity and timing of booster doses].

    PubMed

    Matuo, Fujio; Okada, Kenji

    2008-10-01

    Under an environment that a vaccination rate is low and an infectious disease is prevalent, it is thought that most vaccinee got additional immunity by natural infection. On the other hand, in the area where the incidence of disease has been reduced by high rate vaccination, it is also decreased the chance of additional immunity by natural infection. Therefore susceptible individuals are increased because of the waning immunity. In the community where a vaccination rate is high, it may be necessary to consider the booster vaccination for adolescent and adult even if one completed the primary vaccinations. It may also be important to explore the timing of booster dose. In this paper, we attempt to give a comprehensive explanation of mathematical model for predicting the antibody duration, and we introduce the role of mathematical model on a consideration to the need and timing of booster doses after the primary series.

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live vaccine (ProQuad ®) administered concomitantly with a booster dose of a hexavalent vaccine in 12-23-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Klaus A; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Tran, Clément; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile; Baudin, Martine

    2015-05-11

    Concomitant administration of vaccines can facilitate vaccination uptake, provided that no clinically significant effect on either vaccine is identified. We investigated the concomitant administration, during the second year of life, of one dose of the combined measles, mumps, rubella and varicella vaccine (ProQuad(®)) with a booster dose of a hexavalent vaccine. In this multicentre, open-label study, participants were randomized to 3 groups: Group 1, concomitant administration of one dose of ProQuad(®) and a booster of hexavalent vaccine; Group 2, one dose of ProQuad(®) alone; Group 3, a booster dose of hexavalent vaccine alone. Two serum samples were collected, within 7 days prior to vaccination and Days 42-56 post-vaccination for antibody testing. Antibody response rates to measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b following concomitant administration of ProQuad(®) and hexavalent vaccine were non-inferior compared with those following the individual vaccines. Antibody response rates to these antigens were all >95% in all groups. Antibody titres for the pertussis antigens following concomitant administration were also non-inferior to those following the individual vaccines. Antibody titres for the other valences were numerically comparable between groups with the exception of hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus and poliomyelitis, which were higher in the concomitant than in the non-concomitant groups. The safety profiles of each vaccination regimen were comparable, with the exception of solicited ProQuad(®)-related injection-site reactions (Days 0-4), which occurred more frequently in the concomitant than in the non-concomitant groups. These immunogenicity data support the concomitant administration of ProQuad(®) with a hexavalent vaccine. The safety profile of concomitant ProQuad(®) and hexavalent vaccination was also in line with that of the individual Summaries of Product Characteristics. Copyright

  13. Subnormal and waning immunity to tetanus toxoid in previously vaccinated HIV-infected children and response to booster doses of the vaccine.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shahana A; Matin, Fazle

    2013-12-01

    Little is known regarding waning immunity to tetanus toxoid (TT) in HIV-infected children and the need for booster doses before the recommended interval of 5-10 years. Anti-tetanus antibodies were assessed by ELISA in 24 HIV-infected and 24 control children. A protective level (>0.1 IU/ml) of TT antibodies was observed in 62% of HIV-infected children and in 100% of controls. HIV-infected children with five doses had a significantly (p=0.01) lower prevalence of protective immunity compared to controls. Follow-up anti-TT antibody levels in nine HIV-infected children declined from 1.27 to 0.26 IU/ml, but levels did not decline in the seven controls; five of the seven (71%) children with a non-protective level of antibodies responded with a level>0.16 IU/ml following one booster dose of the vaccine. HIV-infected children may need TT boosters before the recommended 5-10 years. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS®) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio®) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Noninferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%) and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age. PMID:21441781

  15. The effects of booster vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine on children 5-15 years after primary immunization: A 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zikang; Yao, Jun; Bao, Hongdan; Chen, Yongdi; Lu, Shunshun; Li, Jing; Yang, Linna; Jiang, Zhenggang; Ren, Jingjing; Xu, Kai-Jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-Gui; Xie, Tian-Sheng; Li, Qian

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hepatitis B surface antibody titers (anti-HBs) after booster vaccinations in children aged 5-15 y and to provide suitable immunization strategies. A total of 2208 children were initially enrolled in screening, and 559 children were finally included. The participants were divided into 2 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs levels: Group I, <10 mIU/ml and Group II, ≥10 mIU/ml. Group I was administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 months, 10 μg), and Group II was administered 1 dose of booster hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg). The antibody titer changes were examined at 4 time points: 1 month after dose 1 and dose 3, and 1 year and 5 years after dose 3. The protective seroconversion rates at those points were 95.65%, 99.67%, 97.59% and 91.05% (p < 0.001), respectively, in Group I, and 100.00%, 99.87%, 99.66% and 98.21% (χ 2 = 6.04, p = 0.11), respectively, in Group II. The GMT in subjects aged 5-9 y were higher than that in subjects aged 10-15 y in both Group I and Group II at 1 month after dose 1, but no difference was observed at the other three time points. This study demonstrates that booster vaccination has a good medium-term effect. A booster dose for subjects with protective antibodies is not necessary but effective, and 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccination are recommended for those who have lost immunological memory. Receiving booster immunization at the age of 10-15 years may be more appropriate for individuals living in HBV high epidemic areas.

  16. Antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination at 2 to 10 years of age with Quadrivalent MenACWY-CRM conjugate vaccine, and responses to a booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Block, Stan L; Christensen, Shane; Verma, Bikash; Xie, Fang; Keshavan, Pavitra; Dull, Peter M; Smolenov, Igor

    2015-04-27

    In a multi-center extension study, children 2-10 years of age, initially vaccinated with one or two doses (2-5 year-olds) or one dose (6-10 year-olds) of quadrivalent meningococcal CRM197-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM), were assessed five years later for antibody persistence and booster response using serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA). Children 7-10 and 11-15 years of age, who received MenACWY-CRM in the original study, and age-matched vaccine-naïve children, were enrolled in this extension study. After an initial blood draw, children received one dose of MenACWY-CRM as booster or primary dose, with a second blood draw 28 days later. hSBA titers decreased five years after primary vaccination, but were higher than in non-vaccinated controls against serogroups C, W and Y, with substantial proportions having titers ≥8: 7-22% for A, 32-57% for C, 74-83% for W, and 48-54% for Y. Previously-vaccinated children demonstrated booster responses to revaccination against all four serogroups. Responses to primary vaccination in vaccine-naïve controls were lower and similar to primary responses observed in the original study. All vaccinations were generally well tolerated, with no safety concern raised. Approximately half the children vaccinated as 2-10 year-olds maintained protective antibodies against serogroups C, W and Y five years later, but fewer did against serogroup A. Declining titers five years after vaccination and robust booster responses suggest that five years may be an appropriate interval to revaccinate children, subject to epidemiology and delivery considerations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibody persistence and booster response 68 months after vaccination at 2-10 years of age with one dose of MenACWY-TT conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Markus; Helm, Klaus; Kolhe, Devayani; Van Der Wielen, Marie; Baine, Yaela

    2018-05-31

    We evaluated antibody persistence up to 68 months (M) post-vaccination with a quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) or a licensed monovalent MenC conjugate vaccine (MenC-CRM 197 ) and subsequent booster responses to MenACWY-TT in healthy European children. In the initial study (NCT00674583), healthy children, 2-10 years of age, were randomized to receive a single dose of either MenACWY-TT or MenC-CRM 197 . In the follow-up study, we present the persistence at 32, 44, 56, and 68 M post-vaccination, overall and stratified by age (2-5 and 6-10 years), and the immunogenicity and safety of MenACWY-TT administered to all study participants at M68 post-primary vaccination. At M68, 33.3% (age group 2-5 years) and 47.1% (age group 6-10 years) of the children vaccinated with MenACWY-TT, and 50.0% (age group 2-5 years) and 75.9% (age group 6-10 years) vaccinated with MenC-CRM 197 retained titers ≥1:8 for MenC, as assessed by a serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). In the MenACWY-TT recipients, the percentages of children retaining rSBA titers ≥1:8 for MenA, MenW, and MenY were 81.7%, 47.3% and 66.7% in age group 2-5 years and 91.8%, 58,8% and 76.5% in age group 6-10 years, respectively. The booster dose induced robust responses (100% for all serogroups) and was well-tolerated. Antibody persistence (rSBA titers ≥ 1:8) for serogroups A, W and Y was observed in more than 50.0% of the children 68 M after receiving one dose of MenACWY-TT; for MenC, antibody persistence was observed in more than one third of MenACWY-TT and more than half of MenC-CRM 197 recipients. Vaccination with a booster dose of MenACWY-TT induced robust immune responses for all serogroups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effects of hepatitis B vaccine boosters on anti-HBs-negative children after primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shunshun; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Qian; Jiang, Zhenggang; Chen, Yongdi; Xu, Kaijin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shigui; Xie, Tiansheng; Yang, Linna; Li, Jing; Yao, Jun

    2017-04-03

    This study was aimed at evaluating the changes of hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) titer after booster vaccinations in 5-15-year-old children with negative antibodies (<10 mIU/mL). 225 subjects (mean age, 9.28 ± 2.95 years) included in the study consisted of 123 males and 102 females, with a complete hepatitis B vaccination during infancy. The participants were divided into 3 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs level: Group I, <0.1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to <1.0 mIU/mL; Group III, 1.0 to <10.0 mIU/mL. All the participants were administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccination (0-1-6 month, 20 µg), and changes in the levels of antibodies were examined at 4 time-points (one month after the first and the third dose, one year and 5 years after the third dose). The seroprotective rate (defined as anti-HBs ≥10.0 mIU/mL) among 225 subjects at the 4 time-points were 93.8%, 100%, 83.6% and 73.4%, respectively (χ 2 = 90.29, p < 0.05). The seroprotective rate (≥10 mIU/mL) and anti-HBs geometric mean titer (GMT) in Group III were always higher than those in the other 2 groups (all p < 0.05). The immune effect of a 3 -dose booster revaccination is good, and the booster-induced immune response was correlated with the pre-booster titer level, and ≥1.0 mIU/mL ensuring a robust positive response, whereas titers below this value may indicate the need for a course of booster vaccination.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thisyakorn, Usa; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the safety and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Pneumo23® [PPV23], Sanofi Pasteur) as a booster dose in 12- to 18-month-old children primed with heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7; Prevnar®, Pfizer). This was a randomized, observer-blinded, 2-arm, controlled, multicenter phase III study performed in Thailand to assess and describe the immunogenicity and safety of PPV23 as a booster dose in children who had received the 3 primary doses of PCV7, the pneumococcal vaccine available during the study period. Children primed with 3 doses of PCV7 were randomized 1:1 to receive a booster immunization with PPV23 or PCV7. Pneumococcal antibody concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional antibody levels by multiplex opsonophagocytosis assay on day 30. A total of 339 children were enrolled. Geometric mean serum antibody concentrations against serotypes common to PCV7 and PPV23 (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) increased in both groups but they were higher for serotypes 4, 9V, 18C, and 19F in the PPV23 group. Opsonization indices increased in both groups for all measured serotypes (1, 6B, 14, 19A, and 23F) and were higher for serotypes 6B, 14, and 23F in the PCV7 group and for serotypes 1 and 19A in PPV23 group. Solicited reactions and unsolicited adverse events were similar in the 2 groups and generally mild and transient. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. These results confirm that boosting with PPV23 is immunogenic and well tolerated in healthy toddlers primed with PCV7. PMID:25424793

  20. The one year effects of three doses of hepatitis B vaccine as a booster in anti-HBs-negative children 11–15 years after primary immunization; China, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Shan, Huan; Chen, Yongdi; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Dai, Xue-wei; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) levels one year after hepatitis B booster vaccination in anti-HBs-negative (<10 mIU/mL) children 11–15 y after primary vaccination. Anti-HBs titers were examined in 235 children who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs, and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). The children were then divided into 3 groups based on their anti-HBs levels pre-booster: Group I, <0 .1 mIU/mL; Group II, 0.1 to <1 .0 mIU/mL; and Group III, 1.0 to <10 .0 mIU/mL. They were vaccinated with 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (0–1–6 month, 20 ug), and anti-HBs levels were measured. One month after the first dose, the anti-HBs positive rates (≥10 mIU/mL) in Groups I–III were 56.14%, 83.61% and 100%. One month after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I–III were 96.49%, 98.36% and 100%. One year after the third dose, the anti-HBs-positive rates in Groups I–III were 73.68%, 75.41% and 98.29%, respectively. Protective levels declined more rapidly for those with lower titers. Children with pre-booster anti-HBs titers of 1–9.9 mIU/mL might not need any booster dose, and the children with pre-booster titers of 0.1–0.9 and <0 .1 mIU/mL might need more than one dose booster vaccination. PMID:25692413

  1. Long-term Immunogenicity of a Single Dose of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine in Toddlers and Booster Response 5 Years After Primary Immunization.

    PubMed

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Bouckenooghe, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in Asia, Western Pacific countries and Northern Australia. Although there is no antiviral treatment, vaccination is effective in preventing this disease. We followed a cohort of 596 children for 5 years after primary vaccination at 12-18 months of age with JE chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV; IMOJEV) in a multicenter, phase III trial in Thailand and the Philippines to assess antibody persistence and safety. At the end of the 5 years, a subgroup of 85 participants, at 1 site in Thailand, was followed after administration of a JE-CV booster vaccination. JE antibody titers were measured annually after primary vaccination and 28 days after booster vaccination using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroprotection was defined as a JE-CV neutralizing antibody titer ≥10 (1/dil). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the proportion of participants maintaining protective JE-CV neutralizing antibody titers. At 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after vaccination with JE-CV, 88.5%, 82.9%, 78.2%, 74.0% and 68.6% of the participants followed remained seroprotected. Geometric mean titers in the subgroup assessed after receipt of a booster dose increased from 61.2 (95% confidence interval: 43.8-85.7) pre-booster to 4951 (95% confidence interval: 3928-6241) 28 days post-booster, with all participants seroprotected. There were no safety concerns identified. Protective immune responses persisted for at least 5 years after a JE-CV primary immunization in the majority of participants. JE-CV booster induced a robust immune response even after a 5-year interval.

  2. Tetanus vaccination, antibody persistence and decennial booster: a serosurvey of university students and at-risk workers.

    PubMed

    Borella-Venturini, M; Frasson, C; Paluan, F; DE Nuzzo, D; DI Masi, G; Giraldo, M; Chiara, F; Trevisan, A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present research is to verify the immune status against tetanus in students and workers exposed to risk and to ascertain whether a decennial booster is necessary. Antibodies against tetanus were measured in 1433 workers and students of Padua University (Italy). The enrolment criterion was the ability to provide a booklet of vaccinations released by a public health office. The influence of age, gender, the number of vaccine doses, and the interval since the last dose was determined. Ten years after the last dose, the majority of subjects (95·0%) displayed an antibody titre above the protective level (⩾0·10 IU/ml), and half of these (49·1%) had a long-term protective level (⩾1·0 IU/ml). According to our data, titre depends on both the number of vaccine doses and the interval since the last dose (P < 0·0001). Five vaccine doses and an interval of at least 10 years since the last dose are predictive of a long-term protective titre in absence of a booster (1·97 IU/ml). These data suggest that when primary series are completed, a decennial booster is unnecessary for up to 20 years. Furthermore, we recommend measuring the antibody level before a new booster is given to prevent problems related to over-immunisation.

  3. Primary and booster vaccination with an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is immunogenic and well-tolerated in infants and toddlers in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongcheng; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Yanping; Liu, Youping; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Xiaoling; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Hardt, Karin; Hezareh, Marjan; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita

    2016-03-14

    Replacing live-attenuated oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) with inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) is part of the global strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. China was declared polio-free in 2000 but continues to record cases of vaccine-associated-poliomyelitis and vaccine-derived-poliovirus outbreaks. Two pilot safety studies and two larger immunogenicity trials evaluated the non-inferiority of IPV (Poliorix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) versus OPV in infants and booster vaccination in toddlers primed with either IPV or OPV in China. In pilot safety studies, 25 infants received 3-dose IPV primary vaccination (Study A, www.clinicaltrial.gov NCT00937404) and 25 received an IPV booster after priming with three OPV doses (Study B, NCT01021293). In the randomised, controlled immunogenicity and safety trial (Study C, NCT00920439), infants received 3-dose primary vaccination with IPV (N=541) or OPV (N=535) at 2,3,4 months of age, and a booster IPV dose at 18-24 months (N=470, Study D, NCT01323647: extension of study C). Blood samples were collected before and one month post-dose-3 and booster. Reactogenicity was assessed using diary cards. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were captured throughout each study. Study A and B showed that IPV priming and IPV boosting (after OPV) was safe. Study C: One month post-dose-3, all IPV and ≥ 98.3% OPV recipients had seroprotective antibody titres towards each poliovirus type. The immune response elicited by IPV was non-inferior to Chinese OPV. Seroprotective antibody titres persisted in ≥ 94.7% IPV and ≥ 96.1% OPV recipients at 18-24 months (Study D). IPV had a clinically acceptable safety profile in all studies. Grade 3 local and systemic reactions were uncommon. No SAEs were related to IPV administration. Trivalent IPV is non-inferior to OPV in terms of seroprotection (in the Chinese vaccination schedule) in infant and toddlers, with a clinically acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  4. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a single dose of live attenuated varicella vaccine and a booster dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine given concomitantly at 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Parment, Per Arne; Svahn, Anita; Rudén, Ulla; Bråkenhielm, Görel; Storsaeter, Jann; Akesson, Lena; Linde, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Universal varicella-zoster virus (VZV) childhood vaccination is still debated, but adult chickenpox may be severe. It could be prevented by vaccination of seronegative adolescents. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of coadministration of a VZV vaccine and the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) booster at 12 y of age. Guardians of 1231 12-y-old pupils where asked about the history of chickenpox in their children. 190 had no chickenpox history and 12 of 62 of them lacked VZV antibodies. Additional history-negative children were also recruited. 199 history-positive children received only MMR and 98 history-negative children received an MMR vaccine and a VZV vaccine. Serum samples were drawn before vaccination and after 8 weeks. Viral antibodies were measured by immunofluorescence (VZV) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (VZV, MMR). All 184 history-positive children tested had VZV antibodies. 17/89 VZV-vaccinated and tested children (19%) lacked VZV antibodies before vaccination. 12 (71%) seroconverted after 1 dose. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against varicella was tested in 3/5 children who did not seroconvert after 1 dose of VZV vaccine. They seroconverted after a second dose and had measurable CMI. VZV vaccination did not affect the MMR response and there were no severe side-effects. A history of varicella infection, as reported by the guardian, is reliable, but a negative history was incorrect in 81% of the cases. This population of 12-y-old children may require 2 doses of VZV vaccine, at least when given simultaneously with the MMR vaccine.

  5. Long-term booster schedules with AS03A-adjuvanted heterologous H5N1 vaccines induces rapid and broad immune responses in Asian adults.

    PubMed

    Gillard, Paul; Chu, Daniel Wai Sing; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Thongcharoen, Prasert; Lim, Fong Seng; Dramé, Mamadou; Walravens, Karl; Roman, François

    2014-03-15

    The pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 should not be overlooked, and the continued development of vaccines against these highly pathogenic viruses is a public health priority. This open-label extension booster study followed a Phase III study of 1206 adults who had received two 3.75 μg doses of primary AS03A-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted H5N1 split-virus vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004; clade 1) (NCT00449670). The aim of the extension study was to evaluate different timings for heterologous AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccination (A/Indonesia/5/2005; clade 2.1) given at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each booster vaccination and the persistence of immune responses against the primary vaccine strain (A/Vietnam) and the booster strain (A/Indonesia) was evaluated up to Month 48 post-primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. After booster vaccination given at Month 6, HI antibody responses to primary vaccine, and booster vaccine strains were markedly higher with one dose of AS03A-H5N1 booster vaccine in the AS03A-adjuvanted primary vaccine group compared with two doses of booster vaccine in the non-adjuvanted primary vaccine group. HI antibody responses were robust against the primary and booster vaccine strains 21 days after boosting at Month 12 or 36. At Month 48, in subjects boosted at Month 6, 12, or 36, HI antibody titers of ≥1:40 against the booster strain persisted in 39.2%, 61.2%, and 95.6% of subjects, respectively. Neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses also showed that AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccination elicited robust immune responses within 21 days of boosting at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. The booster vaccine was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were raised. In Asian adults primed with two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, strong cross-clade anamnestic antibody responses were

  6. Long-term booster schedules with AS03A-adjuvanted heterologous H5N1 vaccines induces rapid and broad immune responses in Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 should not be overlooked, and the continued development of vaccines against these highly pathogenic viruses is a public health priority. Methods This open-label extension booster study followed a Phase III study of 1206 adults who had received two 3.75 μg doses of primary AS03A-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted H5N1 split-virus vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004; clade 1) (NCT00449670). The aim of the extension study was to evaluate different timings for heterologous AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccination (A/Indonesia/5/2005; clade 2.1) given at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each booster vaccination and the persistence of immune responses against the primary vaccine strain (A/Vietnam) and the booster strain (A/Indonesia) was evaluated up to Month 48 post-primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. Results After booster vaccination given at Month 6, HI antibody responses to primary vaccine, and booster vaccine strains were markedly higher with one dose of AS03A-H5N1 booster vaccine in the AS03A-adjuvanted primary vaccine group compared with two doses of booster vaccine in the non-adjuvanted primary vaccine group. HI antibody responses were robust against the primary and booster vaccine strains 21 days after boosting at Month 12 or 36. At Month 48, in subjects boosted at Month 6, 12, or 36, HI antibody titers of ≥1:40 against the booster strain persisted in 39.2%, 61.2%, and 95.6% of subjects, respectively. Neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses also showed that AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccination elicited robust immune responses within 21 days of boosting at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. The booster vaccine was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were raised. Conclusions In Asian adults primed with two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, strong cross

  7. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunisation of chickens with live Salmonella vaccines - Role of booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    Methner, U

    2018-05-17

    It is accepted that booster vaccinations of chickens with live Salmonella vaccines are essential part of vaccinations schemes to induce an effective adaptive immune response. As manufacturer of registered live Salmonella vaccines recommend different times of booster the question raises whether the duration between the first and second immunisation might influence the protective effect against Salmonella exposure. Chickens were immunised with a live Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine on day 1 of age followed by a booster vaccination at different intervals (day 28, 35 or 42 of age) to study the effects on the colonisation and invasion of the Salmonella vaccine strain, the humoral immune response and the efficacy against infection with Salmonella Enteritidis on day 56 of age. Immunisation of all groups resulted in a very effective adaptive immune response and a high degree of protection against severe Salmonella exposure, however, the time of booster had only an unverifiable influence on either the colonisation of the vaccine strain, the development of the humoral immune response or the colonisation of the Salmonella challenge strain. Therefore, the first oral immunisation of the chicks on day 1 of age seems to be of special importance and prerequisite for the development of the effective immune response. A booster immunisation should be carried out, however, the time of booster may vary between week 3 and week 7 of age of the chickens without adversely impact on the efficacy of the adaptive immune response or the protective effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Dose of an Investigational Adjuvanted Polyprotein HIV-1 Vaccine in Healthy Adults and Effect of Administration of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Bourguignon, Patricia; Willekens, Julie; Janssens, Michel; Clement, Frédéric; Didierlaurent, Arnaud M.; Fissette, Laurence; Roman, François; Boutriau, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This phase II study evaluated the effect of chloroquine on the specific CD8+ T-cell responses to and the safety of a booster dose of investigational human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) F4/AS01B vaccine containing 10 μg of recombinant fusion protein (F4) adjuvanted with the AS01B adjuvant system. Healthy adults aged 21 to 41 years, primed 3 years before with two F4/AS01B doses containing 10 or 30 μg of F4 (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00434512), were randomized (1:1) to receive the F4/AS01B booster administered alone or 2 days after chloroquine (300 mg). F4-specific CD8+/CD4+ T-cell responses were characterized by intracellular cytokine staining and lymphoproliferation assays and anti-F4 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). No effect of chloroquine on CD4+/CD8+ T-cell and antibody responses and no vaccine effect on CD8+ T-cell responses (cytokine secretion or proliferation) were detected following F4/AS01B booster administration. In vitro, chloroquine had a direct inhibitory effect on AS01B adjuvant properties; AS01-induced cytokine production decreased upon coincubation of cells with chloroquine. In the pooled group of participants primed with F4/AS01B containing 10 μg of F4, CD4+ T-cell and antibody responses induced by primary vaccination persisted for at least 3 years. The F4/AS01B booster induced strong F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, which persisted for at least 6 months with similar frequencies and polyfunctional phenotypes as following primary vaccination, and high anti-F4 antibody concentrations, reaching higher levels than those following primary vaccination. The F4/AS01B booster had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile. An F4/AS01B booster dose, administered alone or after chloroquine, induced robust antibody and F4-specific CD4+ T-cell responses but no significant CD8+ T-cell responses (cytokine secretion or proliferation) in healthy adults. (This study has been registered at Clinical

  10. Dosing Schedules for Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since second generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) targeting 10 and 13 serotypes became available in 2010, the number of national policy makers considering these vaccines has steadily increased. An important consideration for a national immunization program is the timing and number of doses—the schedule—that will best prevent disease in the population. Data on disease epidemiology and the efficacy or effectiveness of PCV schedules are typically considered when choosing a schedule. Practical concerns, such as the existing vaccine schedule, and vaccine program performance are also important. In low-income countries, pneumococcal disease and deaths typically peak well before the end of the first year of life, making a schedule that provides PCV doses early in life (eg, a 6-, 10- and 14-week schedule) potentially the best option. In other settings, a schedule including a booster dose may address disease that peaks in the second year of life or may be seen to enhance a schedule already in place. A large and growing body of evidence from immunogenicity studies, as well as clinical trials and observational studies of carriage, pneumonia and invasive disease, has been systematically reviewed; these data indicate that schedules of 3 or 4 doses all work well, and that the differences between these regimens are subtle, especially in a mature program in which coverage is high and indirect (herd) effects help enhance protection provided directly by a vaccine schedule. The recent World Health Organization policy statement on PCVs endorsed a schedule of 3 primary doses without a booster or, as a new alternative, 2 primary doses with a booster dose. While 1 schedule may be preferred in a particular setting based on local epidemiology or practical considerations, achieving high coverage with 3 doses is likely more important than the specific timing of doses. PMID:24336059

  11. Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after postexposure prophylaxis with vero cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Chuanlin

    2011-09-01

    This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years.

  12. Robust Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Pertussis in Adults After a First Acellular Booster Vaccination.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Saskia; van Rooijen, Debbie M; de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Mary-Lène; Bogaard, Marjan J M; van Gageldonk, Pieter G M; Marinovic, Axel Bonacic; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    To reduce the pertussis disease burden, nowadays several countries recommend acellular pertussis (aP) booster vaccinations for adults. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a first adult aP booster vaccination at childbearing age. In 2014, healthy adults aged 25-29 years ( n  = 105), vaccinated during infancy with four doses of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine, received a Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, and aP) booster vaccination. Blood samples were collected longitudinally pre-booster, 2 and 4 weeks, and 1 year and 2 years post-booster. Tdap vaccine antigen-specific antibody levels and memory B- and T-cell responses were determined at all time points. Antibody persistence was calculated using a bi-exponential decay model. Upon booster vaccination, the IgG levels specific to all Tdap vaccine antigens were significantly increased. After an initial rapid decline in the first year, PT-IgG antibody decay was limited (15%) in the second year post-booster. The duration of a median level of PT-IgG ≥20 IU/mL was estimated to be approximately 9 years. Vaccine antigen-specific memory B- and T-cell numbers increased and remained at high levels although a significant decline was observed after 4 weeks post-booster. However, Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokine production remained above pre-booster levels for 2 years. The Tdap booster vaccination in wP-primed Dutch adults induced robust long-term humoral and cellular immune responses to pertussis antigens. Furthermore, PT-IgG levels are predicted to remain above the presumed protective cut-off for at least 9 years which might deserves further attention in evaluating the current recommendation to revaccinate women during every new pregnancy.

  13. Cross-protection elicited by primary and booster vaccinations against Japanese encephalitis: a two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Erra, Elina O; Askling, Helena Hervius; Yoksan, Sutee; Rombo, Lars; Riutta, Jukka; Vene, Sirkka; Lindquist, Lars; Vapalahti, Olli; Kantele, Anu

    2013-12-17

    The inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine (JE-VC, IXIARO) has replaced the traditional mouse brain-derived preparations (JE-MB) in travelers' vaccinations against Japanese encephalitis. We showed recently that a single JE-VC dose efficiently boosts immunity in JE-MB-primed vaccinees, and that JE-VC elicits cross-protective immunity against non-vaccine genotypes, including the emerging genotype I. While these studies only provided short-term data, the present investigation evaluates the longevity of seroprotection in the same volunteers. The study comprised 48 travelers who had received (1) JE-VC primary series, (2) JE-MB primary series followed by a single JE-VC booster dose, or (3) JE-MB primary series and a single JE-MB booster dose. Serum samples were collected two years after the last vaccine dose, and evaluated with the plaque-reduction neutralization test against seven Japanese encephalitis virus strains representing genotypes I-IV. PRNT50 titers ≥ 10 were considered protective. Two years after the primary series with JE-VC, 87-93% of the vaccinees proved to be cross-protected against test strains representing genotypes II-IV and 73% against those of genotype I. After a single homologous or heterologous booster dose to JE-MB-primed subjects, the two-year seroprotection rates against genotype I-IV strains were 89-100%. After JE-VC primary series, seroprotection appeared to wane first against genotype I. The first booster should not be delayed beyond two years. In JE-MB-primed subjects, a single JE-VC booster provided cross-protective immunity against genotype I-IV strains in almost all vaccinees, suggesting an interval of two years or even longer for the second booster. These data further support the use of a single JE-VC dose for boosting JE-MB immunity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Seropersistence of TBE virus antibodies 10 years after first booster vaccination and response to a second booster vaccination with FSME-IMMUN 0.5mL in adults.

    PubMed

    Konior, R; Brzostek, J; Poellabauer, E M; Jiang, Q; Harper, L; Erber, W

    2017-06-16

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral disease that can have a severe acute clinical course and considerable long-term morbidity. As there is no causal treatment currently available for TBE, vaccination is the only way to combat the disease in endemic areas. The studies presented here were conducted to obtain prospective long-term TBE serum antibody persistence data of subjects up to 10years after the first booster with FSME-IMMUN. This report presents the results of 2 follow-up studies in the same study population of 315 healthy adults. Blood was drawn to assess the seropersistence of TBE virus antibodies yearly, from 2-5 and 7-10years after the first booster vaccination with FSME-IMMUN administered during a previous study. The timing of the second booster vaccination was dependent on the level of serum TBE antibodies observed during yearly follow-up serology observations. The current follow up showed that adult recipients were 84.9% seropositive 10years after a 3 dose primary series and the first booster vaccination of FSME-IMMUN. Seropositivity rates were even higher (88.6%) in subjects below 50years of age. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00503529. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01582698. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Five year follow-up after a first booster vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis following different primary vaccination schedules demonstrates long-term antibody persistence and safety.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiří; Xie, Fang; Zent, Olaf

    2014-07-23

    Long-term vaccination programs are recommended for individuals living in regions endemic for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Current recommendations suggest a first booster vaccine be administered 3 years after a conventional regimen or 12-18 months after a rapid regimen. However, the research supporting subsequent booster intervals is limited. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the long-term persistence of TBE antibodies in adults and adolescents after a first booster dose with Encepur(®). A total of 323 subjects aged 15 years and over, who had received one of four different primary TBE vaccination series in a parent study, participated in this follow-up Phase IV trial. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed for up to five years after a first booster dose, which was administered three years after completion of the primary series. One subset of subjects was excluded from the booster vaccination since they had already received their booster prior to enrollment. For comparison, immune responses were still recorded for these subjects on Day 0 and on an annual basis until Year 5, but safety information was not collected. Following a booster vaccination, high antibody titers were recorded in all groups throughout the study. Neutralization test (NT) titers of ≥ 10 were noted in at least 94% of subjects at every time point post-booster (on Day 21 and through Years 1-5). These results demonstrated that a first booster vaccination following any primary immunization schedule results in high and long-lasting (>5 years) immune responses. These data lend support to the current belief that subsequent TBE booster intervals could be extended from the current recommendation. NCT00387634. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Four-year antibody persistence and response to a booster dose of a pentavalent MenABCWY vaccine administered to healthy adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Beltran-Rodriguez, Johnny; Novoa Pizarro, Jose M.; Mensi, Ilhem; Keshavan, Pavitra; Toneatto, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This open-label, multicenter extension study (NCT02451514) assessed persistence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroups ABCWY antibodies 4 years after primary vaccination. Adolescents and young adults who previously received 2 doses of MenABCWY+OMV (Group III), 1 dose of MenACWY-CRM (Group VI), or newly-recruited vaccine-naïve participants (Group VII) were administered 1 (Group III) or 2 doses (Groups VI and VII) of MenABCWY+OMV, 1 month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed by human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA). Safety and reactogenicity were also evaluated. Percentages of participants with hSBA titers ≥8 (serogroups ACWY), ≥5 (serogroup B) and hSBA geometric mean titers (GMTs) were evaluated in all 129 enrolled participants (Group III: 33; Group VI: 46; Group VII: 50). Anti-ACWY antibody concentrations waned over 4 years post-vaccination, but remained above pre-vaccination concentrations. Similarly, levels of antibodies against serogroup B test strains also waned over 4 years post-vaccination, but remained above pre-vaccination concentrations for some strains. MenABCWY+OMV booster induced a robust anamnestic anti-ACWY response in Group III and VI and a good response against serogroup B test strains (≥82%) in Group III. In serogroup B-naïve participants (Groups VI and VII), anti-B responses to 2 doses of MenABCWY+OMV were less homogenous and lower than in Group III. MenABCWY+OMV was reactogenic, but well-tolerated. No safety concerns were identified. These findings indicate that although antibodies against N. meningitidis serogroups ABCWY waned over 4 years post-vaccination, exposure to a MenABCWY+OMV booster dose elicits an anamnestic response in adolescents previously exposed to the same or another multivalent meningococcal vaccine. PMID:29601256

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of a second booster dose of an acellular pertussis vaccine combined with reduced antigen content diphtheria-tetanus toxoids 10 years after a first booster in adolescence: An open, phase III, non-randomized, multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Martina; Kostanyan, Lusiné; Mesaros, Narcisa; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Varman, Meera

    2018-04-09

    Pertussis is a highly contagious disease, for which periodic peaks in incidence and an increasing number of outbreaks have been observed over the last decades. The reduced-antigen-content tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) can be used to boost individuals aged ≥10 years, vaccinated in infancy with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), to reduce pertussis morbidity and maintain protection against diphtheria and tetanus throughout adolescence and adulthood. This phase III, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter follow-up study (NCT01738477) enrolled 19-30-year-old participants from the United States who had received booster vaccination 10 years earlier with either Tdap (Tdap group) or Td (Td group). In total, 128 (Tdap group) and 37 (Td group) participants received Tdap vaccination. After administration of Tdap, all participants were seroprotected (antibody concentrations ≥0.1 international units [IU]/ml) against diphtheria and tetanus. Immune responses to a second Tdap dose in the Tdap group were shown to be non-inferior to responses elicited by a first Tdap dose in the Td group for diphtheria and tetanus and to a 3-dose DTaP vaccination during infancy for pertussis antigens (primary objectives). Post-booster vaccination, all participants in both groups had antibody concentrations above assay cut-offs and antibody geometric mean concentrations increased by 3.8-15.5-fold compared to pre-booster levels for all antigens. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the Td (80.6%) and Tdap (85.6%) groups (no serious adverse events reported). A Tdap dose administered after previous Td or Tdap vaccination was shown to be immunogenic and well-tolerated in young adults, supporting repeated vaccination with Tdap at 10-year intervals.

  18. Lot-to-lot consistency study of the fully liquid pentavalent DTwP-HepB-Hib vaccine Quinvaxem® demonstrating clinical equivalence, suitability of the vaccine as a booster and concomitant administration with measles vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Aspinall, Sanet; Traynor, Deirdre; Bedford, Philip; Hartmann, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    This double-blind, randomized study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of three production lots of the fully liquid combination DTwP-Hep-Hib vaccine, Quinvaxem® (Crucell, The Netherlands) in 360 healthy infants aged 42–64 d old given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age (Core Study). The Core Study was followed by an open-label Booster Phase evaluating immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of Quinvaxem® given with either concomitant or deferred measles vaccine in 227 infants who completed the Core Study. One month after the third dose of Quinvaxem® immune responses reflecting seroprotection or seroconversion were observed in more than 90% of infants for all three vaccine lots. Quinvaxem® elicited a strong booster response as demonstrated by a large increase in antibodies against all antigens, which appeared to be unaffected by concomitant administration of the measles vaccine. Safety results were in line with previous reports for Quinvaxem® with no unexpected adverse events (AEs) being reported. In the Core Study and Booster Phase, Quinvaxem® was well tolerated. No study vaccine-related serious AEs were reported. Thus, Quinvaxem® was immunogenic and well-tolerated when administered to infants according to a 6–10–14 week vaccination schedule. The three production lots had consistent reactogenicity and immunogenicity profiles. The booster dose of Quinvaxem® was also immunogenic and safe, regardless of whether a monovalent measles vaccine was administered concomitantly or one month later. PMID:22854660

  19. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Dose of a Live Attenuated Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Vaccine Given 1 Year After Primary Immunization in Healthy Children in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Soo; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ki Hwan; Bang, Joon; Naimi, Zulaikha; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Houillon, Guy

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a booster vaccination of a new, live attenuated, Japanese encephalitis chimeric vaccine (JE-CV). Previously this vaccine has been used as a booster 12 months after priming with an inactivated vaccine and at >24 months after priming with the same JE-CV. This study evaluates the immunogenicity and safety of the JE-CV given at 12-24 months after JE-CV priming. Phase III, open-label study in the Republic of Korea in which 119 children previously vaccinated with JE-CV at 12-24 months of age received a JE-CV booster at 12-24 months after primary vaccination. JE neutralizing antibody titers were measured using >50% plaque reduction neutralization test prebooster and 1 month postbooster vaccination. Seroprotection (SP) was defined as ≥10 (1/dil). Safety was assessed for 28 days postvaccination by parental reports. Serious adverse events were monitored for 6 months postvaccination. Antibody persistence was high prebooster (SP rate 93.5%). There was a strong anamnestic response postbooster vaccination, with an SP rate of 100% and a >50-fold increase in geometric mean titer from the prebooster level. Both antibody persistence and the booster response were independent of whether the booster was given at 12-17 or 18-24 months. The safety profile was good and comparable with the primary vaccination; there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events and no deaths. This study confirms the suitability of a JE-CV booster vaccination at 12-24 months after a primary dose of the same vaccine given at 12-24 months of age in children in the Republic of Korea.

  20. Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Alternate Booster Schedules of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sabourin, Carol L.; Schiffer, Jarad M.; Niemuth, Nancy A.; Semenova, Vera A.; Li, Han; Rudge, Thomas L.; Brys, April M.; Mittler, Robert S.; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Parker, Scott D.; Babcock, Janiine; Keitel, Wendy; Poland, Gregory A.; Keyserling, Harry L.; El Sahly, Hana; Jacobson, Robert M.; Marano, Nina; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Wright, Jennifer G.

    2016-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA)-specific antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to annual and alternate booster schedules of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA; BioThrax) were characterized in humans over 43 months. Study participants received 1 of 6 vaccination schedules: a 3-dose intramuscular (IM) priming series (0, 1, and 6 months) with a single booster at 42 months (4-IM); 3-dose IM priming with boosters at 18 and 42 months (5-IM); 3-dose IM priming with boosters at 12, 18, 30, and 42 months (7-IM); the 1970 licensed priming series of 6 doses (0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12, and 18 months) and two annual boosters (30 and 42 months) administered either subcutaneously (SQ) (8-SQ) or IM (8-IM); or saline placebo control at all eight time points. Antibody response profiles included serum anti-PA IgG levels, subclass distributions, avidity, and lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA). CMI profiles included frequencies of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)- and interleukin 4 (IL-4)-secreting cells and memory B cells (MBCs), lymphocyte stimulation indices (SI), and induction of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA. All active schedules elicited high-avidity PA-specific IgG, TNA, MBCs, and T cell responses with a mixed Th1-Th2 profile and Th2 dominance. Anti-PA IgG and TNA were highly correlated (e.g., month 7, r2 = 0.86, P < 0.0001, log10 transformed) and declined in the absence of boosters. Boosters administered IM generated the highest antibody responses. Increasing time intervals between boosters generated antibody responses that were faster than and superior to those obtained with the final month 42 vaccination. CMI responses to the 3-dose IM priming remained elevated up to 43 months. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00119067.) PMID:26865594

  1. Diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus antibody persistence 5 years after vaccination of pre-schoolers with two different diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and immune responses to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV.

    PubMed

    Gajdos, Vincent; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Tran, Clément; Sadorge, Christine

    2015-07-31

    This follow-up study assessed the 5-year persistence of vaccine-induced antibodies (Td-IPV or DT-IPV) and the immune response to a booster dose of DTaP-IPV. This was an open-label, parallel-group (two arms), multicentre trial performed at 44 study sites in France. Children aged 11-13 years, of either sex, who received Td-IPV (Revaxis(®)) and DT-IPV (DT Polio(®)) vaccines at 6 years of age in one previous open-label trial with no further vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis or poliomyelitis, were enrolled. All participants received a single intramuscular booster dose (0.5mL) of DTaP-IPV vaccine (Tetravac-Acellulaire(®)). Study endpoints were based on antibody persistence and post-booster immune responses. Safety was monitored throughout the study. Descriptive statistics were used for all analyses. Of the 758 children included in the previous study, 274 were included in this follow-up study; 129 had previously been vaccinated with Td-IPV, and 145 had previously received DT-IPV. At least 96.5% of participants in both groups presented an anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus concentration ≥0.01IU/mL, and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 titres≥8 (1/dilution). Following vaccination with DTaP-IPV, anti-diphtheria and anti-tetanus antibody concentrations ≥0.1IU/mL and anti-poliovirus types 1-3 antibody titres ≥8 (1/dilution) were achieved in all participants. DTaP-IPV was well tolerated in this study. There were no serious adverse events during the study, and no participant withdrew because of adverse events. The present study confirmed the long-term immunity conferred by Td-IPV when given as a booster dose, and supports the use of Td-IPV as a second booster at 6 years of age in children previously vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis types 1-3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutralization antibody response to booster/priming immunization with new equine influenza vaccine in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kokado, Hiroshi; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2018-03-02

    Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine. These European viruses have the amino acid substitution A144V or I179V of the hemagglutinin. In horses that had previously received a primary course and bi-annual boosters with the old vaccine booster, immunization with the updated vaccine increased the VN antibody levels against the European Fc2 viruses as well as Y10. There were no significant differences in the VN titers against Y10 and the Fc2 viruses with A144V or I179V substitution in horses that had received a primary course of the updated vaccine. However, a mixed primary course where the first dose was the old vaccine and the second dose was the updated vaccine, reduced VN titers against the European viruses compared to that against Y10. In summary, the new vaccine affords horses protective level of VN titers against the Fc2 viruses carrying A144V or I179V substitution, but our results suggest that the combination of the old and new vaccines for primary immunization would not be optimum.

  3. Neutralization antibody response to booster/priming immunization with new equine influenza vaccine in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMANAKA, Takashi; NEMOTO, Manabu; BANNAI, Hiroshi; TSUJIMURA, Koji; MATSUMURA, Tomio; KOKADO, Hiroshi; GILDEA, Sarah; CULLINANE, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Equine influenza (EI) vaccine has been widely used. However, the causative EI virus (H3N8) undergoes continuous antigenic drift, and the vaccine strains must be periodically reviewed and if necessary, updated to maintain vaccine efficacy against circulating viruses. In 2016, the Japanese vaccine was updated by replacing the old viruses with the Florida sub-lineage Clade (Fc) 2 virus, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (Y10). We investigated the virus neutralization (VN) antibody response to Fc2 viruses currently circulating in Europe, after booster or primary immunization with the new vaccine. These European viruses have the amino acid substitution A144V or I179V of the hemagglutinin. In horses that had previously received a primary course and bi-annual boosters with the old vaccine booster, immunization with the updated vaccine increased the VN antibody levels against the European Fc2 viruses as well as Y10. There were no significant differences in the VN titers against Y10 and the Fc2 viruses with A144V or I179V substitution in horses that had received a primary course of the updated vaccine. However, a mixed primary course where the first dose was the old vaccine and the second dose was the updated vaccine, reduced VN titers against the European viruses compared to that against Y10. In summary, the new vaccine affords horses protective level of VN titers against the Fc2 viruses carrying A144V or I179V substitution, but our results suggest that the combination of the old and new vaccines for primary immunization would not be optimum. PMID:29237998

  4. Boosting effect of a second dose of measles vaccine given to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Böttiger, M

    1993-01-01

    In Sweden, a two-dose programme of vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) was introduced in 1982 and the target groups were children aged 18 months and 12 years. In 1993 the first age group of 12-year-olds that were vaccinated with MMR at 18 months will appear. The majority of the 12-year-old vaccines for many years, however, had already been vaccinated against measles and the MMR measles component was thus a booster dose. As the benefit of a booster dose against measles has been questioned, this was studied in a group of 163 12-year-old children, 122 of whom had been vaccinated against measles as young children. Of the 41 unvaccinated children, 23 had a history of clinical measles. The mean neutralizing titre level of the earlier vaccinated children, prior to the booster, was lower than that of the naturally immune children (reciprocal titre level 8 versus 20). After the booster the corresponding titre levels were 13 and 23. Among the seronegative children receiving their first dose, this figure amounted to 14. A moderate rise in titre was seen in those with low prevaccination titres. As the antibody protection afforded by vaccination was slightly lower than that of natural infection, even after a booster, follow-up studies must be recommended to evaluate the long-term protection of both a single and a two-dose programme.

  5. First-in-human safety and immunogenicity investigations of three adjuvanted reduced dose inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV-Al SSI) compared to full dose IPV Vaccine SSI when given as a booster vaccination to adolescents with a history of IPV vaccination at 3, 5, 12months and 5years of age.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Line M; Tingskov, Pernille N; Justesen, Annette H; Nedergaard, Bettina S; Olsen, Klaus J; Andreasen, Lars V; Kromann, Ingrid; Sørensen, Charlotte; Dietrich, Jes; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit

    2017-01-23

    There is a demand of affordable IPV in the World. Statens Serum Institut (SSI) has developed three reduced dose IPV formulations adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide; 1/3 IPV-Al, 1/5 IPV-Al and 1/10 IPV-Al SSI, and now report the results of the first investigations in humans. 240 Danish adolescents, aged 10-15years, and childhood vaccinated with IPV were booster vaccinated with 1/3 IPV-Al, 1/5 IPV-Al, 1/10 IPV-Al or IPV Vaccine SSI. The booster effects (GMTRs) of the three IPV-Al SSI were compared to IPV Vaccine SSI, and evaluated for non-inferiority. The pre-vaccination GMTs were similar across the groups; 926 (type 1), 969 (type 2) and 846 (type 3) in the total trial population. The GMTRs by poliovirus type and IPV formulation were: Type 1: 17.0 (1/3 IPV-Al), 13.0 (1/5 IPV-Al), 7.1 (1/10 IPV-Al) and 42.2 (IPV Vaccine SSI). Type 2: 12.5 (1/3 IPV-Al), 13.1 (1/5 IPV-Al), 7.6 (1/10 IPV-Al) and 47.8 (IPV Vaccine SSI). Type 3: 14.5 (1/3 IPV-Al), 16.2 (1/5 IPV-Al), 8.9 (1/10 IPV-Al) and 62.4 (IPV Vaccine SSI) Thus, the three IPV-Al formulations were highly immunogenic, but inferior to IPV Vaccine SSI, in this booster vaccination trial. No SAE and no AE of severe intensity occurred. 59.2% of the subjects reported at least one AE. Injection site pain was the most frequent AE in all groups; from 24.6% to 43.3%. Injection site redness and swelling frequencies were<5% in most and<10% in all groups. The most frequent systemic AEs were fatigue (from 8.2% to 15.0%) and headache (from 15.0% to 28.3%). Most AEs were of mild intensity. In conclusion, the three IPV-Al SSI were safe in adolescents and the booster effects were satisfactory. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02280447. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Low-dose priming before vaccination with the phase I chloroform-methanol residue vaccine against Q fever enhances humoral and cellular immune responses to Coxiella burnetii.

    PubMed

    Waag, David M; England, Marilyn J; Bolt, Christopher R; Williams, Jim C

    2008-10-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 microg, followed by a booster dose of 30 microg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection.

  7. Booster dose after 10 years is recommended following 17DD-YF primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Antonelli, Lis R; Fonseca, Cristina T; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Villela-Rezende, Gabriela; Santos, Raiany A; Batista, Maurício A; Campos, Fernanda M; Pacheco-Porto, Luiza; Melo Júnior, Otoni A; Hossell, Débora M S H; Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana G; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Costa-Silva, Matheus F; de Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Farias, Roberto H; Noronha, Tatiana G; Lemos, Jandira A; von Doellinger, Vanessa dos R; Simões, Marisol; de Souza, Mirian M; Malaquias, Luiz C; Persi, Harold R; Pereira, Jorge M; Martins, José A; Dornelas-Ribeiro, Marcos; Vinhas, Aline de A; Alves, Tatiane R; Maia, Maria de L; Freire, Marcos da S; Martins, Reinaldo de M; Homma, Akira; Romano, Alessandro P M; Domingues, Carla M; Tauil, Pedro L; Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Rios, Maria; Caldas, Iramaya R; Camacho, Luiz A; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-01-01

    A single vaccination of Yellow Fever vaccines is believed to confer life-long protection. In this study, results of vaccinees who received a single dose of 17DD-YF immunization followed over 10 y challenge this premise. YF-neutralizing antibodies, subsets of memory T and B cells as well as cytokine-producing lymphocytes were evaluated in groups of adults before (NVday0) and after (PVday30-45, PVyear1-4, PVyear5-9, PVyear10-11, PVyear12-13) 17DD-YF primary vaccination. YF-neutralizing antibodies decrease significantly from PVyear1-4 to PVyear12-13 as compared to PVday30-45, and the seropositivity rates (PRNT≥2.9Log10mIU/mL) become critical (lower than 90%) beyond PVyear5-9. YF-specific memory phenotypes (effector T-cells and classical B-cells) significantly increase at PVday30-45 as compared to naïve baseline. Moreover, these phenotypes tend to decrease at PVyear10-11 as compared to PVday30-45. Decreasing levels of TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) produced by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells along with increasing levels of IL-10(+)CD4(+)T-cells were characteristic of anti-YF response over time. Systems biology profiling represented by hierarchic networks revealed that while the naïve baseline is characterized by independent micro-nets, primary vaccinees displayed an imbricate network with essential role of central and effector CD8(+) memory T-cell responses. Any putative limitations of this cross-sectional study will certainly be answered by the ongoing longitudinal population-based investigation. Overall, our data support the current Brazilian national immunization policy guidelines that recommend one booster dose 10 y after primary 17DD-YF vaccination.

