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  1. Conformal image-guided microbeam radiation therapy at the ESRF biomedical beamline ID17

    SciTech Connect

    Donzelli, Mattia, E-mail: donzelli@esrf.fr; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Nemoz, Christian

    Purpose: Upcoming veterinary trials in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) demand for more advanced irradiation techniques than in preclinical research with small animals. The treatment of deep-seated tumors in cats and dogs with MRT requires sophisticated irradiation geometries from multiple ports, which impose further efforts to spare the normal tissue surrounding the target. Methods: This work presents the development and benchmarking of a precise patient alignment protocol for MRT at the biomedical beamline ID17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The positioning of the patient prior to irradiation is verified by taking x-ray projection images from different angles. Results: Usingmore » four external fiducial markers of 1.7  mm diameter and computed tomography-based treatment planning, a target alignment error of less than 2  mm can be achieved with an angular deviation of less than 2{sup ∘}. Minor improvements on the protocol and the use of smaller markers indicate that even a precision better than 1  mm is technically feasible. Detailed investigations concerning the imaging dose lead to the conclusion that doses for skull radiographs lie in the same range as dose reference levels for human head radiographs. A currently used online dose monitor for MRT has been proven to give reliable results for the imaging beam. Conclusions: The ESRF biomedical beamline ID17 is technically ready to apply conformal image-guided MRT from multiple ports to large animals during future veterinary trials.« less

  2. Pulmonary immunity and durable protection induced by the ID93/GLA-SE vaccine candidate against the hyper-virulent Korean Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain K.

    PubMed

    Cha, Seung Bin; Kim, Woo Sik; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Hongmin; Kwon, Kee Woong; Han, Seung Jung; Cho, Sang-Nae; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Shin, Sung Jae

    2016-04-27

    The majority of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine candidates advanced to clinical trials have been evaluated preclinically using laboratory-adapted strains. However, it has been proposed that challenge with clinical isolates in preclinical vaccine testing could provide further and more practical validation. Here, we tested the ID93/GLA-SE TB vaccine candidate against the clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain K (Mtb K) belonging to the Beijing family, the most prevalent Mtb strain in South Korea. Mice immunized with ID93/GLA-SE exhibited a significant reduction in bacteria and reduced lung inflammation against Mtb K when compared to non-immunized controls. In addition, we analyzed the immune responses in the lungs of ID93/GLA-SE-immunized mice, and showed that ID93/GLA-SE was able to elicit sustained Th1-biased immune responses including antigen-specific multifunctional CD4(+) T cell co-producing IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 as well as a high magnitude of IFN-γ response for up to 10 weeks post-challenge. Notably, further investigation of T cell subsets in the lung following challenge showed remarkable generation of CD8(+) central memory T cells by ID93/GLA-SE-immunization. Our findings showed that ID93/GLA-SE vaccine confers a high level of robust protection against the hypervirulent Mtb Beijing infection which was characterized by pulmonary Th1-polarized T-cell immune responses. These findings may also provide relevant information for potential utility of this vaccine candidate in East-Asian countries where the Beijing genotype is highly prevalent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Combining biomedical preventions for HIV: Vaccines with pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides or other HIV preventions

    PubMed Central

    McNicholl, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention. PMID:27679928

  4. Combining biomedical preventions for HIV: Vaccines with pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides or other HIV preventions.

    PubMed

    McNicholl, Janet M

    2016-12-01

    Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of an influenza vaccination program offering intramuscular and intradermal vaccines versus intramuscular vaccine alone for elderly.

    PubMed

    Leung, Man-Kit; You, Joyce H S

    2016-05-11

    Intradermal (ID) injection is an alternative route for influenza vaccine administration in elderly with potential improvement of vaccine coverage. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of an influenza vaccination program offering ID vaccine to elderly who had declined intramuscular (IM) vaccine from the perspective of Hong Kong public healthcare provider. A decision analytic model was used to simulate outcomes of two programs: IM vaccine alone (IM program), and IM or ID vaccine (IM/ID program) in a hypothetic cohort of elderly aged 65 years. Outcome measures included influenza-related direct medical cost, infection rate, mortality rate, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) loss, and incremental cost per QALY saved (ICER). Model inputs were derived from literature. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of uncertainty of model variables. In base-case analysis, the IM/ID program was more costly (USD52.82 versus USD47.59 per individual to whom vaccine was offered) with lower influenza infection rate (8.71% versus 9.65%), mortality rate (0.021% versus 0.024%) and QALYs loss (0.00336 versus 0.00372) than the IM program. ICER of IM/ID program was USD14,528 per QALY saved. One-way sensitivity analysis found ICER of IM/ID program to exceed willingness-to-pay threshold (USD39,933) when probability of influenza infection in unvaccinated elderly decreased from 10.6% to 5.4%. In 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations of elderly populations of Hong Kong, the IM/ID program was the preferred option in 94.7% of time. An influenza vaccination program offering ID vaccine to elderly who had declined IM vaccine appears to be a highly cost-effective option. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intradermal vaccination for infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Saitoh, Akihiko; Aizawa, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intradermal (ID) vaccination induces a more potent immune response and requires lower vaccine doses as compared with standard vaccination routes. To deliver ID vaccines effectively and consistently, an ID delivery device has been developed and is commercially available for adults. The clinical application of ID vaccines for infants and children is much anticipated because children receive several vaccines, on multiple occasions, during infancy and childhood. However, experience with ID vaccines is limited and present evidence is sparse and inconsistent. ID delivery devices are not currently available for infants and children, but recent studies have examined skin thickness in this population and reported that it did not differ in proportion to body size in infants, children, and adults. These results are helpful in developing new ID devices and for preparing new vaccines in infants and children. PMID:27135736

  7. Effect of race/ethnicity on participation in HIV vaccine trials and comparison to other trials of biomedical prevention.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Shayesta; Poole, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities are underrepresented in actual HIV vaccine trials in North America, and willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in an HIV vaccine trial may differ from that in Whites. In this review, the authors identified HIV vaccine preparedness studies (VPS) in North America in high-risk populations that examined the relationship between race/ethnicity and WTP in a preventive phase 3 HIV vaccine trial, and the relationship to retention. Studies were categorized by risk group, and comparison group (Whites vs. non-Whites). Other types of trials of biomedical prevention were also identified, and WTP and retention rates were compared and contrasted to actual HIV vaccine trials. In the studies identified, WTP in a hypothetical trial HIV vaccine trial did not differ by race/ethnicity. In contrast, actual HIV vaccine trials, an HIV acquisition trial, and a phase 2B preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial have enrolled a large percentage of White men. Human papilloma virus (HPV) privately-funded trials have also enrolled a large number of Whites, due to convenience sampling. Retention in the HIV acquisition trial was lower in African-Americans compared with Whites. Strategies to increase WTP and enhanced retention (ER) strategies may help in recruiting and retaining minority participants in actual HIV vaccine trials and other trials of biomedical prevention.

  8. Recombinant DNA technology for melanoma immunotherapy: anti-Id DNA vaccines targeting high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen.

    PubMed

    Barucca, A; Capitani, M; Cesca, M; Tomassoni, D; Kazmi, U; Concetti, F; Vincenzetti, L; Concetti, A; Venanzi, F M

    2014-11-01

    Anti-idiotypic MK2-23 monoclonal antibody (anti-Id MK2-23 mAb), which mimics the high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), has been used to implement active immunotherapy against melanoma. However, due to safety and standardization issues, this approach never entered extensive clinical trials. In the present study, we investigated the usage of DNA vaccines as an alternative to MK2-23 mAb immunization. MK2-23 DNA plasmids coding for single chain (scFv) MK2-23 antibody were constructed via the insertion of variable heavy (V H) and light (V L) chains of MK2-23 into the pVAC-1mcs plasmids. Two alternative MK2-23 plasmids format V H/V L, and V L/V H were assembled. We demonstrate that both polypeptides expressed by scFv plasmids in vitro retained the ability to mimic HMW-MAA antigen, and to elicit specific anti-HMW-MAA humoral and cellular immunoresponses in immunized mice. Notably, MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines impaired the onset and growth of transplantable B16 melanoma cells not engineered to express HMW-MAA. This pilot study suggests that optimized MK2-23 scFv DNA vaccines could potentially provide a safer and cost-effective alternative to anti-Id antibody immunization, for melanoma immunotherapy.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent intradermal influenza vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Gorse, Geoffrey J; Falsey, Ann R; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; Landolfi, Victoria; Tsang, Peter H

    2015-02-25

    An intradermal (ID) trivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV3-ID) (Fluzone(®) Intradermal, Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) has been available in the US since the 2011/2012 influenza season for adults aged 18-64 years. This study examined whether adding a second B-lineage strain affects immunogenicity and safety. This randomized, double-blind, multicentre trial evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of an intradermal quadrivalent split-virion influenza vaccine (IIV4-ID) in adults 18-64 years of age in the US during the 2012-2013 influenza season. Participants were randomized 2:1:1 to receive a single injection of IIV4-ID, licensed IIV3-ID, or an investigational IIV3-ID containing the alternate B-lineage strain. Haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were assessed in two-thirds of participants before vaccination and 28 days after vaccination. 1672 participants were vaccinated with IIV4-ID, 837 with licensed IIV3-ID, and 846 with an investigational IIV3-ID. For all four vaccine strains, antibody responses to IIV4-ID were statistically non-inferior to the response to the IIV3-ID vaccines containing the matched strains. For both B strains, post-vaccination antibody responses to IIV4-ID were statistically superior to the responses to IIV3-ID lacking the corresponding B strain. Adverse events were similar for IIV4-ID and IIV3-ID. The most commonly reported solicited reactions were pain, pruritus, myalgia, headache, and malaise; and most were grade 1 or 2 and appeared and resolved within 3 days of vaccination. IIV4-ID was statistically non-inferior to the two pooled IIV3-ID vaccines for the proportions of participants with at least one grade 2 or 3 systemic reaction. Antibody responses to the IIV4-ID were non-inferior to IIV3-ID for the A and matched B strains and superior for the unmatched B strains. IIV4-ID was well tolerated without any safety concerns. IIV4-ID may help address an unmet need due to mismatched B strains in previous influenza vaccines

  10. The Antibody Response of Pregnant Cameroonian Women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a Small Recombinant Protein Containing the CSA-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Leke, Rose G. F.; Salanti, Ali; Bobbili, Naveen; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Leke, Robert J. I.; Quakyi, Isabella A.; Chen, John J.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2014-01-01

    In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women naturally acquire antibodies to ID1-ID2a and if antibodies to ID1-ID2a correlate with absence of placental malaria at delivery. Antibody levels to full-length VAR2CSA and ID1-ID2a were measured in plasma samples from 745 pregnant Cameroonian women, 144 Cameroonian men, and 66 US subjects. IgM levels and IgG avidity to ID1-ID2a were also determined. As expected, antibodies to ID1-ID2a were absent in US controls. Although pregnant Cameroonian women developed increasing levels of antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA during pregnancy, no increase in either IgM or IgG to ID1-ID2a was observed. Surprisingly, no differences in antibody levels to ID1-ID2a were detected between Cameroonian men and pregnant women. For example, in rural settings only 8–9% of males had antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA, but 90–96% had antibodies to ID1-ID2a. In addition, no significant difference in the avidity of IgG to ID1-ID2a was found between pregnant women and Cameroonian men, and no correlation between antibody levels at delivery and absence of placental malaria was found. Thus, the response to ID1-ID2a was not pregnancy specific, but predominantly against cross-reactivity epitopes, which may have been induced by other PfEMP1 antigens, malarial antigens, or microbes. Currently, ID1-ID2a is a leading vaccine candidate, since it binds to the CSA with the same affinity as the full-length molecule and elicits binding-inhibitory antibodies in animals. Further studies are needed to determine if the presence of naturally acquired cross-reactive antibodies in women living in malaria endemic countries will alter the response to ID1-ID2a following vaccination with ID1-ID2a. PMID:24505415

  11. Engineering β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Cai, Zheng; Chen, Qiling; Liu, Menghua; Ye, Ling; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen; Liu, Shuwen

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.

  12. Enhanced immunity in intradermal vaccination by novel hollow microneedles.

    PubMed

    Ogai, N; Nonaka, I; Toda, Y; Ono, T; Minegishi, S; Inou, A; Hachiya, M; Fukamizu, H

    2018-04-29

    The intradermal (ID) route for vaccination represents an effective alternative to subcutaneous (SC)/intramuscular administration to induce protective immunity. However, a critical issue associated with ID vaccination is the precise delivery of solution in the upper dermis, which ensures enhanced immunity. We fabricated a hollow microneedle unit made of poly-glycolic acid by injection molding and bonding, and created a dedicated prototype injector. To ensure ID delivery of solution, the injected site was macroscopically and microscopically examined. Serum immunoglobulin G antibody production was measured by enzyme immunoassay and compared in groups of rats following either ID delivery with microneedles or SC administration with a 27-G stainless needle of graded vaccine doses. The unit used a tandem array of six microneedles, each with a side delivery hole, and a conduit inside for solution. Microneedles installed in the injector punctured the skin with the aid of a spring. Injection of solution formed a wheal due to ID distribution. Histologically, a wedge-shaped skin defect in the upper skin corresponded to each puncture site. Antibody titers following vaccinations on days 1 and 8 were significantly higher with ID injection than with SC delivery on day 15 and every 7 days thereafter until day 36 with mumps vaccination, and until day 36 with varicella vaccination. The microneedle unit presented here delivered solution intradermally without any difficulty and evoked antibody responses against viruses even with the reduced vaccine volume. Our findings confirm promising results of ID delivery as an immunogenic option to enhance vaccination efficacy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A new approach to estimate vaccine efficacy based on immunogenicity data applied to influenza vaccines administered by the intradermal or intramuscular routes.

    PubMed

    Coudeville, Laurent; Andre, Philippe; Bailleux, Fabrice; Weber, Françoise; Plotkin, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    Despite their pivotal role in the assessment of influenza vaccines, limited attempts have been made to use haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers for predicting vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza. We present here the second step of a two-step approach allowing performing such predictions and use it to compare a new trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine administered by the intradermal (ID) route (INTANZA® /IDFlu®) with the vaccine administered by the classical intramuscular (IM) route. The first step corresponding to the estimation of the level of protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza that can be linked to each HI titer, referred to as the HI protection curve, was achieved by using a meta-analytical approach based on published information. Vaccine efficacy and differences in vaccine efficacy are predicted in a second step using this HI protection curve alongside the results of two randomized clinical trials providing comparative information on the immunogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines administered ID or IM in 3503 & 1645 elderly participants, respectively. Pooling all available immunogenicity data, the predicted vaccine efficacy was 63.3% [CI: 58.1; 68.7] for ID route and 54.4% [CI: 49.4; 59.2] for IM route. The corresponding relative increase in efficacy that is of 16.5% [CI: 12.7; 20.1]. Predicted vaccine efficacies decreased with age for both vaccines, but the decrease was less marked by ID route: the relative increase in efficacy for subjects aged 70 years and above is of 18.0% [CI:12;24]. The analysis performed confirmed that the superior immune response provided by the vaccine using the ID route should translate into a higher vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed influenza.

  14. Nine μg intradermal influenza vaccine and 15 μg intramuscular influenza vaccine induce similar cellular and humoral immune responses in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nougarede, Nolwenn; Bisceglia, Hélène; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Vanbervliet, Beatrice; Rodet, Karen; Hennino, Ana; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Intanza® 9 μg (Sanofi Pasteur), a trivalent split-virion vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) injection, was approved in Europe in 2009 for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 18 to 59 years. Here, we examined the immune responses induced in adults by the ID 9 μg vaccine and the standard trivalent intramuscular (IM) vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 μg, Sanofi Pasteur). This trial was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label study in healthy adults 18 to 40 years of age during the 2007/8 influenza season. Subjects received a single vaccination with the ID 9 μg (n = 38) or IM 15 μg (n = 42) vaccine. Serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected up to 180 days post-vaccination. Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates, and pre-vaccination-to-post-vaccination ratios of geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers did not differ between the two vaccines. Compared with pre-vaccination, the vaccines induced similar increases in vaccine-specific circulating B cells at day 7 but did not induce significant increases in vaccine-specific memory B cells at day 180. Cell-mediated immunity to all three vaccine strains, measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was high at baseline and not increased by either vaccine. Neither vaccine induced a mucosal immune response. These results show that the humoral and cellular immune responses to the ID 9 μg vaccine are similar to those to the standard IM 15 μg vaccine. PMID:25483667

  15. Nine μg intradermal influenza vaccine and 15 μg intramuscular influenza vaccine induce similar cellular and humoral immune responses in adults.

    PubMed

    Nougarede, Nolwenn; Bisceglia, Hélène; Rozières, Aurore; Goujon, Catherine; Boudet, Florence; Laurent, Philippe; Vanbervliet, Beatrice; Rodet, Karen; Hennino, Ana; Nicolas, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Intanza® 9 μg (Sanofi Pasteur), a trivalent split-virion vaccine administered by intradermal (ID) injection, was approved in Europe in 2009 for the prevention of seasonal influenza in adults 18 to 59 years. Here, we examined the immune responses induced in adults by the ID 9 μg vaccine and the standard trivalent intramuscular (IM) vaccine (Vaxigrip® 15 μg, Sanofi Pasteur). This trial was a randomized, controlled, single-center, open-label study in healthy adults 18 to 40 years of age during the 2007/8 influenza season. Subjects received a single vaccination with the ID 9 μg (n=38) or IM 15 μg (n=42) vaccine. Serum, saliva, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected up to 180 days post-vaccination. Geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates, seroconversion rates, and pre-vaccination-to-post-vaccination ratios of geometric mean hemagglutination inhibition titers did not differ between the two vaccines. Compared with pre-vaccination, the vaccines induced similar increases in vaccine-specific circulating B cells at day 7 but did not induce significant increases in vaccine-specific memory B cells at day 180. Cell-mediated immunity to all three vaccine strains, measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, was high at baseline and not increased by either vaccine. Neither vaccine induced a mucosal immune response. These results show that the humoral and cellular immune responses to the ID 9 μg vaccine are similar to those to the standard IM 15 μg vaccine.

  16. Intradermally-administered influenza virus vaccine is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults 18-64 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gorse, Geoffrey J; Falsey, Ann R; Fling, John A; Poling, Terry L; Strout, Cynthia B; Tsang, Peter H

    2013-05-01

    To increase vaccine acceptance, intradermal (ID) influenza vaccine (Fluzone(®) Intradermal, Sanofi Pasteur Inc.) may be an attractive alternative to intramuscular (IM) vaccination due to smaller needle and volume injected. A multicenter, randomized (2:1 ID vs IM vaccines) study, blinded for ID vaccine lots, was conducted among 4292 adults 18-64 years of age enrolled in October 2008. Three lots of investigational trivalent influenza vaccine containing 9μg hemagglutinin (HA) per strain in 0.1mL administered ID with a 30 gauge, 1.5mm long needle were compared to standard dose vaccine (0.5mL containing 15μg HA/strain) given IM. The post-vaccination antibody geometric mean titers (GMT) for the ID vaccine were similar to the IM vaccine (H1N1: 193.2 vs. 178.3, H3N2: 246.7 vs. 230.7, and B: 102.5 vs. 126.9). Non-inferiority was met for the ID vaccine compared to IM vaccine as assessed by antibody GMT ratios (IM/ID) for all three virus strains (H1N1: 0.92, H3N2: 0.94, and B: 1.24). Seroconversion rates were non-inferior for H1N1 and H3N2, but not for B (ID vs. IM: H1N1: 61.2% vs. 60.5%, H3N2: 75.3% vs. 74.8%, and B: 46.2% vs. 54.2%). Seroprotection (HAI titer ≥1:40) rates were similar between groups (ID vs. IM, H1N1: 91.1% vs. 91.7%, H3N2: 90.7% vs. 91.4%, and B: 87.4% vs. 89.3%). Local injection site reactions overall were more common with ID than IM vaccine (ID vs. IM: 89.2% vs. 60.2%), but were usually grade 1 or 2 and transient. The frequencies of local injection site pain and systemic reactions were similar between vaccine groups, except more myalgia with IM vaccine. The ID vaccine elicited immune responses comparable to IM vaccine except for the seroconversion rate to B virus. With the exception of pain, local injection site reactions were more common with the ID vaccine, but well-tolerated and of short duration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00772109. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maleimide conjugation markedly enhances the immunogenicity of both human and murine idiotype-KLH vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kafi, Kamran; Betting, David J.; Yamada, Reiko E.; Bacica, Michael; Steward, Kristopher K.; Timmerman, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The collection of epitopes present within the variable regions of the tumor-specific clonal immunoglobulin expressed by B cell lymphomas (idiotype, Id) can serve as a target for active immunotherapy. Traditionally, tumor-derived Id protein is chemically-conjugated to the immunogenic foreign carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using glutaraldehyde to serve as a therapeutic vaccine. While this approach offered promising results for some patients treated in early clinical trials, glutaraldehyde Id-KLH vaccines have failed to induce immune and clinical responses in many vaccinated subjects. We recently described an alternative conjugation method employing maleimide-sulfhydryl chemistry that significantly increased the therapeutic efficacy of Id-KLH vaccines in three different murine B cell lymphoma models, with protection mediated by either CD8+ T cells or antibodies. We now define in detail the methods and parameters critical for enhancing the in vivo immunogenicity of human as well as murine Id-KLH conjugate vaccines. Optimal conditions for Id sulfhydryl pre-reduction were determined, and maleimide Id-KLH conjugates maintained stability and potency even after prolonged storage. Field flow fractionation analysis of Id-KLH particle size revealed that maleimide conjugates were far more uniform in size than glutaraldehyde conjugates. Under increasingly stringent conditions, maleimide Id-KLH vaccines maintained superior efficacy over glutaraldehyde Id-KLH in treating established, disseminated murine lymphoma. More importantly, human maleimide Id-KLH conjugates were consistently superior to glutaraldehyde Id-KLH conjugates in inducing Id-specific antibody and T cell responses. The described methods should be easily adaptable to the production of clinical grade vaccines for human trials in B cell malignancies. PMID:19046770

  18. Idiotype vaccination in patients with myeloma reduced circulating myeloma cells (CMC).

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A O; Kokhaei, P; Hansson, L; Mellstedt, H; Osterborg, A

    2008-06-01

    Circulating myeloma cells (CMC), exhibiting the same immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangements as the plasma cells, are part of the myeloma clone. In this study, we evaluated the effect of idiotype (Id) vaccination on CMC. Eleven patients were immunized with the autologous Id in combinations with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin 12, and followed for CMC by quantitative real-time allele-specific PCR. Id-specific T cells were monitored by proliferation assay, enzyme-linked immunospot (interferon-gamma) assay, and quantitative real-time PCR for cytokines. Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. CMC were detected in 9 of 11 patients at start of vaccination. In four patients, CMC declined and two had a complete molecular remission. Further two patients had stable levels of CMC during follow-up, while in three patients CMC progressively increased. Six patients had a vaccine-induced Id-specific T-cell response. A significant correlation was observed between reduced/stable levels of CMC and the Id-specific T cells (P < 0.02). The frequency of T(reg) cells was decreased in immune responders, but increased in immune nonresponders (P < 0.05). No significant change in the serum M-protein concentration was, however, observed in any patient. Id vaccination reduced CMC, which correlated with vaccine-induced Id-specific T cells. Further studies are warranted to analyze the clinical significance of CMC and clinical effects of Id vaccination.

  19. Vaccination With Patient-Specific Tumor-Derived Antigen in First Remission Improves Disease-Free Survival in Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Stephen J.; Neelapu, Sattva S.; Gause, Barry L.; Janik, John E.; Muggia, Franco M.; Gockerman, Jon P.; Winter, Jane N.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Nikcevich, Daniel A.; Sotomayor, Eduardo M.; McGaughey, Dean S.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Chong, Elise A.; Reynolds, Craig W.; Berry, Donald A.; Santos, Carlos F.; Popa, Mihaela A.; McCord, Amy M.; Kwak, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Vaccination with hybridoma-derived autologous tumor immunoglobulin (Ig) idiotype (Id) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and administered with granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces follicular lymphoma (FL) –specific immune responses. To determine the clinical benefit of this vaccine, we conducted a double-blind multicenter controlled phase III trial. Patients and Methods Treatment-naive patients with advanced stage FL achieving complete response (CR) or CR unconfirmed (CRu) after chemotherapy were randomly assigned two to one to receive either Id vaccine (Id-KLH + GM-CSF) or control (KLH + GM-CSF). Primary efficacy end points were disease-free survival (DFS) for all randomly assigned patients and DFS for randomly assigned patients receiving at least one dose of Id vaccine or control. Results Of 234 patients enrolled, 177 (81%) achieved CR/CRu after chemotherapy and were randomly assigned. For 177 randomly assigned patients, including 60 patients not vaccinated because of relapse (n = 55) or other reasons (n = 5), median DFS between Id-vaccine and control arms was 23.0 versus 20.6 months, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.16; P = .256). For 117 patients who received Id vaccine (n = 76) or control (n = 41), median DFS after randomization was 44.2 months for Id-vaccine arm versus 30.6 months for control arm (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.99; P = .047) at median follow-up of 56.6 months (range, 12.6 to 89.3 months). In an unplanned subgroup analysis, median DFS was significantly prolonged for patients receiving IgM-Id (52.9 v 28.7 months; P = .001) but not IgG-Id vaccine (35.1 v 32.4 months; P = .807) compared with isotype-matched control-treated patients. Conclusion Vaccination with patient-specific hybridoma-derived Id vaccine after chemotherapy-induced CR/CRu may prolong DFS in patients with FL. Vaccine isotype may affect clinical outcome and explain differing results between this and other

  20. Evaluation of intradermal vaccination at the anti rabies vaccination OPD.

    PubMed

    Mankeshwar, R; Silvanus, V; Akarte, S

    2014-09-01

    Rabies is a virtually 100% fatal acute viral encephalitis caused by an RNA virus belonging to family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. The virus can infect all warm blooded animals. The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite, lick or scratch of an infected animal. More than 99% of all human rabies deaths occur in the developing world. It is preventable with timely and proper usage of modern immunobiologicals (vaccines and immunoglobulins). Once exposure occurs, modern prophylaxis entails immediate wound care, local infiltration of rabies immune globulin and parenteral administration of modern cell culture vaccines in multiple doses. The annual medicinal (vaccines and other drugs) cost for animal bite treatment is Rs. 2 billion approximately (2004). The objective of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the Intradermal (i.d.) route visa vis the Intramuscular (i.m.) route in our clinical setting the Antirabies Vaccination (ARV) OPD, Sir J.J. Hospital, Mumbai. A total of 1460 patients were administered the Antirabies vaccine by the Intradermal route over the 1 year period as compared to 1075 patients who were administered the Antirabies vaccine by the Intramuscular route in the previous year. 1230 (84.2) of the patients who were administered the vaccine by the i.d. route completed the schedule and 230 (15.8%) partially completed the schedule. Four hundred thirty two (40%) of the patients who were administered the vaccine by the Intramuscular route completed the schedule and 643 (59.8%) partially completed the schedule. The vaccine cost for i.d. was Rs. 2,80,600. The vaccine cost for the intramuscular (i.m.) assuming 84% compliance was estimated as Rs. 15, 64, 000. Assuming 40% compliance the cost was estimated as Rs. 7, 82, 230. Thus a saving of Rs. 5, 01, 630 to Rs. 12, 83, 400 was effected. In our setting, the Intradermal regime was cost effective and increased patient adherence and enrolment. It has now been routinely adopted at the clinic.

  1. Topical imiquimod before intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine for protection against heterologous non-vaccine and antigenically drifted viruses: a single-centre, double-blind, randomised, controlled phase 2b/3 trial.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngai; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Li, Patrick; Wong, Tin-Lun; Zhang, Ricky; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Brian Chun-Yuan; Wai, Harrison Ho; Chan, Lok-Wun; Fong, Hugo Pak-Yiu; Hui, Raymond Kar-Ching; Kong, Ka-Lun; Leung, Arthur Chun-Fung; Ngan, Abe Ho-Ting; Tsang, Louise Wing-Ki; Yeung, Alex Pat-Chung; Yiu, Geo Chi-Ngo; Yung, Wing; Lau, Johnson Y-N; Chen, Honglin; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-02-01

    Pretreatment with topical imiquimod, a synthetic agonist of toll-like receptor 7, significantly improved the immunogenicity of influenza vaccination in elderly people. We aimed to clarify its effect in a younger age group. In this double-blind, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled healthy volunteers aged 18-30 years in early 2014 to receive the 2013-14 northern-hemisphere winter trivalent influenza vaccine at the Queen Mary Hospital, (Hong Kong, China). Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to one of the four vaccination groups: the study group, topical imiquimod-cream followed by intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine (INF-Q-ID), or one of three control groups, topical aqueous-cream control followed by intradermal trivalent influenza vaccine (INF-C-ID), topical aqueous-cream control followed by intramuscular trivalent influenza vaccine (INF-C-IM), and topical imiquimod-cream followed by intradermal normal-saline injection (SAL-Q-ID). Randomisation was by computer-generated lists in blocks of four. The type of topical treatment was masked from volunteers and investigators, although not from the study nurse. Serum haemagglutination-inhibition and microneutralisation-antibody titres were assayed. The primary outcome was seroconversion at day 7 after treatment for three vaccine strains of influenza (A/California/07/2009 H1N1-like virus [A/California/H1N1], A/Victoria/361/2011 H3N2-like virus [A/Victoria/H3N2], and B/Massachusetts/2/2012-like virus [B/Yamagata lineage]) and four non-vaccine strains (A/HK/485197/14 [H3N2 Switzerland-like lineage], prototype A/WSN/1933 [H1N1], A/HK/408027/09 [prepandemic seasonal H1N1], and B/HK/418078/11 [Victoria lineage]). Analysis was done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02103023. We enrolled 160 healthy volunteers between March 1 and May 31, 2014, and 40 participants were randomly assigned to each study group. For the A/California/H1N1 strain

  2. Virosomal hepatitis a vaccine: comparing intradermal and subcutaneous with intramuscular administration.

    PubMed

    Frösner, Gert; Steffen, Robert; Herzog, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) is unaffordable to many developing countries. Substantial reductions in cost occur when vaccines are administered intradermally at low doses. Aluminum-free HAV vaccines are considered more suitable for intradermal use than traditional vaccines which can cause long-lasting local reactions. Thus, we compared the immunogenicity and safety of an aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine (Epaxal) administered by different routes: intradermal (i.d.), subcutaneous (s.c.), and intramuscular (i.m.). Two open pilot studies were conducted as sub-studies of a large lot consistency trial. Healthy subjects aged 18 to 45 were enrolled. Study 1 compared two i.d. regimens of a lower dose of Epaxal [0.1 mL (4.8 IU), one or two injection sites] with i.m. administration of the standard dose [0.5 mL (24 IU)]. Study 2 compared the s.c. with the i.m. administration of the standard dose. At month 12, subjects in study 1 received a booster dose of 0.1 mL i.d. or 0.5 mL i.m.; subjects in study 2 received 0.5 mL via the respective route (s.c. or i.m.). Serum was tested for antibodies at baseline, 2 weeks (study 1), and 1 and 6 months after the primary vaccination as well as prior and 1 month after the booster dose. Incidences of solicited and unsolicited adverse events were recorded. Seroprotection rates (anti-HAV geometric mean concentration of > or =20 mIU/mL) after 1 month ranged from 93.2% to 100% in all groups and remained high until month 12 (range 85.2&-90.2%). Complete (100%) seroprotection was achieved by all subjects in all groups after booster vaccination. All routes of administration were well tolerated. Local reactions were more common in subjects vaccinated i.d. and s.c. than i.m. The aluminum-free virosomal HAV vaccine Epaxal is highly immunogenic and well tolerated when administered either via i.d., s.c., or i.m. Vaccination via the i.d. route may confer significant cost savings over the conventional i.m. route.

  3. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network.

    PubMed

    Hur, Junguk; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Feldman, Eva L; He, Yongqun

    2011-08-26

    Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were identified. The asserted

  4. Ontology-based Brucella vaccine literature indexing and systematic analysis of gene-vaccine association network

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine literature indexing is poorly performed in PubMed due to limited hierarchy of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) annotation in the vaccine field. Vaccine Ontology (VO) is a community-based biomedical ontology that represents various vaccines and their relations. SciMiner is an in-house literature mining system that supports literature indexing and gene name tagging. We hypothesize that application of VO in SciMiner will aid vaccine literature indexing and mining of vaccine-gene interaction networks. As a test case, we have examined vaccines for Brucella, the causative agent of brucellosis in humans and animals. Results The VO-based SciMiner (VO-SciMiner) was developed to incorporate a total of 67 Brucella vaccine terms. A set of rules for term expansion of VO terms were learned from training data, consisting of 90 biomedical articles related to Brucella vaccine terms. VO-SciMiner demonstrated high recall (91%) and precision (99%) from testing a separate set of 100 manually selected biomedical articles. VO-SciMiner indexing exhibited superior performance in retrieving Brucella vaccine-related papers over that obtained with MeSH-based PubMed literature search. For example, a VO-SciMiner search of "live attenuated Brucella vaccine" returned 922 hits as of April 20, 2011, while a PubMed search of the same query resulted in only 74 hits. Using the abstracts of 14,947 Brucella-related papers, VO-SciMiner identified 140 Brucella genes associated with Brucella vaccines. These genes included known protective antigens, virulence factors, and genes closely related to Brucella vaccines. These VO-interacting Brucella genes were significantly over-represented in biological functional categories, including metabolite transport and metabolism, replication and repair, cell wall biogenesis, intracellular trafficking and secretion, posttranslational modification, and chaperones. Furthermore, a comprehensive interaction network of Brucella vaccines and genes were

  5. Biomedical and development paradigms in AIDS prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Wolffers, I.

    2000-01-01

    In the fight against the HIV/AIDS pandemic different approaches can be distinguished, reflecting professional backgrounds, world views and political interests. One important distinction is between the biomedical and the development paradigms. The biomedical paradigm is characterized by individualization and the concept of "risk". This again is related to the concept of the market where health is a product of services and progress a series of new discoveries that can be marketed. The development paradigm is characterized by participation of the different stakeholders and by community work. The concept "vulnerability" is important in the development paradigm and emphasis is placed on efforts to decrease this vulnerability in a variety of sustainable ways. Biomedical technology is definitely one of the tools in these efforts. In the beginning of the pandemic the biomedical approach was important for the discovery of the virus and understanding its epidemiology. Later, stakeholders became involved. In the light of absence of treatment or vaccines, the development paradigm became more important and the two approaches were more in balance. However, since the reports about effective treatment of AIDS and hope of development of vaccines, the biomedical paradigm has become a leading principle in many HIV/AIDS prevention programmes. There is a need for a better balance between the two paradigms. Especially in developing countries, where it is not realistic to think that sustainable biomedical interventions can be organized on a short-term basis, it would be counterproductive to base our efforts to deal with HIV/AIDS exclusively on the biomedical approach. PMID:10743300

  6. Laser mimicking mosquito bites for skin delivery of malaria sporozoite vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chang; Chen, Xinyuan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-01-01

    Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) via mosquito bites has been shown to induce sterile immunity against malaria in humans, but this route of vaccination is neither practical nor ethical. The importance of delivering RAS to the liver through circulation in eliciting immunity against this parasite has been recently verified by human studies showing that high-level protection was achieved only by intravenous (IV) administration of RAS, but not by intradermal (ID) or subcutaneous (SC) vaccination. Here, we report in a murine model that ID inoculation of RAS into laser-illuminated skin confers immune protection against malarial infection almost as effectively as IV immunization. Brief illumination of the inoculation site with a low power 532 nm Nd:YAG laser enhanced the permeability of the capillary beneath the skin, owing to hemoglobin-specific absorbance of the light. The increased blood vessel permeability appeared to facilitate an association of RAS with blood vessel walls by an as-yet-unknown mechanism, ultimately promoting a 7-fold increase in RAS entering circulation and reaching the liver over ID administration. Accordingly, ID immunization of RAS at a laser-treated site stimulated much stronger sporozoite-specific antibody and CD8+IFN-γ+ T cell responses than ID vaccination and provided nearly full protection against malarial infection, whereas ID immunization alone was ineffective. This novel, safe, and convenient strategy to augment efficacy of ID sporozoite-based vaccines warrants further investigation in big animals and in humans. PMID:25725360

  7. Laser mimicking mosquito bites for skin delivery of malaria sporozoite vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chang; Chen, Xinyuan; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Ji; Wu, Mei X

    2015-04-28

    Immunization with radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) via mosquito bites has been shown to induce sterile immunity against malaria in humans, but this route of vaccination is neither practical nor ethical. The importance of delivering RAS to the liver through circulation in eliciting immunity against this parasite has been recently verified by human studies showing that high-level protection was achieved only by intravenous (IV) administration of RAS, not by intradermal (ID) or subcutaneous (SC) vaccination. Here, we report in a murine model that ID inoculation of RAS into laser-illuminated skin confers immune protection against malarial infection almost as effectively as IV immunization. Brief illumination of the inoculation site with a low power 532 nm Nd:YAG laser enhanced the permeability of the capillary beneath the skin, owing to hemoglobin-specific absorbance of the light. The increased blood vessel permeability appeared to facilitate an association of RAS with blood vessel walls by an as-yet-unknown mechanism, ultimately promoting a 7-fold increase in RAS entering circulation and reaching the liver over ID administration. Accordingly, ID immunization of RAS at a laser-treated site stimulated much stronger sporozoite-specific antibody and CD8(+)IFN-γ(+) T cell responses than ID vaccination and provided nearly full protection against malarial infection, whereas ID immunization alone was ineffective. This novel, safe, and convenient strategy to augment efficacy of ID sporozoite-based vaccines warrants further investigation in large animals and in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of Fluzone(®) intradermal and high-dose influenza vaccines in older adults ≥65 years of age: a randomized, controlled, phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Peter; Gorse, Geoffrey J; Strout, Cynthia B; Sperling, Malcolm; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; DiazGranados, Carlos; Landolfi, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    We conducted a randomized, controlled, multicenter, phase II study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational intradermal (ID) trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and a high-dose (HD) intramuscular (IM) TIV in older adults (≥65 years of age). Older adult subjects were immunized with ID vaccine containing either 15μg hemagglutinin (HA)/strain (n=636) or 21μg HA/strain (n=634), with HD IM vaccine containing 60μg HA/strain (n=320), or with standard-dose (SD) IM vaccine (Fluzone(®); 15μg HA/strain; n=319). For comparison, younger adults (18-49 years of age) were immunized with SD IM vaccine. In older adults, post-vaccination geometric mean titers induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine for the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains and non-inferior for the B strain. Seroconversion rates induced by the ID vaccines were superior to those induced by the SD IM vaccine in older adults for the A/H1N1 and B strains and non-inferior for the A/H3N2 strain. Results did not differ significantly for the two ID vaccine dosages. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers, seroconversion rates, and most seroprotection rates were significantly higher in HD vaccine recipients than in older adult recipients of the SD IM or ID vaccines and, for most measures, were comparable to those of younger adult SD IM vaccine recipients. Injection-site reactions, but not systemic reactions or unsolicited adverse events, were more common with the ID vaccines than with the IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. This study demonstrated that: (1) the ID and HD vaccines were well-tolerated and more immunogenic than the SD IM vaccine in older adults; (2) the HD vaccine was more immunogenic than the ID vaccines in older adults; and (3) the HD vaccine in older adults and the SD IM vaccine in younger adults elicited comparable antibody responses (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier no.: NCT00551031). Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of revaccination with reduced dose intradermal and standard dose intramuscular influenza vaccines in adults 18-64 years of age.

    PubMed

    Gorse, Geoffrey J; Falsey, Ann R; Johnson, Carol M; Morrison, Dennis; Fried, David L; Ervin, John E; Greenberg, David P; Ozol-Godfrey, Ayca; Landolfi, Victoria; Tsang, Peter H

    2013-12-05

    This clinical trial examined the safety and immunogenicity of annual revaccination with Fluzone(®) Intradermal (Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA) vaccine compared to a standard intramuscular (IM) split-virion trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone(®), Sanofi Pasteur). This phase II, active-controlled, multi-centre, open-label trial was conducted in 2009 and 2010, and enrolled 1250 adults 18-64 years of age who were randomly selected from participants in a phase III influenza vaccine trial the previous year (NCT00772109). Subjects who had previously received the ID vaccine were randomized 2:1 to be revaccinated with the ID or IM vaccine and those who previously received the IM vaccine were randomized 1:1. Solicited reactions were recorded on the day of vaccination and continuing for the next 7 days, non-serious adverse events for 28 days, and serious adverse events for 6 months after vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition antibody titres were assessed pre-vaccination and at day 28. Reactions were well-tolerated and resolved in the first 7 days, but erythema, induration, swelling, pruritus and ecchymosis were reported by more subjects receiving the ID vaccine than the IM vaccine. Compared to receipt of IM vaccine in the previous year, ID vaccine in the previous year led to statistically higher rates of erythema, swelling and induration after IM vaccine in the second year. Injection-site pain and systemic reactions did not differ between ID and IM vaccines. No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported. Geometric mean antibody titres, seroprotection rates, and seroconversion rates were non-inferior for the ID and IM vaccines for all three viral strains. The ID vaccine was as immunogenic as the IM vaccine, and raised no safety concerns. It can be used interchangeably with the IM vaccine for annual revaccination in adults 18-64 years of age in consecutive years without safety concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage in Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2010-01-01

    There is little information of hepatitis B vaccination coverage for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to examine the completed hepatitis B vaccination coverage rate and its determinants of children and adolescents with ID in Taiwan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, with the entire response participants was…

  11. Immunologic and Virologic Mechanisms for Partial Protection from Intravenous Challenge by an Integration-Defective SIV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chu; Jiang, Chunlai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Kaikai; Liu, Donglai; Wang, Wei; Cong, Zhe; Qin, Chuan; Ganusov, Vitaly V.; Ferrari, Guido; LaBranche, Celia; Montefiori, David C.; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui; Gao, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The suppression of viral loads and identification of selection signatures in non-human primates after challenge are indicators for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines. To mimic the protective immunity elicited by attenuated SIV vaccines, we developed an integration-defective SIV (idSIV) vaccine by inactivating integrase, mutating sequence motifs critical for integration, and inserting the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter for more efficient expression in the SIVmac239 genome. Chinese rhesus macaques were immunized with idSIV DNA and idSIV particles, and the cellular and humoral immune responses were measured. After the intravenous SIVmac239 challenge, viral loads were monitored and selection signatures in viral genomes from vaccinated monkeys were identified by single genome sequencing. T cell responses, heterologous neutralization against tier-1 viruses, and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were detected in idSIV-vaccinated macaques post immunization. After challenge, the median peak viral load in the vaccine group was significantly lower than that in the control group. However, this initial viral control did not last as viral set-points were similar between vaccinated and control animals. Selection signatures were identified in Nef, Gag, and Env proteins in vaccinated and control macaques, but these signatures were different, suggesting selection pressure on viruses from vaccine-induced immunity in the vaccinated animals. Our results showed that the idSIV vaccine exerted some pressure on the virus population early during the infection but future modifications are needed in order to induce more potent immune responses. PMID:28574482

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of a killed Leishmania (L.) amazonensis vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vélez, I D; del Pilar Agudelo, S; Arbelaez, M P; Gilchrist, K; Robledo, S M; Puerta, J A; Zicker, F; Berman, J; Modabber, F

    2000-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of an intramuscular (i.m.) and intradermal (ID) formulation of autoclaved Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis vaccine was evaluated in 296 volunteers in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in Colombia. There were 4 vaccination groups: i.m. vaccine, i.m. placebo, ID vaccine, and ID placebo. The ID formulations were mixed with BCG as adjuvant at the time of injection. For each group, 3 vaccinations were given with a 20-day interval between injections, and adverse events were monitored at 20 min, and at 2, 7 and 21 days after each injection. BCG-induced adverse reactions resulted in cancellation of the third vaccine administration in the ID groups. Antibody titres did not differ significantly between the groups. Montenegro skin-test conversion was achieved by 86.4% and 90% of the i.m. vaccine group and by 25% and 5% of the i.m. placebo group 80 days and 1 year after vaccination, respectively. A significant increase in mean Leishmania-antigen lymphocyte proliferation indexes was observed after i.m. vaccine immunization, but not after i.m. placebo immunization, 80 days and 1 year after vaccination. Significant levels of IFN gamma but not IL-10 were observed 1 year after vaccination in the i.m. vaccine group compared to the i.m. placebo group. The good safety profile and evidence of Th1 immune reactions due to i.m. vaccination in this phase-I/II study suggest that a population-based phase-III efficacy trial of the i.m. vaccine should be initiated.