  8. Immunogenicity of heterologous H5N1 influenza booster vaccination 6 or 18 months after primary vaccination in adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Langley, Joanne M; Frenette, Louise; Jeanfreau, Robert; Halperin, Scott A; Kyle, Michael; Chu, Laurence; McNeil, Shelly; Dramé, Mamadou; Moris, Philippe; Fries, Louis; Vaughn, David W

    2015-01-15

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 viruses continue to circulate in birds and infect humans causing serious illness and death. In this randomized, observer-blinded study, adults ≥18 years of age (n=841) received 3.75 or 7.5 μg hemagglutinin antigen (HA) of an AS03-adjuvanted (AS03A or AS03B) A/Indonesia/5/2005 H5N1 (subclade 2.1) vaccine (priming), followed by the same HA dose of AS03-adjuvanted A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 H5N1 (clade 2.2) influenza vaccine as a booster 6 or 18 months after priming; an unprimed group received placebo at Day 0, and 3.75 μg HA of AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccine at 6 and 18 months. Antibody responses were assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition assay (HI). Microneutralization (MN) antibody and cellular immunoassays were assessed in a subset of participants. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates (SCRs) were higher in primed vs. unprimed subjects against the booster strain 10 days following booster vaccination at month 6 and month 18. After the booster at 18 months, the lower limit of the 97.5% confidence interval for the difference in SCR and GMT ratios between primed and unprimed subjects was >15% and >2.0, respectively, fulfilling the primary endpoint criteria for superiority against the booster strain. MN and cellular immune responses corresponded with the immunogenicity seen in HI measures. Adults primed with a dose-sparing oil-in-water adjuvanted H5N1 subclade vaccine had rapid and durable antibody responses to a heterologous subclade boosting vaccine given 6 or 18 months later. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Combating pertussis resurgence: One booster vaccination schedule does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Maria A; Rohani, Pejman

    2015-02-03

    Pertussis has reemerged as a major public health concern in many countries where it was once considered well controlled. Although the mechanisms responsible for continued pertussis circulation and resurgence remain elusive and contentious, many countries have nevertheless recommended booster vaccinations, the timing and number of which vary widely. Here, using a stochastic, age-stratified transmission model, we searched for cost-effective booster vaccination strategies using a genetic algorithm. We did so assuming four hypothesized mechanisms underpinning contemporary pertussis epidemiology: (I) insufficient coverage, (II) frequent primary vaccine failure, (III) waning of vaccine-derived protection, and (IV) vaccine "leakiness." For scenarios I-IV, successful booster strategies were identified and varied considerably by mechanism. Especially notable is the inability of booster schedules to alleviate resurgence when vaccines are leaky. Critically, our findings argue that the ultimate effectiveness of vaccine booster schedules will likely depend on correctly pinpointing the causes of resurgence, with misdiagnosis of the problem epidemiologically ineffective and economically costly.

  10. Persistence at one year of age of antigen-induced cellular immune responses in preterm infants vaccinated against whooping cough: comparison of three different vaccines and effect of a booster dose.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Françoise; Dirix, Violette; Verscheure, Virginie; Damis, Eliane; Vermeylen, Danièle; Locht, Camille; Mascart, Françoise

    2013-04-08

    Due to their high risk of developing severe Bordetella pertussis (Bp) infections, it is recommended to immunize preterm infants at their chronological age. However, little is known about the persistence of their specific immune responses, especially of the cellular responses recognized to play a role in protection. We compared here the cellular immune responses to two major antigens of Bp between three groups of one year-old children born prematurely, who received for their primary vaccination respectively the whole cell vaccine Tetracoq(®) (TC), the acellular vaccine Tetravac(®) (TV), or the acellular vaccine Infanrix-hexa(®) (IR). Whereas most children had still detectable IFN-γ responses at one year of age, they were lower in the IR-vaccinated children compared to the two other groups. In contrast, both the TV- and the IR-vaccinated children displayed higher Th2-type immune responses, resulting in higher antigen-specific IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios in TC- than in TV- or IR-vaccinated children. The IFN-γ/IL-5 ratio of mitogen-induced cytokines was also lower in IR- compared to TC- or TV-vaccinated children. No major differences in the immune responses were noted after the booster compared to the pre-booster responses for each vaccine. The IR-vaccinated children had a persistently low specific Th1-type immune response associated with high specific Th2-type immune responses, resulting in lower antigen-specific IFN-γ/IL-5 ratios compared to the two other groups. We conclude that antigen-specific cellular immune responses persisted in one year-old children born prematurely and vaccinated during infancy at their chronological age, that a booster dose did not significantly boost the cellular immune responses, and that the Th1/Th2 balance of the immune responses is modulated by the different vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster.

    PubMed

    Perrett, K P; John, T M; Jin, C; Kibwana, E; Yu, L-M; Curtis, N; Pollard, A J

    2014-04-01

    Protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria, is dependent on maintenance of an adequate level of serum antibody through early childhood. In many countries, Hib vaccine booster doses have been implemented after infant immunization to sustain immunity. We investigated the long-term persistence of antibody and immunological memory in primary-school children following infant (with or without booster) Hib vaccination. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the frequency of circulating Hib-specific memory B cells were measured before a booster of a Hib-serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine and again 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the booster in 250 healthy children aged 6-12 years in an open-label phase 4 clinical study. Six to 12 years following infant priming with 3 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine, anti-PRP IgG geometric mean concentrations were 3.11 µg/mL and 0.71 µg/mL and proportions with anti-PRP IgG ≥1.0 µg/mL were 79% and 43% in children who had or had not, respectively, received a fourth Hib conjugate vaccine dose (mean age, 3.9 years). Higher baseline and post-Hib-MenC booster responses (anti-PRP IgG and memory B cells) were found in younger children and in those who had received a fourth Hib dose. Sustained Hib conjugate vaccine-induced immunity in children is dependent on time since infant priming and receipt of a booster. Understanding the relationship between humoral and cellular immunity following immunization with conjugate vaccines may direct vaccine design and boosting strategies to sustain individual and population immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early childhood. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN728588998.

  12. Long-term persistence in protection and response to a hepatitis B vaccine booster among adolescents immunized in infancy in the western region of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Zi; Gao, Yu-Hua; Lu, Wei; Jin, Cun-Duo; Zeng, Ying; Yan, Ling; Ding, Feng; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-04-03

    To evaluate the persistence of protection from hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among adolescents immunized with a primary series of HB vaccine as infants, and the immune response to booster doses. Healthy adolescents aged 15-17 y vaccinated with HB vaccine only at birth were enrolled. Baseline serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and anti-HBs level was measured using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA). The rate of HBV infection was calculated. The seroprotection rate of anti-HBs (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and GMC level were used to evaluate the persistence of immunity from HB vaccination. Those with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml were immunized with booster doses of HB vaccine and the anamnestic response was assessed. Of 180 adolescents who received a primary series of HB vaccinations as infants, 3 (1.7%) had HBV infection and 74 (41.1%) had anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml with a GMC of 145.11 mIU/ml. The remaining 103 (57.2%) with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml received a booster dose of 20 μg HB vaccine and achieved the seroprotection rate of 84% (84/100) and a GMC of 875.19 mIU/ml at one month post-booster. An additional dose of 60 μg HB vaccine was administered to the 16 adolescents with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml after the first booster. All of them obtained anti-HBs seroprotection with a GMC of 271.02 mIU/ml at 1.5 months after an additional dose. Vaccine-induced immunity persisted for up to 15-17 y in 89.3% (158/177) of participants after a primary HB vaccination in infancy. Administering a booster dose of 20μg HB vaccine elicited an anamnestic immune responses in the majority of individuals with baseline anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml.

  13. Long-term persistence in protection and response to a hepatitis B vaccine booster among adolescents immunized in infancy in the western region of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen-Zi; Gao, Yu-Hua; Lu, Wei; Jin, Cun-Duo; Zeng, Ying; Yan, Ling; Ding, Feng; Li, Tong; Liu, Xue-En; Zhuang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the persistence of protection from hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among adolescents immunized with a primary series of HB vaccine as infants, and the immune response to booster doses. Methods: Healthy adolescents aged 15–17 y vaccinated with HB vaccine only at birth were enrolled. Baseline serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and anti-HBs level was measured using Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA). The rate of HBV infection was calculated. The seroprotection rate of anti-HBs (≥ 10 mIU/ml) and GMC level were used to evaluate the persistence of immunity from HB vaccination. Those with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml were immunized with booster doses of HB vaccine and the anamnestic response was assessed. Results: Of 180 adolescents who received a primary series of HB vaccinations as infants, 3 (1.7%) had HBV infection and 74 (41.1%) had anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml with a GMC of 145.11 mIU/ml. The remaining 103 (57.2%) with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml received a booster dose of 20 μg HB vaccine and achieved the seroprotection rate of 84% (84/100) and a GMC of 875.19 mIU/ml at one month post-booster. An additional dose of 60 μg HB vaccine was administered to the 16 adolescents with anti-HBs < 10 mIU/ml after the first booster. All of them obtained anti-HBs seroprotection with a GMC of 271.02 mIU/ml at 1.5 months after an additional dose. Conclusions: Vaccine-induced immunity persisted for up to 15–17 y in 89.3% (158/177) of participants after a primary HB vaccination in infancy. Administering a booster dose of 20μg HB vaccine elicited an anamnestic immune responses in the majority of individuals with baseline anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml. PMID:27874311

  14. Long-term evaluation of mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by different polio booster vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yuhong; Daniell, Henry

    2017-09-25

    Oral polio vaccine (OPV) and Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) have distinct advantages and limitations. IPV does not provide mucosal immunity and introduction of IPV to mitigate consequences of circulating vaccine-derived polio virus from OPV has very limited effect on transmission and OPV campaigns are essential for interrupting wild polio virus transmission, even in developed countries with a high coverage of IPV and protected sewer systems. The problem is magnified in many countries with limited resources. Requirement of refrigeration for storage and transportation for both IPV and OPV is also a major challenge in developing countries. Therefore, we present here long-term studies on comparison of a plant-based booster vaccine, which is free of virus and cold chain with IPV boosters and provide data on mucosal and systemic immunity and protection conferred by neutralizing antibodies. Mice were primed subcutaneously with IPV and boosted orally with lyophilized plant cells containing 1μg or 25μg polio viral protein 1 (VP1), once a month for three months or a single booster one year after the first prime. Our results show that VP1-IgG1 titers in single or double dose IPV dropped to background levels after one year of immunization. This decrease correlated with >50% reduction in seropositivity in double dose and <10% seropositivity in single dose IPV against serotype 1. Single dose IPV offered no or minimal protection against serotype 1 and 2 but conferred protection against serotype 3. VP1-IgA titers were negligible in IPV single or double dose vaccinated mice. VP1 antigen with two plant-derived adjuvants induced significantly high level and long lasting VP1-IgG1, IgA and neutralizing antibody titers (average 4.3-6.8 log2 titers). Plant boosters with VP1 and plant derived adjuvants maintained the same level titers from 29 to 400days and conferred the same level of protection against all three serotypes throughout the duration of this study. Even during period, when

  15. Low-Dose Priming before Vaccination with the Phase I Chloroform-Methanol Residue Vaccine against Q Fever Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Coxiella burnetii▿

    PubMed Central

    Waag, David M.; England, Marilyn J.; Bolt, Christopher R.; Williams, Jim C.

    2008-01-01

    Although the phase I Coxiella burnetii cellular vaccine is completely efficacious in humans, adverse local and systemic reactions may develop if immune individuals are inadvertently vaccinated. The phase I chloroform-methanol residue (CMRI) vaccine was developed as a potentially safer alternative. Human volunteers with no evidence of previous exposure to C. burnetii received a subcutaneous vaccination with the CMRI vaccine in phase I studies under protocol IND 3516 to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine. This clinical trial tested escalating doses of the CMRI vaccine, ranging from 0.3 to 60 μg, followed by a booster dose of 30 μg, in a placebo-controlled study. Although priming doses of the CMRI vaccine did not induce a specific antibody detectable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, booster vaccination stimulated the production of significant levels of anti-C. burnetii antibody. Peripheral blood cells (PBCs) of vaccinees responded to C. burnetii cellular antigen in vitro in a vaccine dose-dependent manner. After the booster dose, PBCs were activated by recall antigen in vitro, regardless of the priming dose. These findings suggest that vaccination with the CMRI vaccine can effectively prime the immune system to mount significant anamnestic responses after infection. PMID:18701647

  16. Efficacy and Duration of Immunity after Yellow Fever Vaccination: Systematic Review on the Need for a Booster Every 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Yactayo, Sergio; Córdova, Erika

    2013-01-01

    Current regulations stipulate a yellow fever (YF) booster every 10 years. We conducted a systematic review of the protective efficacy and duration of immunity of YF vaccine in residents of disease-endemic areas and in travelers to assess the need for a booster in these two settings and in selected populations (human immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, infants, children, pregnant women, and severely malnourished persons). Thirty-six studies and 22 reports were included. We identified 12 studies of immunogenicity, 8 of duration of immunity, 8 of vaccine response in infants and children, 7 of human-immunodeficiency virus–infected persons, 2 of pregnant women, and 1 of severely malnourished children. Based on currently available data, a single dose of YF vaccine is highly immunogenic and confers sustained life-long protective immunity against YF. Therefore, a booster dose of YF vaccine is not needed. Special considerations for selected populations are detailed. PMID:24006295

  17. Persistence of the immune response after MenACWY-CRM vaccination and response to a booster dose, in adolescents, children and infants

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Roger; Keshavan, Pavitra; Welsch, Jo Anne; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following vaccination is extremely important for protection against invasive meningococcal disease, given the epidemiology and rapid progression of meningococcal infection. We present an analysis of antibody persistence and booster response to MenACWY-CRM, in adolescents, children and infants, from 7 clinical studies. Immunogenicity was assessed using the serum bactericidal assay with both human and rabbit complement. Post-vaccination hSBA titers were high, with an age- and serogroup-specific decline in titers up to 1 y and stable levels up to 5 y The waning of hSBA titers over time was more pronounced among infants and toddlers and the greatest for serogroup A. However, rSBA titers against serogroup A were consistently higher and showed little decline over time, suggesting that protection against this serogroup may be sustained. A single booster dose of MenACWY-CRM administered at 3 to 5 y induced a robust immune response in all age groups. PMID:26829877

  18. Persistence of the immune response after MenACWY-CRM vaccination and response to a booster dose, in adolescents, children and infants.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Roger; Keshavan, Pavitra; Welsch, Jo Anne; Han, Linda; Smolenov, Igor

    2016-05-03

    Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following vaccination is extremely important for protection against invasive meningococcal disease, given the epidemiology and rapid progression of meningococcal infection. We present an analysis of antibody persistence and booster response to MenACWY-CRM, in adolescents, children and infants, from 7 clinical studies. Immunogenicity was assessed using the serum bactericidal assay with both human and rabbit complement. Post-vaccination hSBA titers were high, with an age- and serogroup-specific decline in titers up to 1 y and stable levels up to 5 y The waning of hSBA titers over time was more pronounced among infants and toddlers and the greatest for serogroup A. However, rSBA titers against serogroup A were consistently higher and showed little decline over time, suggesting that protection against this serogroup may be sustained. A single booster dose of MenACWY-CRM administered at 3 to 5 y induced a robust immune response in all age groups.

  19. Primary and booster vaccination in Latin American children with a DTPw-HBV/Hib combination: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Felix; Tregnaghi, Miguel; Gentile, Angela; Abarca, Katia; Casellas, Javier; Collard, Alix; Lefevre, Inge; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-10-15

    Diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis (DTPw)-based combination vaccines are an attractive option to rapidly achieve high coverage and protection against other important pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). To ensure adequate antigen supply, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals has introduced a new DTPw antigen source and developed a new DTPw-HBV/Hib combination vaccine containing a reduced amount of Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine with a licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib). This was a randomized, partially-blind, multicenter study in three countries in Latin America (Argentina, Chile and Nicaragua). Healthy children received either the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine (1 of 3 lots; n = 439; double-blind) or Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib (n = 146; single-blind) co-administered with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at 2, 4 and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18-24 months. One month after the end of the 3-dose primary vaccination course, the new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was non-inferior to Tritanrix™-HBV/Hib in terms of seroprotection/vaccine response rates for all component antigens; ≥97.3% and ≥93.9% of subjects in the two groups, respectively, had seroprotective levels of antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis B and Hib and a vaccine response to the pertussis component. Persistence of antibodies against all vaccine antigens was comparable between groups, with marked increases in all antibody concentrations after booster administration in both groups. Both vaccines were generally well-tolerated as primary and booster doses. Results confirm the suitability of this new DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine comprising antigens from a new source and a reduced PRP content for inclusion into routine childhood vaccination programs. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00332566.

  20. The effects of booster vaccination on combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine in both anti-HBs and anti-HAV negative children 5-15 years after hepatitis B vaccine primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongdi; Gu, Hua; Cheng, Suyun; Shen, Lingzhi; Cui, Fujiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yao, Jun; Xia, Shichang; Lv, Huakun; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the changes in both anti-HAV lgG and anti-HBs lgG levels and compared the antibody seroconversion rates of different doses of combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine in children. Children who were vaccinated as infants with Hepatitis B vaccine were revaccinated at 5-15 y of age, then the antibody titers were monitored. Among 283 children, this study found that the anti-HAV seroconversion rates (defined as anti-HAV ≥ 1 mIU/ml) after the first and the third dose were 79.9% and 100% respectively; these observed differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); the corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 4.72 ± 2.63 mIU/ml and 13.46 ± 1.16 mIU/ml respectively. The anti-HBs seroconversion rates (defined as an anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/ml) were 82.3% and 99.0% respectively; these observed differences were statistically significant (P<0.05); and the corresponding titers were 319.95 ± 5.16 mIU/ml and 418.59 ± 3.89 mIU/ml respectively. After the first booster dose, the difference in anti-HAV seroconversion rate was statistically significant in children aged 5-9 y and 10-15 y (P<0.05), as was the difference of anti-HBs seroconversion, whereas after the third dose the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). This study demonstrated that the immunization effects of booster vaccination with combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine is successful for children. A single booster dose is adequate for younger children, while three doses are needed for older children.

  1. Antibody persistence at 18-20 months of age and safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of a combined DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine compared to separate vaccines (DTaP, PRP∼T and IPV) following primary vaccination of healthy infants in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Cheng; Li, Feng Xiang; Li, Yan Ping; Hou, Qi Ming; Li, Chang Gui; Li, Ya Nan; Chen, Fu Sheng; Hu, Xue Zhong; Su, Wen Bin; Zhang, Shu Min; Fang, Han Hua; Ye, Qiang; Zeng, Tian De; Liu, Tao Xuan; Li, Xiu Bi; Huang, Yun Neng; Deng, Man Ling; Zhang, Yan Ping; Ortiz, Esteban

    2011-11-21

    This study assessed the antibody persistence, and the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T (Pentaxim®, Sanofi Pasteur's AcXim family) combined vaccine and of standalone vaccines one year after primary vaccination in the People's Republic of China. Participants (N=719) previously primed with DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T at 2, 3, 4 months (Group A, N=255), 3, 4, 5 months (Group B, N=233), or DTaP (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products), PRP-T (Act-Hib®) and IPV (Imovax® Polio) at 3, 4, 5 months (Group C, N=231) received boosters of the same vaccines at 18-20 months of age. Seroprotection (SP) and seroconversion (SC) were determined before and 1 month after the booster. Safety was monitored from parental reports. In all groups 87.6-100% of participants had pre-booster protective anti-PRP, -diphtheria, -tetanus and -poliovirus antibody titers; post-booster, all SP rates were 100% and SC was ≥ 80.4% for anti-pertussis titers ≥ 4-fold increase. Reactogenicity was low for each group. These data support the use of the DTaP-IPV//PRP∼T vaccine in the People's Republic of China compared to separate DTaP, IPV, and PRP∼T administration in terms of both safety and immunogenicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized, Open-Label Study of the Impact of Age on Booster Responses to the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Children in India

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥95.2% (early booster) and ≥93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥96.7% and ≥93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ≥8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥88.6% and ≥96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥71.4% and ≥90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ≥8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have

  3. Antibody persistence and booster responses 24-36 months after different 4CMenB vaccination schedules in infants and children: A randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Carmona Martinez, Alfonso; Simkó, Róbert; Infante Marquez, Pilar; Arimany, Josep-Lluis; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Couceiro Gianzo, José Antonio; Kovács, Éva; Rojo, Pablo; Wang, Huajun; Bhusal, Chiranjiwi; Toneatto, Daniela

    2018-03-01

    This phase IIIb, open-label, multicentre, extension study (NCT01894919) evaluated long-term antibody persistence and booster responses in participants who received a reduced 2 + 1 or licensed 3 + 1 meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB)-schedule (infants), or 2-dose catch-up schedule (2-10-year-olds) in parent study NCT01339923. Children aged 35 months to 12 years (N = 851) were enrolled. Follow-on participants (N = 646) were randomised 2:1 to vaccination and non-vaccination subsets; vaccination subsets received an additional 4CMenB dose. Newly enrolled vaccine-naïve participants (N = 205) received 2 catch-up doses, 1 month apart (accelerated schedule). Antibody levels were determined using human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA) against MenB indicator strains for fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Safety was also evaluated. Antibody levels declined across follow-on groups at 24-36 months versus 1 month post-vaccination. Antibody persistence and booster responses were similar between infants receiving the reduced or licensed 4CMenB-schedule. An additional dose in follow-on participants induced higher hSBA titres than a first dose in vaccine-naïve children. Two catch-up doses in vaccine-naïve participants induced robust antibody responses. No safety concerns were identified. Antibody persistence, booster responses, and safety profiles were similar with either 2 + 1 or 3 + 1 vaccination schedules. The accelerated schedule in vaccine-naïve children induced robust antibody responses. Copyright © 2017 GlaxoSmithKline SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Booster influenza vaccination does not improve immune response in adult inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with immunosuppressives: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Ohfuji, Satoko; Watanabe, Kenji; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Wakaba; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kamata, Noriko; Sogawa, Mitsue; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hirota, Yoshio; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    This research was conducted is to assess the effect of booster doses of the trivalent influenza vaccine in adult inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α agents and/or immunomodulators. Adult IBD patients and healthy individuals were subcutaneously administered the trivalent influenza vaccine. They were randomized into two groups: the single vaccination group and the two vaccination booster group. Blood samples were collected, and the antibody titers against each influenza strain were determined by hemagglutination inhibition at 3 different time points (pre-vaccination, 3 weeks post-vaccination, and after the flu season) in the single vaccination group and at 4 time points (pre-vaccination, 3 weeks post-first vaccination, 3 weeks post-second vaccination, and after the flu season) in the booster vaccination group. Seventy-eight IBD patients and 11 healthy controls were randomized into the single vaccination group and the booster vaccination group. Twenty-nine patients received immunomodulators; 21 received anti-TNF-α agents; and 28 received a combination of both. No significant differences were observed in the evaluated immune response parameters between 3 weeks post-vaccination in the single vaccination group and 3 weeks post-second vaccination in the booster vaccination group (geometric mean titers: H1N1, p = 0.09; H3N2: p = 0.99; B: p = 0.94). A higher pre-vaccination titer was significantly associated with sufficient seroprotection rate after vaccination for the H1N1 strain (odds ratio 11.93, p = 0.03). The second booster of trivalent influenza vaccination did not improve the immune response in adult IBD patients who were treated with immunomodulators and/or anti-TNF-α agents.

  5. Impaired Immune Response to Primary but Not to Booster Vaccination Against Hepatitis B in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Birgit; Haks, Mariëlle C; de Paus, Roelof A; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Bauer, Tanja; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix

    2018-01-01

    Many current vaccines are less immunogenic and less effective in elderly compared to younger adults due to age-related changes of the immune system. Most vaccines utilized in the elderly contain antigens, which the target population has had previous contact with due to previous vaccination or infection. Therefore, most studies investigating vaccine-induced immune responses in the elderly do not analyze responses to neo-antigens but rather booster responses. However, age-related differences in the immune response could differentially affect primary versus recall responses. We therefore investigated the impact of age on primary and recall antibody responses following hepatitis B vaccination in young and older adults. Focused gene expression profiling was performed before and 1 day after the vaccination in order to identify gene signatures predicting antibody responses. Young (20-40 years; n  = 24) and elderly (>60 years; n  = 17) healthy volunteers received either a primary series (no prior vaccination) or a single booster shot (documented primary vaccination more than 10 years ago). Antibody titers were determined at days 0, 7, and 28, as well as 6 months after the vaccination. After primary vaccination, antibody responses were lower and delayed in the elderly compared to young adults. Non-responders after the three-dose primary series were only observed in the elderly group. Maximum antibody concentrations after booster vaccination were similar in both age groups. Focused gene expression profiling identified 29 transcripts that correlated with age at baseline and clustered in a network centered around type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, smaller 8- and 6-gene signatures were identified at baseline that associated with vaccine responsiveness during primary and booster vaccination, respectively. When evaluating the kinetic changes in gene expression profiles before and after primary vaccination, a 33-gene signature

  6. Long-term persistence of protective antibodies in Dutch adolescents following a meningococcal serogroup C tetanus booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; Marinovic, Axel Bonacic; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; van Maurik, Marjan; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2016-12-07

    Due to waning immunity, infant vaccination with meningococcal serogroup C conjugated (MenCC) vaccines is insufficient to maintain long-term individual protection. Adolescent booster vaccination is thought to offer direct protection against invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) but also to reduce meningococcal carriage and transmission and in this way establish herd protection in the population. Previously, we studied antibody levels after adolescent MenCC booster vaccination. In the present study, the adolescent vaccinees were revisited after three years to determine antibody persistence and to predict long-term protection. Meningococcal serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugated (MenC-TT) vaccine was administered to 10-, 12- and 15-year old participants who had been primed nine years earlier with a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine. Blood samples were collected before, 1month, 1year and 3years after the adolescent booster vaccination. Functional antibody levels were measured with serum bactericidal assay using rabbit complement (rSBA). Meningococcal serogroup C polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid specific antibody levels were measured using fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Long-term protection was estimated using longitudinal multilevel antibody decay modeling. Of the original 268 participants, 201 (75%) were revisited after 3years. All participants still had an rSBA titer above the protective threshold of ⩾8 and 98% ⩾128. The 15-year-olds showed the highest antibody titers. Using a bi-exponential decay model, the median time to fall below the protection threshold (rSBA titer <8) was 16.3years, 45.9years and around 270years following the booster for the 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds, respectively. After a first steep decline in antibody levels in the first year after the booster, antibody levels slowly declined between one and three years post-booster. A routine MenC-TT booster vaccination for adolescents in the Netherlands will likely provide long

  7. Adaptive immune responses to booster vaccination against yellow fever virus are much reduced compared to those after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kongsgaard, Michael; Bassi, Maria R; Rasmussen, Michael; Skjødt, Karsten; Thybo, Søren; Gabriel, Mette; Hansen, Morten Bagge; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Buus, Soren; Stryhn, Anette

    2017-04-06

    Outbreaks of Yellow Fever occur regularly in endemic areas of Africa and South America frequently leading to mass vaccination campaigns straining the availability of the attenuated Yellow Fever vaccine, YF-17D. The WHO has recently decided to discontinue regular booster-vaccinations since a single vaccination is deemed to confer life-long immune protection. Here, we have examined humoral (neutralizing antibody) and cellular (CD8 and CD4 T cell) immune responses in primary and booster vaccinees (the latter spanning 8 to 36 years after primary vaccination). After primary vaccination, we observed strong cellular immune responses with T cell activation peaking ≈2 weeks and subsiding to background levels ≈ 4 weeks post-vaccination. The number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells declined over the following years. In >90% of vaccinees, in vitro expandable T cells could still be detected >10 years post-vaccination. Although most vaccinees responded to a booster vaccination, both the humoral and cellular immune responses observed following booster vaccination were strikingly reduced compared to primary responses. This suggests that pre-existing immunity efficiently controls booster inoculums of YF-17D. In a situation with epidemic outbreaks, one could argue that a more efficient use of a limited supply of the vaccine would be to focus on primary vaccinations.

  8. Randomized, open-label study of the impact of age on booster responses to the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in children in India.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Sanjay; Chatterjee, Sukanta; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Simon, Anna; Ravula, Sudheer; Francois, Nancy; Mehta, Shailesh; Strezova, Ana; Borys, Dorota

    2014-09-01

    In this phase III, open-label, multicenter, and descriptive study in India, children primed with 3 doses (at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks) of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were randomized (1:1) to receive a booster dose at 9 to 12 (early booster) or 15 to 18 months old (late booster) in order to evaluate impact of age at booster. We also evaluated a 2-dose catch-up vaccination plus an experimental booster dose in unprimed children age 12 to 18 months. The early booster, late booster, and catch-up vaccinations were administered to 74, 95, and 87 children, respectively; 66, 71, and 81 children, respectively, were included in the immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort. One month postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥95.2% (early booster) and ≥93.8% (late booster) of the children had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥96.7% and ≥93.0%, respectively, had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers of ≥8. The postbooster antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were in similar ranges for early and late boosters; the OPA titers appeared to be lower for most PHiD-CV serotypes (except 6B and 19F) after the early booster. After dose 2 and postbooster, for each PHiD-CV serotype, ≥88.6% and ≥96.3%, respectively, of the catch-up immunogenicity according-to-protocol cohort had antibody concentrations of ≥0.2 μg/ml; ≥71.4% and ≥90.6%, respectively, had OPA titers of ≥8. At least 1 serious adverse event was reported by 2 children in the early booster (skin infection and gastroenteritis) and 1 child in the catch-up group (febrile convulsion and urinary tract infection); all were resolved, and none were considered by the investigators to be vaccine related. PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses regardless of age at booster. Booster vaccination following 2 catch-up doses induced robust immune responses indicative of effective priming and immunological memory. (These studies have

  9. Immunogenicity and Safety of Primary and Booster Vaccinations of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine in Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Germany and the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Prymula, Roman; Kieninger, Dorothee; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Jordanov, Emilia; B'Chir, Siham; DaCosta, Xavier

    2018-05-14

    To support a fully liquid, diphtheria (D)-tetanus (T)-acellular pertussis (aP)-inactivated poliovirus (IPV)-hepatitis B (HB)-Haemophilus influenzae b (PRP-T) vaccine in Europe using a 2, 3, 4 month primary series and a booster at 11 to 15 months of age. Phase III, randomized, observer-blind studies in Germany and the Czech Republic. Participants who had not received HB vaccine were randomized to a 2, 3, 4 month primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (Group 1; N=266) or a reconstituted DTaPHB-IPV//PRP-T comparator (Group 2; N=263) and a booster of the same vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) and rotavirus vaccine (RV) were coadministered at 2, 3, 4 months and the booster was coadministered with PCV13. Non-inferiority (Group 1 versus Group 2) was tested post-primary series for seroprotection rates (anti-HB and anti-PRP) and vaccine response rates (anti-PT and anti-FHA). Safety was assessed by parental reports. Non-inferiority was demonstrated with the lower bound of the 95% CI for the difference (Group 1-Group 2) being >-10% for each comparison. Primary series immune responses were high for all antigens and similar in each group. Pre-booster antibody persistence was good and there was a strong anamnestic response, both being similar for the investigational and control vaccines. Responses to PCV13 and RV were similar in each group. There were no safety concerns. These data support the use of the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in a 2, 3, 4 month schedule without a birth dose of HB vaccine, with a booster dose in the second year of life administered with routine childhood vaccines.

  10. Dose response of CRM197 and tetanus toxoid-conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines.

    PubMed

    Huebner, Robin E; Nicol, Mark; Mothupi, Rosalia; Käyhty, Helena; Mbelle, Nontombi; Khomo, Esther; Klugman, Keith P

    2004-12-21

    High vaccine cost has limited use of conjugate vaccines in the developing world where the disease burden is greatest. Fixed fractional doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic, but dose responses of these vaccines in humans are needed to determine the lowest immunogenic dose as an option for lowering vaccine cost. We randomized children to receive one of five doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 microg) of either a diphtheria CRM197 or tetanus toxoid-conjugated Hib vaccine. The children received a primary three-dose series at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age and a booster dose at 9 months. Anti-PRP IgG antibodies were measured at each vaccination, at 18 weeks, and at one week following the booster dose. Concentrations of > or =1.25 microg of HibCRM197 vaccine produced mean anti-PRP responses at 18 weeks of > or =5.72 microg/ml and > or =0.15 microg/ml was achieved in >98% of the children with at least 79% reaching anti-PRP concentrations of > or =1.0 microg/ml. Concentrations of > or =1.25 microg of Hib-tetanus vaccine produced mean anti-PRP responses at 18 weeks of > or =8.63 microg/ml and > or =0.15 microg/ml was achieved in 100% of the children with at least 88.9% reaching anti-PRP concentrations of > or =1.0 microg/ml. While mean antibody concentrations after either vaccine decreased over time, the proportion of children with antibody levels of > or =0.15 microg/ml had not changed significantly at the 9 month measurement. Immunologic memory was demonstrated by significant increases in mean antibody concentrations one week after the booster dose for doses > or =1.25 microg of HibCRM197 and Hib-tetanus to mean concentrations > or =37.71 and 16.07 microg/ml, respectively. There were no differences in antibody responses for vaccine doses > or =1.25 microg of the same vaccine or between the same concentrations of the two different vaccines. Our data suggest that doses of these vaccines of > or =1.25 microg may be sufficient to

  11. Did two booster doses for schoolchildren change the epidemiology of pertussis in Israel?

    PubMed

    Anis, Emilia; Moerman, Larisa; Ginsberg, Gary; Karakis, Isabella; Slater, Paul E; Warshavsky, Bruce; Gosinov, Ruslan; Grotto, Itamar; Marva, Esther

    2018-05-28

    Pertussis is the only vaccine-preventable disease that has re-emerged in Israel. In the last two decades, despite high primary immunization coverage, crude incidence increased over tenfold, with especially high morbidity among infants and adolescents and with 19 infant deaths. Two pertussis vaccine boosters were added, in 2005 for 7-year-olds and in 2011 for 13-year-olds. We reviewed age group incidence from 1999 to 2016, before and after the booster program introduction. We compared three groups of 13-15 year-olds with identical primary immunization but different booster immunization histories. Vaccine effectiveness was calculated before and after adjustment for specific incidence in those aged 65 and over. Two years after one booster, adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 74.5%. Two years after two boosters, adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 91.8%. However, crude morbidity rates were not reduced. The booster program has been effective only among recipient groups. The program will be continued. Israel is now encouraging pregnant women to be vaccinated against pertussis to improve protection of infants.

  12. The effects of different dosage levels of hepatitis B vaccine as booster on anti-HBs-negative children 5-15 y after primary immunization; China, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongdi; Lv, Huakun; Gu, Hua; Cui, Fujiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yao, Jun; Xia, Shichang; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The changes in lgG antibody levels to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and in antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) seroconversion rates due to different dosages of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) were compared in 2106 children. Children who had been previously vaccinated as infants with HepB were revaccinated at 5-15 y of age, after which the antibody titers were determined. After the first booster dose, the anti-HBs seroconversion rate (defined as an anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/ml) with 10 μg of HepB (93.6%) was significantly greater than the rate with 5 µg of HepB (90.3%) (P<0.05); the anti-HBs seroconversion rate in 10-15-y-old boys vaccinated with 10 μg of HepB (90.9%) was significantly greater than the rate with 5 µg of HepB (84.3%) (P<0.05). The anti-HBs seroconversion rates after the third booster dose with 5 or 10 μg of HepB were greater than those after the first booster dose (99.6% and 99.7%, vs. 90.3% and 93.6%, P<0.05); as was the corresponding GMTs (658 ± 4 mIU/ml and 2599 ± 3 mIU/ml, vs. 255 ± 11 mIU/ml and 877 ± 11 mIU/ml [P<0.05]). The immunization effects of booster vaccination with 3 doses of HepB with 5 or 10 µg are effective; a single booster dose with 10 µg of HepB for 10-15-y-old boys and with 5 or 10 µg of HepB for 5-9 y old boys and for 5-15-y-old girls are effective in generating protective antibody against HBV; however, for anti-HBs-negative children after a single dose of booster, 3 doses are needed.

  13. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; McGill, J L; Sacco, R E; Hennager, S G

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 10(10) CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P < 0.05) in vaccinated bison after initial and booster vaccination than in nonvaccinated bison. The proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the vaccinated bison were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the nonvaccinated bison at 16 and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination but not after the booster vaccination. The relative gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was increased (P < 0.05) in the RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P < 0.05) in vitro production of IFN-γ at all sampling times, greater interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in various samplings after the initial and booster vaccinations, and greater IL-6 production at one sampling time after the booster vaccination. Between 170 and 180 days of gestation, the bison were intraconjunctivally challenged with approximately 1 × 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P < 0.05) in the nonvaccinated bison after experimental challenge than in the bison receiving either vaccination treatment. Booster-vaccinated, but not single-vaccinated bison, had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of infection in fetal tissues and maternal tissues compared to that in the controls. Compared to the nonvaccinated bison, both vaccination treatments lowered the colonization (measured as the CFU/g of tissue) of Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against

  14. Immune Responses of Bison and Efficacy after Booster Vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain RB51

    PubMed Central

    McGill, J. L.; Sacco, R. E.; Hennager, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to receive saline or a single vaccination with 1010 CFU of Brucella abortus strain RB51. Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with RB51 at 11 months after the initial vaccination. Mean antibody responses to RB51 were greater (P < 0.05) in vaccinated bison after initial and booster vaccination than in nonvaccinated bison. The proliferative responses by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the vaccinated bison were greater (P < 0.05) than those in the nonvaccinated bison at 16 and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination but not after the booster vaccination. The relative gene expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) was increased (P < 0.05) in the RB51-vaccinated bison at 8, 16, and 24 weeks after the initial vaccination and at 8 weeks after the booster vaccination. The vaccinated bison had greater (P < 0.05) in vitro production of IFN-γ at all sampling times, greater interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in various samplings after the initial and booster vaccinations, and greater IL-6 production at one sampling time after the booster vaccination. Between 170 and 180 days of gestation, the bison were intraconjunctivally challenged with approximately 1 × 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308. The incidences of abortion and infection were greater (P < 0.05) in the nonvaccinated bison after experimental challenge than in the bison receiving either vaccination treatment. Booster-vaccinated, but not single-vaccinated bison, had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of infection in fetal tissues and maternal tissues compared to that in the controls. Compared to the nonvaccinated bison, both vaccination treatments lowered the colonization (measured as the CFU/g of tissue) of Brucella organisms in all tissues, except in retropharyngeal and supramammary lymph nodes. Our study suggests that RB51 booster vaccination is an effective vaccination strategy for enhancing herd immunity against brucellosis in

  15. DTwP-HB-Hib: antibody persistence after a primary series, immune response and safety after a booster dose in children 18-24 months old.

    PubMed

    Gunardi, Hartono; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Fadlyana, Eddy; Soedjatmiko; Dhamayanti, Meita; Sekartini, Rini; Tarigan, Rodman; Satari, Hindra Irawan; Medise, Bernie Endyarni; Sari, Rini Mulia; Bachtiar, Novilia Sjafri; Kartasasmita, Cissy B; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki S

    2018-05-28

    The new combination of DTwP-HB-Hib vaccines has been developed in Indonesia following World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation and integrated into national immunization program. The aims of the study were to measure 1) antibody persistence 12-18 months after a primary series, 2) immune response and safety after a booster dose of DTwP-HB-Hib. This was a multi-center, open-labeled, prospective, interventional study. Subjects who had received complete primary dose of DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine from the previous phase III trial were recruited in this trial. Subjects were given one dose of DTwP-HB-Hib (Pentabio®) booster at age 18-24 months old. Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, Hemophilus influenza type B antibodies were measured before and after booster to determine antibody persistence and immune response. Vaccine adverse events were assessed immediately and monitored until 28 days after the booster recorded with parent's diary cards. There were 396 subjects who completed the study. Increased proportion of seroprotected subjects from pre-booster to post-booster were noted in all vaccine antigens: 74.5 to 99.7% for diphtheria; 100 to 100% for tetanus; 40.4 to 95.5% for pertussis; 90.2 to 99.5% for hepatitis B; and 97.7 to 100% for Hib. Common systemic adverse events (AEs) were irritability (23.7-25%) and fever (39.9-45.2%). Local AEs such as redness, swelling, and induration were significantly less common in the thigh group (7.7, 11.3, and 7.1%) than in the deltoid group (28.9, 30.7, and 25%) (P < 0.001). Most AEs were mild and resolved spontaneously within three-day follow-up period. Booster of DTwP-HB-Hib vaccine at age 18-24 months is required to achieve and maintain optimal protective antibody. The vaccine is safe and immunogenic to be used for booster vaccination. NCT02095314 (retrospectively registered, March 24, 2014).

  16. Persistence of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen after low-dose, intradermal hepatitis B immunization and response to a booster dose.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J P; Sjogren, M H; Macarthy, P; Cox, E; Legters, L J; Perine, P L

    1992-01-01

    To determine the duration of antibody after low-dose, intradermal (i.d.), plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccination and the response to a booster dose, we studied two classes of medical students who were immunized with 2 micrograms doses i.d. In one class, 73/88 (85%) who had been immunized by skilled personnel at 0, 1 and 6 months, had protective concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 mIU ml-1) of anti-HBs at 20 months after the first dose. Twelve (92%) out of 13 students who received only two doses at 0 and 1 months also had protective concentrations at month 20. At month 27, 11/16 (69%) with antibody less than or equal to 10 mIU ml-1 responded to a fourth dose of 2 micrograms i.d. with protective concentrations of anti-HBs. In the second class, after three doses of vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months, protective concentrations of anti-HBs were present in 90/93 (97%) at 14 months and in 71/80 (89%) at 25 months. In those who received only two doses, protective concentrations were found in 24/31 (74%) at 14 months and 9/16 (56%) at 25 months. After a booster dose of 2 micrograms i.d. at month 25, anti-HBs concentrations rose from a geometric mean of 78 to 1198 mIU ml-1 in 60 subjects previously immunized with three doses and from 18 to 1054 mIU ml-1 in 16 students previously immunized with only two doses. Overall, 73/76 (96%) of students in the second group had protective concentrations of antibody after the booster dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004-05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000-01) and the routine-use era (2004-14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. 40,482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38,206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0-83·3) per 100,000 in 2000-01 to 4·5 (2·5-7·5) per 100,000 in 2004-14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87-96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010-14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H influenzae type b carriage was detected in one (0·2%) of 623

  18. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. Copyright © 2016 GSK group of companies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.

  20. Bridging non-human primate correlates of protection to reassess the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed booster schedule in humans.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Jarad M; Chen, Ligong; Dalton, Shannon; Niemuth, Nancy A; Sabourin, Carol L; Quinn, Conrad P

    2015-07-17

    Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax) is approved for use in humans as a priming series of 3 intramuscular (i.m.) injections (0, 1, 6 months; 3-IM) with boosters at 12 and 18 months, and annually thereafter for those at continued risk of infection. A reduction in AVA booster frequency would lessen the burden of vaccination, reduce the cumulative frequency of vaccine associated adverse events and potentially expand vaccine coverage by requiring fewer doses per schedule. Because human inhalation anthrax studies are neither feasible nor ethical, AVA efficacy estimates are determined using cross-species bridging of immune correlates of protection (COP) identified in animal models. We have previously reported that the AVA 3-IM priming series provided high levels of protection in non-human primates (NHP) against inhalation anthrax for up to 4 years after the first vaccination. Penalized logistic regressions of those NHP immunological data identified that anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) IgG concentration measured just prior to infectious challenge was the most accurate single COP. In the present analysis, cross-species logistic regression models of this COP were used to predict probability of survival during a 43 month study in humans receiving the current 3-dose priming and 4 boosters (12, 18, 30 and 42 months; 7-IM) and reduced schedules with boosters at months 18 and 42 only (5-IM), or at month 42 only (4-IM). All models predicted high survival probabilities for the reduced schedules from 7 to 43 months. The predicted survival probabilities for the reduced schedules were 86.8% (4-IM) and 95.8% (5-IM) at month 42 when antibody levels were lowest. The data indicated that 4-IM and 5-IM are both viable alternatives to the current AVA pre-exposure prophylaxis schedule. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in a hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in comparison with the licensed Infanrix hexa.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Rivera, Luis; Korhonen, Tiina; Ahonen, Anitta; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Hezareh, Marjan; Janssens, Winnie; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-07-03

    Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (D A T A Pa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (D B T B Pa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age. Infants were planned to receive a booster dose at 12-15 months of age with the same formulation received in the Primary study; however, following high incidence of fever associated with the investigational formulations in the Primary study, the Booster study protocol was amended and all infants yet to receive a booster dose (N = 385) received the licensed vaccine. In the Primary study, non-inferiority of 3-dose vaccination with investigational formulations compared with the licensed vaccine was not demonstrated due to anti-pertactin failing to meet the non-inferiority criterion. Post-primary vaccination, most infants had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria (100% of infants), anti-tetanus antigens (100%), against hepatitis B (≥ 97.5% across groups), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (≥ 88.0%) and poliovirus types 1-3 (≥ 90.5%). Seropositivity rates for each pertussis antigen were 100% in all groups. Higher incidence of fever (> 38°C) was reported in infants receiving the investigational formulations (Primary study: 75.0% [A] and 72.1% [B] vs 58.8% [control]; Booster study, before amendment: 49.4% and 46.6% vs 37.4%, respectively). The development of the investigational formulations was not further pursued.

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens in a hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib combination vaccine in comparison with the licensed Infanrix hexa

    PubMed Central

    Vesikari, Timo; Rivera, Luis; Korhonen, Tiina; Ahonen, Anitta; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Hezareh, Marjan; Janssens, Winnie; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age. Infants were planned to receive a booster dose at 12–15 months of age with the same formulation received in the Primary study; however, following high incidence of fever associated with the investigational formulations in the Primary study, the Booster study protocol was amended and all infants yet to receive a booster dose (N = 385) received the licensed vaccine. In the Primary study, non-inferiority of 3-dose vaccination with investigational formulations compared with the licensed vaccine was not demonstrated due to anti-pertactin failing to meet the non-inferiority criterion. Post-primary vaccination, most infants had seroprotective levels of anti-diphtheria (100% of infants), anti-tetanus antigens (100%), against hepatitis B (≥ 97.5% across groups), polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (≥ 88.0%) and poliovirus types 1–3 (≥ 90.5%). Seropositivity rates for each pertussis antigen were 100% in all groups. Higher incidence of fever (> 38°C) was reported in infants receiving the investigational formulations (Primary study: 75.0% [A] and 72.1% [B] vs 58.8% [control]; Booster study, before amendment: 49.4% and 46.6% vs 37.4%, respectively). The development of the investigational formulations was not further pursued. PMID:28340322

  3. Assessment of safety and efficacy against Bordetella pertussis of a new tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyo Jin; Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Bo Ram; Kang, Kyu Ri; Huh, Dong Ho; Choi, Gi Sub; Ahn, Dong Ho; Kang, Jin Han

    2017-04-04

    Tetanus-reduced dose diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination during adolescence was introduced in response to the resurgence of pertussis in various countries. A new Tdap vaccine was manufactured in Korea as a countermeasure against a predicted Tdap vaccine shortage. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and protection efficacy against Bordetella pertussis of the new Tdap vaccine in a murine model. Four-week-old BABL/c mice were used for assessment of immunogenicity and protection efficacy. A single dose of primary diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine was administered, followed by a single dose of Tdap booster vaccine after a 12-week interval. Anti-pertussis toxin (PT), anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and anti-pertactin (PRN) IgG titers were measured before primary vaccination, and before and after booster vaccination. An intranasal challenge test was performed after booster vaccination to determine protection efficacy. To assess safety, mouse weight gain test and leukocytosis promotion test were performed using 4-week-old ddY female mice. Anti-PT and anti-FHA IgG titers after booster vaccination were significantly higher than those before booster vaccination with either the new vaccine or a commercially available Tdap vaccine (P = 0.01 for all occasions). After booster vaccination, no significant difference was observed between the two vaccines in antibody titers against pertussis antigens (P = 0.53 for anti-PT IgG, P = 0.91 for anti-FHA IgG, P = 0.39 for anti-PRN IgG). In the intranasal challenge test, inoculated B. pertussis was eradicated 7 days after infection. On days 4 and 7 after infection, colony counts of B. pertussis were not significantly different between the new and positive control vaccine groups (P = 1.00). Mean body weight changes and leukocyte counts of the new vaccine, positive control, and negative control groups were not significantly different 7 days after vaccination (P

  4. Hepatitis B virus vaccination booster does not provide additional protection in adolescents: a cross-sectional school-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Chieh; Wang, Jen-Hung; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Jun-Song; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang

    2014-09-23

    Current consensus does not support the use of a universal booster of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine because there is an anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant HBV vaccination. We aimed to provide a booster strategy among adolescents as a result of their changes in lifestyle and sexual activity. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in four age groups between 2004 and 2012. The seropositivity rates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its reciprocal antibody (anti-HBs) for each age group were collected. There were two parts to this study; age-specific HBV seroepidemiology and subgroup analysis, including effects of different vaccine types, booster response for immunogenicity at 15 years of age, and longitudinal follow-up to identify possible additional protection by HBV booster. Within the study period, data on serum anti-HBs and HBsAg in a total of 6950 students from four age groups were collected. The overall anti-HBs and HBsAg seropositivity rates were 44.3% and 1.2%, respectively. The anti-HBs seropositivity rate in the plasma-derived subgroup was significantly higher in both 15- and 18-year age groups. Overall response rate in the double-seronegative recipients at 15 years of age was 92.5% at 6 weeks following one recombinant HBV booster dose. Among the 24 recipients showing anti-HBs seroconversion at 6 weeks after booster, seven subjects (29.2%) had lost their anti-HBs seropositivity again within 3 years. Increased seropositivity rates and titers of anti-HBs did not provide additional protective effects among subjects comprehensively vaccinated against HBV in infancy. HBV booster strategy at 15 years of age was the main contributor to the unique age-related phenomenon of anti-HBs seropositivity rate and titer. No increase in HBsAg seropositivity rates within different age groups was observed. Vaccination with plasma-derived HBV vaccines in infancy provided higher

  5. Seroprevalence of tetanus toxoid antibody and booster vaccination efficacy in Japanese travelers.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Komiya, Takako; Takeshita, Nozomi; Takahashi, Motohide

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus can be prevented by vaccination, which is especially important for overseas travelers. However, despite booster vaccination every 10 years being recommended, most Japanese adults do not receive it in the absence of physical injury or overseas travel. We aimed to investigate the level of protective immunity against tetanus among Japanese travelers, which may provide valuable information for formulating booster vaccination recommendations. 113 Japanese travelers given tetanus toxoid were recruited. The collected samples included paired samples prior to and 3-5 weeks after receiving the booster vaccination. Travelers who did not return and those lacking sample collection at the second visit were excluded. Finally, 96 paired blood samples were collected. History of immunization against tetanus, including DPT and DT vaccines, was determined from interviews or immunization records. The pre-vaccination geometric mean titer for the 96 participants was 1.07 IU/mL; 76% had a protective antitoxin level (>0.1 IU/mL), and 50% had a long-term protective antitoxin level (>1.0 IU/mL). Most participants <40 years old had protective immunity without receiving booster vaccination, whereas only 30.8% of those >50 years of age had protective immunity. Among the 23 participants without protective antitoxin levels (<0.1 IU/mL), booster vaccination was efficient in 100% of those <40 years but in only 28.6% of those >50 years of age. Although the tetanus antitoxin level decreases with age, booster vaccination helped to achieve an adequate protective antitoxin levels in Japanese travelers <40 years of age. Furthermore, the individuals who have never been vaccinated against tetanus especially in those >50 years old need to obtain protective immunity against tetanus according to a basic immunization schedule to prevent tetanus in travelers and residents of Japan. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by

  6. Cellular and Humoral Responses to a Second Dose of Herpes Zoster Vaccine Administered 10 Years After the First Dose Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Schmader, Kenneth E; Pang, Lei; Williams-Diaz, Angela; Zerbe, Gary; Canniff, Jennifer; Johnson, Michael J; Caldas, Yupanqui; Cho, Alice; Lang, Nancy; Su, Shu-Chih; Parrino, Janie; Popmihajlov, Zoran; Weinberg, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster vaccine (ZV) was administered as a second dose to 200 participants ≥ 70 years old who had received a dose of ZV ≥ 10 years previously (NCT01245751). Varicella zoster virus (VZV) antibody titers (measured by a VZV glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [gpELISA]) and levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2; markers of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity [CMI], measured by means of ELISPOT analysis) in individuals aged ≥ 70 years who received a booster dose of ZV were compared to responses of 100 participants aged 50-59 years, 100 aged 60-69 years, and 200 aged ≥ 70 years who received their first dose of ZV. The study was powered to demonstrate noninferiority of the VZV antibody response at 6 weeks in the booster-dose group, compared with the age-matched first-dose group. Antibody responses were similar at baseline and after vaccination across all age and treatment groups. Both baseline and postvaccination VZV-specific CMI were lower in the older age groups. Peak gpELISA titers and their fold rise from baseline generally correlated with higher baseline and postvaccination VZV-specific CMI. IFN-γ and IL-2 results for subjects ≥ 70 years old were significantly higher at baseline and after vaccination in the booster-dose group, compared with the first-dose group, indicating that a residual effect of ZV on VZV-specific CMI persisted for ≥ 10 years and was enhanced by the booster dose. These findings support further investigation of ZV administration in early versus later age and of booster doses for elderly individuals at an appropriate interval after initial immunization against HZ. NCT01245751. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Adolescent booster with hepatitis B virus vaccines decreases HBV infection in high-risk adults.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuting; Chen, Taoyang; Lu, Ling-Ling; Wang, Minjie; Wang, Dongmei; Yao, Hongyu; Fan, Chunsun; Qi, Jun; Zhang, Yawei; Qu, Chunfeng

    2017-02-15

    Neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) after immunization with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines against HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) wane after 10-15years. We analyzed the effect of an adolescent booster given to vaccination-protected children born to mothers with different HBsAg-carrying status against HBV infection in their mature adulthood. A total of 9793 individuals, who were HBsAg-negative at childhood (baseline) and donated blood samples, both during childhood and adulthood, from the vaccination group in "Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study", were enrolled. Among them 7414 received a one-dose, 10μg-recombinant HBV vaccine booster at 10-14years of age. At endpoint (23-28years of age), we determined the HBV serological markers and quantified their serum HBV-DNA in each of the chronic HBV-infected adults. Fifty-seven adults were identified as chronic HBV infection, indicated by HBsAg(+)&anti-HBc(+) for more than 6months. The individuals who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers (high-risk adults) had significantly increased risk of developing chronic HBV infections in adulthood compared with those who were born to HBsAg-negative mothers; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 12.56, 95%CI:7.14-22.08. The seronegative status of anti-HBs at 10-11years of age significantly increased the risk of HBV infections among the high-risk adults. When HBsAg(-)&anti-HBc(+) children who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers 70% of them remained as the status and 10% of them developed HBsAg(+)&anti-HBc(+). While when they were born to HBsAg-negative mothers 1.05% HBsAg(-)&anti-HBc(+) children developed HBsAg(+)&anti-HBc(+) and 24.74% of them remained as the status in 12-18years. One dose of adolescent booster showed significant protection on high-risk adults from chronic HBV infection; P for trend was 0.015. Maternal HBsAg-positive status was an independent risk factor for vaccination-protected children to develop HBV breakthrough infection in adulthood. Adolescent boosters might be

  8. Immunogenicity, Safety and Reactogenicity of a Booster Dose of the 10-Valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable H. influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered With DTPa-IPV-Hib in Dutch Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, Menno R; Spijkerman, Judith; François, Nancy; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode; Veenhoven, Reinier H; Sanders, Elisabeth A M

    2016-07-01

    Immune responses and safety profiles may be affected when vaccines are coadministered. We evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate (PHiD-CV; Synflorix GSK Vaccines) and DTPa-IPV-Hib (Pediacel Sanofi Pasteur MSD) when coadministered. We performed booster assessment in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands. Of 780 enrolled healthy infants, 774 toddlers participated in the booster phase and received (1:1:1) (1) PHiD-CV + DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa, GSK Vaccines), (2) PHiD-CV + DTPa-IPV-Hib, or (3) 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM, Prevenar/Prevnar, Pfizer, Inc.) + DTPa-IPV-Hib at 2, 3, 4 and 11-13 months old. Blood samples were taken postprimary, prebooster, 1 and 12 months postbooster. Antipneumococcal antibody responses were comparable between both PHiD-CV groups, except for serotype 18C (conjugated to tetanus toxoid). Anti-18C antibody geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were higher when coadministered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib. For each vaccine serotype, the percentages of children with antibody concentration ≥ 0.20 μg/mL were within the same ranges between PHiD-CV groups (93.8%-100%). The same was observed for the percentages of participants with opsonophagocytic activity titer ≥ 8 (90.9%-100%). When comparing both DTPa-IPV-Hib groups, postbooster antidiphtheria antibody GMCs were higher when coadministered with 7vCRM, while antitetanus and antipolyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody GMCs were higher with PHiD-CV coadministration. Regardless, antibody levels to these antigens were well above thresholds. Safety and reactogenicity profiles were comparable between groups. Coadministration of a booster dose of PHiD-CV and DTPa-IPV-Hib was immunogenic and well tolerated.

  9. Antibody persistence and immunologic memory in children vaccinated with 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: Results from 2 long-term follow-up studies.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Panzer, Falko G; François, Nancy A; Ravula, Sudheer M; Kolhe, Devayani A; Song, Yue; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode; Borys, Dorota

    2017-03-04

    To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of 2 follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following 2 3+1 schedules up to 4 (NCT00624819 - Study A) and 5 years (NCT00891176 - Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, 2 and 4 years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM. In Study B, PHiD-CV was co-administered with meningococcal vaccines, and pneumococcal antibody persistence was measured 2, 3 and 5 years post-booster. An age-matched control group, unvaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae, was enrolled in Study A, allowing assessment of immunologic memory by administration of one dose of PHiD-CV to both primed (4 years post-booster) and unprimed 6-year-old children. Four years post-booster (Study A), antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers remained higher compared to the pre-booster timepoint, with no major differences between the 3 primed groups. Antibody persistence was also observed in Study B, with minimal differences between groups. The additional PHiD-CV dose administered 4 years post-booster in Study A elicited more robust immune responses in primed children than in unprimed children. Long-term serotype-specific antibody persistence and robust immunologic memory responses observed in these 2 studies suggest induction of long-term protection against pneumococcal disease after PHiD-CV vaccination.

  10. Clinical and serological responses following primary and booster immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines.

    PubMed

    Keitel, W A; Bond, N L; Zahradnik, J M; Cramton, T A; Robbins, J B

    1994-01-01

    Clinical and serum antibody responses following intramuscular injection of two formulations of Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide (Vi) were assessed in a double-blind evaluation. Healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive a 25 micrograms dose of liquid (Vi-Liq; n = 182) or freeze-dried Vi vaccine (Vi-Lyoph; n = 55), or placebo (n = 86). Erythema and/or induration > or = 1 cm in diameter at the injection site developed in 13/182 (7%) of Vi-Liq and 3/55 (5%) of Vi-Lyoph recipients (not significant, n.s.). Fever (oral temperature > or = 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C)) occurred in < 2% of vaccinees. The frequencies of rises of fourfold or greater and of maximal Vi antibody levels were similar in the two vaccine groups. Fourfold or greater rises in serum Vi antibody levels (RIA) developed in 53% of Vi-Lyoph and 60% of Vi-Liq recipients by 1 week (n.s.), and 98 and 93%, respectively, by 1 month (n.s.). The frequencies of adverse reactions and mean Vi antibody levels following booster immunization with Vi-Liq 27 to 34 months after primary immunization (n = 55) were similar to those observed following primary immunization, although subjects given a booster dose were more likely to develop local reactions > or = 1 cm in diameter than those given a first dose (10/55 versus 13/182, p = 0.013 by the chi 2 test). Primary and booster immunizations with the Vi vaccines are well tolerated in healthy adults; mean Vi antibody levels remain significantly elevated for up to 34 months after primary immunization.

  11. Modeling the long-term persistence of hepatitis A antibody after a two-dose vaccination schedule in Argentinean children.

    PubMed

    López, Eduardo L; Contrini, María Marta; Mistchenko, Alicia; Kieffer, Alexia; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Desai, Kamal; Rasuli, Anvar; Armoni, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Long-term seroprotection data are essential for decision-making on the need and timing of vaccine boosters. Based on data from longitudinal serological studies, modeling can provide estimates on long-term antibody persistence and inform such decision-making. We examined long-term anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody persistence in Argentinean children ≤15 years after the initial study where they completed a 2-dose course of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim 80U Pediatric, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood serum samples were taken at baseline, 2 weeks (post first dose), 6 months (pre-booster), 6.5 months (post-booster), 10 years and 14-15 years after first vaccine dose. We fitted 8 statistical model types, predominantly mixed effects models, to anti-HAV persistence data, to identify the most appropriate and best fitting models for our data set and to predict individuals' anti-HAV levels and seroprotection rates up to 30 years post vaccination. Fifty-four children (mean age at enrollment 30.4 months) were enrolled up to 15 years post first vaccine dose. There were 3 distinct periods of antibody concentration: rapid rise up to peak concentration post-booster, rapid decay from post-booster to 10 years, followed by slower decay. A 3-segmented linear mixed effects model was the most appropriate for the data set. Extrapolating based on the available 14-15-year follow-up, the analysis predicted that 88% of individuals anti-HAV seronegative prior to vaccination would remain seroprotected at 30 years post vaccination and lifelong seroprotection for vaccinees seropositive prior to vaccination. Currently available data demonstrate that Avaxim 80U Pediatric confers to most vaccinees a high level of seroprotection against hepatitis A infection for at least 20-30 years.

  12. AS03-Adjuvanted, Very-Low-Dose Influenza Vaccines Induce Distinctive Immune Responses Compared to Unadjuvanted High-Dose Vaccines in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yam, Karen K.; Gupta, Jyotsana; Winter, Kaitlin; Allen, Elizabeth; Brewer, Angela; Beaulieu, Édith; Mallett, Corey P.; Burt, David S.; Ward, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    During the 2009–2010 influenza pandemic, an adjuvanted, dose-sparing vaccine was recommended for most Canadians. We hypothesize that differences exist in the responses to AS03-adjuvanted, low antigen (Ag) dose versus unadjuvanted, full-dose vaccines. We investigated the relationship between Ag dose and the oil-in-water emulsion Adjuvant System AS03. BALB/c mice received two IM doses of AS03A or AS03B with exaggerated dilutions of A/Uruguay/716/2007 H3N2 split virion vaccine Ag. Immune responses were assessed 3 weeks after the booster. Unadjuvanted “high” (3 μg) and low-dose (0.03–0.003 μg) vaccines generated similar serum antibody titers and cytokine secretion patterns in restimulated splenocytes. Compared to unadjuvanted “high-dose” vaccination, both AS03A and AS03B-adjuvanted low-dose vaccines tended to elicit higher serum antibody titers, broader induction of cytokine secretion and generated more influenza-specific antibody secreting cells and cytokine-secreting CD4 and CD8 T cells in splenocytes. We show that varying Ag and/or AS03 dose in this influenza vaccination mouse model can strongly influence both the magnitude and pattern of the immune response elicited. These findings are highly relevant given the likelihood of expanded use of adjuvanted, dose-sparing vaccines and raise questions about the use of “standard” doses of vaccines in pre-clinical vaccine studies. PMID:25972874

  13. Whole-cell or acellular pertussis vaccination in infancy determines IgG subclass profiles to DTaP booster vaccination.

    PubMed

    van der Lee, Saskia; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-04

    Duration of protection against pertussis is shorter in adolescents who have been immunized with acellular pertussis (aP) in infancy compared with adolescents who received whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in infancy, which is related to immune responses elicited by these priming vaccines. To better understand differences in vaccine induced immunity, we determined pertussis, diphtheria, and tetanus (DTaP) vaccine antigen-specific IgG subclass responses in wP- and aP-primed children before and after two successive DTaP booster vaccinations. Blood samples were collected in a cross-sectional study from wP- or aP-primed children before and 1 month after the pre-school DTaP booster vaccination at age 4 years. Blood samples were collected from two different wP- and aP-primed groups of children before, 1 month and 1 year after an additional pre-adolescent Tdap booster at age 9 years. IgG subclass levels against the antigens included in the DTaP vaccine have been determined with fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassays. At 4 years of age, the IgG4 proportion and concentration for pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus vaccine antigens were significantly higher in aP-primed children compared with wP-primed children. IgG4 concentrations further increased upon the two successive booster vaccinations at 4 and 9 years of age in both wP- and aP-primed children, but remained significantly higher in aP-primed children. The pertussis vaccinations administered in the primary series at infancy determine the vaccine antigen-specific IgG subclass profiles, not only against the pertussis vaccine antigens, but also against the co-administered diphtheria and tetanus vaccine antigens. These profiles did not change after DTaP booster vaccinations later in childhood. The different immune response with high proportions of specific IgG4 in some aP-primed children may contribute to a reduced protection against pertussis. ISRCTN65428640; ISRCTN64117538; NTR4089. Copyright © 2017

  14. Antibody persistence and immunologic memory in children vaccinated with 4 doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: Results from 2 long-term follow-up studies

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Panzer, Falko G.; François, Nancy A.; Ravula, Sudheer M.; Kolhe, Devayani A.; Song, Yue; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode; Borys, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate long-term antibody persistence following the administration of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV), we present results of 2 follow-up studies assessing antibody persistence following 2 3+1 schedules up to 4 (NCT00624819 – Study A) and 5 years (NCT00891176 – Study B) post-booster vaccination. In Study A, antibody persistence was measured one, 2 and 4 years post-booster in children previously primed and boosted with PHiD-CV, or primed with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM) and boosted with either PHiD-CV or 7vCRM. In Study B, PHiD-CV was co-administered with meningococcal vaccines, and pneumococcal antibody persistence was measured 2, 3 and 5 years post-booster. An age-matched control group, unvaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae, was enrolled in Study A, allowing assessment of immunologic memory by administration of one dose of PHiD-CV to both primed (4 years post-booster) and unprimed 6-year-old children. Four years post-booster (Study A), antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers remained higher compared to the pre-booster timepoint, with no major differences between the 3 primed groups. Antibody persistence was also observed in Study B, with minimal differences between groups. The additional PHiD-CV dose administered 4 years post-booster in Study A elicited more robust immune responses in primed children than in unprimed children. Long-term serotype-specific antibody persistence and robust immunologic memory responses observed in these 2 studies suggest induction of long-term protection against pneumococcal disease after PHiD-CV vaccination. PMID:27736293

  15. A toddler PCV booster dose following 3 infancy priming doses increases circulating serotype-specific IGG levels but does not increase protection against carriage.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Ron; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Simell, Birgit; Greenberg, David; Porat, Nurith; Käyhty, Helena; Givon-Lavi, Noga

    2018-05-11

    We compared PCV7 serological response and protection against carriage in infants receiving 3 doses (2, 4, 6 months; 3+0 schedule) to those receiving a booster (12 months; 3+1). A prospective, randomized controlled study, conducted between 2005 and 2008, before PCVs were implemented in Israel. Healthy infants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 3+1, 3+0 and 0+2 (control group; 12, 18 months doses). Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained at all visits. Serum serotype-specific IgG concentrations and opsonic activities (OPA) were measured at 2, 7, 13 and 19 months. This study was registered with Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. ISRCTN28445844. Overall, 544 infants were enrolled: 3+1 (n = 178), 3+0 (n = 178) and 0+2 (n = 188). Post-priming (7 months), antibody concentrations were similar in both groups, except for serotype 18C (higher in 3+0). Post-booster (13, 19 months), ELISA and OPA levels were significantly higher in 3+1 than in 3+0 group. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2673 (54.3%) visits. Acquisition rates (vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes) were similar for 3+1 and 3+0 groups at 7-30 months and for 0+2 group at 19-30 months. PCV7 booster after 3 priming doses increased substantially IgG concentrations but did not further reduced vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal acquisition, suggesting that protection from pneumococcal carriage does not depend primarily on serum IgG. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictors of Booster Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine at 15 years of age: A Cross-Sectional School-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang; Wang, Jen-Hung; Lin, Jun-Song; Chang, Yung-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    The current consensus does not support the use of booster dose because of its anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. However, in our clinical setting, numerous concerned parents request a booster administration for their children. We aimed to provide the possible predictors of booster response in adolescents before this booster administration. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in 15-year-old individuals between 2008 and 2012. Data on serum hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and liver-function biomarkers in a total of 887 senior high-school students were collected. There were two parts to this study: HBV seroepidemiology and booster-response analysis to identify the possible response predictors and decay factors after the HBV booster administration. The overall anti-HBs and hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity rates were 34.7% and 0.7%, respectively, and the median anti-HBs titer was 3.3 mIU/mL. Six weeks after one dose of recombinant HBV vaccine, the overall booster-response rate in the double-seronegative recipients was 94% (471/501). Among the participants whose initial anti-HBs titers were undetectable or low, 72.4% (247/341) and 95.6% (153/160), respectively, reactivated their anti-HBs titers ≥ 100 mIU/mL about 6 weeks after the booster administration. The likelihood of postbooster anti-HBs titer reaching an adequate protective level increased with the prebooster titer. The female participants had stronger anamnestic responses compared to the male participants. We found that the female participants and prebooster anti-HBs titers above the detection limit of the immunoassay were good predictors of HBV booster response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The effects of different dosage levels of hepatitis B vaccine as booster on anti-HBs-negative children 5–15 y after primary immunization; China, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongdi; Lv, Huakun; Gu, Hua; Cui, Fujiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yao, Jun; Xia, Shichang; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The changes in lgG antibody levels to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and in antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) seroconversion rates due to different dosages of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) were compared in 2106 children. Children who had been previously vaccinated as infants with HepB were revaccinated at 5–15 y of age, after which the antibody titers were determined. After the first booster dose, the anti-HBs seroconversion rate (defined as an anti-HBs ≥10 mIU/ml) with 10 μg of HepB (93.6%) was significantly greater than the rate with 5 µg of HepB (90.3%) (P < 0.05); the anti-HBs seroconversion rate in 10–15-y-old boys vaccinated with 10 μg of HepB (90.9%) was significantly greater than the rate with 5 µg of HepB (84.3%) (P < 0.05). The anti-HBs seroconversion rates after the third booster dose with 5 or 10 μg of HepB were greater than those after the first booster dose (99.6% and 99.7%, vs. 90.3% and 93.6%, P < 0.05); as was the corresponding GMTs (658 ± 4 mIU/ml and 2599 ± 3 mIU/ml, vs. 255 ± 11 mIU/ml and 877 ± 11 mIU/ml [P < 0.05]). The immunization effects of booster vaccination with 3 doses of HepB with 5 or 10 µg are effective; a single booster dose with 10 µg of HepB for 10–15-y-old boys and with 5 or 10 µg of HepB for 5–9 y old boys and for 5–15-y-old girls are effective in generating protective antibody against HBV; however, for anti-HBs-negative children after a single dose of booster, 3 doses are needed. PMID:24192508

  18. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Booster Injection of DTap-IPV//Hib (Pentaxim) Administered Concomitantly With Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine in Healthy Toddlers 15-18 Months of Age in Mexico: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Melo, Flor Irene Rodriguez; Morales, José Juan Renteria; De Los Santos, Abiel Homero Mascareñas; Rivas, Enrique; Vigne, Claire; Noriega, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) is licensed in a number of dengue endemic countries for individuals ≥9 years of age. Before the integration of any vaccine into childhood vaccination schedules, a lack of immune interference and acceptable safety when coadministered with other recommended vaccines should be demonstrated. This randomized, multi-center phase III trial was conducted in Mexico. Healthy toddlers (n = 732) received a booster dose of a licensed pentavalent combination vaccine [diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV//Hib)] either concomitantly or sequentially, with the second dose of CYD-TDV administered as a 3-dose schedule. Antibody titers against diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid and pertussis antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies against poliovirus and dengue serotypes were measured using a plaque reduction neutralization test. Noninferiority was demonstrated for each of the DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens if the lower limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the difference in seroconversion rates between the 2 groups (CYD-TDV and placebo) was ≥10%. Safety of both vaccines was assessed. Noninferiority in immune response was demonstrated for all DTaP-IPV//Hib antigens. After 3 doses of CYD-TDV, no difference was observed in the immune response for CYD-TDV between groups. There were no safety concerns during the study. Coadministration of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine with CYD-TDV has no observed impact on the immunogenicity or safety profile of the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine. No difference was observed on the CYD-TDV profile when administered concomitantly or sequentially with the DTaP-IPV//Hib booster vaccine.

  19. Immunogenicity and immunologic memory after hepatitis B virus booster vaccination in HIV-infected children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Abzug, Mark J; Warshaw, Meredith; Rosenblatt, Howard M; Levin, Myron J; Nachman, Sharon A; Pelton, Stephen I; Borkowsky, William; Fenton, Terence

    2009-09-15

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccination in children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was investigated. HIV-infected children receiving HAART who had low to moderate HIV loads and who had previously received 3 doses of HBV vaccine were given an HBV vaccine booster. Concentrations of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were determined before vaccination and at weeks 8, 48, and 96. A subset of subjects was administered a subsequent dose, and anti-HBs was measured before and 1 and 4 weeks later. At entry, 24% of 204 subjects were seropositive. Vaccine response occurred in 46% on the basis of seropositivity 8 weeks after vaccination and in 37% on the basis of a 4-fold rise in antibody concentration. Of 69 subjects given another vaccination 4-5 years later, immunologic memory was exhibited by 45% on the basis of seropositivity 1 week after vaccination and by 29% on the basis of a 4-fold rise in antibody concentration at 1 week. Predictors of response and memory included higher nadir and current CD4 cell percentage, higher CD19 cell percentage, and undetectable HIV load. HIV-infected children frequently lack protective levels of anti-HBs after previous HBV vaccination, and a significant proportion of them do not respond to booster vaccination or demonstrate memory despite receiving HAART, leaving this population insufficiently protected from infection with HBV.

  20. Low-dose intradermal and intramuscular vaccination against hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Bryan, J P; Sjogren, M H; Perine, P L; Legters, L J

    1992-03-01

    Hepatitis B and its sequelae are global problems preventable by immunization. Expense limits the use of hepatitis B vaccines, but low-dose intradermal immunization has been evaluated as a cost-saving strategy in numerous studies. With few exceptions, low-dose intradermal plasma-derived vaccines have elicited protective levels of antibody in 82%-100% of young healthy adults--a proportion similar to that noted with full-dose regimens; peak levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are lower with reduced doses, however. Although children respond well to low-dose intradermal immunization, this procedure is technically difficult in neonates and should not be used for those born to HBsAg-positive mothers. For persons at high risk, antibody to HBsAg must be assessed after immunization to determine the need for a booster dose. A fourth dose 1-2 years after the initial series substantially increases antibody concentrations. In low intradermal doses, recombinant vaccine elicits lower rates of seroconversion than plasma-derived vaccine. However, low intramuscular doses of recombinant vaccine give favorable results. In short, low-dose intradermal or intramuscular immunization offers protection against hepatitis B at significant savings and may be useful for mass immunization of populations at high risk.

  1. Second five-year follow-up after a booster vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis following different primary vaccination schedules demonstrates at least 10 years antibody persistence.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiri; Lattanzi, Maria; Xie, Fang; Moraschini, Luca; Galgani, Ilaria

    2018-02-01

    Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic zones are expanding. We previously evaluated long term persistence of antibody 5 years after the first booster immunization following different primary immunization schedules with the polygeline-free inactivated TBE vaccine (TBEvac) in adults and adolescents. Here, we report anti-TBE virus (TBEV) antibody persistence from 6 to 10 years post-booster administration. This was a phase IV, open-label, single-center, second extension study (NCT01562444), conducted in Czechia. Healthy adults and adolescents ≥12 years who had received 3 different primary vaccination schedules (rapid, conventional and accelerated conventional) in the parent study and a booster dose before (12-18 months post-primary series completion) or at the beginning (3 years post-primary series completion) of the first extension study were screened and enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected yearly and anti-TBEV antibody response was evaluated by neutralizing test (NT) antibody assays. Analysis was performed overall and per age strata: 15-49 years, ≥50 years, and ≥60 years. Of 206 screened individuals, 191 completed the study. Overall, 90-100% of participants in the all-screened set and ≥97% in the per-protocol set had the clinically meaningful threshold of protection (NT titers ≥10) across all timepoints, regardless of the primary vaccination schedule. Overall, antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) varied from 134 to 343 in the all-screened set. Older age groups showed overall lower GMTs, although GMTs remained higher than NT titers ≥10 up to year 10 in all groups. This study showed long-term persistence of anti-TBEV NT antibodies for up to 10 years after the first booster dose of TBEvac in all age groups, regardless of the primary vaccination schedule. Copyright © 2018 GSK. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 delivered as one primary and one booster dose (1 + 1) compared with two primary doses and a booster (2 + 1) in UK infants: a multicentre, parallel group randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, David; Southern, Jo; Andrews, Nick J; Burbidge, Polly; Partington, Jo; Roalfe, Lucy; Valente Pinto, Marta; Thalasselis, Vasilli; Plested, Emma; Richardson, Hayley; Snape, Matthew D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Infants in the UK were first offered a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, given at 2 and 4 months of age and a booster dose at 13 months (2 + 1 schedule). A 13-valent vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in 2010. We aimed to compare the post-booster antibody response in UK infants given a reduced priming schedule of PCV13 (ie, a 1 + 1 schedule) versus the current 2 + 1 schedule and to assess the potential effect on population protection. In this multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial, we recuited infants due to receive their primary immunisations aged up to 13 weeks on first vaccinations by information booklets mailed out via the NHS Child Health Information Service and the UK National Health Application and Infrastructure Services. Eligible infants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive PCV13 at 2, 4, and 12 months (2 + 1 schedule) or 3 and 12 months of age (1 + 1 schedule) delivered with other routine vaccinations. Randomisation was done by computer-generated permuted block randomisation, with a block size of six. Participants and clinical trial staff were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was serotype-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations values (geometric mean concentrations [GMC] in μg/mL) measured in blood samples collected at 13 months of age. Analysis was by modified intention to treat with all individuals included by randomised group if they had a laboratory result. This trial is registered on the EudraCT clinical trial database, number 2015-000817-32, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02482636. Between September, 2015, and June, 2016, 376 infants were assessed for eligibility. 81 infants were excluded for not meeting the inclusion criteria (n=50) or for other reasons (n=31). 213 eligible infants were enrolled and randomly allocated to group 1 (n=106; 2 + 1 schedule) or to group 2 (n=107; 1 + 1 schedule). In group 1, 91 serum samples were available for analysis 1 month after

  3. Immune Response And Anamnestic Immune Response In Children After A 3-Dose Primary Hepatitis B Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Faheem; Sultan, Muhammad Ashraf; Saleemi, Ahmad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response & anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, documented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum antiHBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with antiHBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58%. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82 - 65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant ( pvalue 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vacci ne was administered to all nonresponders, with each registering a statistically significant (pvalue 0.00) anamnestic response. The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide protection to 42% of the study population

  4. Immunogenicity and Immunologic Memory after Hepatitis B Virus Booster Vaccination in HIV-Infected Children Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abzug, Mark J.; Warshaw, Meredith; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Levin, Myron J.; Nachman, Sharon A.; Pelton, Stephen I.; Borkowsky, William; Fenton, Terence

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an important cause of comorbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals. The immunogenicity of HBV vaccination in children receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was investigated. Methods HIV-infected children receiving HAART who had low to moderate HIV loads and who had previously received ≥3 doses of HBV vaccine were given an HBV vaccine booster. Concentrations of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were determined before vaccination and at weeks 8, 48, and 96. A subset of subjects was administered a subsequent dose, and anti-HBs was measured before and 1 and 4 weeks later. Results At entry, 24% of 204 subjects were seropositive. Vaccine response occurred in 46% on the basis of seropositivity 8 weeks after vaccination and in 37% on the basis of a ≥4-fold rise in antibody concentration. Of 69 subjects given another vaccination 4–5 years later, immunologic memory was exhibited by 45% on the basis of seropositivity 1 week after vaccination and by 29% on the basis of a ≥4-fold rise in antibody concentration at 1 week. Predictors of response and memory included higher nadir and current CD4 cell percentage, higher CD19 cell percentage, and undetectable HIV load. Conclusions HIV-infected children frequently lack protective levels of anti-HBs after previous HBV vaccination, and a significant proportion of them do not respond to booster vaccination or demonstrate memory despite receiving HAART, leaving this population insufficiently protected from infection with HBV. PMID:19663708

  5. Immunogenicity of aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix®) administered as a third dose after primary doses of Japanese aluminum-free hepatitis A vaccine (Aimmugen®) for Japanese travelers to endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Shinji; Kiyohara, Tomoko; Ishii, Koji; Nakano, Takashi; Hamada, Atsuo

    2017-11-07

    Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for travelers to endemic countries. Several inactivated aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccines are available worldwide, but only one licensed hepatitis A vaccine is available in Japan. This vaccine is a lyophilized inactivated aluminum-free hepatitis A vaccine (Aimmugen®). The standard schedule of Aimmugen® is three doses (at 0, 2-4 weeks, and 6 months). Japanese people will go abroad after receiving 2 doses of Aimmugen®. Some long-term travelers will receive the third dose of hepatitis A vaccine at their destination, at 6-24 months after 2 doses of Aimmugen®. Aimmugen® is not available in countries other than Japan. They receive inactivated aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine instead of a third dose of Aimmugen®. This study was undertaken to determine whether the booster vaccination with an aluminum-adsorbed hepatitis A vaccine is effective following two doses of Aimmugen®. Subjects were healthy Japanese adults aged 20 years or older who had received two doses of Aimmugen®. Subjects received a booster dose of Havrix®1440 intramuscularly as the third dose. Serology samples for hepatitis A virus antibody titers were taken 4-6 weeks later. Anti-hepatitis A virus antibody titers were measured by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Subjects were 20 healthy Japanese adults, 6 men and 14 women. The mean age ± standard deviation was 37.2 ± 13.3. The seroprotection rate (SPR, anti-hepatitis A virus antibody titer ≥10 mIU/mL) was 85% at enrollment, and increased to 100% after vaccination with Havrix®. The geometric mean anti-hepatitis A virus antibody titer increased from 39.8 mIU/mL to 2938.2 mIU/mL. The three scheduled doses consisting of two doses of Aimmugen® plus a third dose with Havrix® is more immunogenic than using only two doses of Aimmugen®. The vaccination with Havrix® could be allowed to be used instead of a third dose of Aimmugen®. (UMIN000009351). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Immunogenicity and Protective Efficacy of the DAR-901 Booster Vaccine in a Murine Model of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Timothy; Laddy, Dominick; Hill, Krystal; Schaeffer, Jacqueline; Hogg, Alison; Keeble, James; Dagg, Belinda; Ho, Mei Mei; Arbeit, Robert D.; von Reyn, C. Fordham

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of a novel tuberculosis vaccine is a leading global health priority. SRL172, an inactivated, whole-cell mycobacterial vaccine, was safe, immunogenic and reduced the incidence of culture-confirmed tuberculosis in a phase III trial in HIV-infected and BCG immunized adults in Tanzania. Here we describe the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DAR-901, a booster vaccine against tuberculosis manufactured from the same seed strain using a new scalable method. Methods We evaluated IFN-γ responses by ELISpot and antibody responses by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice after three doses of DAR-901. In an aerosol challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the DAR-901 booster in C57BL/6 mice primed with BCG and boosted with two doses of DAR-901 at 4 dosage levels in comparison with homologous BCG boost. Results DAR-901 vaccination elicited IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigen preparations derived from both DAR-901 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DAR-901 immunization enhanced antibody responses to DAR-901 but not Mycobacterium tuberculosis lysate or purified protein derivative. Among animals primed with BCG, boosting with DAR-901 at 1 mg provided greater protection against aerosol challenge than a homologous BCG boost (lungs P = 0.036, spleen P = 0.028). Conclusions DAR-901 induces cellular and humoral immunity and boosts protection from M. tuberculosis compared to a homologous BCG boost. PMID:27997597

  7. Effect of oral booster vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri depends on type of primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Rzgar M; Al-Jubury, Azmi; Dalsgaard, Inger; MohammadKarami, Asma; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-10-31

    Vaccination of rainbow trout against Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) caused by Yersinia ruckeri can be successfully performed by administering vaccine (a bacterin consisting of formalin killed bacteria) by immersion, bath or injection. Booster immunization is known to increase the protection of fish already primed by one of these vaccination methods. Oral vaccination of trout (administering vaccine in feed) is an even more convenient way of presenting antigen to the fish but the effect of an oral booster has not previously been described in detail. The present work describes to what extent protection may be enhanced by oral boostering following priming with different administration methods. The study confirms that vaccination by 30 s dip into a bacterin (diluted 1:10) may confer a significant protection compared to non-vaccinated fish. The immunity may be optimized by booster immunization either provided as dip (most effective), bath (less effective) or orally (least effective). Oral immunization may be used as booster after dip but applied as a single oral application it induced merely a slight and statistically non-significant response. It is noteworthy that primary oral immunization followed by an oral booster vaccination showed a trend for an even weaker response. It should be investigated if continued exposure to a low antigen concentration - as performed by two oral immunizations - may induce tolerance to the pathogen and thereby leave the fish more vulnerable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of antibody responses to commercial equine influenza vaccines following annual booster vaccination of National Hunt horses - a randomised blind study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Sarah; Arkins, Sean; Walsh, Cathal; Cullinane, Ann

    2011-05-17

    Protection against equine influenza virus (EIV) relies largely on the production of circulating antibodies specific for the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. The objective of this study was to determine the antibody response of National Hunt horses in training to booster vaccination. The antibody response to the six equine influenza vaccines available in Ireland (three whole inactivated vaccines, two subunit vaccines and a canary pox recombinant vaccine), was monitored by single radial haemolysis (SRH) for six months post vaccination. There was no significant difference between antibody response induced following booster vaccination with any of the six vaccines. The antibodies peaked between two and four weeks post vaccination, decreased significantly by three months post vaccination and declined to their original levels by six months post vaccination. Peak antibody response to the canary pox recombinant vaccine was delayed in comparison to the other vaccines. Although analysis of the mean SRH levels of the horses suggested that they were clinically protected post booster vaccination, analysis of the individual responses suggested that there was potential for vaccination breakdown in a manner similar to that observed previously in racing yards in Ireland. There was a significant correlation between the SRH level at the time of vaccination and the antibody response. The findings of the study suggest that it would be advantageous to monitor SRH levels and to vaccinate strategically. The revaccination of horses with low antibody levels three months post booster vaccination may have been more effective in protecting horses in this yard than the annual vaccination of horses with high SRH levels. Eighteen of the 44 (41%) horses included in this study did not demonstrate a significant rise in SRH level to H3N8 following booster vaccination. It is presumed that annual revaccination is the minimum necessary to protect all horses against EI but this assumption needs to be

  9. Community awareness and predictors of uptake of pertussis booster vaccine in South Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Michelle; Thomas, Natalie; Giles, Lynne; Marshall, Helen

    2015-12-16

    Pertussis is a highly virulent vaccine preventable disease that remains a global challenge. This study aimed to assess community knowledge of pertussis infection as well as awareness and uptake of adult pertussis booster vaccine. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of randomly selected households in South Australia by Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews in 2011. Survey data were weighted to the age, gender and geographical area profile of the population. From 3124 randomly sampled contactable households, 1967 interviews were conducted (participation rate 63%) with individuals aged 18-93 years, including 608 parents of children aged <18 years. The majority of respondents (97%) had heard of pertussis (whooping cough) and 18% reported that a household member had previously contracted whooping cough infection. Most respondents considered whooping cough to be highly contagious (73%) and severe for infants (89%). Over half (51%) of those surveyed were aware that family members commonly transmit pertussis to infants. Despite high knowledge, pertussis vaccine uptake was low, with only 10% of respondents reporting pertussis vaccination in the previous five years. Whilst 61% of respondents were aware of the availability of an adult pertussis booster vaccine, only 8% (n=154) reported their Family Physician had discussed it with them. If provided free, 77% agreed that they would be more likely to accept a booster pertussis vaccination. Independent predictors of recent pertussis vaccination included higher education, larger household size, perception of greater disease severity for infants and discussion with a Family Physician about pertussis vaccination. Whilst knowledge regarding transmission and severity of Bordetella pertussis was high, uptake of pertussis vaccination for adults is remarkably low amongst the South Australian community. Improved awareness regarding the availability of a booster pertussis vaccine through Family Physicians and/or provision of funded

  10. Rabies Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... and booster doses should be given as needed. (Testing or booster doses are not recommended for travelers.) Ask your doctor for details. Vaccination After an Exposure:Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to ...

  11. Persistence of Rabies Antibody 5 Years after Postexposure Prophylaxis with Vero Cell Antirabies Vaccine and Antibody Response to a Single Booster Dose▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Zhu, Zhenggang; Wang, Chuanlin

    2011-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the antibody response to a Vero cell antirabies vaccine, the persistence of antibody for 5 years, and the effect of a booster dose after this interval. From August 2005 to February 2011, a total of 195 patients were enrolled into our study due to an animal bite. The Essen intramuscular (i.m.) regimen, which is recommended by the WHO for modern vaccines used in postexposure treatment, was adopted in this study. Blood samples were obtained on day 0, day 7, day 14, day 45, year 1, year 2, year 3, year 4, year 5, and year 5 plus 14 days. Immunogenicity was evaluated by the titration of neutralizing antibodies with a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Seroconversion was expressed as the seroconversion rate (SCR). A secondary quantitative evaluation criterion, other than the seroconversion level, was the geometric mean titer (GMT). Of the 195 enrolled patients, 168 (86.4%) of them completed the whole study. No serious adverse reactions to the vaccine were reported during vaccination, the 5-year follow-up period, or revaccination. On day 14, the rabies antibody GMT value was 8.87 IU/ml in the vaccinees. During the next 5 years, the SCR in the ChengDa vaccine group gradually decreased to 34.0% at year 5, down from 90.5% at year 1. There was a significant booster effect: the GMT was 15.22 IU/ml on year 5 plus 14 days. Our findings demonstrate that the ChengDa rabies vaccine offers an alternative with a high degree of efficacy and yet limited side effects and ensures that the exposed patient will be on the safe side of the risk of rabies by the 14th day. Moreover, when followed by a booster dose 5 years later, it could boost the immunity. A further booster is effective in inducing a good neutralizing antibody response even after an interval of 5 years. PMID:21752947

  12. Duration of protection against hepatitis A for the current two-dose vaccine compared to a three-dose vaccine schedule in children

    PubMed Central

    Raczniak, Gregory A.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Bulkow, Lisa R.; Negus, Susan E.; Zanis, Carolyn L.; Bruce, Michael G.; Spradling, Philip R.; Teshale, Eyasu H.; McMahon, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is mostly a self-limiting disease but causes substantial economic burden. Consequently, United States Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommends inactivated hepatitis A vaccination for all children beginning at age 1 year and for high risk adults. The hepatitis A vaccine is highly effective but the duration of protection is unknown. Methods We examined the proportion of children with protective hepatitis A antibody levels (anti-HAV ≥20 mIU/mL) as well as the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HAV in a cross sectional convenience sample of individuals aged 12–24 years, who had been vaccinated with a two-dose schedule in childhood, with the initial dose at least 5 years ago. We compared a subset of data from persons vaccinated with two-doses (720 EL.U.) at age 3–6 years with a demographically similar prospective cohort that received a three-dose (360 EL.U.) schedule and have been followed for 17 years. Results No significant differences were observed when comparing GMC between the two cohorts at 10 (P = 0.467), 12 (P = 0.496), and 14 (P = 0.175) years post-immunization. For the three-dose cohort, protective antibody levels remain for 17 years and have leveled-off over the past 7 years. Conclusion The two- and three-dose schedules provide similar protection >14 years after vaccination, indicating a booster dose is not needed at this time. Plateauing anti-HAV GMC levels suggest protective antibody levels may persist long-term. PMID:23470239

  13. Assessment of immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster immunisation with a CRM197 -conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine in healthy Chinese infants.

    PubMed

    Jun, L; Yuguo, C; Zhiguo, W; Jinfeng, L; Huawei, M; Xiuhua, L; Yonggui, Z; Yanhua, X; Kong, Y; Hongtao, L; Yuliang, Z

    2013-10-01

    Invasive meningitis and pneumonia caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is an important cause of childhood mortality in countries where Hib vaccination is not routine. We evaluated the non-inferiority of a licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-CRM(197) compared with a second licensed Hib vaccine, PRP-T, following the recommended Chinese immunisation schedule for infants between 6 months and 1 year of age. In the first study phase, 6-12 month-old infants received two primary doses of either PRP-CRM(197) (n = 335) or PRP-T (n = 335) vaccine administered 1 month apart. In the second study phase 8 months later, the same children received a single booster dose of vaccine identical to that use for priming (PRP-CRM(197), n = 327; PRP-T, n = 333). Serum levels of anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Non-inferiority of primary and booster doses was assessed in terms of percentages of subjects with anti-PRP antibody levels associated with providing short-term (≥ 0.15 μg/ml) and long-term (≥ 1.0 μg/ml) protection; the non-inferiority margin was set at -5%. PRP-CRM(197) was demonstrated to be non-inferior to PRP-T. Anti-PRP antibodies levels ≥ 0.15 μg/ml and ≥ 1.0 μg/ml were achieved by 97% of infants in the PRP-CRM(197) group and 98% of infants in the PRP-T group 1 month after primary immunisation, and by all subjects (100%) in both vaccine groups 1 month after booster administration. Safety profiles for both vaccines were similar; no serious adverse events, deaths or adverse events leading to withdrawal occurred during the study. PRP-CRM(197) was well-tolerated and immunologically non-inferior to a licensed comparator Hib vaccine in Chinese infants (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01044316 & NCT01226953). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of a Booster Dose of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Co-Administered with Measles, Yellow Fever and Meningitis A Vaccines in 9-month-old Malian Infants.

    PubMed

    Haidara, Fadima C; Tapia, Milagritos D; Sow, Samba O; Doumbia, Moussa; Coulibaly, Flanon; Diallo, Fatoumata; Traoré, Awa; Kodio, Mamoudou; Kelly, Corey L; Fitzpatrick, Meagan; Kotloff, Karen; Victor, John C; Neuzil, Kathleen

    2018-04-12

    Rotavirus vaccines given to infants are safe and efficacious. A booster dose of rotavirus vaccine could extend protection into the second year of life in low resource countries. We conducted an open-label, individual-randomized trial in Bamako, Mali. We assigned 600 9- to 11-month old infants to measles (MV), yellow fever (YFV), and meningococcal A conjugate vaccines with or without pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV). We assessed non-inferiority of seroconversion and seroresponse rates (<10% difference) to MV, YFV and MenAV. We compared the seroresponse to PRV. Seroconversion to measles occurred in 255/261 (97.7%) and 246/252 (97.6%) of the PRV and control group; difference, 0.1% (95% CI, - 4.0 to 4.2). Seroresponse to YFV occurred in 48.1% (141/293) of the PRV group compared to 52.2% (153/293) of the control group; difference - 4.1% (95% CI, -12.2 to 4.0). A 4-fold rise in meningococcal A bactericidal titer was observed in 273/292 (93.5%) PRV recipients and 276/293 (94.2%) controls; difference, -0.7% (95% CI, - 5.2 to 3.8). Rises in anti-rotavirus IgA and IgG geometric mean concentrations were higher among PRV recipients (118 [95% CI, 91 to 154] and 364 [95% CI, 294 to 450]) compared to controls (68 [95% CI, 50 to 92] and 153 [95% CI, 114 to 207]. PRV did not interfere with MV and MenAV; this study could not rule out interference with YFV. PRV increased serum rotavirus antibody levels. NCT02286895.

  15. Anti-pertussis antibody kinetics following DTaP-IPV booster vaccination in Norwegian children 7-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aase, Audun; Herstad, Tove Karin; Jørgensen, Silje Bakken; Leegaard, Truls Michael; Berbers, Guy; Steinbakk, Martin; Aaberge, Ingeborg

    2014-10-14

    At the age of 7-8 years a booster of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and polio vaccine is recommended for children in Norway. In this cross-sectional study we have analysed the antibody levels against pertussis vaccine antigens in sera from 498 children aged 6-12 years. The purposes of this study were to investigate the duration of the booster response against the pertussis vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA); to determine the presence of high levels of pertussis antibodies in absence of recent vaccination; and to analyse how booster immunisation may interfere with the serological pertussis diagnostics. Prior to the booster the IgG antibody levels against PT revealed a geometric mean of 7.3IU/ml. After the booster the geometric mean peak anti-PT IgG response reached to 45.6IU/ml, followed by a steady decline in antibody levels over the next few years. The IgG anti-FHA levels followed the anti-PT IgG profiles. Three years after the booster the geometric mean IgG levels were only slightly above pre-booster levels. Prior to the booster 44% of the sera contained ≤5IU/ml of anti-PT IgG compared to18% 3 years after and 30% 4 years after the booster. When recently vaccinated children were excluded, 6.2% of the children had anti-PT IgG levels above 50IU/ml which may indicate pertussis infection within the last 2 years. This study indicates that the currently used acellular pertussis vaccines induce moderate immune responses to the pertussis antigens and that the antibodies wane within few years after the booster. This lack of sustained immune response may partly be responsible for the increased number of pertussis cases observed in this age group during the last years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Determining the Optimal Vaccination Schedule for Herpes Zoster: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Le, Phuc; Rothberg, Michael B

    2017-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends a single dose of herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine in persons aged 60 years or older, but the efficacy decreases to zero after approximately 10 years. A booster dose administered after 10 years might extend protection, but the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy has not been examined. We aimed to determine the optimal schedule for HZ vaccine DESIGN: We built a Markov model to follow patients over their lifetime. From the societal perspective, we compared costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved of 11 strategies to start and repeat HZ vaccine at different ages. Adults aged 60 years. HZ vaccine. Costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental costs per QALY saved. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, "vaccination at 70 plus one booster" was the most cost-effective strategy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $36,648/QALY. "Vaccination at 60 plus two boosters" was more effective, but had an ICER of $153,734/QALY. In deterministic sensitivity analysis, "vaccination at 60 plus two boosters" cost < $100,000/QALY if compliance rate was > 67 % or vaccine cost was < $156 per dose. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, "vaccination at 70 plus one booster" was preferred at a willingness-to-pay of up to $135,000/QALY. Under current assumptions, initiating HZ vaccine at age 70 years with one booster dose 10 years later appears optimal. Future data regarding compliance with or efficacy of a booster could affect these conclusions.

  17. Clinical and economic assessment of different general population strategies of pertussis vaccine booster regarding number of doses and age of application for reducing whooping cough disease burden: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cobo, Iria; Chen, Yen-Fu; Olowokure, Babatunde; Litchfield, Ian

    2008-12-09

    Pertussis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children too young to be fully protected despite high vaccination coverage. This has been attributed to waning immunity in older people, leading to the development of strategies to increase levels of immunity. A systematic review was conducted to assess the clinical and cost effectiveness of four population-based strategies for pertussis booster vaccination: single booster at 12-24 months old, single pre-school booster, single adolescent booster and multiple boosters in adulthood every 10 years. Electronic databases and Internet resources were searched to June 2006. Nine observational studies, four mathematical models and eight economic evaluations were included, evaluating four different strategies. Strong evidence to recommend any of these strategies was not found.

  18. Long-term effectiveness of plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine 22-28 years after immunization in a hepatitis B virus endemic rural area: is an adult booster dose needed?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, G J; Chen, Q Y; Fang, Z L; Wang, X Y; Tan, C; Yang, Q L; Wang, F Z; Wang, F; Zhang, S; Bi, S L; Shen, L P

    2017-04-01

    Longan County is considered a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The plasma-derived vaccine has been used in newborns in this area since 1987. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this vaccine. In total, 1634 participants born during 1987-1993 and who had received a series of plasma-derived HB vaccinations at ages 0, 1, and 6 months were enrolled. Serological HBV markers were detected and compared with previous survey data. Overall the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in all participants was 3·79%; 3·47% of subjects who had received the first dose within 24 h were HBsAg positive, and 8·41% of subjects who had received a delayed first dose were also HBsAg positive. There were 1527 subjects identified who had received the first dose within 24 h and whose HBsAg and anti-HBc prevalence increased yearly after immunization, while the anti-HBs-positive rate and vaccine effectiveness declined. The geometric mean concentration of antibody in the anti-HB-positive participants was 55·13 mIU/ml and this declined after immunization. Fewer than 2·0% of participants had anti-HB levels ⩾1000 mIU/ml. The data show that the protective efficacy of the plasma-derived vaccinations declined and administration of HB vaccine within 24 h of birth was very important. To reduce the risk of HBV infection in this highly endemic area, a booster dose might be necessary if anti-HBs levels fall below 10 mIU/ml after age 18 years. Furthermore, studies on the immune memory induced by plasma-derived HB vaccine are needed.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Tdap-IPV; Repevax) administered concomitantly versus non-concomitantly with an influenza vaccine (Vaxigrip) to adults aged ≥60 years: an open-label, randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ulrich; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Baudin, Martine

    2013-03-01

    Annual influenza vaccination provides an opportunity to administer a booster dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (Tdap-IPV) to the elderly. This study evaluated immune responses to and safety of the two vaccines administered concomitantly or sequentially to elderly individuals in France and Germany. Individuals aged ≥60 years who had received a diphtheria/tetanus booster within 5-15 years were randomised (1:1) to receive either Tdap-IPV and an inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly (Group 1) or inactivated influenza vaccine then Tdap-IPV 28-35 days later (Group 2). Antibody titres were measured before and 28-35 days after each vaccination. The mean age of randomised individuals (n=954) was 68.8 years. Post-vaccination seroprotection rates (≥0.1 IU/mL for diphtheria/tetanus and ≥8 1/dilution for polio) for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2 for diphtheria (85.4% vs. 87.5%), tetanus (both 100%), polio type 1 (99.8% vs. 100%), polio type 2 (both 100%) and polio type 3 (99.3% vs. 99.8%). Similarly, percentages of individuals with pertussis antibodies ≥5 EU/mL for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2: pertussis toxin (94.3% vs. 98.1%), filamentous haemagglutinin (99.8% vs. 100%), pertactin (97.3% vs. 96.0%), fimbriae 2 and 3 (91.7% vs. 89.5%). Post-vaccination geometric mean titres of anti-influenza haemagglutinin antibodies for Group 1 were non-inferior to Group 2. Adverse events following administration of Tdap-IPV were similar in both study groups, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Tdap-IPV and inactivated influenza vaccine can be administered concomitantly in the elderly without impairing tolerability or the immune response to either vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reactogenicity of tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine administered as a sixth consecutive acellular pertussis vaccine dose to adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liese, Johannes G; Rieber, Nikolaus; Malzer, Thomas; Ocak, Marion; Johnson, David R; Decker, Michael D

    2010-12-01

    Safety of a sixth consecutive dose of acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents was assessed in a 2-armed, randomized study. Adolescents who had received 5 doses of acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (6-dose group) received 1 dose of reduced 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine combined with tetanus toxoid and reduced diphtheria toxoid (Tdap). Adolescents who had received a primary series of 3 doses of whole-cell pertussis and 1 acellular or whole-cell pertussis booster received 1 dose of Tdap vaccine (5-dose group). Of 214 participants, 176 (82%) reported an injection-site reaction with pain (80%), erythema (22%), and swelling (19%) most frequently reported. A systemic reaction was reported by 169 of 214 (79%) with myalgia (66%), headache (42%), malaise (39%), and fever (9%) most frequently reported. The overall rate of solicited reactions was lower in the 6-dose group than in the 5-dose group (for injection-site reactions: 76.1% vs. 89.7%; for systemic reactions 72.6% vs. 86.6%). Significant differences were observed for injection-site pain, erythema, and for grade 1 or grade 2 increases in arm circumference. Fever, myalgia, and headache were reported at a significantly lower rate in the 6-dose group. Swelling >10 cm was observed in 5 patients (2%), 4 in the 5-dose group. Tdap vaccine was safe when given to adolescents who had received 5 prior doses of acellular pertussis vaccine.

  1. Typhoid Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be given at least 2 weeks before travel to allow the vaccine time to work. • A booster dose is needed every ... should be given at least 1 week before travel to allow the vaccine time to work. • Swallow each dose about an hour ...