  13. Introducing meta-services for biomedical information extraction

    PubMed Central

    Leitner, Florian; Krallinger, Martin; Rodriguez-Penagos, Carlos; Hakenberg, Jörg; Plake, Conrad; Kuo, Cheng-Ju; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Hung, Hsi-Chuan; Lau, William W; Johnson, Calvin A; Sætre, Rune; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Chen, Yan Hua; Kim, Sun; Shin, Soo-Yong; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence; Haddow, Barry; Matthews, Michael; Wang, Xinglong; Ruch, Patrick; Ehrler, Frédéric; Özgür, Arzucan; Erkan, Güneş; Radev, Dragomir R; Krauthammer, Michael; Luong, ThaiBinh; Hoffmann, Robert; Sander, Chris; Valencia, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the first meta-service for information extraction in molecular biology, the BioCreative MetaServer (BCMS; ). This prototype platform is a joint effort of 13 research groups and provides automatically generated annotations for PubMed/Medline abstracts. Annotation types cover gene names, gene IDs, species, and protein-protein interactions. The annotations are distributed by the meta-server in both human and machine readable formats (HTML/XML). This service is intended to be used by biomedical researchers and database annotators, and in biomedical language processing. The platform allows direct comparison, unified access, and result aggregation of the annotations. PMID:18834497

  14. Do we need a Unique Scientist ID for publications in biomedicine?

    PubMed

    Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Lang, Elke

    2005-03-22

    BACKGROUND: The PubMed database contains nearly 15 million references from more than 4,800 biomedical journals. In general, authors of scientific articles are addressed by their last name and forename initial. DISCUSSION: In general, names can be too common and not unique enough to be search criteria. Today, Ph.D. students, other researchers and women publish scientific work. A person may not only have one name but several names and publish under each name. A Unique Scientist ID could help to address people in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. As a starting point, perhaps PubMed could generate and manage such a scientist ID. SUMMARY: A Unique Scientist ID would improve knowledge management in science. Unfortunately in some of the publications, and then within the online databases, only one letter abbreviates the author's forename. A common name with only one initial could retrieve pertinent citations, but include many false drops (retrieval matching searched criteria but indisputably irrelevant).

  15. Getting to zero the biomedical way in Africa: outcomes of deliberation at the 2013 Biomedical HIV Prevention Forum in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the last few decades, biomedical HIV prevention research had engaged multiple African stakeholders. There have however been few platforms to enable regional stakeholders to engage with one another. In partnership with the World AIDS Campaign International, the Institute of Public Health of Obafemi Awolowo University, and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS in Nigeria, the New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society hosted a forum on biomedical HIV prevention research in Africa. Stakeholders’ present explored evidences related to biomedical HIV prevention research and development in Africa, and made recommendations to inform policy, guidelines and future research agenda. Discussion The BHPF hosted 342 participants. Topics discussed included the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention, considerations for biomedical HIV prevention among key populations; HIV vaccine development; HIV cure; community and civil society engagement; and ethical considerations in implementation of biomedical HIV prevention research. Participants identified challenges for implementation of proven efficacious interventions and discovery of other new prevention options for Africa. Concerns raised included limited funding by African governments, lack of cohesive advocacy and policy agenda for biomedical HIV prevention research and development by Africa, varied ethical practices, and limited support to communities’ capacity to actively engaged with clinical trial conducts. Participants recommended that the African Government implement the Abuja +12 declaration; the civil society build stronger partnerships with diverse stakeholders, and develop a coherent advocacy agenda that also enhances community research literacy; and researchers and sponsors of trials on the African continent establish a process for determining appropriate standards for trial conduct on the continent. Conclusion By highlighting key considerations for biomedical HIV prevention research and

  16. Getting to zero the biomedical way in Africa: outcomes of deliberation at the 2013 Biomedical HIV Prevention Forum in Abuja, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Gottemoeller, Megan; Mburu, Rosemary; Brown, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, biomedical HIV prevention research had engaged multiple African stakeholders. There have however been few platforms to enable regional stakeholders to engage with one another. In partnership with the World AIDS Campaign International, the Institute of Public Health of Obafemi Awolowo University, and the National Agency for the Control of AIDS in Nigeria, the New HIV Vaccine and Microbicide Advocacy Society hosted a forum on biomedical HIV prevention research in Africa. Stakeholders' present explored evidences related to biomedical HIV prevention research and development in Africa, and made recommendations to inform policy, guidelines and future research agenda. The BHPF hosted 342 participants. Topics discussed included the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention, considerations for biomedical HIV prevention among key populations; HIV vaccine development; HIV cure; community and civil society engagement; and ethical considerations in implementation of biomedical HIV prevention research. Participants identified challenges for implementation of proven efficacious interventions and discovery of other new prevention options for Africa. Concerns raised included limited funding by African governments, lack of cohesive advocacy and policy agenda for biomedical HIV prevention research and development by Africa, varied ethical practices, and limited support to communities' capacity to actively engaged with clinical trial conducts. Participants recommended that the African Government implement the Abuja +12 declaration; the civil society build stronger partnerships with diverse stakeholders, and develop a coherent advocacy agenda that also enhances community research literacy; and researchers and sponsors of trials on the African continent establish a process for determining appropriate standards for trial conduct on the continent. By highlighting key considerations for biomedical HIV prevention research and development in Africa, the forum has

  17. A single center, open label study of intradermal administration of an inactivated purified chick embryo cell culture rabies virus vaccine in adults.

    PubMed

    Recuenco, Sergio; Warnock, Eli; Osinubi, Modupe O V; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2017-08-03

    In the USA, rabies vaccines (RVs) are licensed for intramuscular (IM) use only, although RVs are licensed for use by the intradermal (ID) route in many other countries. Recent limitations in supplies of RV in the USA reopened discussions on the more efficient use of available biologics, including utilization of more stringent risk assessments, and potential ID RV administration. A clinical trial was designed to compare the immunogenic and adverse effects of a purified chicken embryo cell (PCEC) RV administered ID or IM. Enrollment was designed in four arms, ID Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (Pre-EP), IM Pre-EP, ID Booster, and IM Booster vaccination. Enrollment included 130 adult volunteers. The arms with IM administration received vaccine according to the current ACIP recommendations: Pre-EP, three 1mL (2.5 I.U.) RV doses, each on day 0, 7, and 21; or a routine Booster, one 1ml dose. The ID groups received the same schedule, but doses administered were in a volume of 0.1mL (0.25 I.U.). The rate of increase in rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers 14-21days after vaccination were similar in the ID and correspondent IM groups. The GMT values for ID vaccination were slightly lower than those for IM vaccination, for both naïve and booster groups, and these differences were statistically significant by t-test. Fourteen days after completing vaccination, all individuals developed RV neutralizing antibody titers over the minimum arbitrary value obtained with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Antibodies were over the set threshold until the end of the trial, 160days after completed vaccination. No serious adverse reactions were reported. Most frequent adverse reactions were erythema, induration and tenderness, localized at the site of injection. Multi use of 1mL rabies vaccine vials for ID doses of 0.1 was demonstrated to be both safe and inmunogenic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Uptake among Children and Adolescents with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chia-Feng; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Fang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the seasonal influenza vaccination rate and to examine its determinants for children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in the community. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the data on seasonal influenza vaccination rate among 1055 ID individuals between the ages…

  19. Modulatory effects of mycobacterial heat-shock protein 70 in DNA vaccination against lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Liso, Arcangelo; Benedetti, Roberta; Fagioli, Marta; Mariano, Angela; Falini, Brunangelo

    2005-01-01

    Pathogen-derived molecules are danger signals and are able to activate innate immunity that in turn controls and regulates generation of adaptive immune responses. Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (myc HSP70) has been shown to exert a potent adjuvant effect in vaccination against both infectious agents and solid tumors. Here we explore the use of myc HSP70, as an adjuvant, in DNA vaccination against lymphoma. We describe the effects of vaccination using myc HSP70 encoding plasmid (pHSP70) co-injected with idiotype encoding plasmid (pId), in the 38C13 murine lymphoma model. We dissect mechanisms of anti-tumor immune response and compared efficacy with that of other DNA vaccination strategies. We show that myc HSP70 plasmid prolongs survival of immunized mice challenged with a high number (2000) of tumor cells. The magnitude of the anti-tumor effect is comparable to that obtained using granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the same setting. Moreover, HSP-induced protection is independent from the generation of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies. Instead, anti-idiotype antibodies of IgG2b subclass develop after vaccination with pHSP as well as with pId and Id-GM-CSF fusion plasmid (pId-GM). Co-injection of HSP70 and Id plasmids induces a specific pattern of anti-idiotype immune response able to improve survival of immunized mice.

  20. A Simplified 4-Site Economical Intradermal Post-Exposure Rabies Vaccine Regimen: A Randomised Controlled Comparison with Standard Methods

    PubMed Central

    Warrell, Mary J.; Riddell, Anna; Yu, Ly-Mee; Phipps, Judith; Diggle, Linda; Bourhy, Hervé; Deeks, Jonathan J.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Audry, Laurent; Brookes, Sharon M.; Meslin, François-Xavier; Moxon, Richard; Pollard, Andrew J.; Warrell, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Background The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID) vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods. Methods Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90); or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available. Findings All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method. Conclusions This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be

  1. A simplified 4-site economical intradermal post-exposure rabies vaccine regimen: a randomised controlled comparison with standard methods.

    PubMed

    Warrell, Mary J; Riddell, Anna; Yu, Ly-Mee; Phipps, Judith; Diggle, Linda; Bourhy, Hervé; Deeks, Jonathan J; Fooks, Anthony R; Audry, Laurent; Brookes, Sharon M; Meslin, François-Xavier; Moxon, Richard; Pollard, Andrew J; Warrell, David A

    2008-04-23

    The need for economical rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is increasing in developing countries. Implementation of the two currently approved economical intradermal (ID) vaccine regimens is restricted due to confusion over different vaccines, regimens and dosages, lack of confidence in intradermal technique, and pharmaceutical regulations. We therefore compared a simplified 4-site economical PEP regimen with standard methods. Two hundred and fifty-four volunteers were randomly allocated to a single blind controlled trial. Each received purified vero cell rabies vaccine by one of four PEP regimens: the currently accepted 2-site ID; the 8-site regimen using 0.05 ml per ID site; a new 4-site ID regimen (on day 0, approximately 0.1 ml at 4 ID sites, using the whole 0.5 ml ampoule of vaccine; on day 7, 0.1 ml ID at 2 sites and at one site on days 28 and 90); or the standard 5-dose intramuscular regimen. All ID regimens required the same total amount of vaccine, 60% less than the intramuscular method. Neutralising antibody responses were measured five times over a year in 229 people, for whom complete data were available. All ID regimens showed similar immunogenicity. The intramuscular regimen gave the lowest geometric mean antibody titres. Using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test, some sera had unexpectedly high antibody levels that were not attributable to previous vaccination. The results were confirmed using the fluorescent antibody virus neutralisation method. This 4-site PEP regimen proved as immunogenic as current regimens, and has the advantages of requiring fewer clinic visits, being more practicable, and having a wider margin of safety, especially in inexperienced hands, than the 2-site regimen. It is more convenient than the 8-site method, and can be used economically with vaccines formulated in 1.0 or 0.5 ml ampoules. The 4-site regimen now meets all requirements of immunogenicity for PEP and can be introduced without further studies. Controlled

  2. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  3. Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies (VDOS 2014).

    PubMed

    Tao, Cui; He, Yongqun; Arabandi, Sivaram

    2016-01-01

    The "Vaccine and Drug Ontology Studies" (VDOS) international workshop series focuses on vaccine- and drug-related ontology modeling and applications. Drugs and vaccines have been critical to prevent and treat human and animal diseases. Work in both (drugs and vaccines) areas is closely related - from preclinical research and development to manufacturing, clinical trials, government approval and regulation, and post-licensure usage surveillance and monitoring. Over the last decade, tremendous efforts have been made in the biomedical ontology community to ontologically represent various areas associated with vaccines and drugs - extending existing clinical terminology systems such as SNOMED, RxNorm, NDF-RT, and MedDRA, developing new models such as the Vaccine Ontology (VO) and Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), vernacular medical terminologies such as the Consumer Health Vocabulary (CHV). The VDOS workshop series provides a platform for discussing innovative solutions as well as the challenges in the development and applications of biomedical ontologies for representing and analyzing drugs and vaccines, their administration, host immune responses, adverse events, and other related topics. The five full-length papers included in this 2014 thematic issue focus on two main themes: (i) General vaccine/drug-related ontology development and exploration, and (ii) Interaction and network-related ontology studies.

  4. Booster and higher antigen doses of inactivated influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jessica A; Tincher, Lindsey B; Lowe, Denise K

    2013-12-01

    To review the literature regarding booster or higher doses of influenza antigen for increasing immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013) was searched using the terms immunize, influenza, vaccine, and HIV or AIDS in combination with two-dose, booster-dose, increased antigen, or high-dose. One trial of booster dosing with standard doses (SDs) of IIV, trivalent (IIV3); 2 trials of booster dosing with intermediate doses (ID) of H1N1 IIV or IIV3; and 1 trial of high-dose (HD) IIV3 were identified. Trials administering 2-dose, booster-dose, or increased antigen of influenza vaccine to patients with HIV were reviewed. Because adjuvanted IIV is not available and IIV, quadrivalent was recently approved in the United States, studies evaluating these vaccines were excluded. HIV-infected individuals are at high risk for influenza-related complications; however, vaccination with SD IIV may not confer optimal protection. It has been postulated that booster or higher doses of influenza antigen may lead to increased immunogenicity. When ID and SD or ID with boosters were evaluated in HIV-infected patients, significant increases in surrogate markers for influenza protection were not achieved. However, HD IIV3 did result in significant increases in seroprotective antibody levels, though 'clinical' influenza was not evaluated. Currently, evidence is insufficient to reach conclusions about the efficacy of booster dosing, ID, or HD influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Trials evaluating booster or higher-antigen doses of IIV for 'clinical' influenza are necessary before routinely recommending for HIV-infected patients.

  5. SNP ID-info: SNP ID searching and visualization platform.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Cheng, Yu-Huei; Wen, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Phei-Lang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2008-09-01

    Many association studies provide the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), diseases and cancers, without giving a SNP ID, however. Here, we developed the SNP ID-info freeware to provide the SNP IDs within inputting genetic and physical information of genomes. The program provides an "SNP-ePCR" function to generate the full-sequence using primers and template inputs. In "SNPosition," sequence from SNP-ePCR or direct input is fed to match the SNP IDs from SNP fasta-sequence. In "SNP search" and "SNP fasta" function, information of SNPs within the cytogenetic band, contig position, and keyword input are acceptable. Finally, the SNP ID neighboring environment for inputs is completely visualized in the order of contig position and marked with SNP and flanking hits. The SNP identification problems inherent in NCBI SNP BLAST are also avoided. In conclusion, the SNP ID-info provides a visualized SNP ID environment for multiple inputs and assists systematic SNP association studies. The server and user manual are available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/snpid-info.

  6. Comparison of the Immunogenicity and Safety of a Split-virion, Inactivated, Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone®) Administered by Intradermal or Intramuscular Route in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Frenck, Robert W.; Belshe, Robert; Brady, Rebecca C; Winokur, Patricia L.; Campbell, James D.; Treanor, John; Hay, Christine M.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Cate, Thomas R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Hill, Heather; Wolff, Mark; LeDuc, Tom; Tornieporth, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether reduced doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) administered by the intradermal (ID) route generated similar immune responses to standard TIV given intramuscularly (IM) with comparable safety profiles. Recent changes in immunization recommendations have increased the number of people for whom influenza vaccination is recommended. Thus, given this increased need and intermittent vaccine shortages, means to rapidly expand the vaccine supply are needed. Previously healthy subjects 18-64 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four TIV vaccine groups: standard 15 μg HA/strain TIV IM, either 9 μg or 6 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given using a new microinjection system, (BD Soluvia™ Microinjection Systema), or 3 μg HA/strain of TIV ID given by Mantoux technique. All vaccines contained A/New Caledonia (H1N1), A/Wyoming (H3N2) and B/Jiangsu strains of influenza. Sera were obtained 21 days after vaccination and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed and geometric mean titers (GMT) were compared among the groups. Participants were queried immediately following vaccination regarding injection pain and quality of the experience. Local and systemic reactions were collected for 7 days following vaccination and compared. Ten study sites enrolled 1592 subjects stratified by age; 18-49 years, [N=814] and 50-64 years, [N=778]. Among all subjects, for each of the three vaccine strains, the GMTs at 21 days post-vaccination for both the 9 μg and the 6 μg doses of each strain given ID were non inferior to GMTs generated after standard 15 μg doses/strain IM. However, for the 3 μg ID dose, only the A/Wyoming antigen produced a GMT that was non-inferior to the standard IM dose. Additionally, in the subgroup of subjects 50-64 years of age, the 6 μg dose given ID induced GMTs that were inferior to the standard IM TIV for the A/H1N1 and B strains. No ID dose produced a GMT superior to that seen after

  7. Designing pediatric vaccine formularies and pricing pediatric combination vaccines using operations research models and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Sewell, Edward C; Allwine, Daniel A; Medina, Enrique A; Weniger, Bruce G

    2003-02-01

    The National Immunization Program, housed within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA, has identified several challenges that must be faced in childhood immunization programs to deliver and procure vaccines that immunize children from the plethora of childhood diseases. The biomedical issues cited include how drug manufacturers can combine and formulate vaccines, how such vaccines are scheduled and administered and how economically sound vaccine procurement can be achieved. This review discusses how operations research models can be used to address the economics of pediatric vaccine formulary design and pricing, as well as how such models can be used to address a new set of pediatric formulary problems that will surface with the introduction of pediatric combination vaccines into the US pediatric immunization market.

  8. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4-8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals.

  9. Recommended vaccinations for asplenic and hyposplenic adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Grazzini, Maddalena; Niccolai, Giuditta; Paolini, Diana; Varone, Ornella; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Bartalesi, Filippo; Santini, Maria Grazia; Baretti, Simonetta; Bonito, Carlo; Zini, Paola; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Magistri, Lea; Pulci, Maria Beatrice; Bechini, Angela

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Asplenic or hyposplenic (AH) individuals are particularly vulnerable to invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. Such infections have often a sudden onset and a fulminant course. Infectious diseases (IDs) incidence in AH subjects can be reduced by preventive measures such as vaccination. The aim of our work is to provide updated recommendations on prevention of infectious diseases in AH adult patients, and to supply a useful and practical tool to healthcare workers for the management of these subjects, in hospital setting and in outpatients consultation. A systematic literature review on evidence based measures for the prevention of IDs in adult AH patients was performed in 2015. Updated recommendations on available vaccines were consequently provided. Vaccinations against S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae type b and influenza virus are strongly recommended and should be administered at least 2 weeks before surgery in elective cases or at least 2 weeks after the surgical intervention in emergency cases. In subjects without evidence of immunity, 2 doses of live attenuated vaccines against measles-mumps-rubella and varicella should be administered 4–8 weeks apart from each other; a booster dose of tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine should be administered also to subjects fully vaccinated, and a 3-dose primary vaccination series is recommended in AH subjects with unknown or incomplete vaccination series (as in healthy people). Evidence based prevention data support the above recommendations to reduce the risk of infection in AH individuals. PMID:27929751

  10. Monitoring biomedical literature for post-market safety purposes by analyzing networks of text-based coded information.

    PubMed

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Foster, Matthew; Kreimeyer, Kory; Pandey, Abhishek; Forshee, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Literature review is critical but time-consuming in the post-market surveillance of medical products. We focused on the safety signal of intussusception after the vaccination of infants with the Rotashield Vaccine in 1999 and retrieved all PubMed abstracts for rotavirus vaccines published after January 1, 1998. We used the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records system, the MetaMap tool, and the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies Annotator to process the abstracts and generate coded terms stamped with the date of publication. Data were analyzed in the Pattern-based and Advanced Network Analyzer for Clinical Evaluation and Assessment to evaluate the intussusception-related findings before and after the release of the new rotavirus vaccines in 2006. The tight connection of intussusception with the historical signal in the first period and the absence of any safety concern for the new vaccines in the second period were verified. We demonstrated the feasibility for semi-automated solutions that may assist medical reviewers in monitoring biomedical literature.

  11. Increase in DNA vaccine efficacy by virosome delivery and co-expression of a cytolytic protein.

    PubMed

    Gargett, Tessa; Grubor-Bauk, Branka; Miller, Darren; Garrod, Tamsin; Yu, Stanley; Wesselingh, Steve; Suhrbier, Andreas; Gowans, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    The potential of DNA vaccines has not been realised due to suboptimal delivery, poor antigen expression and the lack of localised inflammation, essential for antigen presentation and an effective immune response to the immunogen. Initially, we examined the delivery of a DNA vaccine encoding a model antigen, luciferase (LUC), to the respiratory tract of mice by encapsulation in a virosome. Virosomes that incorporated influenza virus haemagglutinin effectively delivered DNA to cells in the mouse respiratory tract and resulted in antigen expression and systemic and mucosal immune responses to the immunogen after an intranasal (IN) prime/intradermal (ID) boost regimen, whereas a multidose ID regimen only generated systemic immunity. We also examined systemic immune responses to LUC after ID vaccination with a DNA vaccine, which also encoded one of the several cytolytic or toxic proteins. Although the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, in the presence of the prodrug, ganciclovir, resulted in cell death, this failed to increase the humoral or cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, the co-expression of LUC with the rotavirus non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) protein or a mutant form of mouse perforin, proteins which are directly cytolytic, resulted in increased LUC-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity. On the other hand, co-expression of LUC with diphtheria toxin subunit A or overexpression of perforin or NSP4 resulted in a lower level of immunity. In summary, the efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved by targeted IN delivery of DNA or by the induction of cell death in vaccine-targeted cells after ID delivery.

  12. Pricing of new vaccines

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  13. Pricing of new vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  14. Clinical evaluation of a novel microneedle device for intradermal delivery of an influenza vaccine: are all delivery methods the same?

    PubMed

    Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Kenney, Richard

    2014-07-23

    The skin provides the largest immune barrier to infection and is a readily accessible site for vaccination, although intradermal (ID) injection can be challenging. The MicronJet™ microneedle is a novel device that consistently injects antigens very close to the skin's dendritic cells. A dose-sparing ID injection study was conducted in 280 healthy adult volunteers using trivalent virosomal adjuvanted influenza vaccine. ID injection of 3 μg using the MicronJet™ was well tolerated and showed a statistically higher geometric mean fold rise than the same dose ID using a conventional needle (Mantoux technique) for the H1N1 and B strains or a 15 μg intramuscular (IM) injection for the H3N2 strain. Thus, the immune response appears to partially depend on the delivery device and route of injection. The MicronJet™ may allow dose-sparing, yet give a superior response in influenza vaccination and warrants further clinical evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Skin vaccination with live virus vectored microneedle arrays induce long lived CD8(+) T cell memory.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pablo D; Hervouet, Catherine; Mason, Gavin M; Kwon, Sung-Yun; Klavinskis, Linda S

    2015-09-08

    A simple dissolvable microneedle array (MA) platform has emerged as a promising technology for vaccine delivery, due to needle-free injection with a formulation that preserves the immunogenicity of live viral vectored vaccines dried in the MA matrix. While recent studies have focused largely on design parameters optimized to induce primary CD8(+) T cell responses, the hallmark of a vaccine is synonymous with engendering long-lasting memory. Here, we address the capacity of dried MA vaccination to programme phenotypic markers indicative of effector/memory CD8(+) T cell subsets and also responsiveness to recall antigen benchmarked against conventional intradermal (ID) injection. We show that despite a slightly lower frequency of dividing T cell receptor transgenic CD8(+) T cells in secondary lymphoid tissue at an early time point, the absolute number of CD8(+) T cells expressing an effector memory (CD62L(-)CD127(+)) and central memory (CD62L(+)CD127(+)) phenotype during peak expansion were comparable after MA and ID vaccination with a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector (AdHu5) encoding HIV-1 gag. Similarly, both vaccination routes generated CD8(+) memory T cell subsets detected in draining LNs for at least two years post-vaccination capable of responding to secondary antigen. These data suggest that CD8(+) T cell effector/memory generation and long-term memory is largely unaffected by physical differences in vaccine delivery to the skin via dried MA or ID suspension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Idiotypic Vaccination Versus Control Immunotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ronald; Ganjoo, Kristen N.; Leonard, John P.; Vose, Julie M.; Flinn, Ian W.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Connors, Joseph M.; Berinstein, Neil L.; Belch, Andrew R.; Bartlett, Nancy L.; Nichols, Craig; Emmanouilides, Christos E.; Timmerman, John M.; Gregory, Stephanie A.; Link, Brian K.; Inwards, David J.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Matous, Jeffrey V.; Robertson, Michael J.; Kunkel, Lori A.; Ingolia, Diane E.; Gentles, Andrew J.; Liu, Chih Long; Tibshirani, Robert; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Denney, Dan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Idiotypes (Ids), the unique portions of tumor immunoglobulins, can serve as targets for passive and active immunotherapies for lymphoma. We performed a multicenter, randomized trial comparing a specific vaccine (MyVax), comprising Id chemically coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to a control immunotherapy with KLH plus GM-CSF. Patients and Methods Patients with previously untreated advanced-stage follicular lymphoma (FL) received eight cycles of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone. Those achieving sustained partial or complete remission (n = 287 [44%]) were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive one injection per month for 7 months of MyVax or control immunotherapy. Anti-Id antibody responses (humoral immune responses [IRs]) were measured before each immunization. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included IR and time to subsequent antilymphoma therapy. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, no significant difference was observed in either PFS or time to next therapy between the two arms. In the MyVax group (n = 195), anti-Id IRs were observed in 41% of patients, with a median PFS of 40 months, significantly exceeding the median PFS observed in patients without such Id-induced IRs and in those receiving control immunotherapy. Conclusion This trial failed to demonstrate clinical benefit of specific immunotherapy. The subset of vaccinated patients mounting specific anti-Id responses had superior outcomes. Whether this reflects a therapeutic benefit or is a marker for more favorable underlying prognosis requires further study. PMID:24799467

  17. Badging, Real ID

    Science.gov Websites

    . REAL ID LANL Impacts and Solutions The federal government has determined New Mexico is non-compliant Identification Cards whom will also become Non-Compliant. Access through LANL Vehicle Access Portals unaffected alternate ID if they are coming from "non-compliant" REAL-ID states LANS and the Field Office have

  18. Incremental costs of introducing jet injection technology for delivery of routine childhood vaccinations: comparative analysis from Brazil, India, and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Ulla K; Santos, Andreia C; Nundy, Neeti; Jacoby, Erica; Matthias, Dipika

    2011-01-29

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) have the potential to deliver vaccines safely and affordably to millions of children around the world. We estimated the incremental costs of transitioning from needles and syringes to delivering childhood vaccines with DSJIs in Brazil, India, and South Africa. Two scenarios were assessed: (1) DSJI delivery of all vaccines at current dose and depth; (2) a change to intradermal (ID) delivery with DSJIs for hepatitis B and yellow fever vaccines, while the other vaccines are delivered by DSJIs at current dose and depth. The main advantage of ID delivery is that only a small fraction of the standard dose may be needed to obtain an immune response similar to that of subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. Cost categories included were vaccines, injection equipment, waste management, and vaccine transport. Some delivery cost items, such as training and personnel were excluded as were treatment cost savings caused by a reduction in diseases transmitted due to unsafe injections. In the standard dose and depth scenario, the incremental costs of introducing DSJIs per fully vaccinated child amount to US$ 0.57 in Brazil, US$ 0.65 in India and US$ 1.24 in South Africa. In the ID scenario, there are cost savings of US$ 0.11 per child in Brazil, and added costs of US$ 0.45 and US$ 0.76 per child in India and South Africa, respectively. The most important incremental cost item is jet injector disposable syringes. The incremental costs should be evaluated against other vaccine delivery technologies that can deliver the same benefits to patients, health care workers, and the community. DSJIs deserve consideration by global and national decision-makers as a means to expand access to ID delivery and to enhance safety at marginal additional cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiological Surveillance as a Basis for Vaccine Trials. Establishment of a Vaccine Evaluation Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    hepatitis (A, B and non-A non-B), infectious mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus infection. IMMUNOGENICITY STUDIES A randomized, partly blinded...Klebsiella, Pseudomonas). Enterics, Foreign, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Infectious Diseases, Vaccines, Biotechnology, ID, RA I Unclassified Unclassified...INTRODUCTION MILITARY IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS A number of infectious diseases are of particular importance in military

  20. Development of Newborn and Infant Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Schmitz, Guzman; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines for early-life immunization are a crucial biomedical intervention to reduce global morbidity and mortality, yet their developmental path has been largely ad hoc, empiric, and inconsistent. Immune responses of human newborns and infants are distinct and cannot be predicted from those of human adults or animal models. Therefore, understanding and modeling age-specific human immune responses will be vital to the rational design and development of safe and effective vaccines for newborns and infants. PMID:21734174

  1. A bioinformatics roadmap for the human vaccines project.

    PubMed

    Scheuermann, Richard H; Sinkovits, Robert S; Schenkelberg, Theodore; Koff, Wayne C

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical research has become a data intensive science in which high throughput experimentation is producing comprehensive data about biological systems at an ever-increasing pace. The Human Vaccines Project is a new public-private partnership, with the goal of accelerating development of improved vaccines and immunotherapies for global infectious diseases and cancers by decoding the human immune system. To achieve its mission, the Project is developing a Bioinformatics Hub as an open-source, multidisciplinary effort with the overarching goal of providing an enabling infrastructure to support the data processing, analysis and knowledge extraction procedures required to translate high throughput, high complexity human immunology research data into biomedical knowledge, to determine the core principles driving specific and durable protective immune responses.

  2. On TB Vaccines, Patients' Demands, and Modern Printed Media in Times of Biomedical Uncertainties: Buenos Aires, 1920-1950.

    PubMed

    Armus, Diego

    2016-03-01

    Reconstructing some of the experiences of people living with tuberculosis in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century, as reflected not only in written and oral accounts but also in individual and collective actions, this article explores the ways in which patients came to grips with medical expertise in times of biomedical uncertainty. These negotiations, which inevitably included adaptations as well as confrontations, highlight a much less passive and submissive patient-physician relationship than is often assumed. Though patients were certainly subordinate to medical doctors' knowledge and practices, that subordination, far from absolute, was limited and often overthrown. The article focuses on patients' demands to gain access to a vaccine not approved by the medical establishment. By engaging with media organizations, the sick invoked their "right to health" in order to obtain access to experimental treatments when biomedicine was unable to deliver efficient therapies.

  3. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuhuan; Vlasova, Anastasia; Velasquez, Daniel E.; Saif, Linda J.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route. PMID:27824918

  4. Skin Vaccination against Rotavirus Using Microneedles: Proof of Concept in Gnotobiotic Piglets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhuan; Vlasova, Anastasia; Velasquez, Daniel E; Saif, Linda J; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Kochba, Efrat; Levin, Yotam; Jiang, Baoming

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have lower efficacy in low income countries, and additionally are associated with a rare but severe adverse event, intussusception. We have been pursuing the development of an inactivated rotavirus vaccine (IRV) using the human rotavirus strain CDC-9 (G1P[8]) through parenteral immunization and previously demonstrated dose sparing and enhanced immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) unadjuvanted IRV using a coated microneedle patch in comparison with intramuscular (IM) administration in mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune response and protection against RV infection and diarrhea conferred by the administration of the ID unadjuvanted IRV using the microneedle device MicronJet600® in neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets challenged with virulent Wa G1P[8] human RV. Three doses of 5 μg IRV when administered intradermally and 5 μg IRV formulated with aluminum hydroxide [Al(OH)3] when administered intramuscularly induced comparable rotavirus-specific antibody titers of IgA, IgG, IgG avidity index and neutralizing activity in sera of neonatal piglets. Both IRV vaccination regimens protected against RV antigen shedding in stools, and reduced the cumulative diarrhea scores in the piglets. This study demonstrated that the ID and IM administrations of IRV are immunogenic and protective against RV-induced diarrhea in neonatal piglets. Our findings highlight the potential value of an adjuvant sparing effect of the IRV ID delivery route.

  5. Id1, Id2 and Id3 are induced in rat melanotrophs of the pituitary gland by dopamine suppression under continuous stress.

    PubMed

    Konishi, H; Ogawa, T; Nakagomi, S; Inoue, K; Tohyama, M; Kiyama, H

    2010-09-15

    In rats under continuous stress (CS) there is decreased hypothalamic dopaminergic innervation to the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary gland, which causes hyperactivation and subsequent degeneration of melanotrophs in the IL. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for the changes that occur in melanotrophs during CS. Using microarray analysis, we identified several genes differentially expressed in the IL under CS conditions. Among the genes up-regulated under CS conditions, we focused on the inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) family of dominant negative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. RT-PCR, Western blotting and in situ hybridization confirmed the significant inductions of Id1, Id2 and Id3 in the IL of CS rats. Administration of the dopamine D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine prevented the inductions of Id1-3 in the IL of CS rats, whereas application of the dopamine D2 antagonist sulpiride induced significant expressions of Id1-3 in the IL of normal rats. Moreover, an in vitro study using primary cultured melanotrophs demonstrated a direct effect on Id1-3 inductions by dopamine suppression. These results suggest that the decreased dopamine levels in the IL during CS induce Id1-3 expressions in melanotrophs. Because Id family members inhibit various bHLH transcription factors, it is conceivable that the induced Id1-3 would cooperatively modulate gene expressions in melanotrophs under CS conditions to induce hormone secretion. (c) 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ID16B: a hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline at the ESRF for nano-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Criado, Gema; Villanova, Julie; Tucoulou, Rémi; Salomon, Damien; Suuronen, Jussi-Petteri; Labouré, Sylvain; Guilloud, Cyril; Valls, Valentin; Barrett, Raymond; Gagliardini, Eric; Dabin, Yves; Baker, Robert; Bohic, Sylvain; Cohen, Cédric; Morse, John

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the ESRF Phase I Upgrade Programme, a new state-of-the-art synchrotron beamline ID16B has been recently developed for hard X-ray nano-analysis. The construction of ID16B was driven by research areas with major scientific and societal impact such as nanotechnology, earth and environmental sciences, and bio-medical research. Based on a canted undulator source, this long beamline provides hard X-ray nanobeams optimized mainly for spectroscopic applications, including the combination of X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 2D/3D X-ray imaging techniques. Its end-station re-uses part of the apparatus of the earlier ID22 beamline, while improving and enlarging the spectroscopic capabilities: for example, the experimental arrangement offers improved lateral spatial resolution (∼50 nm), a larger and more flexible capability for in situ experiments, and monochromatic nanobeams tunable over a wider energy range which now includes the hard X-ray regime (5–70 keV). This paper describes the characteristics of this new facility, short-term technical developments and the first scientific results. PMID:26698084

  7. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves [El Cerrito, CA; Campisi, Judith [Berkeley, CA

    2008-09-30

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  8. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as markers of epithelial cancer

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves [El Cerrito, CA; Campisi, Judith [Berkeley, CA

    2011-10-04

    A method for detection and prognosis of breast cancer and other types of cancer. The method comprises detecting expression, if any, for both an Id-1 and an Id-2 genes, or the ratio thereof, of gene products in samples of breast tissue obtained from a patient. When expressed, Id-1 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are invasive and metastatic, whereas Id-2 gene is a prognostic indicator that breast cancer cells are localized and noninvasive in the breast tissue.

  9. Structural Design and Physicochemical Foundations of Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingyong; Ning, Zhengxiang; Ren, Jiaoyan; Liao, Wenzhen

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical research, known as medical research, is conducive to support and promote the development of knowledge in the field of medicine. Hydrogels have been extensively used in many biomedical fields due to their highly absorbent and flexible properties. The smart hydrogels, especially, can respond to a broad range of external stimuli such as temperature, pH value, light, electric and magnetic fields. With excellent biocompatibility, tunable rheology, mechanical properties, porosity, and hydrated molecular structure, hydrogels are considered as promising candidate for simulating local tissue microenvironment. In this review article, we mainly focused on the most recent development of engineering synthetic hydrogels; moreover, the classification, properties, especially the biomedical applications including tissue engineering and cell scaffolding, drug and gene delivery, immunotherapies and vaccines, are summarized and discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Needle-free jet injector intradermal delivery of fractional dose inactivated poliovirus vaccine: Association between injection quality and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Resik, Sonia; Tejeda, Alina; Mach, Ondrej; Sein, Carolyn; Molodecky, Natalie; Jarrahian, Courtney; Saganic, Laura; Zehrung, Darin; Fonseca, Magile; Diaz, Manuel; Alemany, Nilda; Garcia, Gloria; Hung, Lai Heng; Martinez, Yenisleydis; Sutter, Roland W

    2015-10-26

    The World Health Organization recommends that as part of the polio end-game strategy a dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) be introduced by the end of 2015 in all countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Administration of fractional dose (1/5 of full dose) IPV (fIPV) by intradermal (ID) injection may reduce costs, but its conventional administration is with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) needle and syringe (NS), which is time consuming and technically challenging. We compared injection quality achieved with BCG NS and three needle-free jet injectors and assessed ergonomic features of the injectors. Children between 12 and 20 months of age who had previously received OPV were enrolled in the Camaguey, Cuba study. Subjects received a single fIPV dose administered intradermally with BCG NS or one of three needle-free injector devices: Bioject Biojector 2000® (B2000), Bioject ID Pen® (ID Pen), or PharmaJet Tropis® (Tropis). We measured bleb diameter and vaccine loss as indicators of ID injection quality, with desirable injection quality defined as bleb diameter ≥5mm and vaccine loss <10%. We surveyed vaccinators to evaluate ergonomic features of the injectors. We further assessed the injection quality indicators as predictors of immune response, measured by increase in poliovirus neutralizing antibodies in blood between day 0 (pre-IPV) and 21 (post-vaccination). Delivery by BCG NS and Tropis resulted in the highest proportion of subjects with desirable injection quality; health workers ranked Biojector2000 and Tropis highest for ergonomic features. We observed that vaccine loss and desirable injection quality were associated with an immune response for poliovirus type 2 (P=0.02, P=0.01, respectively). Our study demonstrated the feasibility of fIPV delivery using needle-free injector devices with high acceptability among health workers. We did not observe the indicators of injection quality to be uniformly associated with immune

  11. Knowledge and acceptability of alternative HIV prevention bio-medical products among MSM who bareback.

    PubMed

    Nodin, N; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Ventuneac, A M; Balan, I C; Remien, R

    2008-01-01

    Condom use is the best available strategy to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. However, since many people choose not to use condoms in circumstances in which HIV risk exists, alternatives to condom use for HIV prevention are needed. Currently there are several alternative bio-medical HIV-prevention products in different stages of development: microbicides, vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Seventy-two men who have sex with men (MSM) who took part in a study on Internet use and intentional condomless anal intercourse were asked about these four products during a semi-structured interview. The questions explored knowledge and acceptability of all the products and willingness to participate in microbicide and vaccine trials. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that these men had virtually no knowledge of PrEP, very limited knowledge of microbicides, some information about PEP and considerably more knowledge about vaccines. Reactions towards the products were generally positive except for PrEP, for which reactions were polarized as either enthusiastic or negative. With the exception of PrEP, many men expressed willingness to use the products in the future. Most men would be willing to participate in trials for microbicides and vaccines if given basic reassurances. Concerns over negative side effects and preoccupation with possible infection were some of the motives given for non-willingness to participate in a vaccine trial. These results should inform the development of future trials of biomedical prevention products.

  12. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route.

    PubMed

    Carey, John B; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J; Moore, Anne C

    2014-08-21

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP1₄₂ also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP1₄₂ using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies.

  13. Microneedle-mediated immunization of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine enhances antigen-specific antibody immunity and reduces anti-vector responses compared to the intradermal route

    PubMed Central

    Carey, John B.; Vrdoljak, Anto; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.; Moore, Anne C.

    2014-01-01

    Substantial effort has been placed in developing efficacious recombinant attenuated adenovirus-based vaccines. However induction of immunity to the vector is a significant obstacle to its repeated use. Here we demonstrate that skin-based delivery of an adenovirus-based malaria vaccine, HAdV5-PyMSP142, to mice using silicon microneedles induces equivalent or enhanced antibody responses to the encoded antigen, however it results in decreased anti-vector responses, compared to intradermal delivery. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming and resultant induction of low anti-vector antibody titres permitted repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine vector. This resulted in significantly increased antigen-specific antibody responses in these mice compared to ID-treated mice. Boosting with a heterologous vaccine; MVA-PyMSP142 also resulted in significantly greater antibody responses in mice primed with HAdV5-PyMSP142 using MN compared to the ID route. The highest protection against blood-stage malaria challenge was observed when a heterologous route of immunization (MN/ID) was used. Therefore, microneedle-mediated immunization has potential to both overcome some of the logistic obstacles surrounding needle-and-syringe-based immunization as well as to facilitate the repeated use of the same adenovirus vaccine thereby potentially reducing manufacturing costs of multiple vaccines. This could have important benefits in the clinical ease of use of adenovirus-based immunization strategies. PMID:25142082

  14. An Alternative Approach to Combination Vaccines: Intradermal Administration of Isolated Components for Control of Anthrax, Botulism, Plague and Staphylococcal Toxic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-03

    shock were biocompatible in vivo, retained potent antibody responses, and were well tolerated by rhesus macaques. Vaccinated primates were completely...results indicate that the vaccines were biocompatible by i.d. administration and physical separation. Seroconversion also occurred after the primary...the vaccinated animals, suggesting that the potency of this vaccine was maintained. Cellular immu- nity , not addressed in our study, may also be

  15. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among biomedical students of African descent in Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okwesili, A N; Onuigwe, F U; Ibrahim, K; Buhari, H; Ibrahim, A; Jafaru, H; Erhabor, O; Onuigwe, F U; Isaac, Z; Ahmed, M H; Mainasara, M Y; Adias, T C; Yeldu, M H; Uko, E K; Udoma, F

    2015-12-23

    Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem that put health professionals particularly at risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among Biomedical Students of African descent attending Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto in North-Western Nigeria. The Onsite HBsAg (CTK Biotech, USA) was used to detect the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen. We tested 186 consecutively-recruited students consisting of 147 males and 39 females aged 18-35 years (mean age 26 ± 2.0 years). Of the 186 students tested, 25 (13.4%) were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence of HBsAg was significantly higher among students in the 21-25 years age group. Hepatitis B vaccination uptake among students was 7%. Majority of subjects were single 173(93.1%) compared to married 13 (6.9%). Ethnic distribution of the subjects indicated that 104(55.9%) were Hausa compared to Yoruba 32 (17.2%), other ethnic groups 21(11.3%), Fulani 20(10.8%) and Igbo 9(4.8%). This study indicates a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among Biomedical students in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. Finding from this study is enough justification for the implementation of a policy to routinely test students entering into the biomedical professions for Hepatitis B virus infection. There is the need to provide hepatitis B vaccination universally to all those who are found negative prior to commencement of their biomedical training. There is also need to educate students entering biomedical professions and healthcare workers on the modes of transmission and prevention, importance of being compliant with protective vaccination as well as the need to observe universal precaution and infection control guidelines during their training and future professional practice.

  16. ID2 collaborates with ID3 to suppress iNKT and innate-like tumors1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Roy, Sumedha; Kim, Young-Mi; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Baojun; Love, Cassandra; Reddy, Anupama; Rajagopalan, Deepthi; Dave, Sandeep; Diehl, Anna Mae; Zhuang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins, including ID1-4, are transcriptional regulators involved in promoting cell proliferation and survival in various cell types. Although upregulation of Id proteins has been associated with a broad spectrum of tumors, recent studies have identified that ID3 plays a tumor suppressor role in the development of Burkitt’s lymphoma in humans and Hepatosplenic T cell lymphomas in mice. Here, we report rapid lymphoma development in Id2/Id3 double knockout (L-DKO) mice caused by unchecked expansion of either invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells, or a unique subset of innate-like, CD1d-independent T cells. These populations started expansion in neonatal mice and, upon malignant transformation, caused fatality at age between 3–11 months. The malignant cells also gave rise to lymphomas upon transfer to Rag-deficient and wild-type hosts, reaffirming their inherent tumorigenic potential. Microarray analysis revealed a significantly modified program in these neonatal iNKT cells that ultimately led to their malignant transformation. The lymphoma cells demonstrated chromosome instability, along with upregulation of several different signaling pathways, including the cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway, which can promote their expansion and migration. Dysregulation of genes with reported driver mutations and the NF-kB pathway were found to be shared between L-DKO lymphomas and human NKT tumors. Our work identifies a distinct premalignant state and multiple tumoriogenic pathways caused by loss function of ID2 and ID3. Thus, conditional deletion of Id2 and Id3 in developing T cells establishes a unique animal model for iNKT and relevant innate-like lymphomas. PMID:28258199

  17. "Speaking the dialect": understanding public discourse in the aftermath of an HIV vaccine trial shutdown.

    PubMed

    Newman, Peter A; Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Charles, Tamicka; Maxwell, John; Salam, Khaled; Woodford, Michael

    2011-09-01

    We investigated how persons from key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure interpreted the process and outcomes of the Step Study HIV-1 vaccine trial, which was terminated early, and implications for willingness to participate in and community support for HIV vaccine research. We used qualitative methods and a community-based approach in 9 focus groups (n = 72) among ethnically and sexually diverse populations and 6 semistructured key informant interviews in Ontario, Canada, in 2007 to 2008. Participants construed social meaning from complex clinical and biomedical phenomena. Social representations and mental models emerged in fears of vaccine-induced infection, conceptualizations of unfair recruitment practices and increased risk behaviors among trial participants, and questioning of informed consent. Narratives of altruism and the common good demonstrated support for future trials. Public discourse on HIV vaccine trials is a productive means of interpreting complex clinical trial processes and outcomes in the context of existing beliefs and experiences regarding HIV vaccines, medical research, and historical disenfranchisement. Strategic engagement with social representations and mental models may promote meaningful community involvement in biomedical HIV prevention research.

  18. Vaccines in historic evolution and perspective: a narrative of vaccine discoveries.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, M R

    2000-02-14

    The sciences of vaccinology and of immunology were created just two centuries ago by Jenner's scientific studies of prevention of smallpox through inoculation with cowpox virus. This rudimentary beginning was expanded greatly by the giants of late 19th and early twentieth centuries biomedical sciences. The period from 1930 to 1950 was a transitional era with the introduction of chick embryos and minced tissues for propagating viruses and Rickettsiae in vitro for vaccines. Modern era vaccinology began about 1950 as a continuum following notable advances made during the 1940s and World War II. Its pursuit has been based largely on breakthroughs in cell culture, bacterial polysaccharide chemistry, molecular biology and immunology, which have yielded many live and killed viral and bacterial vaccines plus the recombinant-expressed hepatitis B vaccine. The present paper was presented as a lecture given(1) on August 30, 1999 and recounts, by invitation, more than five-and-half decades of vaccine research from the venue of personal experience and attainment by the author. The paper is intentionally brief and truncated with focus only on highlights and limited referencing. Detailed recounting and referencing are given elsewhere in text references [Hilleman MR. Six decades of vaccine development - a personal history. Nat. Med. 1998;4 (Vaccine Suppl.): 507-14] and [Hilleman MR. Personal historical chronicle of six decades of basic and applied research in virology, immunology and vaccinology. Immunol. Rev. (in press)]. This narration will have achieved its purpose if it provides a background of understanding and guidelines that will assist others who seek to engage in creation of new vaccines.

  19. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  20. MicroRNAs and intellectual disability (ID) in Down syndrome, X-linked ID, and Fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siew, Wei-Hong; Tan, Kai-Leng; Babaei, Maryam Abbaspour; Cheah, Pike-See; Ling, King-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is one of the many features manifested in various genetic syndromes leading to deficits in cognitive function among affected individuals. ID is a feature affected by polygenes and multiple environmental factors. It leads to a broad spectrum of affected clinical and behavioral characteristics among patients. Until now, the causative mechanism of ID is unknown and the progression of the condition is poorly understood. Advancement in technology and research had identified various genetic abnormalities and defects as the potential cause of ID. However, the link between these abnormalities with ID is remained inconclusive and the roles of many newly discovered genetic components such as non-coding RNAs have not been thoroughly investigated. In this review, we aim to consolidate and assimilate the latest development and findings on a class of small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) involvement in ID development and progression with special focus on Down syndrome (DS) and X-linked ID (XLID) [including Fragile X syndrome (FXS)]. PMID:23596395

  1. A Phase-1 Clinical Trial of a DNA Vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Delivered by Intramuscular or Intradermal Electroporation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    A Phase 1 clinical trial of a DNA vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis delivered by intramuscular or intradermal electroporation Drew... vaccines against VEEV available in the United States. We developed a candidate DNA vaccine expressing the E3-E2-6K-E1 genes of VEEV (pWRG/VEEV) and...groups and were vaccinated with high and low doses of pWRG/VEE or a saline placebo by intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID) electroporation (EP

  2. A hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) DNA vaccine delivered using a spring-powered jet injector elicits a potent neutralizing antibody response in rabbits and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis(®) (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis(®) and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found

  3. Microneedle Array Design Determines the Induction of Protective Memory CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by a Recombinant Live Malaria Vaccine in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Carey, John B.; Pearson, Frances E.; Vrdoljak, Anto; McGrath, Marie G.; Crean, Abina M.; Walsh, Patrick T.; Doody, Timothy; O'Mahony, Conor; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Moore, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaccine delivery into the skin has received renewed interest due to ease of access to the immune system and microvasculature, however the stratum corneum (SC), must be breached for successful vaccination. This has been achieved by removing the SC by abrasion or scarification or by delivering the vaccine intradermally (ID) with traditional needle-and-syringes or with long microneedle devices. Microneedle patch-based transdermal vaccine studies have predominantly focused on antibody induction by inactivated or subunit vaccines. Here, our principal aim is to determine if the design of a microneedle patch affects the CD8+ T cell responses to a malaria antigen induced by a live vaccine. Methodology and Findings Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing a malaria antigen was percutaneously administered to mice using a range of silicon microneedle patches, termed ImmuPatch, that differed in microneedle height, density, patch area and total pore volume. We demonstrate that microneedle arrays that have small total pore volumes induce a significantly greater proportion of central memory T cells that vigorously expand to secondary immunization. Microneedle-mediated vaccine priming induced significantly greater T cell immunity post-boost and equivalent protection against malaria challenge compared to ID vaccination. Notably, unlike ID administration, ImmuPatch-mediated vaccination did not induce inflammatory responses at the site of immunization or in draining lymph nodes. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that the design of microneedle patches significantly influences the magnitude and memory of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cell responses and can be optimised for the induction of desired immune responses. Furthermore, ImmuPatch-mediated delivery may be of benefit to reducing unwanted vaccine reactogenicity. In addition to the advantages of low cost and lack of pain, the development of optimised microneedle array designs for the induction

  4. Vaccines in historic evolution and perspective: a narrative of vaccine discoveries.

    PubMed

    Hilleman, M R

    2000-01-01

    The sciences of vaccinology and immunology were created only two centuries ago by Jenner's scientific studies of prevention of smallpox through inoculation with cowpox virus. This rudimentary beginning was expanded greatly by the giants of late 19th- and early 20th-century biomedical sciences. The period from 1930 to 1950 was a transitional era, with the introduction of chick embryos and minced tissues for propagating viruses and rickettsiae in vitro for vaccines. Modern vaccinology began about 1950 as a continuum following notable advances made during the 1940s and World War II. Its pursuit has been based largely on breakthroughs in cell culture, bacterial polysaccharide chemistry, molecular biology, and immunology which have yielded many live and killed viral and bacterial vaccines plus the recombinant-expressed hepatitis B vaccine. The present paper was presented as a lecture given at a Meeting of the Institute of Human Virology entitled A Symposium on HIV-AIDS and Cancer Biology, Baltimore, Maryland, on August 30, 1999 and recounts, by invitation, more than 55 years of vaccine research from the venue of personal experience and attainment by the author. The paper is intentionally brief and truncated with focus only on highlights and limited referencing. Detailed recounting and referencing are given elsewhere in text references 1 and 2. This narration will have achieved its purpose if it provides a background of understanding and guidelines that will assist others who seek to engage in creation of new vaccines.

  5. Ontology-Based Vaccine Adverse Event Representation and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiangan; He, Yongqun

    2017-01-01

    ), have been developed with a specific aim to standardize AE categorization. However, these controlled terminologies have many drawbacks, such as lack of textual definitions, poorly defined hierarchies, and lack of semantic axioms that provide logical relations among terms. A biomedical ontology is a set of consensus-based and computer and human interpretable terms and relations that represent entities in a specific biomedical domain and how they relate each other. To represent and analyze vaccine adverse events (VAEs), our research group has initiated and led the development of a community-based ontology: the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) (He et al., J Biomed Semant 5:29, 2014). The OAE has been found to have advantages to overcome the drawbacks of those controlled terminologies (He et al., Curr Pharmacol Rep :1-16. doi:10.1007/s40495-016-0055-0, 2014). By expanding the OAE and the community-based Vaccine Ontology (VO) (He et al., VO: vaccine ontology. In The 1st International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO-2009). Nature Precedings, Buffalo. http://precedings.nature.com/documents/3552/version/1 ; J Biomed Semant 2(Suppl 2):S8; J Biomed Semant 3(1):17, 2009; Ozgur et al., J Biomed Semant 2(2):S8, 2011; Lin Y, He Y, J Biomed Semant 3(1):17, 2012), we have also developed the Ontology of Vaccine Adverse Events (OVAE) to represent known VAEs associated with licensed vaccines (Marcos E, Zhao B, He Y, J Biomed Semant 4:40, 2013).In this book chapter, we will first introduce the basic information of VAEs, VAE safety surveillance systems, and how to specifically query and analyze VAEs using the US VAE database VAERS (Chen et al., Vaccine 12(10):960-960, 1994). In the second half of the chapter, we will introduce the development and applications of the OAE and OVAE. Throughout this chapter, we will use the influenza vaccine Flublok as the vaccine example to launch the corresponding elaboration (Huber VC, McCullers JA, Curr Opin Mol Ther 10(1):75-85, 2008). Flublok is a

  6. “Speaking the Dialect”: Understanding Public Discourse in the Aftermath of an HIV Vaccine Trial Shutdown

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen; James, LLana; Charles, Tamicka; Maxwell, John; Salam, Khaled; Woodford, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how persons from key populations at higher risk of HIV exposure interpreted the process and outcomes of the Step Study HIV-1 vaccine trial, which was terminated early, and implications for willingness to participate in and community support for HIV vaccine research. Methods. We used qualitative methods and a community-based approach in 9 focus groups (n = 72) among ethnically and sexually diverse populations and 6 semistructured key informant interviews in Ontario, Canada, in 2007 to 2008. Results. Participants construed social meaning from complex clinical and biomedical phenomena. Social representations and mental models emerged in fears of vaccine-induced infection, conceptualizations of unfair recruitment practices and increased risk behaviors among trial participants, and questioning of informed consent. Narratives of altruism and the common good demonstrated support for future trials. Conclusions. Public discourse on HIV vaccine trials is a productive means of interpreting complex clinical trial processes and outcomes in the context of existing beliefs and experiences regarding HIV vaccines, medical research, and historical disenfranchisement. Strategic engagement with social representations and mental models may promote meaningful community involvement in biomedical HIV prevention research. PMID:21778490

  7. Vaccine-preventable, hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Amanda J; Puumala, Susan E; Kharbanda, Anupam B

    2018-02-08

    Our aim was to assess the odds of hospitalization for a vaccine-preventable, infectious disease (VP-ID) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children compared to other racial and ethnic groups using the 2012 Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) The KID is a nationally representative sample, which allows for evaluation of VP-ID in a non-federal, non-Indian Health Service setting. In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the association of race/ethnicity and a composite outcome of hospitalization due to vaccine-preventable infection using multivariate logistic regression. AI/AN children were more likely (OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.34, 2.45) to be admitted to the hospital in 2012 for a VP-ID compared to Non-Hispanic white children after adjusting for age, sex, chronic disease status, metropolitan location, and median household income. This disparity highlights the necessity for a more comprehensive understanding of immunization and infectious disease exposure among American Indian children, especially those not covered or evaluated by Indian Health Service. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Case profile, volume analysis, and dropout rate of antirabies vaccination regimens among animal bite victims in Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Dhaduk, Kishor M; Unadkat, Sumit V; Katharotiya, Pooja R; Mer, Ankit R; Chaudhary, Monika C; Prajapati, Mrudul M

    2016-01-01

    Rabies is a preventable neglected public health problem and associated with multiple cultural, religious, and social practices, myths in our country. There is a lack of organized surveillance system to measure the incidence of animal bite and human rabies as well as to evaluate cost-saving of different routes, regimen, and types of antirabies vaccines (ARV)/immunoglobulin available in India. The objective of this study is to know dropout rate in intradermal (i.d.) ARV regimen among animal bite and to analyze the utilized volume of ARV by a different route of vaccine administration. A total of 250 animal bite victims were followed up at ARV Clinic (ARVC). Volume utilization of i.d. route over intramuscular (i.m.) route was analyzed among the patients who attended ARVC during the past 2 years. Total dropout and delayed compliance rates of ARV regimen among different group were compared by Chi-square test. The i.d. route was about five times more volume and cost-saving than i.m. route. The majority of victims belonged to 15-30 years (27.60%) and children <15 years (26.40%) and had wound at their lower limbs (85%) mainly bitten by dogs (98%). Thirty-four percent total dropout and 31.5% delayed compliance observed particularly during the last dose of i.d. regimen. There was no significant difference in dropout rates among different demographic groups. Half of the victims practiced wound toilet on the same day of bite. Only 68% received the first dose of ARV within 24 h of the exposure. Children and young adults are at higher risk of having dog bite. I.d. ARV regimen is more volume and cost-saving than i.m. one and proper counseling and follow-up should be arranged to complete the vaccination schedule.

  9. A postmodern Pandora's box: anti-vaccination misinformation on the Internet.

    PubMed

    Kata, Anna

    2010-02-17

    The Internet plays a large role in disseminating anti-vaccination information. This paper builds upon previous research by analyzing the arguments proffered on anti-vaccination websites, determining the extent of misinformation present, and examining discourses used to support vaccine objections. Arguments around the themes of safety and effectiveness, alternative medicine, civil liberties, conspiracy theories, and morality were found on the majority of websites analyzed; misinformation was also prevalent. The most commonly proposed method of combating this misinformation is through better education, although this has proven ineffective. Education does not consider the discourses supporting vaccine rejection, such as those involving alternative explanatory models of health, interpretations of parental responsibility, and distrust of expertise. Anti-vaccination protestors make postmodern arguments that reject biomedical and scientific "facts" in favour of their own interpretations. Pro-vaccination advocates who focus on correcting misinformation reduce the controversy to merely an "educational" problem; rather, these postmodern discourses must be acknowledged in order to begin a dialogue. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of non-human primates in malaria vaccine development: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the coordination and standardization of malaria vaccine research in non-human primates to encourage optimum use of the available animals in experiments that are fully justified both scientifically and ethically. The requirements for experimentation in non-human primates, the availability of suitable animals for malaria vaccine studies, and the criteria for testing candidate vaccines are considered. The policy and legislation relevant to the use of non-human primates in biomedical research are also briefly discussed. The Memorandum concludes with eight recommendations. PMID:3266112

  11. ICM: a web server for integrated clustering of multi-dimensional biomedical data.

    PubMed

    He, Song; He, Haochen; Xu, Wenjian; Huang, Xin; Jiang, Shuai; Li, Fei; He, Fuchu; Bo, Xiaochen

    2016-07-08

    Large-scale efforts for parallel acquisition of multi-omics profiling continue to generate extensive amounts of multi-dimensional biomedical data. Thus, integrated clustering of multiple types of omics data is essential for developing individual-based treatments and precision medicine. However, while rapid progress has been made, methods for integrated clustering are lacking an intuitive web interface that facilitates the biomedical researchers without sufficient programming skills. Here, we present a web tool, named Integrated Clustering of Multi-dimensional biomedical data (ICM), that provides an interface from which to fuse, cluster and visualize multi-dimensional biomedical data and knowledge. With ICM, users can explore the heterogeneity of a disease or a biological process by identifying subgroups of patients. The results obtained can then be interactively modified by using an intuitive user interface. Researchers can also exchange the results from ICM with collaborators via a web link containing a Project ID number that will directly pull up the analysis results being shared. ICM also support incremental clustering that allows users to add new sample data into the data of a previous study to obtain a clustering result. Currently, the ICM web server is available with no login requirement and at no cost at http://biotech.bmi.ac.cn/icm/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Evaluation of red blood cell and platelet antigen genotyping platforms (ID CORE XT/ID HPA XT) in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Finning, Kirstin; Bhandari, Radhika; Sellers, Fiona; Revelli, Nicoletta; Villa, Maria Antonietta; Muñiz-Díaz, Eduardo; Nogués, Núria

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput genotyping platforms enable simultaneous analysis of multiple polymorphisms for blood group typing. BLOODchip® ID is a genotyping platform based on Luminex® xMAP technology for simultaneous determination of 37 red blood cell (RBC) antigens (ID CORE XT) and 18 human platelet antigens (HPA) (ID HPA XT) using the BIDS XT software. In this international multicentre study, the performance of ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT, using the centres' current genotyping methods as the reference for comparison, and the usability and practicality of these systems, were evaluated under working laboratory conditions. DNA was extracted from whole blood in EDTA with Qiagen methodologies. Ninety-six previously phenotyped/genotyped samples were processed per assay: 87 testing samples plus five positive controls and four negative controls. Results were available for 519 samples: 258 with ID CORE XT and 261 with ID HPA XT. There were three "no calls" that were either caused by human error or resolved after repeating the test. Agreement between the tests and reference methods was 99.94% for ID CORE XT (9,540/9,546 antigens determined) and 100% for ID HPA XT (all 4,698 alleles determined). There were six discrepancies in antigen results in five RBC samples, four of which (in VS, N, S and Do(a)) could not be investigated due to lack of sufficient sample to perform additional tests and two of which (in S and C) were resolved in favour of ID CORE XT (100% accuracy). The total hands-on time was 28-41 minutes for a batch of 16 samples. Compared with the reference platforms, ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT were considered simpler to use and had shorter processing times. ID CORE XT and ID HPA XT genotyping platforms for RBC and platelet systems were accurate and user-friendly in working laboratory settings.

  13. Social vaccines to resist and change unhealthy social and economic structures: a useful metaphor for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Narayan, Ravi; Sanders, David; Patel, Vikram; Quizhpe, Arturo

    2009-12-01

    The term 'social vaccine' is designed to encourage the biomedically orientated health sector to recognize the legitimacy of action on the distal social and economic determinants of health. It is proposed as a term to assist the health promotion movement in arguing for a social view of health which is so often counter to medical and popular conceptions of health. The idea of a social vaccine builds on a long tradition in social medicine as well as on a biomedical tradition of preventing illness through vaccines that protect against disease. Social vaccines would be promoted as a means to encourage popular mobilization and advocacy to change the social and economic structural conditions that render people and communities vulnerable to disease. They would facilitate social and political processes that develop popular and political will to protect and promote health through action (especially governments prepared to intervene and regulate to protect community health) on the social and economic determinants. Examples provided for the effects of social vaccines are: restoring land ownership to Indigenous peoples, regulating the advertising of harmful products and progressive taxation for universal social protection. Social vaccines require more research to improve understanding of social and political processes that are likely to improve health equity worldwide. The vaccine metaphor should be helpful in arguing for increased action on the social determinants of health.

  14. How advances in immunology provide insight into improving vaccine efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Slifka, Mark K.; Amanna, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines represent one of the most compelling examples of how biomedical research has improved society by saving lives and dramatically reducing the burden of infectious disease. Despite the importance of vaccinology, we are still in the early stages of understanding how the best vaccines work and how we can achieve better protective efficacy through improved vaccine design. Most successful vaccines have been developed empirically, but recent advances in immunology are beginning to shed new light on the mechanisms of vaccine-mediated protection and development of long-term immunity. Although natural infection will often elicit lifelong immunity, almost all current vaccines require booster vaccination in order to achieve durable protective humoral immune responses, regardless of whether the vaccine is based on infection with replicating live-attenuated vaccine strains of the specific pathogen or whether they are derived from immunization with inactivated, non-replicating vaccines or subunit vaccines. The form of the vaccine antigen (e.g., soluble or particulate/aggregate) appears to play an important role in determining immunogenicity and the interactions between dendritic cells, B cells and T cells in the germinal center are likely to dictate the magnitude and duration of protective immunity. By learning how to optimize these interactions, we may be able to elicit more effective and long-lived immunity with fewer vaccinations. PMID:24709587

  15. [Old and new prescriptions for infectious diseases and the newest recipes for biomedical products in plants].

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Hilary

    2002-01-01

    and sera is exorbitant for the afflicted population in developing countries. In addition, the dearth of syringes, the unavailability of nurses and doctors to administer multiple vaccine injections, and other factors in these countries require a drastic change in current vaccine production approaches. About 12 years ago, plants became vehicles to produce biomedical reagents. Plants can be exposed directly to a construct containing a foreign gene and Agrobacterium to create a transgenic plant that, over several generations, produces the desired product. Alternatively, plants infected with a plant virus (e.g. alfalfa mosaic virus) fused with a foreign gene can propagate the foreign antigen as the virus multiplies. Extraction of the plant virus followed by purification provides the desired biomedical product. Our use of either of these systems has led to the creation of plants producing vaccines, sera, hormones, and other biological reagents. In two clinical trials at the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Poznań (Poland), volunteers who ingested lettuce expressing hepatitis B vaccine showed hepatitis B antibodies in their sera. In another trial carried out at the Biotechnology Foundation Laboratories in Philadelphia (USA), volunteers ingesting a spinach-rabies vaccine showed an immunological priming effect, since only one injection of commercially available rabies vaccine significantly raised the level of rabies-specific antibodies. Vaccines against HIV gp120 and Tat have been produced in spinach, and a construct of gp120 with the CD4 receptor is now being adapted to this plant. Two types of antibodies against rabies and against colorectal cancer are being produced in tobacco and in lettuce. The suboptimal quality of the currently available anthrax vaccine prompted our efforts to produce the anthrax protective antigen (PA) in tobacco and lettuce. Quite clearly, plants will play a prominent role in producing a variety of biomedical

  16. [Vaccine hesitancy: discourse analysis of parents who have not fully or partially vaccinated their children].

    PubMed

    Cruz Piqueras, Maite; Rodríguez García de Cortazar, Ainhoa; Hortal Carmona, Joaquín; Padilla Bernáldez, Javier

    2017-09-16

    To analyse and understand vaccination hesitancy discourses, particularly those of people who have decided not to vaccinate their sons and daughters. Qualitative study of five individual interviews and two focus groups with people who chose not to vaccinate their children in the province of Granada (Spain). Mothers and fathers manifest a system of health beliefs different to the biomedical paradigm. From an ethical point of view, they justify their position based on the right to autonomy and responsibility for their decisions. Alleged specific reasons: they doubt administration of several vaccines simultaneously at an early age in a systematic way and without individualising each case; they fear adverse effects and do not understand the variations of the vaccination schedule. These vaccination hesitancy discourses respond to the individual vs collective conflict; parents defend their right to bring up their children without any interference from the state and focus their responsibility on the individual welfare of their sons and daughters, regardless of the consequences that their actions might have on the collective. In their management of risks, they consider those derived from vaccination more relevant than the individual or collective consequences of not doing so. The vaccines generating most doubts are the more controversial ones within the scientific world. Transparency in communication of adverse effects; authorities respect for other health/disease concepts; banishment of the term "anti-vaccines" from the media and scientific vocabulary, and developing spaces for dialogue are bridges to be built. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Superior Efficacy of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Combined with Antiretroviral Prevention in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Challenged Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Dispinseri, Stefania; Gosse, Leslie; Desjardins, Delphine; Shen, Xiaoying; Tolazzi, Monica; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Saidi, Hela; Tomaras, Georgia; Prague, Mélanie; Barnett, Susan W; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Cope, Alethea; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Shattock, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Although vaccines and antiretroviral (ARV) prevention have demonstrated partial success against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in clinical trials, their combined introduction could provide more potent protection. Furthermore, combination approaches could ameliorate the potential increased risk of infection following vaccination in the absence of protective immunity. We used a nonhuman primate model to determine potential interactions of combining a partially effective ARV microbicide with an envelope-based vaccine. The vaccine alone provided no protection from infection following 12 consecutive low-dose intravaginal challenges with simian-HIV strain SF162P3, with more animals infected compared to naive controls. The microbicide alone provided a 68% reduction in the risk of infection relative to that of the vaccine group and a 45% reduction relative to that of naive controls. The vaccine-microbicide combination provided an 88% reduction in the per-exposure risk of infection relative to the vaccine alone and a 79% reduction relative to that of the controls. Protected animals in the vaccine-microbicide group were challenged a further 12 times in the absence of microbicide and demonstrated a 98% reduction in the risk of infection. A total risk reduction of 91% was observed in this group over 24 exposures (P = 0.004). These important findings suggest that combined implementation of new biomedical prevention strategies may provide significant gains in HIV prevention. There is a pressing need to maximize the impact of new biomedical prevention tools in the face of the 2 million HIV infections that occur each year. Combined implementation of complementary biomedical approaches could create additive or synergistic effects that drive improved reduction of HIV incidence. Therefore, we assessed a combination of an untested vaccine with an ARV-based microbicide in a nonhuman primate vaginal challenge model. The vaccine alone provided no protection (and may have

  18. Superior Efficacy of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Vaccine Combined with Antiretroviral Prevention in Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Challenged Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Dispinseri, Stefania; Gosse, Leslie; Desjardins, Delphine; Shen, Xiaoying; Tolazzi, Monica; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Saidi, Hela; Tomaras, Georgia; Prague, Mélanie; Barnett, Susan W.; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although vaccines and antiretroviral (ARV) prevention have demonstrated partial success against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in clinical trials, their combined introduction could provide more potent protection. Furthermore, combination approaches could ameliorate the potential increased risk of infection following vaccination in the absence of protective immunity. We used a nonhuman primate model to determine potential interactions of combining a partially effective ARV microbicide with an envelope-based vaccine. The vaccine alone provided no protection from infection following 12 consecutive low-dose intravaginal challenges with simian-HIV strain SF162P3, with more animals infected compared to naive controls. The microbicide alone provided a 68% reduction in the risk of infection relative to that of the vaccine group and a 45% reduction relative to that of naive controls. The vaccine-microbicide combination provided an 88% reduction in the per-exposure risk of infection relative to the vaccine alone and a 79% reduction relative to that of the controls. Protected animals in the vaccine-microbicide group were challenged a further 12 times in the absence of microbicide and demonstrated a 98% reduction in the risk of infection. A total risk reduction of 91% was observed in this group over 24 exposures (P = 0.004). These important findings suggest that combined implementation of new biomedical prevention strategies may provide significant gains in HIV prevention. IMPORTANCE There is a pressing need to maximize the impact of new biomedical prevention tools in the face of the 2 million HIV infections that occur each year. Combined implementation of complementary biomedical approaches could create additive or synergistic effects that drive improved reduction of HIV incidence. Therefore, we assessed a combination of an untested vaccine with an ARV-based microbicide in a nonhuman primate vaginal challenge model. The vaccine alone provided no

  19. Id-1 and Id-2 genes and products as therapeutic targets for treatment of breast cancer and other types of carcinoma

    DOEpatents

    Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2014-09-30

    A method for treatment and amelioration of breast, cervical, ovarian, endometrial, squamous cells, prostate cancer and melanoma in a patient comprising targeting Id-1 or Id-2 gene expression with a delivery vehicle comprising a product which modulates Id-1 or Id-2 expression.

  20. Managing the future: the Special Virus Leukemia Program and the acceleration of biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Robin Wolfe

    2014-12-01

    After the end of the Second World War, cancer virus research experienced a remarkable revival, culminating in the creation in 1964 of the United States National Cancer Institute's Special Virus Leukemia Program (SVLP), an ambitious program of directed biomedical research to accelerate the development of a leukemia vaccine. Studies of cancer viruses soon became the second most highly funded area of research at the Institute, and by far the most generously funded area of biological research. Remarkably, this vast infrastructure for cancer vaccine production came into being before a human leukemia virus was shown to exist. The origins of the SVLP were rooted in as much as shifts in American society as laboratory science. The revival of cancer virus studies was a function of the success advocates and administrators achieved in associating cancer viruses with campaigns against childhood diseases such as polio and leukemia. To address the urgency borne of this new association, the SVLP's architects sought to lessen the power of peer review in favor of centralized Cold War management methods, fashioning viruses as "administrative objects" in order to accelerate the tempo of biomedical research and discovery.

  1. Evaluation of ID-PaGIA syphilis antibody test.

    PubMed

    Naaber, Paul; Makoid, Ene; Aus, Anneli; Loivukene, Krista; Poder, Airi

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis of syphilis is usually accomplished by serology. There are currently a large number of different commercial treponemal tests available that vary in format, sensitivity and specificity. To evaluate the ID-PaGIA Syphilis Antibody Test as an alternative to other specific treponemal tests for primary screening or confirmation of diagnosis. Serum samples from healthy adults (n = 100) were used for detection of specificity of ID-PaGIA. To evaluate sensitivity of ID-PaGIA serum samples (n = 101) from patients with confirmed or suspected syphilis were tested for syphilis antibodies with FTA-Abs IgM, ID-PaGIA, ELISA IgM and TPHA tests. No false-positive results were found with ID-PaGIA. Sensitivity of various treponemal tests was the following: FTA-Abs IgM: 95.5%, ID-PaGIA and ELISA IgM: 94%, and TPHA 75%. The positive and negative predictive values of ID-PaGIA were 100 and 89.5%, respectively. Compared with other treponemal tests ID-PaGIA has excellent sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Serological diagnosis of canine leishmaniosis: comparison of three commercial ELISA tests (Leiscan®, ID Screen® and Leishmania 96®), a rapid test (Speed Leish K®) and an in-house IFAT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Speed Leish K® is used as a serological screening test for Leishmania infection prior to vaccination. Limited comparative serological studies with Speed Leish K® have been performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of four commercially available serologic tests including ELISAs (Leiscan®, ID Screen® and Leishmania 96®), a rapid test (Speed Leish K®) and an in-house IFAT for the detection of specific antibodies against Leishmania infantum antigen in dogs in different states of infection. Methods Sick infected dogs (n = 36), healthy infected dogs (n = 18), L. infantum seropositive dogs with low to high levels of antibodies (n = 53), dogs seropositive to other pathogens (to evaluate cross reaction) (n = 14) and uninfected dogs from a non-endemic area (n = 50) and from an endemic area (n = 32) were analysed by the serological methods mentioned above. Results The sensitivity was as follows: ID Screen® (0.953), Leiscan® and Leishmania 96® (0.925), IFAT (0.869) and Speed Leish K® (0.636). The maximum specificity (1.000) was attained for all diagnostic tests except the Leishmania 96® (0.896) and IFAT (0.917). The accuracy was as follows: ID Screen® (0.975), Leiscan® (0.961), Leishmania 96® (0.911), IFAT (0.892) and Speed Leish K® (0.808). In relation to the area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC), the maximum value was attained with the ID Screen® (0.993) closely followed by Leiscan® (0.990), then, Leishmania 96® (0.962), IFAT (0.926) and Speed Leish K® (0.818). For the Kappa index, the best result was obtained by the ID Screen® (0.951) followed by Leiscan® (0.921), Leishmania 96® (0.822), IFAT (0.783) and Speed Leish K® (0.622). Statistically significant differences were found between the AUC-ROC of quantitative serological tests and the only qualitative rapid test evaluated. There were also statistically significant differences between AUC-ROC of the ELISAs (ID Screen® and Leiscan

  3. Intradermal Delivery of Antigens Enhances Specific IgG and Diminishes IgE Production: Potential Use for Vaccination and Allergy Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Takuwa; Ura, Takehiro; Taniguchi, Masaru; Yoshida, Hisahiro

    2016-01-01

    Skin is protected by a tough but flexible multilayered barrier and is a front line for immune responses against invading particles. For many years now, skin has been a tissue where certain vaccines are injected for the prevention of infectious disease, however, the detailed mechanisms of the skin immune response are not yet well understood. Using thin and small injection needles, we carefully injected OVA into a restricted region of mouse skin, i.e., intradermal (ID), and examined the antibody response in comparison with subcutaneous (SC) injection or epicutaneous patch administration of OVA. Epicutaneous patches induced a high IgE response against OVA, but IgG production was low. High IgG production was induced by both ID and SC injection, moreover, ID injection induced higher IgG production without any adjutants. Furthermore, OVA-specific IgE production was diminished by ID injection. We found that ID injection could efficiently stimulate skin resident DCs, drive Th1-biased conditions and diminish IgE production. The ID injection response was regulated by Langerin+ dermal DCs, because OVA was taken up mainly by these cells and, after transiently deleting them, the IgE response was no longer diminished and IgG1 production was enhanced. We also tested whether ID injection might be an effective allergy treatment by attempting to inhibit ongoing IgE production in mice with experimentally induced high serum IgE levels. Multiple ID injections of OVA were shown to prevent elevation of serum OVA-specific IgE after repeated allergen challenge. In contrast, SC OVA injection could only transiently inhibit the OVA-specific IgE production. These findings indicated that ID injection results in higher induction of antigen-specific IgG, and thus may be useful for vaccine delivery with little or no adjuvant components. Moreover, the observed diminishment of IgE and induction of Th1-biased immune responses suggest that ID may be a useful injection route for allergy immunotherapy

  4. An overview on the role of silica-based materials in vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Tovar, Gabriela; Palestino, Gabriela; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Although vaccination has prevented millions of deaths, the development of highly immunogenic subunit vaccines is still required. Since the number of adjuvants approved for human use is limited, the new paths for the development of delivery vehicles offered by nanotechnology are of key relevance. Areas covered: Herein, the potential of silica nanoparticles (SP) as both adjuvants and vaccine delivery vehicles is discussed based on the analysis of the current biomedical literature. Expert commentary: SP are reported not only as biodegradable and biocompatible material but also as easy to modify and with a low production cost. Additionally, several reports suggest that SP enhance the immune response. Therefore, SP are a promising delivery vehicle and/or adjuvant in vaccines. However, knowledge on the industrial production and specific aspects of immunity are still required.

  5. [Expression of Id1 and Id3 in endometrial carcinoma and their roles in regulating biological behaviors of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lili; Li, Xuenong; Liu, Guobing

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the expression of inhibitor of DNA differentiation/DNA binding 1 (Id1) and Id3 in endometrial carcinoma and explore their roles in regulating the proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. Id1 and Id3 expression in 4 fresh endometrial cancer tissue specimens and matched adjacent tissues were detected using Western blotting. Two endometrial cancer cell lines, HEC-1-B and RL-952, were both divided into 4 groups, namely the untreated group, blank virus group, promoter group and Id1/Id3 double-knockdown group, and their expressions of MMP2, CXCR4 and P21 were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of the cells were evaluated with MTT, Transwell, wound-healing, and adhesion assays. Endometrial carcinoma tissues showed significantly higher Id1 and Id3 expression than the adjacent tissues (P<0.05). In the two endometrial carcinoma cell lines, Id1/Id3 double-knockdown significantly decreased MMP2 and CXCR4 expression and increased P21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels (P<0.05), and resulted in suppressed cell proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion. Id1 and Id3 expressions are up-regulated in endometrial carcinoma to promote the proliferation, invasion, migration and adhesion of the tumor cells by increasing MMP2 and CXCR4 expression and reducing P21 expression. Therapies targeting Id1/Id3 can be a novel strategy for treatment of endometrial carcinoma.

  6. Biomedical applications of microneedles in therapeutics: recent advancements and implications in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Rejinold, N Sanoj; Shin, Ju-Hyung; Seok, Hae Yong; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The skin, as the largest organ, is a better option for drug delivery in many diseases. However, most transdermal delivery is difficult due to the low permeability of therapeutics across the various skin layers. There have been many innovations in transdermal drug delivery to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of the drugs administered. Microneedles (MN), micron sized needles, are of great interest to scientists as a new therapeutic vehicle through transdermal routes, especially for vaccines, drugs, small molecules, etc. This review covers new insights into different types of MNs such as solid, hollow, coated and dissolving MNs (SMNs, HMNs, CMNs, and DMNs) for selected biomedical applications in detail. Specific focus has been given to CMNs and DMNs for vaccine and drug delivery applications with recent developments in new MNs covered. This review explores the feasibility of innovative MNs used as a drug delivery carrier. Because most of the SMNs and HMNs have many limitations, it is difficult to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, many scientists are investigating functional modifications of MNs through covalent and non-covalent methods, especially for CMNs and DMNs. The biomedical applications of MNs are growing and new exciting improvements could be achieved, thus resulting in better micro/nano technologies in the near future.

  7. R&D100: IC ID

    ScienceCinema

    Hamlet, Jason; Pierson, Lyndon; Bauer, Todd

    2018-06-25

    Supply chain security to detect, deter, and prevent the counterfeiting of networked and stand-alone integrated circuits (ICs) is critical to cyber security. Sandia National Laboratory researchers have developed IC ID to leverage Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and strong cryptographic authentication to create a unique fingerprint for each integrated circuit. IC ID assures the authenticity of ICs to prevent tampering or malicious substitution.

  8. IDS contribution to ITRF2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valette, Jean-Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.; Ferrage, Pascale; Yaya, Philippe; Altamimi, Zuheir; Willis, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent

    2010-12-01

    For the first time, the International DORIS Service (IDS) has produced a technique level combination based on the contributions of seven analysis centers (ACs), including the European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), Geoscience Australia (GAU), the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the Institut Géographique National (IGN), the Institute of Astronomy, Russian Academy of Sciences (INASAN, named as INA), and CNES/CLS (named as LCA). The ACs used five different software packages to process the DORIS data from 1992 to 2008, including NAPEOS (ESA), Bernese (GOP), GEODYN (GAU, GSC), GIPSY/OASIS (INA), and GINS (LCA). The data from seven DORIS satellites, TOPEX/Poseidon, SPOT-2, SPOT-3, SPOT-4, SPOT-5, Envisat and Jason-1 were processed and all the analysis centers produced weekly SINEX files in either variance-covariance or normal equation format. The processing by the analysis centers used the latest GRACE-derived gravity models, forward modelling of atmospheric gravity, updates to the radiation pressure modelling to improve the DORIS geocenter solutions, denser parameterization of empirically determined drag coefficients to improve station and EOP solutions, especially near the solar maximum in 2001-2002, updated troposphere mapping functions, and an ITRF2005-derived station set for orbit determination, DPOD2005. The CATREF software was used to process the weekly AC solutions, and produce three iterations of an IDS global weekly combination. Between the development of the initial solution IDS-1, and the final solution, IDS-3, the ACs improved their analysis strategies and submitted updated solutions to eliminate troposphere-derived biases in the solution scale, to reduce drag-related degradations in station positioning, and to refine the estimation strategy to improve the combination geocenter solution. An analysis of the frequency content of the individual AC geocenter and scale solutions was used as the basis to define the

  9. ID-based encryption scheme with revocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Hafizul Azrie; Ismail, Eddie Shahril

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, Meshram proposed an efficient ID-based cryptographic encryption based on the difficulty of solving discrete logarithm and integer-factoring problems. The scheme was pairing free and claimed to be secure against adaptive chosen plaintext attacks (CPA). Later, Tan et al. proved that the scheme was insecure by presenting a method to recover the secret master key and to obtain prime factorization of modulo n. In this paper, we propose a new pairing-free ID-based encryption scheme with revocation based on Meshram's ID-based encryption scheme, which is also secure against Tan et al.'s attacks.

  10. The effect of bovine IFN-alpha on the immune response in guinea pigs vaccinated with DNA vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Chen; Liu, Zai-Xin; Sun, Shi-Qi; Leng, Qing-Wen; Li, Dong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Xie, Qing-Ge

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we constructed recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1/P12X3C3D including P1, 2A, 3C, 3D and part of 2B gene of FMDV and pcDNA3.1/IFN containing the gene encoding bovine IFN-alpha. We inoculated the DNA vaccine pcDNA3.1/P12X3C3D with or without pcDNA3.1/IFN to evaluate the efficiency of this DNA vaccine and the immunogenicity of DNA vaccine enhanced by the co-delivery with pcDNA3.1/IFN. After two times of vaccination with DNA vaccine, all of guinea pigs were challenged with 103 ID50 FMDV type O. Anti-FMDV antibody levels were detected by ELISA and T lymphocyte proliferation response was tested by MTT assay. The result shows that guinea pigs inoculated by pcDNA3.1/P12X3C3D alone or with pcDNA3.1/IFN generated specific antibodies and induced an FMDV-specific T lymphocyte proliferation response. FMDV challenge tests showed that one in four guinea pigs immunized by pcDNA3.1/P12X3C3D with pcDNA3.1/IFN was protected from the FMDV serotype O infection. This result indicated that the efficiency of the DNA vaccine was enhanced by co-delivery with pcDNA3.1/IFN. However, the protection rate was considerably lower than that immunized with conventional FMD vaccine.