  2. Dosing regimen of the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccination: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Caya, Chelsea A; Boikos, Constantina; Desai, Shalini; Quach, Caroline

    2015-03-10

    Currently, one lifetime booster of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is recommended for those at highest risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 3-5 years after initial vaccination. Due to a lack of evidence on multiple revaccinations, recommendations on repeat revaccination do not exist. We aimed to determine the optimal dose and timing of PPV23 booster in high-risk groups. We searched Google Scholar, Cochrane, EMBASE, Classic EMBASE, and PubMed for articles published in English and French using the MeSH terms pneumococcal infection, invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia, pneumo23, pneumovax 23, PPV23, and 23-valent. Articles were included if they examined dosing regimens of PPV23 (i.e., PPV23 priming and boosting) in adult populations, pediatric populations or both. Two authors independently assessed all titles and abstracts. All potentially relevant articles were chosen by consensus and retrieved for full text review. Two authors independently conducted the inclusion assessment. Database searches resulted in a total of 1233 articles. The review by title and abstracts resulted in the exclusion of 1170 articles, 53 articles were fully reviewed, 2 articles were identified using Google Scholar and 12 articles were finally included. The majority of evidence consistently indicated an increase in antibody response following PPV23 revaccination in both adult and pediatric populations. Evidence on multiple revaccinations was limited and mixed. Revaccination with PPV23 was well tolerated. The majority of evidence reviewed supports PPV23 revaccination in both adult and pediatric populations. However, data on multiple booster PPV23 vaccinations in these populations is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Persistence of immunity after vaccination with a capsular group B meningococcal vaccine in 3 different toddler schedules

    PubMed Central

    Sadarangani, Manish; Sell, Tim; Iro, Mildred A.; Snape, Matthew D.; Voysey, Merryn; Finn, Adam; Heath, Paul T.; Bona, Gianni; Esposito, Susanna; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Prymula, Roman; Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Toneatto, Daniela; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One schedule for the capsular group B meningococcal vaccine 4CMenB is 2 doses that are administered 2 months apart for children aged 12–23 months, with a booster dose 12–24 months later. Our objective was to provide data on persistence of human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) titres in children up to 4 years of age after initial doses at 12–24 months, and immunogenicity of a booster dose at 48 months of age compared with vaccine-naive children. METHODS: Children previously immunized, as part of a randomized controlled trial, with 2 doses of 4CMenB vaccine at 12–24 months of age received a booster at 4 years of age. Vaccine-naive age-matched toddlers received 2 doses of 4CMenB. Human serum bactericidal antibody titres against reference strains H44/76, 5/99, NZ98/254 and M10713 were evaluated before and after innoculation with 4CMenB vaccine in 4-year-old children. RESULTS: Of 332 children in the study, 123 had previously received 4CMenB and 209 were vaccine-naive controls. Before the booster, the proportions of participants (previously vaccinated groups compared with controls) with hSBA titres of 1:5 or more were as follows: 9%–11% v. 1% (H44/76), 84%–100% v. 4% (5/99), 0%–18% v. 0% (NZ98/254) and 59%–60% v. 60% (M10713). After 1 dose of 4CMenB in previously immunized children, the proportions of participants achieving hSBA titres of 1:5 or more were 100% (H44/76 and 5/99), 70%–100% (NZ98/254) and 90%–100% (M10713). INTERPRETATION: We found that waning of hSBA titres by 4 years of age occurred after 2 doses of 4CMenB vaccine administered at 12–24 months, and doses at 12–24 months have a priming effect on the immune system. A booster may be necessary to maintain hSBA titres of 1:5 or more among those children with increased disease risk. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01717638 PMID:29038320

  4. Pertussis Circulation Has Increased T-Cell Immunity during Childhood More than a Second Acellular Booster Vaccination in Dutch Children 9 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Schure, Rose-Minke; de Rond, Lia; Öztürk, Kemal; Hendrikx, Lotte; Sanders, Elisabeth; Berbers, Guy; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the first evaluation of T-cell responses upon a second acellular pertussis booster vaccination in Dutch children at 9 years of age, 5 years after a preschool booster vaccination. Blood samples of children 9 years of age were studied longitudinally until 1 year after the second aP booster and compared with those after the first aP booster in children 4 and 6 years of age from a cross-sectional study. After stimulation with pertussis-vaccine antigens, Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokine responses were measured and effector memory cells (CCR7-CD45RA-) were characterized by 8-colour FACS analysis. The second aP booster vaccination at pre-adolescent age in wP primed individuals did increase pertussis-specific Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses. Noticeably, almost all T-cell responses had increased with age and were already high before the booster vaccination at 9 years of age. The enhancement of T-cell immunity during the 5 year following the booster at 4 years of age is probably caused by natural boosting due to the a high circulation of pertussis. However, the incidence of pertussis is high in adolescents and adults who have only received the Dutch wP vaccine during infancy and no booster at 4 years of age. Therefore, an aP booster vaccination at adolescence or later in these populations might improve long-term immunity against pertussis and reduce the transmission to the vulnerable newborns. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN64117538 PMID:22860033

  5. Immune responses of bison and efficacy after booster vaccination with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-one bison heifers were randomly assigned to saline (control; n=7) or single vaccination (n=24) with 1010 CFU of B. abortus strain RB51 (RB51). Some vaccinated bison were randomly selected for booster vaccination with 10**10 CFU of RB51 at 11 months after initial vaccination (n=16). When comp...

  6. Influenza vaccine strategies for solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Hirzel, Cédric; Kumar, Deepali

    2018-05-15

    The aim of this study was to highlight recent evidence on important aspects of influenza vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients. Influenza vaccine is the most evaluated vaccine in transplant recipients. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is suboptimal after transplantation. Newer formulations such as inactivated unadjuvanted high-dose influenza vaccine and the administration of a booster dose within the same season have shown to increase response rates. Intradermal vaccination and adjuvanted vaccines did not show clear benefit over standard influenza vaccines. Recent studies in transplant recipients do not suggest a higher risk for allograft rejection, neither after vaccination with a standard influenza vaccine nor after the administration of nonstandard formulation (high-dose, adjuvanted vaccines), routes (intradermally) or a booster dose. Nevertheless, influenza vaccine coverage in transplant recipients is still unsatisfactory low, potentially due to misinterpretation of risks and benefits. Annual influenza vaccination is well tolerated and is an important part of long-term care of solid organ transplant recipients.

  7. Meningococcal serogroup C immunogenicity, antibody persistence and memory B-cells induced by the monovalent meningococcal serogroup C versus quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup ACWY conjugate booster vaccine: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Knol, Mirjam J; Stoof, Susanne P; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents are considered the key transmitters of meningococci in the population. Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels wane rapidly after MenC conjugate vaccination in young children, leaving adolescents with low antibody levels. In this study, we compared MenC immune responses after booster vaccination in adolescence with either tetanus toxoid conjugated MenC (MenC-TT) or MenACWY (MenACWY-TT) vaccine, and aimed to establish an optimal age for this booster. Healthy 10-, 12-, and 15-year-olds, who received a single dose of MenC-TT vaccine in early childhood, were randomized to receive MenC-TT or MenACWY-TT vaccine. MenC serum bactericidal antibody (rSBA) titers, MenC polysaccharide (PS) specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 and MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells were determined before, one month and one year after the booster. Non-inferiority was tested by comparing geometric mean titers (GMTs) between vaccinees at one year. Of 501 participants, 464 (92.6%) were included in the 'according to protocol' cohort analysis. At one month, all participants developed high MenC rSBA titers (>24,000 in all groups) and MenC-PS-specific IgG levels. Non-inferiority was not demonstrated one year after the booster with higher MenC GMTs after the monovalent vaccine, but 462/464 (99.6%) participants maintained protective MenC rSBA titers. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but similar levels of increase were observed for IgG1 and IgG2. Both vaccines induced a clear increase in the number of circulating MenC-PS specific IgG and IgA memory B-cells. Between one month and one year, the highest antibody decay rate was observed in the 10-year-olds. Both MenC-TT and MenACWY-TT vaccines induced robust protective MenC immune responses after the booster vaccination, although non-inferiority could not be demonstrated for the MenACWY-TT vaccine after one year. Our results underline the importance of optimal timing of a meningococcal booster vaccination to protect against MenC disease

  8. Acellular pertussis vaccine boosters combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid boosters for adolescents: safety and immunogenicity assessment when preceded by different 5-dose DTaP/DTwP schedules.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R; Francis, Anne B; Marsocci, Steven M; Murphy, Marie; Hoeger, William; Cleary, Carolyn

    2006-09-01

    A sixth dose of tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in adolescents might produce a differing reactogenicity and/or immunogenicity response depending on the composition of the 5 prior doses of DTaP or DT-whole cell pertussis (DTwP) vaccine. Reactions and immune responses following receipt of the Sanofi Pasteur (Adacel) and GlaxoSmithKline (Boostrix) Tdap vaccines were assessed in 229 adolescents. No differences were observed for reactions to either Tdap vaccine regardless of the prior DTaP/DTwP vaccination history. Seroprotective levels and antibody concentrations were comparable regardless of prior DTaP/DTwP vaccine history. A sixth sequential dose of Tdap after 5 doses of DTaP appears safe and immunogenic.

  9. The Antibody Response Following a Booster With Either a 10- or 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Toddlers Primed With a 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Early Infancy.

    PubMed

    Trück, Johannes; Jawad, Sena; Goldblatt, David; Roalfe, Lucy; Snape, Matthew D; Voysey, Merryn; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Both the 13- and 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-13; PCV-10) are immunogenic and effective against vaccine-type pneumococcal disease when given to young children. However, limited data are available regarding the interchangeability of these 2 vaccines. UK children (n = 178) who had previously been vaccinated with PCV-13 at 2 and 4 months were randomized to receive either a PCV-13 or a PCV-10 booster at 12 months of age. PCV-13 vaccine-type antipolysaccharide serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations and opsonophagocytic assay titers were measured before and at 1 and 12 months following vaccination. The primary objective was to assess noninferiority of PCV-10 compared with PCV-13. For 8 of the PCV-10 serotypes at least 97% of participants in both groups had IgG concentrations ≥0.35 µg/mL at 1 month after vaccination; inferior responses were seen for serotypes 5 and 9V following the PCV-10 compared with the PCV-13 booster. Post booster geometric mean IgG concentrations and opsonophagocytic assay titers were significantly superior for most serotypes in PCV-13 compared with PCV-10 recipients, whereas similar or inferior responses were seen for serotypes 4, 18C, and 19F. Although some increase in antibody was seen in PCV-10 recipients against the serotypes 6A and 19A (serotypes that cross-react with 6B and 19F in PCV-10, respectively) at 1-month post booster, these responses were significantly lower than in the PCV-13 group. In PCV-13 primed infants, a PCV-10 booster is generally less immunogenic than a PCV-13 booster. For the 3 serotypes in PCV-10 with higher antigen content and/or conjugation to diphtheria or tetanus toxoid carrier proteins, higher or similar booster responses were seen in PCV-10 recipients. Although these findings suggest that responses are generally better with a PCV-13 booster among PCV-13 primed children, the clinical significance of these differences in immunogenicity is unclear.

  10. Salivary antibody levels in adolescents in response to a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate booster vaccination nine years after priming: systemically induced local immunity and saliva as potential surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Stoof, Susanne P; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Bogaert, Debby; Trzciński, Krzysztof; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2015-07-31

    In several countries large-scale immunization of children and young adults with Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines has induced long-standing herd protection. Salivary antibodies may play an important role in mucosal protection against meningococcal acquisition and carriage. To investigate antibody levels in (pre)adolescents primed 9 years earlier with a single dose of MenC-polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugated (MenC-TT) vaccine and the response to a booster vaccination, with special focus on age-related differences and the relation between salivary and serum antibody levels. Nine years after priming, healthy 10- (n=91), 12- (n=91) and 15-year-olds (n=86) received a MenC-TT booster vaccination. Saliva and serum samples were collected prior to and 1 month and 1 year after vaccination. MenC-polysaccharide(MenC-PS)-specific antibody levels were measured using a fluorescent-bead-based multiplex immunoassay. Before the booster, MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels in saliva and serum were low and correlated with age at priming. The booster induced a marked increase in salivary MenC-PS-specific IgG (>200-fold), but also in IgA (∼10-fold). One year after the booster, salivary IgG and IgA had remained above pre-booster levels in all age groups (∼20-fold and ∼3-fold, respectively), with persistence of highest levels in the 15-year-olds. MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels in saliva strongly correlated with the levels in serum. Parenteral MenC-TT booster vaccination induces a clear increase in salivary MenC-PS-specific IgG and IgA levels and persistence of highest levels correlates with age. The strong correlation between serum and salivary antibody levels indicate that saliva may offer an easy and reliable tool for future antibody surveillance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreased incidence of pertussis in young adults after the introduction of booster vaccine in military conscripts: Epidemiological analyses of pertussis in Finland, 1995-2015.

    PubMed

    Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Nohynek, Hanna; Virkki, Maria; Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Mertsola, Jussi

    2017-09-18

    In 2005, in Finland, the whole-cell pertussis vaccine was replaced by acellular given at 3-5-12months, and boosters at 4 and 11-15years of age. From July 2012, military conscripts have been offered a pertussis booster dose. Conscription is mandatory for Finnish men, and >95% were 19-21years old when enrolled during 2012-2015. We describe the epidemiology of pertussis in Finland during 1995-2015, and show the indirect effect of the booster in conscripts on pertussis incidence in the Finnish population. We extracted data on laboratory confirmed notified pertussis cases from the National Infectious Diseases Register. We calculated annual incidence using as denominator population data and incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression. The overall pertussis incidence peaked in 2004 (31/100,000) and was lowest in 2015 (3.0/100,000), with 66 reported cases in <3months infants in 2004 versus 6 in 2015. The majority of the cases were female (59%) with a male-to-female case ratio of 1:1.5. Cases were spread throughout the year with highest incidence during August-February. Among the 19- to 21-year-olds in the general population, incidence decreased from 49/100,000 in 2011 to 0.51/100,000 in 2015 (IRR=0.01; 95%CI, 0.00-0.16). Among the same age group, comparing the 3.5-year period before and after July 2012, incidence decreased from 33/100,000 to 5.3/100,000 (IRR=0.16; 95%CI, 0.06-0.40) in males and from 16/100,000 to 5.0/100,000 (IRR=0.31; 95%CI, 0.11-0.84) in females. Implementation of the pertussis booster dose in Finnish military conscripts was followed by a significant decrease in pertussis incidence both among the 19- to 21-year-old males and females, possibly reflecting herd immunity effect. Together with booster doses in adolescents this has resulted in low incidence in the whole population including infants. Our results support the implementation of the booster dose for conscripts. We recommend continuing monitoring pertussis epidemiology to optimize pertussis

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (IMOJEV®) in children.

    PubMed

    Chokephaibulkit, K; Houillon, G; Feroldi, E; Bouckenooghe, A

    2016-01-01

    JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur, France) is a live attenuated virus vaccine constructed by inserting coding sequences of the prM and E structural proteins of the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 virus into the genome of yellow fever 17D virus. Primary immunization with JE-CV requires a single dose of the vaccine. This article reviews clinical trials of JE-CV in children aged up to 6 years conducted in countries across South-East Asia. Strong and persistent antibody responses were observed after single primary and booster doses, with 97% of children seroprotected up to five years after booster vaccination. Models of long-term antibody persistence predict a median duration of protection of approximately 30 years after a booster dose. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of JE-CV primary and booster doses are comparable to other widely used childhood vaccines.

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Odusanya, Olumuyiwa O; Kuyinu, Yetunde A; Kehinde, Omolara A; Shafi, Fakrudeen; François, Nancy; Yarzabal, Juan Pablo; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota; Schuerman, Lode

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, 3-dose primary vaccination of Nigerian infants with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes, with comparable tolerability between PHiD-CV and control groups. In an open-label study (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01153893), 68 primed children received a PHiD-CV booster dose co-administered with a diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa) booster dose at 15–21 months and 36 children unprimed for pneumococcal vaccination received two PHiD-CV catch-up doses (first dose co-administered with DTPa booster dose) at 15–21 and 17–23 months. Adverse events were recorded and immune responses were measured before and one month after vaccination. In both groups, pain was the most frequent solicited local symptom and fever was the most frequent solicited general symptom after the booster dose and each catch-up dose. Few grade 3 solicited symptoms and no vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. After booster vaccination, for each vaccine serotype, at least 98.5% of children had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml and at least 94.0% had an opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titer ≥8. After 2-dose catch-up, for each vaccine serotype, at least 97.1% had an antibody concentration ≥0.2 µg/ml, except for serotypes 6B (82.9%) and 23F (88.6%), and at least 91.4% had an OPA titer ≥8, except for serotypes 6B (77.4%) and 19F (85.3%). PHiD-CV induced antibody responses against protein D in both groups. In conclusion, PHiD-CV administered to Nigerian toddlers as a booster dose or 2-dose catch-up was well tolerated and immunogenic for vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D. PMID:24356787

  14. Rabies Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... and booster doses should be given as needed. (Testing or booster doses are not recommended for travelers.) Ask your doctor for details. Vaccination after an exposure Anyone who has been bitten by an animal, or who otherwise may have been exposed to ...

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae Type b combination vaccine compared with separate administration of licensed equivalent vaccines in Chinese infants and toddlers for primary and booster immunization.

    PubMed

    Li, Guifan; Zhang, Huajie; Zhou, Weizhong; Ye, Qiang; Li, Fengxiang; Wang, Hua; Hou, Qiming; Xu, Yinghua; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yajun; Wang, Lichan; Li, Yanan; Li, Hong; Meng, Fanyue; Liang, Qi; Liu, Aimin; Qin, Chengkui; Wei, Wenjin; Liu, Jiankai; Ruan, Chengmai; Tao, Wenjian; Zhang, Shumin; Zheng, Haifa; Zhu, Fengcai

    2010-06-07

    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and Haemophilus infuenzae Type b (DTaP/Hib) combination vaccine first developed by a Chinese manufacturer, a randomized, two-stage, parallel controlled, single center clinical trial was conducted in Dafeng, Jiangsu Province of China. A total of 720 infants were enrolled and randomly assigned to two groups with a 2:1 allocation. In Stage I, 480 subjects in Group T were administered with 3 doses of the DTaP/Hib vaccine at 3, 4 and 5 months of age, respectively, while 240 subjects in Group C received separate licensed DTaP vaccine and Hib conjugate vaccine on the same schedule. In Stage II, 633 primed toddlers (431 of Group T and 202 of Group C) were given a booster dose at 18 months of age. Sera samples were collected at pre-dose 1, 4 weeks post-dose 3, pre-dose 4 and 4 weeks post-dose 4, respectively. Levels of protective antibodies were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunoadsorbent Assay (ELISA). Immunogenicity was evaluated with regard to geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), seroconversion rates and seroprotection rates of the antibodies. Solicited adverse reactions were recorded for 3 days after each dose; unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events were monitored for 28 days after vaccination. Results showed that seroconversion rates of anti-pertussis toxoid (PT), anti-filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), anti-diphtheria toxoid (DT), anti-tetanus toxid (TT) and anti-polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP) in Group T (Stage I: 98.06%, 97.33%, 100%, 100%, 98.79%; Stage II: 99.18%, 83.42%, 99.18%, 63.32%, 85.05%) were comparable to that of Group C (Stage I: 95.26%, 93.16%, 100%, 100%, 98.42%; Stage II: 98.89%, 83.89%, 98.33%, 53.89%, 76.67%). Nearly 100% of the subjects in both groups achieved seroprotective levels of anti-DT (> or = 0.1IU/ml), anti-TT (> or = 0.1IU/ml) and anti-PRP (> or = 0.15 microg/ml) after primary and booster vaccination. The frequencies of local induration

  16. Immune responses and safety after dart or booster vaccination of bison with Brucella abortus strain RB51

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One alternative in the Bison remote vaccination environmental impact statement (EIS) for Yellowstone National Park includes inoculation of both calves and yearlings. Although RB51 vaccination of bison does protect against experimental challenge, it was unknown whether booster vaccination might enhan...

  17. Determinants of students' willingness to accept a measles-mumps-rubella booster vaccination during a mumps outbreak: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Donkers, Hanna W; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; Akkermans, Reinier P; Swaan, Corien M; Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2015-06-20

    Despite high vaccination coverage, a mumps outbreak that affected mainly vaccinated university students and their contacts took place in the Netherlands in the period 2009-2012. We presented university students with a hypothetical case in which we offered them a measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) booster vaccination to control the mumps outbreak. The aim of this study was to get insight into the determinants of university students' willingness to accept this vaccination. A questionnaire containing 38 items was developed for the purpose of assessing students' willingness and the psychosocial and social demographic determinants influencing their willingness to accept an MMR booster vaccination. In addition, we explored how organisational characteristics influenced the willingness to be vaccinated. Data were collected at six Dutch universities; a total of 790 students from various faculties were invited to participate. This was a convenience sampling procedure. 687 university students participated (response rate 87.0%) and 60.4% of the participants said they would be willing accept the hypothetical MMR booster vaccination. The perceived seriousness of mumps (OR 6.1) was the most important predictor of willingness to accept vaccination. Students who expected the MMR vaccination to be effective and to prevent individual illness and who believed their own vaccination would help stop the epidemic were more likely to be willing than others. The students were more willing to accept vaccination when they perceived that the social norms of significant others and the government favoured vaccination. Organisational characteristics, such as offering vaccination cost free and offering it at the university site, increased students' willingness. During a mumps outbreak, university students were generally willing to accept a hypothetical MMR booster vaccination. Risk perception, outcome expectations, perceived social norms, and organisational characteristics should be taken into

  18. Levels of diphtheria and tetanus specific IgG of Portuguese adult women, before and after vaccination with adult type Td. Duration of immunity following vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Guilherme; Santos, Maria Augusta; Frade, João Graça; Cunha, José Saraiva

    2007-01-01

    Background The need for tetanus toxoid decennial booster doses has been questioned by some experts. Several counter arguments have been presented, supporting the maintenance of decennial adult booster doses with tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (adult formulation of the vaccine: Td). This study aimed to evaluate the use of Td in Portuguese adult women under routine conditions. For that purpose we selected a group of women 30+ years of age to which vaccination was recommended. We intended to know if pre-vaccination antibody concentrations were associated with factors as age at first and last vaccination, number of doses and time since last revaccination. We also intended to assess the serological efficacy of Td booster. Methods Following the Portuguese guidelines 100 women were vaccinated with Td. Antitetanus toxin IgG (ATT IgG) and antidiphtheria toxin IgG (ADT IgG) levels were measured (mIU/ml) in 100 pre-vaccination and 91 post-vaccination sera. Detailed vaccination records were available from 88 participants. Results Twenty-two women (Group A) began vaccination with DPT/DT in their early childhood and their pre-vaccination ATT IgG levels increased with the number of doses received (p = 0.022) and decreased with time since last vaccination (p = 0.016). Among the 66 women who began vaccination in adolescence and adulthood (Group B), with monovalent TT, ATT IgG levels decreased with age at first dose (p < 0.001) and with time since last vaccination (p = 0.041). In Group A, antidiphtheria toxin IgG kinetics was very similar to that observed for ATT IgG. Among women not vaccinated with diphtheria toxoid, ADT IgG levels decreased with age. Serological response to both components of Td was good but more pronounced for ATT IgG. Conclusion Our study suggests that, to protect against tetanus, there is no need to administer decennial boosters to the Portuguese adults who have complied with the childhood/adolescent schedule (6 doses of tetanus toxoid). The adult booster

  19. Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Using an AS03B-Adjuvanted Influenza A(H5N1) Vaccine in Infants and Children <3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Terry; Izurieta, Patricia; Lee, Bee-Wah; Chan, Poh Chong; Marshall, Helen; Booy, Robert; Drame, Mamadou; Vaughn, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Protecting young children from pandemic influenza should also reduce transmission to susceptible adults, including pregnant women. Methods. An open study assessed immunogenicity and reactogenicity of a heterologous booster dose of A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005(H5N1)-AS03B (AS03B is an Adjuvant System containing α-tocopherol and squalene in an oil-in-water emulsion [5.93 mg tocopherol]) in infants and children aged 6 to < 36 months that was given 6 months following 2-dose primary vaccination with A/Indonesia/05/2005(H5N1)-AS03B. Vaccines contained 1.9 µg of hemagglutinin antigen and AS03B. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) responses, microneutralization titers, and antineuraminidase antibody levels were assessed for 6 months following the booster vaccination. Results. For each age stratum (defined on the basis of the subject's age at first vaccination as 6 to < 12 months, 12 to < 24 months, and 24 to < 36 months) and overall (n = 113), European influenza vaccine licensure criteria were fulfilled for responses to A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005(H5N1) 10 days following the booster vaccination. Local pain and fever increased with consecutive doses. Anamnestic immune responses were demonstrated for HI, neutralizing, and antineuraminidase antibodies against vaccine-homologous/heterologous strains. Antibody responses to vaccine-homologous/heterologous strains persisted in all children 6 months following the booster vaccination. Conclusions. Prevaccination of young children with a clade 2 strain influenza A(H5N1) AS03-adjuvanted vaccine followed by heterologous booster vaccination boosted immune responses to the homologous strain and a related clade, with persistence for at least 6 months. The results support a prime-boost vaccination approach in young children for pandemic influenza preparedness. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01323946. PMID:24973461

  20. Tailored interventions for screening mammography among a sample of initially non-adherent women: when is a booster dose important?

    PubMed

    Skinner, Celette Sugg; Kobrin, Sarah C; Monahan, Patrick O; Daggy, Joanne; Menon, Usha; Todora, Helen Smith; Champion, Victoria L

    2007-01-01

    To assess added value of a booster dose of a tailored mammography intervention. Participants, non-adherent at baseline, were randomly assigned to usual care or one of three tailored interventions. Intervention group members (n=657) were further randomly assigned to receive/not receive a booster intervention dose. Electronic record mammography data were collected following initial intervention and at 6 and 15 months post-booster. Booster had no effect among women not screened after first intervention dose (n=337). Among women screened after initial dose (n=320), booster predicted re-screening at 6 but not 15 months. A boosterxrace interaction showed a booster effect at 6 months for African Americans (OR=4.66, p=.0005) but not Caucasians (OR=0.74, p=.44). Findings suggest if a first-dose intervention does not facilitate screening, neither will a booster dose. However, among women for whom a first dose is effective, boosters can facilitate timely repeat adherence, especially among African Americans. At 6 months booster recipients were less likely to be off-schedule but, by 15 months, the groups were similar. Boosters may effect when, but not whether, women continue screening.

  1. Effectiveness of different vaccine schedules for heptavalent and 13-valent conjugate vaccines against pneumococcal disease in the Community of Madrid.

    PubMed

    Latasa, P; Ordobás, M; Garrido-Estepa, M; Gil de Miguel, A; Sanz, J C; Barranco, M D; Insúa, E; García-Comas, L

    2017-09-25

    The heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was added to the childhood routine vaccination program in the Community of Madrid in November of 2006 with 3+1 recommended doses and a catch-up for those under 2years old. In June 2010, PCV-7 was replaced by 13-valent vaccine (PCV-13) with 2+1 recommended doses. In July of 2012, the PCV-13 was removed from the funded program and reintroduced again (2+1 recommended doses) in December 2014. In between, children were vaccinated privately with 3+1 recommended doses of PCV-13. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of each vaccination schedule used in the Community of Madrid. We included all cases of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) reported between 2007 and 2015 to the Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination information was obtained from the Immunization Registry. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated using the indirect cohort design for cases with serotype information. A total 779 cases were included in the study. Among them 47.6% of the cases were primo-vaccinated with booster, 20% primo-vaccinated, 15.9% incompletely primo-vaccinated and 16.5% not vaccinated. The VE for ≥1 doses of any PCV was 82% (CI 95%: 67.8-89.9%): 91.9% (CI 95%: 76.5-97.2%) for PCV-7 and 77.2% (48.6-89.9%) for PCV-13. VE in those receiving the full 2+1 or 3+1 schedules was 100% for both vaccines. A high number of vaccine failures were reported in children before they had the opportunity to receive the booster dose, especially due to PCV-13-non-PCV-7 serotypes. VE was higher for PCV-7 compared to PCV-13, except for those that received the complete schedule with booster that achieved 100% of VE, which shows the relevance of the vaccines and complying with all doses scheduled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Different Dynamics for IgG and IgA Memory B Cells in Adolescents following a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Booster Vaccination Nine Years after Priming: A Role for Priming Age?

    PubMed Central

    Stoof, Susanne P.; Buisman, Anne-Marie; van Rooijen, Debbie M.; Boonacker, Rianne; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antibody levels wane rapidly after Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in young children, rendering the need for an adolescent booster dose. It is not clear whether circulating memory B cells are associated with persistence of MenC-specific antibody levels. Methods Measurement of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells and levels of serum and salivary MenC-specific IgG and IgA in healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds prior to and one month and one year after a MenCC booster vaccination. All participants had received a primary MenCC vaccination nine years earlier. Results The number of circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells prior to booster was low and not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva post-booster, whereas the number of MenC-specific IgA memory B cells pre-booster positively correlated with MenC-specific IgA levels in saliva post-booster (R = 0.5, P<0.05). The booster induced a clear increase in the number of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. The number of MenC-PS-specific IgG memory B cells at 1 month post-booster was highest in the 12-year-olds. The number of MenC-specific memory B cells at one month post-booster showed no correlation with the rate of MenC-specific antibody decay throughout the first year post-booster. Conclusions Circulating MenC-specific IgA memory B cells correlate with IgA responses in saliva, whereas circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells are not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva. Our results are suggestive for age-dependent differences in pre-existing memory against MenC. PMID:26458006

  3. Different Dynamics for IgG and IgA Memory B Cells in Adolescents following a Meningococcal Serogroup C Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Booster Vaccination Nine Years after Priming: A Role for Priming Age?

    PubMed

    Stoof, Susanne P; Buisman, Anne-Marie; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Boonacker, Rianne; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M

    2015-01-01

    Antibody levels wane rapidly after Meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in young children, rendering the need for an adolescent booster dose. It is not clear whether circulating memory B cells are associated with persistence of MenC-specific antibody levels. Measurement of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells and levels of serum and salivary MenC-specific IgG and IgA in healthy 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds prior to and one month and one year after a MenCC booster vaccination. All participants had received a primary MenCC vaccination nine years earlier. The number of circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells prior to booster was low and not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva post-booster, whereas the number of MenC-specific IgA memory B cells pre-booster positively correlated with MenC-specific IgA levels in saliva post-booster (R = 0.5, P<0.05). The booster induced a clear increase in the number of MenC-specific IgG and IgA memory B cells. The number of MenC-PS-specific IgG memory B cells at 1 month post-booster was highest in the 12-year-olds. The number of MenC-specific memory B cells at one month post-booster showed no correlation with the rate of MenC-specific antibody decay throughout the first year post-booster. Circulating MenC-specific IgA memory B cells correlate with IgA responses in saliva, whereas circulating MenC-specific IgG memory B cells are not predictive for MenC-specific IgG responses in serum or saliva. Our results are suggestive for age-dependent differences in pre-existing memory against MenC.

  4. Effect of reduced dose schedules and intramuscular injection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed on immunological response and safety profile: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer G; Plikaytis, Brian D; Rose, Charles E; Parker, Scott D; Babcock, Janiine; Keitel, Wendy; El Sahly, Hana; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M; Keyserling, Harry L; Semenova, Vera A; Li, Han; Schiffer, Jarad; Dababneh, Hanan; Martin, Sandra K; Martin, Stacey W; Marano, Nina; Messonnier, Nancy E; Quinn, Conrad P

    2014-02-12

    We evaluated an alternative administration route, reduced schedule priming series, and increased intervals between booster doses for anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA). AVA's originally licensed schedule was 6 subcutaneous (SQ) priming injections administered at months (m) 0, 0.5, 1, 6, 12 and 18 with annual boosters; a simpler schedule is desired. Through a multicenter randomized, double blind, non-inferiority Phase IV human clinical trial, the originally licensed schedule was compared to four alternative and two placebo schedules. 8-SQ group participants received 6 SQ injections with m30 and m42 "annual" boosters; participants in the 8-IM group received intramuscular (IM) injections according to the same schedule. Reduced schedule groups (7-IM, 5-IM, 4-IM) received IM injections at m0, m1, m6; at least one of the m0.5, m12, m18, m30 vaccine doses were replaced with saline. All reduced schedule groups received a m42 booster. Post-injection blood draws were taken two to four weeks following injection. Non-inferiority of the alternative schedules was compared to the 8-SQ group at m2, m7, and m43. Reactogenicity outcomes were proportions of injection site and systemic adverse events (AEs). The 8-IM group's m2 response was non-inferior to the 8-SQ group for the three primary endpoints of anti-protective antigen IgG geometric mean concentration (GMC), geometric mean titer, and proportion of responders with a 4-fold rise in titer. At m7 anti-PA IgG GMCs for the three reduced dosage groups were non-inferior to the 8-SQ group GMCs. At m43, 8-IM, 5-IM, and 4-IM group GMCs were superior to the 8-SQ group. Solicited injection site AEs occurred at lower proportions in the IM group compared to SQ. Route of administration did not influence the occurrence of systemic AEs. A 3 dose IM priming schedule with doses administered at m0, m1, and m6 elicited long term immunological responses and robust immunological memory that was efficiently stimulated by a single booster vaccination at

  5. Combined typhoid fever and hepatitis A vaccine: comparison of immunogenicity and safety to concomitant monovalent vaccine over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Overbosch, David; Peyron, François; Picot, Nicole; Varichon, Jean-Paul; Dumas, Rafaele; Chambonneau, Laurent; Weber, Françoise

    2005-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of Viatim, a combined hepatitis A (HA) and typhoid fever (Vi) vaccine, were compared with the monovalent component vaccines up to and 1 month after a booster dose at 3 years. Healthy, adult volunteers were randomized to receive Viatim (group A, n = 179) or separate HA and Vi vaccines (group B, n = 181); subgroups were boosted after 3 years with Viatim (groups C and D, n = 56 and 46, respectively). Local and systemic reactions were recorded for 28 days postvaccination. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates and geometric mean antibody concentrations were measured at 14 and 28 days, 1, 2, and 3 years postvaccination, and 28 days after the booster dose. Local and systemic safety profiles were equivalent between the two groups. Immediate local reactions were infrequent (1 in group A and 2 in group B). Local reactions, consisting mostly of mild or moderate pain, were least frequent with monovalent HA. Antibody concentrations to both antigens were similar in groups A and B, in which HA seroprotection rates (> or = 20 mIU/mL) were respectively, 98.7% and 100% at day 28, and 99.1% and 99.0% after 3 years, achieving 100% after the booster. Vi seroprotection rates (> or = 1 microg/mL) of 85.2% and 84.9% after 28 days fell to 32.1% and 35.6% after 3 years, increasing to 67.3% and 69.8% after the booster dose. The combined HA/Vi vaccine, Viatim, had equivalent tolerability and safety and was as rapidly immunogenic as its component monovalent vaccines when given concurrently. A booster dose after 3 years significantly increased antibody levels with some evidence of relative hyporesponsiveness of the typhoid response.

  6. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2005].

    PubMed

    2005-02-01

    The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics provides information and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2004 and recommends a few modifications to the Immunization Schedule for 2005. Concerning the meningococcal C vaccine, no change is made to the possibility of administering two doses for the first vaccination with one of the available formulations. The existence of immunization failure in children who have received a first vaccination with three vaccine doses before the age of 12 months is discussed, and the health authorities will probably include a booster dose in the second year of life throughout 2005. The recommendations of the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) on hexavalent vaccines continue to be valid and consequently the use of these vaccines should not be stopped. This year the need for adolescents to receive a booster dose of the pertussis vaccine, with administration of an acellular, low antigenic load preparation together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine is stressed.

  7. An assessment of prime‐boost vaccination schedules with AS03A‐adjuvanted prepandemic H5N1 vaccines: a randomized study in European adults

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Paul; Caplanusi, Adrian; Knuf, Markus; Roman, François; Walravens, Karl; Moris, Philippe; Dramé, Mamadou; Schwarz, Tino F.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Gillard et al. (2012) An assessment of prime‐boost vaccination schedules with AS03A‐adjuvanted prepandemic H5N1 vaccines: a randomized study in European adults. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750‐2659.2012.00349.x. Background  Long‐term persistence of immune response and safety of an H5N1 prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (an α‐tocopherol oil‐in‐water emulsion‐based adjuvant system) was evaluated using various prime‐boost schedules that mimicked potential pandemic scenarios (NCT00430521). Methods  Five hundred and twelve healthy adults aged 18–60 years received primary vaccination with one or two doses (0, 21 days schedule) of the A/Vietnam/1194/2004 H5N1 vaccine followed by a booster dose (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 or A/Indonesia/05/2005 strain) six or twelve months later across eight randomized groups. Immunogenicity results by hemagglutination inhibition [HI] assay, microneutralization assay, and the cell‐mediated immune response (CMI) are reported here for the four groups boosted at Month 12. Results  A one‐dose‐adjuvanted primary administration followed 12 months later by a single‐adjuvanted booster dose containing a heterologous vaccine strain met or exceeded all US and European criteria for both strains. Increasing the interval between the first and second dose (from 21 days to 12 months) resulted in stronger cross‐reactive immune responses against the A/Indonesia/05/2005 strain. The HI antibody response against the two strains persisted for 6 months after the booster dose irrespective of the booster vaccine’s strain. The neutralizing antibody responses and the CMI observed in the study population paralleled the HI immune response. Overall, the vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. Conclusion  The H5N1 vaccine in this study allowed for flexibility in the time interval between primary and booster vaccination and the use of a

  8. [Vaccination against viral hepatitis A and B in adults aged over 40 years--antibody persistence and immune memory].

    PubMed

    Chlibek, R; Smetana, J; Bostíková, V; Splino, M

    2011-09-01

    Primary vaccination with combined vaccine against viral hepatitis A (VHA) and viral hepatitis B (VHB) induces higher anti-hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) antibody responses and similar anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody responses in adults aged over 40 years in comparison with concomitant monovalent vaccines against VHA and VHB. Th e objectives were to assess, in a clinical study, persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies in adults aged over 40 years four years after primary VHA/VHB vaccination and antibody response following a booster dose of the vaccine. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects aged > 40 years were vaccinated with three doses of the combined VHA/VHB vaccine at Months 0, 1, 6 (HAB group) or with concomitant VHA and VHB vaccines at Months 0, 6 and 0, 1, 6 (ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ, respectively). Blood samples were collected one month following primary vaccination (Month 7) and then at one-year intervals for four years after the booster dose with the same vaccine as used for the primary vaccination. The anti-HBs and anti-HAV antibody levels were determined prior to the booster dose and at days 14 and 30 after the booster dose. At Month 7, > 97% of study subjects were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies in all groups analyzed. Four years after primary vaccination, anti-HAV antibody seropositivity persisted in > 93% of study subjects, increasing to > 99% after the booster dose. At Month 7, the highest proportion of study subjects with anti-HBs antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was found in the HAB group (91.7% versus 79.7% in the ENG+HAV group versus 71.0% in the HBVX+VAQ group). Four years after vaccination, anti-HBs antibody levels of 10 mIU/ml persisted in 57.1% of the HAB study subjects in comparison with 40.1% and 26.6% of the study subjects in the ENG+HAV and HBVX+VAQ groups, respectively. One month after the booster dose, anti-HBs antibody levels increased and antibody levels > or = 10 mIU/ml was achived in 95.2% of study subjects in the

  9. Recent trends in vaccine delivery systems: A review

    PubMed Central

    Saroja, CH; Lakshmi, PK; Bhaskaran, Shyamala

    2011-01-01

    Vaccines are the preparations given to patients to evoke immune responses leading to the production of antibodies (humoral) or cell-mediated responses that will combat infectious agents or noninfectious conditions such as malignancies. Alarming safety profile of live vaccines, weak immunogenicity of sub-unit vaccines and immunization, failure due to poor patient compliance to booster doses which should potentiate prime doses are few strong reasons, which necessitated the development of new generation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines to promote effective immunization. Attempts are being made to deliver vaccines through carriers as they control the spatial and temporal presentation of antigens to immune system thus leading to their sustained release and targeting. Hence, lower doses of weak immunogens can be effectively directed to stimulate immune responses and eliminate the need for the administration of prime and booster doses as a part of conventional vaccination regimen. This paper reviews carrier systems such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, dendrimers, micellar systems, ISCOMs, plant-derived viruses which are now being investigated and developed as vaccine delivery systems. This paper also describes various aspects of “needle-free technologies” used to administer the vaccine delivery systems through different routes into the human body. PMID:23071924

  10. Antibody Persistence and Booster Responses to Split-Virion H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine in Young and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Rajeka; Kelly, Sarah; Snape, Matthew D.; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Voysey, Merryn; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Hens, Annick; Van Damme, Pierre; Pepin, Stephanie; Leroux-Roels, Isabel; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza continues to circulate and remains a global health threat not least because of the associated high mortality. In this study antibody persistence, booster vaccine response and cross-clade immune response between two influenza A(H5N1) vaccines were compared. Participants aged over 18-years who had previously been immunized with a clade 1, A/Vietnam vaccine were re-immunized at 6-months with 7.5 μg of the homologous strain or at 22-months with a clade 2, alum-adjuvanted, A/Indonesia vaccine. Blood sampled at 6, 15 and 22-months after the primary course was used to assess antibody persistence. Antibody concentrations 6-months after primary immunisation with either A/Vietnam vaccine 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine or 7.5 μg dose vaccine were lower than 21-days after the primary course and waned further with time. Re-immunization with the clade 2, 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine confirmed cross-clade reactogenicity. Antibody cross-reactivity between A(H5N1) clades suggests that in principle a prime-boost vaccination strategy may provide both early protection at the start of a pandemic and improved antibody responses to specific vaccination once available. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415129 PMID:27814377

  11. Comparison of the Immunogenicity of Various Booster Doses of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Delivered Intradermally Versus Intramuscularly to HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody titers. Methods. We randomly assigned 231 adults with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection at a ratio of 2:2:2:1 to receive 40% of the standard dose of IPV intradermally, 20% of the standard dose intradermally, the full standard dose intramuscularly, or 40% of the standard dose intramuscularly. Intradermal vaccination was done using the NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedle device. Results. Baseline immunity was 87%, 90%, and 66% against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, antibody titers increased a median of 64-fold. Vaccine response to 40% of the standard dose administered intradermally was comparable to that of the standard dose of IPV administered intramuscularly and resulted in higher (although not significantly) antibody titers. Intradermal administration had higher a incidence of local side effects (redness and itching) but a similar incidence of systemic side effects and was preferred by study participants over intramuscular administration. Conclusions. A 60% reduction in the standard IPV dose without reduction in antibody titers is possible through intradermal administration. PMID:25567841

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3-4-5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17-19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children.

  13. A cohort study to evaluate persistence of hepatitis B immunogenicity after administration of hexavalent vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Giambi, Cristina; Bella, Antonino; Barale, Antonella; Montù, Domenico; Marchisio, Maria; Oddone, Maurizio; Zito, Salvatore; Rapicetta, Maria; Chionne, Paola; Madonna, Elisabetta; Atti, Marta L Ciofi degli

    2008-01-01

    Background In 2001, two hexavalent vaccines were licensed in Italy (Hexavac®, Infanrix Hexa®), and since 2002 were extensively used for primary immunization in the first year of life (at 3, 5, 11/12 months of age). In 2005, the market authorization of Hexavac® was precautionary suspended by EMEA, because of doubts on long-term protection against hepatitis B virus. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the persistence of antibodies to anti-HBs, in children in the third year of life, and to investigate the response to a booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine. Methods Participant children were enrolled concomitantly with the offering of anti-polio booster dose, in the third year of life. Anti-HBs titers were determined on capillary blood samples. A booster dose of hepatitis B vaccine was administered to children with anti-HBs titers < 10 mIU/ml, with the monovalent precursor product of the previously received hexavalent vaccine. HBsAb titers were tested again one month after the booster. Results Sera from 113 children previously vaccinated with Hexavac®, and from 124 vaccinated with Infanrix Hexa® were tested for anti-HBs. Titers were ≥ 10 mIU/ml in 69% and 96% (p < 0,0001) respectively. The proportion of children with titers ≥ 100 mIU/ml did also significantly differ among groups (27% and 78%; p < 0,0001). Post-booster, 93% of children achieved titers ≥ 10 mIU/ml, with no significant difference by vaccine group. Discussion Fifteen months after third dose administration, a significant difference in anti-HBs titers was noted in the two vaccine groups considered. Monovalent hepatitis B vaccine administration in 3-year old children induced a proper booster response, confirming that immunologic memory persists in children with anti-HBs titers < 10 mIU/ml. However, long-term persistence of HBV protection after hexavalent vaccines administration should be further evaluated over time. PMID:18662386

  14. Concomitant administration of a virosome-adjuvanted hepatitis a vaccine with routine childhood vaccines at age twelve to fifteen months: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Ron; Amir, Jacob; Livni, Gilat; Greenberg, David; Abu-Abed, Jaber; Guy, Lior; Ashkenazi, Shai; Foresner, Gert; Froesner, Gert; Tewald, Friedemann; Schätzl, Hermann M; Schaetzl, Hermann M; Hoffmann, Dieter; Ibanez, Ruben; Herzog, Christian

    2007-09-01

    The objectives of this trial were to test for noninferiority of a virosomal hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine (Epaxal) coadministered with routine childhood vaccines compared with Epaxal given alone and to an alum-adjuvanted HAV vaccine (Havrix Junior) coadministered with routine childhood vaccines. Healthy children 12- to 15-month-old were randomized to receive either a pediatric dose (0.25 mL) of Epaxal coadministered with DTPaHibIPV, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 109; group A), or Epaxal given alone (n = 105; group B), or Havrix Junior coadministered with DTPaHibIPV, oral polio vaccine, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (n = 108; group C). A booster dose was given 6 months later. Anti-HAV antibodies were tested before and 1 month after each vaccination. Safety was assessed for 1 month after each vaccination. Solicited adverse events were assessed for 4 days after each vaccination. : HAV seroprotection rates (> or =20 mIU/mL) at 1 and 6 months after first dose were: A: 94.2% and 87.5%, B: 92.6% and 80.0%, C: 78.2% and 71.3%, respectively (A versus C: P < 0.001 and P = 0.017 at month 1 and 6, respectively). The respective geometric mean concentrations were: A: 51 and 64 mIU/mL, B: 49 and 59 mIU/mL, C: 33 and 37 mIU/mL (A versus C: P < 0.001 at both time points). All groups achieved 100% seroprotection after the booster dose. The geometric mean concentrations after the booster dose were 1758, 1662, and 1414, for groups A, B and C, respectively (A versus C: P = 0.15). No clinically significant reduction in immune response to all concomitant vaccine antigens was seen. All vaccines were well tolerated. : Coadministration of pediatric Epaxal with routine childhood vaccines showed immunogenicity and safety equal to Epaxal alone as well as to Havrix Junior. After first dose, Epaxal was significantly more immunogenic than Havrix Junior.

  15. Comparison of the Immunogenicity of Various Booster Doses of Inactivated Polio Vaccine Delivered Intradermally Versus Intramuscularly to HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Troy, Stephanie B; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Siik, Julia; Kochba, Efrat; Beydoun, Hind; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Levin, Yotam; Khardori, Nancy; Chumakov, Konstantin; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2015-06-15

    Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is necessary for global polio eradication because oral polio vaccine can rarely cause poliomyelitis as it mutates and may fail to provide adequate immunity in immunocompromised populations. However, IPV is unaffordable for many developing countries. Intradermal IPV shows promise as a means to decrease the effective dose and cost of IPV, but prior studies, all using 20% of the standard dose used in intramuscular IPV, resulted in inferior antibody titers. We randomly assigned 231 adults with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection at a ratio of 2:2:2:1 to receive 40% of the standard dose of IPV intradermally, 20% of the standard dose intradermally, the full standard dose intramuscularly, or 40% of the standard dose intramuscularly. Intradermal vaccination was done using the NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedle device. Baseline immunity was 87%, 90%, and 66% against poliovirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, antibody titers increased a median of 64-fold. Vaccine response to 40% of the standard dose administered intradermally was comparable to that of the standard dose of IPV administered intramuscularly and resulted in higher (although not significantly) antibody titers. Intradermal administration had higher a incidence of local side effects (redness and itching) but a similar incidence of systemic side effects and was preferred by study participants over intramuscular administration. A 60% reduction in the standard IPV dose without reduction in antibody titers is possible through intradermal administration. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Single multivalent vaccination boosted by trickle larval infection confers protection against experimental lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, SK; Ramaswamy, K

    2013-01-01

    The multivalent vaccine BmHAT, consisting of the Brugia malayi infective larval (L3) antigens heat shock protein12.6 (HSP12.6), abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) and tetraspanin large extra cellular loop (TSP-LEL), was shown to be protective in rodent models from our laboratory. We hypothesize that since these antigens were identified using protective antibodies from immune endemic normal individuals, the multivalent vaccine can be augmented by natural L3 infections providing protection to the vaccinated host. This hypothesis was tested using single dose of DNA and Protein or Protein alone of the BmHAT vaccination in gerbils followed by live trickle L3 infection as booster dose. Vaccine-induced protection in gerbils was determined by worm establishment, micropore chamber assay and by antibody dependant cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay. Results were compared with the traditional prime-boost vaccination regimen. Gerbils vaccinated with BmHAT and boosted with L3 trickle infection were protected 51% (BmHAT DNA-Protein) and 48% (BmHAT Protein) respectively. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster generated significant titer of antigen-specific IgG antibodies comparable to the traditional prime boost vaccination approach. BmHAT vaccination plus L3 trickle booster also generated antigen-specific cells in the spleen of vaccinated animals and these cells secreted predominantly IFN-γ and IL-4 in response to the vaccine antigens. These studies thus show that single dose of BmHAT multivalent vaccination followed by L3 trickle booster infection can confer significant protection against lymphatic filariasis. PMID:23735679

  17. Antibody response to booster vaccination with tetanus and diphtheria in adults exposed to perfluorinated alkylates.

    PubMed

    Kielsen, Katrine; Shamim, Zaiba; Ryder, Lars P; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Heilmann, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that exposure to perfluorinated alkylate substances (PFASs) may induce immunosuppression in humans and animal models. In this exploratory study, 12 healthy adult volunteers were recruited. With each subject, serum-PFAS concentrations were measured and their antibody responses prospectively followed for 30 days after a booster vaccination with diphtheria and tetanus. The results indicated that serum-PFAS concentrations were positively correlated and positively associated with age and male sex. The specific antibody concentrations in serum were increased from Day 4 to Day 10 post-booster, after which a constant concentration was reached. Serum PFAS concentrations showed significant negative associations with the rate of increase in the antibody responses. Interestingly, this effect was particularly strong for the longer-chain PFASs. All significant associations remained significant after adjustment for sex and age. Although the study involved a small number of subjects, these findings of a PFAS-associated reduction of the early humoral immune response to booster vaccination in healthy adults supported previous findings of PFAS immunosuppression in larger cohorts. Furthermore, the results suggested that cellular mechanisms right after antigen exposure should be investigated more closely to identify possible mechanisms of immunosuppression from PFAS.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety after booster vaccination of diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis in young adults: an open randomized controlled trial in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hara, Megumi; Okada, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Uno, Shingo; Otsuka, Yasuko; Shimanoe, Chisato; Nanri, Hinako; Horita, Mikako; Ozaki, Iwata; Nishida, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2013-12-01

    The recent increase of pertussis in young adults in Japan is hypothesized to be due in part to waning protection from the acellular pertussis vaccine. While a booster immunization may prevent an epidemic of pertussis among these young adults, little is known about the safety and immunogenicity of such a booster with the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP), which is currently available in Japan. One hundred and eleven medical students with a mean age of 19.4 years were randomly divided into 2 groups of 55 and 56 subjects and received, respectively, 0.2 or 0.5 ml of DTaP. Immunogenicity was assessed by performing the immunoassay using serum, and the geometric mean concentration (GMC), GMC ratio (GMCR), seropositive rate, and booster response rate were calculated. Adverse reactions and adverse events were monitored for 7 days after vaccination. After booster vaccination in the two groups, significant increases were found in the antibodies against pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, diphtheria toxoid, and tetanus toxoid, and the booster response rates for all subjects reached 100%. The GMCs and GMCRs against all antigens were significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group than in the 0.2-ml group. No serious adverse events were observed. Frequencies of local reactions were similar in the 2 groups, although the frequency of severe local swelling was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml group. These data support the acceptability of booster immunization using both 0.2 and 0.5 ml of DTaP for young adults for controlling pertussis. (This study was registered at UMIN-CTR under registration number UMIN000010672.).

  19. Seven-year follow-up of the immune response after one or 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine given at 1 year of age in the Mendoza Province of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Espul, Carlos; Benedetti, Laura; Linares, Mariela; Cuello, Hector; Lo Castro, Ivana; Thollot, Yaël; Rasuli, Anvar

    2017-11-02

    This monocenter, descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study evaluated the long-term immune responses following routine vaccination with one or 2 doses of a licensed inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (Avaxim® 80U Pediatric) at age 11-23 months in a cohort of children from Mendoza, Argentina. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) were quantified annually up to Y5, and at Y7. Children whose titer decreased to below the seroprotection threshold (defined as an anti-HAV antibody concentration of ≥ 10 mIU/mL in a microparticle enzyme immunoassay up to Y5, or ≥ 3 mIU/mL in an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay at Y7) received a routine booster dose of the same HA vaccine. This report summarizes the data at 7 year after the first vaccination. Of 546 participants initially included, 264 participants remained at Y7 and provided blood samples. Of these, 204 having received one HA primary dose as a toddler were still seroprotected at Y7; titers for a further 7 also having received one HA dose as a toddler fell to below the seroprotection threshold and they therefore received a booster; all 53 having received 2 HA doses as a toddler and still present at Y7 remained seroprotected at Y7. One or 2 primary doses of this HA vaccine in toddlers result in very good persistence of anti-HAV up to 7 year post-first vaccination.

  20. Direct Comparison of Immunogenicity Induced by 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine around the 11-Month Booster in Dutch Infants.

    PubMed

    Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J; van Westen, Els; Knol, Mirjam J; Jongerius, Riet M C; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; van Gageldonk, Pieter G M; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Rots, Nynke Y

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009/10, a 10- and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are available, but only the 10-valent vaccine is now being used for the children in the Netherlands. As the vaccines differ in number of serotypes, antigen concentration, and carrier proteins this study was designed to directly compare quantity and quality of the antibody responses induced by PCV10 and PCV13 before and after the 11-month booster. Dutch infants (n = 132) were immunized with either PCV10 or PCV13 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB at the age of 2, 3, 4 and 11 months. Blood samples were collected pre-booster and post-booster at one week and one month post-booster for quantitative and qualitative immunogenicity against 13 pneumococcal serotypes, as well as quantitative immunogenicity against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We compared immunogenicity induced by PCV13 and PCV10 for their ten shared serotypes. One month post-booster, pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for the PCV13 group were higher compared with the PCV10 group for six serotypes, although avidity was lower. Serotype 19F showed the most distinct difference in IgG and, in contrast to other serotypes, its avidity was higher in the PCV13 group. One week post-booster, opsonophagocytosis for serotype 19F did not differ significantly between the PCV10- and the PCV13 group. Both PCV10 and PCV13 were immunogenic and induced a booster response. Compared to the PCV10 group, the PCV13 group showed higher levels for serotype 19F GMCs and avidity, pre- as well as post-booster, although opsonophagocytosis did not differ significantly between groups. In our study, avidity is not correlated to opsonophagocytotic activity (OPA) and correlations between IgG and OPA differ per serotype. Therefore, besides assays to determine IgG GMCs, assays to detect opsonophagocytotic activity, i.e., the actual killing of the pneumococcus, are important for PCV evaluation. How differences

  1. Direct Comparison of Immunogenicity Induced by 10- or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine around the 11-Month Booster in Dutch Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J.; van Westen, Els; Knol, Mirjam J.; Jongerius, Riet M. C.; Zancolli, Marta; Goldblatt, David; van Gageldonk, Pieter G. M.; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Rots, Nynke Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Since 2009/10, a 10- and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) are available, but only the 10-valent vaccine is now being used for the children in the Netherlands. As the vaccines differ in number of serotypes, antigen concentration, and carrier proteins this study was designed to directly compare quantity and quality of the antibody responses induced by PCV10 and PCV13 before and after the 11-month booster. Methods Dutch infants (n = 132) were immunized with either PCV10 or PCV13 and DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB at the age of 2, 3, 4 and 11 months. Blood samples were collected pre-booster and post-booster at one week and one month post-booster for quantitative and qualitative immunogenicity against 13 pneumococcal serotypes, as well as quantitative immunogenicity against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. We compared immunogenicity induced by PCV13 and PCV10 for their ten shared serotypes. Results One month post-booster, pneumococcal serotype-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for the PCV13 group were higher compared with the PCV10 group for six serotypes, although avidity was lower. Serotype 19F showed the most distinct difference in IgG and, in contrast to other serotypes, its avidity was higher in the PCV13 group. One week post-booster, opsonophagocytosis for serotype 19F did not differ significantly between the PCV10- and the PCV13 group. Conclusion Both PCV10 and PCV13 were immunogenic and induced a booster response. Compared to the PCV10 group, the PCV13 group showed higher levels for serotype 19F GMCs and avidity, pre- as well as post-booster, although opsonophagocytosis did not differ significantly between groups. In our study, avidity is not correlated to opsonophagocytotic activity (OPA) and correlations between IgG and OPA differ per serotype. Therefore, besides assays to determine IgG GMCs, assays to detect opsonophagocytotic activity, i.e., the actual killing of the pneumococcus, are

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with DTPa vaccine in Japanese children: A randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Satoshi; Kawamura, Naohisa; Kuroki, Haruo; Tokoeda, Yasunobu; Miyazu, Mitsunobu; Iwai, Asayuki; Oishi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomohide; Suyama, Akari; François, Nancy; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ruiz-Guiñazú, Javier; Borys, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    This phase III, randomized, open-label, multicenter study (NCT01027845) conducted in Japan assessed the immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, given intramuscularly) co-administered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTPa, given subcutaneously). Infants (N=360 ) were randomized (2:1) to receive either PHiD-CV and DTPa (PHiD-CV group) or DTPa alone (control group) as 3-dose primary vaccination (3–4–5 months of age) and booster vaccination (17–19 months of age). Immune responses were measured before and one month after primary/booster vaccination and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Post-primary immune responses were non-inferior to those in pivotal/efficacy European or Latin American pneumococcal protein D-conjugate vaccine studies. For each PHiD-CV serotype, at least 92.6% of infants post-primary vaccination and at least 97.7% of children post-booster had pneumococcal antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/ml, and at least 95.4% post-primary and at least 98.1% post-booster had opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) titers ≥8 . Geometric mean antibody concentrations and OPA titers (except OPA titer for 6B) were higher post-booster than post-priming for each serotype. All PHiD-CV-vaccinated children had anti-protein D antibody concentrations ≥100 EL.U/ml one month post-primary/booster vaccination and all were seroprotected/seropositive against each DTPa antigen. Redness and irritability were the most common solicited AEs in both groups. Incidences of unsolicited AEs were comparable between groups. Serious AEs were reported for 47 children (28 in PHiD-CV group); none were assessed as vaccine-related. In conclusion, PHiD-CV induced robust immune responses and was well tolerated when co-administered with DTPa in a 3-dose priming plus booster regimen to Japanese children. PMID:25830489

  3. Acellular pertussis vaccines effectiveness over time: A systematic review, meta-analysis and modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Chit, Ayman; Zivaripiran, Hossein; Shin, Thomas; Lee, Jason K. H.; Tomovici, Antigona; Macina, Denis; Johnson, David R.; Decker, Michael D.; Wu, Jianhong

    2018-01-01

    Background Acellular pertussis vaccine studies postulate that waning protection, particularly after the adolescent booster, is a major contributor to the increasing US pertussis incidence. However, these studies reported relative (ie, vs a population given prior doses of pertussis vaccine), not absolute (ie, vs a pertussis vaccine naïve population) efficacy following the adolescent booster. We aim to estimate the absolute protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines. Methods We conducted a systematic review of acellular pertussis vaccine effectiveness (VE) publications. Studies had to comply with the US schedule, evaluate clinical outcomes, and report VE over discrete time points. VE after the 5-dose childhood series and after the adolescent sixth-dose booster were extracted separately and pooled. All relative VE estimates were transformed to absolute estimates. VE waning was estimated using meta-regression modeling. Findings Three studies reported VE after the childhood series and four after the adolescent booster. All booster studies reported relative VE (vs acellular pertussis vaccine-primed population). We estimate initial childhood series absolute VE is 91% (95% CI: 87% to 95%) and declines at 9.6% annually. Initial relative VE after adolescent boosting is 70% (95% CI: 54% to 86%) and declines at 45.3% annually. Initial absolute VE after adolescent boosting is 85% (95% CI: 84% to 86%) and declines at 11.7% (95% CI: 11.1% to 12.3%) annually. Interpretation Acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy is initially high and wanes over time. Observational VE studies of boosting failed to recognize that they were measuring relative, not absolute, VE and the absolute VE in the boosted population is better than appreciated. PMID:29912887

  4. MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine induces immunologic memory and heterotypic antibody responses in non-elderly and elderly adults.

    PubMed

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Gasparini, Roberto; Laghi-Pasini, Franco; Staniscia, Tommaso; Durando, Paolo; Montomoli, Emanuele; Capecchi, Pier Leopoldo; Capecchi, Pamela; di Giovanni, Pamela; Sticchi, Laura; Gentile, Chiara; Hilbert, Anke; Brauer, Volker; Tilman, Sandrine; Podda, Audino

    2009-01-01

    Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed. Healthy adults aged 18-60 and > 60 years (n = 313 and n = 173, respectively) were randomized (1:1) to receive two primary and one booster injection of 7.5 microg or 15 microg doses of a subunit MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1194/2004) (clade 1) vaccine. Safety was monitored until 6 months after booster. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis (SRH) and microneutralization assays (MN). Mild injection-site pain was the most common adverse reaction. No serious adverse events relating to the vaccine were reported. The humoral immune responses to 7.5 microg and 15 microg doses were comparable. The rates for seroprotection (HI>40; SRH>25 mm(2); MN > or = 40) after the primary vaccination ranged 72-87%. Six months after primary vaccination with the 7.5 microg dose, 18% and 21% of non-elderly and elderly adults were seroprotected; rates increased to 90% and 84%, respectively, after the booster vaccination. In the 15 microg group, seroprotection rates among non-elderly and elderly adults increased from 25% and 62% after primary vaccination to 92% and 88% after booster vaccination, respectively. A heterologous immune response to the H5N1/turkey/Turkey/05 strain was elicited after second and booster vaccinations. Both formulations of MF59-adjuvanted influenza H5N1 vaccine were well tolerated. The European Union requirement for licensure for pre-pandemic vaccines was met by the lower dose tested. The presence of cross-reactive antibodies to a clade 2 heterologous strain demonstrates that this vaccine may be appropriate for pre-pandemic programs. (ClinicalTrials.gov) NCT00311480.

  5. Extensive swelling of the limb and systemic symptoms after a fourth dose of acellular pertussis containing vaccines in England in children aged 3-6years.

    PubMed

    Southern, Jo; Waight, Pauline A; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-01-23

    Extensive limb swelling (ESL) after a booster dose of acellular pertussis (aP) containing vaccine can cause concern and has the potential to be confused with cellulitis. In the United Kingdom aP-containing vaccine was introduced for primary immunisation at 2, 3 and 4months of age in 2004, with the first cohorts eligible to receive a fourth dose in 2007 at school entry. We assessed the frequency of ESL (here defined as swelling >100mms diameter) in 973 children receiving a fourth dose of one of four aP vaccines given combined with inactivated polio, tetanus and either low dose diphtheria (TdaP/IPV) or high dose diphtheria (DTaP/IPV) vaccine; 2 of the 3 DTaP/IPV vaccines also contained Haemophilus influenza b conjugate vaccine (Hib). Post-vaccination symptoms and local reactions were recorded in 7-day diaries or by a telephone follow up if no diary was returned. Local swellings >50mm diameter were reported by 2.2% TdaP/IPV recipients compared with 6.6-11.1% of DTaP/IPV recipients; the corresponding proportions for redness >50mms was 7.0% for TdaP/IPV and 13.3-17.7% for DTaP/IPV recipients. Among the latter, the addition of Hib did not affect the frequency or size of local reactions. Pain at the injection site and systemic symptoms did not differ between the four vaccine groups. A history of atopy was not associated with development of local swelling or redness. A total of 13 children (1.3%) experienced an ESL, three after TdaP/IPV. ESLs resolved without systemic upset within a few days and were usually painless; medical advice was only sought for two children. Parents should be informed about the possible occurrence of an ESL with the pre-school aP-containing booster vaccine but can be reassured that it is a benign and transient condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Live Attenuated Yellow Fever 17D Vaccine: A Legacy Vaccine Still Controlling Outbreaks In Modern Day.

    PubMed

    Collins, Natalie D; Barrett, Alan D T

    2017-03-01

    Live attenuated 17D vaccine is considered one of the safest and efficacious vaccines developed to date. This review highlights what is known and the gaps in knowledge of vaccine-induced protective immunity. Recently, the World Health Organization modifying its guidance from 10-year booster doses to one dose gives lifelong protection in most populations. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting immunity, though protective, may wane over time in certain populations and more research is needed to address this question. Despite having an effective vaccine to control yellow fever, vaccine shortages were identified during outbreaks in 2016, eventuating the use of a fractional-dosing campaign in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Limited studies hinder identification of the underlying mechanism(s) of vaccine longevity; however, concurrent outbreaks during 2016 provide an opportunity to evaluate vaccine immunity following fractional dosing and insights into vaccine longevity in populations where there is limited information.

  7. Immunogenicity, Safety, and Antibody Persistence at 3, 5, and 10 Years Postvaccination in Adolescents Randomized to Booster Immunization with a Combined Tetanus, Diphtheria, 5-Component Acellular Pertussis, and Inactivated Poliomyelitis Vaccine Administered with a Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine Concurrently or 1 Month Apart

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. PMID:25540274

  8. Mycobacterium indicus pranii as a booster vaccine enhances BCG induced immunity and confers higher protection in animal models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Mohd; Khatri, Rahul; Singh, Bindu; Gupta, Ananya; Kumar, Arvind; Bhaskar, Sangeeta

    2016-12-01

    BCG, the only approved vaccine protects against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but its protective efficacy wanes in adolescence. BCG has reduced the incidence of infant TB considerably in endemic areas; therefore prime-boost strategy is the most realistic measure for control of tuberculosis in near future. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) shares significant antigenic repertoire with Mtb and BCG and has been shown to impart significant protection in animal models of tuberculosis. In this study, MIP was given as a booster to BCG vaccine which enhanced the BCG mediated immune response, resulting in higher protection. MIP booster via aerosol route was found to be more effective in protection than subcutaneous route of booster immunization. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-17 were induced at higher level in infected lungs of 'BCG-MIP' group both at mRNA expression level and in secretory form when compared with 'only BCG' group. BCG-MIP groups had increased frequency of multifunctional T cells with high MFI for IFN-γ and TNF-α in Mtb infected mice. Our data demonstrate for the first time, potential application of MIP as a booster to BCG vaccine for efficient protection against tuberculosis. This could be very cost effective strategy for efficient control of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Results of preventive rabies vaccination with a concentrated vaccine of the PM/WI38-1503-3M rabies strain cultured on human diploid cells. Preparation of mixed antirabies-antitetanus hyperimmune immunoglobulin by plasmapheresis of blood taken from vaccinated veterinary students].

    PubMed

    Ajjan, N; Soulebot, J P; Stellmann, C; Biron, G; Charbonnier, C; Triau, R; Mérieux, C

    1978-01-01

    Many thousands of people in France and abroad have already benefited from preventive rabies vaccination by means of a vaccine obtained from culture on human diploid cells, perfected ten years ago by R. Lang, the Institut Mérieux and the Wistar Institute. In addition to being well tolerated, the serological efficacy of this vaccine is such that 100% of the vaccines observed had a seroconversion after only two injections at an interval of one month. However, a booster dose should be given 6 to 12 months after the first injection, and a further booster 3 to 5 years later or on request in case of known contamination. These boosters, combined with an anti-tetanus booster, induce such high antibody titers--between 10-100 and even 1000 I.U./ml--that it is easy to obtain substantial batches of combined anti-rabies and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin from a small number of volunteers. The complete efficacy of this new vaccine reduces the number of systematic post-vaccinal serologic controls and its innocuity is such that an extended preventive vaccination programme may be carried out, for instance in the case of children living in areas known to be dangerous.

  10. The safety of the H1N1 influenza A vaccine in egg allergic individuals.

    PubMed

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Chernin, Anna S; Howe, Laura; Li, James T; Sanders, Georgiana

    2010-11-01

    The safety of H1N1 vaccine is unknown in egg allergic (EA) recipients. To establish the safety of administering H1N1 vaccine and to evaluate the predictability of H1N1 skin testing in EA patients. In a controlled, prospective trial, H1N1 skin testing and vaccination was compared between EA patients (n = 105) and non-EA controls (n = 19). Those with negative H1N1 skin test results received a full H1N1 dose; those with a positive skin test result received a graded challenge (10%, 90%). Booster vaccine, if required, was given as a single dose from a different lot without prior testing. Prick and intradermal test results were positive in 3 (2.4%) of 124 and 41 (33.1%) of 124 study participants, respectively. Forty-one individuals received a 2-step graded vaccine challenge, including 13 of 25 with a history of egg anaphylaxis. No significant allergic reactions resulted from either method of vaccination or from subsequent booster doses. All study participants received the H1N1 vaccine without significant allergic reactions. Skin testing is unnecessary and does not predict vaccine tolerance. All study participants who received a graded challenge tolerated a single dose booster from a different, untested lot, including 7 individuals with a history of egg-induced anaphylaxis. We recommend administration of H1N1 vaccine to EA children without prior skin testing or graded challenge dosing. Copyright © 2010 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kay; Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-06-24

    To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). General practices in Thames Valley, UK. 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks' duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the need for an adolescent pertussis booster vaccination in the United Kingdom. UK

  12. Whooping cough in school age children presenting with persistent cough in UK primary care after introduction of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Norman K; Campbell, Helen; Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Harrison, Timothy G; Mant, David; Harnden, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and clinical severity of whooping cough (pertussis) in school age children presenting with persistent cough in primary care since the introduction and implementation of the preschool pertussis booster vaccination. Design Prospective cohort study (November 2010 to December 2012). Setting General practices in Thames Valley, UK. Participants 279 children aged 5 to 15 years who presented in primary care with a persistent cough of two to eight weeks’ duration. Exclusion criteria were cough likely to be caused by a serious underlying medical condition, known immunodeficiency or immunocompromise, participation in another clinical research study, and preschool pertussis booster vaccination received less than one year previously. Main outcome measures Evidence of recent pertussis infection based on an oral fluid anti-pertussis toxin IgG titre of at least 70 arbitrary units. Cough frequency was measured in six children with laboratory confirmed pertussis. Results 56 (20%, 95% confidence interval 16% to 25%) children had evidence of recent pertussis infection, including 39 (18%, 13% to 24%) of 215 children who had been fully vaccinated. The risk of pertussis was more than three times higher (21/53; 40%, 26% to 54%) in children who had received the preschool pertussis booster vaccination seven years or more previously than in those who had received it less than seven years previously (20/171; 12%, 7% to 17%). The risk of pertussis was similar between children who received five and three component preschool pertussis booster vaccines (risk ratio for five component vaccine 1.14, 0.64 to 2.03). Four of six children in whom cough frequency was measured coughed more than 400 times in 24 hours. Conclusions Pertussis can still be found in a fifth of school age children who present in primary care with persistent cough and can cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. These findings will help to inform consideration of the

  13. Modelling the impact of vaccination on curtailing Haemophilus influenzae serotype 'a'.

    PubMed

    Konini, Angjelina; Moghadas, Seyed M

    2015-12-21

    Haemophilus influenzae serotype a (Hia) is a human-restricted bacterial pathogen transmitted via direct contacts with an infectious individual. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of Hia, and the disease is treated with antibiotics upon diagnosis. With ongoing efforts for the development of an anti-Hia protein-polysaccharide conjugated vaccine, we sought to investigate the effect of vaccination on curtailing Hia infection. We present the first stochastic model of Hia transmission and control dynamics, and parameterize it using available estimates in the literature. Since both naturally acquired and vaccine-induced immunity wane with time, model simulations show three important results. First, vaccination of only newborns cannot eliminate the pathogen from the population, even when a booster program is implemented with a high coverage. Second, achieving and maintaining a sufficiently high level of herd immunity for pathogen elimination requires vaccination of susceptible individuals in addition to a high vaccination coverage of newborns. Third, for a low vaccination rate of susceptible individuals, a high coverage of booster dose may be needed to raise the level of herd immunity for Hia eradication. Our findings highlight the importance of vaccination and timely boosting of the individual׳s immunity within the expected duration of vaccine-induced protection against Hia. When an anti-Hia vaccine becomes available, enhanced surveillance of Hia incidence and herd immunity could help determine vaccination rates and timelines for booster doses necessary to eliminate Hia from affected populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Decay of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)-boosted poliovirus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Resik, Sonia; Tejeda, Alina; Fonseca, Magile; Sein, Carolyn; Hung, Lai Heng; Martinez, Yenisleidys; Diaz, Manuel; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W

    We conducted a follow-on study to a phase I randomized, controlled trial conducted in Cuba, 2012, to assess the persistence of poliovirus antibodies at 21-22 months following booster dose of Sabin-IPV compared to Salk-IPV in adults who had received multiple doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during childhood. In 2012, 60 healthy adult males aged 19-23 were randomized to receive one booster dose, of either Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV), adjuvanted Sabin-IPV (aSabin-IPV), or conventional Salk-IPV. In the original study, blood was collected at days 0 (before) and 28 (after vaccination), respectively. In this study, an additional blood sample was collected 21-22 months after vaccination, and tested for neutralizing antibodies to Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3. We collected sera from 59/60 (98.3%) subjects; 59/59 (100%) remained seropositive to all poliovirus types, 21-22 months after vaccination. The decay curves were very similar among the study groups. Between day 28 and 21-22 months, there was a reduction of ⩾87.4% in median antibody levels for all poliovirus types in all study groups, with no significant differences between the study groups. The decay of poliovirus antibodies over a 21-22-month period was similar regardless of the type of booster vaccine used, suggesting the scientific data of Salk IPV long-term persistence and decay may be broadly applicable to Sabin IPV.

  15. Protection against vaccine preventable diseases in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    de de la Fuente Garcia, Isabel; Coïc, Léna; Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laverdière, Caroline; Rousseau, Céline; Ovetchkine, Philippe; Tapiéro, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to assess protection against vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs) in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Clinical characteristics and vaccination records were collected. Antibodies against VPDs were measured after completion of chemotherapy and after a booster dose of vaccine. Immunization status of household members was evaluated. Sixty children were included. Median interval between the end of chemotherapy and enrolment in the study was 13 months (range 1-145). At ALL diagnosis, 81.3% of the children were up to date with their vaccination schedule. This proportion decreased to 52.9% at enrolment. Among the parents, 21% were up to date with their immunization schedule and 42% had received seasonal influenza vaccination. After chemotherapy, less than 50% of the patients were seroprotected against tetanus, diphtheria, polio 3, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and mumps and no more than 80% were seroprotected against polio 1 and 2, measles, rubella, and varicella. After a booster dose of vaccine, the rate of protection increased to over 90% for each of the following antigens: TT, DT, polio 1, Hib, measles, and rubella. Nevertheless, polio 3, mumps, and varicella-zoster virus antibodies titers/concentrations remained below seroprotective thresholds in over 20% of the patients. After chemotherapy for ALL, most of the children were not protected against VPDs. As the majority mounted a robust response to booster vaccines, efforts need to be done to improve protection against VPDs by implementing a systematic vaccine booster schedule. This could also be helped by reinforcing household members' immunization. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Induction of immunologic memory following primary vaccination with the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine in infants.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Markus; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Grunert, Detlef; Rapp, Michael; Panzer, Falko; Köllges, Ralph; Fanic, Aurélie; Habib, Ahsan; Borys, Dorota; Dieussaert, Ilse; Schuerman, Lode

    2012-01-01

    Induction of immunologic memory was assessed following primary vaccination with 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). Infants were randomized (1:1) to receive 3 doses of PHiD-CV or 7vCRM (7-valent CRM197-conjugated pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV]) at 2, 3, and 4 months of age followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vPS) booster dose at 11 to 14 months of age. Pneumococcal geometric mean antibody concentrations (GMCs) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) geometric mean titers were measured. Postprimary immune responses were consistent with those in previous PHiD-CV and 7vCRM studies. Following 23vPS boosting, vaccine serotype-specific antibody GMCs increased 6.5- to 33.3-fold and 4.8- to 32.2-fold versus prebooster in the PHiD-CV and 7vCRM groups, respectively. Postbooster OPA titers increased 2.8- to 38.8-fold and 2.6- to 58.9-fold, respectively. Postbooster antibody GMCs exceeded postprimary levels but, for some serotypes, postbooster OPA geometric mean titers were lower than postprimary in both groups. An additional dose of the same PCV received for priming was administered to 52 children aged 46 to 50 months, resulting in higher responses versus postprimary vaccination for all serotypes, but not always higher than post-23vPS booster. Induction of immunologic memory following PHiD-CV priming was confirmed. Additional PCV boosting in 4-year-olds did not provide strong evidence of hyporesponsiveness induced by previous 23vPS boosting. However, our results did not rule out depletion of the memory B cell pool following 23vPS vaccination, resulting in subsequent attenuated immune responses, and therefore support the use of PCV rather than 23vPS for booster vaccination in the second year of life.

  17. HLA-DPB1 and anti-HBs titer kinetics in hepatitis B booster recipients who completed primary hepatitis B vaccination during infancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, T-W; Chu, C-C; Liao, H-W Chang; Lin, S-K; Ho, T-Y; Lin, M; Lin, H H; Wang, L-Y

    2014-01-01

    Previously we reported significant associations of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPB1 05:01 with memory against hepatitis B (HB) vaccination. However, the effects of HLA-DPB1 on antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) kinetics were not explored. We followed up a cohort of 1974 HB booster recipients and quantified their 1-month and 1-year post-booster anti-HBs titers. A total of 681 subjects were randomly selected and typed for HLA-DPB1. We found that male subjects, undetectable pre-booster titers, and 05:01 homozygotes led to significantly lower post-booster anti-HBs titers. The geometric means (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 1-month post-booster anti-HBs titers were 4.68 (2.69-8.12), 23.01 (14.96-35.40) and 50.06 (27.20-92.13) mIU ml(-1) for subjects carrying two, one and no HLA-DPB1 05:01 allele. The corresponding figures for 1-year post-booster anti-HBs titers were 1.26 (0.73-2.18), 4.72 (3.08-7.25) and 7.32 (3.75-13.56) mIU ml(-1). There were significant associations of post-booster anti-HBs titers with the number of HLA-DPB1 risk and protective alleles. Among booster responders, anti-HBs decay rates were significantly reduced in subjects who had detectable pre-booster anti-HBs titers and the HLA-DPB1 05:01 allele. Our results indicated that HLA-DPB1 influences the kinetics of anti-HBs. The long-term memory against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the residual serum titers of anti-HBs after HB vaccination may be influenced by different mechanisms as evidenced by their inverse trend of associations with the 05:01 allele.

  18. MF59®-Adjuvanted H5N1 Vaccine Induces Immunologic Memory and Heterotypic Antibody Responses in Non-Elderly and Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Banzhoff, Angelika; Gasparini, Roberto; Laghi-Pasini, Franco; Staniscia, Tommaso; Durando, Paolo; Montomoli, Emanuele; Capecchi, Pamela; di Giovanni, Pamela; Sticchi, Laura; Gentile, Chiara; Hilbert, Anke; Brauer, Volker; Tilman, Sandrine; Podda, Audino

    2009-01-01

    Background Pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) has the potential to cause a major global pandemic in humans. Safe and effective vaccines that induce immunologic memory and broad heterotypic response are needed. Methods and Findings Healthy adults aged 18–60 and >60 years (n = 313 and n = 173, respectively) were randomized (1∶1) to receive two primary and one booster injection of 7.5 μg or 15 μg doses of a subunit MF59-adjuvanted H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1194/2004) (clade 1) vaccine. Safety was monitored until 6 months after booster. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI), single radial hemolysis (SRH) and microneutralization assays (MN). Mild injection-site pain was the most common adverse reaction. No serious adverse events relating to the vaccine were reported. The humoral immune responses to 7.5 μg and 15 μg doses were comparable. The rates for seroprotection (HI>40; SRH>25mm2; MN ≥40) after the primary vaccination ranged 72–87%. Six months after primary vaccination with the 7.5 μg dose, 18% and 21% of non-elderly and elderly adults were seroprotected; rates increased to 90% and 84%, respectively, after the booster vaccination. In the 15 μg group, seroprotection rates among non-elderly and elderly adults increased from 25% and 62% after primary vaccination to 92% and 88% after booster vaccination, respectively. A heterologous immune response to the H5N1/turkey/Turkey/05 strain was elicited after second and booster vaccinations. Conclusions Both formulations of MF59-adjuvanted influenza H5N1 vaccine were well tolerated. The European Union requirement for licensure for pre-pandemic vaccines was met by the lower dose tested. The presence of cross-reactive antibodies to a clade 2 heterologous strain demonstrates that this vaccine may be appropriate for pre-pandemic programs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00311480 PMID:19197383

  19. Phase II and III Clinical Studies of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Containing Inactivated Polio Vaccine Derived from Sabin Strains (DTaP-sIPV).

    PubMed

    Okada, Kenji; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Kino, Yoichiro; Ozaki, Takao; Hirose, Mizuo; Ueda, Kohji

    2013-07-15

    Phase II and III clinical studies were conducted to evaluate immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTaP-IPV vaccine consisting of Sabin inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV) and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP). A Phase II study was conducted in 104 healthy infants using Formulation H of the DTaP-sIPV vaccine containing high-dose sIPV (3, 100, and 100 D-antigen units for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and Formulations M and L, containing half and one-fourth of the sIPV in Formulation H, respectively. Each formulation was administered 3 times for primary immunization and once for booster immunization. A Phase III study was conducted in 342 healthy infants who received either Formulation M + oral polio vaccine (OPV) placebo or DTaP + OPV. The OPV or OPV placebo was orally administered twice between primary and booster immunizations. Formulation M was selected as the optimum dose. In the Phase III study, the seropositive rate was 100% for all Sabin strains after primary immunization, and the neutralizing antibody titer after booster immunization was higher than in the control group (DTaP + OPV). All adverse reactions were clinically acceptable. DTaP-sIPV was shown to be a safe and immunogenic vaccine. JapicCTI-121902 for Phase II study, JapicCTI-101075 for Phase III study (http://www.clinicaltrials.jp/user/cte_main.jsp).

  20. Systematic literature review comparing rapid 3-dose administration of the GSK tick-borne encephalitis vaccine with other primary immunization schedules.

    PubMed

    Galgani, Ilaria; Bunge, Eveline M; Hendriks, Lisa; Schludermann, Christopher; Marano, Cinzia; De Moerlooze, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is endemic across large regions of Europe and Asia, is most effectively prevented through vaccination. Three-dose primary TBE vaccination schedules are either rapid (0,7,21-days) or conventional (0,28-84-days, 9-12-months). The second dose can also be administered at 14 days for faster priming and sero-protection). Areas covered: We used a three-step selection process to identify 21 publications comparing the immunogenicity and/or safety of different schedules. Expert commentary: Priming with two or three TBE vaccine doses was highly immunogenic. After conventional priming (0-28 days), 95% adults and ≥95% children had neutralization test (NT) titers ≥10 at 14 days post-dose-2 compared with 92% adults and 99% children at 21 days post-dose-3 (rapid schedule). Most subjects retained NT titers ≥10 at day 300. A single booster dose induced a strong immune response in all subjects irrespective of primary vaccination schedule or elapsed time since priming. GMT peaked at 42 days post-dose-1 (i.e., 21 days post-dose 3 [rapid-schedule], or 14-28 days post-dose-2 [conventional-schedule]), and declined thereafter. Adverse events were generally rare and declined with increasing doses. In the absence of data to recommend one particular schedule, the regimen choice will remain at the physician's discretion, based on patient constraints and availability.

  1. An extra priming dose of hepatitis A vaccine to adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis and drug induced immunosuppression - A prospective, open-label, multi-center study.

    PubMed

    Rosdahl, Anja; Herzog, Christian; Frösner, Gert; Norén, Torbjörn; Rombo, Lars; Askling, Helena H

    Previous studies have indicated that a pre-travel single dose of hepatitis A vaccine is not sufficient as protection against hepatitis A in immunocompromised travelers. We evaluated if an extra dose of hepatitis A vaccine given shortly prior to traveling ensures seroconversion. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 69, median age = 55 years) treated with Tumor Necrosis Factor inhibitor(TNFi) and/or Methotrexate (MTX) were immunized with two doses of hepatitis A vaccine, either as double dose or four weeks apart, followed by a booster dose at six months. Furthermore, 48 healthy individuals, median age = 60 years were immunized with two doses, six months apart. Anti-hepatitis A antibodies were measured at 0, 1, 2, 6, 7 and 12 months. Two months after the initial vaccination, 84% of the RA patients had protective antibodies, compared to 85% of the healthy individuals. There was no significant difference between the two vaccine schedules. At twelve months, 99% of RA patients and 100% of healthy individuals had seroprotective antibodies. An extra priming dos of hepatitis A vaccine prior to traveling offered an acceptable protection in individuals treated with TNFi and/or MTX. This constitutes an attractive pre-travel solution to this vulnerable group of patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Viral booster vaccines improve Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced protection against bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Vordermeier, H Martin; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Cockle, Paul J; McAulay, Martin; Rhodes, Shelley G; Thacker, Tyler; Gilbert, Sarah C; McShane, Helen; Hill, Adrian V S; Xing, Zhou; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2009-08-01

    Previous work with small-animal laboratory models of tuberculosis has shown that vaccination strategies based on heterologous prime-boost protocols using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) to prime and modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA85A) or recombinant attenuated adenoviruses (Ad85A) expressing the mycobacterial antigen Ag85A to boost may increase the protective efficacy of BCG. Here we report the first efficacy data on using these vaccines in cattle, a natural target species of tuberculous infection. Protection was determined by measuring development of disease as an end point after M. bovis challenge. Either Ad85A or MVA85A boosting resulted in protection superior to that given by BCG alone: boosting BCG with MVA85A or Ad85A induced significant reduction in pathology in four/eight parameters assessed, while BCG vaccination alone did so in only one parameter studied. Protection was particularly evident in the lungs of vaccinated animals (median lung scores for naïve and BCG-, BCG/MVA85A-, and BCG/Ad85A-vaccinated animals were 10.5, 5, 2.5, and 0, respectively). The bacterial loads in lymph node tissues were also reduced after viral boosting of BCG-vaccinated calves compared to those in BCG-only-vaccinated animals. Analysis of vaccine-induced immunity identified memory responses measured by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assay as well as in vitro interleukin-17 production as predictors of vaccination success, as both responses, measured before challenge, correlated positively with the degree of protection. Therefore, this study provides evidence of improved protection against tuberculosis by viral booster vaccination in a natural target species and has prioritized potential correlates of vaccine efficacy for further evaluation. These findings also have implications for human tuberculosis vaccine development.

  3. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marc; Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-02-01

    To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign - 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose - included the relatively low cost of local delivery - US$ 0.41 per dose. We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered.

  4. Licensure of a Diphtheria and Tetanus Toxoids and Acellular Pertussis Adsorbed and Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Guidance for Use as a Booster Dose.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jennifer; Wallace, Greg; Mootrey, Gina

    2015-09-04

    On March 24, 2015, the Food and Drug Administration licensed an additional combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis adsorbed (DTaP) and inactivated poliovirus (IPV) vaccine (DTaP-IPV) (Quadracel, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.). Quadracel is the second DTaP-IPV vaccine to be licensed for use among children aged 4 through 6 years in the United States (1). Quadracel is approved for administration as a fifth dose in the DTaP series and as a fourth or fifth dose in the IPV series in children aged 4 through 6 years who have received 4 doses of DTaP-IPV-Hib (Pentacel, Sanofi Pasteur) and/or DTaP (Daptacel, Sanofi Pasteur) vaccine (2,3). This report summarizes the indications for Quadracel vaccine and provides guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for its use.

  5. Immunogenicity and Safety of Four Different Dosing Regimens of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed for Post-Exposure Prophylaxis for Anthrax in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I.; Jackson, Lisa; Patel, Shital M.; El Sahly, Hana M.; Spearman, Paul; Rouphael, Nadine; Rudge, Thomas L.; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Strategies to implement post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in case of an anthrax bioterror event are needed. To increase the number of doses of vaccine available we evaluated reducing the amount of vaccine administered at each of the vaccinations, and reducing the number of doses administered. Methods Healthy male and non-pregnant female subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four study arms to receive 0.5 mL (standard dose) of vaccine subcutaneously (SQ) at: A) days 0, 14; B) days 0 and 28; C) days 0, 14, and 28; or D) 0.25 ml at days 0, 14, and 28. A booster was provided on day 180. Safety was assessed after each dose. Blood was obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 84, 100, 180, and 201 and both Toxin Neutralizing antibody and anti-PA IgG antibody measured. Results Almost all subjects developed some local reactions with 46% to 64% reported to be of moderate severity and 3.3% severe during the primary series. Vaccine groups that included a day 14 dose induced a ≥4 fold antibody rise in more subjects on days 21, 28 and 35 than the arm without a day 14 dose. However, schedules with a full day 28 dose induced higher peak levels of antibody that persisted longer. The half dose regimen did not induce antibody as well as the full dose study arms. Conclusion Depending on the extent of the outbreak, effectiveness of antibiotics and availability of vaccine, the full dose 0, 28 or 0, 14, 28 schedules may have advantages. PMID:25239484

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of four different dosing regimens of anthrax vaccine adsorbed for post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax in adults.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Jackson, Lisa; Patel, Shital M; El Sahly, Hana M; Spearman, Paul; Rouphael, Nadine; Rudge, Thomas L; Hill, Heather; Goll, Johannes B

    2014-10-29

    Strategies to implement post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in case of an anthrax bioterror event are needed. To increase the number of doses of vaccine available we evaluated reducing the amount of vaccine administered at each of the vaccinations, and reducing the number of doses administered. Healthy male and non-pregnant female subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 were enrolled and randomized 1:1:1:1 to one of four study arms to receive 0.5 mL (standard dose) of vaccine subcutaneously (SQ) at: (A) days 0, 14; (B) days 0 and 28; (C) days 0, 14, and 28; or (D) 0.25 mL at days 0, 14, and 28. A booster was provided on day 180. Safety was assessed after each dose. Blood was obtained on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, 70, 84, 100, 180, and 201 and both Toxin Neutralizing antibody and anti-PA IgG antibody measured. Almost all subjects developed some local reactions with 46-64% reported to be of moderate severity and 3.3% severe during the primary series. Vaccine groups that included a day 14 dose induced a ≥ 4 fold antibody rise in more subjects on days 21, 28, and 35 than the arm without a day 14 dose. However, schedules with a full day 28 dose induced higher peak levels of antibody that persisted longer. The half dose regimen did not induce antibody as well as the full dose study arms. Depending on the extent of the outbreak, effectiveness of antibiotics and availability of vaccine, the full dose 0, 28 or 0, 14, 28 schedules may have advantages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Virosomal hepatitis a vaccine: comparing intradermal and subcutaneous with intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Frösner, Gert; Steffen, Robert; Herzog, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is unaffordable to many developing countries. Substantial reductions in cost occur when vaccines are administered intradermally at low doses. Aluminum-free HAV vaccines are considered more suitable for intradermal use than traditional vaccines which can cause long-lasting local reactions. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and safety of an aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine (Epaxal) administered by different routes: intradermal (i.d.), subcutaneous (s.c.), and intramuscular (i.m.). Two open pilot studies were conducted as sub-studies of a large lot consistency trial. Healthy subjects aged 18 to 45 were enrolled. Study 1 compared two i.d. regimens of a lower dose of Epaxal [0.1 mL (4.8 IU), one or two injection sites] with i.m. administration of the standard dose [0.5 mL (24 IU)]. Study 2 compared the s.c. with the i.m. administration of the standard dose. At month 12, subjects in study 1 received a booster dose of 0.1 mL i.d. or 0.5 mL i.m.; subjects in study 2 received 0.5 mL via the respective route (s.c. or i.m.). Serum was tested for antibodies at baseline, 2 weeks (study 1), and 1 and 6 months after the primary vaccination as well as prior and 1 month after the booster dose. Incidences of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Seroprotection rates (anti-HAV geometric mean concentration of > or =20 mIU/mL) after 1 month ranged from 93.2% to 100% in all groups and remained high until month 12 (range 85.2&-90.2%). Complete (100%) seroprotection was achieved by all subjects in all groups after booster vaccination. All routes of administration were well tolerated. Local reactions were more common in subjects vaccinated i.d. and s.c. than i.m. The aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine Epaxal is highly immunogenic and well tolerated when administered either via i.d., s.c., or i.m. Vaccination via the i.d. route may confer significant cost savings over the conventional i.m. route.

  8. Long-term follow-up of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine: Immune responses in children.

    PubMed

    Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Thisyakorn, Usa; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Boaz, Mark; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2016-11-04

    A single dose of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) was shown to be immunogenic and well tolerated when given either as a booster to formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE)-vaccine (mouse brain-derived vaccine [MBDV])-primed 2-5-year-olds, or as a primary vaccination to JE-vaccine-naïve 12-24-month-old toddlers in Thailand. A 5-year follow-up assessment of immune response persistence over time was conducted. Four additional visits (at 2, 3, 4, and 5years) for immunologic assessments were added to the original 12-month open-label crossover study, in which 100 healthy children aged 2-5years with a history of two-dose primary vaccination with MBDV (according to the Thai Expanded Program for Immunization schedule), and 200 healthy JE-vaccine-naïve 12-24-month-old toddlers, were randomized 1:1 to receive JE-CV, containing ⩾4 log 10 plaque forming units, 1month before or after hepatitis A control vaccine. In MBDV-primed 2-5-year-olds (n=78), the immune response to the JE-CV vaccine persisted up to at least 5years after vaccination with a single dose of JE-CV, with all (n=78) children seroprotected at the year 5 visit (geometric mean titers [GMT]: 2521/dil). There was no decrease of seroprotection rate over time (100% at 6months post-vaccination and 96.8% (90.3-98.9) at 5yearspost-vaccination). In JE-vaccine-naïve toddlers, a protective immune response persisted up to at least 5years in 58.8% (50.9-66.4) after a single-dose administration of JE-CV (GMT 26.71/dil; sensitivity analysis). A single-dose of JE-CV as a booster following MBDV administration provided long-lasting immunity. In JE-vaccine-naïve toddlers, despite relatively high seroprotection rates persisting over time, a subsequent booster dose is recommended following a JE-CV primary vaccination for long-term protection. This study was registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00621764). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Gideon; Voute, Caroline; Ferreras, Eva; Muleya, Clara Mbwili; Malama, Kennedy; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Mufunda, Jacob; Robert, Hugues; Uzzeni, Florent; Luquero, Francisco J; Chizema, Elizabeth; Ciglenecki, Iza

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy – based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine – to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. Method In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. On each day, doses of vaccine were delivered to vaccination sites and administrative coverage was estimated. Findings Overall, vaccination teams administered 424 100 doses of vaccine to an estimated target population of 578 043, resulting in an estimated administrative coverage of 73.4%. After the campaign, few cholera cases were reported and there was no evidence of the disease spreading within the vaccinated areas. The total cost of the campaign – 2.31 United States dollars (US$) per dose – included the relatively low cost of local delivery – US$ 0.41 per dose. Conclusion We found that an early and large-scale targeted reactive campaign using a single-dose oral vaccine, organized in response to a cholera epidemic within a large city, to be feasible and appeared effective. While cholera vaccines remain in short supply, the maximization of the number of vaccines in response to a cholera epidemic, by the use of just one dose per member of an at-risk community, should be considered. PMID:29403111

  10. Questions regarding the safety and duration of immunity following live yellow fever vaccination.

    PubMed

    Amanna, Ian J; Slifka, Mark K

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and other health agencies have concluded that yellow fever booster vaccination is unnecessary since a single dose of vaccine confers lifelong immunity. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical studies cited by health authorities in their investigation of both the safety profile and duration of immunity for the YFV-17D vaccine and examined the position that booster vaccination is no longer needed. We found that antiviral immunity may be lost in 1-in-3 to 1-in-5 individuals within 5 to 10 years after a single vaccination and that children may be at greater risk for primary vaccine failure. The safety profile of YFV-17D was compared to other licensed vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, which have subsequently been withdrawn from the US and world market, respectively. Expert commentary: Based on these results and recent epidemiological data on vaccine failures (particularly evident at >10 years after vaccination), we believe that current recommendations to no longer administer YFV-17D booster vaccination be carefully re-evaluated, and that further development of safer vaccine approaches should be considered.

  11. Questions regarding the safety and duration of immunity following live yellow fever vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Amanna, Ian J.; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) and other health agencies have concluded that yellow fever booster vaccination is unnecessary since a single dose of vaccine confers lifelong immunity. Areas Covered We reviewed the clinical studies cited by health authorities in their investigation of both the safety profile and duration of immunity for the YFV-17D vaccine and examined the position that booster vaccination is no longer needed. We found that antiviral immunity may be lost in 1-in-3 to 1-in-5 individuals within 5 to 10 years after a single vaccination and that children may be at greater risk for primary vaccine failure. The safety profile of YFV-17D was compared to other licensed vaccines including oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the rotavirus vaccine, RotaShield, which have subsequently been withdrawn from the US and world market, respectively. Expert Commentary Based on these results and recent epidemiological data on vaccine failures (particularly evident at >10 years after vaccination), we believe that current recommendations to no longer administer YFV-17D booster vaccination be carefully re-evaluated, and that further development of safer vaccine approaches should be considered. PMID:27267203

  12. Polysaccharide vaccines for preventing serogroup A meningococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Lee, C K

    2001-01-01

    Controlled trials over two decades ago showed that the polysaccharide vaccine prevented serogroup A meningococcal meningitis. Subsequent non-experimental studies suggested age-specific variations in the duration of protection among young children. To determine the effect of polysaccharide serogroup A vaccine for preventing serogroup A meningococcal meningitis. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The first stage of the review included prospective controlled trials. The second stage included non-experimental studies that addressed questions unanswered by the trials, i.e. the duration of protection and the effect of a booster dose in children under 2 years of age. One reviewer assessed the methodological quality of the trials, and two reviewers independently identified and assessed the non-experimental studies. Data from the trials were pooled using the Exact method to assess vaccine efficacy at 1, 2 and 3 years post- vaccination. The protective effect within the first year was consistent across all 8 trials, vaccine efficacy was 95% (Exact 95% CI 87%, 99%). Protection extended into the second and third year after vaccination, but the results did not attain statistical significance. The only trial that assessed the effect of a booster dose in children less than 18 months old, lacked adequate statistical power. In the three other trials that included children less than 6 years old (one in Sudan and two in Nigeria), none of the vaccinated children developed meningitis, but the results did not attain statistical significance. Data from the two non-experimental studies included in this review were not pooled with the trial data because of methodological limitations. For the first year after vaccination, the vaccine was strongly protective in participants over 5 years of age. It was also protective beyond the first year after vaccination, but the level of vaccine efficacy could not be determined with precision. Children aged 1 to 5 years in developing

  13. [Vaccination schedule of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics: recommendations 2006].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Based on the evidence available, the Vaccines Advisory Committee (VAC) of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics reports and comments on the new developments in vaccines that have taken place in 2005 and recommends some modifications to the vaccination schedule for 2006. In agreement with changes in the product monographs for the meningococcal C vaccine, the VAC recommends two doses for the three commercially available preparations with a booster dose in the second year of life. The European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) has temporarily suspended the sale of the Hexavac vaccine due to doubts about its long-term protection against hepatitis B. The VAC continues to support the use of these combined vaccines. Currently only Infranrix Hexa is available in Spain. The recommendation of vaccinating adolescents with a booster dose of pertussis vaccine via the administration of an acellular preparation of low antigenic load together with the adult diphtheria and tetanus vaccine remains valid. Vaccination against chickenpox in susceptible children aged more than 12 months old continues to be recommended. There is wide coverage for the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in many areas of Spain. In view of the studies published, the VAC reiterates the need for universal immunization by introducing this vaccine in the official vaccination schedule. Finally, other vaccines not included in this schedule are discussed, with special mention of the advisability of influenza vaccination in children, according to the recommendations of the VAC available at the beginning of each season on the web site of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics www.aeped.es; www. vacunasaep.org.

  14. Traffic of antibody-secreting cells after immunization with a liposome-associated, CpG-ODN-adjuvanted oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Somroop, Srinuan; Tongtawe, Pongsri; Chaisri, Urai; Tapchaisri, Pramuan; Chongsa-nguan, Manas; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2006-12-01

    An oral cholera vaccine made up of heat-treated recombinant cholera toxin (rCT), V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and recombinant toxin-co-regulated pili subunit A (rTcpA), entrapped in liposomes in the presence of unmethylated bacterial CpG-DNA (ODN#1826) was used to orally immunize a group of eight week old rats. A booster dose was given 14 days later. Control rats received placebo (vaccine diluent). The kinetics of the immune response were investigated by enumerating the antigen specific-antibody secreting cells (ASC) in the blood circulation and intestinal lamina propria using the ELISPOT assay and a histo-immunofluorescence assay (IFA), respectively. ASC of all antigenic specificities were detected in the blood of the vaccinated rats as early as two days after the booster dose. The numbers of LPS-ASC and TcpA-ASC in the blood were at their peak at day 3 post booster while the number of CT-ASC was highest at day 4 after the booster immunization. At day 13 post immunization, no ASC were detected in the blood. A several fold increase in the number of ASC of all antigenic specificities in the lamina propria above the background numbers of the control animals were found in all vaccinated rats at days 6 and 13 post booster (earlier and later time points were not studied). Vibriocidal antibody and specific antibodies to CT, LPS and TcpA were detected in 57.1% and 52.4%, 14.3%, and 19.0% of the orally vaccinated rats, respectively. The data indicated that rats orally primed with the vaccine could produce a rapid anamnestic response after re-exposure to the V. cholerae antigens. Thus, a single dose of the vaccine is expected to elicit a similar anamnestic immune response in people from cholera endemic areas who have been naturally primed to V. cholerae antigens, while two doses at a 14 day interval should be adequate for a traveler to a disease endemicarea.

  15. First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya.

    PubMed

    Madour, A; Alkout, A; Vanin, S

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination schedule in Libya follows international recommendations (1st dose at birth, 2nd after 1 month and 3rd after 6 months). This research aimed to evaluate the long-term protection of the HBV immunization programme in Tripoli and to determine the best age to administer booster doses. Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. The response to HBV vaccine in 1-3-year-olds was 93.2%, but this declined with age and at 7-9 years after initial vaccination only 53.1% of children had protective titres (> or = 10 mIU/mL). No significant differences between males and females in antibody persistence or response to vaccine were observed. We recommend continuing the HBV vaccination programme and that a booster dose be given to 6-year-old children to ensure maximum protection during the period of school entry and beyond.