  11. Induction of CD8(+) T cell responses and protective efficacy following microneedle-mediated delivery of a live adenovirus-vectored malaria vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Frances E; O'Mahony, Conor; Moore, Anne C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-06-22

    There is an urgent need for improvements in vaccine delivery technologies. This is particularly pertinent for vaccination programmes within regions of limited resources, such as those required for adequate provision for disposal of used needles. Microneedles are micron-sized structures that penetrate the stratum corneum of the skin, creating temporary conduits for the needle-free delivery of drugs or vaccines. Here, we aimed to investigate immunity induced by the recombinant simian adenovirus-vectored vaccine ChAd63.ME-TRAP; currently undergoing clinical assessment as a candidate malaria vaccine, when delivered percutaneously by silicon microneedle arrays. In mice, we demonstrate that microneedle-mediated delivery of ChAd63.ME-TRAP induced similar numbers of transgene-specific CD8(+) T cells compared to intradermal (ID) administration with needle-and-syringe, following a single immunisation and after a ChAd63/MVA heterologous prime-boost schedule. When mice immunised with ChAd63/MVA were challenged with live Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, microneedle-mediated ChAd63.ME-TRAP priming demonstrated equivalent protective efficacy as did ID immunisation. Furthermore, responses following ChAd63/MVA immunisation correlated with a specific design parameter of the array used ('total array volume'). The level of transgene expression at the immunisation site and skin-draining lymph node (dLN) was also linked to total array volume. These findings have implications for defining silicon microneedle array design for use with live, vectored vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Computer-Aided Rational Design

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Coleman, J. Robert; Papamichail, Dimitris; Ward, Charles B.; Nimnual, Anjaruwee; Futcher, Bruce; Skiena, Steven; Wimmer, Eckard

    2010-01-01

    Influenza claims 250,000 - 500,000 lives annually worldwide. Despite existing vaccines and enormous efforts in biomedical research, these staggering numbers have not changed significantly over the last two decades1, motivating the search for new, more effective, vaccines that can be rapidly designed and easily produced. Using influenza virus strain A/PR/8/34, we describe a systematic, rational approach, termed Synthetic Attenuated Virus Engineering (SAVE), to develop new, efficacious live attenuated influenza virus vaccine candidates through genome-scale changes in codon pair bias. Attenuation is based on many hundreds of nucleotide changes across the viral genome, offering high genetic stability and a wide margin of safety. The method can be applied rapidly to any emerging influenza virus in its entirety, an advantage that is significant for dealing with seasonal epidemics and pandemic threats, such as H5N1- or 2009-H1N1 influenza. PMID:20543832

  13. Assessing the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of human rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route

    PubMed Central

    Bilagumba, Gangaboraiah; Ravish, Haradanahalli Shankarappa; Narayana, Hanumanthappa Ashwath Doddabele

    2010-01-01

    The metadata of 10 published studies and 3 vaccine trial reports comprising of 19 vaccine cohorts from four countries conducted over a period of 23 years (1986–2009) was used for metaanalysis. The vaccines studied were purified chick embryo cell vaccine (Rabipur, India and Germany), purified vero cell rabies vaccine (Verorab, France; Indirab, India) and human diploid cell vaccine (MIRV, France). The potency of these vaccines varied from 0.55 IU to 2.32 IU per intradermal dose of 0.1 ml per site. The vaccines were administered to 1,011 subjects comprising of 19 cohorts and using five different ID regimens. The immunogenicity was measured by assays of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) titres using rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) [15 cohorts] and mouse neutralization test (MNT) [4 cohorts]. The statistical analysis of the data was done by Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity. It was revealed that, there was no significant linear relationship between antigenicity and immunogenicity of rabies vaccines when administered by intradermal route (p > 0.230 and p > 0.568). PMID:20523131

  14. Multimodal biometrics for identity documents (MBioID).

    PubMed

    Dessimoz, Damien; Richiardi, Jonas; Champod, Christophe; Drygajlo, Andrzej

    2007-04-11

    The MBioID initiative has been set up to address the following germane question: What and how biometric technologies could be deployed in identity documents in the foreseeable future? This research effort proposes to look at current and future practices and systems of establishing and using biometric identity documents (IDs) and evaluate their effectiveness in large-scale developments. The first objective of the MBioID project is to present a review document establishing the current state-of-the-art related to the use of multimodal biometrics in an IDs application. This research report gives the main definitions, properties and the framework of use related to biometrics, an overview of the main standards developed in the biometric industry and standardisation organisations to ensure interoperability, as well as some of the legal framework and the issues associated to biometrics such as privacy and personal data protection. The state-of-the-art in terms of technological development is also summarised for a range of single biometric modalities (2D and 3D face, fingerprint, iris, on-line signature and speech), chosen according to ICAO recommendations and availabilities, and for various multimodal approaches. This paper gives a summary of the main elements of that report. The second objective of the MBioID project is to propose relevant acquisition and evaluation protocols for a large-scale deployment of biometric IDs. Combined with the protocols, a multimodal database will be acquired in a realistic way, in order to be as close as possible to a real biometric IDs deployment. In this paper, the issues and solutions related to the acquisition setup are briefly presented.

  15. A phase 1, open-label, randomized study to compare the immunogenicity and safety of different administration routes and doses of virosomal influenza vaccine in elderly.

    PubMed

    Levin, Yotam; Kochba, Efrat; Shukarev, Georgi; Rusch, Sarah; Herrera-Taracena, Guillermo; van Damme, Pierre

    2016-10-17

    Influenza remains a significant problem in elderly despite widespread vaccination coverage. This randomized, phase-I study in elderly compared different strategies of improving vaccine immunogenicity. A total of 370 healthy participants (⩾65years) were randomized equally 1:1:1:1:1:1 to six influenza vaccine treatments (approximately 60-63 participants per treatment arm) at day 1 that consisted of three investigational virosomal vaccine formulations at doses of 7.5, 15, and 45μg HA antigen/strain administered intradermally (ID) by MicronJet600™ microneedle device (NanoPass Technologies) or intramuscularly (IM), and three comparator registered seasonal vaccines; Inflexal V™ (Janssen) and MF59 adjuvanted Fluad™ (Novartis) administered IM and Intanza™ (Sanofi Pasteur) administered ID via Soluvia™ prefilled microinjection system (BD). Serological evaluations were performed at days 22 and 90 and safety followed-up for 6months. Intradermal delivery of virosomal vaccine using MicronJet600™ resulted in significantly higher immunogenicity than the equivalent dose of virosomal Inflexal V™ administered intramuscularly across most of the parameters and strains, as well as in some of the readouts and strains as compared with the 45μg dose of virosomal vaccine formulation. Of 370 participants, 300 (81.1%) reported ⩾1 adverse event (AE); more participants reported solicited local AEs (72.2%) than solicited systemic AEs (12.2%). Intradermal delivery significantly improved influenza vaccine immunogenicity compared with intramuscular delivery. Triple dose (45μg) virosomal vaccine did not demonstrate any benefit on vaccine's immunogenicity over 15μg commercial presentation. All treatments were generally safe and well-tolerated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Host responses in human skin after conventional intradermal injection or microneedle administration of virus-like-particle influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pearton, Marc; Pirri, Daniela; Kang, Sang-Moo; Compans, Richard W; Birchall, James C

    2013-10-01

    Miniaturized microneedle devices are being developed for painlessly targeting vaccines to the immune cell populations in skin. As skin immunization studies are generally restricted to animal models however, where skin architecture and immunity is greatly different to human, surprisingly little is known about the local human response to intradermal (ID) vaccines. Here surgically excised human skin is used to explore for the first time the complex molecular and cellular host responses to a candidate influenza vaccine comprising nanoparticulate virus-like-particles (VLPs), administered via conventional hypodermic injection or reduced scale microneedles. Responses at the molecular level are determined by microarray analysis (47,296 discrete transcripts) and validated by quantitative PCR (96 genes). Cellular response is probed through monitoring migration of dendritic cells in viable skin tissue. Gene expression mapping, ontological analysis, and qPCR reveal up-regulation of a host of genes responsible for key immunomodulatory processes and host viral response, including cell recruitment, activation, migration, and T cell interaction following both ID and microneedle injection of VLPs; the response from the microneedles being more subtle. Significant morphological and migratory changes to skin dendritic cells are also apparent following microneedle VLP delivery. This is the first study displaying the global, multifaceted immunological events that occur at the site of vaccine deposition in human skin and will subsequently influence the degree and nature of innate and adaptive immune responses. An increased understanding of the detailed similarities and differences in response against antigen administered via different delivery modalities will inform the development of improved vaccines and vaccine delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Beamlines of the Biomedical Imaging and Therapy Facility at the Canadian Light Source - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysokinski, T. W.; Chapman, D.; Adams, G.; Renier, M.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W.

    2013-03-01

    The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) facility provides a world class facility with unique synchrotron-specific imaging and therapy capabilities. This paper describes Insertion Device (ID) beamline 05ID-2 with the beam terminated in the first experimental hutch: POE-2. The experimental methods available in POE-2 include: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), Synchrotron Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SSRT) and absorption imaging (projection and Computed Tomography (CT)). The source for the ID beamline is a multi-pole superconductive 4.3 T wiggler, which can generate ~30 kW of radiative power and deliver dose as high as 3000 Gy/s required for MRT program. The optics in POE-1 hutch prepares either monochromatic or filtered white beam that is used in POE-2. The Double Crystal (DC), bent Laue monochromator will prepare a beam over 10 cm wide at sample point, while spanning an energy range appropriate for imaging studies of animals (20-100+ keV). The experimental hutch will have a flexible positioning system that can handle subjects up to 120 kg. Several different cameras will be available with resolutions ranging from 4 μm to 150 μm. The latest update on the status of 05B1-1 bending magnet (BM) beamline, described in Part 1 [1], is also included.

  18. The preclinical set-up at the ID17 biomedical beamline to achieve high local dose deposition using interlaced microbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bräuer-Krisch, E.; Nemoz, C.; Brochard, Th; Berruyer, G.; Renier, M.; Pouyatos, B.; Serduc, R.

    2013-03-01

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) uses spatially a fractionated "white beam" (energies 50-350 keV) irradiation from a Synchrotron Source. The typical microbeams used at ID17 are 25-100μm-thick, spaced by 200-400μm, and carry extremely high dose rates (up to about 16 kGy/s). These microbeams are well tolerated by biological tissue, i.e. up to several hundred of Gy in the peaks. When valley doses, caused by Compton scattering in between two microbeams, remain within a dose regime similar to conventional RT, a superior tumour control can be achieved with MRT than with conventional RT. The normal tissue tolerance of these microscopically small beams is outstanding and well documented in the literature. The hypothesis of a differential effect in particular on the vasculature of normal versus tumoral tissue might best be proven by using large animal models with spontaneous tumors instead of small laboratory animals with transplantable tumors, an ongoing project on ID17. An alternative approach to deposit a high dose, while preserving the feature of the spatial separation of these microbeams outside the target has opened up new applications in preclinical research. The instrumentation of this method to produce such interlaced beams is presented with an outlook on the challenges to build a treatment platform for human patients. Dose measurements using Gafchromic films exposed in interlaced geometries with their steep profiles highlight the potential to deposit radiotoxic doses in the vicinity of radiosensitive tissues.

  19. Vaccine production training to develop the workforce of foreign institutions supported by the BARDA influenza vaccine capacity building program.

    PubMed

    Tarbet, E Bart; Dorward, James T; Day, Craig W; Rashid, Kamal A

    2013-03-15

    In the event of an influenza pandemic, vaccination will be the best method to limit virus spread. However, lack of vaccine biomanufacturing capacity means there will not be enough vaccine for the world's population. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) provides support to the World Health Organization to enhance global vaccine production capacity in developing countries. However, developing a trained workforce in some of those countries is necessary. Biomanufacturing is labor-intensive, requiring unique skills not found in traditional academic programs. Employees must understand the scientific basis of biotechnology, operate specialized equipment, and work in an environment regulated by good manufacturing practices (cGMP). Therefore, BARDA supported development of vaccine biomanufacturing training at Utah State University. The training consisted of a three-week industry-focused course for participants from institutions supported by the BARDA and WHO influenza vaccine production capacity building program. The curriculum was divided into six components: (1) biosafety, (2) cell culture and growth of cells in bioreactors, (3) virus assays and inactivation, (4) scale-up strategies, (5) downstream processing, and (6) egg- and cell-based vaccine production and cGMP. Lectures were combined with laboratory exercises to provide a balance of theory and hands-on training. The initial course included sixteen participants from seven countries including: Egypt, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. The participant's job responsibilities included: Production, Quality Control, Quality Assurance, and Research; and their education ranged from bachelors to doctoral level. Internal course evaluations utilized descriptive methods including surveys, observation of laboratory activities, and interviews with participants. Generally, participants had appropriate academic backgrounds, but

  20. The Role of Id2 Protein in Neuroblatoma in Children.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Aleksandra; Balwierz, Walentyna

    2015-09-01

    Id (DNA binding and/or differentiation) proteins occur physiologically during ontogenesis and negatively regulate the activity of other helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. Id2 protein causes block of cells differentiation in the S phase of the cell cycle and regulates the activity of Rb protein. The role of Id2 protein in physiological cell cycle progression and in neuroblastoma (NBL) pathogenesis was proposed by Lasorella. The aim of the study was evaluation of Id2 expression and its prognostic significance in NBL cells coming from primary tumors and evaluation of its prognostic significance, and correlation of Id2 expression with known prognostic factors. Sixty patients with primary NBL treated from 1991 to 2005 were included in the analysis. We found 50 patients with high and 10 patients with low intensity of Id2 expression. The median percentage of NBL cells with Id2 expression was 88 %. We found no correlation between the number of NBL cells or the intensity of Id2 expression and OS and DFS. In patients with stage 4 NBL, almost all patients had high expression of Id2 and it was significantly more common than in other disease stages (p = 0,03). We found no correlation between Id2 expression and other known prognostic factor in NBL patients. We assume that Id2 is not prognostic factor. However, due to its abundant expression in most of NBL cells and its role in cell cycle, it may be potential therapeutic target. Exact knowledge of expression time may be helpful in explaining mechanisms of oncogenesis.

  1. Uganda gets set for vaccine trials, but the ethical debate continues.

    PubMed

    1997-04-01

    An HIV vaccine trial scheduled for 1997 involves 2000 male and female members of the Uganda People's Defence Force. The volunteers are 18-40 years old and have been evaluated for 18 months. The trial of Alvac-HIV vaccine developed by Pasteur Manieux Connaught will be conducted by the Joint Clinical Research Council, a joint venture of Makerere University and the Ministries of Health and Defence, in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University. The vaccine has already been tested on 300 volunteers in France and the US. The initial stage of testing will involve a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial comparing the safety and immunogenicity of four successive injections in 20 HIV-negative and 20 HIV-positive volunteers. Follow-up will continue for a year. While volunteers will get free medical attention if they develop a severe reaction to the vaccine and will receive a full explanation about the experimental nature of the vaccine, it has not been determined how volunteers will be compensated if something unforeseen goes wrong. Additional concerns revolve around Uganda's readiness to institute proper legal controls and ethical standards in cases of biomedical research.

  2. Age- and risk-related appropriateness of the use of available influenza vaccines in the Italian elderly population is advantageous: results from a budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, M; Capri, S; Waure, C DE; Boccalini, S; Panatto, D

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile. A novel budget impact model was constructed with a time horizon of one influenza season. In the reference scenario the cohort of Italian elderly individuals could receive either available vaccine according to 2017/18 season market share. The alternative scenario envisaged the administration of TIV/QIV to people aged 65-74 years and at low risk of developing influenza-related complications, while aTIV/idTIV were allocated to high-risk 65-74-year-olds and all subjects aged ≥ 75 years. Switching to the alternative scenario would result in both significant health benefits and net budget savings. Particularly, it would be possible to prevent an additional 8201 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza, 988 complications, 355 hospitalizations and 14 deaths. Despite the alternative strategy being associated with slightly higher vaccination costs, the total savings derived from fewer influenza events completely resets this increase with net budget savings of € 0.13 million. An immunization policy in which influenza vaccines are administered according to the age and risk profile of Italian elderly individuals is advisable.

  3. Lessons Learned from Development of De-identification System for Biomedical Research in a Korean Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Lyu, Yongman; Shin, Yongdon; Choi, Hyo Joung; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Woo-Sung; Lee, Jae Ho

    2013-06-01

    The Korean government has enacted two laws, namely, the Personal Information Protection Act and the Bioethics and Safety Act to prevent the unauthorized use of medical information. To protect patients' privacy by complying with governmental regulations and improve the convenience of research, Asan Medical Center has been developing a de-identification system for biomedical research. We reviewed Korean regulations to define the scope of the de-identification methods and well-known previous biomedical research platforms to extract the functionalities of the systems. Based on these review results, we implemented necessary programs based on the Asan Medical Center Information System framework which was built using the Microsoft. NET Framework and C#. The developed de-identification system comprises three main components: a de-identification tool, a search tool, and a chart review tool. The de-identification tool can substitute a randomly assigned research ID for a hospital patient ID, remove the identifiers in the structured format, and mask them in the unstructured format, i.e., texts. This tool achieved 98.14% precision and 97.39% recall for 6,520 clinical notes. The search tool can find the number of patients which satisfies given search criteria. The chart review tool can provide de-identified patient's clinical data for review purposes. We found that a clinical data warehouse was essential for successful implementation of the de-identification system, and this system should be tightly linked to an electronic Institutional Review Board system for easy operation of honest brokers. Additionally, we found that a secure cloud environment could be adopted to protect patients' privacy more thoroughly.

  4. HPV and HPV vaccines: the knowledge levels, opinions, and behavior of parents.

    PubMed

    Grabiel, Marlee; Reutzel, Thomas J; Wang, Sheila; Rubin, Rochelle; Leung, Vinvia; Ordonez, Adrienne; Wong, Maggie; Jordan, Emily

    2013-12-01

    To measure parent knowledge levels and opinions related to the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the two vaccines used to prevent it. To measure parent behavior in terms of whether or not to have their children vaccinated. Between June 19, 2012, and August 24, 2012, questionnaires were distributed to parents while waiting for their child to see their pediatrician at a local group practice. The survey was reviewed for face validity by College of Pharmacy social science and clinical faculty members, and an earlier version of it had been used successfully in a published study of biomedical students' knowledge of and attitudes toward the HPV vaccine. 129 usable surveys were obtained. 48.1% of subjects said they learned about the HPV vaccines from the media, while 47.3% identified health care practitioner(s) as a source of knowledge. The mean score on a 20-item knowledge test regarding the infection and vaccines was 36% (range 0-80%). Opinions on the subject varied widely. For example, 22.4% of subjects agreed that schools should require that students be vaccinated before enrolling, while 3.2% agreed that vaccination causes patients to become sexually active. Subjects reported vaccination status for 253 children (mean age 13) as follows: 33% vaccinated; 28% not vaccinated but will be; 11% will never be vaccinated; and 28% not decided. These results are somewhat encouraging, because many parents are hearing about the vaccines from their providers. Although not an equally valid source, the media are also raising awareness. Based on the knowledge and opinion results of this study, there is a need for pharmacists and other providers to educate their patients about the vaccines and the virus and to converse with them regarding the moral and psychological implications of vaccination. Still, it is encouraging that these subjects had or plan to have over half (61%) of their children vaccinated.

  5. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments.

    PubMed

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-07-22

    Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to extricate the vested financial interests from the human health benefits. But such a determination would not address the fundamental issues that should be at the heart of human actions in respect of the nonhuman animals who are used in experiments. The paper concludes with such an address by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits, and the implementation of a more inclusive ethic that is informed by universal concern about the suffering of and compassion for all oppressed beings.

  6. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M.; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I.; Stansbury, James P.

    2011-01-01

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. PMID:21821083

  7. Conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chuen-Yen; Swann, Edith M; Singh, Sagri; Kafaar, Zuhayr; Meissner, Helen I; Stansbury, James P

    2011-10-13

    HIV vaccine clinical research occurs within a context where biomedical science and social issues are interlinked. Previous HIV vaccine research has considered behavioral and social issues, but often treated them as independent of clinical research processes. Systematic attention to the intersection of behavioral and social issues within a defined clinical research framework is needed to address gaps, such as those related to participation in trials, completion of trials, and the overall research experience. Rigorous attention to these issues at project inception can inform trial design and conduct by matching research approaches to the context in which trials are to be conducted. Conducting behavioral and social sciences research concurrent with vaccine clinical research is important because it can help identify potential barriers to trial implementation, as well as ultimate acceptance and dissemination of trial results. We therefore propose a conceptual framework for behavioral and social science in HIV vaccine clinical research and use examples from the behavioral and social science literature to demonstrate how the model can facilitate identification of significant areas meriting additional exploration. Standardized use of the conceptual framework could improve HIV vaccine clinical research efficiency and relevance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Enhanced ID Pit Sizing Using Multivariate Regression Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzywosz, Kenji

    2007-03-01

    EPRI is funding a program to enhance and improve the reliability of inside diameter (ID) pit sizing for balance-of plant heat exchangers, such as condensers and component cooling water heat exchangers. More traditional approaches to ID pit sizing involve the use of frequency-specific amplitude or phase angles. The enhanced multivariate regression algorithm for ID pit depth sizing incorporates three simultaneous input parameters of frequency, amplitude, and phase angle. A set of calibration data sets consisting of machined pits of various rounded and elongated shapes and depths was acquired in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz for stainless steel tubing having nominal wall thickness of 0.028 inch. To add noise to the acquired data set, each test sample was rotated and test data acquired at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock positions. The ID pit depths were estimated using a second order and fourth order regression functions by relying on normalized amplitude and phase angle information from multiple frequencies. Due to unique damage morphology associated with the microbiologically-influenced ID pits, it was necessary to modify the elongated calibration standard-based algorithms by relying on the algorithm developed solely from the destructive sectioning results. This paper presents the use of transformed multivariate regression algorithm to estimate ID pit depths and compare the results with the traditional univariate phase angle analysis. Both estimates were then compared with the destructive sectioning results.

  9. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. Methods We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Results Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Conclusions Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially

  10. Costs of delivering human papillomavirus vaccination to schoolgirls in Mwanza Region, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Wilm; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Changalucha, John; Soteli, Selephina; Edmunds, W John; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ross, David A; Kapiga, Saidi; Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2012-11-13

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of female cancer-related deaths in Tanzania. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) offers a new opportunity to control this disease. This study aimed to estimate the costs of a school-based HPV vaccination project in three districts in Mwanza Region (NCT ID: NCT01173900), Tanzania and to model incremental scaled-up costs of a regional vaccination program. We first conducted a top-down cost analysis of the vaccination project, comparing observed costs of age-based (girls born in 1998) and class-based (class 6) vaccine delivery in a total of 134 primary schools. Based on the observed project costs, we then modeled incremental costs of a scaled-up vaccination program for Mwanza Region from the perspective of the Tanzanian government, assuming that HPV vaccines would be delivered through the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI). Total economic project costs for delivering 3 doses of HPV vaccine to 4,211 girls were estimated at about US$349,400 (including a vaccine price of US$5 per dose). Costs per fully-immunized girl were lower for class-based delivery than for age-based delivery. Incremental economic scaled-up costs for class-based vaccination of 50,290 girls in Mwanza Region were estimated at US$1.3 million. Economic scaled-up costs per fully-immunized girl were US$26.41, including HPV vaccine at US$5 per dose. Excluding vaccine costs, vaccine could be delivered at an incremental economic cost of US$3.09 per dose and US$9.76 per fully-immunized girl. Financial scaled-up costs, excluding costs of the vaccine and salaries of existing staff were estimated at US$1.73 per dose. Project costs of class-based vaccination were found to be below those of age-based vaccination because of more eligible girls being identified and higher vaccine uptake. We estimate that vaccine can be delivered at costs that would make HPV vaccination a very cost-effective intervention. Potentially, integrating HPV vaccine delivery with cost

  11. [Individual versus collective protection: bioethical analysis of the national program of mass child vaccination].

    PubMed

    Lessa, Sérgio de Castro; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination is considered one of the most efficient and cost-effective public health policies most used in the control and prevention of disease. However, it is also one of the most polemic and controversial biomedical techniques, making it difficult to avoid an ethical dilemma, especially when vaccination is compulsory for the entire population. Indeed, since vaccines are not totally effective and safe, there is an ethical conflict between the individual and the collective interest, because children effectively carry the burden of vaccination for the benefit of public health when they are affected with serious adverse reactions and do not benefit from the care that should be offered by the government. The objective of this article was to demonstrate that the tools of bioethics are relevant in this discussion to understand and analyze these dilemmas critically by providing convincing arguments to underpin the development of biopolitics that consider prevention not only rigorously, but also the joint responsibility of all as fundamental for individual and collective protection.

  12. [Results from biomedical aging research. Trends and current examples from immunology].

    PubMed

    Pfister, G; Herndler-Brandstetter, D; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B

    2006-06-01

    The public health of our society is challenged by a continuous increase in life expectancy. Hence, biomedical aging research is enjoying a steadily increasing popularity but also enlightens our understanding of age-related diseases by a number of striking results from basic research. One of the most striking changes that occurs during normal human aging is an overall diminution of immune functions, a phenomenon often termed immunosenescence. Starting from some highly exciting examples from basic immunological research, this article sheds light on which impact normal human aging has on several immune defence mechanisms. In addition, clinical consequences in view of Alzheimer's disease, immunogenicity of vaccines and autoimmune diseases are discussed.

  13. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices - United States, 2017-18 Influenza Season.

    PubMed

    Grohskopf, Lisa A; Sokolow, Leslie Z; Broder, Karen R; Walter, Emmanuel B; Bresee, Joseph S; Fry, Alicia M; Jernigan, Daniel B

    2017-08-25

    , Connecticut); and expansion of the age indication for FluLaval Quadrivalent (IIV4; ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada), previously licensed for ≥3 years, to ≥6 months.• Pregnant women may receive any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza vaccine.• Afluria (IIV3; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) may be used for persons aged ≥5 years, consistent with Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling.• FluMist Quadrivalent (LAIV4; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland) should not be used during the 2017-18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in the United States during the 2013-14 and 2015-16 influenza seasons.This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2017-18 season in the United States. A Background Document containing further information and a summary of these recommendations are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html. These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration-licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. Updates and other information are available at CDC's influenza website (https://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC's influenza website periodically for additional information.

  14. Microbe-ID: an open source toolbox for microbial genotyping and species identification

    PubMed Central

    Tabima, Javier F.; Everhart, Sydney E.; Larsen, Meredith M.; Weisberg, Alexandra J.; Kamvar, Zhian N.; Tancos, Matthew A.; Smart, Christine D.; Chang, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice. Two components of Microbe-ID, named Sequence-ID and Genotype-ID, implement species and genotype identification, respectively. Sequence-ID allows identification of species by using BLAST to query sequences for any locus of interest against a custom reference sequence database. Genotype-ID allows placement of an unknown multilocus marker in either a minimum spanning network or dendrogram with bootstrap support from a user-created reference database. Microbe-ID can be used for identification of any organism based on nucleotide sequences or any molecular marker type and several examples are provided. We created a public website for demonstration purposes called Microbe-ID (microbe-id.org) and provided a working implementation for the genus Phytophthora (phytophthora-id.org). In Phytophthora-ID, the Sequence-ID application allows identification based on ITS or cox spacer sequences. Genotype-ID groups individuals into clonal lineages based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the two invasive plant pathogen species P. infestans and P. ramorum. All code is open source and available on github and CRAN. Instructions for installation and use are provided at https://github.com/grunwaldlab/Microbe-ID. PMID:27602267

  15. Microbe-ID: an open source toolbox for microbial genotyping and species identification.

    PubMed

    Tabima, Javier F; Everhart, Sydney E; Larsen, Meredith M; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Kamvar, Zhian N; Tancos, Matthew A; Smart, Christine D; Chang, Jeff H; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2016-01-01

    Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice. Two components of Microbe-ID, named Sequence-ID and Genotype-ID, implement species and genotype identification, respectively. Sequence-ID allows identification of species by using BLAST to query sequences for any locus of interest against a custom reference sequence database. Genotype-ID allows placement of an unknown multilocus marker in either a minimum spanning network or dendrogram with bootstrap support from a user-created reference database. Microbe-ID can be used for identification of any organism based on nucleotide sequences or any molecular marker type and several examples are provided. We created a public website for demonstration purposes called Microbe-ID (microbe-id.org) and provided a working implementation for the genus Phytophthora (phytophthora-id.org). In Phytophthora-ID, the Sequence-ID application allows identification based on ITS or cox spacer sequences. Genotype-ID groups individuals into clonal lineages based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the two invasive plant pathogen species P. infestans and P. ramorum. All code is open source and available on github and CRAN. Instructions for installation and use are provided at https://github.com/grunwaldlab/Microbe-ID.

  16. Age- and risk-related appropriateness of the use of available influenza vaccines in the Italian elderly population is advantageous: results from a budget impact analysis

    PubMed Central

    BARBIERI, M.; CAPRI, S.; WAURE, C. DE; BOCCALINI, S.; PANATTO, D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Introduction Nowadays, four different types of influenza vaccines are available in Italy: trivalent (TIV), quadrivalent (QIV), MF59-adjuvanted (aTIV) and intradermal TIV (idTIV) inactivated vaccines. Recently, a concept of the appropriateness (i.e. according to the age and risk factors) of the use of different vaccines has been established in Italy. We conducted a budget impact analysis of switching to a policy, in which the Italian elderly (who carry the major disease burden) received the available vaccines according to their age and risk profile. Methods A novel budget impact model was constructed with a time horizon of one influenza season. In the reference scenario the cohort of Italian elderly individuals could receive either available vaccine according to 2017/18 season market share. The alternative scenario envisaged the administration of TIV/QIV to people aged 65-74 years and at low risk of developing influenza-related complications, while aTIV/idTIV were allocated to high-risk 65-74-year-olds and all subjects aged ≥ 75 years. Results Switching to the alternative scenario would result in both significant health benefits and net budget savings. Particularly, it would be possible to prevent an additional 8201 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza, 988 complications, 355 hospitalizations and 14 deaths. Despite the alternative strategy being associated with slightly higher vaccination costs, the total savings derived from fewer influenza events completely resets this increase with net budget savings of € 0.13 million. Conclusions An immunization policy in which influenza vaccines are administered according to the age and risk profile of Italian elderly individuals is advisable. PMID:29707658

  17. Security analysis for biometric data in ID documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimke, Sascha; Kiltz, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus; Kalker, Ton

    2005-03-01

    In this paper we analyze chances and challenges with respect to the security of using biometrics in ID documents. We identify goals for ID documents, set by national and international authorities, and discuss the degree of security, which is obtainable with the inclusion of biometric into documents like passports. Starting from classical techniques for manual authentication of ID card holders, we expand our view towards automatic methods based on biometrics. We do so by reviewing different human biometric attributes by modality, as well as by discussing possible techniques for storing and handling the particular biometric data on the document. Further, we explore possible vulnerabilities of potential biometric passport systems. Based on the findings of that discussion we will expand upon two exemplary approaches for including digital biometric data in the context of ID documents and present potential risks attack scenarios along with technical aspects such as capacity and robustness.

  18. Comparison of Perinatal Risk Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID), and Co-Occurring ASD and ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieve, Laura A.; Clayton, Heather B.; Durkin, Maureen S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    While studies report associations between perinatal outcomes and both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), there has been little study of ASD with versus without co-occurring ID. We compared perinatal risk factors among 7547 children in the 2006-2010 Autism and Developmental Disability Monitoring Network classified as…

  19. Biolog(TM) ID as compared to 16S ribosomal RNA ID for environmental isolates from the deep subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    McKinsey, P.C.

    2000-05-05

    The U.S. Dept of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Microbial Culture Collection (SMCC) contains nearly 10,000 strains of microorganisms isolated from terrestrial subsurface environments. Many of the aerobic, gram-negative, chemoheterotrophs isolated from the DOE Savannah River Site (SRS) have previously been identified by phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene nucleotide sequences. These SMCC isolates are currently being examined using Biolog GN Microplates and the Biolog Microstation System in order to gain knowledge of their metabolic capabilities and to compare Biolog IDs with 16S IDs. To accommodate the particular needs of these subsurface isolates, which are often incapable of growing undermore » high-nutrient conditions, Biolog's recommendations for inoculating isolates into Biolog GN Microplates have been altered. The isolates are grown on low nutrient media, sodium thioglycolate (3mM) is added to the culture media to inhibit capsule formation, and a low density of bacteria is inoculated into the microplate. Using these altered inoculation criteria, 60 percent of these SMCC isolates have a Biolog genus ID that matches the 16S rRNA ID. These results indicate that the Biolog System can be a good means of identifying unusual environmental isolates, even when recommended inoculation procedures are altered to accommodate particular isolate needs.« less

  20. Novel ID-based anti-collision approach for RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Gan; Li, Wen-Bin

    2016-09-01

    Novel correlation ID-based (CID) anti-collision approach for RFID under the banner of the Internet of Things (IOT) has been presented in this paper. The key insights are as follows: according to the deterministic algorithms which are based on the binary search tree, we propose a method to increase the association between tags so that tags can initiatively send their own ID under certain trigger conditions, at the same time, we present a multi-tree search method for querying. When the number of tags is small, by replacing the actual ID with the temporary ID, it can greatly reduce the number of times that the reader reads and writes to tag's ID. Active tags send data to the reader by the way of modulation binary pulses. When applying this method to the uncertain ALOHA algorithms, the reader can determine the locations of the empty slots according to the position of the binary pulse, so it can avoid the decrease in efficiency which is caused by reading empty slots when reading slots. Theory and experiment show that this method can greatly improve the recognition efficiency of the system when applied to either the search tree or the ALOHA anti-collision algorithms.

  1. Lessons Learned from Development of De-identification System for Biomedical Research in a Korean Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Lyu, Yongman; Shin, Yongdon; Choi, Hyo Joung; Park, Jihyun; Kim, Woo-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The Korean government has enacted two laws, namely, the Personal Information Protection Act and the Bioethics and Safety Act to prevent the unauthorized use of medical information. To protect patients' privacy by complying with governmental regulations and improve the convenience of research, Asan Medical Center has been developing a de-identification system for biomedical research. Methods We reviewed Korean regulations to define the scope of the de-identification methods and well-known previous biomedical research platforms to extract the functionalities of the systems. Based on these review results, we implemented necessary programs based on the Asan Medical Center Information System framework which was built using the Microsoft. NET Framework and C#. Results The developed de-identification system comprises three main components: a de-identification tool, a search tool, and a chart review tool. The de-identification tool can substitute a randomly assigned research ID for a hospital patient ID, remove the identifiers in the structured format, and mask them in the unstructured format, i.e., texts. This tool achieved 98.14% precision and 97.39% recall for 6,520 clinical notes. The search tool can find the number of patients which satisfies given search criteria. The chart review tool can provide de-identified patient's clinical data for review purposes. Conclusions We found that a clinical data warehouse was essential for successful implementation of the de-identification system, and this system should be tightly linked to an electronic Institutional Review Board system for easy operation of honest brokers. Additionally, we found that a secure cloud environment could be adopted to protect patients' privacy more thoroughly. PMID:23882415

  2. Comprehensive Hands-on Training for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing: A WHO-BARDA-BTEC Partnership for Global Workforce Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Gilleskie, Gary L.; Brown, Patty; Burnett, Bruce; Carbonell, Ruben G.

    2014-01-01

    The critical need for enhancing influenza pandemic preparedness in many developing nations has led the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), to develop an international influenza vaccine capacity-building program. Among…

  3. Analyzed immunogenicity of fractional doses of Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV) with intradermal delivery in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Cai, Wei; Sun, Mingbo; Cun, Yina; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Jing; Hu, Wenzhu; Zhang, Xinwen; Song, Shaohui; Jiang, Shude; Liao, Guoyang

    2016-12-01

    The live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) will be no longer used when wild poliovirus (WPV) eliminating in worldwide, according to GPEI (the Global Polio Eradication Initiative) Reports. It is planning to replace OPV by Sabin-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV) in developing countries, with purpose of reducing of the economic burden and maintaining of the appropriate antibody levels in population. It studied serial fractional doses immunized by intradermal injection (ID) in rats, to reduce consume of antigen and financial burden, maintaining sufficient immunogenicity; Methods: Study groups were divided in 4 groups of dose gradient, which were one-tenth (1/10), one-fifth (1/5), one-third (1/3) and one-full dose (1/1), according to the volume of distribution taken from the same batch of vaccine (sIPV). Wistar rats were injected intradermally with the needle and syringe sing the mantoux technique taken once month for 3 times. It was used as positive control that intramuscular inoculation (IM) was injected with one-full dose (1/1) with same batch of sIPV. PBS was used as negative control. Blood samples were collected via tail vein. After 30 d with 3 round of immunization, it analyzed the changes of neutralization antibody titers in the each group by each immunization program end; Results: The results of seroconversion had positive correlation with different doses in ID groups. The higher concentration of D-antigen (D-Ag) could conduct higher seroconversion. Furthermore, different types of viruses had different seroconversion trend. It showed that the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of each fractional-dose ID groups increased by higher concentration of D-Ag, and it got significant lower than the full-dose IM group. At 90 th days of immunization, the GMTs for each poliovirus subtypes of fractional doses were almost higher than 1:8, implied that it could be meaning positive seroprotection titer for polio vaccine types, according to WHO suggestion; Conclusions

  4. Safety Profile and Immunologic Responses of a Novel Vaccine Against Shigella sonnei Administered Intramuscularly, Intradermally and Intranasally: Results From Two Parallel Randomized Phase 1 Clinical Studies in Healthy Adult Volunteers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Launay, Odile; Lewis, David J M; Anemona, Alessandra; Loulergue, Pierre; Leahy, Jo; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Maugard, Anaïs; Marchetti, Elisa; Zancan, Stefano; Huo, Zhiming; Rondini, Simona; Marhaba, Rachid; Finco, Oretta; Martin, Laura B; Auerbach, Jochen; Cohen, Daniel; Saul, Allan; Gerke, Christiane; Podda, Audino

    2017-08-01

    Approximately 164,000 deaths yearly are due to shigellosis, primarily in developing countries. Thus, a safe and affordable Shigella vaccine is an important public health priority. The GSK Vaccines Institute for Global Health (GVGH) developed a candidate Shigella sonnei vaccine (1790GAHB) using the Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) technology. The paper reports results of 1790GAHB Phase 1 studies in healthy European adults. To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity profiles of 1790GAHB, we performed two parallel, phase 1, observer-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose escalation studies in France ("study 1") and the United Kingdom ("study 2") between February 2014 and April 2015 (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02017899 and NCT02034500, respectively) in 18-45years old subjects (50 in study 1, 52 in study 2). Increasing doses of Alhydrogel adsorbed 1790, expressed by both O Antigen (OAg) and protein quantity, or placebo were given either by intramuscular route (0.059/1, 0.29/5, 1.5/25, 2.9/50, 5.9/100μg of OAg/μg of protein; study 1) or by intradermal (ID), intranasal (IN) or intramuscular (IM) route of immunization (0.0059/0.1, 0.059/1, 0.59/10μg ID, 0.29/5, 1.2/20, 4.8/80μg IN and 0.29/5μg IM, respectively; study 2). In absence of serologic correlates of protection for Shigella sonnei, vaccine induced immunogenicity was compared to anti-LPS antibody in a population naturally exposed to S. sonnei. Vaccines were well tolerated in both studies and no death or vaccine related serious adverse events were reported. In study 1, doses ≥1.5/25μg elicited serum IgG median antibody greater than median level in convalescent subjects after the first dose. No vaccine group in study 2 achieved median antibody greater than the median convalescent antibody. Intramuscularly administered Shigella sonnei GMMA vaccine is well tolerated, up to and including 5.9/100μg and induces antibody to the OAg of at least the same magnitude of those observed following

  5. Chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS).

    PubMed

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic and its compounds are well-established, potent, environmentally widespread and persistent toxicants with metabolic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, epigenetic and carcinogenic effects. Arsenic occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, but anthropogenic arsenic emissions have surmounted the emissions from important natural sources such as volcanism. Inorganic arsenicals exhibit acute and chronic toxicities in virtually all cell types and tissues, and hence arsenic intoxication affects multiple systems. Whereas acute arsenic intoxication is rare and relatively easy to diagnose, chronic arsenic intoxication (CAsI) is common but goes often misdiagnosed. Based on a review of the literature as well as our own clinical experience, we propose a chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS). A distinctive feature of CAsIDS is the use of bone arsenic load as an essential criterion for the individual risk assessment of chronic arsenic intoxication, combined with a systemic clinical assessment. We present clinical examples where CAsIDS is applied for the diagnosis of CAsI, review the main topics of the toxicity of arsenic in different cell and organ systems and discuss the therapy and prevention of disease caused or aggravated by chronic arsenic intoxication. CAsIDS can help physicians establish the diagnosis of CAsI and associated conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The ID23-2 structural biology microfocus beamline at the ESRF

    PubMed Central

    Flot, David; Mairs, Trevor; Giraud, Thierry; Guijarro, Matias; Lesourd, Marc; Rey, Vicente; van Brussel, Denis; Morawe, Christian; Borel, Christine; Hignette, Olivier; Chavanne, Joel; Nurizzo, Didier; McSweeney, Sean; Mitchell, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the ESRF beamline ID23 to be constructed was ID23-1, a tunable MAD-capable beamline which opened to users in early 2004. The second phase of the beamline to be constructed is ID23-2, a monochromatic microfocus beamline dedicated to macromolecular crystallography experiments. Beamline ID23-2 makes use of well characterized optical elements: a single-bounce silicon (111) monochromator and two mirrors in Kirkpatrick–Baez geometry to focus the X-ray beam. A major design goal of the ID23-2 beamline is to provide a reliable, easy-to-use and routine microfocus beam. ID23-2 started operation in November 2005, as the first beamline dedicated to microfocus macromolecular crystallography. The beamline has taken the standard automated ESRF macromolecular crystallography environment (both hardware and software), allowing users of ID23-2 to be rapidly familiar with the microfocus environment. This paper describes the beamline design, the special considerations taken into account given the microfocus beam, and summarizes the results of the first years of the beamline operation. PMID:20029119

  7. Fake ID ownership and heavy drinking in underage college students: prospective findings.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julia A; Rutledge, Patricia C; Sher, Kenneth J

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the ownership of false identification (fake ID) for the purpose of obtaining alcohol and the relation of fake ID ownership to heavy drinking in a longitudinal sample of college students under 21 years of age. A sample of 3,720 undergraduates was assessed the summer prior to college entrance and during the 4 semesters comprising freshman and sophomore years. Regression analyses were used to estimate bidirectional relations between consumption and fake ID ownership. Sex, Greek membership, and prior drinking were controlled. Results showed that fake ID ownership increased over time (12.5% pre-college to 32.2% fourth semester) and that Greek members were more likely than others to own fake IDs. Fake ID ownership predicted concurrent and next-semester heavy drinking with increasing strength over time. Also, the acquisition (onset) of fake ID ownership at each time point was predicted by previous-semester consumption. When traditional, robust risk factors of consumption are controlled, fake ID ownership meaningfully relates to heavy drinking in college. It thus presents a significant public health problem, addressable through training for alcohol servers and retailers, punitive measures toward fake ID owners, and other possible interventions.

  8. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2017–18 Influenza Season

    PubMed Central

    Sokolow, Leslie Z.; Broder, Karen R.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Bresee, Joseph S.; Fry, Alicia M.; Jernigan, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    ; Protein Sciences, Meriden, Connecticut); and expansion of the age indication for FluLaval Quadrivalent (IIV4; ID Biomedical Corporation of Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada), previously licensed for ≥3 years, to ≥6 months. • Pregnant women may receive any licensed, recommended, age-appropriate influenza vaccine. • Afluria (IIV3; Seqirus, Parkville, Victoria, Australia) may be used for persons aged ≥5 years, consistent with Food and Drug Administration–approved labeling. • FluMist Quadrivalent (LAIV4; MedImmune, Gaithersburg, Maryland) should not be used during the 2017–18 season due to concerns about its effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses in the United States during the 2013–14 and 2015–16 influenza seasons. This report focuses on the recommendations for use of vaccines for the prevention and control of influenza during the 2017–18 season in the United States. A Background Document containing further information and a summary of these recommendations are available at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/vacc-specific/flu.html. These recommendations apply to licensed influenza vaccines used within Food and Drug Administration–licensed indications, including those licensed after the publication date of this report. Updates and other information are available at CDC’s influenza website (https://www.cdc.gov/flu). Vaccination and health care providers should check CDC’s influenza website periodically for additional information. PMID:28841201

  10. Topics in Biomedical Optics: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Boas, David A.; George, John S.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2003-06-01

    The field of biomedical optics is experiencing tremendous growth. Biomedical technologies contribute in the creation of devices used in healthcare of various specialties (ophthalmology, cardiology, anesthesiology, and immunology, etc.). Recent research in biomedical optics is discussed. Overviews of meetings held at the 2002 Optical Society of America Biomedical Topical Meetings are presented.

  11. Glycan Arrays: From Basic Biochemical Research to Bioanalytical and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissner, Andreas; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-06-01

    A major branch of glycobiology and glycan-focused biomedicine studies the interaction between carbohydrates and other biopolymers, most importantly, glycan-binding proteins. Today, this research into glycan-biopolymer interaction is unthinkable without glycan arrays, tools that enable high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate interaction partners. Glycan arrays offer many applications in basic biochemical research, for example, defining the specificity of glycosyltransferases and lectins such as immune receptors. Biomedical applications include the characterization and surveillance of influenza strains, identification of biomarkers for cancer and infection, and profiling of immune responses to vaccines. Here, we review major applications of glycan arrays both in basic and applied research. Given the dynamic nature of this rapidly developing field, we focus on recent findings.

  12. The biomedical disciplines and the structure of biomedical and clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Nederbragt, H

    2000-11-01

    The relation between biomedical knowledge and clinical knowledge is discussed by comparing their respective structures. The knowledge of a disease as a biological phenomenon is constructed by the interaction of facts and theories from the main biomedical disciplines: epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical trial, therapy development and pathogenesis. Although these facts and theories are based on probabilities and extrapolations, the interaction provides a reliable and coherent structure, comparable to a Kuhnian paradigma. In the structure of clinical knowledge, i.e. knowledge of the patient with the disease, not only biomedical knowledge contributes to the structure but also economic and social relations, ethics and personal experience. However, the interaction between each of the participating "knowledges" in clinical knowledge is not based on mutual dependency and accumulation of different arguments from each, as in biomedical knowledge, but on competition and partial exclusion. Therefore, the structure of biomedical knowledge is different from that of clinical knowledge. This difference is used as the basis for a discussion in which the place of technology, evidence-based medicine and the gap between scientific and clinical knowledge are evaluated.