  16. Randomised vaccine trial of single dose of killed Leishmania major plus BCG against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bam, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, I; FeKri, A R; Aflatonian, M R; Khamesipour, A; Nadim, A; Mousavi, M R; Momeni, A Z; Dowlati, Y; Godal, T; Zicker, F; Smith, P G; Modabber, F

    1998-05-23

    A vaccine consisting of a single dose of whole-cell autoclave-killed Leishmania major (ALM) mixed with BCG was assessed in comparison with BCG alone against anthroponotic (human to human transmission) cutaneous leishmaniasis in a randomised double-blind trial in Bam, Iran. 3637 schoolchildren, aged 6-15 years, with no history of cutaneous leishmaniasis and no response to a leishmanin skin test, were randomly assigned to receive 1 mg ALM mixed with BCG (n = 1839), or BCG alone (n = 1798). Safety of the vaccine and the incidence of confirmed cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis were followed up for 2 years. Side-effects were those usually associated with BCG vaccination, but tended to persist longer in the ALM + BCG group. After exclusion of four cases occurring within 80 days of vaccination (one in the ALM + BCG group and three in the BCG group), the 2-year incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis did not differ significantly between vaccine and BCG groups: 2.8% vs 3.3%, respectively (total cases 112). A sex-stratified analysis showed that in boys the vaccine conferred a protective efficacy of 18% and 78% for the first and second years, respectively--a crude 2-year overall protection of 55% (95% CI 19-75%, p < 0.01). In the first 9 months after vaccination, there was a non-significant excess of cases in the ALM + BCG group (25 vs 16), whereas the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis thereafter was significantly reduced in the ALM + BCG group (27 vs 44, p < 0.05). A single dose of ALM + BCG was safe and more immunogenic than BCG alone, as measured by leishmanin skin test. The exact reason for the apparent protective effect of the vaccine in boys is unknown, and may be a chance finding. However, since boys are more exposed to the infection, which is indicated by higher disease prevalence in boys in this study population, the preferential protective effect in boys may have resulted from a greater booster effect produced by repeated exposure to infected sandflies. Booster

  17. Childhood varicella-zoster virus vaccination in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Bilcke, Joke; Jan van Hoek, Albert; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a universal childhood varicella-zoster vaccination programme in Belgium (1) using the most recent Belgian data on varicella-zoster burden, (2) exploring different options for the timing of the second dose, (3) obtaining results with and without exogenous natural boosting, and (4) investigating the possible additional benefit of zoster booster vaccination for adults at age 50 or 60 years. Methods: An extensively studied and improved dynamic model is used to estimate primary and breakthrough chickenpox and zoster cases over time. For a range of vaccination options, we compared the direct costs (health care payer perspective) and health outcomes (including Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost) associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster.  Estimates of social contact patterns, health care use, costs and QALY losses are almost exclusively based on Belgian databases and surveys. Results and Conclusions: If exogenous natural boosting exists, a net loss in QALYs is expected for several decades after implementing a universal chickenpox vaccination programme, due to an increase in zoster mainly in persons aged 50-80 years. This result holds also for scenarios that minimise or counteract the expected increase in zoster incidence (e.g. additional booster vaccinations in adults). However, if the boosting hypothesis is not true or if costs and QALYs are cumulated over at least 33 to more than 100 years after vaccination (depending on the assumptions made), different options for universal 2-dose vaccination against chickenpox in Belgium would be cost-effective at a vaccine price of €43/dose or lower. PMID:23321955

  18. Determinants of antibody persistence across doses and continents after single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination for Ebola virus disease: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huttner, Angela; Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Combescure, Christophe; Fernandes, José F; Bache, Emmanuel Bache; Kabwende, Lumeka; Ndungu, Francis Maina; Brosnahan, Jessica; Monath, Thomas P; Lemaître, Barbara; Grillet, Stéphane; Botto, Miriam; Engler, Olivier; Portmann, Jasmine; Siegrist, Denise; Bejon, Philip; Silvera, Peter; Kremsner, Peter; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2018-04-04

    , ZEBOV glycoprotein IgG GMCs decreased significantly between their peak (at 1-3 months) and month 6 after vaccination in Geneva (p<0·0001) and Lambaréné (p=0·0298) but not in Kilifi (p=0·5833) and subsequently remained stable at all sites apart from Geneva, where GMC in those given a high dose of vaccine increased significantly between 6 months and 1 year (p=0·0264). Antibody persistence was similar at 1 year and at 6 months in those who had received a low dose of vaccine, with lower titres among participants from the Geneva study at 2 years than at 1 year after vaccination (GMC ratio 0·61, 95% CI 0·49-0·77; p<0·0001). In multivariable analyses, predictors of increased IgG GMCs beyond 6 months included high-dose versus low-dose vaccination (Geneva p=0·0133; Lambaréné p=0·008) and vaccine-related arthritis (p=0·0176), but not sex, age, or baseline seropositivity (all p>0·05). Neutralising antibodies seem to be less durable, with seropositivity dropping from 64-71% at 28 days to 27-31% at 6 months in participants from the Geneva study. Antibody responses to single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination are sustained across dose ranges and settings, a key criterion in countries where booster vaccinations would be impractical. The Wellcome Trust and Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention of Pertussis, Tetanus, and Diphtheria with Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Tejpratap; Moro, Pedro; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Reingold, Arthur; Sawyer, Mark; Clark, Thomas A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary This report compiles and summarizes all recommendations from CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding prevention and control of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis in the United States. As a comprehensive summary of previously published recommendations, this report does not contain any new recommendations and replaces all previously published reports and policy notes; it is intended for use by clinicians and public health providers as a resource. ACIP recommends routine vaccination for tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis. Infants and young children are recommended to receive a 5-dose series of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines, with one adolescent booster dose of tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. Adults who have never received Tdap also are recommended to receive a booster dose of Tdap. Women are recommended to receive a dose of Tdap during each pregnancy, which should be administered from 27 through 36 weeks’ gestation, regardless of previous receipt of Tdap. After receipt of Tdap, adolescents and adults are recommended to receive a booster tetanus and diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine every 10 years to assure ongoing protection against tetanus and diphtheria. PMID:29702631

  20. Field evaluation of a canine parvovirus vaccination program, using feline origin modified live virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J C; Rogers, W A

    1982-06-15

    Antibody titers measured by hemagglutination inhibition testing were determined in previously vaccinated dogs at the time of booster vaccination and 2 weeks later. All vaccines consisted of modified live panleukopenia virus. The booster injection was administered approximately 6 months after the initial parvovirus vaccination series was given. Fecal and serum specimens were collected immediately before and 2 weeks after administration of the booster vaccine for hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition testing, respectively. All dogs were privately owned and were from the Columbus, Ohio, area but were from environments with various exposure potentials to canine parvovirus. Results of hemagglutination (HA) testing on feces were negative in all dogs before and after booster vaccination. Therefore, these vaccinations did not interfere with interpretation of HA testing of feces. Results of serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing indicated that 50% of the dogs had serum titers less than 1:80 prior to vaccination and that, of these dogs, 65.2% still had serum titers less than 1:80 2 weeks after the booster vaccination. Only 10.9% of all dogs had a marked increase in serum HI titer after the booster vaccination, indicating that overall serologic response to vaccination was poor. High HI titers (greater than or equal to 1:640) were associated with exposure to other dogs and cats in the neighborhood or to dogs suspected of having had parvovirus infection.

  1. Vaccine vial stopper performance for fractional dose delivery of vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jarrahian, Courtney; Myers, Daniel; Creelman, Ben; Saxon, Eugene; Zehrung, Darin

    2017-07-03

    Shortages of vaccines such as inactivated poliovirus and yellow fever vaccines have been addressed by administering reduced-or fractional-doses, as recommended by the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, to expand population coverage in countries at risk. We evaluated 3 kinds of vaccine vial stoppers to assess their performance after increased piercing from repeated withdrawal of doses needed when using fractional doses (0.1 mL) from presentations intended for full-dose (0.5 mL) delivery. Self-sealing capacity and fragmentation of the stopper were assessed via modified versions of international standard protocols. All stoppers maintained self-sealing capacity after 100 punctures. The damage to stoppers measured as the fragmentation rate was within the target of ≤ 10% of punctures resulting in a fragment after as many as 50 punctures. We concluded that stopper failure is not likely to be a concern if existing vaccine vials containing up to 10 regular doses are used up to 50 times for fractional dose delivery.

  2. Vaccine vial stopper performance for fractional dose delivery of vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jarrahian, Courtney; Myers, Daniel; Creelman, Ben; Saxon, Eugene; Zehrung, Darin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shortages of vaccines such as inactivated poliovirus and yellow fever vaccines have been addressed by administering reduced—or fractional—doses, as recommended by the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, to expand population coverage in countries at risk. We evaluated 3 kinds of vaccine vial stoppers to assess their performance after increased piercing from repeated withdrawal of doses needed when using fractional doses (0.1 mL) from presentations intended for full-dose (0.5 mL) delivery. Self-sealing capacity and fragmentation of the stopper were assessed via modified versions of international standard protocols. All stoppers maintained self-sealing capacity after 100 punctures. The damage to stoppers measured as the fragmentation rate was within the target of ≤ 10% of punctures resulting in a fragment after as many as 50 punctures. We concluded that stopper failure is not likely to be a concern if existing vaccine vials containing up to 10 regular doses are used up to 50 times for fractional dose delivery. PMID:28463054

  3. Lasting immune memory against hepatitis B in 12-13-year-old adolescents previously vaccinated with 4 doses of hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine in infancy.

    PubMed

    Behre, Ulrich; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Crasta, Priya; Hanssens, Linda; Mesaros, Narcisa

    2016-11-01

    Vaccinating infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most effective way of preventing the disease. However, since HBV exposure can increase during adolescence, it is essential that antibody persistence is maintained. We evaluated the antibody persistence and immune memory against hepatitis B, in 12-13 y olds who had received complete primary + booster vaccination with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus/Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine in infancy. Open phase-IV study conducted at 12 centers in Germany [NCT02052661]. Adolescents aged 12-13 y, vaccinated with 4 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (Infanrix hexa™, GSK Vaccines) in infancy, received a single challenge dose of monovalent pediatric hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix™-B Kinder; GSK Vaccines). Blood samples were taken before and 1-month post-challenge to measure anti-hepatitis B (anti-HBs) antibodies using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (seroprotection cut-off: ≥10 mIU/ml). Post-challenge adverse events (AEs) were monitored. 300 subjects were vaccinated; of 293 subjects in the ATP immunogenicity cohort, 60.5% had pre-challenge anti-HBs antibodies ≥10 mIU/ml, which rose to 97.6% post-challenge (≥100 mIU/ml in 94.1%). An anamnestic response was seen in 96.5% subjects. A 150-fold increase in antibody geometric mean concentrations was observed (22.4 to 3502.6 mIU/ml). Pain (44%) and fatigue (24.3%) were the most frequent solicited local and general AEs, respectively; 14.7% subjects reported unsolicited symptoms during the 31-day post-vaccination period. Two vaccine-unrelated serious AEs occurred. Vaccination with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib in infancy induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against HBV, as shown by the strong anamnestic response to the hepatitis B vaccine challenge in 12-13 year-old adolescents.

  4. Long-term antibody response and immunologic memory in children immunized with hepatitis B vaccine at birth.

    PubMed

    Saffar, M J; Rezai, M S

    2004-12-01

    Four hundred and fifty three healthy children immunized with a course of hepatitis B vaccine beginning at birth were tested at 10-11 years of age for persistence of anti-hepatitis B-S antigen antibody (anti-HBs); and responses of children without protective antibody to different doses of hepatitis B vaccine booster were evaluated. Although nearly 42% of them were not seroprotected, but most of boosted subjects (87.3%) retained robust immunologic memory and rapidly retained a protective anti-HBs antibody titer of at least 10 IU/L after booster vaccination.

  5. A genetically inactivated two-component acellular pertussis vaccine, alone or combined with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines, in adolescents: a phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenchai, Sirintip; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Dhitavat, Jittima; Pitisuthitham, Arom; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Boonnak, Kobporn; Lapphra, Keswadee; Sabmee, Yupa; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Chinwangso, Pailinrut; Poredi, Indrajeet Kumar; Petre, Jean; Thai, Pham Hong; Viviani, Simonetta

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that protection induced by acellular pertussis vaccines is short-lived, requiring repeated booster vaccination to control pertussis disease. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant acellular pertussis vaccine containing genetically inactivated pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin, as either a monovalent vaccine (aP [PTgen/FHA] ) or in combination with tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria vaccines (TdaP [PTgen/FHA] ), versus a licensed tetanus and reduced-dose diphtheria and acellular pertussis combination vaccine (Tdap). We did this phase 2/3, randomised controlled non-inferiority trial at two sites in Bangkok, Thailand. Healthy adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were randomly assigned (1:1:1), via a computer-generated randomisation list with block sizes of three, to receive one dose (0·5 mL) of aP (PTgen/FHA) , TdaP (PTgen/FHA) , or Tdap (comparator). Clinical research staff responsible for participant randomisation, vaccine preparation and administration, and accountability were aware of group allocation. However, allocation was concealed from all other site study staff, data management personnel, statisticians, laboratory staff, and study participants. The primary outcome was non-inferior immunogenicity of TdaP (PTgen/FHA) to Tdap based on seroconversion rates (a four-fold increase or more) for pertussis toxin and filamentous haemagglutinin IgG antibodies 28 days after vaccination, with a predefined 10% margin of equivalence. We did analysis by per protocol. This study is registered with the Thai Clinical Trial Registry, number TCTR20150703002. Between July 6 and Aug 20, 2015, we allocated 450 participants to receive one dose of TdaP (PTgen/FHA) (n=150), aP (PTgen/FHA) (n=150), or comparator Tdap (n=150). 28 days after vaccination, seroconversion rates for anti-pertussis toxin IgG were 96·6% (95% CI 93·8-99·5; n=144) in the TdaP (PTgen/FHA) group and 55·0% (47·1-63·0; n=82) in the comparator Tdap

  6. A randomised trial to evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines in Singapore and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Fong Seng; Koh, Mia Tuang; Tan, Kah Kee; Chan, Poh Chong; Chong, Chia Yin; Shung Yehudi, Yeo Wee; Teoh, Yee Leong; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Hezareh, Marjan; Swinnen, Kristien; Borys, Dorota

    2014-10-02

    The immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) co-administered with routine childhood vaccines were evaluated among infants from Singapore and Malaysia, where PHiD-CV has been licensed. In the primary vaccination phase, 298 infants from Singapore and 168 infants from Malaysia were randomised to receive the Phase III Clinical (Clin) or the Commercial (Com) lot of PHiD-CV at 2, 3, and 5 months of age. In the booster vaccination phase, 238 toddlers from Singapore received one dose of the PHiD-CV Commercial lot at 18-21 months of age. Immune responses to pneumococcal polysaccharides were measured using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and functional opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) assay and to protein D, using ELISA. Immune responses induced by primary vaccination with the PHiD-CV Commercial lot were non-inferior to the Phase III Clinical lot in terms of adjusted antibody geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios for each vaccine pneumococcal serotype and protein D. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥93.6% and ≥88.5% of infants from Malaysia and Singapore had post-primary vaccination antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL and OPA titres ≥8, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. For each vaccine pneumococcal serotype, ≥60.8% and ≥98.2% of toddlers from Singapore had pre- and post-booster antibody concentrations ≥0.2 μg/mL, in the Clin and Com groups, respectively. All children, except one, had measurable anti-protein D antibodies and the primary and booster doses of the co-administered vaccines were immunogenic. The incidence of each grade 3 solicited symptom was ≤11.1% in both study phases. No serious adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported throughout the study. PHiD-CV given as three-dose primary vaccination to infants in Singapore and Malaysia and booster vaccination to toddlers in

  7. Enforced OX40 Stimulation Empowers Booster Vaccines to Induce Effective CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Responses against Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Panagioti, Eleni; Boon, Louis; Arens, Ramon; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2017-01-01

    There is an imperative need for effective preventive vaccines against human cytomegalovirus as it poses a significant threat to the immunologically immature, causing congenital disease, and to the immune compromised including transplant recipients. In this study, we examined the efficacy of synthetic long peptides (SLPs) as a CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-eliciting preventive vaccine approach against mouse CMV (MCMV) infection. In addition, the use of agonistic OX40 antibodies to enhance vaccine efficacy was explored. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated in a prime-boost vaccination regiment with SLPs comprising various MHC class I- and II-restricted peptide epitopes of MCMV-encoded antigens. Enforced OX40 stimulation resulted in superior MCMV-specific CD4+ as CD8+ T cell responses when applied during booster SLP vaccination. Vaccination with a mixture of SLPs containing MHC class II epitopes and OX40 agonistic antibodies resulted in a moderate reduction of the viral titers after challenge with lytic MCMV infection. Markedly, the combination of SLP vaccines containing both MHC class I and II epitopes plus OX40 activation during booster vaccination resulted in polyfunctional (i.e., IFN-γ+, TNF+, IL-2+) CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that were even higher in magnitude when compared to those induced by the virus, and this resulted in the best containment of virus dissemination. Our results show that the induction of strong T cell responses can be a fundamental component in the design of vaccines against persistent viral infections. PMID:28265272

  8. Reducing the dose of smallpox vaccine reduces vaccine-associated morbidity without reducing vaccination success rates or immune responses.

    PubMed

    Couch, Robert B; Winokur, Patricia; Edwards, Kathryn M; Black, Steven; Atmar, Robert L; Stapleton, Jack T; Kissner, Jennifer M; Shinefield, Henry; Denny, Thomas N; Bybel, Michael J; Newman, Frances K; Yan, Lihan

    2007-03-15

    When the decision was made to prepare for a deliberate release of smallpox, the United States had approximately 15 million doses of Wyeth Dryvax vaccine, which was known to induce significant morbidity when used undiluted; Sanofi Pasteur, Inc., later identified approximately 85 million additional doses in storage. Eleven vaccine-dose groups, each with 30 vaccinia-naive subjects, were given diluted Dryvax vaccine or 1 of 2 lots of Sanofi Pasteur smallpox vaccine and were evaluated for vaccination success rates, morbidity, and immune responses. Estimated doses of 10(6.6)-10(8.2) pfu of virus/mL induced major reactions (or "takes") in 93%-100% of subjects in each dose group. No differences in vaccination take rates, lesion size, erythema, and induration or in serum neutralizing-antibody response were detected between the groups. However, systemic reactogenicity and missed activities were significantly lower for the vaccine groups given doses of 10(6.6)-10(7.2) pfu/mL than for those given doses of 10(7.6)-10(8.2) pfu/mL. These findings support the use of a higher dilution of Wyeth Dryvax vaccine and Sanofi Pasteur smallpox vaccine, given that the resulting morbidity should be significantly lower without loss of vaccine effectiveness. A plan for use of higher dilutions would create an enormous stockpile of vaccine.

  9. A combined Haemophilus influenzae type B Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic and well-tolerated when coadministered with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus at 3, 5 and 11 months of age: results of an open, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Forstén, Aino; Desole, Maria Guiseppina; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Caubet, Magalie; Mesaros, Narcisa; Boutriau, Dominique

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of the combined Haemophilus influenzae type B Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenC-TT) coadministered with diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus (DTPa-HBV-IPV) as 2 primary and 1 booster doses at 3, 5 and 11 months of age. In this phase III open study (NCT00327184), 709 infants were randomized in 2 parallel groups (1:1) to receive either Hib-MenC-TT coadministered with DTPa-HBV-IPV or control vaccines (MenC-TT coadministered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib). Serum bactericidal activity for MenC (rSBA-MenC) and antibody concentrations against polyribosylribitol phosphate from Hib (anti-PRP) and hepatitis B (anti-HBs) were measured at 1 month after dose 2, before booster and 1 month after booster dose. Solicited (local/general) and unsolicited symptoms were assessed up to 4 and 31 days, respectively, after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. One month after dose 2, high percentages of infants in both groups had rSBA-MenC titers ≥ 8 (≥ 99.1%), anti-PRP concentrations ≥ 0.15 μg/mL (≥ 96.5%) and anti-HBs concentrations ≥ 10 mIU/mL (≥ 95.3%), which persisted up to the booster vaccination (≥ 94.5%, ≥ 86.1%, ≥ 94.2%) and increased again after the booster dose (100%, 100%, ≥ 99%). Exploratory analyses indicated that rSBA-MenC geometric mean titers were lower and anti-PRP geometric mean concentrations were higher in the infants vaccinated with Hib-MenC-TT compared with the control vaccines at all time points. The safety profiles of the coadministered vaccines were similar in both groups. The Hib-MenC-TT and DTPa-HBV-IPV vaccines are immunogenic with a clinically acceptable safety profile when coadministered as 2 primary doses during infancy and 1 booster dose at 11 months of age.

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage using two-dose or three-dose schedule criteria.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xia; Rodgers, Loren; Zhu, Liping; Stokley, Shannon; Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2017-10-13

    In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) updated the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination recommendation to include a 2-dose schedule for U.S. adolescents initiating the vaccine series before their 15th birthday. We analyzed records for >4million persons aged 9-17years receiving any HPV vaccine by the end of each quarter during January 1, 2014-September 30, 2016 from six Immunization Information Systems Sentinel Sites, and reclassified HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage according to the updated recommendations. Compared with HPV vaccination up-to-date coverage by the 3-dose schedule only, including criteria for either a 2-dose or 3-dose schedule increased up-to-date coverage in 11-12, 13-14, and 15-17 year-olds by 4.5-8.5 percentage points. The difference between 3-dose up-to-date coverage and 2- or 3-dose up-to-date coverage was greatest in late 2016. These data provide baseline HPV vaccination coverage using current ACIP recommendations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Design of a phase III multicenter trial to evaluate the efficacy of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in children across diverse transmission settings in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals and the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative are working in partnership to develop a malaria vaccine to protect infants and children living in malaria endemic regions of sub-Saharan Africa, which can be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization. The RTS,S/AS candidate vaccine has been evaluated in multiple phase I/II studies and shown to have a favourable safety profile and to be well-tolerated in both adults and children. This paper details the design of the phase III multicentre efficacy trial of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine candidate, which is pivotal for licensure and policy decision-making. Methods The phase III trial is a randomized, controlled, multicentre, participant- and observer-blind study on-going in 11 centres associated with different malaria transmission settings in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A minimum of 6,000 children in each of two age categories (6-12 weeks, 5-17 months) have been enrolled. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to one of three study groups: (1) primary vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 and booster dose of RTS,S/AS01; (2) primary vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 and a control vaccine at time of booster; (3) primary vaccination with control vaccine and a control vaccine at time of booster. Primary vaccination comprises three doses at monthly intervals; the booster dose is administered at 18 months post-primary course. Subjects will be followed to study month 32. The co-primary objectives are the evaluation of efficacy over one year post-dose 3 against clinical malaria when primary immunization is delivered at: (1) 6-12 weeks of age, with co-administration of DTPwHepB/Hib antigens and OPV; (2) 5-17 months of age. Secondary objectives include evaluation of vaccine efficacy against severe malaria, anaemia, malaria hospitalization, fatal malaria, all-cause mortality and other serious illnesses including sepsis and pneumonia. Efficacy of the vaccine against clinical malaria under different

  12. Vaccination coverage among social and healthcare workers in ten countries of Samu-social international sites.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Esaie; Salmon, Dominique; Bousfiha, Nadia; Togola, Yacouba; Ouedraogo, François; Santantonio, Maud; Dieng, Coumba Khadidja; Tartière, Suzanne; Emmanuelli, Xavier

    2017-09-18

    We aim to determine the vaccination coverage of social and healthcare workers in International sites of Samusocial, providing emergency care to homeless people, and to assess factors associated with having received necessary doses at adulthood. Data on immunization coverage of social and healthcare workers were provided by a cross-sectional survey, conducted from February to April 2015 among 252 Samusocial workers in 10 countries. Vaccination status and characteristics of participants were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rate ratio (PRR) of vaccination status was calculated using Poisson regression models. Among 252 Samusocial social and health workers who felt a questionnaire, median age was 39years, 42.1% were female, 88.9% were in contact with homeless beneficiaries (19.1% health workers). Overall, 90.1% of Samusocial staff felt adult vaccinations was useful and 70.2% wished to receive booster doses in future. Vaccination coverage at adulthood was satisfactory for diphtheria and poliomyelitis (96%), but low for influenza (20.8%), meningococcus (50.5%), hepatitis B (56.3%), yellow fever (58.1%), measles (81.3%) and pertussis (90.7%). The main reasons for not having received vaccination booster doses were forgetting the dates of booster doses (38.4%) and not having received the information (13.5%). In adjusted analysis, prevalence of up-to-date for vaccination schedule was 35% higher among health workers than among social workers (aPRR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.01-1.82, P=0.05) and was 56% higher among workers who had a documentary evidence of vaccination than in those who did not (aPRR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.19-2.02, P=0.001). The Samusocial International workers vaccine coverage at adulthood was insufficient and disparate by region. It is necessary to strengthen the outreach of this staff and increase immunization policy for hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus, and measles, as well as for yellow fever, rabies and meningococcal ACYW135 vaccines in at

  13. Replacing the Measles Ten-Dose Vaccine Presentation with the Single-Dose Presentation in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel S.; Norman, Bryan A.; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Wateska, Angela R.; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G.; Burke, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes entailed to deliver vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand’s Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (which Thailand is currently considering) and a single-dose measles vaccine. While the Trang province vaccine supply chain would generally have enough storage and transport capacity to accommodate the switches, the added volume could push some locations’ storage and transport space utilization close to their limits. Single-dose vaccines would allow for more precise ordering and decrease open vial waste, but decrease reserves for unanticipated demand. Moreover, the added disposal and administration costs could far outweigh the costs saved from preventing open vial wastage. PMID:21439313

  14. Update on invasive meningococcal vaccination for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Joan L

    2018-02-01

    Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is serious, often resulting in fulminant sepsis or meningitis. IMD in Canada is primarily attributable to serogroups B and C. There are routine programs for serogroup C vaccine at 12 months of age, with some jurisdictions routinely providing additional earlier doses. Adolescents routinely receive a booster dose of serogroup C vaccine or of a quadrivalent (serogroups A, C, W and Y) vaccine. Serogroup B vaccines are not recommended for routine use pending further data on the efficacy and duration of protection from the available vaccine. However, children at increased risk for IMD should start immunization for serogroups B and C as soon as possible, assuming that they are at least 2 months of age.

  15. The effectiveness of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine in The Gambia 14 years after introduction.

    PubMed

    Howie, Stephen R C; Oluwalana, Claire; Secka, Ousman; Scott, Susana; Ideh, Readon C; Ebruke, Bernard E; Balloch, Anne; Sambou, Sana; Erskine, James; Lowe, Yamundow; Corrah, Tumani; Adegbola, Richard A

    2013-12-01

    The Gambia was the first country in Africa to introduce conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which, as in other developing countries but unlike industrialized countries, is delivered as a 3-dose primary series with no booster. This study assessed its effectiveness 14 years after introduction. Using methods standardized during >20 years in the study site, clinical and microbiological surveillance for invasive Hib disease (primarily meningitis) in the Western Region of The Gambia from 2007 to 2010 was complemented with studies of Hib carriage in children aged 1 to <2 years, Hib antibody levels in children aged <5 years, and Hib vaccine coverage and timing in children aged 1 to <2 years. The incidence of Hib meningitis remained low (averaging 1.3 per 100 000 children aged <5 years annually), as did the Hib oropharyngeal carriage rate (0.9%). Hib antibody levels were protective in >99% of those surveyed, albeit with lower titers in older children; and coverage of conjugate Hib vaccination was high (91% having 3 doses at 1-2 years of age) using a schedule that was delivered at median ages of 2.6 months, 4.3 months, and 6 months for the first, second, and third doses, respectively. Conjugate Hib vaccine was delivered on time in a 3-dose primary series without booster to a high proportion of eligible children and this was associated with effective disease control up to 14 years after introduction. It is important that surveillance continues in this first African country to introduce the vaccine to determine if effective control persists or if a booster dose becomes necessary as has been the case in industrialized countries.

  16. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A single center, open label study of intradermal administration of an inactivated purified chick embryo cell culture rabies virus vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Recuenco, Sergio; Warnock, Eli; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2017-08-03

    In the USA, rabies vaccines (RVs) are licensed for intramuscular (IM) use only, although RVs are licensed for use by the intradermal (ID) route in many other countries. Recent limitations in supplies of RV in the USA reopened discussions on the more efficient use of available biologics, including utilization of more stringent risk assessments, and potential ID RV administration. A clinical trial was designed to compare the immunogenic and adverse effects of a purified chicken embryo cell (PCEC) RV administered ID or IM. Enrollment was designed in four arms, ID Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Pre-EP), IM Pre-EP, ID Booster, and IM Booster vaccination. Enrollment included 130 adult volunteers. The arms with IM administration received vaccine according to the current ACIP recommendations: Pre-EP, three 1mL (2.5 I.U.) RV doses, each on day 0, 7, and 21; or a routine Booster, one 1ml dose. The ID groups received the same schedule, but doses administered were in a volume of 0.1mL (0.25 I.U.). The rate of increase in rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers 14-21days after vaccination were similar in the ID and correspondent IM groups. The GMT values for ID vaccination were slightly lower than those for IM vaccination, for both naïve and booster groups, and these differences were statistically significant by t-test. Fourteen days after completing vaccination, all individuals developed RV neutralizing antibody titers over the minimum arbitrary value obtained with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Antibodies were over the set threshold until the end of the trial, 160days after completed vaccination. No serious adverse reactions were reported. Most frequent adverse reactions were erythema, induration and tenderness, localized at the site of injection. Multi use of 1mL rabies vaccine vials for ID doses of 0.1 was demonstrated to be both safe and inmunogenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and immunogenicity of ricin vaccine, RVEc™, in a Phase 1 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Phillip R; Reisler, Ronald B; Lindsey, Changhong Y; Güereña, Fernando; Rivard, Robert; Clizbe, Denise P; Chambers, Matthew; Norris, Sarah; Smith, Leonard A

    2015-12-16

    Ricin is a potent toxin and potential bioterrorism weapon for which no specific licensed countermeasures are available. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the ricin vaccine RVEc™ in a Phase 1 (N=30) multiple-dose, open-label, non-placebo-controlled, dose-escalating (20, 50, and 100μg), single-center study. Each subject in the 20- and 50-μg dose groups (n=10 for each group) received three injections at 4-week intervals and was observed carefully for untoward effects of the vaccine; blood was drawn at predetermined intervals after each dose for up to 1 year. RVEc™ was safe and well tolerated at the 20- and 50-μg doses. The most common adverse events were pain at the injection site and headache. Of the 10 subjects who received a single 100-μg dose, two developed elevated creatine phosphokinase levels, which resolved without sequelae. No additional doses were administered to subjects in the 100-μg group. Immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated by measuring antibody response using the well standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and toxin neutralization assay (TNA). Of the subjects in the 20- and 50-μg dose groups, 100% achieved ELISA anti-ricin IgG titers of 1:500 to 1:121,500 and 50% produced neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies measurable by TNA. Four subjects in the 50-μg group received a single booster dose of RVEc™ 20-21 months after the initial dose. The single booster was safe and well tolerated, resulting in no serious adverse events, and significantly enhanced immunogenicity of the vaccine in human subjects. Each booster recipient developed a robust anamnestic response with ELISA anti-ricin IgG titers of 1:13,500 to 1:121,500 and neutralizing antibody titers of 1:400 to 1:3200. Future studies will attempt to optimize dose, scheduling, and route of administration. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01317667 and NCT01846104). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Mumps outbreak in Israel's highly vaccinated society: are two doses enough?

    PubMed

    Anis, E; Grotto, I; Moerman, L; Warshavsky, B; Slater, P E; Lev, B

    2012-03-01

    Mumps outbreaks in recent years have given rise to questions about the effectiveness of the mumps vaccine. This study examined the epidemiological data from a recent mumps outbreak in Israel and from outbreaks in other countries with high vaccination coverage, and considered whether long-established vaccination policies designed to protect against mumps are in need of revision. Of over 5000 case patients in the Israeli outbreak, half of whom were in the Jerusalem health district, nearly 40% were aged ≥15 years and, of those whose vaccination status was known, 78% had been fully vaccinated for their age - features similar to those in recent mumps outbreaks in Europe and North America. The epidemiological and laboratory evidence suggests that many previously vaccinated adolescents and young adults are now susceptible to mumps because their vaccine-based immunity has waned. Booster vaccination programmes for those at high risk of infection during mumps outbreaks - particularly those in congregate living environments - merit priority consideration.

  20. A phase III, open-label, randomised multicentre study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of two different reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-polio vaccines, when co-administered with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in 3 and 4-year-old healthy children in the UK.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Robin; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Mesaros, Narcisa; Han, Htay Htay; Tomlinson, Richard; Faust, Saul N; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J; Finn, Adam

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a reduced antigen diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus (dTap-IPV B ) vaccine (Boostrix-IPV, GSK) as a pre-school booster in 3-4 year old children as compared to dTap-IPV R (Repevax, Sanofi Pasteur), when co-administered with mumps-measles-rubella vaccine (MMRV). This phase III, open label, randomised study was conducted in the UK between April 2011 and April 2012. Children due their pre-school dTap-IPV booster vaccination were randomised 2:1 to receive one of two different dTap-IPV vaccines (dTap-IPV B or dTap-IPV R ) with blood sample for immunogenicity assessment just prior and one month after vaccination. Immune responses to diphtheria, tetanus and polio antigens were compared between the study vaccines (inferential comparison). In the absence of an accepted pertussis correlate of protection, the immunogenicity of dTap-IPV B vaccine against pertussis was compared with historical pertussis efficacy data (inferential comparison). Safety and reactogenicity of both study vaccines were evaluated. 387 children were randomised and 385 vaccinated: 255 in the dTap-IPV B group and 130 in the dTap-IPV R group. Prior to vaccination, ≥76.8% of children had anti-diphtheria and ≥65.5% had anti-tetanus titres above the protection threshold; for pertussis, the pre-vaccination seropositivity rate ranged between 18.1 and 70.6%. Both vaccines were immunogenic with 99.2-100% of children achieving titres above the pre-specified seroprotection/seropositivity thresholds. One serious adverse event not considered as causally related to the study vaccination by the study investigator was reported in the dTap-IPV B group. Non-inferiority of dTap-IPV B to dTap-IPV R was demonstrated. Both vaccines had a clinically acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile when co-administered with MMRV to children 3-4 years old. NCT01245049 (ClinicalTrials.gov). Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All

  1. Comparison of anamnestic responses to rabies vaccination in dogs and cats with current and out-of-date vaccination status.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael C; Davis, Rolan D; Kang, Qing; Vahl, Christopher I; Wallace, Ryan M; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Mosier, Derek A

    2015-01-15

    To compare anamnestic antibody responses of dogs and cats with current versus out-of-date vaccination status. Cross-sectional study. 74 dogs and 33 cats. Serum samples were obtained from dogs and cats that had been exposed to rabies and brought to a veterinarian for proactive serologic monitoring or that had been brought to a veterinarian for booster rabies vaccination. Blood samples were collected on the day of initial evaluation (day 0) and then again 5 to 15 days later. On day 0, a rabies vaccine was administered according to label recommendations. Paired serum samples were analyzed for antirabies antibodies by means of a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. All animals had an antirabies antibody titer ≥ 0.5 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Dogs with an out-of-date vaccination status had a higher median increase in titer, higher median fold increase in titer, and higher median titer following booster vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Most (26/33) cats, regardless of rabies vaccination status, had a titer ≥ 12 IU/mL 5 to 15 days after booster vaccination. Results indicated that dogs with out-of-date vaccination status were not inferior in their antibody response following booster rabies vaccination, compared with dogs with current vaccination status. Findings supported immediate booster vaccination followed by observation for 45 days of dogs and cats with an out-of-date vaccination status that are exposed to rabies, as is the current practice for dogs and cats with current vaccination status.

  2. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in The Gambia 14 years after introduction of routine Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine immunization.

    PubMed

    Oluwalana, Claire; Howie, Stephen R C; Secka, Ousman; Ideh, Readon C; Ebruke, Bernard; Sambou, Sana; Erskine, James; Lowe, Yamundow; Corrah, Tumani; Adegbola, Richard A

    2013-07-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine was first introduced in Africa in The Gambia in 1997 as a primary 3-dose course in infancy with no booster, and was followed by the disappearance of invasive Hib disease by 2002. A cluster of cases detected non-systematically in post-infant children in 2005-2006 raised the question of the need for a booster dose. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of invasive Hib disease in Gambian children 14 years after the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine. This hospital-based clinical and microbiological Hib disease surveillance in 3 hospitals in the western region of The Gambia was undertaken between October 2007 and December 2010 applying the same methods used in a previous Hib vaccine effectiveness study in 1997-2002. The annual incidences of Hib meningitis and all invasive Hib disease in children aged <5 years remained below 5 cases per 100,000 children during 2008-2010. The median age of patients with any invasive Hib disease was 5 months. Hib conjugate vaccination as a primary 3-dose course in The Gambia remains highly effective in controlling invasive Hib disease, and current data do not support the introduction of a booster dose. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a novel pneumococcal protein-based vaccine in adults: a phase I/II randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Leroux-Roels, Geert; Maes, Cathy; De Boever, Fien; Traskine, Magali; Rüggeberg, Jens U; Borys, Dorota

    2014-11-28

    New vaccines containing highly conserved Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins such as pneumolysin toxoid (dPly) and histidine-triad protein D (PhtD) are being developed to provide broader protection against pneumococcal disease. This study evaluated the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of different pneumococcal protein-containing formulations in adults. In a phase I double-blind study (www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00707798), healthy adults (18-40 years) were randomized (1:2:2:2:2:2:2) to receive two doses of one of six investigational vaccine formulations 2 months apart, or a single dose of the control 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV; Pneumovax23™, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) followed by placebo. The investigational formulations contained dPly alone (10 or 30 μg), or both dPly and PhtD (10 or 30 μg each) alone or combined with the polysaccharide conjugates of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix™, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines). Two groups primed with a formulation containing dPly and PhtD (10 or 30 μg each) continued to the follow-up phase II study (NCT00896064), in which they received a booster dose at 5-9 months after primary vaccination. Of 156 enrolled and vaccinated adults, 146 completed the primary immunization and 43 adults received a booster dose. During primary and booster vaccination, for any formulation, ≤ 8.9% of doses were followed by grade 3 solicited local or general adverse events. No fever >39.5°C (oral temperature) was reported. Unsolicited adverse events considered causally related to vaccination were reported following ≤ 33.3% of investigational vaccine doses. No serious adverse events were reported for adults receiving investigational vaccine formulations. Formulations containing dPly with or without PhtD were immunogenic for these antigens; polysaccharide conjugate-containing formulations were also immunogenic for those 10 polysaccharides

  4. Cost-effectiveness of human papilloma virus vaccination in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Oddsson, Kristjan; Johannsson, Jakob; Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Gudnason, Thorolfur

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the likely cost-effectiveness of introducing routine HPV vaccination in Iceland. Prospective cost-effectiveness analysis of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. Population of 12-year-old girls in the Icelandic population. A model was developed, comparing a cohort of all 12-year-old girls alive in year 2006, with or without vaccination. The model was based on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Iceland and its premalignant stages as well as the costs involved in the treatment of each stage, assuming that the vaccines only prevent infections caused by HPV 16/18 at an efficacy of 95% and participation rate of 90%, no catch-up vaccination, no vaccination of boys and no booster dose needed. All costs were calculated on the basis of the price level of mid-year 2006 with a 3% discount rate. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio calculations were performed and sensitivity analysis was carried out on factors most relevant for cost-effectiveness. Vaccination costs in excess of savings would be about euro313.000/year. Vaccination would reduce the number of women diagnosed with cervical cancer by almost 9, prevent the death of 1.7 women and result in 16.9 quality-adjusted life years gained annually. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated to be about euro18.500/quality-adjusted life year saved. HPV vaccination seems to be cost-effective in Iceland, but this was sensitive to various parameters in the model, mainly the discount rate, the price of the vaccines and the need for a booster dose.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of an investigational multicomponent, recombinant, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered concomitantly with routine infant and child vaccinations: results of two randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Vesikari, Timo; Esposito, Susanna; Prymula, Roman; Ypma, Ellen; Kohl, Igor; Toneatto, Daniela; Dull, Peter; Kimura, Alan

    2013-03-09

    Meningococcal serogroup B disease disproportionately affects infants. We assessed lot-to-lot consistency, safety and immunogenicity, and the effect of concomitant vaccination on responses to routine vaccines of an investigational multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) in this population. We did primary and booster phase 3 studies between March 31, 2008, and Aug 16, 2010, in 70 sites in Europe. We used two series of sponsor-supplied, computer-generated randomisation envelopes to allocate healthy 2 month-old infants to receive routine vaccinations (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, hepatitis B plus Haemophilus influenzae type b, and seven-valent pneumococcal vaccine) at 2, 4, and 6 months of age alone, or concomitantly with 4CMenB or serogroup C conjugate vaccine (MenC) in: 1) an open-label, lot-to-lot immunogenicity and safety substudy of three 4CMenB lots compared with routine vaccines alone (1:1:1:1, block size eight); or 2) an observer-blind, lot-to-lot safety substudy of three 4CMenB lots compared with MenC (1:1:1:3, block size six). At 12 months, 4CMenB-primed children from either substudy were randomised (1:1, block size two) to receive 4CMenB booster, with or without measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine. Immunogenicity was assessed by serum bactericidal assay with human complement (hSBA) against serogroup B test strains, and on randomly selected subsets of serum samples for routine vaccines; laboratory personnel were masked to assignment. The first coprimary outcome was lot-to-lot consistency (hSBA geometric mean ratio of all lots between 0·5 and 2·0), and the second was an immune response (hSBA titre ≥5) for each of the three strains. The primary outcome for the booster study was immune response to booster dose. Immunogenicity data for 4CMenB were for the modified intention-to-treat population, including all infants from the open-label substudy who provided serum samples. The safety population included all participants

  6. Vaxchora: A Single-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Adriana; Lepage, Jayne E; Sullivan, Karyn M; Seed, Sheila M

    2017-07-01

    To review trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of Vaxchora, a reformulated, single-dose, oral, lyophilized Vibrio cholerae CVD 103-HgR vaccine for the prevention of travel-related cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1946 to January week 3, 2017) and EMBASE (1996 to 2017 week 3). Keywords included oral cholera vaccine, single-dose, Vaxchora, and CVD 103-HgR. Limits included human, clinical trials published in English since 2010. ClinicalTrials.gov was used as a source for unpublished data. Additional data sources were obtained through bibliographic review of selected articles. Studies that addressed the safety and efficacy of Vaxchora, the reformulated, single-dose oral CVD 103-HgR cholera vaccine, were selected for analysis. Approval of Vaxchora, was based on efficacy of the vaccine in human trials demonstrating 90.3% protection among those challenged with V cholerae 10 days after vaccination and in immunogenicity studies with 90% systemic vibriocidal antibody conversion at 6 months after a single-dose of vaccine. Tolerability was acceptable, with the most common adverse effects reported to be fatigue, headache, and abdominal pain. Vaxchora is the only FDA-approved, single-dose oral vaccine for the prevention of cholera caused by V cholerae serogroup O1 in adult travelers from the United States going to cholera-affected areas. Safety and efficacy has not been established in children, immunocompromised persons, and pregnant or breastfeeding women or those living in cholera-endemic areas.

  7. Intradermal vaccination of adults with three low doses (2 micrograms) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. II. Persistence of immunity and induction of immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Elisbão, Maria do Carmo M; Baldy, José Luís da S; Bonametti, Ana Maria; Reiche, Edna Maria V; Morimoto, Helena K; Pontello, Rubens; Matsuo, Tiemi; Ferelle, Antônio; Neves, Jayme

    2003-12-01

    Of the 110 dentists who had presented seroconversion 50 days after the intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B (HB), administered eight years before at an interval of one month between the 1st and 2nd doses and of five months between the 2nd and 3rd doses, 51 were included for the assessment of the persistence of immunity. None of the dentists had hepatitis or had received HB vaccine during this period. All subjects were submitted to serological tests for the detection of the following markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection: HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBs, with no HBsAg, anti-HBc, HBeAg or anti-HBe being detected. A microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) revealed the presence of anti-HBs at protective titers (> or = 10 mIU/ml) in 42 dentists (82.4%), with the anti-HBs titer being higher than 100 mIU/ml in 36 of them (70.6%) (good responders), between 10 and 100 mIU/ml in 6 (11.8%) (poor responders), and lower than 10 mIU/ml in 9 (17.6%) (non-responders). According to clinical data and serological tests, none of the dentists had presented disease or latent HBV infection during the eight years following the first vaccination. A 2 micrograms booster dose was administered intradermally to eight dentists with anti-HBs titers lower than 10 mIU/ml (non-responders) and to six dentists with titers ranging from 10 to 100 mIU/ml (poor responders); the determination of anti-HBs one month later demonstrated the occurrence of seroconversion in the eight non-responders and an increase in anti-HBs titer in the six poor responders. In summary, the present results demonstrated the prolonged persistence of protection against HBV infection and the development of immunologic memory provided by vaccination against HB--with intradermal application of three 2 micrograms doses of the Belgian recombinant vaccine at 0, 1, and 6 months--carried out eight years before in 51 dentists.

  8. A randomized trial of alternative two- and three-dose hepatitis B vaccination regimens in adolescents: antibody responses, safety, and immunologic memory.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, W M; Watson, B; Ioli, V A; Williams, K; Bird, S; West, D J

    2001-04-01

    Hoping to increase hepatitis B (HB) vaccination of adolescents, we did the following: 1) studied if modified regimens of the recombinant HB vaccine, Recombivax HB (2 or 3 doses of 5 or 10 microg given over 4 or 6 months), induce protective anti-hepatitis B surface antibody [anti-HBsAb] levels (>/=10 mIU/mL) comparable to the recommended regimen (5 microg at 0 and 1, and 6 months); 2) measured early antibody response after a single dose; and 3) assessed immunologic memory after 2- and 3-dose regimens. One thousand twenty-six adolescents were randomized to 1 of 5 treatment groups (10 microg at 0 and 4 or 0 and 6 months; 5 microg at 0 and 6 or 0, 2, and 4 or 0, 1, and 6 months) in an open trial. Anti-HBsAb was measured in all participants just before and 1 month after the last dose, and at several other times in a subset of vaccinees. Anti-HBsAb response to a booster dose 2 years later was examined to assess immunologic memory in participants vaccinated with 5 microg at 0 and 6 or 0, 1, and 6 months. All regimens induced >/=10 mIU/mL of anti-HBs in >/=95% of vaccinees. Geometric mean titers ranged from 674.8 to 3049.4 mIU/mL. Geometric mean titers were higher with regimens using the following: 1) 10 versus 5 microg; 2) 3 versus 2 doses; and 3) vaccination intervals of 6 versus 4 months. After 6 months, 63.8% of vaccinees given one 10-microg dose had >/=10 mIU/mL of anti-HBsAb versus 41.6% after one 5-microg dose. Participants vaccinated with either two or three 5-microg doses retained robust immunologic memory. . The results of this study show that a 2-dose regimen of Recombivax HB is as immunogenic and induces immunologic memory as effectively as the recommended 3-dose regimen. A regimen of two 10-microg doses may be of significant benefit for vaccinees who are poorly compliant or deviate from the intended vaccination schedule.

  9. Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine (Zostavax(®)): A Review in the Prevention of Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-06-01

    Zostavax(®) is a live attenuated shingles (herpes zoster) vaccine approved in the EU for the prevention of herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in adults aged ≥50 years. Zoster vaccine protected against HZ in adults aged 50-59 years (ZEST trial) and ≥60 years [Shingles Prevention Study (SPS)], and also reduced the burden of illness associated with HZ and the risk of PHN in adults aged ≥60 years (SPS). A large amount of real-world data also supports the efficacy of zoster vaccine. Results of the SPS Short- and Long-Term Persistence Substudies and real-world studies indicate that zoster vaccine provided continued benefit in the longer term, albeit with a gradual decline in vaccine efficacy over time; long-term effectiveness studies are ongoing. The need for a booster dose is still unknown, but a study showed that, if necessary, a booster dose administered to adults aged ≥70 years who received their first dose of zoster vaccine ≥10 years previously was immunogenic. Zoster vaccine had a favourable safety and tolerability profile, with the most commonly reported adverse events being non-severe injection-site reactions. In conclusion, zoster vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ and PHN, thereby reducing the burden of illness associated with HZ; improved uptake of zoster vaccine is needed.

  10. The immunizing effect and reactogenicity of two live attenuated mumps virus vaccines in Swedish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Christenson, B; Heller, L; Böttiger, M

    1983-10-01

    An evaluation of the seroconversion and booster effects after vaccination with two different mumps vaccines, the Urabe Am 9 strain and the Jeryl Lynn strain, was carried out in schoolchildren. Four hundred and fifty-four schoolchildren aged 11 to 12 years with no previous history of mumps or mumps vaccination were enrolled for the study. The antibody responses were measured by serum neutralization (SN) and haemolysis-in-gel (HIG) tests. Of the 454 subjects, 130 were found to be initially seronegative. Two lots of different strengths of each vaccine were used to evaluate the relationships. The Urabe Am 9 vaccine lots had infectivity titres of 100 000 and 19 000 TCID50 per dose and the Jeryl Lynn vaccine titres of 59 000 and 28 000 TCID50 per dose. Only slight differences in seroconversion rates were seen between the lots. The overall seroconversion rate, measured by SN, was 94% for the Urabe Am 9 vaccine and 91% for the Jeryl Lynn vaccine, whereas the geometric mean titre for virus-neutralizing antibody in seroconverting children was 7.4 with the Urabe Am 9 vaccine and 10.7 with the Jeryl Lynn vaccine. In children who were seropositive prior to vaccination, a marked rise in antibody titre was found 8 weeks after vaccine injection indicating a booster effect. The miscellaneous post-vaccination side-effects were mild and inconsequential.