  13. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An online ID identification system for liquefied-gas cylinder plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jin; Ding, Zhenwen; Han, Lei; Zhang, Hao

    2017-11-01

    An automatic ID identification system for gas cylinders' online production was developed based on the production conditions and requirements of the Technical Committee for Standardization of Gas Cylinders. A cylinder ID image acquisition system was designed to improve the image contrast of ID regions on gas cylinders against the background. Then the ID digits region was located by the CNN template matching algorithm. Following that, an adaptive threshold method based on the analysis of local average grey value and standard deviation was proposed to overcome defects of non-uniform background in the segmentation results. To improve the single digit identification accuracy, two BP neural networks were trained respectively for the identification of all digits and the easily confusable digits. If the single digit was classified as one of confusable digits by the former BP neural network, it was further tested by the later one, and the later result was taken as the final identification result of this single digit. At last, the majority voting was adopted to decide the final identification result for the 6-digit cylinder ID. The developed system was installed on a production line of a liquefied-petroleum-gas cylinder plant and worked in parallel with the existing weighing step on the line. Through the field test, the correct identification rate for single ID digit was 94.73%, and none of the tested 2000 cylinder ID was misclassified through the majority voting.

  15. Biomedical Telectrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, C. K.

    1989-01-01

    Compact transmitters eliminate need for wires to monitors. Biomedical telectrode is small electronic package that attaches to patient in manner similar to small adhesive bandage. Patient wearing biomedical telectrodes moves freely, without risk of breaking or entangling wire connections. Especially beneficial to patients undergoing electrocardiographic monitoring in intensive-care units in hospitals. Eliminates nuisance of coping with wire connections while dressing and going to toilet.

  16. Chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) and clinical trial technical support for influenza vaccine manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco

    2016-10-26

    With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RGSS-ID: an approach to new radiologic reporting system.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Sakuma, S; Maruyama, K

    1990-01-01

    RGSS-ID is a developmental computer system that applies artificial intelligence (AI) methods to a reporting system. The representation scheme called Generalized Finding Representation (GFR) is proposed to bridge the gap between natural language expressions in the radiology report and AI methods. The entry process of RGSS-ID is made mainly by selecting items; our system allows a radiologist to compose a sentence which can be completely parsed by the computer. Further RGSS-ID encodes findings into the expression corresponding to GFR, and stores this expression into the knowledge data base. The final printed report is made in the natural language.

  18. Enabling OpenID Authentication for VO-integrated Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plante, R.; Yekkirala, V.; Baker, W.

    2012-09-01

    To support interoperating services that share proprietary data and other user-specific information, the VAO Project provides login services for browser-based portals built on the open standard, OpenID. To help portal developers take advantage of this service, we have developed a downloadable toolkit for integrating OpenID single sign-on support into any portal. This toolkit provides APIs in a few languages commonly used on the server-side as well as a command-line version for use in any language. In addition to describing how to use this toolkit, we also discuss the general VAO framework for single sign-on. While a portal may, if it wishes, support any OpenID provider, the VAO service provides a few extra features to support VO interoperability. This includes a portal's ability to retrieve (with the user's permission) an X.509 certificate representing the authenticated user so that the portal can access other restricted services on the user's behalf. Other standard features of OpenID allow portals to request other information about the user; this feature will be used in the future for sharing information about a user's group membership to enable sharing within a group of collaborating scientists.

  19. The impacts of email reminder/recall on adolescent influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dombkowski, Kevin J; Cowan, Anne E; Reeves, Sarah L; Foley, Matthew R; Dempsey, Amanda F

    2017-05-25

    We sought to: (1) explore the feasibility of using email for seasonal influenza vaccination reminders to parents of adolescents and (2) assess influenza vaccination rates among adolescents whose parents were randomized to either receive or not receive email reminders. Email addresses were obtained for parents of patients 10-18years from 4 practices in Michigan. Addresses were randomized to either receive email reminders, or not. Reminder messages were sent during October 2012-March 2013 (Season 1) and October 2013-March 2014 (Season 2). Vaccination status was determined 60days following the last email reminder for each season using the statewide Michigan Care Improvement Registry (MCIR); per protocol bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate reminder notification. After email cleaning, testing, and matching with MCIR, approximately half of email addresses (2348 of 5312 in Season 1; 3457 of 6549 in Season 2) were randomized. Bivariate analyses found that influenza vaccination within 60days after notification date was similar among those notified (34%) versus not notified (29%) in both Season 1 (p=0.06) and Season 2 (39% vs. 37%, p=0.20). However, multivariate models adjusted for season, site, and receipt of notification in two seasons found a higher likelihood of influenza vaccination among children that received notification (aOR=1.28, 95% CI=1.09, 1.51); in addition, differences in influenza vaccination were also observed between practice sites (range: p=0.15 to p<0.001). We found that practice-based email influenza vaccine reminders to parents of adolescents are feasible, but not without complications. Our study demonstrates that email reminders from practices can yield increases in influenza vaccination rates among adolescents. Practices should consider email as an option for influenza reminders and establish business practices for collecting and maintaining patient email addresses. This study is registered at www

  20. Design and application of chitosan microspheres as oral and nasal vaccine carriers: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Firdous, Jannatul; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Cho, Chong-Su

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan, a natural biodegradable polymer, is of great interest in biomedical research due to its excellent properties including bioavailability, nontoxicity, high charge density, and mucoadhesivity, which creates immense potential for various pharmaceutical applications. It has gelling properties when it interacts with counterions such as sulfates or polyphosphates and when it crosslinks with glutaraldehyde. This characteristic facilitates its usefulness in the coating or entrapment of biochemicals, drugs, antigenic molecules as a vaccine candidate, and microorganisms. Therefore, chitosan together with the advance of nanotechnology can be effectively applied as a carrier system for vaccine delivery. In fact, chitosan microspheres have been studied as a promising carrier system for mucosal vaccination, especially via the oral and nasal route to induce enhanced immune responses. Moreover, the thiolated form of chitosan is of considerable interest due to its improved mucoadhesivity, permeability, stability, and controlled/extended release profile. This review describes the various methods used to design and synthesize chitosan microspheres and recent updates on their potential applications for oral and nasal delivery of vaccines. The potential use of thiolated chitosan microspheres as next-generation mucosal vaccine carriers is also discussed. PMID:23271909

  1. 77 FR 55813 - Transition of DOE-ID Public Reading Room

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... to the INL Research Library at 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401, beginning September... Library, 1776 Science Center Drive, Idaho Falls, ID 83401. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Clayton...

  2. A Contextual Model for Identity Management (IdM) Interfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The usability of Identity Management (IdM) systems is highly dependent upon design that simplifies the processes of identification, authentication, and authorization. Recent findings reveal two critical problems that degrade IdM usability: (1) unfeasible techniques for managing various digital identifiers, and (2) ambiguous security interfaces.…

  3. Pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of lipid-based nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Claudia; Leonardi, Antonio; Cupri, Sarha; Puglisi, Giovanni; Pignatello, Rosario

    2014-03-01

    Increasing attention is being given to lipid nanocarriers (LNs) as drug delivery systems, due to the advantages offered of a higher biocompatibility and lower toxicity compared with polymeric nanoparticles. Many administration routes are being investigated for LNs, including topical, oral and parenteral ones. LNs are also proposed for specific applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, diagnosis and medical devices production. However, the high number of published research articles does not match an equal amount of patents. A recent Review of ours, published in Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst, reported the patents proposing novel methods for the production of LNs. This review work discusses recent patents, filed in 2007-2013 and dealing with the industrial applications of lipid-based nanocarriers for the vectorization of therapeutically relevant molecules, as well as biotech products such as proteins, gene material and vaccines, in the pharmaceutical, diagnostic and biomedical areas.

  4. How to save distressed IDS-physician marriages: a case study.

    PubMed

    Collins, H; Johnson, B A

    1998-04-01

    A hospital-driven IDS that encounters serious problems resulting from ownership of a physician practice should address those problems by focusing on three core areas: vision and leadership, effectiveness of operations, and physician compensation arrangements. If changes in these areas do not lead to improvements, the IDS may need to consider organizational restructuring. In one case study, a hospital-driven IDS faced the problem of owning a poorly performing MSO with a captive physician group. The IDS's governing board determined that the organization lacked effective communication with the physicians and that realization of the organization's vision would require greater physician involvement in organizational decision making. The organization is expected to undergo some corporate reorganization in which physicians will acquire an equity interest in the enterprise.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of different injection routes and schedules of IC41, a Hepatitis C virus (HCV) peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Firbas, Christa; Boehm, Thomas; Buerger, Vera; Schuller, Elisabeth; Sabarth, Nicolas; Jilma, Bernd; Klade, Christoph S

    2010-03-11

    An effective vaccine would be a significant progress in the management of chronic HCV infections. This study was designed to examine whether different application schedules and injection routes may enhance the immunogenicity of the HCV peptide vaccine IC41. In this randomized trial 54 healthy subjects received either subcutaneous (s.c.) or intradermal (i.d.) vaccinations weekly (16 injections) or every other week (8 injections). One group additionally received imiquimod, an activator of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. The T cell epitope-specific immune response to IC41 was assessed using [(3)H]-thymidine CD4+ T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) CD8+ and CD4+ ELIspot and HLA-A*0201 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) tetramer-binding assays. More than 60% of vaccinees responded in the CD4+ T cell proliferation assay in all groups. An HLA-A*0201 FACS tetramer-binding assay and IFN-gamma CD8+ ELIspot class I response of more than 70% was induced in four and three groups, respectively. IC41 induced significant immunological responses in all groups with responder rates of up to 100%. Interestingly, topical imiquimod was not able to enhance immunogenicity but was associated with a lower immune response. Local injection site reactions were mostly transient. Intradermal injections caused more pronounced reactions compared to s.c., especially erythema and edema. Compared to a previous study intensified dosing and/or i.d. injections enhanced the response rates to the vaccine IC41 in three assays measuring T cell function. Immunization with IC41 was generally safe in this study. These results justify testing IC41 in further clinical trials with HCV-infected individuals.

  6. Picture This: How to Establish an Effective School ID Card Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, David

    2013-01-01

    Most school districts do not have an ID card policy that everyone knows and follows, yet. many school districts are implementing ID card programs to address concerns about safety, efficiency, and convenience. A well-thought-out ID card program leads to greater security and smoother operations throughout the school and should thus be a priority.…

  7. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    PubMed

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  8. Chitin and Chitosan: Production and Application of Versatile Biomedical Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Elieh-Ali-Komi, Daniel; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Chitin is the most abundant aminopolysaccharide polymer occurring in nature, and is the building material that gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi. Through enzymatic or chemical deacetylation, chitin can be converted to its most well-known derivative, chitosan. The main natural sources of chitin are shrimp and crab shells, which are an abundant byproduct of the food-processing industry, that provides large quantities of this biopolymer to be used in biomedical applications. In living chitin-synthesizing organisms, the synthesis and degradation of chitin require strict enzymatic control to maintain homeostasis. Chitin synthase, the pivotal enzyme in the chitin synthesis pathway, uses UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPGlcNAc), produce the chitin polymer, whereas, chitinase enzymes degrade chitin. Bacteria are considered as the major mediators of chitin degradation in nature. Chitin and chitosan, owing to their unique biochemical properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, ability to form films, etc, have found many promising biomedical applications. Nanotechnology has also increasingly applied chitin and chitosan-based materials in its most recent achievements. Chitin and chitosan have been widely employed to fabricate polymer scaffolds. Moreover, the use of chitosan to produce designed-nanocarriers and to enable microencapsulation techniques is under increasing investigation for the delivery of drugs, biologics and vaccines. Each application is likely to require uniquely designed chitosan-based nano/micro-particles with specific dimensions and cargo-release characteristics. The ability to reproducibly manufacture chitosan nano/microparticles that can encapsulate protein cargos with high loading efficiencies remains a challenge. Chitosan can be successfully used in solution, as hydrogels and/or nano/microparticles, and (with different degrees of deacetylation) an endless array of derivatives with

  9. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A.; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices and methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, making implantable biomedical devices, and using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment.

  10. Using Survey IDs to Enhance Survey Research and Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgeley, Catrin M.

    2017-01-01

    Survey IDs are short strings of unique characters assigned to each recipient in a sample population. Extension research can benefit from the improved organization of survey implementation and data collection, better researcher-respondent communication, and reduced survey material costs supported through the use of survey IDs. This article outlines…

  11. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: balancing methodological rigor and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen

    2013-10-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions - such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines - has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of "risk homeostasis," which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study designs for identifying risk compensation behavior among users of biomedical HIV prevention technologies: Balancing methodological rigor and research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    The growing evidence base for biomedical HIV prevention interventions – such as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides, male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and eventually prevention vaccines – has given rise to concerns about the ways in which users of these biomedical products may adjust their HIV risk behaviors based on the perception that they are prevented from infection. Known as risk compensation, this behavioral adjustment draws on the theory of “risk homeostasis,” which has previously been applied to phenomena as diverse as Lyme disease vaccination, insurance mandates, and automobile safety. Little rigorous evidence exists to answer risk compensation concerns in the biomedical HIV prevention literature, in part because the field has not systematically evaluated the study designs available for testing these behaviors. The goals of this Commentary are to explain the origins of risk compensation behavior in risk homeostasis theory, to reframe risk compensation as a testable response to the perception of reduced risk, and to assess the methodological rigor and ethical justification of study designs aiming to isolate risk compensation responses. Although the most rigorous methodological designs for assessing risk compensation behavior may be unavailable due to ethical flaws, several strategies can help investigators identify potential risk compensation behavior during Phase II, Phase III, and Phase IV testing of new technologies. Where concerns arise regarding risk compensation behavior, empirical evidence about the incidence, types, and extent of these behavioral changes can illuminate opportunities to better support the users of new HIV prevention strategies. This Commentary concludes by suggesting a new way to conceptualize risk compensation behavior in the HIV prevention context. PMID:23597916

  13. Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project: BIP (Biomedical Instrumentation Package) User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biomedical Interdisciplinary Curriculum Project, Berkeley, CA.

    Described is the Biomedical Instrument Package (BIP) and its use. The BIP was developed for use in understanding colorimetry, sound, electricity, and bioelectric phenomena. It can also be used in a wide range of measurements such as current, voltage, resistance, temperature, and pH. Though it was developed primarily for use in biomedical science…

  14. ISS/IDS Detector Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cervera-Villanueva, A.

    2008-02-21

    This article summarises the results obtained by the detector working group of the 'International Scooping Study' (ISS) of a future neutrino oscillations facility. Special emphasis is put on far detectors, for which some of the main issues are identified. A detector R and D strategy in the context of the 'International Design Study' (IDS) for a neutrino factory is also presented.

  15. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. PMID:27538578

  16. Nanoparticles for Biomedical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nune, Satish K.; Gunda, Padmaja; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2009-11-01

    Background: Synthetic nanoparticles are emerging as versatile tools in biomedical applications, particularly in the area of biomedical imaging. Nanoparticles 1 to 100 nm in diameter possess dimensions comparable to biological functional units. Diverse surface chemistries, unique magnetic properties, tunable absorption and emission properties, and recent advances in the synthesis and engineering of various nanoparticles suggest their potential as probes for early detection of diseases such as cancer. Surface functionalization has further expanded the potential of nanoparticles as probes for molecular imaging. Objective: To summarize emerging research of nanoparticles for biomedical imaging with increased selectivity and reduced non-specific uptake with increasedmore » spatial resolution containing stabilizers conjugated with targeting ligands. Methods: This review summarizes recent technological advances in the synthesis of various nanoparticle probes, and surveys methods to improve the targeting of nanoparticles for their applications in biomedical imaging. Conclusion: Structural design of nanomaterials for biomedical imaging continues to expand and diversify. Synthetic methods have aimed to control the size and surface characteristics of nanoparticles to control distribution, half-life and elimination. Although molecular imaging applications using nanoparticles are advancing into clinical applications, challenges such as storage stability and long-term toxicology should continue to be addressed. Keywords: nanoparticle synthesis, surface modification, targeting, molecular imaging, and biomedical imaging.« less

  17. The double-edged sword: How evolution can make or break a live-attenuated virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Even students who reject evolution are often willing to consider cases in which evolutionary biology contributes to, or undermines, biomedical interventions. Moreover the intersection of evolutionary biology and biomedicine is fascinating in its own right. This review offers an overview of the ways in which evolution has impacted the design and deployment of live-attenuated virus vaccines, with subsections that may be useful as lecture material or as the basis for case studies in classes at a variety of levels. Live- attenuated virus vaccines have been modified in ways that restrain their replication in a host, so that infection (vaccination) produces immunity but not disease. Applied evolution, in the form of serial passage in novel host cells, is a “classical” method to generate live-attenuated viruses. However many live-attenuated vaccines exhibit reversion to virulence through back-mutation of attenuating mutations, compensatory mutations elsewhere in the genome, recombination or reassortment, or changes in quasispecies diversity. Additionally the combination of multiple live-attenuated strains may result in competition or facilitation between individual vaccine viruses, resulting in undesirable increases in virulence or decreases in immunogenicity. Genetic engineering informed by evolutionary thinking has led to a number of novel approaches to generate live-attenuated virus vaccines that contain substantial safeguards against reversion to virulence and that ameliorate interference among multiple vaccine strains. Finally, vaccines have the potential to shape the evolution of their wild type counterparts in counter-productive ways; at the extreme vaccine-driven eradication of a virus may create an empty niche that promotes the emergence of new viral pathogens. PMID:22468165

  18. 76 FR 43196 - Implementation of the Truth in Caller ID Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...In this Report and Order (Order), the Commission adopts rules to implement the Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009 (Truth in Caller ID Act, or Act). The Truth in Caller ID Act, and the Commission's implementing rules, prohibit any person or entity from knowingly altering or manipulating caller identification information with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value.

  19. ID4 promotes AR expression and blocks tumorigenicity of PC3 prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Komaragiri, Shravan Kumar; Bostanthirige, Dhanushka H.; Morton, Derrick J.

    Deregulation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of cancer. In prostate cancer, ID4 is epigenetically silenced and acts as a tumor suppressor. In normal prostate epithelial cells, ID4 collaborates with androgen receptor (AR) and p53 to exert its tumor suppressor activity. Previous studies have shown that ID4 promotes tumor suppressive function of AR whereas loss of ID4 results in tumor promoter activity of AR. Previous study from our lab showed that ectopic ID4 expression in DU145 attenuates proliferation and promotes AR expression suggesting that ID4 dependent AR activity is tumor suppressive. In this study, wemore » examined the effect of ectopic expression of ID4 on highly malignant prostate cancer cell, PC3. Here we show that stable overexpression of ID4 in PC3 cells leads to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and migration. In addition, in vivo studies showed a decrease in tumor size and volume of ID4 overexpressing PC3 cells, in nude mice. At the molecular level, these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR), p21, and AR dependent FKBP51 expression. At the mechanistic level, ID4 may regulate the expression or function of AR through specific but yet unknown AR co-regulators that may determine the final outcome of AR function. - Highlights: • ID4 expression induces AR expression in PC3 cells, which generally lack AR. • ID4 expression increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and invasion. • Overexpression of ID4 reduces tumor growth of subcutaneous xenografts in vivo. • ID4 induces p21 and FKBP51 expression- co-factors of AR tumor suppressor activity.« less

  20. Guinea Pig ID-Like Families of SINEs

    PubMed Central

    Kass, David H.; Schaetz, Brian A.; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M.; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A–B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents. PMID:19232383

  1. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  2. Defining the safe current limit for opening ID photon shutter

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.

    The NSLS-II storage ring is protected from possible damage from insertion devices (IDs) synchrotron radiation by a dedicated active interlock system (AIS). It monitors electron beam position and angle and triggers beam drop if beam orbit exceeds the boundaries of pre-calculated active interlock envelope (AIE). The beamlines (BL) and beamline frontends (FE) are designed under assumption that the electron beam is interlocked within the AIE. For historic reasons the AIS engages the ID active interlock (AI-ID) at any non-zero beam current whenever the ID photon shutter (IDPS) is getting opened. Such arrangement creates major inconveniences for BLs commissioning. Apparently theremore » is some IDPS safe current limit (SCL) under which the IDPS can be opened without interlocking the e-beam. The goal of this paper is to find such limit.« less

  3. The Self-Identity Protein IdsD Is Communicated between Cells in Swarming Proteus mirabilis Colonies.

    PubMed

    Saak, Christina C; Gibbs, Karine A

    2016-12-15

    Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain. These two proteins bind in vitro in an allele-restrictive manner. IdsD-IdsE binding is correlated with the merging of populations, whereas a lack of binding is correlated with the separation of populations. Key questions remained about the in vivo interactions of IdsD and IdsE, specifically, whether IdsD and IdsE bind within single cells or whether IdsD-IdsE interactions occur across neighboring cells and, if so, which of the two proteins is exchanged. Here we demonstrate that IdsD must originate from another cell to communicate identity and that this nonresident IdsD interacts with IdsE resident in the recipient cell. Furthermore, we show that unbound IdsD in recipient cells does not cause cell death and instead appears to contribute to a restriction in the expansion radius of the swarming colony. We conclude that P. mirabilis communicates IdsD between neighboring cells for nonlethal kin recognition, which suggests that the Ids proteins constitute a type of cell-cell communication. We demonstrate that self (kin) versus nonself recognition in P. mirabilis entails the cell-cell communication of an identity-encoding protein that is exported from one cell and received by another. We further show that this intercellular exchange affects swarm colony expansion in a nonlethal manner, which adds social communication to the list of potential swarm-related regulatory factors. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The Self-Identity Protein IdsD Is Communicated between Cells in Swarming Proteus mirabilis Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Saak, Christina C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteus mirabilis is a social bacterium that is capable of self (kin) versus nonself recognition. Swarming colonies of this bacterium expand outward on surfaces to centimeter-scale distances due to the collective motility of individual cells. Colonies of genetically distinct populations remain separate, while those of identical populations merge. Ids proteins are essential for this recognition behavior. Two of these proteins, IdsD and IdsE, encode identity information for each strain. These two proteins bind in vitro in an allele-restrictive manner. IdsD-IdsE binding is correlated with the merging of populations, whereas a lack of binding is correlated with the separation of populations. Key questions remained about the in vivo interactions of IdsD and IdsE, specifically, whether IdsD and IdsE bind within single cells or whether IdsD-IdsE interactions occur across neighboring cells and, if so, which of the two proteins is exchanged. Here we demonstrate that IdsD must originate from another cell to communicate identity and that this nonresident IdsD interacts with IdsE resident in the recipient cell. Furthermore, we show that unbound IdsD in recipient cells does not cause cell death and instead appears to contribute to a restriction in the expansion radius of the swarming colony. We conclude that P. mirabilis communicates IdsD between neighboring cells for nonlethal kin recognition, which suggests that the Ids proteins constitute a type of cell-cell communication. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that self (kin) versus nonself recognition in P. mirabilis entails the cell-cell communication of an identity-encoding protein that is exported from one cell and received by another. We further show that this intercellular exchange affects swarm colony expansion in a nonlethal manner, which adds social communication to the list of potential swarm-related regulatory factors. PMID:27672195

  5. Mining biomedical images towards valuable information retrieval in biomedical and life sciences.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Zeeshan, Saman; Dandekar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical images are helpful sources for the scientists and practitioners in drawing significant hypotheses, exemplifying approaches and describing experimental results in published biomedical literature. In last decades, there has been an enormous increase in the amount of heterogeneous biomedical image production and publication, which results in a need for bioimaging platforms for feature extraction and analysis of text and content in biomedical images to take advantage in implementing effective information retrieval systems. In this review, we summarize technologies related to data mining of figures. We describe and compare the potential of different approaches in terms of their developmental aspects, used methodologies, produced results, achieved accuracies and limitations. Our comparative conclusions include current challenges for bioimaging software with selective image mining, embedded text extraction and processing of complex natural language queries. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. [Concurrent validity of the HAWIK-IV and the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS)].

    PubMed

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Grob, Alexander; Petermann, Franz; Daseking, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent validity of the Hamburg Wechsler Intelligenztest für Kinder - IV (HAWIK-IV; Petermann & Petermann, 2010) and the Intelligence and Development Scales (IDS; Grob, Meyer & Hagmann-von Arx, 2009). HAWIK-IV and IDS were administered in counterbalanced order to N = 172 children aged 6 to 11 years. The study presents the descriptive statistics, correlations, and an exploratory factor analysis of the data. There is a high correlation between HAWIK-IV Full Scale IQ and IDS intelligence score (r = .83). HAWIK-IV indices showed moderate to high correlations with the cognitive scales of the IDS (Cognition, Language, Mathematics). Low to absent correlations were found between HAWIK-IV indices and the noncognitive scales of the IDS (Social-Emotional Competence, Psychomotor, Achievement Motivation). The factor structure can be interpreted meaningfully and allows integration of the IDS cognitive, language, and mathematical subtests into the four HAWIK-IV indices. The results show that HAWIK-IV and IDS test results can be related to each other.

  7. Development of a fluorescent label tool based on lanthanide nanophosphors for viral biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quoc Minh; Huong Tran, Thu; Huong Nguyen, Thanh; Khuyen Hoang, Thi; Binh Nguyen, Thanh; Do, Khanh Tung; Tran, Kim Anh; Hien Nguyen, Dang; Luan Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Dung Dang, Mai; Thu Nguyen, Nu Anh; Nguyen, Van Man

    2012-09-01

    We report for the first time the preparation of luminescent lanthanide nanomaterial (LLN) linked bioconjugates and their application as a label tool for recognizing virus in the processing line of vaccine industrial fabrication. Several LLNs with the nanostructure forms of particles or rods/wires with europium (III) and terbium (III) ions in lattices of vanadate, phosphate and metal organic complex were prepared to develop novel fluorescent conjugates able to be applied as labels in fluorescence immunoassay analysis of virus/vaccine. With regard to the LLNs, we have successfully synthesized nanoparticles around 10 nm of YVO4:Eu(III), with high emission in the red spectral region, nanorod and nanowire of TbPO4·H2O and Eu1-xTbxPO4·H2O, width 5-7 nm and length 300 nm, showing very bright luminescence in green, and core/shell nanosized Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) complexes with naphthoyl trifluoroacetone and tri-n-octylphosphineoxide (Eu.NTA.TOPO@PVP, EuXTb1-X.NTA.TOPO). The appropriated core/shell structures can play a double role, one for enhancing luminescence efficiency and another for providing nanophosphors with better stability in water media for facilitating the penetration of nanophosphor core into a biomedical environment. The organic functionalizations of the obtained LLNs were done through their surface encapsulation with a functional polysiloxane including active groups such as amine (NH2), thiocyanate (SCN) or mecarpto (SH). The properties of functional sol-gel matrix have great influence on the luminescence properties, especially luminescence intensity of YVO4:Eu(III), Eu.NTA.TOPO@PVP, TbPO4·H2O and EuxTb1-xPO4·H2O. Bioconjugation processes of the functionalized LLNs have been studied with some bioactive molecules such as biotin, protein immunoglobulin G (IgG) or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results of LLN-bioconjugate linking with IgG for recognizing virus (vaccine) will be presented in brief. It is consistent to state that the LLN bioconjugates

  8. Implantable biomedical devices on bioresorbable substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John A; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Omenetto, Fiorenzo

    Provided herein are implantable biomedical devices, methods of administering implantable biomedical devices, methods of making implantable biomedical devices, and methods of using implantable biomedical devices to actuate a target tissue or sense a parameter associated with the target tissue in a biological environment. Each implantable biomedical device comprises a bioresorbable substrate, an electronic device having a plurality of inorganic semiconductor components supported by the bioresorbable substrate, and a barrier layer encapsulating at least a portion of the inorganic semiconductor components. Upon contact with a biological environment the bioresorbable substrate is at least partially resorbed, thereby establishing conformal contact between themore » implantable biomedical device and the target tissue in the biological environment.« less

  9. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-12-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system.

  10. Mass Measles Vaccination Campaign in Aila Cyclone-Affected Areas of West Bengal, India: An In-depth Analysis and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Mallik, Sarmila; Mandal, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, Pramit; Manna, Nirmalya; Chatterjee, Chitra; Chakrabarty, Debadatta; Bagchi, Saumendra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir

    2011-01-01

    Disaster-affected populations are highly vulnerable to outbreaks of measles. Therefore, a mass vaccination against measles was conducted in Aila cyclone-affected blocks of West Bengal, India in July 2009. The objectives of the present report were to conduct an in depth analysis of the campaign, and to discuss the major challenges. A block level micro-plan, which included mapping of the villages, health facilities, temporary settlements of disaster-affected population, communications available, formation of vaccination team, information education communication, vaccine storage, waste disposal, surveillance for adverse events following immunization, supervision and monitoring was developed. The rate of six months to five years old children, who were vaccinated by measles vaccine, was 70.7% and that of those who received one dose of vitamin A was 71.3%. Wastage factor for vaccine doses and auto-disable syringes were 1.09 and 1.07, respectively. Only 13 cases of adverse events following immunization were reported. An average of 0.91 puncture-proof containers per vaccination session was used. Despite the major challenges faced due to difficult to reach areas, inadequate infrastructure, manpower and communication, problems of vaccine storage and transport, the campaign achieved a remarkable success regarding measles vaccine coverage, improvements of cold chain infrastructure, formulating an efficient surveillance and reporting system for adverse events following immunization, building self-confidence of the stakeholders, and developing a biomedical waste disposal system. PMID:23115416

  11. Regulation of Id2 expression in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Weigent, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we have shown that overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in cells of the immune system upregulates proteins involved in cell growth and protects from apoptosis. Here, we report that overexpression of GH in EL4 T lymphoma cells (GHo) also significantly increased levels of the inhibitor of differentiation-2 (Id2). The increase in Id2 was suggested in both Id2 promoter luciferase assays and by Western analysis for Id2 protein. To identify the regulatory elements that mediate transcriptional activation by GH in the Id2 promoter, promoter deletion analysis was performed. Deletion analysis revealed that transactivation involved a 301-132bp region upstream to the Id2 transcriptional start site. The pattern in the human GHo Jurkat T lymphoma cell line paralleled that found in the mouse GHo EL4 T lymphoma cell line. Significantly less Id2 was detected in the nucleus of GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells compared to vector alone controls. Although serum increased the levels of Id2 in control vector alone cells, no difference was found in the total levels of Id2 in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells treated with or without serum. The increase in Id2 expression in GHo EL4 T lymphoma cells measured by Id2 promoter luciferase expression and Western blot analysis was blocked by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of STAT5. The results suggest that in EL4 T lymphoma cells overexpressing GH, there is an upregulation of Id2 protein that appears to involve STAT protein activity.

  12. Best practices for the implementation of the REAL ID Act.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-01

    The REAL ID Act specifies the minimum standards that must be used to produce and issue drivers license and : identification cards that are REAL ID compliant. Beginning in 2020, if a person does not possess a form of : identification that meets REA...

  13. The effect of different adjuvants on immune parameters and protection following vaccination of sheep with a larval-specific antigen of the gastrointestinal nematode, Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, David; Preston, Sarah; Kemp, Joanna; de Veer, Michael; Sherrard, Jayne; Kraska, Troy; Elhay, Martin; Meeusen, Els

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC) and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection.

  14. The Effect of Different Adjuvants on Immune Parameters and Protection following Vaccination of Sheep with a Larval-Specific Antigen of the Gastrointestinal Nematode, Haemonchus contortus

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, David; Preston, Sarah; Kemp, Joanna; de Veer, Michael; Sherrard, Jayne; Kraska, Troy; Elhay, Martin; Meeusen, Els

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been recognised that vaccine adjuvants play a critical role in directing the nature of a vaccine induced effector response. In the present study, several adjuvants were evaluated for their ability to protect sheep after field vaccination with the larval-specific Haemonchus contortus antigen, HcsL3. Using a suboptimal antigen dose, aluminium adjuvant was shown to reduce the cumulative faecal egg counts (cFEC) and worm burden by 23% and 25% respectively, in agreement with a previous study. The addition of Quil A to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine brought cFEC back to control levels. Vaccination with the adjuvant DEAE-dextran almost doubled the protection compared to the aluminium-adjuvanted vaccine resulting in 40% and 41% reduction in cFEC and worm counts compared to controls. Examination of skin responses following i.d. injection of exsheathed L3, revealed that cFEC was negatively correlated with wheal size and tissue eosinophils for the DEAE-dextran and aluminium-adjuvanted groups respectively. These studies have for the first time shown the potential of DEAE-dextran adjuvant for helminth vaccines, and discovered significant cellular correlates of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:24205209

  15. ID card number detection algorithm based on convolutional neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Ma, Hanjie; Feng, Jie; Dai, Leiyan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a new detection algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Network is presented in order to realize the fast and convenient ID information extraction in multiple scenarios. The algorithm uses the mobile device equipped with Android operating system to locate and extract the ID number; Use the special color distribution of the ID card, select the appropriate channel component; Use the image threshold segmentation, noise processing and morphological processing to take the binary processing for image; At the same time, the image rotation and projection method are used for horizontal correction when image was tilting; Finally, the single character is extracted by the projection method, and recognized by using Convolutional Neural Network. Through test shows that, A single ID number image from the extraction to the identification time is about 80ms, the accuracy rate is about 99%, It can be applied to the actual production and living environment.

  16. Semantic Similarity in Biomedical Ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Pesquita, Catia; Faria, Daniel; Falcão, André O.; Lord, Phillip; Couto, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, ontologies have become a mainstream topic in biomedical research. When biological entities are described using a common schema, such as an ontology, they can be compared by means of their annotations. This type of comparison is called semantic similarity, since it assesses the degree of relatedness between two entities by the similarity in meaning of their annotations. The application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies is recent; nevertheless, several studies have been published in the last few years describing and evaluating diverse approaches. Semantic similarity has become a valuable tool for validating the results drawn from biomedical studies such as gene clustering, gene expression data analysis, prediction and validation of molecular interactions, and disease gene prioritization. We review semantic similarity measures applied to biomedical ontologies and propose their classification according to the strategies they employ: node-based versus edge-based and pairwise versus groupwise. We also present comparative assessment studies and discuss the implications of their results. We survey the existing implementations of semantic similarity measures, and we describe examples of applications to biomedical research. This will clarify how biomedical researchers can benefit from semantic similarity measures and help them choose the approach most suitable for their studies. Biomedical ontologies are evolving toward increased coverage, formality, and integration, and their use for annotation is increasingly becoming a focus of both effort by biomedical experts and application of automated annotation procedures to create corpora of higher quality and completeness than are currently available. Given that semantic similarity measures are directly dependent on these evolutions, we can expect to see them gaining more relevance and even becoming as essential as sequence similarity is today in biomedical research. PMID:19649320

  17. Iron Deficiency (ID) at Both Birth and 9 Months Predicts Right Frontal EEG Asymmetry in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Zhu, Bingquan; Clark, Katy M.; Richards, Blair; Ji, Chai; Kaciroti, Niko; Shao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study considered effects of timing and duration of iron deficiency (ID) on frontal EEG asymmetry in infancy. In healthy term Chinese infants, EEG was recorded at 9 months in three experimental conditions: baseline, peek-a-boo, and stranger approach. Eighty infants provided data for all conditions. Prenatal ID was defined as low cord ferritin or high ZPP/H. Postnatal ID was defined as ≥ two abnormal iron measures at 9 months. Study groups were pre- and postnatal ID, prenatal ID only, postnatal ID only, and not ID. GLM repeated measure analysis showed a main effect for iron group. The pre- and postnatal ID group had negative asymmetry scores, reflecting right frontal EEG asymmetry (mean ±SE: −.18 ±.07) versus prenatal ID only (.00 ±.04), postnatal ID only (.03 ±.04), and not ID (.02 ±.04). Thus, ID at both birth and 9 months was associated with right frontal EEG asymmetry, a neural correlate of behavioral withdrawal and negative emotions. PMID:26668100

  18. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Natalya F; Shah, Nigam H; Whetzel, Patricia L; Chute, Christopher G; Story, Margaret-Anne; Smith, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is now in its seventh year. The goals of this National Center for Biomedical Computing are to: create and maintain a repository of biomedical ontologies and terminologies; build tools and web services to enable the use of ontologies and terminologies in clinical and translational research; educate their trainees and the scientific community broadly about biomedical ontology and ontology-based technology and best practices; and collaborate with a variety of groups who develop and use ontologies and terminologies in biomedicine. The centerpiece of the National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a web-based resource known as BioPortal. BioPortal makes available for research in computationally useful forms more than 270 of the world's biomedical ontologies and terminologies, and supports a wide range of web services that enable investigators to use the ontologies to annotate and retrieve data, to generate value sets and special-purpose lexicons, and to perform advanced analytics on a wide range of biomedical data. PMID:22081220

  20. Biomedical Biopolymers, their Origin and Evolution in Biomedical Sciences: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Harsh; Shah, Veena Gowri; Shah, Gaurav; Dhaka, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers provide a plethora of applications in the pharmaceutical and medical applications. A material that can be used for biomedical applications like wound healing, drug delivery and tissue engineering should possess certain properties like biocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic products, low antigenicity, high bio-activity, processability to complicated shapes with appropriate porosity, ability to support cell growth and proliferation and appropriate mechanical properties, as well as maintaining mechanical strength. This paper reviews biodegradable biopolymers focusing on their potential in biomedical applications. Biopolymers most commonly used and most abundantly available have been described with focus on the properties relevant to biomedical importance. PMID:26501034

  1. The Corn Smut ('Huitlacoche') as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or 'huitlacoche'has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with 'huitlacoche'-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed.

  2. Psychometrics and latent structure of the IDS and QIDS with young adult students.

    PubMed

    González, David Andrés; Boals, Adriel; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Schuler, Eric R; Taylor, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Students and young adults have high rates of suicide and depression, thus are a population of interest. To date, there is no normative psychometric information on the IDS and QIDS in these populations. Furthermore, there is equivocal evidence on the factor structure and subscales of the IDS. Two samples of young adult students (ns=475 and 1681) were given multiple measures to test the psychometrics and dimensionality of the IDS and QIDS. The IDS, its subscales, and QIDS had acceptable internal consistencies (αs=.79-90) and favorable convergent and divergent validity correlations. A three-factor structure and two Rasch-derived subscales best fit the IDS. The samples were collected from one university, which may influence generalizability. The IDS and QIDS are desirable measures of depressive symptoms when studying young adult students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of ingredients on sensory profile of idli.

    PubMed

    Durgadevi, Manoharan; Shetty, Prathapkumar H

    2014-09-01

    Idli is a traditional fermented food and is consumed in India and Srilanka. The objective of the present study is to select the ingredients for optimum desirable product characteristics and to identify the optimum ratios of ingredients and fermentation time with respect to sensory attributes using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The sensory attributes included were color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality. Preliminary trials were conducted using five variants of rice and common black gram dhal before framing a model using Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). From the study it was found that a desirable score of 0.7439 was obtained for sensory attributes of idli made with the ratio of 3: 1.475 for IR20 idli rice and ADT3 variety black gram (with husk removed after soaking) fermented for 10.2 h. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helped to discriminate the samples and attributes within the data matrix, depending upon their inter relationships.

  4. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal... at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Salt Lake...

  5. Biomedical informatics and translational medicine.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2010-02-26

    Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.

  6. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  7. Biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical problems encountered by man in space which have been identified as a result of previous experience in simulated or actual spaceflight include cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone loss, muscle atrophy, red cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte loss, radiation effects, radiation protection, behavior, and performance. The investigations and the findings in each of these areas were reviewed. A description of how biomedical research is organized within NASA, how it is funded, and how it is being reoriented to meet the needs of future manned space missions is also provided.

  8. Adjuvants and alternative routes of administration towards the development of the ideal influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Durando, Paolo; Iudici, Rocco; Alicino, Cristiano; Alberti, Marisa; de Florentis, Daniela; Ansaldi, Filippo; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the control of influenza. An overview of the most recent and interesting results, some of which gained from our own research experience, particularly concerning two successful approaches, of those outlined above, namely the use of: (i) the oil-in-water MF59-adjuvant, and (ii) the intradermal (ID) route for vaccine administration, through a novel microinjection system, will be reported and discussed, together with the possible implications and perspectives to optimize immunization policies against influenza in the near future.

  9. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future.more » We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.« less

  10. idRHa+ProMod - Rail Hardening Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, L.

    2016-03-01

    idRHa+ProMod is the process control system developed by Primetals Technologies to foresee the thermo-mechanical evolution and micro-structural composition of rail steels subjected to slack quenching into idRHa+ Rail Hardening equipments in a simulation environment. This tool can be used both off-line or in-line, giving the user the chance to test and study the best cooling strategies or letting the automatic control system free to adjust the proper cooling recipe. Optimization criteria have been tailored in order to determine the best cooling conditions according to the metallurgical requirements imposed by the main rail standards and also taking into account the elastoplastic bending phenomena occurring during all stages of the head hardening process. The computational core of idRHa+ProMod is a thermal finite element procedure coupled with special algorithms developed to work out the main thermo-physical properties of steel, to predict the non-isothermal austenite decomposition into all the relevant phases and subsequently to evaluate the amount of latent heat of transformation released, the compound thermal expansion coefficient and the amount of plastic deformation in the material. Air mist and air blades boundary conditions have been carefully investigated by means of pilot plant tests aimed to study the jet impingement on rail surfaces and the cooling efficiency at all working conditions. Heat transfer coefficients have been further checked and adjusted directly on field during commissioning. idRHa+ is a trademark of Primetals Technologies Italy Srl

  11. ID4 promotes AR expression and blocks tumorigenicity of PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Komaragiri, Shravan Kumar; Bostanthirige, Dhanushka H; Morton, Derrick J; Patel, Divya; Joshi, Jugal; Upadhyay, Sunil; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2016-09-09

    Deregulation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with tumorigenesis and the development of cancer. In prostate cancer, ID4 is epigenetically silenced and acts as a tumor suppressor. In normal prostate epithelial cells, ID4 collaborates with androgen receptor (AR) and p53 to exert its tumor suppressor activity. Previous studies have shown that ID4 promotes tumor suppressive function of AR whereas loss of ID4 results in tumor promoter activity of AR. Previous study from our lab showed that ectopic ID4 expression in DU145 attenuates proliferation and promotes AR expression suggesting that ID4 dependent AR activity is tumor suppressive. In this study, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of ID4 on highly malignant prostate cancer cell, PC3. Here we show that stable overexpression of ID4 in PC3 cells leads to increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and migration. In addition, in vivo studies showed a decrease in tumor size and volume of ID4 overexpressing PC3 cells, in nude mice. At the molecular level, these changes were associated with increased androgen receptor (AR), p21, and AR dependent FKBP51 expression. At the mechanistic level, ID4 may regulate the expression or function of AR through specific but yet unknown AR co-regulators that may determine the final outcome of AR function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Progress and Prospects for Genetic Modification of Nonhuman Primate Models in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anthony W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest of modeling human diseases using genetically modified (transgenic) nonhuman primates (NHPs) is a direct result of NHPs (rhesus macaque, etc.) close relation to humans. NHPs share similar developmental paths with humans in their anatomy, physiology, genetics, and neural functions; and in their cognition, emotion, and social behavior. The NHP model within biomedical research has played an important role in the development of vaccines, assisted reproductive technologies, and new therapies for many diseases. Biomedical research has not been the primary role of NHPs. They have mainly been used for safety evaluation and pharmacokinetics studies, rather than determining therapeutic efficacy. The development of the first transgenic rhesus macaque (2001) revolutionized the role of NHP models in biomedicine. Development of the transgenic NHP model of Huntington's disease (2008), with distinctive clinical features, further suggested the uniqueness of the model system; and the potential role of the NHP model for human genetic disorders. Modeling human genetic diseases using NHPs will continue to thrive because of the latest advances in molecular, genetic, and embryo technologies. NHPs rising role in biomedical research, specifically pre-clinical studies, is foreseeable. The path toward the development of transgenic NHPs and the prospect of transgenic NHPs in their new role in future biomedicine needs to be reviewed. This article will focus on the advancement of transgenic NHPs in the past decade, including transgenic technologies and disease modeling. It will outline new technologies that may have significant impact in future NHP modeling and will conclude with a discussion of the future prospects of the transgenic NHP model. PMID:24174443

  13. Disambiguating ambiguous biomedical terms in biomedical narrative text: an unsupervised method.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Lussier, Y A; Friedman, C

    2001-08-01

    With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for information extraction and concept indexing in the biomedical domain, a method that quickly and efficiently assigns the correct sense of an ambiguous biomedical term in a given context is needed concurrently. The current status of word sense disambiguation (WSD) in the biomedical domain is that handcrafted rules are used based on contextual material. The disadvantages of this approach are (i) generating WSD rules manually is a time-consuming and tedious task, (ii) maintenance of rule sets becomes increasingly difficult over time, and (iii) handcrafted rules are often incomplete and perform poorly in new domains comprised of specialized vocabularies and different genres of text. This paper presents a two-phase unsupervised method to build a WSD classifier for an ambiguous biomedical term W. The first phase automatically creates a sense-tagged corpus for W, and the second phase derives a classifier for W using the derived sense-tagged corpus as a training set. A formative experiment was performed, which demonstrated that classifiers trained on the derived sense-tagged corpora achieved an overall accuracy of about 97%, with greater than 90% accuracy for each individual ambiguous term.

  14. Biometrics and ID Cards — Enablers for Personal Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisen, Andreas

    The electronic ID card is a modernization and security project of the German Government. On the one hand, the multifunctional card is intended to boost security and the convenience of e-government and e-business applications. On the other hand, the new biometric ID card should allow citizens to use it as a travel document in the Schengen area and for specific destinations outside the European Union also in the future.

  15. Implantable Biomedical Microsystems: A New Graduate Course in Biomedical Circuits and Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sodagar, Amir M.

    2014-01-01

    After more than two decades of research on the design and development of implantable biomedical microsystems, it is time now to organize research achievements in this area in a consolidated and pedagogical form. This paper introduces a new graduate course in advanced biomedical circuits and systems. Designed for graduate students with electrical…

  16. Internal validation of the RapidHIT® ID system.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Rachel; Sage, Kelly; LaRue, Bobby; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, forensic DNA analysis has required highly skilled forensic geneticists in a dedicated laboratory to generate short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. STR profiles are routinely used either to associate or exclude potential donors of forensic biological evidence. The typing of forensic reference samples has become more demanding, especially with the requirement in some jurisdictions to DNA profile arrestees. The Rapid DNA (RDNA) platform, the RapidHIT ® ID (IntegenX ® , Pleasanton, CA), is a fully automated system capable of processing reference samples in approximately 90min with minimal human intervention. Thus, the RapidHIT ID instrument can be deployed to non-laboratory environments (e.g., booking stations) and run by trained atypical personnel such as law enforcement. In order to implement the RapidHIT ID platform, validation studies are needed to define the performance and limitations of the system. Internal validation studies were undertaken with four early-production RapidHIT ID units. Reliable and concordant STR profiles were obtained from reference buccal swabs. Throughout the study, no contamination was observed. The overall first-pass success rate with an "expert-like system" was 72%, which is comparable to another current RDNA platform commercially available. The system's second-pass success rate (involving manual interpretation on first-pass inconclusive results) increased to 90%. Inhibitors (i.e., coffee, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco) did not appear to affect typing by the instrument system; however, substrate (i.e., swab type) did impact typing success. Additionally, one desirable feature not available with other Rapid systems is that in the event of a system failed run, a swab can be recovered and subsequently re-analyzed in a new sample cartridge. Therefore, rarely should additional sampling or swab consumption be necessary. The RapidHIT ID system is a robust and reliable tool capable of generating complete STR profiles within

  17. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  18. An Insufferable Business: Ethics, Nonhuman Animals and Biomedical Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Peggs, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This paper explores the ways in which biomedical research that uses nonhuman animal subjects generates financial profits and gains for humans who are associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, regulators and persons that inspect laboratories for compliance, those associated with granting licences, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects and that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. These profits are rarely discussed—they seem to be camouflaged by the focus of the moral convention that assumes that human health-related needs prevail over those of the nonhuman animals who are so used. The paper concludes by calling for an end to the denigration of nonhuman animals as experimental subjects who can be used as commodities for profit-maximisation and as tools in experiments for human health benefits. Abstract Each year millions of nonhuman animals suffer in biomedical experiments for human health benefits. Clinical ethics demand that nonhuman animals are used in the development of pharmaceuticals and vaccines. Nonhuman animals are also used for fundamental biomedical research. Biomedical research that uses nonhuman animals is big business but the financial gains are generally occluded. This paper explores how such research generates profits and gains for those associated with the industry. Research establishments, scientists, laboratories, companies that sell nonhuman animal subjects, that supply equipment for the research, and corporations that market the resulting products are among those that benefit financially. Given the complex articulation of ethical codes, enormous corporate profits that are secured and personal returns that are made, the accepted moral legitimacy of such experiments is compromised. In order to address this, within the confines of the moral orthodoxy, more could to be done to ensure transparency and to

  19. To ID or Not to ID? Changes in Classification Rates of Intellectual Disability Using "DSM-5"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papazoglou, Aimilia; Jacobson, Lisa A.; McCabe, Marie; Kaufmann, Walter; Zabel, T. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition" ("DSM-5") diagnostic criteria for intellectual disability (ID) include a change to the definition of adaptive impairment. New criteria require impairment in one adaptive domain rather than two or more skill areas. The authors examined the diagnostic…

  20. Vaccinating parents experience vaccine anxiety too.

    PubMed

    Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Asay, Whitney; Hewett, Carly

    2013-12-01

    To identify common causes of parental anxiety regarding childhood vaccinations among parents who vaccinate. Another purpose was to seek recommendations for healthcare providers to help parents overcome their anxiety when their children are immunized. Four 1-h focus groups were conducted, each consisting of 8-10 parents. Each focus group discussion was conducted by a moderator and an assistant moderator. The moderator facilitated discussion while the assistant moderator took notes. Each session was recorded on video. The data were transcribed and analyzed for themes. Parents identifying themselves as being compliant with childhood vaccination requirements reported anxiety that can be divided into five major themes: parental anxiety prior to vaccination, parental anxiety during the vaccination, parental anxiety after the vaccination, parental suggestions for healthcare providers, and informational issues. Making minor changes in office policies may help alleviate some parental anxiety regarding vaccinations. Providers should also create lists of credible sources about vaccination information. Because the cause of vaccine-related parental anxiety varies, targeted education is necessary to relieve common causes of vaccine anxiety, even among parents who vaccinate. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Vaccine decision-making begins in pregnancy: Correlation between vaccine concerns, intentions and maternal vaccination with subsequent childhood vaccine uptake.

    PubMed

    Danchin, M H; Costa-Pinto, J; Attwell, K; Willaby, H; Wiley, K; Hoq, M; Leask, J; Perrett, K P; O'Keefe, Jacinta; Giles, M L; Marshall, H

    2017-08-12

    Maternal and childhood vaccine decision-making begins prenatally. Amongst pregnant Australian women we aimed to ascertain vaccine information received, maternal immunisation uptake and attitudes and concerns regarding childhood vaccination. We also aimed to determine any correlation between a) intentions and concerns regarding childhood vaccination, (b) concerns about pregnancy vaccination, (c) socioeconomic status (SES) and (d) uptake of influenza and pertussis vaccines during pregnancy and routine vaccines during childhood. Women attending public antenatal clinics were recruited in three Australian states. Surveys were completed on iPads. Follow-up phone surveys were done three to six months post delivery, and infant vaccination status obtained via the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register (ACIR). Between October 2015 and March 2016, 975 (82%) of 1184 mothers consented and 406 (42%) agreed to a follow up survey, post delivery. First-time mothers (445; 49%) had significantly more vaccine concerns in pregnancy and only 73% had made a decision about childhood vaccination compared to 89% of mothers with existing children (p-value<0.001). 66% of mothers reported receiving enough information during pregnancy on childhood vaccination. In the post delivery survey, 46% and 82% of mothers reported receiving pregnancy influenza and pertussis vaccines respectively. The mother's degree of vaccine hesitancy and two attitudinal factors were correlated with vaccine uptake post delivery. There was no association between reported maternal vaccine uptake or SES and childhood vaccine uptake. First time mothers are more vaccine hesitant and undecided about childhood vaccination, and only two thirds of all mothers believed they received enough information during pregnancy. New interventions to improve both education and communication on childhood and maternal vaccines, delivered by midwives and obstetricians in the Australian public hospital system, may reduce vaccine hesitancy

  2. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Prognostic stratification improvement by integrating ID1/ID3/IGJ gene expression signature and immunophenotypic profile in adult patients with B-ALL.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rodriguez, Nataly; Combita, Alba L; Enciso, Leonardo J; Raney, Lauren F; Pinzon, Paula L; Lozano, Olga C; Campos, Alba M; Peñaloza, Niyireth; Solano, Julio; Herrera, Maria V; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Quijano, Sandra

    2017-02-28

    Survival of adults with B-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia requires accurate risk stratification of patients in order to provide the appropriate therapy. Contemporary techniques, using clinical and cytogenetic variables are incomplete for prognosis prediction. To improve the classification of adult patients diagnosed with B-ALL into prognosis groups, two strategies were examined and combined: the expression of the ID1/ID3/IGJ gene signature by RT-PCR and the immunophenotypic profile of 19 markers proposed in the EuroFlow protocol by Flow Cytometry in bone marrow samples. Both techniques were correlated to stratify patients into prognostic groups. An inverse relationship between survival and expression of the three-genes signature was observed and an immunophenotypic profile associated with clinical outcome was identified. Markers CD10 and CD20 were correlated with simultaneous overexpression of ID1, ID3 and IGJ. Patients with simultaneous expression of the poor prognosis gene signature and overexpression of CD10 or CD20, had worse Event Free Survival and Overall Survival than patients who had either the poor prognosis gene expression signature or only CD20 or CD10 overexpressed. By utilizing the combined evaluation of these two immunophenotypic markers along with the poor prognosis gene expression signature, the risk stratification can be significantly strengthened. Further studies including a large number of patients are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies

    PubMed Central

    Dumontier, Michel; Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2013-01-01

    Ontologies are now pervasive in biomedicine, where they serve as a means to standardize terminology, to enable access to domain knowledge, to verify data consistency and to facilitate integrative analyses over heterogeneous biomedical data. For this purpose, research on biomedical ontologies applies theories and methods from diverse disciplines such as information management, knowledge representation, cognitive science, linguistics and philosophy. Depending on the desired applications in which ontologies are being applied, the evaluation of research in biomedical ontologies must follow different strategies. Here, we provide a classification of research problems in which ontologies are being applied, focusing on the use of ontologies in basic and translational research, and we demonstrate how research results in biomedical ontologies can be evaluated. The evaluation strategies depend on the desired application and measure the success of using an ontology for a particular biomedical problem. For many applications, the success can be quantified, thereby facilitating the objective evaluation and comparison of research in biomedical ontology. The objective, quantifiable comparison of research results based on scientific applications opens up the possibility for systematically improving the utility of ontologies in biomedical research. PMID:22962340

  5. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) sponsors and performs fundamental and applied space biomedical research with the mission of leading a world-class, national effort in integrated, critical path space biomedical research that supports NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Strategic Plan. It focuses on the enabling of long-term human presence in, development of, and exploration of space. This will be accomplished by: designing, implementing, and validating effective countermeasures to address the biological and environmental impediments to long-term human space flight; defining the molecular, cellular, organ-level, integrated responses and mechanistic relationships that ultimately determine these impediments, where such activity fosters the development of novel countermeasures; establishing biomedical support technologies to maximize human performance in space, reduce biomedical hazards to an acceptable level, and deliver quality medical care; transferring and disseminating the biomedical advances in knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space to the benefit of mankind in space and on Earth, including the treatment of patients suffering from gravity- and radiation-related conditions on Earth; and ensuring open involvement of the scientific community, industry, and the public at large in the Institute's activities and fostering a robust collaboration with NASA, particularly through Johnson Space Center.

  6. Annual audits of IDS risk contract settlements improve payment accuracy.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J W

    1999-12-01

    Integrated delivery systems (IDSs) should conduct annual audits of payers' settlements under risk contracts to verify that the payer attributed the appropriate amounts of revenue and charged the appropriate claims expenses to the IDS. In particular, IDSs should verify that payers calculated revenues and expenses based on consistent member counts and that the determined commercial revenue was based on the actual premiums paid. IDSs also should determine whether payers have used appropriate demographic factors and countywide rates as a basis for determining Medicare revenue, charged the IDS for claims only for valid members, paid capitated providers the correct capitation amounts, and used appropriate historical data to estimate the amounts of incurred-but-not-reported claims attributed to the IDS.

  7. BIOMedical Search Engine Framework: Lightweight and customized implementation of domain-specific biomedical search engines.

    PubMed

    Jácome, Alberto G; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Lourenço, Anália

    2016-07-01

    Text mining and semantic analysis approaches can be applied to the construction of biomedical domain-specific search engines and provide an attractive alternative to create personalized and enhanced search experiences. Therefore, this work introduces the new open-source BIOMedical Search Engine Framework for the fast and lightweight development of domain-specific search engines. The rationale behind this framework is to incorporate core features typically available in search engine frameworks with flexible and extensible technologies to retrieve biomedical documents, annotate meaningful domain concepts, and develop highly customized Web search interfaces. The BIOMedical Search Engine Framework integrates taggers for major biomedical concepts, such as diseases, drugs, genes, proteins, compounds and organisms, and enables the use of domain-specific controlled vocabulary. Technologies from the Typesafe Reactive Platform, the AngularJS JavaScript framework and the Bootstrap HTML/CSS framework support the customization of the domain-oriented search application. Moreover, the RESTful API of the BIOMedical Search Engine Framework allows the integration of the search engine into existing systems or a complete web interface personalization. The construction of the Smart Drug Search is described as proof-of-concept of the BIOMedical Search Engine Framework. This public search engine catalogs scientific literature about antimicrobial resistance, microbial virulence and topics alike. The keyword-based queries of the users are transformed into concepts and search results are presented and ranked accordingly. The semantic graph view portraits all the concepts found in the results, and the researcher may look into the relevance of different concepts, the strength of direct relations, and non-trivial, indirect relations. The number of occurrences of the concept shows its importance to the query, and the frequency of concept co-occurrence is indicative of biological relations

  8. Progress and future opportunities in the development of vaccines against atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Beltrán-López, Josué; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Vargas-Morales, Juan; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Atherosclerosis represents a serious global health problem that demands new therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. Considering that atherosclerosis has autoimmune and inflammatory components, immunotherapy is a possible focus to treat this disease. Areas covered: Based on the analysis of the current biomedical literature, this review describes the status on the development of vaccines against atherosclerosis. Several targets have been identified including sequences of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), heat shock proteins (HSP), extracellular matrix proteins, T cell receptor β chain variable region 31 (TRBV31), the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), and the outer membrane protein 5 (Pomp5) from Chlamydia pneumoniae. Humoral and cellular immunities to these targets have been associated with therapeutic effects in murine models and humans. The evaluation of some candidates in clinical trials is ongoing. Expert commentary: New research paths based on the use of next generation vaccine production platforms are envisioned.

  9. Biomedical ground lead system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and verification tests for the biomedical ground lead system of Apollo biomedical monitors are presented. Major efforts were made to provide a low impedance path to ground, reduce noise and artifact of ECG signals, and limit the current flowing in the ground electrode of the system.

  10. Human papillomavirus vaccines and vaccine implementation.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Alemany, Laia; Castellsagué, Xavier; Bosch, F Xavier

    2008-11-01

    Countries are now challenged by the rapid development of vaccines aimed at the primary prevention of infections. In the years to come, several vaccines will need to be considered as potential candidates in routine immunization programs. Recently, two new vaccines against two/four types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been commercialized. Bivalent HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix) and quadrivalent HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Gardasil) vaccines are now extensively used in some countries. These vaccines will prevent infection and long-running complications, such as cervical cancer, other HPV-related cancers and genital warts (for the quadrivalent vaccine). The beneficial effect of these vaccines will be largely observed in women. This article summarizes the burden of HPV preventable disease worldwide and briefly describes the impact of secondary prevention and the most relevant aspects of the current available vaccines, their efficacy and safety. Finally, some major aspects that are likely to impact the introduction of these vaccines around the world are outlined, with particular emphasis on developing countries.

  11. Improving HybrID: How to best combine indirect and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Lucas; Clune, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with indirect encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, indirect encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with indirect encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both indirect and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from indirect to direct encoding. In this paper, we test two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from indirect to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an indirect encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of indirect and direct encoding. PMID:28334002

  12. Improving HybrID: How to best combine indirect and direct encoding in evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Helms, Lucas; Clune, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Many challenging engineering problems are regular, meaning solutions to one part of a problem can be reused to solve other parts. Evolutionary algorithms with indirect encoding perform better on regular problems because they reuse genomic information to create regular phenotypes. However, on problems that are mostly regular, but contain some irregularities, which describes most real-world problems, indirect encodings struggle to handle the irregularities, hurting performance. Direct encodings are better at producing irregular phenotypes, but cannot exploit regularity. An algorithm called HybrID combines the best of both: it first evolves with indirect encoding to exploit problem regularity, then switches to direct encoding to handle problem irregularity. While HybrID has been shown to outperform both indirect and direct encoding, its initial implementation required the manual specification of when to switch from indirect to direct encoding. In this paper, we test two new methods to improve HybrID by eliminating the need to manually specify this parameter. Auto-Switch-HybrID automatically switches from indirect to direct encoding when fitness stagnates. Offset-HybrID simultaneously evolves an indirect encoding with directly encoded offsets, eliminating the need to switch. We compare the original HybrID to these alternatives on three different problems with adjustable regularity. The results show that both Auto-Switch-HybrID and Offset-HybrID outperform the original HybrID on different types of problems, and thus offer more tools for researchers to solve challenging problems. The Offset-HybrID algorithm is particularly interesting because it suggests a path forward for automatically and simultaneously combining the best traits of indirect and direct encoding.

  13. Trends in Biomedical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)

  14. Biomedical applications engineering tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laenger, C. J., Sr.

    1976-01-01

    The engineering tasks performed in response to needs articulated by clinicians are described. Initial contacts were made with these clinician-technology requestors by the Southwest Research Institute NASA Biomedical Applications Team. The basic purpose of the program was to effectively transfer aerospace technology into functional hardware to solve real biomedical problems.

  15. 78 FR 8596 - Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/Actuarial/ Information Delivery Services (IDS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Delivery Services (IDS)/Corporate & Financial Reporting group, Hartford, Connecticut (The Hartford-IDS... technology applications for corporate, regulatory, and financial reporting. Pursuant to 29 CFR 90.18(c...., Commercial/Actuarial/Information Delivery Services (IDS)/ Corporate & Financial Reporting group, Hartford...

  16. Does cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine choice vary across the U.S.? An agent-based modeling study.

    PubMed

    DePasse, Jay V; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Smith, Kenneth J; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Shim, Eunha; Zimmerman, Richard K; Brown, Shawn T

    2017-07-13

    In a prior agent-based modeling study, offering a choice of influenza vaccine type was shown to be cost-effective when the simulated population represented the large, Washington DC metropolitan area. This study calculated the public health impact and cost-effectiveness of the same four strategies: No Choice, Pediatric Choice, Adult Choice, or Choice for Both Age Groups in five United States (U.S.) counties selected to represent extremes in population age distribution. The choice offered was either inactivated influenza vaccine delivered intramuscularly with a needle (IIV-IM) or an age-appropriate needle-sparing vaccine, specifically, the nasal spray (LAIV) or intradermal (IIV-ID) delivery system. Using agent-based modeling, individuals were simulated as they interacted with others, and influenza was tracked as it spread through each population. Influenza vaccination coverage derived from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data, was increased by 6.5% (range 3.25%-11.25%) to reflect the effects of vaccine choice. Assuming moderate influenza infectivity, the number of averted cases was highest for the Choice for Both Age Groups in all five counties despite differing demographic profiles. In a cost-effectiveness analysis, Choice for Both Age Groups was the dominant strategy. Sensitivity analyses varying influenza infectivity, costs, and degrees of vaccine coverage increase due to choice, supported the base case findings. Offering a choice to receive a needle-sparing influenza vaccine has the potential to significantly reduce influenza disease burden and to be cost saving. Consistent findings across diverse populations confirmed these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SpDamID: Marking DNA Bound by Protein Complexes Identifies Notch-Dimer Responsive Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Matthew R.; Liow, Hien-haw; Chen, Xiaoting; Sharma, Ankur; Inoue, Yukiko U.; Inoue, Takayoshi; Reeb, Ashley; Martens, Andrew; Fulbright, Mary; Raju, Saravanan; Stevens, Michael; Boyle, Scott; Park, Joo-Seop; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Brent, Michael; Kopan, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY We developed Split DamID (SpDamID), a protein complementation version of DamID, to mark genomic DNA bound in vivo by interacting or juxtapositioned transcription factors. Inactive halves of DAM (DNA Adenine Methyltransferase) were fused to protein pairs to be queried Interaction or proximity enabled DAM reconstitution and methylation of adenine in GATC. Inducible SpDamID was used to analyze Notch-mediated transcriptional activation. We demonstrate that Notch complexes label RBP sites broadly across the genome, and show that a subset of these complexes that recruit MAML and p300 undergo changes in chromatin accessibility in response to Notch signaling. SpDamID differentiates between monomeric and dimeric binding thereby allowing for identification of half-site motifs used by Notch dimers. Motif enrichment of Notch enhancers coupled with SpDamID reveals co-targeting of regulatory sequences by Notch and Runx1. SpDamID represents a sensitive and powerful tool that enables dynamic analysis of combinatorial protein-DNA transactions at a genome-wide level. PMID:26257285

  18. Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Mathew, Deepa; Duffield, Giles E.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2−/− mice. Moreover, in Id2−/− BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27144179

  19. DE-Cadherin regulates unconventional Myosin ID and Myosin IC in Drosophila left-right asymmetry establishment.

    PubMed

    Petzoldt, Astrid G; Coutelis, Jean-Baptiste; Géminard, Charles; Spéder, Pauline; Suzanne, Magali; Cerezo, Delphine; Noselli, Stéphane

    2012-05-01

    In bilateria, positioning and looping of visceral organs requires proper left-right (L/R) asymmetry establishment. Recent work in Drosophila has identified a novel situs inversus gene encoding the unconventional type ID myosin (MyoID). In myoID mutant flies, the L/R axis is inverted, causing reversed looping of organs, such as the gut, spermiduct and genitalia. We have previously shown that MyoID interacts physically with β-Catenin, suggesting a role of the adherens junction in Drosophila L/R asymmetry. Here, we show that DE-Cadherin co-immunoprecipitates with MyoID and is required for MyoID L/R activity. We further demonstrate that MyoIC, a closely related unconventional type I myosin, can antagonize MyoID L/R activity by preventing its binding to adherens junction components, both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, DE-Cadherin inhibits MyoIC, providing a protective mechanism to MyoID function. Conditional genetic experiments indicate that DE-Cadherin, MyoIC and MyoID show temporal synchronicity for their function in L/R asymmetry. These data suggest that following MyoID recruitment by β-Catenin at the adherens junction, DE-Cadherin has a twofold effect on Drosophila L/R asymmetry by promoting MyoID activity and repressing that of MyoIC. Interestingly, the product of the vertebrate situs inversus gene inversin also physically interacts with β-Catenin, suggesting that the adherens junction might serve as a conserved platform for determinants to establish L/R asymmetry both in vertebrates and invertebrates.

  20. Frontiers in biomedical engineering and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Goodarzi, Ali; Wang, Haifeng; Stasiak, Joanna; Sun, Jianbo; Zhou, Yu

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (iCBEB 2013), held in Wuhan on 11–13 October 2013, is an annual conference that aims at providing an opportunity for international and national researchers and practitioners to present the most recent advances and future challenges in the fields of Biomedical Information, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. The papers published by this issue are selected from this conference, which witnesses the frontier in the field of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, which particularly has helped improving the level of clinical diagnosis in medical work.

  1. The Aotus nancymaae erythrocyte proteome and its importance for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D A; García-Valiente, R; Ibarrola, N; Muro, A; Patarroyo, M A

    2017-01-30

    The Aotus nancymaae species has been of great importance in researching the biology and pathogenesis of malaria, particularly for studying Plasmodium molecules for including them in effective vaccines against such microorganism. In spite of the forgoing, there has been no report to date describing the biology of parasite target cells in primates or their biomedical importance. This study was thus designed to analyse A. nancymaae erythrocyte protein composition using MS data collected during a previous study aimed at characterising the Plasmodium vivax proteome and published in the pertinent literature. Most peptides identified were similar to those belonging to 1189 Homo sapiens molecules; >95% of them had orthologues in New World primates. GO terms revealed a correlation between categories having the greatest amount of proteins and vital cell function. Integral membrane molecules were also identified which could be possible receptors facilitating interaction with Plasmodium species. The A. nancymaae erythrocyte proteome is described here for the first time, as a starting point for more in-depth/extensive studies. The data reported represents a source of invaluable information for laboratories interested in carrying out basic and applied biomedical investigation studies which involve using this primate. An understanding of the proteomics characteristics of A. nancymaae erythrocytes represents a fascinating area for research regarding the study of the pathogenesis of malaria since these are the main target for Plasmodium invasion. However, and even though Aotus is one of the non-human primate models considered most appropriate for biomedical research, knowledge of its proteome, particularly its erythrocytes, remains unknown. According to the above and bearing in mind the lack of information about the A. nancymaae species genome and transcriptome, this study involved a search for primate proteins for comparing their MS/MS spectra with the available information for

  2. [Master course in biomedical engineering].

    PubMed

    Jobbágy, Akos; Benyó, Zoltán; Monos, Emil

    2009-11-22

    The Bologna Declaration aims at harmonizing the European higher education structure. In accordance with the Declaration, biomedical engineering will be offered as a master (MSc) course also in Hungary, from year 2009. Since 1995 biomedical engineering course has been held in cooperation of three universities: Semmelweis University, Budapest Veterinary University, and Budapest University of Technology and Economics. One of the latter's faculties, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, has been responsible for the course. Students could start their biomedical engineering studies - usually in parallel with their first degree course - after they collected at least 180 ECTS credits. Consequently, the biomedical engineering course could have been considered as a master course even before the Bologna Declaration. Students had to collect 130 ECTS credits during the six-semester course. This is equivalent to four-semester full-time studies, because during the first three semesters the curriculum required to gain only one third of the usual ECTS credits. The paper gives a survey on the new biomedical engineering master course, briefly summing up also the subjects in the curriculum.

  3. Bio-functionalization of biomedical metals.

    PubMed

    Xiao, M; Chen, Y M; Biao, M N; Zhang, X D; Yang, B C

    2017-01-01

    Bio-functionalization means to endow biomaterials with bio-functions so as to make the materials or devices more suitable for biomedical applications. Traditionally, because of the excellent mechanical properties, the biomedical metals have been widely used in clinic. However, the utilized functions are basically supporting or fixation especially for the implantable devices. Nowadays, some new functions, including bioactivity, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and so on, are introduced to biomedical metals. To realize those bio-functions on the metallic biomedical materials, surface modification is the most commonly used method. Surface modification, including physical and chemical methods, is an effective way to alter the surface morphology and composition of biomaterials. It can endow the biomedical metals with new surface properties while still retain the good mechanical properties of the bulk material. Having analyzed the ways of realizing the bio-functionalization, this article briefly summarized the bio-functionalization concepts of six hot spots in this field. They are bioactivity, bony tissue inducing, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, anticoagulation, and drug loading functions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  5. Security and Privacy Improvements for the Belgian eID Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaeghe, Pieter; Lapon, Jorn; de Decker, Bart; Naessens, Vincent; Verslype, Kristof

    The Belgian Electronic Identity Card enables Belgian citizens to prove their identity digitally and to sign electronic documents. At the end of 2009, every Belgian citizen older than 12 years will have such an eID card. In the future, usage of the eID card may be mandatory. However, irresponsible use of the card may cause harm to individuals.

  6. Education of biomedical engineering in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kang-Ping; Kao, Tsair; Wang, Jia-Jung; Chen, Mei-Jung; Su, Fong-Chin

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineers (BME) play an important role in medical and healthcare society. Well educational programs are important to support the healthcare systems including hospitals, long term care organizations, manufacture industries of medical devices/instrumentations/systems, and sales/services companies of medical devices/instrumentations/system. In past 30 more years, biomedical engineering society has accumulated thousands people hold a biomedical engineering degree, and work as a biomedical engineer in Taiwan. Most of BME students can be trained in biomedical engineering departments with at least one of specialties in bioelectronics, bio-information, biomaterials or biomechanics. Students are required to have internship trainings in related institutions out of campus for 320 hours before graduating. Almost all the biomedical engineering departments are certified by IEET (Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan), and met the IEET requirement in which required mathematics and fundamental engineering courses. For BMEs after graduation, Taiwanese Society of Biomedical Engineering (TSBME) provides many continue-learning programs and certificates for all members who expect to hold the certification as a professional credit in his working place. In current status, many engineering departments in university are continuously asked to provide joint programs with BME department to train much better quality students. BME is one of growing fields in Taiwan.

  7. Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC) | DSITP

    Cancer.gov

    The Advanced Biomedical Computing Center (ABCC), located in Frederick Maryland (MD), provides HPC resources for both NIH/NCI intramural scientists and the extramural biomedical research community. Its mission is to provide HPC support, to provide collaborative research, and to conduct in-house research in various areas of computational biology and biomedical research.

  8. 78 FR 25406 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...) Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Instrument Landing System (ILS) or Localizer (LOC) standard... the earth. * * * * * ANM ID E5 Twin Falls, ID [Modified] Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional...

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) intradermal influenza vaccine in South Korean adults: a multicenter, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hoon Han, Sang; Hee Woo, Jun; Weber, Francoise; Joo Kim, Woo; Ran Peck, Kyong; Il Kim, Sang; Hwa Choi, Young; Myung Kim, June

    2013-09-01

    Intanza(®)/IDflu(®) (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is an intradermal inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine developed as an alternative to intramuscular influenza vaccine. The objective of this study was to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of Intanza/IDflu in South Korean adults. In a phase IV multicenter trial, South Korean adults 18-59 y old (n = 120) and ≥ 60 y old (n = 120) were randomized 1:1 to receive a single dose of Intanza/IDflu (9 µg for 18-59 y, 15 µg for ≥ 60 y) or trivalent intramuscular vaccine (Vaxigrip(®) 15 µg, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood was collected on pre-vaccination (day 0) and on day 21. Hemagglutination inhibition titers, seroprotection rates and seroconversion rates were determined on day 21. Geometric mean titers, seroprotection and seroconversion rates were similar between the intradermal and intramuscular vaccines in both age groups for all three vaccine strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2 and B). Both vaccines met Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use criteria for all three strains. Solicited systemic reactions of the intradermal groups were generally mild, transient, and similar to those of the intramuscular groups. Solicited injection site reactions were more frequent in the intradermal groups but were mostly mild, transient, and consisted mainly of pain, erythema, and pruritus. No treatment-related serious adverse events or other safety concerns were reported. These results confirm that Intanza/IDflu is an effective and well-tolerated alternative to IM influenza vaccination. (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT ID: NCT01215669).

  10. Influence of the Distribution of Tag IDs on RFID Memoryless Anti-Collision Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Cmiljanic, Nikola; Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Arjona, Laura

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become very popular. The main feature of this technology is that RFID tags do not require close handling and no line of sight is required between the reader and the tags. RFID is a technology that uses radio frequencies in order to identify tags, which do not need to be positioned accurately relative to the reader. Tags share the communication channel, increasing the likelihood of causing a problem, viz., a message collision. Tree based protocols can resolve these collisions, but require a uniform tag ID distribution. This means they are very dependent of the distribution of the IDs of the tags. Tag IDs are written in the tag and contain a predefined bit string of data. A study of the influence of the tag ID distribution on the protocols’ behaviour is proposed here. A new protocol, called the Flexible Query window Tree (FQwT) is presented to estimate the tag ID distribution, taking into consideration the type of distribution. The aim is to create a flexible anti-collision protocol in order to identify a set of tags that constitute an ID distribution. As a result, the reader classifies tags into groups determined by using a distribution estimator. Simulations show that the FQwT protocol contributes to significant reductions in identification time and energy consumption regardless of the type of ID distribution. PMID:28817070

  11. Influence of the Distribution of Tag IDs on RFID Memoryless Anti-Collision Protocols.

    PubMed

    Cmiljanic, Nikola; Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Arjona, Laura

    2017-08-17

    In recent years, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has become very popular. The main feature of this technology is that RFID tags do not require close handling and no line of sight is required between the reader and the tags. RFID is a technology that uses radio frequencies in order to identify tags, which do not need to be positioned accurately relative to the reader. Tags share the communication channel, increasing the likelihood of causing a problem, viz., a message collision. Tree based protocols can resolve these collisions, but require a uniform tag ID distribution. This means they are very dependent of the distribution of the IDs of the tags. Tag IDs are written in the tag and contain a predefined bit string of data. A study of the influence of the tag ID distribution on the protocols' behaviour is proposed here. A new protocol, called the Flexible Query window Tree (FQwT) is presented to estimate the tag ID distribution, taking into consideration the type of distribution. The aim is to create a flexible anti-collision protocol in order to identify a set of tags that constitute an ID distribution. As a result, the reader classifies tags into groups determined by using a distribution estimator. Simulations show that the FQwT protocol contributes to significant reductions in identification time and energy consumption regardless of the type of ID distribution.

  12. Acid-degradable polyurethane particles for protein-based vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, Eric M.; Beaudette, Tristan T.; Broaders, Kyle E.; Paramonov, Sergey E.; Dashe, Jesse; Fréchet, Jean M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Acid-degradable particles containing a model protein antigen, ovalbumin, were prepared from a polyurethane with acetal moieties embedded throughout the polymer, and characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The small molecule degradation by-product of the particles was synthesized and tested in vitro for toxicity indicating an LC50 of 12,500 μg/ml. A new liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique was developed to monitor the in vitro degradation of these particles. The degradation by-product inside RAW macrophages was at its highest level after 24 hours of culture and was efficiently exocytosed until it was no longer detectable after four days. When tested in vitro, these particles induced a substantial increase in the presentation of the immunodominant ovalbumin-derived peptide SIINFEKL in both macrophages and dendritic cells. In addition, vaccination with these particles generated a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response that was superior to both free ovalbumin and particles made from an analogous but slower-degrading acid-labile polyurethane polymer. Overall, we present a fully degradable polymer system with non-toxic by-products, which may find use in various biomedical applications including protein-based vaccines. PMID:18710254

  13. 78 FR 45478 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...-0531; Airspace Docket No. 13-ANM-20] Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Salmon VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Salmon, ID, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  14. Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part IV. Major American and British Biomedical Book Publishers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-chih

    1974-01-01

    This is the fourth part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviews. The data base of the total project was built from statistics of 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books taken from all 1970 issues of fifty-four reviewing journals. This part of the study identifies the major American and British biomedical book publishers in terms of their quantitative production of book titles reviewed, and determines the relationships among these publishers. It is found that Williams & Wilkins, Charles C Thomas, Academic Press, and Springer Verlag are the most productive biomedical book publishers in terms of books reviewed in 1970. These four publishers accounted for 32% of the 1,674 books available in the United States and reviewed in the reviewing media in 1970. Williams & Wilkins is especially significant by virtue of reprint activity. The present study also explores the price trend of biomedical books. It is found that the mean price for 1,077 books studied was $16.20 per volume, with a standard deviation of $9.42. PMID:4466508

  15. What is biomedical informatics?

    PubMed Central

    Bernstam, Elmer V.; Smith, Jack W.; Johnson, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical informatics lacks a clear and theoretically grounded definition. Many proposed definitions focus on data, information, and knowledge, but do not provide an adequate definition of these terms. Leveraging insights from the philosophy of information, we define informatics as the science of information, where information is data plus meaning. Biomedical informatics is the science of information as applied to or studied in the context of biomedicine. Defining the object of study of informatics as data plus meaning clearly distinguishes the field from related fields, such as computer science, statistics and biomedicine, which have different objects of study. The emphasis on data plus meaning also suggests that biomedical informatics problems tend to be difficult when they deal with concepts that are hard to capture using formal, computational definitions. In other words, problems where meaning must be considered are more difficult than problems where manipulating data without regard for meaning is sufficient. Furthermore, the definition implies that informatics research, teaching, and service should focus on biomedical information as data plus meaning rather than only computer applications in biomedicine. PMID:19683067

  16. Intra-tumoral delivery of functional ID4 protein via PCL/maltodextrin nano-particle inhibits prostate cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Derrick; Sharma, Pankaj; Gorantla, Yamini; Joshi, Jugal; Nagappan, Perri; Pallaniappan, Ravi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    ID4, a helix loop helix transcriptional regulator has emerged as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Epigenetic silencing of ID4 promotes prostate cancer whereas ectopic expression in prostate cancer cell lines blocks cancer phenotype. To directly investigate the anti-tumor property, full length human recombinant ID4 encapsulated in biodegradable Polycaprolactone/Maltodextrin (PCL-MD) nano-carrier was delivered to LNCaP cells in which the native ID4 was stably silenced (LNCaP(-)ID4). The cellular uptake of ID4 resulted in increased apoptosis, decreased proliferation and colony formation. Intratumoral delivery of PCL-MD ID4 into growing LNCaP(-)ID4 tumors in SCID mice significantly reduced the tumor volume compared to the tumors treated with chemotherapeutic Docetaxel. The study supports the feasibility of using nano-carrier encapsulated ID4 protein as a therapeutic. Mechanistically, ID4 may assimilate multiple regulatory pathways for example epigenetic re-programming, integration of multiple AR co-regulators or signaling pathways resulting in tumor suppressor activity of ID4. PMID:27487149

  17. Footrot vaccines and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dhungyel, Om; Hunter, James; Whittington, Richard

    2014-05-30

    Research on footrot in small ruminants, which is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus, has led to development of vaccines and their application for control, treatment and eradication of the disease in sheep. Footrot vaccines have evolved over decades to contain monovalent whole cell, multivalent recombinant fimbrial, and finally mono or bivalent recombinant fimbrial antigens. Initially whole cell vaccines made against the few known serogroups of D. nodosus were found to be inefficient in control of the disease in the field, which was attributed to the presence of other unidentified serogroups and also the use of inefficient adjuvants. Fimbriae or pili, which are the basis for antigenic variation, were found to be the major protective and also curative antigens but they are not cross protective between the different serogroups. Multivalent vaccines incorporating all the known serogroups have been proven to be of limited efficacy due to the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Recent studies in Nepal, Bhutan and Australia have shown that outbreak-specific vaccination which involves targeting identified serogroups with mono- or bivalent recombinant fimbrial vaccines, can be very effective in sheep and goats. Where multiple serogroups are present in a flock, antigenic competition can be overcome by sequentially targeting the serogroups with different bivalent vaccines every 3 months. A common antigen which would confer immunity to all serogroups would be the ideal immunogen but the initial studies were not successful in this area. Until universal antigen/s are available, flock specific mono or bivalent fimbrial vaccines are likely to be the most effective tool for control and eradication of footrot in sheep and goats. Future research in footrot vaccines should be focused on improving the duration of prophylaxis by incorporating new and emerging immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles, discovering a common antigen and understanding the mechanisms of

  18. Biomedical Engineering in Modern Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attinger, E. O.

    1971-01-01

    Considers definition of biomedical engineering (BME) and how biomedical engineers should be trained. State of the art descriptions of BME and BME education are followed by a brief look at the future of BME. (TS)

  19. Id-1 promotes osteosarcoma cell growth and inhibits cell apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Liang; Liao, Qi; Tang, Qiang

    2016-02-12

    Accumulating evidence reveals that Id-1 is upregulated and functions as a potential tumor promoter in several human cancer types. However, the role of Id-1 in osteosarcoma (OS) is unknown. In present study, we found that Id-1 expression was elevated in OS tissues than adjacent normal bone tissues. More importantly, we demonstrated that overexpression of Id-1 is significantly correlated with tumor progression and poor survival in OS patients. Furthermore, increased expression of Id-1 was observed in OS cell lines and ectopic expression of Id-1 significantly enhanced in vitro cell proliferation and promoted in vivo tumor growth, whereas knockdown of Id-1 suppressed OS cellsmore » growth. Moreover, our experimental data revealed that Id-1 promotes cell proliferation by facilitating cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, the effects of Id-1 in OS cells is at least partly through activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Therefore, we identified a tumorigenic role of Id-1 in OS and suggested a potential therapeutic target for OS patients. - Highlights: • Id-1 expression is positively correlated in OS patients with poor prognosis. • Overexpression of Id-1 promotes OS cell growth in vitro and in vivo. • Id-1induces cell cycle progression and inhibits cell apoptosis. • PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the oncogenic effects of Id-1 in OS cells.« less

  20. ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2012-10-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene encodes ACE, a key component of renin angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in blood pressure homeostasis by generating the vasoconstrictor peptide angiotensin II. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. The presence of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism affects the plasma level of ACE. ACE DD genotype is associated with the highest systemic and renal ACE levels compared with the lowest ACE activity in carriers of II genotype. In this review focus has been performed on the study of ACE I/D polymorphism in various populations and its influence on the risk of onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, association between ACE I/D polymorphism and response to ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonists will be reviewed. Further, synergistic effect of this polymorphism and variants of some genes on the risk of development of diabetic nephropathy will be discussed.

  1. Telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosolovska, Vita V.

    2010-08-01

    The telemedicine optoelectronic biomedical data processing system is created to share medical information for the control of health rights and timely and rapid response to crisis. The system includes the main blocks: bioprocessor, analog-digital converter biomedical images, optoelectronic module for image processing, optoelectronic module for parallel recording and storage of biomedical imaging and matrix screen display of biomedical images. Rated temporal characteristics of the blocks defined by a particular triggering optoelectronic couple in analog-digital converters and time imaging for matrix screen. The element base for hardware implementation of the developed matrix screen is integrated optoelectronic couples produced by selective epitaxy.