  11. The Effectiveness of Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae Type B Vaccine in The Gambia 14 Years After Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Howie, Stephen R. C.; Oluwalana, Claire; Secka, Ousman; Scott, Susana; Ideh, Readon C.; Ebruke, Bernard E.; Balloch, Anne; Sambou, Sana; Erskine, James; Lowe, Yamundow; Corrah, Tumani; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Gambia was the first country in Africa to introduce conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which, as in other developing countries but unlike industrialized countries, is delivered as a 3-dose primary series with no booster. This study assessed its effectiveness 14 years after introduction. Methods. Using methods standardized during >20 years in the study site, clinical and microbiological surveillance for invasive Hib disease (primarily meningitis) in the Western Region of The Gambia from 2007 to 2010 was complemented with studies of Hib carriage in children aged 1 to <2 years, Hib antibody levels in children aged <5 years, and Hib vaccine coverage and timing in children aged 1 to <2 years. Results. The incidence of Hib meningitis remained low (averaging 1.3 per 100 000 children aged <5 years annually), as did the Hib oropharyngeal carriage rate (0.9%). Hib antibody levels were protective in >99% of those surveyed, albeit with lower titers in older children; and coverage of conjugate Hib vaccination was high (91% having 3 doses at 1–2 years of age) using a schedule that was delivered at median ages of 2.6 months, 4.3 months, and 6 months for the first, second, and third doses, respectively. Conclusions. Conjugate Hib vaccine was delivered on time in a 3-dose primary series without booster to a high proportion of eligible children and this was associated with effective disease control up to 14 years after introduction. It is important that surveillance continues in this first African country to introduce the vaccine to determine if effective control persists or if a booster dose becomes necessary as has been the case in industrialized countries. PMID:24046305

  12. Intradermal Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: A Preclinical Dose-Finding Study

    PubMed Central

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial vaccine doses induced antibodies at titers comparable to those after immunization with full human dose delivered intramuscularly. The results suggest that intradermal delivery of IPV may lead to dose-sparing effect and reduction of the vaccination cost. PMID:25391313

  13. The Duration of Intestinal Immunity After an Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Booster Dose in Children Immunized With Oral Vaccine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    John, Jacob; Giri, Sidhartha; Karthikeyan, Arun S; Lata, Dipti; Jeyapaul, Shalini; Rajan, Anand K; Kumar, Nirmal; Dhanapal, Pavithra; Venkatesan, Jayalakshmi; Mani, Mohanraj; Hanusha, Janardhanan; Raman, Uma; Moses, Prabhakar D; Abraham, Asha; Bahl, Sunil; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Ahmad, Mohammad; Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In 2014, 2 studies showed that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) boosts intestinal immunity in children previously immunized with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). As a result, IPV was introduced in mass campaigns to help achieve polio eradication. Methods We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to assess the duration of the boost in intestinal immunity following a dose of IPV given to OPV-immunized children. Nine hundred healthy children in Vellore, India, aged 1–4 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive IPV at 5 months (arm A), at enrollment (arm B), or no vaccine (arm C). The primary outcome was poliovirus shedding in stool 7 days after bivalent OPV challenge at 11 months. Results For children in arms A, B, and C, 284 (94.7%), 297 (99.0%), and 296 (98.7%), respectively, were eligible for primary per-protocol analysis. Poliovirus shedding 7 days after challenge was less prevalent in arms A and B compared with C (24.6%, 25.6%, and 36.4%, respectively; risk ratio 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.53–0.87] for A versus C, and 0.70 [0.55–0.90] for B versus C). Conclusions Protection against poliovirus remained elevated 6 and 11 months after an IPV boost, although at a lower level than reported at 1 month. Clinical Trials Registration CTRI/2014/09/004979. PMID:28003352

  14. Humoral and B-cell memory responses in children five years after pertussis acellular vaccine priming.

    PubMed

    Carollo, Maria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Tozzi, Alberto Eugenio; Buisman, Anne-Marie; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2014-04-11

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts in understanding the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of humoral and B-cell memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac(®) vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa(®) (Infanrix) (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated the specific immune responses in the two groups of children, 5 years after primary vaccination by measuring the persistence of IgG and antibody secreting cells (ASC) specific for vaccine antigens. Part of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. A similar level of antigen-specific IgG and ASC was found in Infanrix and Hexavac vaccinated children. The mean IgG levels were significantly higher in children that received the pre-school boost as compared with children that did not receive the boost dose. A longer persistence after the pre-school boost of IgG-Pertussis Toxin (PT) and IgG-pertactin levels was observed in Infanrix primed children, but it was not statistically significant. More than 80% of children presented a positive ASC B memory response. Around 50% of children still presented protective IgG-PT levels which are reduced to 36% in no-boosted children. The pre-school booster dose restores the percentage of protected children above 50%. In conclusion our data underline the importance of giving a booster dose 5 years after primary vaccination and suggest the need for a new vaccine able to induce a long lasting protective response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Peripheral neuropathy following administration of nerve tissue antirabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Arega, D; Zenebe, G

    1999-10-01

    In 1997, two patients were admitted to Tikur Anbessa Hospital with complaints of ascending paralysis in all extremities following administration of sheep brain tissue anti-rabies vaccine following a rabies exposure. The paralysis had started after 14 daily subcutaneous injections of the Fermi type nerve tissue vaccine. After an eight week stay in the hospital with supportive care and physiotherapy, the patients showed remarkable improvement. They received a booster dose of vaccine while in the hospital, with no deterioration in their neurological status and were discharged.

  16. Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Releases NCI News Note Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose ... that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody ...

  17. Alternative early life vaccination programs for companion animals.

    PubMed

    Poulet, H

    2007-07-01

    An experimental challenge study of multicomponent vaccination of kittens is reported. Seven-to-nine week old, specific pathogen-free kittens received two injections (4 weeks apart) of non-adjuvanted, multicomponent vaccine formulated at the minimum protective dose. Kittens were challenged at 4 weeks or 1 year post-vaccination with individual infectious agents. Vaccination induced complete protection against challenge from feline parvovirus on both occasions, but at 1 year, the protection against feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus and Chlamydophila felis was not as strong as 4 weeks after vaccination. This demonstration of a decline in protective immunity at the normal time of administration of the first booster vaccine suggests that earlier administration of this booster (at 4-6 months of age) may provide better protection. The effect of maternally derived antibody (MDA) on kitten vaccination was determined by conducting an identical experiment but with kittens born to queens vaccinated during pregnancy. Serum antibody titres to specific vaccine components were measured in these kittens on day 0 (time of first vaccination), day 28 (time of second vaccination) and day 42. There was heterogeneity in transfer of MDA to kittens within a litter, and between litters. MDA may neutralize the serological response of kittens on the first, and occasionally the second, occasion of vaccination when vaccination is performed at 8 and 12 weeks of age. This finding underpins recent recommendations that the final vaccination in the primary series be administered at 16 weeks of age.

  18. Efficacy of vaccination with La Sota strain vaccine to control Newcastle disease in village chickens in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sulochana; Dhawan, Mamta; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste

    2017-02-01

    The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R 2 B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log 2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log 2 HI units following booster vaccination with R 2 B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine. Both vaccines provided 100% protection against challenge with a local field ND strain. Furthermore, booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine induced protective levels of antibody after field use in villages in Jhapa, and no outbreaks of ND occurred during the study period. The ND La Sota modified live vaccine is immunogenic and efficacious and is a suitable vaccine for use in vaccination programmes in village chickens in the rural areas of Nepal.

  19. Study of antirabies immunization of man; observations with HEP Flury and other vaccines, with and without hyperimmune serum, in primary and recall immunizations.

    PubMed

    FOX, J P; KOPROWSKI, H; CONWELL, D P; BLACK, J; GELFAND, H M

    1957-01-01

    Detailed results are presented of primary immunizations of 387 persons with various courses of HEP Flury vaccine and of 54 persons with Harris- or Semple-type vaccines. Antibody response to HEP Flury vaccine was at least as rapid as that to the conventional type, but fell short in uniformity and level of response. The most promising course involved a 4-dose schedule, intradermal alone or combined with intramuscular, at 5-day intervals. A similar subcutaneous course of Semple vaccine yielded results completely equivalent to those of a 14-dose course of Harris vaccine. It is concluded that, although living, the HEP Flury virus does not multiply in man and that its lesser antigenic potency, as compared with Semple or Harris vaccines, is due to its relatively small content of viral antigen.Further evidence has been obtained that hyperimmune serum may exert a slight suppressive effect on active response, but the opinion is expressed that, with vaccines of full potency, this will not be of practical significance.Restimulation of immunity by a booster dose of HEP Flury vaccine was studied in 64 experimentally immunized persons and in 136 persons with history of previous Pasteur treatment. In both instances small intradermal inocula were as effective as larger intramuscular inocula in recalling pre-existing immunity.Study of recipients of Pasteur treatment indicated that antibody commonly persists for at least 5 years after a single course and for 15 or more years after re-treatment. It was also observed that the ability to respond to a booster of HEP Flury vaccine persists for at least 25 years. The response elicited by the booster is prompt and is usually at least equal to that resulting from a full primary course. The suggested conclusion is that previously treated persons need not receive more than a single booster on re-exposure, and that Pasteur treatment provides a solid basis for long-sustained immunity.

  20. Development of the PANVAC-VF vaccine for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Petrulio, Christian A; Kaufman, Howard L

    2006-02-01

    PANVAC-VF is a vaccine regimen composed of a priming dose of recombinant vaccinia virus and booster doses of recombinant fowlpox virus expressing carcinoembryonic antigen, mucin-1 and a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM), which include B7.1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte function-associated antigen-3. Vaccination is administered by subcutaneous injection followed by 4 days of local recombinant adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor at the vaccination site. The vaccine has been developed for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and has now entered a randomized Phase III clinical trial. This review will describe the background of recombinant poxvirus technology for tumor vaccine development, detail the key preclinical studies supporting the regimen, review the clinical trials supporting the current Phase III study, and highlight the key challenges and future obstacles to successful implementation of PANVAC-VF for pancreatic cancer.

  1. Improving birth dose coverage of hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Hipgrave, David B.; Maynard, James E.; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-01-01

    Administration of a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB vaccine) to neonates is recommended to prevent mother-to-infant transmission and chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Although manufacturers recommend HepB vaccine distribution and storage at 2-8 degrees C, recognition of the heat stability of hepatitis B surface antigen stimulated research into its use after storage at, or exposure to, ambient or high temperatures. Storage of HepB vaccine at ambient temperatures would enable birth dosing for neonates delivered at home in remote areas or at health posts lacking refrigeration. This article reviews the current evidence on the thermostability of HepB vaccine when stored outside the cold chain (OCC). The reports reviewed show that the vaccines studied were safe and effective whether stored cold or OCC. Field and laboratory data also verifies the retained potency of the vaccine after exposure to heat. The attachment of a highly stable variety of a vaccine vial monitor (measuring cumulative exposure to heat) on many HepB vaccines strongly supports policies allowing their storage OCC, when this will benefit birth dose coverage. We recommend that this strategy be introduced to improve birth dose coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. Concurrent monitoring and evaluation should be undertaken to affirm the safe implementation of this strategy, and assess its cost, feasibility and effect on reducing HBV infection rates. Meanwhile, release of manufacturer data verifying the potency of currently available HepB vaccines after exposure to heat will increase confidence in the use of vaccine vial monitors as a managerial tool during storage of HepB vaccine OCC. PMID:16501717

  2. A qualitatively validated mathematical-computational model of the immune response to the yellow fever vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Carla R B; Fernandes, Guilherme C; Dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Lobosco, Marcelo

    2018-05-25

    Although a safe and effective yellow fever vaccine was developed more than 80 years ago, several issues regarding its use remain unclear. For example, what is the minimum dose that can provide immunity against the disease? A useful tool that can help researchers answer this and other related questions is a computational simulator that implements a mathematical model describing the human immune response to vaccination against yellow fever. This work uses a system of ten ordinary differential equations to represent a few important populations in the response process generated by the body after vaccination. The main populations include viruses, APCs, CD8+ T cells, short-lived and long-lived plasma cells, B cells and antibodies. In order to qualitatively validate our model, four experiments were carried out, and their computational results were compared to experimental data obtained from the literature. The four experiments were: a) simulation of a scenario in which an individual was vaccinated against yellow fever for the first time; b) simulation of a booster dose ten years after the first dose; c) simulation of the immune response to the yellow fever vaccine in individuals with different levels of naïve CD8+ T cells; and d) simulation of the immune response to distinct doses of the yellow fever vaccine. This work shows that the simulator was able to qualitatively reproduce some of the experimental results reported in the literature, such as the amount of antibodies and viremia throughout time, as well as to reproduce other behaviors of the immune response reported in the literature, such as those that occur after a booster dose of the vaccine.

  3. The Duration of Intestinal Immunity After an Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Booster Dose in Children Immunized With Oral Vaccine: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    John, Jacob; Giri, Sidhartha; Karthikeyan, Arun S; Lata, Dipti; Jeyapaul, Shalini; Rajan, Anand K; Kumar, Nirmal; Dhanapal, Pavithra; Venkatesan, Jayalakshmi; Mani, Mohanraj; Hanusha, Janardhanan; Raman, Uma; Moses, Prabhakar D; Abraham, Asha; Bahl, Sunil; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Ahmad, Mohammad; Grassly, Nicholas C; Kang, Gagandeep

    2017-02-15

    In 2014, 2 studies showed that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) boosts intestinal immunity in children previously immunized with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). As a result, IPV was introduced in mass campaigns to help achieve polio eradication. We conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to assess the duration of the boost in intestinal immunity following a dose of IPV given to OPV-immunized children. Nine hundred healthy children in Vellore, India, aged 1-4 years were randomized (1:1:1) to receive IPV at 5 months (arm A), at enrollment (arm B), or no vaccine (arm C). The primary outcome was poliovirus shedding in stool 7 days after bivalent OPV challenge at 11 months. For children in arms A, B, and C, 284 (94.7%), 297 (99.0%), and 296 (98.7%), respectively, were eligible for primary per-protocol analysis. Poliovirus shedding 7 days after challenge was less prevalent in arms A and B compared with C (24.6%, 25.6%, and 36.4%, respectively; risk ratio 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.53-0.87] for A versus C, and 0.70 [0.55-0.90] for B versus C). Protection against poliovirus remained elevated 6 and 11 months after an IPV boost, although at a lower level than reported at 1 month. CTRI/2014/09/004979. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  4. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents - A single blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10–15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  5. Single visit rabies pre-exposure priming induces a robust anamnestic antibody response after simulated post-exposure vaccination: results of a dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G

    2017-09-01

    The current standard 3-dose intramuscular rabies PrEP schedule suffers from a number of disadvantages that severely limit accessibility and availability. The cost of is often prohibitive, it requires 3 visits to the clinic, and there are regular vaccine shortages. Volunteers ( N  = 30) were randomly assigned to 4 study arms: 1 standard dose intramuscular (IM) dose of PVRV (purified Vero cell rabies vaccine, Verorab), and 1/5th, 2/5th or 3/5th- fractional intradermal (ID) dose of PVRV in a single visit. All subjects received a simulated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (D0, D3) 1 year later. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) were determined by virus neutralization microtest (FAVN) on D0, D7, D28, Y1 and Y1 + D7. 28 out of 30 subjects (93%) seroconverted 1 month after primary vaccination; 1 subject in the 1-dose IM arm and 1 in the 1/5th-fractional dose ID arm did not. After 1 year, 22 out of 30 subjects (73%) no longer had RVNA above 0.5 IU/ml, with no discernible difference between study groups. After 1 year, all 30 subjects mounted a booster response within 7 days after simulated PEP, with the highest titers found in the single dose IM group ( P  < 0.03). This dose finding study demonstrates that priming with a single dose of rabies vaccine was sufficient to induce an adequate anamnestic antibody response to rabies PEP in all subjects 1 year later, even in those in whom the RVNA threshold of 0.5 IU/ml was not reached after priming. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Safety and reactogenicity of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTPa-IPV/Hib) vaccine in healthy Vietnamese toddlers: An open-label, phase III study.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Karkada, Naveen; Assudani, Deepak; Yu, Ta-Wen; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-03-03

    The introduction of combination vaccines plays a significant role in increasing vaccine acceptance and widening vaccine coverage. Primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) diseases has been implemented in Vietnam. In this study we evaluated the safety and reactogenicity of combined diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-inactivated polio (DTPa-IPV)/Hib vaccine when administered as a booster dose in 300 healthy Vietnamese children <2 years of age (mean age: 15.8 months). During the 4-day follow-up period, pain (31.7%) and redness (27.3%) were the most frequent solicited local symptoms. Pain (2%) was also the most frequent grade 3 local symptom. One subject reported 2 serious adverse events that were not causally related to the study vaccine. DTPa-IPV/Hib conjugate vaccine was well tolerated as a booster dose in healthy Vietnamese children aged <2 years.

  7. Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper, June 2013--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the World Health Organizations (WHO) evidence and recommendations for the use of yellow fever (YF) vaccination from "Vaccines and vaccination against yellow fever: WHO Position Paper - June 2013" published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record. This position paper summarizes the WHO position on the use of YF vaccination, in particular that a single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long protective immunity against YF disease. A booster dose is not necessary. The current document replaces the position paper on the use of yellow fever vaccines and vaccination published in 2003. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2013 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Immunity to rubella before and after vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) at 12 years of age of the first generation offered MMR vaccination in Sweden at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Böttiger, M

    1995-12-01

    In 1982, a two-dose programme of vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) at the ages of 18 months and 12 years was introduced in Sweden. In 1992-3, the first group of children vaccinated at 18 months reached the age of 12, i.e. the time for a second dose. In connection with this 12-year vaccination, 376 children were recruited, investigated concerning earlier MMR vaccination and bled prior to and 2 months after the immunization. Two hundred and twenty of them had a documented, earlier MMR vaccination and 156 had not. The latter were classified as unvaccinated. The antibody status against rubella was measured by the haemolysis-in-gel method. Prior to the present vaccination, 3% of the earlier vaccinated group totally lacked any sign of antibodies. In the presumably unvaccinated group, this figure was 76%. After the vaccination all children showed signs of antibody activity and reached the antibody level of > or = 15 international units, i.e. in our tests a zone dia. of approx 8 mm. However, the secondly vaccinated children ended up with a mean antibody level of 10.7 mm which was slightly lower than the level, i.e. 11.0 mm of those lacking earlier vaccination history and prevaccination seronegative. The earlier unvaccinated but pre-immune children reached a mean level of 11.2 mm. In general, those with relatively high, pre-vaccination, antibody levels reacted less to the booster than those with low or no pre-vaccination immunity. The booster thus appeared to restore the antibody levels of the low-titre children.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime: comparing twice versus thrice vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Aljunid, Syed; Maimaiti, Namaitijiang; Nur, Amrizal M; Noor, Mohd Rushdan Md; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2016-01-23

    The HPV vaccine was introduced to Malaysian national immunization programme in 2010. The current implementation age of HPV vaccination in Malaysian is at the age of 13 years school girls, given according to a 3 doses protocol which may complicate implementation and compliance. Aim of the study is to determine the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination regime comparing twice versus thrice HPV vaccinations dose regime among adolescent girls in Malaysia. A Markov cohort model reflecting the natural history of HPV infection accounting for oncogenic and low-risk HPV was adapted for 13 year old Malaysian girls cohort (n = 274,050). Transition probabilities, utilities values, epidemiological and cost data were sourced from published literature and local data. Vaccine effectiveness was based on overall efficacy reported from 3-doses clinical trials, with the assumption that the 2-doses is non-inferior to the 3-doses allowing overall efficacy to be inferred from the 3-doses immunogenicity data. Price parity and life-long protection were assumed. The payer perspective was adopted, with appropriate discounting for costs (3 %) and outcomes (3 %). One way sensitivity analysis was conducted. The sensitivity analysis on cost of vaccine, vaccine coverage and discount rate with a 2-doses protocol was performed. The 3-doses and 2-doses regimes showed same number of Cervical Cancers averted (361 cases); QALYs saved at 7,732,266. However, the lifetime protection under the 2-doses regime, showed a significant cost-savings of RM 36, 722,700 compared to the 3-doses scheme. The MOH Malaysia could vaccinate 137,025 more girls in this country using saving 2-doses regime vaccination programme. The model predicted that 2-doses HPV vaccination schemes can avoid additional 180 Cervical Cancers and 63 deaths compare to 3-doses. A 2-doses HPV vaccination scheme may enable Malaysian women to be protected at a lower cost than that achievable under a 3-doses scheme, while avoiding the same number of

  10. Intradermal inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a preclinical dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Kouiavskaia, Diana; Mirochnitchenko, Olga; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Troy, Stephanie; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2015-05-01

    Intradermal delivery of vaccines has been shown to result in dose sparing. We tested the ability of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) delivered intradermally to induce levels of serum poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies similar to immunization through the intramuscular route. Immunogenicity of fractional doses of IPV was studied by comparing intramuscular and intradermal immunization of Wistar rats using NanoPass MicronJet600 microneedles. Intradermal delivery of partial vaccine doses induced antibodies at titers comparable to those after immunization with full human dose delivered intramuscularly. The results suggest that intradermal delivery of IPV may lead to dose-sparing effect and reduction of the vaccination cost. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Randomized Trial to Compare the Immunogenicity and Safety of a CRM or TT Conjugated Quadrivalent Meningococcal Vaccine in Teenagers who Received a CRM or TT Conjugated Serogroup C Vaccine at Preschool Age.

    PubMed

    Ishola, David A; Andrews, Nick; Waight, Pauline; Yung, Chee-Fu; Southern, Jo; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Matheson, Mary; England, Anna; Hallis, Bassam; Findlow, Jamie; Borrow, Ray; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Protection after meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate (MCC) vaccination in early childhood is short-lived. Boosting with a quadrivalent vaccine in teenage years, a high-risk period for MenC disease, should protect against additional serogroups but might compromise MenC response. The carrier protein in the primary MCC vaccine determines the response to MCC booster in toddlers, but the relationship between primary vaccine and booster given later is unclear. This study compared responses to a CRM-conjugated or tetanus toxoid (TT)-conjugated MenACWY vaccine in teenagers primed with different MCC vaccines at preschool age. Ninety-three teenagers (16-19 years), who were previously randomized at age 3-6 years to receive single-dose MCC-CRM or MCC-TT, were randomized to receive either MenACWY-CRM or MenACWY-TT booster. Serum bactericidal antibodies (SBA, protective titer ≥ 8) were measured before, 1 month and 6 or 9 months after boosting. Preboosting, MCC-TT-primed teenagers had significantly higher MenC SBA titers than those MCC-CRM-primed (P = 0.02). Postboosting, both MenACWY vaccines induced protective SBA titers to all 4 serogroups in most participants (≥ 98% at 1 month and ≥ 90% by 9 months postboost). The highest MenC SBA titers were seen in those MCC-TT-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted [geometric mean titer (GMT) ~ 22,000] followed by those boosted with MenACWY-CRM irrespective of priming (GMT ~ 12,000) and then those MCC-CRM-primed and MenACWY-TT-boosted (GMT ~ 5500). The estimated postbooster MenC SBA decline beyond 1 month was ~40% as time since booster doubles. Both vaccines were well tolerated with no attributable serious adverse events. Both MenACWY vaccines safely induced protective sustained antibody responses against all targeted serogroups in MCC-primed teenagers.

  12. Cost-utility analysis of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: Protection at what price in the Thai context?

    PubMed Central

    Kulpeng, Wantanee; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Rattanavipapong, Waranya; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Baggett, Henry C.; Meeyai, Aronrag; Punpanich, Warunee; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the costs and outcomes of offering the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Thailand compared to the current situation of no PCV vaccination. Methods Two vaccination schedules were considered: two-dose primary series plus a booster dose (2 + 1) and three-dose primary series plus a booster dose (3 + 1). A cost-utility analysis was conducted using a societal perspective. A Markov simulation model was used to estimate the relevant costs and health outcomes for a lifetime horizon. Costs were collected and values were calculated for the year 2010. The results were reported as incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in Thai Baht (THB) per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained, with future costs and outcomes being discounted at 3% per annum. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess parameter uncertainty. Results Under the base case-scenario of 2 + 1 dose schedule and a five-year protection, without indirect vaccine effects, the ICER for PCV10 and PCV13 were THB 1,368,072 and THB 1,490,305 per QALY gained, respectively. With indirect vaccine effects, the ICER of PCV10 was THB 519,399, and for PCV13 was THB 527,378. The model was sensitive to discount rate, the change in duration of vaccine protection and the incidence of pneumonia for all age groups. Conclusions At current prices, PCV10 and PCV13 are not cost-effective in Thailand. Inclusion of indirect vaccine effects substantially reduced the ICERs for both vaccines, but did not result in cost effectiveness. PMID:23588084

  13. Fractional dosing of yellow fever vaccine to extend supply: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Joseph T; Peak, Corey M; Leung, Gabriel M; Lipsitch, Marc

    2016-12-10

    The ongoing yellow fever epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in July-August, 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidation of the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission. We estimate the effective reproductive number for yellow fever in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of yellow fever transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) with various levels of transmissibility and 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios, ie, random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible, and the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July-August, 2016, with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines. We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (ie, a proportion of vaccine recipients receive complete protection [VE] and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can greatly reduce infection attack rate as long as VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (ie, the susceptibility of each vaccine recipient is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (2 years) provides the largest reduction in infection attack rate if the efficacy of 5-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%. Dose fractionation is an effective strategy for reduction of the infection attack rate that would be robust with a

  14. Summer peaks in uptake of human papillomavirus (HPV) and other adolescent vaccines in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could have a large impact on national cancer prevention efforts. We hypothesized that uptake of HPV vaccine and other adolescent vaccines in the United States would be highest in the summer. Methods Data came from healthcare provider-verified vaccination records for 70,144 adolescents (ages 13–17) from the 2008–2012 versions of the National Immunization Survey-Teen. Using the Edwards method for testing annual trends, we examined seasonal patterns in uptake of HPV and other recommended adolescent vaccines (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster and meningococcal vaccine). HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of the first of the three-dose series) data were for female adolescents. Results Uptake for HPV and other adolescent vaccines peaked in the summer across years and states (all p<.001). Uptake was 5 times as frequent at the peak as at the trough for HPV vaccine, and HPV vaccine initiation was highest in June, July, and August (percent of doses delivered in these months: 38.7%). The same pattern existed for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccine. Concomitant (same-day) vaccination of HPV vaccine with other adolescent vaccines also demonstrated summer peaks each year nationally (all p<.001). Conclusion Uptake of adolescent vaccines increased dramatically in summer months. These summer peaks are an important opportunity for interventions focused on concomitant vaccination. Impact The potential cancer prevention impact of HPV vaccination programs could be increased, for example, by delivering messages about concomitant vaccination during the summer, when adolescents and their parents might be most open to them. PMID:26677211

  15. Correlation between measles vaccine doses: implications for the maintenance of elimination.

    PubMed

    McKee, A; Ferrari, M J; Shea, K

    2018-03-01

    Measles eradication efforts have been successful at achieving elimination in many countries worldwide. Such countries actively work to maintain this elimination by continuing to improve coverage of two routine doses of measles vaccine following measles elimination. While improving measles vaccine coverage is always beneficial, we show, using a steady-state analysis of a dynamical model, that the correlation between populations receiving the first and second routine dose also has a significant impact on the population immunity achieved by a specified combination of first and second dose coverage. If the second dose is administered to people independently of whether they had the first dose, high second-dose coverage improves the proportion of the population receiving at least one dose, and will have a large effect on population immunity. If the second dose is administered only to people who have had the first dose, high second-dose coverage reduces the rate of primary vaccine failure, but does not reach people who missed the first dose; this will therefore have a relatively small effect on population immunity. When doses are administered dependently, and assuming the first dose has higher coverage, increasing the coverage of the first dose has a larger impact on population immunity than does increasing the coverage of the second. Correlation between vaccine doses has a significant impact on the level of population immunity maintained by current vaccination coverage, potentially outweighing the effects of age structure and, in some cases, recent improvements in vaccine coverage. It is therefore important to understand the correlation between vaccine doses as such correlation may have a large impact on the effectiveness of measles vaccination strategies.

  16. Acellular vaccines for preventing whooping cough in children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjie; Prietsch, Sílvio Om; Axelsson, Inge; Halperin, Scott A

    2011-01-19

    Routine use of whole-cell pertussis vaccines was suspended in some countries in the 1970s/1980s because of concerns about adverse effects. There was a resurgence of whooping cough. Acellular pertussis vaccines (containing purified or recombinant Bordetella pertussis antigens) were developed in the hope that they would be as effective but less reactogenic than the whole-cell vaccines. To assess the efficacy and safety of acellular pertussis vaccines in children. We searched the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2009, issue 2) which contains the Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register; MEDLINE (1950 to April week 2 2009) and EMBASE (1974 to April 2009). Double-blind randomised efficacy and safety trials of acellular pertussis vaccines in children up to six years old, with active follow-up of participants and laboratory verification of pertussis cases. Two review authors independently performed data extraction and study quality assessment. Differences in trial design precluded pooling of the efficacy data. The safety data from individual trials were pooled using the Cochrane statistical package Review Manager 5. Six efficacy trials and 52 safety trials were included. The efficacy of multi-component (≥ 3) vaccines varied from 84% to 85% in preventing typical whooping cough, and from 71% to 78% in preventing mild pertussis disease. In contrast, the efficacy of one- and two-component vaccines varied from 59% to 75% against typical whooping cough, and from 13% to 54% against mild pertussis disease. Multi-component acellular vaccines is more effective than low-efficacy whole-cell vaccines, but may be less effective than the highest-efficacy whole-cell vaccines. Most systemic and local adverse events were significantly less common with acellular than with whole-cell pertussis vaccines for the primary series as well as for the booster dose. Multi-component acellular pertussis vaccines are effective, and show less

  17. Effectiveness of a Third Dose of MMR Vaccine for Mumps Outbreak Control.

    PubMed

    Cardemil, Cristina V; Dahl, Rebecca M; James, Lisa; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Gary, Howard E; Shah, Minesh; Marin, Mona; Riley, Jacob; Feikin, Daniel R; Patel, Manisha; Quinlisk, Patricia

    2017-09-07

    The effect of a third dose of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in stemming a mumps outbreak is unknown. During an outbreak among vaccinated students at the University of Iowa, health officials implemented a widespread MMR vaccine campaign. We evaluated the effectiveness of a third dose for outbreak control and assessed for waning immunity. Of 20,496 university students who were enrolled during the 2015-2016 academic year, mumps was diagnosed in 259 students. We used Fisher's exact test to compare unadjusted attack rates according to dose status and years since receipt of the second MMR vaccine dose. We used multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models to evaluate vaccine effectiveness, according to dose status (three vs. two doses and two vs. no doses) after adjustment for the number of years since the second dose. Before the outbreak, 98.1% of the students had received at least two doses of MMR vaccine. During the outbreak, 4783 received a third dose. The attack rate was lower among the students who had received three doses than among those who had received two doses (6.7 vs. 14.5 cases per 1000 population, P<0.001). Students had more than nine times the risk of mumps if they had received the second MMR dose 13 years or more before the outbreak. At 28 days after vaccination, receipt of the third vaccine dose was associated with a 78.1% lower risk of mumps than receipt of a second dose (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.39). The vaccine effectiveness of two doses versus no doses was lower among students with more distant receipt of the second vaccine dose. Students who had received a third dose of MMR vaccine had a lower risk of mumps than did those who had received two doses, after adjustment for the number of years since the second dose. Students who had received a second dose of MMR vaccine 13 years or more before the outbreak had an increased risk of mumps. These findings suggest that the campaign to administer a third

  18. Fractional Dosing of Yellow Fever Vaccine to Extend Supply: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Peak, Corey M.; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing yellow fever (YF) epidemic in Angola strains the global vaccine supply, prompting WHO to adopt dose sparing for its vaccination campaign in Kinshasa in July–August 2016. Although a 5-fold fractional-dose vaccine is similar to standard-dose vaccine in safety and immunogenicity, efficacy is untested. There is an urgent need to ensure the robustness of fractional-dose vaccination by elucidating the conditions under which dose fractionation would reduce transmission. Methods We estimate the effective reproductive number for YF in Angola using disease natural history and case report data. With simple mathematical models of YF transmission, we calculate the infection attack rate (IAR, the proportion of population infected over the course of an epidemic) under varying levels of transmissibility and five-fold fractional-dose vaccine efficacy for two vaccination scenarios: (i) random vaccination in a hypothetical population that is completely susceptible; (ii) the Kinshasa vaccination campaign in July–August 2016 with different age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines. Findings We estimate the effective reproductive number early in the Angola outbreak was between 5·2 and 7·1. If vaccine action is all-or-nothing (i.e. a proportion VE of vaccinees receives complete and the remainder receive no protection), n-fold fractionation can dramatically reduce IAR as long as efficacy VE exceeds 1/n. This benefit threshold becomes more stringent if vaccine action is leaky (i.e. the susceptibility of each vaccinee is reduced by a factor that is equal to the vaccine efficacy VE). The age cutoff for fractional-dose vaccines chosen by the WHO for the Kinshasa vaccination campaign (namely, 2 years) provides the largest reduction in IAR if the efficacy of five-fold fractional-dose vaccines exceeds 20%. Interpretation Dose fractionation is a very effective strategy for reducing infection attack rate that would be robust with a large margin for error in case

  19. Implementation of a hepatitis A/B vaccination program using an accelerated schedule among high-risk inmates, Los Angeles County Jail, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Costumbrado, John; Stirland, Ali; Cox, Garrett; El-Amin, Alvin Nelson; Miranda, Armidia; Carter, Ann; Malek, Mark

    2012-11-06

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend vaccination for men who have sex with men (MSM) and injection drug users against hepatitis A and B. This study is the first report of a hepatitis vaccination program in a United States jail with a combined vaccine using an accelerated schedule. Los Angeles County has the largest jail system in the nation and Men's Central Jail (MCJ) is the largest facility within that system. MCJ includes a unit for self-identified MSM, where approximately 2700 inmates are housed per year. Starting in August 2007, a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine was offered to all inmates housed in this special unit. Using an accelerated schedule (0-, 7-, 21-30 days, 12-month booster), a total of 3931 doses were administered to 1633 inmates as of June 2010. Of those, 77% received 2 doses, 58% received 3 doses, and 11% received the booster dose. Inmates who screened positive for a sexually transmitted infection in this unit were 1.3 times more likely to be vaccinated (95% CI 1.2-1.4) compared to others in the same housing unit who screened negative. Hepatitis vaccination initiatives can be successfully implemented in an urban jail among an extremely high-risk population using the accelerated, combined hepatitis A/B vaccine. Ours may be a useful model for other programs to vaccinate incarcerated populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Immune memory in children previously vaccinated with an experimental quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pichichero, Michael; Papa, Thomas; Blatter, Mark; Mitchell, Douglas; Kratz, Richard; Sneed, Jane; Bassily, Ehab; Casey, Janet; Gilmet, Gregory

    2006-11-01

    In a previous study, a meningococcal diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (MCV-4) triggered robust bactericidal antibody responses against serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 in 2- to 10-year-old children. A subset of participants, 2 to 3 years of age at the initial vaccination, was evaluated for persistence of antibody, immune memory, and antibody avidity. Participants were healthy children vaccinated 23 to 36 months earlier with MCV-4 (primed) or newly recruited meningococcal vaccine-naive 4-year-olds. Participants in both groups were alternately allocated to provide sera 8 or 28 days after administration of one tenth of the recommended dose of a meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PSV-4). Immune responses were assessed in sera obtained at baseline and either 8 or 28 days after reduced-dose PSV-4 administration. Safety was monitored. Before PSV-4 challenge, serum bactericidal antibody geometric mean titers (SBA GMTs) were higher for all 4 serogroups in the MCV-4-primed group than in the vaccine-naive group. SBA GMTs, geometric mean concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and geometric mean avidity indices for all 4 serogroups were significantly higher among MCV-4-primed versus vaccine-naive participants in the cohorts evaluated at 8 or 28 days after PSV-4 challenge. Adverse events were generally mild, self-limited, and comparable in all groups of children. Persistence of bactericidal antibody was seen for 23 to 36 months after a primary dose of MCV-4 in young children. Booster responses and avidity maturation were evident after a challenge with reduced-dose polysaccharide vaccine.

  1. Systematic Review of the Indirect Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Dosing Schedules on Pneumococcal Disease and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: To aid decision making for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) use in infant national immunization programs, we summarized the indirect effects of PCV on clinical outcomes among nontargeted age groups. Methods: We systematically reviewed the English literature on infant PCV dosing schedules published from 1994 to 2010 (with ad hoc addition of 2011 articles) for outcomes on children >5 years of age and adults including vaccine-type nasopharyngeal carriage (VT-NP), vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (VT-IPD) and syndromic pneumonia. Results: Of 12,980 citations reviewed, we identified 21 VT-IPD, 6 VT-NP and 9 pneumonia studies. Of these 36, 21 (58%) included 3 primary doses plus PCV or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) booster schedule (3+1 or 3+PPV23), 5 (14%) 3+0, 9 (25%) 2+1 and 1 (3%) 2+0. Most (95%) were PCV7 studies. Among observational VT-IPD studies, all schedules (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1) demonstrated reductions in incidence among young adult groups. Among syndromic pneumonia observational studies (2+1, 3+0 and 3+1), only 3+1 schedules showed significant indirect impact. Of 2 VT-NP controlled trials (3+0 and 3+1) and 3 VT-NP observational studies (2+1, 3+1 and 3+PPV23), 3+1 and 3+PPV23 schedules showed significant indirect effect. The 1 study to directly compare between schedules was a VT-NP study (2+0 vs. 2+1), which found no indirect effect on older siblings and parents of vaccinated children with either schedule. Conclusions: Indirect benefit of a 3+1 infant PCV dosing schedule has been demonstrated for VT-IPD, VT-NP and syndromic pneumonia; 2+1 and 3+0 schedules have demonstrated indirect effect only for VT-IPD. The choice of optimal infant PCV schedule is limited by data paucity on indirect effects, especially a lack of head-to-head studies and studies of PCV10 and PCV13. PMID:24336058

  2. Summer Peaks in Uptake of Human Papillomavirus and Other Adolescent Vaccines in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Rimer, Barbara K; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-02-01

    Seasonality in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination could have a large impact on national cancer prevention efforts. We hypothesized that uptake of HPV vaccine and other adolescent vaccines in the United States would be highest in the summer. Data came from health care provider-verified vaccination records for 70,144 adolescents (ages 13-17 years) from the 2008 to 2012 versions of the National Immunization Survey-Teen. Using the Edwards method for testing annual trends, we examined seasonal patterns in the uptake of HPV and other recommended adolescent vaccines [tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) booster and meningococcal vaccine]. HPV vaccine initiation (receipt of the first of the three-dose series) data were for female adolescents. Uptake for HPV and other adolescent vaccines peaked in the summer across years and states (all P < 0.001). Uptake was five times as frequent at the peak as at the trough for HPV vaccine, and HPV vaccine initiation was highest in June, July, and August (percent of doses delivered in these months: 38.7%). The same pattern existed for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccine. Concomitant (same-day) vaccination of HPV vaccine with other adolescent vaccines also demonstrated summer peaks each year nationally (all P < 0.001). Uptake of adolescent vaccines increased dramatically in summer months. These summer peaks are an important opportunity for interventions focused on concomitant vaccination. The potential cancer prevention impact of HPV vaccination programs could be increased, for example, by delivering messages about concomitant vaccination during the summer, when adolescents and their parents might be most open to them. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution in 195 countries (2004-2013): Little progress in estimated global vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Palache, Abraham; Oriol-Mathieu, Valerie; Fino, Mireli; Xydia-Charmanta, Margarita

    2015-10-13

    Seasonal influenza is an important disease which results in 250,000-500,000 annual deaths worldwide. Global targets for vaccination coverage rates (VCRs) in high-risk groups are at least 75% in adults ≥65 years and increased coverage in other risk groups. The International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply (IFPMA IVS) International Task Force developed a survey methodology in 2008, to assess the global distribution of influenza vaccine doses as a proxy for VCRs. This paper updates the previous survey results on absolute numbers of influenza vaccine doses distributed between 2004 and 2013 inclusive, and dose distribution rates per 1000 population, and provides a qualitative assessment of the principal enablers and barriers to seasonal influenza vaccination. The two main findings from the quantitative portion of the survey are the continued negative trend for dose distribution in the EURO region and the perpetuation of appreciable differences in scale of dose distribution between WHO regions, with no observed convergence in the rates of doses distributed per 1000 population over time. The main findings from the qualitative portion of the survey were that actively managing the vaccination program in real-time and ensuring political commitment to vaccination are important enablers of vaccination, whereas insufficient access to vaccination and lack of political commitment to seasonal influenza vaccination programs are likely contributing to vaccination target failures. In all regions of the world, seasonal influenza vaccination is underutilized as a public health tool. The survey provides evidence of lost opportunity to protect populations against potentially serious influenza-associated disease. We call on the national and international public health communities to re-evaluate their political commitment to the prevention of the annual influenza disease burden and to develop a systematic approach to improve vaccine

  4. Immunogenicity of a three dose and five dose oral human rotavirus vaccine (RIX4414) schedule in south Indian infants.

    PubMed

    Kompithra, Rajeev Zachariah; Paul, Anu; Manoharan, Divya; Babji, Sudhir; Sarkar, Rajiv; Mathew, Leni G; Kang, Gagandeep

    2014-08-11

    This study was undertaken to compare the immunogenicity of a three dose and five dose schedule of an oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix in south Indian infants. Healthy infants (N=90), six to seven weeks of age were enrolled to receive three doses (n=45) or five doses of Rotarix vaccine (n=45) along with other scheduled vaccines, each dose separated by a four week interval. Blood samples were taken before vaccination and one month post-dose three in the Rotarix three dose group and one month post-dose five in the Rotarix five dose group; all were tested for anti-rotavirus IgA by an antibody sandwich enzyme immunoassay. At baseline, >50% of infants had >20 units of anti-rotavirus IgA. The seroconversion rates after three and five doses were low and not significantly different in the two groups. However, among vaccine responders, children seropositive at baseline showed a much greater absolute increase in IgA antibody levels than children seronegative at baseline. Rotarix vaccine showed low immunogenicity in south Indian children and increasing the number of doses did not increase the proportion of infants seroconverting after vaccination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Rabies neutralizing antibody response to different schedules of serum and vaccine inoculations in non-exposed persons

    PubMed Central

    Atanasiu, P.; Cannon, D. A.; Dean, D. J.; Fox, J. P.; Habel, K.; Kaplan, M. M.; Kissling, R. E.; Koprowski, H.; Lépine, P.; Gallardo, F. Pérez

    1961-01-01

    This study is the third in a series on virus-neutralizing antibody response to different schedules of antirabies serum and vaccines in previously non-exposed persons. Three types of vaccine were studied—phenolized (Semple), duck embryo and high-egg-passage (HEP) chicken embryo. Reduced schedules of vaccine, consisting of 2-7 inoculations given at various intervals, did not give results comparable in efficacy (time of appearance, level and persistence of antibody) with schedules comprising at least 14 daily inoculations of vaccine as determined in previous trials. The effectiveness of a booster dose in previously sensitized individuals was confirmed with a demonstration that a rise in serum antibody appears between 4 and 8 days after the booster inoculation. Effective sensitization appears to be as much a function of spacing of inoculations as of total dosage of vaccine antigen. Interference by immune serum with the antigenicity of subsequently administered vaccine, noted previously by the present authors and by other workers, was again confirmed. This interference could be overcome by the administration of a sufficient amount of vaccine. PMID:13863061

  6. Childhood varicella-zoster virus vaccination in Belgium: cost-effective only in the long run or without exogenous boosting?

    PubMed

    Bilcke, Joke; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Beutels, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a universal childhood varicella-zoster vaccination programme in Belgium (1) using the most recent Belgian data on varicella-zoster burden, (2) exploring different options for the timing of the second dose, (3) obtaining results with and without exogenous natural boosting, and (4) investigating the possible additional benefit of zoster booster vaccination for adults at age 50 or 60 y. An extensively studied and improved dynamic model is used to estimate primary and breakthrough chickenpox and zoster cases over time. For a range of vaccination options, we compared the direct costs (health care payer perspective) and health outcomes (including Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost) associated with chickenpox and herpes zoster. Estimates of social contact patterns, health care use, costs and QALY losses are almost exclusively based on Belgian databases and surveys. If exogenous natural boosting exists, a net loss in QALYs is expected for several decades after implementing a universal chickenpox vaccination programme, due to an increase in zoster mainly in persons aged 50-80 y. This result holds also for scenarios that minimise or counteract the expected increase in zoster incidence (e.g. additional booster vaccinations in adults). However, if the boosting hypothesis is not true or if costs and QALYs are cumulated over at least 33 to more than 100 y after vaccination (depending on the assumptions made), different options for universal 2-dose vaccination against chickenpox in Belgium would be cost-effective at a vaccine price of €43/dose or lower.

  7. School Entry Requirements and Coverage of Nontargeted Adolescent Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Truong, Young K.; Rimer, Barbara K.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is an urgent public health problem requiring action. To identify policy remedies to suboptimal HPV vaccination, we assessed the relationship between states’ school entry requirements and adolescent vaccination. METHODS: We gathered data on states’ school entry requirements for adolescent vaccination (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] booster; meningococcal; and HPV) from 2007 to 2012 from Immunization Action Coalition. The National Immunization Survey–Teen provided medical record–verified vaccination data for 99 921 adolescents. We calculated coverage (among 13- to 17-year-olds) for individual vaccinations and concomitant vaccination. HPV vaccination outcomes were among female adolescents. Analyses used weighted longitudinal multivariable models. RESULTS: States with requirements for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccination had 22 and 24 percentage point increases in coverage for these vaccines, respectively, compared with other states (both P < .05). States with HPV vaccination requirements had <1 percentage point increase in coverage for this vaccine (P < .05). Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccination requirements, respectively, were associated with 8 and 4 percentage point spillover increases for HPV vaccination coverage (both P < .05) and with increases for concomitant vaccination (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Ensuring all states have meningococcal vaccination requirements could improve the nation’s HPV vaccination coverage, given that many states already require Tdap booster but not meningococcal vaccination for school entry. Vaccination programs and clinicians should capitalize on changes in adolescent vaccination, including concomitant vaccination, that may arise after states adopt vaccination requirements. Additional studies are needed on the effects of HPV vaccination requirements and opt-out provisions. PMID:27940689

  8. School Entry Requirements and Coverage of Nontargeted Adolescent Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jennifer L; Reiter, Paul L; Truong, Young K; Rimer, Barbara K; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-12-01

    Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage is an urgent public health problem requiring action. To identify policy remedies to suboptimal HPV vaccination, we assessed the relationship between states' school entry requirements and adolescent vaccination. We gathered data on states' school entry requirements for adolescent vaccination (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis [Tdap] booster; meningococcal; and HPV) from 2007 to 2012 from Immunization Action Coalition. The National Immunization Survey-Teen provided medical record-verified vaccination data for 99 921 adolescents. We calculated coverage (among 13- to 17-year-olds) for individual vaccinations and concomitant vaccination. HPV vaccination outcomes were among female adolescents. Analyses used weighted longitudinal multivariable models. States with requirements for Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccination had 22 and 24 percentage point increases in coverage for these vaccines, respectively, compared with other states (both P < .05). States with HPV vaccination requirements had <1 percentage point increase in coverage for this vaccine (P < .05). Tdap booster and meningococcal vaccination requirements, respectively, were associated with 8 and 4 percentage point spillover increases for HPV vaccination coverage (both P < .05) and with increases for concomitant vaccination (all P < .05). Ensuring all states have meningococcal vaccination requirements could improve the nation's HPV vaccination coverage, given that many states already require Tdap booster but not meningococcal vaccination for school entry. Vaccination programs and clinicians should capitalize on changes in adolescent vaccination, including concomitant vaccination, that may arise after states adopt vaccination requirements. Additional studies are needed on the effects of HPV vaccination requirements and opt-out provisions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Somgird, Chaleamchat; Homkong, Pongpon; Sripiboon, Supaphen; Brown, Janine L; Stout, Tom A E; Colenbrander, Ben; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote

    2016-01-01

    Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months. For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Commercially available GnRH vaccines have been shown to suppress testicular function by interrupting the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in many species. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a GnRH vaccine in elephant bulls for suppressing the HPG axis and mitigating musth-related aggressive behavior. Five adult Asian elephant bulls (22-55 years old) were immunized with a GnRH vaccine starting with an initial injection 2-4 months before the predicted musth period, and followed by three boosters at approximately 4-week intervals. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for hormone and antibody titer analysis. An increase in GnRH antibody titers was observed in all bulls after the second or third booster, and titers remained elevated for 2-3 months after the final booster. Musth was attenuated and shortened in three bulls and postponed completely in two. We conclude that GnRH vaccination is capable of suppressing symptoms of musth in adult bull elephants. With appropriate timing, GnRH vaccination could be used to control or manage musth and aggressive behavior in captive elephant bulls. However, more work is needed to identify an optimal dose, booster interval, and vaccination schedule for complete suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of a single intramuscular dose of a tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (Td) vaccine (BR-TD-1001) in healthy Korean adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Hong, Taegon; Chung, Yong-Ju; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Kim, Ik-Hwan; Choe, Yong-Kyung; Lee, Jongtae; Jeon, Sangil; Han, Seunghoon; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    BR-TD-1001 was developed as a booster for the immunity maintenance of diphtheria and tetanus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of BR-TD-1001 (test vaccine) in comparison with placebo and an active comparator in healthy Korean adults. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active comparator, phase I clinical trial was conducted. Fifty subjects were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups in a ratio of 2:2:1, and were administered a single intramuscular dose of test vaccine, active comparator, or placebo, respectively. All subjects were monitored for 4 weeks after injection. The antibody titers of the patients 2 and 4 weeks after vaccination were compared with the baseline. The frequencies of all adverse events including adverse drug reactions in the test group were not statistically different from those of the other treatment groups (P = 0.4974, 0.3061). No serious adverse event occurred, and no subject was withdrawn from the study for safety. The seroprotection rates against both tetanus and diphtheria at 4 weeks after vaccination were over 0.95. For anti-tetanus antibody, the geometric mean titer in the test group was significantly higher than those of the other groups (P = 0.0364, 0.0033). The geometric mean titer of anti-diphtheria antibody in the test group was significantly higher than the value of the placebo (P = 0.0347) while it was not for the value of the active comparator (P = 0.8484). In conclusion, BR-TD-1001 was safe, well-tolerated, and showed sufficient immunogenicity as a booster for diphtheria and tetanus.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of LBVH0101, a new Haemophilus influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, compared with Hiberix™ in Korean infants and children: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Kim, Nam Hee; Chang, Sung Hee; Lee, Jina; Park, Eun Ae; Park, Su Eun; Eun, Byung Wook; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong

    2012-02-27

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all countries adopt Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine into routine child immunization programs to protect children from the significant burden of life-threatening pneumonia and meningitis. In this blind, comparative, randomized, phase-III Korean multicenter study, we assessed immunogenicity and safety following primary vaccination of a new H. influenzae type b tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, LBVH0101 (LG Life Sciences, Ltd., Seoul, Korea) compared with Hiberix™ (GSK, Rixensart, Belgium) in Korean children at 2, 4 and 6 months of age followed by a booster vaccination at 12-15 months. Serum anti-PRP IgG concentration and bactericidal activity were determined. Local/systemic symptoms were assessed after vaccination. Serious adverse events were recorded throughout the study. A total of 185 infants were included in immunogenicity evaluations. After the second and third doses of LBVH0101, 90.32% and 100% of infants achieved an antibody level ≥1 μg/mL, respectively, compared with 78.26% and 96.74% of those who received Hiberix™. After the second vaccination, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of LBVH0101 recipients was 7.34 μg/mL and was higher than that of Hiberix™ recipients (3.55 μg/mL). After the third vaccination, the GMCs were 14.59 μg/mL and 12.15 μg/mL in the LBVH0101 and Hiberix™ recipients, respectively. The booster dose produced higher antibody concentrations: 30.25 μg/mL and 71.64 μg/mL for LBVH0101 and Hiberix™ recipients, respectively. Bactericidal capacity and antibody potency of anti-PRP IgG induced by LBVH0101 was 35.05 and 116.27 after the second and third vaccinations, respectively, compared with 53.76 and 79.64 for Hiberix™. Anti-PRP IgG seroprotection rate and GMC were similar post-primary immunization between the groups; both showed functional maturation and similar booster responses. LBVH0101 had comparable safety results as the control vaccine, Hiberix™, as

  12. Projected Impact of Dengue Vaccination in Yucatán, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Chao, Dennis L.; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Recchia, Gabriel L.; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Longini, Ira M.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue vaccines will soon provide a new tool for reducing dengue disease, but the effectiveness of widespread vaccination campaigns has not yet been determined. We developed an agent-based dengue model representing movement of and transmission dynamics among people and mosquitoes in Yucatán, Mexico, and simulated various vaccine scenarios to evaluate effectiveness under those conditions. This model includes detailed spatial representation of the Yucatán population, including the location and movement of 1.8 million people between 375,000 households and 100,000 workplaces and schools. Where possible, we designed the model to use data sources with international coverage, to simplify re-parameterization for other regions. The simulation and analysis integrate 35 years of mild and severe case data (including dengue serotype when available), results of a seroprevalence survey, satellite imagery, and climatological, census, and economic data. To fit model parameters that are not directly informed by available data, such as disease reporting rates and dengue transmission parameters, we developed a parameter estimation toolkit called AbcSmc, which we have made publicly available. After fitting the simulation model to dengue case data, we forecasted transmission and assessed the relative effectiveness of several vaccination strategies over a 20 year period. Vaccine efficacy is based on phase III trial results for the Sanofi-Pasteur vaccine, Dengvaxia. We consider routine vaccination of 2, 9, or 16 year-olds, with and without a one-time catch-up campaign to age 30. Because the durability of Dengvaxia is not yet established, we consider hypothetical vaccines that confer either durable or waning immunity, and we evaluate the use of booster doses to counter waning. We find that plausible vaccination scenarios with a durable vaccine reduce annual dengue incidence by as much as 80% within five years. However, if vaccine efficacy wanes after administration, we find that there

  13. Projected Impact of Dengue Vaccination in Yucatán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hladish, Thomas J; Pearson, Carl A B; Chao, Dennis L; Rojas, Diana Patricia; Recchia, Gabriel L; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Longini, Ira M

    2016-05-01

    Dengue vaccines will soon provide a new tool for reducing dengue disease, but the effectiveness of widespread vaccination campaigns has not yet been determined. We developed an agent-based dengue model representing movement of and transmission dynamics among people and mosquitoes in Yucatán, Mexico, and simulated various vaccine scenarios to evaluate effectiveness under those conditions. This model includes detailed spatial representation of the Yucatán population, including the location and movement of 1.8 million people between 375,000 households and 100,000 workplaces and schools. Where possible, we designed the model to use data sources with international coverage, to simplify re-parameterization for other regions. The simulation and analysis integrate 35 years of mild and severe case data (including dengue serotype when available), results of a seroprevalence survey, satellite imagery, and climatological, census, and economic data. To fit model parameters that are not directly informed by available data, such as disease reporting rates and dengue transmission parameters, we developed a parameter estimation toolkit called AbcSmc, which we have made publicly available. After fitting the simulation model to dengue case data, we forecasted transmission and assessed the relative effectiveness of several vaccination strategies over a 20 year period. Vaccine efficacy is based on phase III trial results for the Sanofi-Pasteur vaccine, Dengvaxia. We consider routine vaccination of 2, 9, or 16 year-olds, with and without a one-time catch-up campaign to age 30. Because the durability of Dengvaxia is not yet established, we consider hypothetical vaccines that confer either durable or waning immunity, and we evaluate the use of booster doses to counter waning. We find that plausible vaccination scenarios with a durable vaccine reduce annual dengue incidence by as much as 80% within five years. However, if vaccine efficacy wanes after administration, we find that there

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of high-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to standard-dose vaccine in children and young adults with cancer or HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Hana; Allison, Kim J; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Flynn, Patricia M; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2016-06-08

    Approaches to improve the immune response of immunocompromised patients to influenza vaccination are needed. Children and young adults (3-21 years) with cancer or HIV infection were randomized to receive 2 doses of high-dose (HD) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) or of standard-dose (SD) TIV. Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers were measured against H1, H3, and B antigens after each dose and 9 months later. Seroconversion was defined as ≥4-fold rise in HAI titer comparing pre- and post-vaccine sera. Seroprotection was defined as a post-vaccine HAI titer ≥1:40. Reactogenicity events (RE) were solicited using a structured questionnaire 7 and 14 days after each dose of vaccine, and adverse events by medical record review for 21 days after each dose of vaccine. Eighty-five participants were enrolled in the study; 27 with leukemia, 17 with solid tumor (ST), and 41 with HIV. Recipients of HD TIV had significantly greater fold increase in HAI titers to B antigen in leukemia group and to H1 antigen in ST group compared to SD TIV recipients. This increase was not documented in HIV group. There were no differences in seroconversion or seroprotection between HD TIV and SD TIV in all groups. There was no difference in the percentage of solicited RE in recipients of HD TIV (54% after dose 1 and 38% after dose 2) compared to SD TIV (40% after dose 1 and 20% after dose 2, p=0.27 and 0.09 after dose 1 and 2, respectively). HD TIV was more immunogenic than SD TIV in children and young adults with leukemia or ST, but not with HIV. HD TIV was safe and well-tolerated in children and young adults with leukemia, ST, or HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution in 157 countries (2004-2011).