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Intrusion Detection System (SCADA IDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Verba; Michael Milvich

    2008-05-01

    Current Intrusion Detection System (IDS) technology is not suited to be widely deployed inside a Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) environment. Anomaly- and signature-based IDS technologies have developed methods to cover information technology-based networks activity and protocols effectively. However, these IDS technologies do not include the fine protocol granularity required to ensure network security inside an environment with weak protocols lacking authentication and encryption. By implementing a more specific and more intelligent packet inspection mechanism, tailored traffic flow analysis, and unique packet tampering detection, IDS technology developed specifically for SCADA environments can be deployed with confidence in detecting maliciousmore » activity.« less

  3. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  4. How Influenza Vaccination Policy May affect Vaccine Logistics

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T.; Welling, Joel S.; Norman, Bryan A.; Connor, Diana L.; Chen, Sheng-I; Slayton, Rachel B.; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Wateska, Angela R.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Lee, Bruce Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background When policymakers make decision about the target populations and timing of influenza vaccination, they may not consider the impact on the vaccine supply chains, which may in turn affect vaccine availability. Purpose Our goal is to explore the effects on the Thailand vaccine supply chain of introducing influenza vaccines and varying the target populations and immunization time-frames. Methods Utilized our custom-designed software HERMES (Highly Extensible Resource for Modeling Supply Chains), we developed a detailed, computational discrete-event simulation model of the Thailand's National Immunization Program (NIP) supply chain in Trang Province, Thailand., A suite of experiments simulated introducing influenza vaccines for different target populations and over different time-frames prior to and during the annual influenza season. Results Introducing influenza vaccines creates bottlenecks that reduce the availability of both influenza vaccines as well as the other NIP vaccines, with provincial to district transport capacity being the primary constraint. Even covering only 25% of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice-recommended population while administering the vaccine over six months hinders overall vaccine availability so that only 62% of arriving patients can receive vaccines. Increasing the target population from 25% to 100% progressively worsens these bottlenecks, while increasing influenza vaccination time - frame from 1 to 6 months decreases these bottlenecks. Conclusion Since the choice of target populations for influenza vaccination and the time-frame to deliver this vaccine can substantially affect the flow of all vaccines, policy-makers may want to consider supply chain effects when choosing target populations for a vaccine. PMID:22537993

  5. Development and Evaluation of LEGUME ID: A ToolBook Multimedia Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, David B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes the development and advantages of LEGUME ID, a multimedia module for agricultural education. LEGUME ID is an example of how teachers, given the opportunity through accessible computer software programs, can create powerful teaching tools. Summarized is a student response to the use of this teacher-produced software program. (MCO)

  6. The Corn Smut (‘Huitlacoche’) as a New Platform for Oral Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Montiel, Margarita; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Becerra-Flora, Alicia; Korban, Schuyler S.; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio; Jiménez-Bremont, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The development of new alternative platforms for subunit vaccine production is a priority in the biomedical field. In this study, Ustilago maydis, the causal agent of common corn smut or ‘huitlacoche’has been genetically engineered to assess expression and immunogenicity of the B subunit of the cholera toxin (CTB), a relevant immunomodulatory agent in vaccinology. An oligomeric CTB recombinant protein was expressed in corn smut galls at levels of up to 1.3 mg g-1 dry weight (0.8% of the total soluble protein). Mice orally immunized with ‘huitlacoche’-derived CTB showed significant humoral responses that were well-correlated with protection against challenge with the cholera toxin (CT). These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using edible corn smut as a safe, effective, and low-cost platform for production and delivery of a subunit oral vaccine. The implications of this platform in the area of molecular pharming are discussed. PMID:26207365

  7. Paying for Prevention: Challenges to Health Insurance Coverage for Biomedical HIV Prevention in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Underhill, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade has yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade’s response to HIV, and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIV prevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23356098

  8. Vaccine-preventable diseases, vaccines and Guillain-Barre' syndrome.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-06-04

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute, immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy. Infections and vaccines have been hypothesized to play a role in triggering GBS development. These beliefs can play a role in reducing vaccination coverage. In this report, data concerning this hypothesis are discussed. It is shown that an association between vaccine administration and GBS has never been proven for most of debated vaccines, although it cannot be definitively excluded. The only exception is the influenza vaccine, at least for the preparation used in 1976. For some vaccines, such as measles/mumps/rubella, human papillomavirus, tetravalent conjugated meningococcal vaccine, and influenza, the debate between supporters and opponents of vaccination remains robust and perception of vaccines' low safety remains a barrier to achieving adequate vaccination coverage. Less than 1 case of GBS per million immunized persons might occur for these vaccines. However, in some casesimmunization actually reduces the risk of GBS development. In addition, the benefits of vaccination are clearly demonstrated by the eradication or enormous decline in the incidence of many vaccine-preventable diseases. These data highlight that the hypothesized risks of adverse events, such as GBS, cannot be considered a valid reason to avoid the administration of currently recommended vaccines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research may be influenced by biomedical funding.

    PubMed

    Erick Peirson, B R; Kropp, Heather; Damerow, Julia; Laubichler, Manfred D

    2017-05-01

    Contrary to concerns of some critics, we present evidence that biomedical research is not dominated by a small handful of model organisms. An exhaustive analysis of research literature suggests that the diversity of experimental organisms in biomedical research has increased substantially since 1975. There has been a longstanding worry that organism-centric funding policies can lead to biases in experimental organism choice, and thus negatively impact the direction of research and the interpretation of results. Critics have argued that a focus on model organisms has unduly constrained the diversity of experimental organisms. The availability of large electronic databases of scientific literature, combined with interest in quantitative methods among philosophers of science, presents new opportunities for data-driven investigations into organism choice in biomedical research. The diversity of organisms used in NIH-funded research may be considerably lower than in the broader biomedical sciences, and may be subject to greater constraints on organism choice. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Marker vaccine strategies and candidate CSFV marker vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao-Nan; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2007-01-04

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically important highly contagious disease of swine worldwide. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is its etiological agent, and the only natural hosts are domestic pigs and wild boars. Although field CSFV strains vary in the virulence, they all result in serious losses in pig industry. Highly virulent field strains generally cause acute disease and high mortality; moderately virulent field strains raise subacute or chronic infections; postnatal infection by low virulent field strains produces subclinical infection and mortality in the new-born piglets. CSFV can cross the placental barrier, and this transplacental transmission usually results in mortality of fetuses and birth of congenitally infected pigs with a late-onset disease and death. Two main strategies to control CSF epidemic are systematic prophylactic vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (such as C-strain) and non-vaccination stamping-out policy. But neither of them is satisfying enough. Marker vaccine and companion serological diagnostic test is thought to be a promising strategy for future control and eradication of CSF. During the past 15 years, various candidate marker vaccines were constructed and evaluated in the animal experiments, including recombinant chimeric vaccines, recombinant deletion vaccines, DNA vaccines, subunit vaccines and peptide vaccines. Among them, two subunit vaccines entered the large scale marker vaccine trial of EU in 1999. Although they failed to fulfil all the demands of the Scientific Veterinary Committee, they successfully induced solid immunity against CSFV in the vaccinated pigs. It can be expected that new potent marker vaccines might be commercially available and used in systematic prophylactic vaccination campaign or emergency vaccination in the next 15 years. Here, we summarized current strategies and candidate CSFV marker vaccines. These strategies and methods are also helpful for the development of new

  11. Rising Expectations: Access to Biomedical Information

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, D. A. B.; Humphreys, B. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To provide an overview of the expansion in public access to electronic biomedical information over the past two decades, with an emphasis on developments to which the U.S. National Library of Medicine contributed. Methods Review of the increasingly broad spectrum of web-accessible genomic data, biomedical literature, consumer health information, clinical trials data, and images. Results The amount of publicly available electronic biomedical information has increased dramatically over the past twenty years. Rising expectations regarding access to biomedical information were stimulated by the spread of the Internet, the World Wide Web, advanced searching and linking techniques. These informatics advances simplified and improved access to electronic information and reduced costs, which enabled inter-organizational collaborations to build and maintain large international information resources and also aided outreach and education efforts The demonstrated benefits of free access to electronic biomedical information encouraged the development of public policies that further increase the amount of information available. Conclusions Continuing rapid growth of publicly accessible electronic biomedical information presents tremendous opportunities and challenges, including the need to ensure uninterrupted access during disasters or emergencies and to manage digital resources so they remain available for future generations. PMID:18587496

  12. Publishing priorities of biomedical research funders

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the publishing priorities, especially in relation to open access, of 10 UK biomedical research funders. Design Semistructured interviews. Setting 10 UK biomedical research funders. Participants 12 employees with responsibility for research management at 10 UK biomedical research funders; a purposive sample to represent a range of backgrounds and organisation types. Conclusions Publicly funded and large biomedical research funders are committed to open access publishing and are pleased with recent developments which have stimulated growth in this area. Smaller charitable funders are supportive of the aims of open access, but are concerned about the practical implications for their budgets and their funded researchers. Across the board, biomedical research funders are turning their attention to other priorities for sharing research outputs, including data, protocols and negative results. Further work is required to understand how smaller funders, including charitable funders, can support open access. PMID:24154520

  13. Single visit rabies pre-exposure priming induces a robust anamnestic antibody response after simulated post-exposure vaccination: results of a dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Emile F F; Visser, Leonardus G

    2017-09-01

    The current standard 3-dose intramuscular rabies PrEP schedule suffers from a number of disadvantages that severely limit accessibility and availability. The cost of is often prohibitive, it requires 3 visits to the clinic, and there are regular vaccine shortages. Volunteers ( N  = 30) were randomly assigned to 4 study arms: 1 standard dose intramuscular (IM) dose of PVRV (purified Vero cell rabies vaccine, Verorab), and 1/5th, 2/5th or 3/5th- fractional intradermal (ID) dose of PVRV in a single visit. All subjects received a simulated rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (D0, D3) 1 year later. Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA) were determined by virus neutralization microtest (FAVN) on D0, D7, D28, Y1 and Y1 + D7. 28 out of 30 subjects (93%) seroconverted 1 month after primary vaccination; 1 subject in the 1-dose IM arm and 1 in the 1/5th-fractional dose ID arm did not. After 1 year, 22 out of 30 subjects (73%) no longer had RVNA above 0.5 IU/ml, with no discernible difference between study groups. After 1 year, all 30 subjects mounted a booster response within 7 days after simulated PEP, with the highest titers found in the single dose IM group ( P  < 0.03). This dose finding study demonstrates that priming with a single dose of rabies vaccine was sufficient to induce an adequate anamnestic antibody response to rabies PEP in all subjects 1 year later, even in those in whom the RVNA threshold of 0.5 IU/ml was not reached after priming. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. RadNet Air Data From Boise, ID

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Boise, ID from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. Vaccine hesitancy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253

  16. ACE ID genotype and the muscle strength and size response to unilateral resistance training.

    PubMed

    Pescatello, Linda S; Kostek, Matthew A; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Thompson, Paul D; Seip, Richard L; Price, Thomas B; Angelopoulos, Theodore J; Clarkson, Priscilla M; Gordon, Paul M; Moyna, Niall M; Visich, Paul S; Zoeller, Robert F; Devaney, Joseph M; Hoffman, Eric P

    2006-06-01

    To examine associations among the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and the response to a 12-wk (2 d.wk) unilateral, upper-arm resistance training (RT) program in the trained (T, nondominant) and untrained (UT, dominant) arms. Subjects were 631 (mean+/-SEM, 24.2+/-0.2 yr) white (80%) men (42%) and women (58%). The ACE ID genotype was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with frequencies of 23.1, 46.1, and 30.8% for ACE II, ID, and DD, respectively (chi=1.688, P=0.430). Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and one-repetition maximum (1RM) assessed peak elbow flexor muscle strength. Magnetic resonance imaging measured biceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Multiple variable and repeated-measures ANCOVA tested whether muscle strength and size differed at baseline and pre- to post-RT among T and UT and ACE ID genotype. Baseline muscle strength and size were greater in UT than T (P<0.001) and did not differ among ACE ID genotype in either arm (P >or= 0.05). In T, MVC increases were greater for ACE II/ID (22%) than DD (17%) (P<0.05), whereas 1RM (51%) and CSA (19%) gains were not different among ACE ID genotype pre- to post-RT (P >or= 0.05). In UT, MVC increased among ACE II/ID (7%) (P<0.001) but was similar among ACE DD (2%) pre- to post-RT (P >or= 0.05). In UT, 1RM (11%) and CSA (2%) increases were greater for ACE DD/ID than ACE II (1RM, 7%; CSA, -0.1%) (P<0.05). ACE ID genotype explained approximately 1% of the MVC response to RT in T and approximately 2% of MVC, 2% of 1RM, and 4% of CSA response in UT (P<0.05). ACE ID genotype is associated with the contralateral effects of unilateral RT, perhaps more so than with the muscle strength and size adaptations that result from RT.

  17. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011.

    PubMed

    Pyysalo, Sampo; Ohta, Tomoko; Rak, Rafal; Sullivan, Dan; Mao, Chunhong; Wang, Chunxia; Sobral, Bruno; Tsujii, Jun'ichi; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2012-06-26

    We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID) and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI), and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL). The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09) to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level of performance sufficient

  18. Overview of the ID, EPI and REL tasks of BioNLP Shared Task 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present the preparation, resources, results and analysis of three tasks of the BioNLP Shared Task 2011: the main tasks on Infectious Diseases (ID) and Epigenetics and Post-translational Modifications (EPI), and the supporting task on Entity Relations (REL). The two main tasks represent extensions of the event extraction model introduced in the BioNLP Shared Task 2009 (ST'09) to two new areas of biomedical scientific literature, each motivated by the needs of specific biocuration tasks. The ID task concerns the molecular mechanisms of infection, virulence and resistance, focusing in particular on the functions of a class of signaling systems that are ubiquitous in bacteria. The EPI task is dedicated to the extraction of statements regarding chemical modifications of DNA and proteins, with particular emphasis on changes relating to the epigenetic control of gene expression. By contrast to these two application-oriented main tasks, the REL task seeks to support extraction in general by separating challenges relating to part-of relations into a subproblem that can be addressed by independent systems. Seven groups participated in each of the two main tasks and four groups in the supporting task. The participating systems indicated advances in the capability of event extraction methods and demonstrated generalization in many aspects: from abstracts to full texts, from previously considered subdomains to new ones, and from the ST'09 extraction targets to other entities and events. The highest performance achieved in the supporting task REL, 58% F-score, is broadly comparable with levels reported for other relation extraction tasks. For the ID task, the highest-performing system achieved 56% F-score, comparable to the state-of-the-art performance at the established ST'09 task. In the EPI task, the best result was 53% F-score for the full set of extraction targets and 69% F-score for a reduced set of core extraction targets, approaching a level of performance sufficient

  19. [Ethics and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Goussard, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research took off from the 1947 Nuremberg Code to its own right in the wake of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Since then, (inter)national regulations and guidelines providing a framework for clinical studies and protection for study participants have been drafted and implemented, while ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies have sprung up throughout the world. These two developments were crucial in bringing about the protection of rights and safety of the participants and harmonization of the conduct of biomedical research. Ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies deliver ethical and scientific assessments on the quality and safety of the projects submitted to them and issue respectively approvals and authorizations to carry out clinical trials, while ensuring that they comply with regulatory requirements, ethical principles, and scientific guidelines. The advent of biomedical ethics, together with the responsible commitment of clinical investigators and of the pharmaceutical industry, has guaranteed respect for the patient, for whom and with whom research is conducted. Just as importantly, it has also ensured that patients reap the benefit of what is the primary objective of biomedical research: greater life expectancy, well-being, and quality of life.

  20. Environmental/Biomedical Terminology Index

    SciTech Connect

    Huffstetler, J.K.; Dailey, N.S.; Rickert, L.W.

    1976-12-01

    The Information Center Complex (ICC), a centrally administered group of information centers, provides information support to environmental and biomedical research groups and others within and outside Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In-house data base building and development of specialized document collections are important elements of the ongoing activities of these centers. ICC groups must be concerned with language which will adequately classify and insure retrievability of document records. Language control problems are compounded when the complexity of modern scientific problem solving demands an interdisciplinary approach. Although there are several word lists, indexes, and thesauri specific to various scientific disciplines usually groupedmore » as Environmental Sciences, no single generally recognized authority can be used as a guide to the terminology of all environmental science. If biomedical terminology for the description of research on environmental effects is also needed, the problem becomes even more complex. The building of a word list which can be used as a general guide to the environmental/biomedical sciences has been a continuing activity of the Information Center Complex. This activity resulted in the publication of the Environmental Biomedical Terminology Index (EBTI).« less

  1. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity. PMID:23091380

  2. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Vardharajula, Sandhya; Ali, Sk Z; Tiwari, Pooja M; Eroğlu, Erdal; Vig, Komal; Dennis, Vida A; Singh, Shree R

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.

  3. Vaccines.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  4. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-04-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.

  5. A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2014-01-01

    The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts. PMID:24927336

  6. Efficient coding and detection of ultra-long IDs for visible light positioning systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualong; Yang, Chuanchuan

    2018-05-14

    Visible light positioning (VLP) is a promising technique to complement Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) such as Global positioning system (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) which features the advantage of low-cost and high accuracy. The situation becomes even more crucial for indoor environments, where satellite signals are weak or even unavailable. For large-scale application of VLP, there would be a considerable number of Light emitting diode (LED) IDs, which bring forward the demand of long LED ID detection. In particular, to provision indoor localization globally, a convenient way is to program a unique ID into each LED during manufacture. This poses a big challenge for image sensors, such as the CMOS camera in everybody's hands since the long ID covers the span of multiple frames. In this paper, we investigate the detection of ultra-long ID using rolling shutter cameras. By analyzing the pattern of data loss in each frame, we proposed a novel coding technique to improve the efficiency of LED ID detection. We studied the performance of Reed-Solomon (RS) code in this system and designed a new coding method which considered the trade-off between performance and decoding complexity. Coding technique decreases the number of frames needed in data processing, significantly reduces the detection time, and improves the accuracy of detection. Numerical and experimental results show that the detected LED ID can be much longer with the coding technique. Besides, our proposed coding method is proved to achieve a performance close to that of RS code while the decoding complexity is much lower.

  7. Ethical and legal challenges of vaccines and vaccination: Reflections.

    PubMed

    Jesani, Amar; Johari, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate.

  8. An ID Network System to Prepare for Global Environmental/Health Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Shoichiro; Yoneda, Susumu

    Climate change and/or pandemics are global life threatening concerns. For verifying and utilizing monitored data for solving to the Climate Change concerns, a network system based on device ID would be proposed. In this paper, we review the recent standardization initiatives in ITU-T, and propose an ID network that can be used to verify the solutions.

  9. Professional Identification for Biomedical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Francis M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses four methods of professional identification in biomedical engineering including registration, certification, accreditation, and possible membership qualification of the societies. Indicates that the destiny of the biomedical engineer may be under the control of a new profession, neither the medical nor the engineering. (CC)

  10. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; ...

  11. An exploration of the biomedical optics course construction of undergraduate biomedical engineering program in medical colleges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shijun; Lyu, Jie; Zhang, Peiming

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the teaching goals, teaching contents and teaching methods in biomedical optics course construction are discussed. From the dimension of teaching goals, students should master the principle of optical inspection on the human body, diagnosis and treatment of methodology and instruments, through the study of the theory and practice of this course, and can utilize biomedical optics methods to solve practical problems in the clinical medical engineering practice. From the dimension of teaching contents, based on the characteristics of biomedical engineering in medical colleges, the organic integration of engineering aspects, medical optical instruments, and biomedical aspects dispersed in human anatomy, human physiology, clinical medicine fundamental related to the biomedical optics is build. Noninvasive measurement of the human body composition and noninvasive optical imaging of the human body were taken as actual problems in biomedical optics fields. Typical medical applications such as eye optics and laser medicine were also integrated into the theory and practice teaching. From the dimension of teaching methods, referencing to organ-system based medical teaching mode, optical principle and instrument principle were taught by teachers from school of medical instruments, and the histological characteristics and clinical actual need in areas such as digestive diseases and urinary surgery were taught by teachers from school of basic medicine or clinical medicine of medical colleges. Furthermore, clinical application guidance would be provided by physician and surgeons in hospitals.

  12. ID'ing innate and innate-like lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Verykokakis, Mihalis; Zook, Erin C; Kee, Barbara L

    2014-09-01

    The immune system can be divided into innate and adaptive components that differ in their rate and mode of cellular activation, with innate immune cells being the first responders to invading pathogens. Recent advances in the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells have revealed reiterative developmental programs that result in cells with effector fates that parallel those of adaptive lymphoid cells and are tailored to effectively eliminate a broad spectrum of pathogenic challenges. However, activation of these cells can also be associated with pathologies such as autoimmune disease. One major distinction between innate and adaptive immune system cells is the constitutive expression of ID proteins in the former and inducible expression in the latter. ID proteins function as antagonists of the E protein transcription factors that play critical roles in lymphoid specification as well as B- and T-lymphocyte development. In this review, we examine the transcriptional mechanisms controlling the development of innate lymphocytes, including natural killer cells and the recently identified innate lymphoid cells (ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3), and innate-like lymphocytes, including natural killer T cells, with an emphasis on the known requirements for the ID proteins. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Results of Booster Vaccination in Children with Primary Vaccine Failure after Initial Varicella Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ozakiv, Takao; Nishimura, Naoko; Gotoh, Kensei; Funahashi, Keiji; Yoshii, Hironori; Okuno, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    In October 2014, the varicella vaccination policy in Japan was changed from a single voluntary inoculation to two routine inoculations. This paper reports the results of booster vaccination in children who did not show seroconversion after initial vaccination (i.e., primary vaccine failure : PVF) over a 7-year period prior to the introduction of routine varicella vaccination. Between November 2007 and May 2014, 273 healthy children aged between 1.1 and 14.5 years (median : 1.7 years) underwent varicella vaccination. Before and 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination, the antibody titers were measured using an immune adherence hemagglutination (IAHA) assay and a glycoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (gpELISA). In addition, side reactions were examined during the four-week period after vaccination. Children who did not show IAHA seroconversion (PVF) were recommended to receive a booster vaccination, and the measurement of antibody titers and an assessment of side reactions were performed after the booster dose. In May 2015, a questionnaire was mailed to each of the 273 participants to investigate whether they had developed varicella and/or herpes zoster after vaccination. After initial vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 75% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 4.7, while the gpELISA seroconversion rate was 84% and the mean antibody titer (Log10) with seroconversion was 2.4. Among children with PVF, 54 received booster vaccination within 81 to 714 days (median : 139 days) after the initial vaccination. After booster vaccination, the IAHA seroconversion rate was 98% and the mean antibody titer (Log2) with seroconversion was 5.8. Both the seroconversion rate and the antibody titer were higher compared with the values after the initial vaccination (p < 0.01). After booster vaccination, the gpELISA seropositive rate was 100% and the mean positive antibody titer (Log 10) was 3.6 ; similar results were obtained for the IAHA assay, with

  14. Redesigning photo-ID to improve unfamiliar face matching performance.

    PubMed

    White, David; Burton, A Mike; Jenkins, Rob; Kemp, Richard I

    2014-06-01

    Viewers find it difficult to match photos of unfamiliar faces for identity. Despite this, the use of photographic ID is widespread. In this study we ask whether it is possible to improve face matching performance by replacing single photographs on ID documents with multiple photos or an average image of the bearer. In 3 experiments we compare photo-to-photo matching with photo-to-average matching (where the average is formed from multiple photos of the same person) and photo-to-array matching (where the array comprises separate photos of the same person). We consistently find an accuracy advantage for average images and photo arrays over single photos, and show that this improvement is driven by performance in match trials. In the final experiment, we find a benefit of 4-image arrays relative to average images for unfamiliar faces, but not for familiar faces. We propose that conventional photo-ID format can be improved, and discuss this finding in the context of face recognition more generally. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CNN-based ranking for biomedical entity normalization.

    PubMed

    Li, Haodi; Chen, Qingcai; Tang, Buzhou; Wang, Xiaolong; Xu, Hua; Wang, Baohua; Huang, Dong

    2017-10-03

    Most state-of-the-art biomedical entity normalization systems, such as rule-based systems, merely rely on morphological information of entity mentions, but rarely consider their semantic information. In this paper, we introduce a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem and benefits from semantic information of biomedical entities. The CNN-based ranking method first generates candidates using handcrafted rules, and then ranks the candidates according to their semantic information modeled by CNN as well as their morphological information. Experiments on two benchmark datasets for biomedical entity normalization show that our proposed CNN-based ranking method outperforms traditional rule-based method with state-of-the-art performance. We propose a CNN architecture that regards biomedical entity normalization as a ranking problem. Comparison results show that semantic information is beneficial to biomedical entity normalization and can be well combined with morphological information in our CNN architecture for further improvement.

  17. Subviral Particle as Vaccine and Vaccine Platform

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant subvirual particles retain similar antigenic features of their authentic viral capsids and thus have been applied as nonreplicating subunit vaccines against viral infection and illness. Additionally, the self-assembled, polyvalent subviral particles are excellent platforms to display foreign antigens for immune enhancement for vaccine development. These subviral particle-based vaccines are noninfectious and thus safer than the conventional live attenuated and inactivated vaccines. While several VLP vaccines are available in the markets, numerous others, including dual vaccines against more than one pathogen, are under clinical or preclinical development. This article provides an update of these efforts. PMID:24662314

  18. 78 FR 51677 - Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Proposed Parental Consent Method; AssertID, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...-AB20 Children's Online Privacy Protection Rule Proposed Parental Consent Method; AssertID, Inc. Application for Approval of Parental Consent Method AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... concerning the proposed parental consent method submitted by AssertID, Inc. (``AssertID'') under the...

  19. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E; Reiter, Paul L; Dempsey, Amanda F; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-01-01

    To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children's vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents' mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76-0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40-1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42-1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23-1.42). Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children.

  20. Expected epidemiological impact of the introduction of a partially effective HIV vaccine among men who have sex with men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard T; Ghaus, Mohammad H; Hoare, Alexander; Wilson, David P

    2011-08-18

    A trial of the ALVAC-AIDSVAX HIV vaccine was recently found to be partially effective in preventing HIV transmission among study participants in Thailand. The success of this trial means that vaccination may become a viable intervention for the prevention of HIV infection in the medium-term future. Assuming that the vaccine has similar relative protective effectiveness per exposure event for reducing transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in high-income settings we investigated the potential population-level impact of rolling out such a vaccine among MSM in New South Wales, Australia. Using a detailed individual-based transmission model that simulates a population of sexually active MSM it was found that one-off intervention of 60% or 30% coverage of a vaccine with characteristics like the ALVAX-AIDSVAX vaccine would likely reduce the cumulative incidence of HIV by 9.6% and 5.1%, respectively, over a 10-year period. Due to the waning of vaccine efficacy, a booster vaccination could be required to maintain this reduction in incidence over the long term. If the previously vaccinated population is given a booster vaccine, with the same protection conferred as with the initial vaccination, every 5 years or every 2 years then the cumulative incidence over 10 years for 60% coverage could be reduced by 14.4% and 22.8%, respectively. Such a weak vaccine, with boosting, may be a potential intervention strategy for the prevention of HIV infection in MSM in high-income countries if further trials show boosting to be safe, acceptable, and cost-effective. However, the moderately low population-level impact suggests that a public health strategy involving such a vaccine should be supplemented with other biomedical and educational strategies. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Current status of biomedical book reviewing. I. Key biomedical reviewing journals with quantitative significance.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Wright, A M

    1974-04-01

    This is the first part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviewing. The data base of the total project was built from statistics taken from all 1970 issues of biomedical journals held in the Science Library of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of 285 so-called "life sciences" journals held by that library, fifty-four English journals (excluding Science and Nature) were found to contain bona fide book reviews (as contrasted with mere author-title lists) and were therefore selected for close study. The statistical results reveal that there were 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books in these fifty-four selected journals in 1970. Part I of the study identifies key biomedical reviewing journals of quantitative significance. The top ten journals, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Archives of Internal Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, Quarterly Review of Biology, Bioscience, Canadian Medical Association Journal,(*) and American Journal of the Medical Sciences, accounted for 63.03% of the total number of reviews in 1970.

  2. 77 FR 68065 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Lewiston, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Measuring Equipment (VOR/ DME), and the Lewiston-Nez Perce Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM ID E5 Lewiston, ID [Modified] Lewiston-Nez...

  3. [Biomedical engineering today : An overview from the viewpoint of the German Biomedical Engineering Society].

    PubMed

    Schlötelburg, C; Becks, T; Stieglitz, T

    2010-08-01

    Biomedical engineering is characterized by the interdisciplinary co-operation of technology, science, and ways of thinking, probably more than any other technological area. The close interaction of engineering and information sciences with medicine and biology results in innovative products and methods, but also requires high standards for the interdisciplinary transfer of ideas into products for patients' benefits. This article describes the situation of biomedical engineering in Germany. It displays characteristics of the medical device industry and ranks it with respect to the international market. The research landscape is described as well as up-to-date research topics and trends. The national funding situation of research in biomedical engineering is reviewed and existing innovation barriers are discussed.

  4. Vaccination Confidence and Parental Refusal/Delay of Early Childhood Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098

  5. Vaccine exemptions and the kindergarten vaccination coverage gap.

    PubMed

    Smith, Philip J; Shaw, Jana; Seither, Ranee; Lopez, Adriana; Hill, Holly A; Underwood, Mike; Knighton, Cynthia; Zhao, Zhen; Ravanam, Megha Shah; Greby, Stacie; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-09-25

    Vaccination requirements for kindergarten entry vary by state, but all states require 2 doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) at kindergarten entry. To assess (i) national MCV vaccination coverage for children who had attended kindergarten; (ii) the extent to which undervaccination after kindergarten entry is attributable to parents' requests for an exemption; (iii) the extent to which undervaccinated children had missed opportunities to be administered missing vaccine doses among children whose parent did not request an exemption; and (iv) the vaccination coverage gap between the "highest achievable" MCV coverage and actual MCV coverage among children who had attended kindergarten. A national survey of 1465 parents of 5-7year-old children was conducted during October 2013 through March 2014. Vaccination coverage estimates are based provider-reported vaccination histories. Children have a "missed opportunity" for MCV if they were not up-to-date and if there were dates on which other vaccines were administered but not MCV. The "highest achievable" MCV vaccination coverage rate is 100% minus the sum of the percentages of (i) undervaccinated children with parents who requested an exemption; and (ii) undervaccinated children with parents who did not request an exemption and whose vaccination statuses were assessed during a kindergarten grace period or period when they were provisionally enrolled in kindergarten. Among all children undervaccinated for MCV, 2.7% were attributable to having a parent who requested an exemption. Among children who were undervaccinated for MCV and whose parent did not request an exemption, 41.6% had a missed opportunity for MCV. The highest achievable MCV coverage was 98.6%, actual MCV coverage was 90.9%, and the kindergarten vaccination gap was 7.7%. Vaccination coverage may be increased by schools fully implementing state kindergarten vaccination laws, and by providers assessing children's vaccination status at every clinic visit, and

  6. Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia

    2017-02-28

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research.

  7. Current trends for customized biomedical software tools.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haseeb Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    In the past, biomedical scientists were solely dependent on expensive commercial software packages for various applications. However, the advent of user-friendly programming languages and open source platforms has revolutionized the development of simple and efficient customized software tools for solving specific biomedical problems. Many of these tools are designed and developed by biomedical scientists independently or with the support of computer experts and often made freely available for the benefit of scientific community. The current trends for customized biomedical software tools are highlighted in this short review.

  8. Toward operation of series IDs at BL43LXU of SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, A. Q. R.; Tanaka, T.; Soutome, K.

    2016-07-27

    This paper discusses two issues relating to using 3 small gap insertion devices in series at BL43LXU of SPring-8 to make a uniquely powerful source in the 15-26 keV region of the x-ray spectrum. The issues discussed are (1) damage to the covers of the downstream IDs by radiation from the upstream IDs and (2) proper steering of the electron beam to get the best photon beam properties. After tests in several configurations, including one where an ID was run without an impedance-reducing cover, the damage issue was solved by installing a distributed absorber in the most downstream ID. Themore » steering issues were mostly resolved by the introduction of appropriate corrector magnets and feedback. The paper is written from the viewpoint of an interested beamline scientist impressed with the cooperation of different groups to make a source for new science possible.« less

  9. Commercial Biomedical Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. Biomedical Experiments (CIBX-2) payload. CIBX-2 is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the Stars program. Valerie Cassanto of ITA checks the Canadian Protein Crystallization Experiment (CAPE) carried by STS-86 to Mir in 1997. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

  10. Overestimation of the 25(OH)D serum concentration with the automated IDS EIA kit.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Huberty, Véronique; Cormier, Catherine; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2011-02-01

    We have recently observed an increasing number of patients presenting very high serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] (> 150 ng/mL), which, in all cases, had been measured with the IDS EIA kit adapted on different "open" automated platforms. We performed a comparison between the IDS EIA kit adapted on two different "open"automated platforms and the DiaSorin RIA. We found a systematic bias (higher levels with the IDS EIA kit) for concentrations more than 50-60 ng/mL that was less obvious when the IDS EIA was used in its manual procedure. We thus suggest to use the IDS EIA kit in its manual procedure rather than to adapt it on an automated platform, and to interpret cautiously a 25(OH)D greater than 100 ng/mL with this kit. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Id expression in amphioxus and lamprey highlights the role of gene cooption during neural crest evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meulemans, Daniel; McCauley, David; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    Neural crest cells are unique to vertebrates and generate many of the adult structures that differentiate them from their closest invertebrate relatives, the cephalochordates. Id genes are robust markers of neural crest cells at all stages of development. We compared Id gene expression in amphioxus and lamprey to ask if cephalochordates deploy Id genes at the neural plate border and dorsal neural tube in a manner similar to vertebrates. Furthermore, we examined whether Id expression in these cells is a basal vertebrate trait or a derived feature of gnathostomes. We found that while expression of Id genes in the mesoderm and endoderm is conserved between amphioxus and vertebrates, expression in the lateral neural plate border and dorsal neural tube is a vertebrate novelty. Furthermore, expression of lamprey Id implies that recruitment of Id genes to these cells occurred very early in the vertebrate lineage. Based on expression in amphioxus we postulate that Id cooption conferred sensory cell progenitor-like properties upon the lateral neurectoderm, and pharyngeal mesoderm-like properties upon cranial neural crest. Amphioxus Id expression is also consistent with homology between the anterior neurectoderm of amphioxus and the presumptive placodal ectoderm of vertebrates. These observations support the idea that neural crest evolution was driven in large part by cooption of multipurpose transcriptional regulators from other tissues and cell types.

  12. TGFβ-Id1 Signaling Opposes Twist1 and Promotes Metastatic Colonization Via a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition

    PubMed Central

    Stankic, Marko; Pavlovic, Svetlana; Chin, Yvette; Brogi, Edi; Padua, David; Norton, Larry; Massague, Joan; Benezra, Robert

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY ID genes are required for breast cancer colonization of the lungs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Id1 expression induces a stem-like phenotype in breast cancer cells, while retaining epithelial properties, contrary to the notion that cancer stem-like properties are inextricably linked to the mesenchymal state. During metastatic colonization, Id1 induces a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), specifically in cells whose mesenchymal state is dependent on the Id1 target protein Twist1 but not at the primary site, where this state is controlled by the zinc-finger protein Snail1. Knockdown of Id expression in metastasizing cells prevents MET and dramatically reduces lung colonization. Furthermore, Id1 is induced by TGFβ only in cells that have first undergone EMT, demonstrating that EMT is a pre-requisite for subsequent Id1-induced MET during lung colonization. Collectively, these studies underscore the importance of Id-mediated phenotypic switching during distinct stages of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:24332369

  13. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  14. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  15. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  16. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a doctor...

  18. The Implementation of C-ID, R2D2 Model on Learning Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayanto, Yudi Hari; Rusmawan, Putu Ngurah

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to find out, (1) whether C-ID, R2D2 model is effective to be implemented on learning Reading comprehension, (2) college students' activity during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on learning Reading comprehension, and 3) college students' learning achievement during the implementation of C-ID, R2D2 model on…

  19. Tackling the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies.

    PubMed

    Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Mott, Isabela; Martins, Catarina; Couto, Francisco M; Cruz, Isabel F

    2018-01-15

    Biomedical ontologies pose several challenges to ontology matching due both to the complexity of the biomedical domain and to the characteristics of the ontologies themselves. The biomedical tracks in the Ontology Matching Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) have spurred the development of matching systems able to tackle these challenges, and benchmarked their general performance. In this study, we dissect the strategies employed by matching systems to tackle the challenges of matching biomedical ontologies and gauge the impact of the challenges themselves on matching performance, using the AgreementMakerLight (AML) system as the platform for this study. We demonstrate that the linear complexity of the hash-based searching strategy implemented by most state-of-the-art ontology matching systems is essential for matching large biomedical ontologies efficiently. We show that accounting for all lexical annotations (e.g., labels and synonyms) in biomedical ontologies leads to a substantial improvement in F-measure over using only the primary name, and that accounting for the reliability of different types of annotations generally also leads to a marked improvement. Finally, we show that cross-references are a reliable source of information and that, when using biomedical ontologies as background knowledge, it is generally more reliable to use them as mediators than to perform lexical expansion. We anticipate that translating traditional matching algorithms to the hash-based searching paradigm will be a critical direction for the future development of the field. Improving the evaluation carried out in the biomedical tracks of the OAEI will also be important, as without proper reference alignments there is only so much that can be ascertained about matching systems or strategies. Nevertheless, it is clear that, to tackle the various challenges posed by biomedical ontologies, ontology matching systems must be able to efficiently combine multiple strategies into a mature matching

  20. EXACT2: the semantics of biomedical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The reliability and reproducibility of experimental procedures is a cornerstone of scientific practice. There is a pressing technological need for the better representation of biomedical protocols to enable other agents (human or machine) to better reproduce results. A framework that ensures that all information required for the replication of experimental protocols is essential to achieve reproducibility. Methods We have developed the ontology EXACT2 (EXperimental ACTions) that is designed to capture the full semantics of biomedical protocols required for their reproducibility. To construct EXACT2 we manually inspected hundreds of published and commercial biomedical protocols from several areas of biomedicine. After establishing a clear pattern for extracting the required information we utilized text-mining tools to translate the protocols into a machine amenable format. We have verified the utility of EXACT2 through the successful processing of previously 'unseen' (not used for the construction of EXACT2) protocols. Results The paper reports on a fundamentally new version EXACT2 that supports the semantically-defined representation of biomedical protocols. The ability of EXACT2 to capture the semantics of biomedical procedures was verified through a text mining use case. In this EXACT2 is used as a reference model for text mining tools to identify terms pertinent to experimental actions, and their properties, in biomedical protocols expressed in natural language. An EXACT2-based framework for the translation of biomedical protocols to a machine amenable format is proposed. Conclusions The EXACT2 ontology is sufficient to record, in a machine processable form, the essential information about biomedical protocols. EXACT2 defines explicit semantics of experimental actions, and can be used by various computer applications. It can serve as a reference model for for the translation of biomedical protocols in natural language into a semantically

  1. Inactivation of ID4 promotes a CRPC phenotype with constitutive AR activation through FKBP52.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Jugal Bharat; Patel, Divya; Morton, Derrick J; Sharma, Pankaj; Zou, Jin; Hewa Bostanthirige, Dhanushka; Gorantla, Yamini; Nagappan, Peri; Komaragiri, Shravan Kumar; Sivils, Jeffrey C; Xie, Huan; Palaniappan, Ravi; Wang, Guangdi; Cox, Marc B; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2017-04-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the emergence of prostate cancer cells that have adapted to the androgen-depleted environment of the prostate. In recent years, targeting multiple chaperones and co-chaperones (e.g., Hsp27, FKBP52) that promote androgen receptor (AR) signaling and/or novel AR regulatory mechanisms have emerged as promising alternative treatments for CRPC. We have shown that inactivation of inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4), a dominant-negative helix loop helix protein, promotes de novo steroidogenesis and CRPC with a gene expression signature that resembles constitutive AR activity in castrated mice. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling. Proteomic analysis between prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (L+ns) and LNCaP lacking ID4 (L(-)ID4) revealed elevated levels of Hsp27 and FKBP52, suggesting a role for these AR-associated co-chaperones in promoting constitutively active AR signaling in L(-)ID4 cells. Interestingly, protein interaction studies demonstrated a direct interaction between ID4 and the 52-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP52) in vitro, but not with AR. An increase in FKBP52-dependent AR transcriptional activity was observed in L(-)ID4 cells. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of FKBP52-AR signaling, by treatment with MJC13, attenuated the tumor growth, weight, and volume in L(-)ID4 xenografts. Together, our results demonstrate that ID4 selectively regulates AR activity through direct interaction with FKBP52, and its loss, promotes CRPC through FKBP52-mediated AR signaling. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. How to locate & hire clinical/biomedical engineers, supervisors, managers & biomedical equipment technicians.

    PubMed

    Pacela, A F; Brush, L C

    1993-01-01

    This article has described the process and the resources available for locating and hiring clinical/biomedical engineers, supervisors, managers, and biomedical equipment technicians. First, the employer must determine the qualifications for the position, including job titles, descriptions, pay scales, and certification requirements. Next, the employer must find qualified applicants. The most common way to do this is to use "outside" contacts, such as help-wanted advertising, specialized job placement agencies, schools and colleges, military resources, regional biomedical societies, and nationwide societies. An "inside" search involves limited internal advertising of the position and using personal referrals for candidates. Finally, the employer must screen the applicants. The position description is the obvious first step in this process, but there are other pre-screening techniques, such as employment testing. Interviewing is the most common way to hire for job positions, but the interviewer needs to know about the position and ask the right questions. Post-interview screening is a final step to help determine the best job-person match.

  3. Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research. PMID:28772604

  4. A public-professional web-bridge for vaccines and vaccination: user concerns about vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    García-Basteiro, Alberto L; Alvarez-Pasquín, María-José; Mena, Guillermo; Llupià, Anna; Aldea, Marta; Sequera, Victor-Guillermo; Sanz, Sergi; Tuells, Jose; Navarro-Alonso, José-Antonio; de Arísteguí, Javier; Bayas, José-María

    2012-05-28

    Vacunas.org (http://www.vacunas.org), a website founded by the Spanish Association of Vaccinology offers a personalized service called Ask the Expert, which answers any questions posed by the public or health professionals about vaccines and vaccination. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors associated with questions on vaccination safety and determine the characteristics of questioners and the type of question asked during the period 2008-2010. A total of 1341 questions were finally included in the analysis. Of those, 30% were related to vaccine safety. Questions about pregnant women had 5.01 higher odds of asking about safety (95% CI 2.82-8.93) than people not belonging to any risk group. Older questioners (>50 years) were less likely to ask about vaccine safety compared to younger questioners (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.25-0.76). Questions made after vaccination or related to influenza (including H1N1) or travel vaccines were also associated with a higher likelihood of asking about vaccine safety. These results identify risk groups (pregnant women), population groups (older people) and some vaccines (travel and influenza vaccines, including H1N1) where greater efforts to provide improved, more-tailored vaccine information in general and on the Internet are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of vaccine-critical websites on perceiving vaccination risks.

    PubMed

    Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank; Betsch, Tilmann; Ulshöfer, Corina

    2010-04-01

    This large-scale Internet-experiment tests whether vaccine-critical pages raise perceptions of the riskiness of vaccinations and alter vaccination intentions. We manipulated the information environment (vaccine-critical website, control, both) and the focus of search (on vaccination risks, omission risks, no focus). Our analyses reveal that accessing vaccine-critical websites for five to 10 minutes increases the perception of risk of vaccinating and decreases the perception of risk of omitting vaccinations as well as the intentions to vaccinate. In line with the 'risk-as-feelings' approach, the affect elicited by the vaccine-critical websites was positively related to changes in risk perception.

  6. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  7. Japanese encephalitis vaccines: current vaccines and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Monath, T P

    2002-01-01

    Vaccination against JE ideally should be practiced in all areas of Asia where the virus is responsible for human disease. The WHO has placed a high priority on the development of a new vaccine for prevention of JE. Some countries in Asia (Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the PRC) manufacture JE vaccines and practice childhood immunization, while other countries suffering endemic or epidemic disease (India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) have no JE vaccine manufacturing or policy for use. With the exception of the PRC, all countries practicing JE vaccination use formalin inactivated mouse brain vaccines, which are relatively expensive and are associated with rare but clinically significant allergic and neurological adverse events. New inactivated JE vaccines manufactured in Vero cells are in advanced preclinical or early clinical development in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the PRC. An empirically derived, live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) is widely used in the PRC. Trials in the PRC have shown SA14-14-2 to be safe and effective when administered in a two-dose regimen, but regulatory concerns over manufacturing and control have restricted international distribution. The genetic basis of attenuation of SA14-14-2 has been partially defined. A new live attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) that uses a reliable flavivirus vaccine--yellow fever 17D--as a live vector for the envelope genes of SA14-14-2 virus is in early clinical trials and appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic after a single dose. Vaccinia and avipox vectored vaccines have also been tested clinically, but are no longer being pursued due to restricted effectiveness mediated by anti-vector immunity. Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed.