    PubMed

    Palache, Abraham; Oriol-Mathieu, Valerie; Abelin, Atika; Music, Tamara

    2014-11-12

    Globally there are an estimated 3-5 million cases of severe influenza illness every year, resulting in 250,000-500,000 deaths. At the World Health Assembly in 2003, World Health Organization (WHO) resolved to increase influenza vaccine coverage rates (VCR) for high-risk groups, particularly focusing on at least 75% of the elderly by 2010. But systematic worldwide data have not been available to assist public health authorities to monitor vaccine uptake and review progress toward vaccination coverage targets. In 2008, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations Influenza Vaccine Supply task force (IFPMA IVS) developed a survey methodology to assess global influenza vaccine dose distribution. The current survey results represent 2011 data and demonstrate the evolution of the absolute number distributed between 2004 and 2011 inclusive, and the evolution in the per capita doses distributed in 2008-2011. Global distribution of IFPMA IVS member doses increased approximately 86.9% between 2004 and 2011, but only approximately 12.1% between 2008 and 2011. The WHO's regions in Eastern Mediterranean (EMRO), Southeast Asian (SEARO) and Africa (AFRO) together account for about 47% of the global population, but only 3.7% of all IFPMA IVS doses distributed. While distributed doses have globally increased, they have decreased in EURO and EMRO since 2009. Dose distribution can provide a reasonable proxy of vaccine utilization. Based on the dose distribution, we conclude that seasonal influenza VCR in many countries remains well below the WHA's VCR targets and below the recommendations of the Council of the European Union in EURO. Inter- and intra-regional disparities in dose distribution trends call into question the impact of current vaccine recommendations at achieving coverage targets. Additional policy measures, particularly those that influence patients adherence to vaccination programs, such as reimbursement, healthcare provider knowledge

  16. Immunization coverage and predictive factors for complete and age-appropriate vaccination among preschoolers in Athens, Greece: a cross--sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D; Michail, Koralia A; Samoli, Evangelia; Tsiftis, George; Tsoumakas, Konstantinos

    2013-10-02

    In Greece, several new childhood vaccines were introduced recently but were reimbursed gradually and at different time points. The aim of this study was to assess immunization coverage and identify factors influencing complete and age-appropriate vaccination among children attending public nurseries in the municipal district of Athens. A cross-sectional study, using stratified sampling was performed. Immunization history was obtained from vaccination booklets. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from school registries and telephone interviews. Vaccination rates were estimated by sample weighted proportions while associations between complete and age-appropriate immunization and potential determinants by logistic regression analysis. A total of 731 children (mean age: 46, median: 48, range: 10-65 months) were included. Overall immunization coverage with traditional vaccines (DTP, polio, Hib, HBV, 1st dose MMR) was satisfactory, exceeding 90%, but the administration of booster doses was delayed (range: 33.7- 97.4%, at 60 months of age). Complete vaccination rates were lower for new vaccines (Men C, PCV7, varicella, hepatitis A), ranging between 61-92%. In addition, a significant delay in timely administration of Men C, PCV7, as well as HBV was noted (22.9%, 16.0% and 27.7% at 12 months of age, respectively). Child's age was strongly associated with incomplete vaccination with all vaccines (p< 0.001), while as immigrant status was a predictor of incomplete (p=0.034) and delayed vaccination (p<0.001) with traditional vaccines. Increasing household size and higher maternal education were negatively associated with the receipt of all and newly licensed vaccines, respectively (p=0.035). Our findings highlight the need to monitor uptake of new vaccines and improve age- appropriate administration of booster doses as well as early vaccination against hepatitis B. Immigrant status, increased household size and high maternal education may warrant targeted

  17. Immunization coverage and predictive factors for complete and age-appropriate vaccination among preschoolers in Athens, Greece: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greece, several new childhood vaccines were introduced recently but were reimbursed gradually and at different time points. The aim of this study was to assess immunization coverage and identify factors influencing complete and age-appropriate vaccination among children attending public nurseries in the municipal district of Athens. Methods A cross-sectional study, using stratified sampling was performed. Immunization history was obtained from vaccination booklets. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from school registries and telephone interviews. Vaccination rates were estimated by sample weighted proportions while associations between complete and age-appropriate immunization and potential determinants by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 731 children (mean age: 46, median: 48, range: 10–65 months) were included. Overall immunization coverage with traditional vaccines (DTP, polio, Hib, HBV, 1st dose MMR) was satisfactory, exceeding 90%, but the administration of booster doses was delayed (range: 33.7- 97.4%, at 60 months of age). Complete vaccination rates were lower for new vaccines (Men C, PCV7, varicella, hepatitis A), ranging between 61-92%. In addition, a significant delay in timely administration of Men C, PCV7, as well as HBV was noted (22.9%, 16.0% and 27.7% at 12 months of age, respectively). Child’s age was strongly associated with incomplete vaccination with all vaccines (p< 0.001), while as immigrant status was a predictor of incomplete (p=0.034) and delayed vaccination (p<0.001) with traditional vaccines. Increasing household size and higher maternal education were negatively associated with the receipt of all and newly licensed vaccines, respectively (p=0.035). Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to monitor uptake of new vaccines and improve age- appropriate administration of booster doses as well as early vaccination against hepatitis B. Immigrant status, increased household size and high

  18. An assessment of mumps vaccine effectiveness by dose during an outbreak in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deeks, Shelley L.; Lim, Gillian H.; Simpson, Mary Anne; Gagné, Louise; Gubbay, Jonathan; Kristjanson, Erik; Fung, Cecilia; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This investigation was done to assess vaccine effectiveness of one and two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine during an outbreak of mumps in Ontario. The level of coverage required to reach herd immunity and interrupt community transmission of mumps was also estimated. Methods Information on confirmed cases of mumps was retrieved from Ontario’s integrated Public Health Information System. Cases that occurred between Sept. 1, 2009, and June 10, 2010, were included. Selected health units supplied coverage data from the Ontario Immunization Record Information System. Vaccine effectiveness by dose was calculated using the screening method. The basic reproductive number (R0) represents the average number of new infections per case in a fully susceptile population, and R0 values of between 4 and 10 were considered for varying levels of vaccine effectiveness. Results A total of 134 confirmed cases of mumps were identified. Information on receipt of MMR vaccine was available for 114 (85.1%) cases, of whom 63 (55.3%) reported having received only one dose of vaccine; 32 (28.1%) reported having received two doses. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose of the MMR vaccine ranged from 49.2% to 81.6%, whereas vaccine effectiveness of two doses ranged from 66.3% to 88.0%. If we assume vaccine effectiveness of 85% for two doses of the vaccine, vaccine coverage of 88.2% and 98.0% would be needed to interrupt community transmission of mumps if the corresponding reproductive values were four and six. Interpretation Our estimates of vaccine effectiveness of one and two doses of mumps-containing vaccine were consistent with the estimates that have been reported in other outbreaks. Outbreaks occurring in Ontario and elsewhere serve as a warning against complacency over vaccination programs. PMID:21576295

  19. An assessment of mumps vaccine effectiveness by dose during an outbreak in Canada.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Shelley L; Lim, Gillian H; Simpson, Mary Anne; Gagné, Louise; Gubbay, Jonathan; Kristjanson, Erik; Fung, Cecilia; Crowcroft, Natasha S

    2011-06-14

    This investigation was done to assess vaccine effectiveness of one and two doses of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine during an outbreak of mumps in Ontario. The level of coverage required to reach herd immunity and interrupt community transmission of mumps was also estimated. Information on confirmed cases of mumps was retrieved from Ontario's integrated Public Health Information System. Cases that occurred between Sept. 1, 2009, and June 10, 2010, were included. Selected health units supplied coverage data from the Ontario Immunization Record Information System. Vaccine effectiveness by dose was calculated using the screening method. The basic reproductive number (R(0)) represents the average number of new infections per case in a fully susceptible population, and R(0) values of between 4 and 10 were considered for varying levels of vaccine effectiveness. A total of 134 confirmed cases of mumps were identified. Information on receipt of MMR vaccine was available for 114 (85.1%) cases, of whom 63 (55.3%) reported having received only one dose of vaccine; 32 (28.1%) reported having received two doses. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose of the MMR vaccine ranged from 49.2% to 81.6%, whereas vaccine effectiveness of two doses ranged from 66.3% to 88.0%. If we assume vaccine effectiveness of 85% for two doses of the vaccine, vaccine coverage of 88.2% and 98.0% would be needed to interrupt community transmission of mumps if the corresponding reproductive values were four and six. Our estimates of vaccine effectiveness of one and two doses of mumps-containing vaccine were consistent with the estimates that have been reported in other outbreaks. Outbreaks occurring in Ontario and elsewhere serve as a warning against complacency over vaccination programs.

  20. Reemergence of mumps in São Paulo, Brazil - the urgent need for booster shot campaign to prevent a serious infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Paulo Roberto; Fujita, Dennis Minoru; Romano, Camila Malta

    2017-01-01

    Neglected infectious diseases like mumps may be opportunistic in controlled areas with low vaccine coverage, particularly in developed and emerging countries. A retrospective analysis of mumps-related data from 2001 to 2016 for São Paulo State, Brazil was conducted. From 2014 to 2015, there was an increase of 82% in reported mumps cases in São Paulo, with prevalence of n=49 and 297, respectively in young adults aged 15-29 years. A booster-shot campaign on MMR vaccination is recommended to prevent the spread of mumps in unvaccinated children and recipients of only the first dose.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of an MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in children from three to seventeen years of age.

    PubMed

    Knuf, Markus; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rümke, Hans C; Abarca, Katia; Rivera, Luis; Lattanzi, Maria; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani; Kieninger-Baum, Dorothee; Della Cioppa, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the optimal dose of an MF59-adjuvanted, monovalent, A/H1N1 influenza vaccine in healthy paediatric subjects. Subjects aged 3-8 years (n=194) and 9-17 years (n=160) were randomized to receive two primary doses of A/H1N1 vaccine containing either 3.75 μg antigen with half a standard dose of MF59 adjuvant, 7.5 μg antigen with a full dose of MF59, or (children 3-8 years only), a non-adjuvanted 15 μg formulation. A booster dose of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine including homologous A/H1N1 strain was given one year after priming. Immunogenicity was assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization assays. Vaccine safety was assessed throughout the study (up to 18 months). A single priming dose of either MF59-adjuvanted formulation was sufficient to meet the European licensure criteria for pandemic influenza vaccines (HI titres ≥1:40>70%; seroconversion>40%; and GMR>2.5). Two non-adjuvanted vaccine doses were required to meet the same licensure criteria. After first and second doses, percentage of subjects with HI titres ≥1:40 were between 97% and 100% in the adjuvanted vaccine groups compared with 68% and 91% in the non-adjuvanted group, respectively. Postvaccination seroconversion rates ranged from 91% to 98% in adjuvanted groups and were 68% (first dose) and 98% (second dose) in the non-adjuvanted group. HI titres ≥1:330 after primary doses were achieved in 69% to 90% in adjuvanted groups compared with 41% in the non-adjuvanted group. Long-term antibody persistence after priming and a robust antibody response to booster immunization were observed in all vaccination groups. All A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were generally well tolerated. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred, and no subjects were withdrawn from the study due to an adverse event. An MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine containing 3.75 μg of A/H1N1 antigen was well tolerated and sufficiently immunogenic to meet all the

  2. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8+ T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8+ T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8+/Treg and CD8+/CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  3. Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pichichero, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057

  4. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Billeskov, Rolf; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Woodworth, Joshua; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Cassidy, Joseph P; Mortensen, Rasmus; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world's population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI), and 5-10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660) TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection.

  5. Immunogenicity and Safety of 10-valent Pneumococcal Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine (PHiD-CV) Administered to Children With Sickle Cell Disease Between 8 Weeks and 2 Years of Age: A Phase III, Open, Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Sirima, Sodiomon B; Tiono, Alfred; Gansané, Zakaria; Siribié, Mohamadou; Zongo, Angèle; Ouédraogo, Alphonse; François, Nancy; Strezova, Ana; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Borys, Dorota

    2017-05-01

    Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) were evaluated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), who are at increased risk for infections. In this phase III, open-label, single-center, controlled study in Burkina Faso (NCT01175083), children with SCD (S) or without SCD (NS) were assigned to 6 groups (N = 300): children 8-11 weeks of age (<6 months; <6S and <6NS groups) received 3 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV coadministered with routine childhood vaccines; children 7-11 months of age (7-11S and 7-11NS groups) received 2 primary doses and a booster dose of PHiD-CV; children 12-23 months of age (12-23S and 12-23NS groups) received 2 catch-up doses of PHiD-CV. Pneumococcal antibody responses were measured using 22F-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and functional opsonophagocytic activity. Responses to other antigens were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adverse events were recorded. One month postprimary vaccination, for each vaccine serotype ≥98% of infants in the <6S and <6NS groups had antibody concentrations ≥0.2 µg/mL, except for 6B (≥85%) and 23F (≥89%). Immune responses to PHiD-CV after age-appropriate vaccination in children <2 years did not appear influenced by SCD. All infants were seroprotected/seropositive for diphtheria, tetanus and Bordetella pertussis antigens postprimary and booster vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity profiles were similar in children with or without SCD. PHiD-CV was immunogenic with an acceptable safety profile in children with and without SCD starting vaccination at 8 weeks to 23 months of age.

  6. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4-8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals.

  7. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Bechini, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4–8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals. PMID:27929751

  8. Advances in the vaccination of the elderly against influenza: role of a high-dose vaccine.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Seth J; Jacobson, Robert; Poland, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    On 23 December 2009, the US FDA approved Fluzone® High Dose, a high-dose formulation of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine, for prevention of influenza in people 65 years of age and older. As it was approved via an accelerated process designed to allow expeditious availability of safe and effective products with promise to treat or prevent serious or life-threatening diseases, the manufacturer is required to conduct further studies to demonstrate effectiveness. Although these studies are underway, a recently completed randomized, controlled trial demonstrated that this vaccine, containing four-times more hemagglutinin than standard-dose inactivated influenza vaccines, can produce an enhanced immunologic response in subjects of 65 years of age and older, while maintaining a favorable safety profile. This article introduces the vaccine, presents currently available safety and immunogenicity data, discusses current recommendations for use, and proposes what we can expect in the coming years.

  9. Mass vaccination with a two-dose oral cholera vaccine in a long-standing refugee camp, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phares, Christina R; Date, Kashmira; Travers, Philippe; Déglise, Carole; Wongjindanon, Nuttapong; Ortega, Luis; Bhuket, Ponchanok Rattanadilok Na

    2016-01-02

    During 2005-2012, surveillance in Maela refugee camp, Thailand, identified four cholera outbreaks, with rates up to 10.7 cases per 1000 refugees. In 2013, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health sponsored a two-dose oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign for the approximately 46,000 refugees living in Maela. We enumerated the target population (refugees living in Maela who are ≥1 year old and not pregnant) in a census three months before the campaign and issued barcoded OCV cards to each individual. We conducted the campaign using a fixed-post strategy during two eight-day rounds plus one two-day round for persons who had missed their second dose and recorded vaccine status for each individual. To identify factors associated with no vaccination (versus at least one dose) and those associated with adverse events following immunization (AEFI), we used separate marginal log-binomial regression models with robust variance estimates to account for household clustering. A total of 63,057 OCV doses were administered to a target population of 43,485 refugees. An estimated 35,399 (81%) refugees received at least one dose and 27,658 (64%) received two doses. A total of 993 additional doses (1.5%) were wasted including 297 that were spat out. Only 0.05% of refugees, mostly children, could not be vaccinated due to repeated spitting. Characteristics associated with no vaccination (versus at least one dose) included age ≥15 years (versus 1-14 years), Karen ethnicity (versus any other ethnicity) and, only among adults 15-64 years old, male sex. Passive surveillance identified 84 refugees who experienced 108 AEFI including three serious but coincidental events. The most frequent AEFI were nausea (49%), dizziness (38%), and fever (30%). Overall, AEFI were more prevalent among young children and older adults. Our results suggest that mass vaccination in refugee camps with a two-dose OCV is readily achievable and AEFI are few. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. High Antigen Dose Is Detrimental to Post-Exposure Vaccine Protection against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Billeskov, Rolf; Lindenstrøm, Thomas; Woodworth, Joshua; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Cassidy, Joseph P.; Mortensen, Rasmus; Agger, Else Marie; Andersen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiologic agent of tuberculosis (TB), causes 1.8M deaths annually. The current vaccine, BCG, has failed to eradicate TB leaving 25% of the world’s population with latent Mtb infection (LTBI), and 5–10% of these people will reactivate and develop active TB. An efficient therapeutic vaccine targeting LTBI could have an enormous impact on global TB incidence, and could be an important aid in fighting multidrug resistance, which is increasing globally. Here we show in a mouse model using the H56 (Ag85B-ESAT-6-Rv2660) TB vaccine candidate that post-exposure, but not preventive, vaccine protection requires low vaccine antigen doses for optimal protection. Loss of protection from high dose post-exposure vaccination was not associated with a loss of overall vaccine response magnitude, but rather with greater differentiation and lower functional avidity of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells. High vaccine antigen dose also led to a decreased ability of vaccine-specific CD4 T cells to home into the Mtb-infected lung parenchyma, a recently discovered important feature of T cell protection in mice. These results underscore the importance of T cell quality rather than magnitude in TB-vaccine protection, and the significant role that antigen dosing plays in vaccine-mediated protection. PMID:29379507

  11. Safety and immune response to a challenge dose of hepatitis B vaccine in healthy children primed 10years earlier with hexavalent vaccines in a 3, 5, 11-month schedule: An open-label, controlled, multicentre trial in Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Alessandro; Desole, Maria Giuseppina; Romanò, Luisa; d'Alessandro, Antonio; Conversano, Michele; Ferrera, Giuseppe; Panico, Maria Grazia; Tomasi, Alberto; Zoppi, Giorgio; Zuliani, Massimo; Thomas, Stéphane; Soubeyrand, Benoît; Eymin, Cécile; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-07-13

    The strategy of vaccinating infants to prevent hepatitis B virus infection in adolescence or adulthood requires durable immunity. This study investigated responses to a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine in children primed with three doses of either Hexavac® or Infanrix hexa® 10years earlier during infancy. This open-label, controlled, multicentre study conducted in Italy, enrolled 751 healthy pre-adolescents (aged 11-13years) who were given either Hexavac (n=409) or Infanrix hexa (n=342) at 3, 5 and 11months of life. All participants received a challenge dose of a monovalent hepatitis B vaccine (HBVaxPro® 5µg). The concentrations of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were measured before and 1month after the challenge dose. The analysis was descriptive and no formal hypothesis was tested. One month post-challenge, 331 participants in the Hexavac cohort [83.6%, 95% CI: 79.6; 87.1] and 324 in the Infanrix hexa cohort [96.4%, 95% CI: 93.8; 98.1] had anti-HBs concentrations ≥10mIU/mL. Before the challenge dose, an anti-HBs concentration of ≥10mIU/mL was found in 94 children in the Hexavac cohort [23.9%, 95% CI: 19.7; 28.4] and in 232 children in the Infanrix hexa cohort [69%, 95% CI: 63.8; 74.0]. Among children with a pre-challenge anti-HBs concentration of <10mIU/mL, 236 [78.7%, 95% CI: 73.6; 83.2] in the Hexavac cohort and 92 [88.5%, 95% CI: 80.7; 93.9] in the Infanrix hexa cohort achieved protective anti-HBs antibody concentrations. No evidence of active hepatitis B disease was observed in either group, and the HBVaxPro challenge dose was well tolerated. These data confirm that immune memory persists in a high percentage of children (>80%) at least 10years after a two-dose primary and booster vaccination schedule with a hexavalent vaccine (Hexavac or Infanrix hexa). EudraCT Number: 2013-001602-28; clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02012998. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Immunity to hepatitis A and B persists for at least 15 years after immunisation of adolescents with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Beran, Jiri; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Leyssen, Maarten; D'silva, Priya

    2016-05-23

    The exact duration of antibody persistence to hepatitis A and B and the need for booster dosing following primary immunisation remains undefined. A long-term study was designed to follow antibody persistence and immune memory on an annual basis for up to 15 years following vaccination during adolescence. Subjects received a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine (Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 12-15 years of age, either as 2-dose of the adult formulation or 3-dose of the paediatric formulation. Blood samples were taken every year thereafter to assess antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis A and B. Antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) were measured at Years 11-15. At Year 15 immune memory was further assessed by measuring the anamnestic response to a challenge dose of the monovalent vaccine, which was administered to subjects whose antibody concentrations fell below the pre-defined cut-offs (anti-HAV: <15mIU/mL; anti-HBs: <10mIU/mL). 209 subjects returned for follow-up at Year 15 of whom 162 were included in the long-term according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort. All subjects remained seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies, while 81.1% and 81.8% still had anti-HBs antibodies ≥10mIU/mL in the 2- and 3-dose groups, respectively. Following hepatitis B vaccine challenge dose administration to 19 subjects, all except one in the 3-dose group, mounted a robust anamnestic response. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the hepatitis B challenge was consistent with previous experience. Immunity to hepatitis A and B persists 15 years after adolescent vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. Highly effective anamnestic response indicates that a booster dose should not be required for 15 years after primary vaccination. http://www.clinicaltrials.govNCT00875485. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimal Dosing and Dynamic Distribution of Vaccines in an Influenza Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, James; Becker, Niels; Nolan, Terry; MacIntyre, C. Raina

    2009-01-01

    Limited production capacity and delays inherent in vaccine development are major hurdles to the widespread use of vaccines to mitigate the effects of a new influenza pandemic. Antigen-sparing vaccines have the most potential to increase population coverage but may be less efficacious. The authors explored this trade-off by applying simple models of influenza transmission and dose response to recent clinical trial data. In this paper, these data are used to illustrate an approach to comparing vaccines on the basis of antigen supply and inferred efficacy. The effects of delays in matched vaccine availability and seroconversion on epidemic size during pandemic phase 6 were also studied. The authors infer from trial data that population benefits stem from the use of low-antigen vaccines. Delayed availability of a matched vaccine could be partially alleviated by using a 1-dose vaccination program with increased coverage and reduced time to full protection. Although less immunogenic, an overall attack rate of up to 6% lower than a 2-dose program could be achieved. However, if prevalence at vaccination is above 1%, effectiveness is much reduced, emphasizing the need for other control measures. PMID:19395691

  14. Efficacy of a Single-Dose, Inactivated Oral Cholera Vaccine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Firdausi; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ali, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Saha, Amit; Khan, Iqbal A; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Akter, Afroza; Khan, Arifuzzaman; Begum, Yasmin A; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Khanam, Farhana; Chowdhury, Mohiul I; Islam, Taufiqul; Chowdhury, Atique I; Rahman, Anisur; Siddique, Shah A; You, Young A; Kim, Deok R; Siddik, Ashraf U; Saha, Nirod C; Kabir, Alamgir; Cravioto, Alejandro; Desai, Sachin N; Singh, Ajit P; Clemens, John D

    2016-05-05

    A single-dose regimen of the current killed oral cholera vaccines that have been prequalified by the World Health Organization would make them more attractive for use against endemic and epidemic cholera. We conducted an efficacy trial of a single dose of the killed oral cholera vaccine Shanchol, which is currently given in a two-dose schedule, in an urban area in which cholera is highly endemic. Nonpregnant residents of Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were 1 year of age or older were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of oral cholera vaccine or oral placebo. The primary outcome was vaccine protective efficacy against culture-confirmed cholera occurring 7 to 180 days after dosing. Prespecified secondary outcomes included protective efficacy against severely dehydrating culture-confirmed cholera during the same interval, against cholera and severe cholera occurring 7 to 90 versus 91 to 180 days after dosing, and against cholera and severe cholera according to age at baseline. A total of 101 episodes of cholera, 37 associated with severe dehydration, were detected among the 204,700 persons who received one dose of vaccine or placebo. The vaccine protective efficacy was 40% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11 to 60%; 0.37 cases per 1000 vaccine recipients vs. 0.62 cases per 1000 placebo recipients) against all cholera episodes, 63% (95% CI, 24 to 82%; 0.10 vs. 0.26 cases per 1000 recipients) against severely dehydrating cholera episodes, and 63% (95% CI, -39 to 90%), 56% (95% CI, 16 to 77%), and 16% (95% CI, -49% to 53%) against all cholera episodes among persons vaccinated at the age of 5 to 14 years, 15 or more years, and 1 to 4 years, respectively, although the differences according to age were not significant (P=0.25). Adverse events occurred at similar frequencies in the two groups. A single dose of the oral cholera vaccine was efficacious in older children (≥5 years of age) and in adults in a setting with a high level of cholera endemicity. (Funded by the Bill

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of heterologous prime-boost regimens with mycobacterial vaccines and recombinant adenovirus- and poxvirus-vectored vaccines against murine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    You, Qingrui; Wu, Yongge; Wu, Yang; Wei, Wei; Wang, Changyong; Jiang, Dehua; Yu, Xianghui; Zhang, Xizhen; Wang, Yong; Tang, Zhijiao; Jiang, Chunlai; Kong, Wei

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate regimens using bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) or recombinant BCG (rBCG) overexpressing Ag85B for priming, followed by boosting with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara strain (MVA) and/or adenovirus vector (AD) expressing an Ag85B-ESAT6 fusion protein. Cellular and humoral immune responses were determined after subcutaneous vaccination, which was employed to trigger systemic immunity against intravenous infection in a mouse model of tuberculosis (TB). Bacterial loads and lung histology were evaluated. The relative IgG2a and IgG1 antibody levels indicated that the viral-vectored vaccines generated a T-helper type 1 (Th1)-biased response after two doses of viral boost vaccinations. Boosting BCG-primed mice with viral vaccines induced a Th1 immune response that included both CD4 and CD8 T-cells generating antigen-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and CD8 T cytotoxic activity. Only mice vaccinated with two different viral boosters after BCG priming exhibited a significant reduction in bacterial burden in the lung after challenge. Histology examinations confirmed the attenuation of lung damage and more compact granulomas. After mycobacteria priming, boosting with AD85B-E6 followed by MVA85B-E6 afforded better protection than the reverse order of administration of the viral vectors. This study demonstrates the potential of multiple heterologous viral booster vaccines, although the exact correlates of protection and optimal regimens should be further investigated for the rational design of future vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adult vaccination against tetanus and diphtheria: the European perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Besides immunizations against influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae and herpes zoster, which are recommended specifically for elderly people, regular booster vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria and in some cases pertussis and polio are recommended in many European countries for adults, including elderly people. Vaccination recommendations for adults differ greatly between individual countries and coverage data is scarce. Tetanus‐specific antibody concentrations are generally higher than diphtheria‐specific antibodies, and a substantial proportion of adults, and particularly of elderly people, do not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria. Antibody levels increase upon booster vaccination in all age groups, but diphtheria‐specific antibody concentrations remain below protective levels in some older individuals, even immediately after vaccination and long‐term protection is frequently not achieved. Future vaccination strategies should therefore include regular and well‐documented booster shots, e.g. against tetanus and diphtheria, throughout life. PMID:27279025

  17. Antibody titers and response to vaccination against hepatitis A and B in pediatric patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mariana Nogueira de Paula; Hessel, Gabriel; Alves De Tommaso, Adriana María

    2008-09-01

    In Brazil, approximately 130 new cases of hepatitis A per 100,000 inhabitants occur annually and 15% of the population has been in contact with hepatitis B virus. Portal hypertension causes hypersplenism and reduces T cell production, which may lead to less effective response to hepatitis vaccination. The objective of the study was to evaluate the response to hepatitis A and B vaccination in patients with portal hypertension secondary to chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Twenty-three patients (2 to 18 years) with portal hypertension seen at the Pediatric Hepatology Service of Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, between 1994 and 2006 were studied. Hepatitis A and B serology was tested in all patients. Patients who had not been vaccinated before their visits received the vaccines during the study period. Patients who had been vaccinated before but had negative anti-HB antibodies received a booster dose, and their serology was repeated Blood counts were performed in each patient to assess for immunosuppression. Eighteen patients received hepatitis A vaccine and all became positive for anti-HAV antibodies. All patients had received hepatitis B vaccine and 17 (73.9%) were anti-HBs positive at the time of the study The other 6 received a booster dose and became anti-HBs positive afterward. The anti-HBs-positive and -negative patients did not differ significantly in age, leukocytes, lymphocytes, or duration between the vaccination and positive serology. In this study, hepatitis A vaccines elicited a 100% response and hepatitis B vaccine conferred protection and induced an anamnestic response in pediatric patients with portal hypertension.

  18. Specific memory B cell response and participation of CD4+ central and effector memory T cells in mice immunized with liposome encapsulated recombinant NE protein based Hepatitis E vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shruti P; Thanapati, Subrat; Arankalle, Vidya A; Tripathy, Anuradha S

    2016-11-21

    Liposome encapsulated neutralizing epitope protein of Hepatitis E virus (HEV), rNEp, our Hepatitis E vaccine candidate, was shown to be immunogenic and safe in pregnant and non-pregnant mice and yielded sterilizing immunity in rhesus monkeys. The current study in Balb/c mice assessed the levels and persistence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies by ELISA, frequencies of B, memory B, T and memory T cells by flow cytometry and HEV-specific IgG secreting memory B cells by ELISPOT till 420days post immunization (PI) with 5?g rNEp encapsulated in liposome based adjuvant (2 doses, 4weeks apart). Mice immunized with a lower dose (1?g) were assessed only for anamnestic response post booster dose. Vaccine candidate immunized mice (5?g dose) elicited strong anti-HEV IgG response that was estimated to persist for lifetime. At day 120 PI, frequency of memory B cells was higher in immunized mice than those receiving adjuvant alone. Anti-HEV IgG titers were lower in mice immunized with 1?g dose. A booster dose yielded a heightened antibody response in mice with both high (>800GMT, 5?g) and low (?100GMT, 1?g) anti-HEV IgG titers. At day 6th post booster dose, HEV-specific antibody secreting plasma cells (ASCs) were detected in 100% and 50% of mice with high and low anti-HEV IgG titers, respectively, whereas the frequencies of CD4 + central and effector memory T cells were high in mice with high anti-HEV IgG titers only. Taken together, the vaccine candidate effectively generates persistent and anamnestic antibody response, elicits participation of CD4 + memory T cells and triggers memory B cells to differentiate into ASCs upon boosting. This approach of assessing the immunogenicity of vaccine candidate could be useful to explore the longevity of HEV-specific memory response in future HEV vaccine trials in human. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Evidence for single-dose protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine-Review of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial and future research studies.

    PubMed

    Kreimer, Aimée R; Herrero, Rolando; Sampson, Joshua N; Porras, Carolina; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Chanock, Stephen; Jimenez, Silvia; Schussler, John; Gail, Mitchell H; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J; Cortes, Bernal; Pinto, Ligia A; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula

    2018-01-20

    The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT), a phase III randomized clinical trial, provided the initial data that one dose of the HPV vaccine could provide durable protection against HPV infection. Although the study design was to administer all participants three doses of HPV or control vaccine, 20% of women did not receive the three-dose regimens, mostly due to involuntary reasons unrelated to vaccination. In 2011, we reported that a single dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine could be as efficacious as three doses of the vaccine using the endpoint of persistent HPV infection accumulated over the first four years of the trial; findings independently confirmed in the GSK-sponsored PATRICIA trial. Antibody levels after one dose, although lower than levels elicited by three doses, were 9-times higher than levels elicited by natural infection. Importantly, levels remained essentially constant over at least seven years, suggesting that the observed protection provided by a single dose might be durable. Much work has been done to assure these non-randomized findings are valid. Yet, the group of recipients who received one dose of the bivalent HPV vaccine in the CVT and PATRICIA trials was small and not randomly selected nor blinded to the number of doses received. The next phase of research is to conduct a formal randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the protection afforded by a single dose of HPV vaccine. Complementary studies are in progress to bridge our findings to other populations, and to further document the long-term durability of antibody response following a single dose. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Tetanus in Ethiopia: unveiling the blight of an entirely vaccine-preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Woldeamanuel, Yohannes Woubishet

    2012-12-01

    Today, tetanus exacts its toll only in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. Agrarian rural life with limited vaccine typifies tetanus risk in Ethiopia where current tetanus control trends on expanding infant immunization and eliminating highly prevalent maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT). Protection by infant tetanus immunization primers disappears within an average of 3 years, if not followed by boosters. Second-year of life, school-based, and universal 10-yearly tetanus immunizations need to be supplemented. Facility-based reviews in Ethiopia reveal a continued burden of tetanus at tertiary-level hospitals where ICU care is suboptimal. Quality of medical care for tetanus is low - reflected by high case-fatality-rates. Opportunities at primary-health-care-units (antenatal-care, family planning, abortion, wound-care, tetanus-survivors) need to be fully-utilized to expand tetanus immunization. Prompt wound-care with post-exposure prophylaxis and proper footwear must be promoted. Standard ICU care needs to exist. Realization of cold-chain-flexible, needle-less and mono-dose vaccine programs allow avoiding boosters, vaccine-refrigeration, and improve compliance.

  1. [Comparison of antibody persistence between live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccines].

    PubMed

    Liu, Huai-Feng; Zhang, Xin-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Li

    2009-08-01

    To study the antibody persistence of live attenuated hepatitits A vaccine, and to compare the antibody between with inactivated vaccine. 211 HAV susceptible children were divided randomly into three groups, Group A was injected three doses HepA-L at 0, 6 and 12 monthes; Group B was administrated two dose HepA-L at 0 and 6 months, and group C was immunized with inactivated vaccine at month 0 and 6. Serum samples were detected for Anti-HAV at 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 24, 84 months after vaccination in each group. The seroconversion rates reached 100% after 2nd dose in all groups. The highest GMC was 2938.1 mlU/ml, founded in group C, and it was 1315.6 mlU/ml and 1586 mlU/ml in group A and B respectively. After the 3rd dose at month 12 in group A, the antibody increased dramatic, which reached 1945.3 mlU/ml. 84 months after first dose in each group, the antibody can be detected from all subjects. Though the GMC in group A declined to 336.8 mlU/ml, it was significant higher than that in group B and C. The good booster effect with HepA-L was well observed in a short-term. The immune response induced by 2 to 3 doses HepA-L could compete with inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. However, long-term effects of both vaccines need further study.

  2. Fluzone High-Dose Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... research. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine indicated that the high-dose vaccine ... TTY: 888-232-6348 Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov ...

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine administered to older infants and children naïve to pneumococcal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Jacek; Brzostek, Jerzy; Szymański, Henryk; Tetiurka, Bogusław; Toporowska-Kowalska, Ewa; Wasowska-Królikowska, Krystyna; Sarkozy, Denise A; Giardina, Peter C; Gruber, William C; Emini, Emilio A; Scott, Daniel A

    2015-03-30

    Streptococcus pneumoniae infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children <5 years old worldwide. To increase serotype coverage globally, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been developed and approved in many countries worldwide. Assess the safety and immunogenicity of PCV13 in healthy older infants and children naïve to previous pneumococcal vaccination. This was a phase 3, open-label, multicenter study conducted in Polish children (N=354) who were vaccinated according to 3 age-appropriate catch-up schedules: Group 1 (aged 7 to <12 months) received two PCV13 doses with a booster at 12-16 months of age; Group 2 (aged 12 to <24 months) received two vaccine doses only; and Group 3 (aged 24 to <72 months) received a single dose of PCV13. Statistical analyses were descriptive. The proportion of immunological "responders" achieving serotype-specific antipneumococcal polysaccharide concentrations ≥0.35μg/mL, 1-month after the last dose of vaccine, was determined for each vaccine serotype. In addition, antipolysaccharide immunoglobulin (Ig) G geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were calculated. Safety assessments included systemic and local reactions, and adverse events. The proportion of immunological responders was ≥88% across groups for all serotypes. Antipolysaccharide IgG GMCs were generally similar across groups. Each schedule elicited immune response levels against all 13 serotypes comparable to or greater than levels previously reported in infants after a 3-dose series. The 3 catch-up schedules had similar tolerability and safety profiles; a trend was present towards greater local tenderness with increasing age and subsequent dose administration. Immunological responses and safety results support the use of PCV13 for catch-up schedules in older infants and children naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Persistence of antibodies 20 y after vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Suryakiran, P.; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114). Subjects with circulating anti-HAV antibodies < 15 mIU/mL or with anti-hepatitis B surface antigen < 10 mIU/mL were offered an additional monovalent hepatitis A and/or B vaccine dose (Havrix™/Engerix™-B, GSK Vaccines, Belgium). Applying the immunogenicity results from these studies, mathematical modeling predicted long-term persistence. After 20 y, 18 and 25 subjects in studies A and B, respectively, comprised the long-term according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity; 100% and 96.0% retained anti-HAV antibodies ≥ 15 mIU/mL, respectively; 94.4% and 92.0% had anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL, respectively. Between Years 16–20, 4 subjects who received a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis A vaccine (N = 2) or hepatitis B vaccine (N = 2), all mounted a strong anamnestic response suggestive of immune memory despite low antibody levels. Mathematical modeling predicts that 40 y after vaccination ≥ 97% vaccinees will maintain anti-HAV ≥ 15 mIU/mL and ≥ 50% vaccinees will retain anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Immunogenicity data confirm that primary immunization with 3-doses of HAB induces persisting anti-HAV and anti-HBs specific antibodies in most adults for up to 20 y; mathematical modeling predicts even longer-term protection. PMID:28281907

  5. Persistence of antibodies 20 y after vaccination with a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, Pierre; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Suryakiran, P; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2017-05-04

    Vaccination is the most effective and well-tolerated method of conferring long-term protection against hepatitis A and B viruses (HAV; HBV). Long-term studies are required to characterize the duration of protection and need for boosters. Following primary immunization of 150 and 157 healthy adults with 3-doses of combined hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccine (HAB; Twinrix™, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) at 0-1-6 months in 2 separate studies, we measured vaccine-induced antibody persistence against HAV and HBV annually for 20 y (Study A: NCT01000324; Study B: NCT01037114). Subjects with circulating anti-HAV antibodies < 15 mIU/mL or with anti-hepatitis B surface antigen < 10 mIU/mL were offered an additional monovalent hepatitis A and/or B vaccine dose (Havrix™/Engerix™-B, GSK Vaccines, Belgium). Applying the immunogenicity results from these studies, mathematical modeling predicted long-term persistence. After 20 y, 18 and 25 subjects in studies A and B, respectively, comprised the long-term according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity; 100% and 96.0% retained anti-HAV antibodies ≥ 15 mIU/mL, respectively; 94.4% and 92.0% had anti-HBs antibodies ≥ 10 mIU/mL, respectively. Between Years 16-20, 4 subjects who received a challenge dose of monovalent hepatitis A vaccine (N = 2) or hepatitis B vaccine (N = 2), all mounted a strong anamnestic response suggestive of immune memory despite low antibody levels. Mathematical modeling predicts that 40 y after vaccination ≥ 97% vaccinees will maintain anti-HAV ≥ 15 mIU/mL and ≥ 50% vaccinees will retain anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Immunogenicity data confirm that primary immunization with 3-doses of HAB induces persisting anti-HAV and anti-HBs specific antibodies in most adults for up to 20 y; mathematical modeling predicts even longer-term protection.

  6. The Impact of a One-Dose versus Two-Dose Oral Cholera Vaccine Regimen in Outbreak Settings: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Andrew S.; Luquero, Francisco J.; Ciglenecki, Iza; Grais, Rebecca F.; Sack, David A.; Lessler, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited. Innovative strategies are needed to maximize the health impact and minimize the logistical barriers to using available vaccine. Here we ask under what conditions the use of one dose rather than the internationally licensed two-dose protocol may do both. Methods and Findings Using mathematical models we determined the minimum relative single-dose efficacy (MRSE) at which single-dose reactive campaigns are expected to be as or more effective than two-dose campaigns with the same amount of vaccine. Average one- and two-dose OCV effectiveness was estimated from published literature and compared to the MRSE. Results were applied to recent outbreaks in Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Guinea using stochastic simulations to illustrate the potential impact of one- and two-dose campaigns. At the start of an epidemic, a single dose must be 35%–56% as efficacious as two doses to avert the same number of cases with a fixed amount of vaccine (i.e., MRSE between 35% and 56%). This threshold decreases as vaccination is delayed. Short-term OCV effectiveness is estimated to be 77% (95% CI 57%–88%) for two doses and 44% (95% CI −27% to 76%) for one dose. This results in a one-dose relative efficacy estimate of 57% (interquartile range 13%–88%), which is above conservative MRSE estimates. Using our best estimates of one- and two-dose efficacy, we projected that a single-dose reactive campaign could have prevented 70,584 (95% prediction interval [PI] 55,943–86,205) cases in Zimbabwe, 78,317 (95% PI 57,435–100,150) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and 2,826 (95% PI 2,490–3,170) cases in Conakry, Guinea: 1.1 to 1.2 times as many as a two-dose campaign. While extensive sensitivity analyses were performed, our projections of cases averted in past epidemics are based on severely limited single-dose efficacy data and may not fully capture

  7. Generation of switched memory B cells in response to vaccination in Down syndrome children and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Bianchi, Simona; Villani, Alberto; Facchini, Marzia; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Marasco, Emiliano; Farroni, Chiara; Carsetti, Rita

    2015-11-27

    Immunodeficiency is an integral aspect of Down syndrome, as demonstrated by the increased susceptibility to infection of affected. Mortality is still higher than in general population, with respiratory infections among the major causes of death. As more people with Down syndrome are living today than ever before, it is indispensable to develop strategies to prevent and cure the associated disorders. Vaccination is the most successful instrument of preventive medicine. Special seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccination strategies have been designed for individuals with risk conditions of all ages. Down syndrome individuals are not included in the high-risk categories. We enrolled in our study 15 children with Down syndrome and their siblings, vaccinated for the first time with seasonal influenza vaccine and receiving a booster dose of a glyco-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. We compared the immunological features and response to vaccination measuring serum antibody titers and frequency of specific memory B cells. We confirm that a severe reduction of switched memory B cells is always associated to Down syndrome. After primary vaccination Down syndrome children generate significantly less specific switched memory B cells than their siblings. The response to a booster dose of vaccine is instead comparable in both groups. The production of specific antibodies was equally effective in Down syndrome and controls both after primary and secondary immunization. Down syndrome individuals should be considered a high risk group, because of their increased susceptibility to infection and reduced number of switched memory B cells. Tailored vaccination protocols are needed in order to reduce their burden of infections throughout life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Experiements with an inactivated hepatitis leptospirosis vaccine in vaccination programmes for dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M; Leemans-Dessy, S; Meijer, J W

    1977-06-25

    A fluid adjuvanted vaccine consisting of inactivated hepatitis virus (iH) and leptospirae antigens (L) was developed. The vaccine (Kavak iHL; Duphar) was tested in several vaccination programmes both alone and in combination with freeze dried measles (M) or distemper (D) vaccines. The results demonstrate that this new vaccine is also effective in pups with maternally derived antibodies, although a second vaccination at 14 weeks of age is recommended to boost the first vaccination. For the booster vaccination either the iHL-vaccine or the liver attenuated hepatitis vaccine (H) can be used.

  9. Durable antibody responses following one dose of the bivalent human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine in the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial.

    PubMed

    Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Porras, Carolina; Pan, Yuanji; Kreimer, Aimee; Schiller, John T; Gonzalez, Paula; Lowy, Douglas R; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana C; Herrero, Rolando; Kemp, Troy; Shelton, Gloriana; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A

    2013-11-01

    The Costa Rica HPV16/18 Vaccine Trial (CVT) showed that four-year vaccine efficacy against 12-month HPV16/18 persistent infection was similarly high among women who received one, two, or the recommended three doses of the bivalent HPV16/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Live-attenuated viral vaccines, but not simple-subunit vaccines, usually induce durable lifelong antibody responses after a single dose. It is unclear whether noninfectious VLP vaccines behave more like live-virus or simple-subunit vaccines in this regard. To explore the likelihood that efficacy will persist longer term, we investigated the magnitude and durability of antibodies to this vaccine by measuring HPV16- and HPV18-specific antibodies by VLP-ELISA using serum from enrollment, vaccination, and annual visits through four years in four vaccinated groups; one-dose (n = 78), two-doses separated by one month (n = 140), two doses separated by six months (n = 52), and three scheduled doses (n = 120, randomly selected). We also tested enrollment sera from n = 113 HPV16- or HPV18 L1-seropositive women prevaccination, presumably from natural infection. At four years, 100% of women in all groups remained HPV16/18 seropositive; both HPV16/18 geometric mean titers (GMT) among the extended two-dose group were non-inferior to the three-dose group, and ELISA titers were highly correlated with neutralization titers in all groups. Compared with the natural infection group, HPV16/18 GMTs were, respectively, at least 24 and 14 times higher among the two-dose and 9 and 5 times higher among one-dose vaccinees. Antibody levels following one-dose remained stable from month 6 through month 48. Results raise the possibility that even a single dose of HPV VLPs will induce long-term protection. ©2013 AACR.

  10. The immunization status of children with chronic neurological disease and serological assessment of vaccine-preventable diseases.

    PubMed

    Dinleyici, Meltem; Carman, Kursat Bora; Kilic, Omer; Laciner Gurlevik, Sibel; Yarar, Coskun; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2018-04-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the age-appropriate immunization coverage in 366 children with chronic neurological disease (CND), to evaluate the use of vaccines not included in routine program, to evaluate serological tests for vaccine-preventable diseases and to describe the related factors in unvaccinated children. 95.6% of all children with had received age-appropriate vaccinations according to the actual National Immunization Program (NIP) during childhood. 12 children (3.6%) had not received vaccines; only two had true contraindications. Because most of the vaccines have been implemented through the NIP for 10 years in Turkey, 88% of children required these new vaccines or booster doses. Moreover, 86.6% of the children and 92.6% of household contacts had no prior history of influenza vaccine. Furthermore, 88% of the patients had not received the varicella vaccine, and the anti-varicella IgG levels were only negative in 27.9%. In addition, 18.6% of the children were negative for anti-mumps IgG, 23.7% for anti-measles IgG, and 6.3% for anti-rubella IgG. Anti-HBs IgG level was 0-10 IU/L in 45.6% of the patients (most of them previously vaccinated) and 79.8% were negative for hepatitis A IgG antibodies. For pertussis infection, the antibody titers of 54.1% of patients were below the protective level, and 10% of patients had a prior acute pertussis infection. Therefore, it is suggested that children with CND should be evaluated for their vaccination status during their first and follow-up visits at certain intervals, and their primary immunization should be completed; moreover, many will need revaccination or booster doses.

  11. Duration of post-vaccination immunity against yellow fever in adults.

    PubMed

    2014-09-03

    Available scientific evidence to recommend or to advise against booster doses of yellow fever vaccine (YFV) is inconclusive. A study to estimate the seropositivity rate and geometric mean titres (GMT) of adults with varied times of vaccination was aimed to provide elements to revise the need and the timing of revaccination. Adults from the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Alfenas located in non-endemic areas in the Southeast of Brazil, who had one dose of YFV, were tested for YF neutralising antibodies and dengue IgG. Time (in years) since vaccination was based on immunisation cards and other reliable records. From 2011 to 2012 we recruited 691 subjects (73% males), aged 18-83 years. Time since vaccination ranged from 30 days to 18 years. Seropositivity rates (95%C.I.) and GMT (International Units/mL; 95%C.I.) decreased with time since vaccination: 93% (88-96%), 8.8 (7.0-10.9) IU/mL for newly vaccinated; 94% (88-97), 3.0 (2.5-3.6) IU/mL after 1-4 years; 83% (74-90), 2.2 (1.7-2.8) IU/mL after 5-9 years; 76% (68-83), 1.7 (1.4-2.0) IU/mL after 10-11 years; and 85% (80-90), 2.1 (1.7-2.5) IU/mL after 12 years or more. YF seropositivity rates were not affected by previous dengue infection. Eventhough serological correlates of protection for yellow fever are unknown, seronegativity in vaccinated subjects may indicate primary immunisation failure, or waning of immunity to levels below the protection threshold. Immunogenicity of YFV under routine conditions of immunisation services is likely to be lower than in controlled studies. Moreover, infants and toddlers, who comprise the main target group in YF endemic regions, and populations with high HIV infection rates, respond to YFV with lower antibody levels. In those settings one booster dose, preferably sooner than currently recommended, seems to be necessary to ensure longer protection for all vaccinees. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  13. Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under

  14. Comparison of 2-Dose and 3-Dose 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Schedules in the United States: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Jean-François; Markowitz, Lauri E; Chesson, Harrell W; Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc

    2016-09-01

    A recent clinical trial using the 9-valent human papillomavirus virus (HPV) vaccine has shown that antibody responses after 2 doses are noninferior to those after 3 doses, suggesting that 2 and 3 doses may have comparable vaccine efficacy. We used an individual-based transmission-dynamic model to compare the population-level effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 2- and 3-dose schedules of 9-valent HPV vaccine in the United States. Our model predicts that if 2 doses of 9-valent vaccine protect for ≥20 years, the additional benefits of a 3-dose schedule are small as compared to those of 2-dose schedules, and 2-dose schedules are likely much more cost-efficient than 3-dose schedules. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Uptake of Free HPV Vaccination among Young Women: A Comparison of Rural versus Urban Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clini