  8. DNA origami-based shape IDs for single-molecule nanomechanical genotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Honglu; Chao, Jie; Pan, Dun; Liu, Huajie; Qiang, Yu; Liu, Ke; Cui, Chengjun; Chen, Jianhua; Huang, Qing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yongyong; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-04-01

    Variations on DNA sequences profoundly affect how we develop diseases and respond to pathogens and drugs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a nanomechanical imaging approach for genetic analysis with nanometre resolution. However, unlike fluorescence imaging that has wavelength-specific fluorophores, the lack of shape-specific labels largely hampers widespread applications of AFM imaging. Here we report the development of a set of differentially shaped, highly hybridizable self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures serving as shape IDs for magnified nanomechanical imaging of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these origami shape IDs, we directly genotype single molecules of human genomic DNA with an ultrahigh resolution of ~10 nm and the multiplexing ability. Further, we determine three types of disease-associated, long-range haplotypes in samples from the Han Chinese population. Single-molecule analysis allows robust haplotyping even for samples with low labelling efficiency. We expect this generic shape ID-based nanomechanical approach to hold great potential in genetic analysis at the single-molecule level.

  9. DNA origami-based shape IDs for single-molecule nanomechanical genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Honglu; Chao, Jie; Pan, Dun; Liu, Huajie; Qiang, Yu; Liu, Ke; Cui, Chengjun; Chen, Jianhua; Huang, Qing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Lianhui; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yongyong; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-01-01

    Variations on DNA sequences profoundly affect how we develop diseases and respond to pathogens and drugs. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a nanomechanical imaging approach for genetic analysis with nanometre resolution. However, unlike fluorescence imaging that has wavelength-specific fluorophores, the lack of shape-specific labels largely hampers widespread applications of AFM imaging. Here we report the development of a set of differentially shaped, highly hybridizable self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures serving as shape IDs for magnified nanomechanical imaging of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Using these origami shape IDs, we directly genotype single molecules of human genomic DNA with an ultrahigh resolution of ∼10 nm and the multiplexing ability. Further, we determine three types of disease-associated, long-range haplotypes in samples from the Han Chinese population. Single-molecule analysis allows robust haplotyping even for samples with low labelling efficiency. We expect this generic shape ID-based nanomechanical approach to hold great potential in genetic analysis at the single-molecule level. PMID:28382928

  10. Boosting production yield of biomedical peptides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique is employed to monitor synthesis of biomedical peptides. Application of NMR technique may improve production yields of insulin, ACTH, and growth hormones, as well as other synthesized biomedical peptides.

  11. Role of ID Proteins in BMP4 Inhibition of Profibrotic Effects of TGF-β2 in Human TM Cells.

    PubMed

    Mody, Avani A; Wordinger, Robert J; Clark, Abbot F

    2017-02-01

    Increased expression of TGF-β2 in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) aqueous humor (AH) and trabecular meshwork (TM) causes deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the TM and elevated IOP. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate TGF-β2-induced ECM production. The underlying mechanism for BMP4 inhibition of TGF-β2-induced fibrosis remains undetermined. Bone morphogenic protein 4 induces inhibitor of DNA binding proteins (ID1, ID3), which suppress transcription factor activities to regulate gene expression. Our study will determine whether ID1and ID3 proteins are downstream targets of BMP4, which attenuates TGF-β2 induction of ECM proteins in TM cells. Primary human TM cells were treated with BMP4, and ID1 and ID3 mRNA, and protein expression was determined by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and Western immunoblotting. Intracellular ID1 and ID3 protein localization was studied by immunocytochemistry. Transformed human TM cells (GTM3 cells) were transfected with ID1 or ID3 expression vectors to determine their potential inhibitory effects on TGF-β2-induced fibronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-1) protein expression. Basal expression of ID1-3 was detected in primary human TM cells. Bone morphogenic protein 4 significantly induced early expression of ID1 and ID3 mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein in primary TM cells, and a BMP receptor inhibitor blocked this induction. Overexpression of ID1 and ID3 significantly inhibited TGF-β2-induced expression of fibronectin and PAI-1 in TM cells (P < 0.01). Bone morphogenic protein 4 induced ID1 and ID3 expression suppresses TGF-β2 profibrotic activity in human TM cells. In the future, targeting specific regulators may control the TGF-β2 profibrotic effects on the TM, leading to disease modifying IOP lowering therapies.

  12. cual-id: Globally Unique, Correctable, and Human-Friendly Sample Identifiers for Comparative Omics Studies.

    PubMed

    Chase, John H; Bolyen, Evan; Rideout, Jai Ram; Caporaso, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The number of samples in high-throughput comparative "omics" studies is increasing rapidly due to declining experimental costs. To keep sample data and metadata manageable and to ensure the integrity of scientific results as the scale of these projects continues to increase, it is essential that we transition to better-designed sample identifiers. Ideally, sample identifiers should be globally unique across projects, project teams, and institutions; short (to facilitate manual transcription); correctable with respect to common types of transcription errors; opaque, meaning that they do not contain information about the samples; and compatible with existing standards. We present cual-id, a lightweight command line tool that creates, or mints, sample identifiers that meet these criteria without reliance on centralized infrastructure. cual-id allows users to assign universally unique identifiers, or UUIDs, that are globally unique to their samples. UUIDs are too long to be conveniently written on sampling materials, such as swabs or microcentrifuge tubes, however, so cual-id additionally generates human-friendly 4- to 12-character identifiers that map to their UUIDs and are unique within a project. By convention, we use "cual-id" to refer to the software, "CualID" to refer to the short, human-friendly identifiers, and "UUID" to refer to the globally unique identifiers. CualIDs are used by humans when they manually write or enter identifiers, while the longer UUIDs are used by computers to unambiguously reference a sample. Finally, cual-id optionally generates printable label sticker sheets containing Code 128 bar codes and CualIDs for labeling of sample collection and processing materials. IMPORTANCE The adoption of identifiers that are globally unique, correctable, and easily handwritten or manually entered into a computer will be a major step forward for sample tracking in comparative omics studies. As the fields transition to more-centralized sample management, for

  13. 76 FR 31388 - Idaho Disaster #ID-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12603 and 12604] Idaho Disaster ID-00014... declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Idaho (FEMA-- 1987--DR), dated 05..., Clearwater, Idaho, Nez Perce, Shoshone, Nez Perce Tribe. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage...

  14. 75 FR 45682 - Idaho Disaster #ID-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12250 and 12251] Idaho Disaster ID-00010... declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Idaho (FEMA-1927- DR), dated 07/27... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Adams, Gem, Idaho, Lewis, Payette, Valley, Washington...

  15. Ameliorative effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Astrid; Mähler, Michael; Arni, Stephan; Flogerzi, Beatrice; Klingelhöfer, Sonja; Seibold, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Anti-TNF-alpha antibodies are very effective in the treatment of acute Crohn's disease, but are limited by the decline of their effectiveness after repeated applications. The stinging nettle leaf extract, IDS 30, is an adjuvant remedy in rheumatic diseases dependent on a cytokine suppressive effect. We investigated the effect of IDS 30 on disease activity of murine colitis in different models. C3H.IL-10-/- and BALB/c mice with colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) were treated with either IDS 30 or water. Mice were monitored for clinical signs of colitis. Inflammation was scored histologically, and faecal IL-1beta and mucosal cytokines were measured by ELISA. Mononuclear cell proliferation of spleen and Peyer's patches were quantified by 3H-thymidine. Mice with chronic DSS colitis or IL-10-/- mice treated with IDS 30 clinically and histologically revealed significantly (p < 0.05) fewer signs of colitis than untreated animals. Furthermore, faecal IL-1beta and mucosal TNF-alpha concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in treated mice. Mononuclear cell proliferation after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in mice treated with IDS 30. The long-term use of IDS 30 is effective in the prevention of chronic murine colitis. This effect seems to be due to a decrease in the Th1 response and may be a new therapeutic option for prolonging remission in inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Biomedical Knowledge and Clinical Expertise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshuizen, Henny P. A.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    A study examined the application and availability of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the clinical reasoning of physicians as well as possible mechanisms responsible for changes in the organization of clinical and biomedical knowledge in the development from novice to expert. Subjects were 28 students (10 second year, 8 fourth year, and 10…

  17. Informing vaccine decision-making: A strategic multi-attribute ranking tool for vaccines-SMART Vaccines 2.0.

    PubMed

    Knobler, Stacey; Bok, Karin; Gellin, Bruce

    2017-01-20

    SMART Vaccines 2.0 software is being developed to support decision-making among multiple stakeholders in the process of prioritizing investments to optimize the outcomes of vaccine development and deployment. Vaccines and associated vaccination programs are one of the most successful and effective public health interventions to prevent communicable diseases and vaccine researchers are continually working towards expanding targets for communicable and non-communicable diseases through preventive and therapeutic modes. A growing body of evidence on emerging vaccine technologies, trends in disease burden, costs associated with vaccine development and deployment, and benefits derived from disease prevention through vaccination and a range of other factors can inform decision-making and investment in new and improved vaccines and targeted utilization of already existing vaccines. Recognizing that an array of inputs influences these decisions, the strategic multi-attribute ranking method for vaccines (SMART Vaccines 2.0) is in development as a web-based tool-modified from a U.S. Institute of Medicine Committee effort (IOM, 2015)-to highlight data needs and create transparency to facilitate dialogue and information-sharing among decision-makers and to optimize the investment of resources leading to improved health outcomes. Current development efforts of the SMART Vaccines 2.0 framework seek to generate a weighted recommendation on vaccine development or vaccination priorities based on population, disease, economic, and vaccine-specific data in combination with individual preference and weights of user-selected attributes incorporating valuations of health, economics, demographics, public concern, scientific and business, programmatic, and political considerations. Further development of the design and utility of the tool is being carried out by the National Vaccine Program Office of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Fogarty International Center of the

  18. Comprehensive hands-on training for influenza vaccine manufacturing: a WHO-BARDA-BTEC partnership for global workforce development.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jennifer; Gilleskie, Gary L; Brown, Patty; Burnett, Bruce; Carbonell, Ruben G

    2014-01-01

    The critical need for enhancing influenza pandemic preparedness in many developing nations has led the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), to develop an international influenza vaccine capacity-building program. Among the critical limitations faced by many of these nations is lack of access to training programs for staff supporting operations within vaccine production facilities. With support from BARDA, the Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) at North Carolina State University has addressed this need for training by developing and delivering a comprehensive training program, consisting of three courses: Fundamentals of cGMP Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, Advanced Upstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing, and Advanced Downstream Processes for Influenza Vaccine Manufacturing. The courses cover process design, transfer, and execution at manufacturing scale, quality systems, and regulations covering both manufacturing and approval of pandemic vaccines. The Fundamentals course focuses on the concepts, equipment, applicable regulations, and procedures commonly used to produce influenza vaccine. The two Advanced courses focus on process design, scale up, validation, and new technologies likely to improve efficiency of vaccine production. All three courses rely on a combination of classroom instruction and hands-on training in BTEC's various laboratories. Each course stands alone, and participants may take one or more of the three courses. Overall participant satisfaction with the courses has been high, and follow-up surveys show that participants actively transferred the knowledge they gained to the workplace. Future plans call for BTEC to continue offering the three courses and to create an online version of several modules of the Fundamentals course. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The SWAN biomedical discourse ontology.

    PubMed

    Ciccarese, Paolo; Wu, Elizabeth; Wong, Gwen; Ocana, Marco; Kinoshita, June; Ruttenberg, Alan; Clark, Tim

    2008-10-01

    Developing cures for highly complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, requires extensive interdisciplinary collaboration and exchange of biomedical information in context. Our ability to exchange such information across sub-specialties today is limited by the current scientific knowledge ecosystem's inability to properly contextualize and integrate data and discourse in machine-interpretable form. This inherently limits the productivity of research and the progress toward cures for devastating diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. SWAN (Semantic Web Applications in Neuromedicine) is an interdisciplinary project to develop a practical, common, semantically structured, framework for biomedical discourse initially applied, but not limited, to significant problems in Alzheimer Disease (AD) research. The SWAN ontology has been developed in the context of building a series of applications for biomedical researchers, as well as in extensive discussions and collaborations with the larger bio-ontologies community. In this paper, we present and discuss the SWAN ontology of biomedical discourse. We ground its development theoretically, present its design approach, explain its main classes and their application, and show its relationship to other ongoing activities in biomedicine and bio-ontologies.

  20. Biomedical technology in Franconia.

    PubMed

    Efferth, T

    2000-01-01

    Medical instrumentation and biotechnology business is developing rapidly in Franconia. The universities of Bayreuth, Erlangen-Nürnberg, and Würzburg hold upper ranks in biomedical extramural funding research. They have a high competence in biomedical research, medical instrumentation, and biotechnology. The association "BioMedTec Franken e.V" has been founded at the beginning of 1999 both to foster the information exchange between universities, industry and politics and to facilitate the establishment of biomedical companies by means of science parks. In the IGZ (Innovation and Foundation Center Nürnberg-Fürth-Erlangen) 4,500 square meters of space are currently shared by 19 novel companies. Since 1985 60 companies in the IGZ had a total turnover of about 74 Mio Euro. The TGZ (Technologie- und Gründerzentrum) in Würzburg provides space for 11 companies. For the specific needs of biomedical technology companies further science parks will be set up in the near future. A science park for medical instrumentation will be founded in Erlangen (IZMP, Innovations- und Gründerzentrum für Medizintechnik und Pharma in der Region Nürnberg, Fürch, Erlangen). Furthermore, a Biomedical Technology Center and a Research Center for Bicompatible Materials are to be founded in Würzburg and Bayreuth, respectively. Several communication platforms (Bayern Innovativ, FORWISS, FTT, KIM, N-TEC-VISIT, TBU, WETTI etc.) allow the transfer of local academic research activities to industrial utilization and open new co-operation possibilities. International pharmaceutical companies (Novartis, Nürnberg; Pharmacia Upjohn, Erlangen) are located in Franconia. Central Franconia represents a national focus for medical instrumentation. The Erlangen settlement of the Medical Engineering Section of Siemens employs 4,500 people including approximately 1,000 employees in the Siemens research center.

  1. The impact of making vaccines thermostable in Niger's vaccine supply chain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Cakouros, Brigid E; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T

    2012-08-17

    Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1-2%. Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger's EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomedical Publishing and the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    The Internet is challenging traditional publishing patterns. In the biomedical domain, medical journals are providing more and more content online, both free and for a fee. Beyond this, however, a number of commentators believe that traditional notions of copyright and intellectual property ownership are no longer suited to the information age and that ownership of copyright to research reports should be and will be wrested from publishers and returned to authors. In this paper, it is argued that, although the Internet will indeed profoundly affect the distribution of biomedical research results, the biomedical publishing industry is too intertwined with the research establishment and too powerful to fall prey to such a copyright revolution. PMID:10833159

  3. National Space Biomedical Research Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 1996, NASA released a Cooperative Agreement Notice (CAN) inviting proposals to establish a National Space Biomedical Research Institute (9-CAN-96-01). This CAN stated that: The Mission of the Institute will be to lead a National effort for accomplishing the integrated, critical path, biomedical research necessary to support the long term human presence, development, and exploration of space and to enhance life on Earth by applying the resultant advances in human knowledge and technology acquired through living and working in space. The Institute will be the focal point of NASA sponsored space biomedical research. This statement has not been amended by NASA and remains the mission of the NSBRI.

  4. Installation, commissioning and performance of IDs installed at ALBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, J.; Marcos, J.; Massana, V.; Becheri, F.; Gigante, J. V.; Colldelram, C.; Ribó, Ll

    2013-03-01

    The new synchrotron light source ALBA is currently starting regular operation. Up to 6 beamlines are using light produced by Insertion Devices. There are up to four types of IDs: 2 Apple-II undulators (EU62 and EU71) operating at low energies, one conventional wiggler (MPW80) operating in the range of 2 - 20 keV, two in-vacuum undulators (IVU21) operating in the range 5 - 30 keV and a superconducting wiggler (SCW30) operating in the range of (up to) 40 keV. The main IDs characteristics, their influence on the beam dynamics and a first characterization of their light will be presented.

  5. Vaccine history, gender and influenza vaccination in a household context.

    PubMed

    Mamelund, Svenn-Erik; Riise Bergsaker, Marianne A

    2011-11-28

    Few studies have investigated the effect of the history of vaccination on the current influenza vaccine uptake. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of vaccine history, for each sex separately, on the likelihood of vaccine uptake among single-head households and two-person households, controlling not only for the respondents' own prior vaccination history but also the history of vaccination among possible co-residents. We used logistic regression and data from a nationally representative telephone survey of the non-institutionalized Norwegian population aged ≥ 65 years to estimate our models (N=354). The survey was carried out in November 2008. The lowest vaccine uptake was found among those who live alone with no prior history of vaccination and among those who live in two-person households where both members had no prior history of vaccination (10-22%). Those who live in two-person households where both members had previously been vaccinated had the highest vaccine uptake (86%). While a man who has previously been vaccinated has a higher likelihood of continued vaccination if his wife also has a prior history of vaccination, a woman with a prior history of vaccination is not dependent on her husband's prior practice with respect to the probability of continued vaccination. Of those who have no history of vaccination, more women than men are vaccinated for the first time when they have a spouse who has a history of vaccination. Our study shows that the history of vaccination of a co-resident/spouse has an effect above and beyond the respondent's own vaccination history. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the willingness to encourage family members to be vaccinated or to embark upon a familial vaccination regime in order to protect the individual's own personal health and that of other family members from influenza. To the best of our knowledge such gender differences have never been shown before in research on influenza

  6. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases’ criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ’s coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical

  7. For 481 biomedical open access journals, articles are not searchable in the Directory of Open Access Journals nor in conventional biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Andresen, Kristoffer; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background. Open access (OA) journals allows access to research papers free of charge to the reader. Traditionally, biomedical researchers use databases like MEDLINE and EMBASE to discover new advances. However, biomedical OA journals might not fulfill such databases' criteria, hindering dissemination. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a database exclusively listing OA journals. The aim of this study was to investigate DOAJ's coverage of biomedical OA journals compared with the conventional biomedical databases. Methods. Information on all journals listed in four conventional biomedical databases (MEDLINE, PubMed Central, EMBASE and SCOPUS) and DOAJ were gathered. Journals were included if they were (1) actively publishing, (2) full OA, (3) prospectively indexed in one or more database, and (4) of biomedical subject. Impact factor and journal language were also collected. DOAJ was compared with conventional databases regarding the proportion of journals covered, along with their impact factor and publishing language. The proportion of journals with articles indexed by DOAJ was determined. Results. In total, 3,236 biomedical OA journals were included in the study. Of the included journals, 86.7% were listed in DOAJ. Combined, the conventional biomedical databases listed 75.0% of the journals; 18.7% in MEDLINE; 36.5% in PubMed Central; 51.5% in SCOPUS and 50.6% in EMBASE. Of the journals in DOAJ, 88.7% published in English and 20.6% had received impact factor for 2012 compared with 93.5% and 26.0%, respectively, for journals in the conventional biomedical databases. A subset of 51.1% and 48.5% of the journals in DOAJ had articles indexed from 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of journals exclusively listed in DOAJ, one journal had received an impact factor for 2012, and 59.6% of the journals had no content from 2013 indexed in DOAJ. Conclusions. DOAJ is the most complete registry of biomedical OA journals compared with five conventional biomedical databases

  8. Contexts of vulnerability and the acceptability of new biomedical HIV prevention technologies among key populations in South Africa: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Atujuna, Millicent; Newman, Peter A; Wallace, Melissa; Eluhu, Megan; Rubincam, Clara; Brown, Ben; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    2018-01-01

    New biomedical prevention technologies (NPTs) may contribute to substantially reducing incident HIV infections globally. We explored acceptability and preferences for NPTs among key and other vulnerable populations in two South African townships. We conducted six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews with adolescents, and adult heterosexual men, women, and men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 48), and eight in-depth interviews with key informant healthcare workers. The interview guide described pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), vaginal rings, rectal microbicides and HIV vaccines, and explored acceptability and product preferences. Focus groups and in-depth interviews (45-80 minutes) were conducted in Xhosa, audiotaped, and transcribed and translated into English. Data were coded and reviewed using framework analysis with NVivo software. Overall, initial enthusiasm and willingness to use NPTs evolved into concerns about how particular NPTs might affect or require alterations in one's everyday lifestyle and practices. Different product preferences and motivations emerged by population based on similarity to existing practices and contexts of vulnerability. Adult women and female adolescents preferred a vaginal ring and HIV vaccine, motivated by longer duration of protection to mitigate feared repercussions from male partners, including threats to their marriage and safety, and a context of ubiquitous rape. Male adolescents preferred an HIV vaccine, seen as protection in serodiscordant relationships and convenient in obviating the HIV stigma and cost involved in buying condoms. Adult men preferred PrEP, given familiarity with oral medications and mistrust of injections, seen as enabling serodiscordant couples to have a child. MSM preferred a rectal microbicide given familiarity with gel-based lubricants, with concerns about duration of protection in the context of unplanned consensual sex and rape. Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV transmission, rather than

  9. 40. CALCINER CELL SECTIONS. TOGETHER WITH HAER ID33C37 ILLUSTRATES COMPLEXITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. CALCINER CELL SECTIONS. TOGETHER WITH HAER ID-33-C-37 ILLUSTRATES COMPLEXITY OF PIPING. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106446. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-P-51. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  11. Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and clinical presentation and prognosis of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Alía, P; Mañá, J; Capdevila, O; Alvarez, A; Navarro, M A

    2005-01-01

    Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE) concentration is considered a marker of sarcoidosis activity. This concentration is influenced by an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene, such that SACE levels follow the pattern DD>ID>II. The aim of our work was to study the relationship between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, as well as the relation between this polymorphism and the clinical presentation and evolution of the disease in 177 sarcoidosis patients. A group of 104 individuals without sarcoidosis was included as control. Genotyping was done by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, and SACE concentration at diagnosis was determined by a kinetic method. No differences were observed in genotype or allele distributions between patients and controls, nor between patients considering the type of presentation (Löfgren versus non-Löfgren) and evolution of the disease (acute versus chronic). As reported for healthy populations, SACE concentrations followed the pattern DD>ID>II in sarcoidosis patients, but significant differences between genotypes existed only in the Löfgren group (p = 0.003) and in acute patients (p = 0.02). SACE concentrations at diagnosis were lower in acute patients (p = 0.05) and in Löfgren's syndrome (p = 0.04), but this seemed to occur only in ID individuals (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). No relation was thus found between I/D polymorphism and susceptibility to sarcoidosis, but ACE I/D genotyping may improve the assessment of disease activity, both at diagnosis and during the follow-up of treated and untreated patients.

  12. Current Status of Biomedical Book Reviewing: Part I. Key Biomedical Reviewing Journals with Quantitative Significance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Chih; Wright, Arthuree M.

    1974-01-01

    This is the first part of a comprehensive, quantitative study of biomedical book reviewing. The data base of the total project was built from statistics taken from all 1970 issues of biomedical journals held in the Science Library of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of 285 so-called “life sciences” journals held by that library, fifty-four English journals (excluding Science and Nature) were found to contain bona fide book reviews (as contrasted with mere author-title lists) and were therefore selected for close study. The statistical results reveal that there were 3,347 reviews of 2,067 biomedical books in these fifty-four selected journals in 1970. Part I of the study identifies key biomedical reviewing journals of quantitative significance. The top ten journals, British Medical Journal, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Archives of Internal Medicine, New England Journal of Medicine, Quarterly Review of Biology, Bioscience, Canadian Medical Association Journal,* and American Journal of the Medical Sciences, accounted for 63.03% of the total number of reviews in 1970. PMID:4826479

  13. Imperfect Vaccine Aggravates the Long-Standing Dilemma of Voluntary Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Fu, Feng; Wang, Long

    2011-01-01

    Achieving widespread population immunity by voluntary vaccination poses a major challenge for public health administration and practice. The situation is complicated even more by imperfect vaccines. How the vaccine efficacy affects individuals' vaccination behavior has yet to be fully answered. To address this issue, we combine a simple yet effective game theoretic model of vaccination behavior with an epidemiological process. Our analysis shows that, in a population of self-interested individuals, there exists an overshooting of vaccine uptake levels as the effectiveness of vaccination increases. Moreover, when the basic reproductive number, , exceeds a certain threshold, all individuals opt for vaccination for an intermediate region of vaccine efficacy. We further show that increasing effectiveness of vaccination always increases the number of effectively vaccinated individuals and therefore attenuates the epidemic strain. The results suggest that ‘number is traded for efficiency’: although increases in vaccination effectiveness lead to uptake drops due to free-riding effects, the impact of the epidemic can be better mitigated. PMID:21687680

  14. The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors.

  15. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of M. musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were either identified only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since thus far has mainly been observed in M. musculus, we then refer to this family as MMIDL. PMID:17572061

  16. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  17. Enhancing biomedical design with design thinking.

    PubMed

    Kemnitzer, Ronald; Dorsa, Ed

    2009-01-01

    The development of biomedical equipment is justifiably focused on making products that "work." However, this approach leaves many of the people affected by these designs (operators, patients, etc.) with little or no representation when it comes to the design of these products. Industrial design is a "user focused" profession which takes into account the needs of diverse groups when making design decisions. The authors propose that biomedical equipment design can be enhanced, made more user and patient "friendly" by adopting the industrial design approach to researching, analyzing, and ultimately designing biomedical products.

  18. 39. CALCINER CELL PLANS. TOGETHER WITH HAER ID33C37 ILLUSTRATES COMPLEXITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CALCINER CELL PLANS. TOGETHER WITH HAER ID-33-C-37 ILLUSTRATES COMPLEXITY OF PIPING. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106445. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-50 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Using Cell-ID 1.4 with R for Microscope-Based Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Alan; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Yu, Richard; Gordon, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This unit describes a method for quantifying various cellular features (e.g., volume, total and subcellular fluorescence localization) from sets of microscope images of individual cells. It includes procedures for tracking cells over time. One purposefully defocused transmission image (sometimes referred to as bright-field or BF) is acquired to segment the image and locate each cell. Fluorescent images (one for each of the color channels to be analyzed) are then acquired by conventional wide-field epifluorescence or confocal microscopy. This method uses the image processing capabilities of Cell-ID (Gordon et al., 2007, as updated here) and data analysis by the statistical programming framework R (R-Development-Team, 2008), which we have supplemented with a package of routines for analyzing Cell-ID output. Both Cell-ID and the analysis package are open-source. PMID:23026908

  20. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  1. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S

    2018-01-01

    The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  2. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field. PMID:23234267

  3. The development of biomedical engineering as experienced by one biomedical engineer.

    PubMed

    Newell, Jonathan C

    2012-12-12

    This personal essay described the development of the field of Biomedical Engineering from its early days, from the perspective of one who lived through that development. It describes the making of a major invention using data that had been rejected by other scientists, the re-discovery of an obscure fact of physiology and its use in developing a major medical instrument, the development of a new medical imaging modality, and the near-death rescue of a research project. The essay concludes with comments about the development and present status of impedance imaging, and recent changes in the evolution of biomedical engineering as a field.

  4. Parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for boys and girls aged 9-13 years in China - A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zixin; Wang, Jingjing; Fang, Yuan; Gross, Danielle L; Wong, Martin C S; Wong, Eliza L Y; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-05-03

    This study was to investigate parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons and daughters aged 9-13 years under different cost scenarios, and factors associated with parental acceptability at market price. Participants were: (1) Chinese speaking parents aged 18-60 years with a Hong Kong ID card; (2) had a son or a daughter aged 9-13 years at the date of the survey; (3) the child had the right to abode in Hong Kong. Random telephone numbers were selected from up-to-date telephone directories of Hong Kong. A total of 300 eligible parents (boys' parents: 162; girls' parents: 138, response rate: 68.9% & 69%) provided verbal informed consent and completed the anonymous telephone interview during March to October 2016. Using parental acceptability of HPV vaccination at market price as the dependent variable, univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. The prevalence of HPV vaccination was very low among boys and girls (0.6% vs. 2.2%, p = 0.242). Among those whose children had not taken up HPV vaccination, the prevalence of parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for the index son and daughter were: 14.9% and 27.4% (market price), and 51.6% and 63.0% (free vaccination). Adjusted for sociodemographic variables, attitudinal variables based on the Health Belief Model were associated with parental acceptability of HPV vaccination for their sons (perception that it was not worthy, perceived cue to action from mass media and perceived self-efficacy) and for their daughters (perceived susceptibility and perceived severity of HPV infection among females, perceived benefit of HPV vaccination and perceived self-efficacy). Coverage of HPV vaccination among children aged 9-13 years was very low. Instead of waiting for the free universal vaccination to become available, promotion of self-paid HPV vaccination targeting parents is urgently needed. Different strategies should be applied to boys' and girls' parents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier

  5. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HPV Vaccine KidsHealth / For Teens / HPV Vaccine What's in this ... starting at age 9. How Does the HPV Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...

  6. Graduate program in biomedical communication.

    PubMed

    Ryan, S M

    1969-10-01

    The need for harnessing the achievements of communication technology to the burgeoning mass of biomedical information is critical. Recognizing this problem and aware of the short supply of professionals with the skills necessary for the job, a group of leaders from the fields of medicine and communications formed a consortium in 1967 and have developed a twelve month graduate program in biomedical communication. Designed to ground the advanced student in the development and administration of biomedical communication programs, the curriculum focuses on the principles and practice of communication and the development of communications media. Courses are given in the control and communication of information; the printed and spoken word; visual media of photographic arts, television, and motion pictures; computer science; and administration and systems analysis.

  7. Graduate Program in Biomedical Communication *

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Susan M.

    1969-01-01

    The need for harnessing the achievements of communication technology to the burgeoning mass of biomedical information is critical. Recognizing this problem and aware of the short supply of professionals with the skills necessary for the job, a group of leaders from the fields of medicine and communications formed a consortium in 1967 and have developed a twelve month graduate program in biomedical communication. Designed to ground the advanced student in the development and administration of biomedical communication programs, the curriculum focuses on the principles and practice of communication and the development of communications media. Courses are given in the control and communication of information; the printed and spoken word; visual media of photographic arts, television, and motion pictures; computer science; and administration and systems analysis. PMID:5823505

  8. [From new vaccine to new target: revisiting influenza vaccination].

    PubMed

    Gérard, M

    2011-09-01

    Annual vaccination is since many years the corner stone of Influenza control strategy. Because conventional vaccine are needle-based, are less immunogenic in old people and induce only systemic IgG production, intranasal and intradermal vaccines that are recently or will be soon available in Belgium will offer distinct advantages. Intradermal vaccination is on the Belgian market since 2010. A stronger immune response that allows an antigen sparing strategy is elicited because antigens are delivered near the dermal dendritic cells. Local side effects are more pronounced than after intramuscular injection. The needle-free intranasal vaccine that has been approved for use in people less than 18 years old by the EMEA in October 2010 induces also a mucosal IgA response. Improved clinical results than with intramuscular vaccine has been documented in several studies in children. Several conditions are contraindication to nasal vaccination because of patterns of side effects and because the vaccine is an live-attenuated vaccine. Pregnant women has become a top priority for Influenza vaccination in the recommendations of the High Council of Health in Belgium since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Several studies has since then documented the increased risk for Influenza-related morbidity in pregnant women especially during the third trimester and independently of the presence of other comorbidities. Reduced incidence of documented Influenza and of Influenza-related hospitalizations are observed in the new born of vaccinated women until 6 months of age. Availability of new vaccines for Influenza and better knowledge of the benefit of vaccination in target populations are important tools to optimize vaccine coverage of the population.

  9. The Effects of Anti-Vaccine Conspiracy Theories on Vaccination Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Daniel; Douglas, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The current studies investigated the potential impact of anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs, and exposure to anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, on vaccination intentions. In Study 1, British parents completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs in anti-vaccine conspiracy theories and the likelihood that they would have a fictitious child vaccinated. Results revealed a significant negative relationship between anti-vaccine conspiracy beliefs and vaccination intentions. This effect was mediated by the perceived dangers of vaccines, and feelings of powerlessness, disillusionment and mistrust in authorities. In Study 2, participants were exposed to information that either supported or refuted anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, or a control condition. Results revealed that participants who had been exposed to material supporting anti-vaccine conspiracy theories showed less intention to vaccinate than those in the anti-conspiracy condition or controls. This effect was mediated by the same variables as in Study 1. These findings point to the potentially detrimental consequences of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories, and highlight their potential role in shaping health-related behaviors. PMID:24586574

  10. [VACCINES].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  11. An evaluative conservative case for biomedical enhancement.

    PubMed

    Danaher, John

    2016-09-01

    It is widely believed that a conservative moral outlook is opposed to biomedical forms of human enhancement. In this paper, I argue that this widespread belief is incorrect. Using Cohen's evaluative conservatism as my starting point, I argue that there are strong conservative reasons to prioritise the development of biomedical enhancements. In particular, I suggest that biomedical enhancement may be essential if we are to maintain our current evaluative equilibrium (ie, the set of values that undergird and permeate our current political, economic and personal lives) against the threats to that equilibrium posed by external, non-biomedical forms of enhancement. I defend this view against modest conservatives who insist that biomedical enhancements pose a greater risk to our current evaluative equilibrium, and against those who see no principled distinction between the forms of human enhancement. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Id1 suppresses anti-tumour immune responses and promotes tumour progression by impairing myeloid cell maturation.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridonos, Marianna; Matei, Irina; Huang, Yujie; do Rosario Andre, Maria; Brazier-Mitouart, Helene; Waite, Janelle C; Chan, April S; Kalter, Julie; Ramos, Ilyssa; Wu, Qi; Williams, Caitlin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Chapman, Paul B; Peinado, Hector; Anandasabapathy, Niroshana; Ocean, Allyson J; Kaplan, Rosandra N; Greenfield, Jeffrey P; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Skokos, Dimitris; Lyden, David

    2015-04-29

    A central mechanism of tumour progression and metastasis involves the generation of an immunosuppressive 'macroenvironment' mediated in part through tumour-secreted factors. Here we demonstrate that upregulation of the Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 (Id1), in response to tumour-derived factors, such as TGFβ, is responsible for the switch from dendritic cell (DC) differentiation to myeloid-derived suppressor cell expansion during tumour progression. Genetic inactivation of Id1 largely corrects the myeloid imbalance, whereas Id1 overexpression in the absence of tumour-derived factors re-creates it. Id1 overexpression leads to systemic immunosuppression by downregulation of key molecules involved in DC differentiation and suppression of CD8 T-cell proliferation, thus promoting primary tumour growth and metastatic progression. Furthermore, advanced melanoma patients have increased plasma TGFβ levels and express higher levels of ID1 in myeloid peripheral blood cells. This study reveals a critical role for Id1 in suppressing the anti-tumour immune response during tumour progression and metastasis.

  13. Relational Databases and Biomedical Big Data.

    PubMed

    de Silva, N H Nisansa D

    2017-01-01

    In various biomedical applications that collect, handle, and manipulate data, the amounts of data tend to build up and venture into the range identified as bigdata. In such occurrences, a design decision has to be taken as to what type of database would be used to handle this data. More often than not, the default and classical solution to this in the biomedical domain according to past research is relational databases. While this used to be the norm for a long while, it is evident that there is a trend to move away from relational databases in favor of other types and paradigms of databases. However, it still has paramount importance to understand the interrelation that exists between biomedical big data and relational databases. This chapter will review the pros and cons of using relational databases to store biomedical big data that previous researches have discussed and used.

  14. RadNet Air Data From Idaho Falls, ID

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Idaho Falls, ID from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  15. Optimizing biomedical science learning in a veterinary curriculum: a review.

    PubMed

    Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone

    2013-01-01

    As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.

  16. Survey of Australian inpatients on vaccination status and perceptions of influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Loke, Xin Yee; Tran, Winnie; Alderman, Christopher P

    2012-08-01

    To assess vaccination status, potential influences upon vaccination status, and attitudes and beliefs about vaccination among hospital inpatients. This prospective, cross-sectional audit assessed vaccination status for important communicable diseases, patient perceptions about the influenza vaccination, and possible influences on vaccination status. Information was collected during face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. This study was undertaken in a general teaching hospital in suburban Adelaide, South Australia. The study participants comprised a convenience sample of 50 inpatients at the hospital from April 25, 2011, to May 18, 2011. Interview and structured questionnaire at bedside. Vaccination status for seasonal influenza, pneumococcal vaccine, diphtheriatetanus-pertussis/diphtheria-tetanus vaccination, herpes zoster virus, and hepatitis B were assessed for inpatients. Qualitative information regarding patient perceptions about the influenza vaccination was also surveyed. Possible influences on vaccination status including comorbidities or high-risk conditions, area of residence, age, and gender were also assessed. The self-reported vaccination rates were: seasonal influenza vaccine 2010 (64%), seasonal influenza vaccine 2011 (52%), pneumococcal vaccine (46%), diphtheria-tetanuspertussis/ diphtheria-tetanus vaccination (70%), herpes zoster vaccination (34%), and hepatitis B vaccination (40%). Vaccination was significantly more common among those older than 64 years of age (P = 0.01), with 46% of patients older than 64 years vaccinated against influenza. There was no significant association between vaccination status and other characteristics such as gender, number of risk factors, recent hospital admission, and living in a residential facility. Regarding perceptions toward the influenza vaccine, the only factor associated with significantly increased likelihood of vaccination was self-reported risk perception (P = 0.03). The majority of

  17. Repeated annual influenza vaccination and vaccine effectiveness: review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Belongia, Edward A; Skowronski, Danuta M; McLean, Huong Q; Chambers, Catharine; Sundaram, Maria E; De Serres, Gaston

    2017-07-01

    Studies in the 1970s and 1980s signaled concern that repeated influenza vaccination could affect vaccine protection. The antigenic distance hypothesis provided a theoretical framework to explain variability in repeat vaccination effects based on antigenic similarity between successive vaccine components and the epidemic strain. Areas covered: A meta-analysis of vaccine effectiveness studies from 2010-11 through 2014-15 shows substantial heterogeneity in repeat vaccination effects within and between seasons and subtypes. When negative effects were observed, they were most pronounced for H3N2, especially in 2014-15 when vaccine components were unchanged and antigenically distinct from the epidemic strain. Studies of repeated vaccination across multiple seasons suggest that vaccine effectiveness may be influenced by more than one prior season. In immunogenicity studies, repeated vaccination blunts the hemagglutinin antibody response, particularly for H3N2. Expert commentary: Substantial heterogeneity in repeated vaccination effects is not surprising given the variation in study populations and seasons, and the variable effects of antigenic distance and immunological landscape in different age groups and populations. Caution is required in the interpretation of pooled results across multiple seasons, since this can mask important variation in repeat vaccination effects between seasons. Multi-season clinical studies are needed to understand repeat vaccination effects and guide recommendations.

  18. [HPV vaccine implementation in Chile: an appraisal from the social determinants of health model].

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Loreto

    2017-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common neoplasm in women worldwide and its incidence is associated with profound social inequities. In Chile, it is the second cause of death in women of reproductive age. The Chilean clinical guideline identifies the vaccine against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) as the main preventive measure. Since 2014, the Ministry of Health has implemented free immunization against HPV for girls and female adolescents. This article critically analyzes this public policy from the viewpoint of health equity, using as framework the Social Determinants of Health Model. Specifically, we address the structural determinants of income and gender, which act as material and social barriers for achieving immunization, affecting protection against cervical cancer. These barriers correspond to the high cost of the vaccine, and social attitudes/cultural beliefs towards sexual behavior in Latin America and Chile that affect the acceptability of vaccination. The Social Determinants of Health Model constitutes a useful tool for identifying health inequities and understanding public policy from an equity viewpoint that complements the biomedical and epidemiological understanding of disease. In this topic, the initiative aims to strengthen the idea of health as a human right and health promotion as an essential function of public health policy.

  19. Vaccine preventable disease incidence as a complement to vaccine efficacy for setting vaccine policy

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Bradford D.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, vaccines have been evaluated in clinical trials that establish vaccine efficacy (VE) against etiology-confirmed disease outcomes, a measure important for licensure. Yet, VE does not reflect a vaccine’s public health impact because it does not account for relative disease incidence. An additional measure that more directly establishes a vaccine’s public health value is the vaccine preventable disease incidence (VPDI), which is the incidence of disease preventable by vaccine in a given context. We describe how VE and VPDI can vary, sometimes in inverse directions, across disease outcomes and vaccinated populations. We provide examples of how VPDI can be used to reveal the relative public health impact of vaccines in developing countries, which can be masked by focus on VE alone. We recommend that VPDI be incorporated along with VE into the analytic plans of vaccine trials, as well as decisions by funders, ministries of health, and regulatory authorities. PMID:24731817

  20. Industry careers for the biomedical engineer.

    PubMed

    Munzner, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    This year's conference theme is "linkages for innovation in biomedicine." Biomedical engineers, especially those transitioning their career from academic study into medical device industry, will play a critical role in converting the fruits of scientific research into the reality of modern medical devices. This special session is organized to help biomedical engineers to achieve their career goals more effectively. Participants will have opportunities to hear from and interact with leading industrial experts on many issues. These may include but not limited to 1) career paths for biomedical engineers (industrial, academic, or federal; technical vs. managerial track; small start-up or large established companies); 2) unique design challenges and regulatory requirements in medical device development; 3) aspects of a successful biomedical engineering job candidate (such as resume, interview, follow-up). Suggestions for other topics are welcome and should be directed to xkong@ieee.org The distinguished panelists include: Xuan Kong, Ph.D., VP of Research, NEUROMetrix Inc, Waltham, MA Robert F. Munzner, Ph.D., Medical Device Consultant, Doctor Device, Herndon, VA Glen McLaughlin, Ph.D., VP of Engineering and CTO, Zonare Medical System Inc., Mountain View, CA Grace Bartoo, Ph.D., RAC, General Manager, Decus Biomedical LLC San Carlos, CA.

  1. Simbody: multibody dynamics for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael A; Seth, Ajay; Delp, Scott L

    Multibody software designed for mechanical engineering has been successfully employed in biomedical research for many years. For real time operation some biomedical researchers have also adapted game physics engines. However, these tools were built for other purposes and do not fully address the needs of biomedical researchers using them to analyze the dynamics of biological structures and make clinically meaningful recommendations. We are addressing this problem through the development of an open source, extensible, high performance toolkit including a multibody mechanics library aimed at the needs of biomedical researchers. The resulting code, Simbody, supports research in a variety of fields including neuromuscular, prosthetic, and biomolecular simulation, and related research such as biologically-inspired design and control of humanoid robots and avatars. Simbody is the dynamics engine behind OpenSim, a widely used biomechanics simulation application. This article reviews issues that arise uniquely in biomedical research, and reports on the architecture, theory, and computational methods Simbody uses to address them. By addressing these needs explicitly Simbody provides a better match to the needs of researchers than can be obtained by adaptation of mechanical engineering or gaming codes. Simbody is a community resource, free for any purpose. We encourage wide adoption and invite contributions to the code base at https://simtk.org/home/simbody.

  2. The Impact of Making Vaccines Thermostable in Niger’s Vaccine Supply Chain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Cakouros, Brigid E.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Connor, Diana L.; Welling, Joel; Kone, Souleymane; Djibo, Ali; Wateska, Angela R.; Pierre, Lionel; Brown, Shawn T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine the effects on the vaccine cold chain of making different types of World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunizations (EPI) vaccines thermostable. Methods Utilizing a detailed computational, discrete-event simulation model of the Niger vaccine supply chain, we simulated the impact of making different combinations of the six current EPI vaccines thermostable. Findings Making any EPI vaccine thermostable relieved existing supply chain bottlenecks (especially at the lowest levels), increased vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines, and decreased cold storage and transport capacity utilization. By far, the most substantial impact came from making the pentavalent vaccine thermostable, increasing its own vaccine availability from 87% to 97% and the vaccine availabilities of all other remaining non-thermostable EPI vaccines to over 93%. By contrast, making each of the other vaccines thermostable had considerably less effect on the remaining vaccines, failing to increase the vaccine availabilities of other vaccines to more than 89%. Making tetanus toxoid vaccine along with the pentavalent thermostable further increased the vaccine availability of all EPI vaccines by at least 1–2%. Conclusion Our study shows the potential benefits of making any of Niger’s EPI vaccines thermostable and therefore supports further development of thermostable vaccines. Eliminating the need for refrigerators and freezers should not necessarily be the only benefit and goal of vaccine thermostability. Rather, making even a single vaccine (or some subset of the vaccines) thermostable could free up significant cold storage space for other vaccines, and thereby help alleviate supply chain bottlenecks that occur throughout the world. PMID:22789507

  3. The rise and fall of the lyme disease vaccines: a cautionary tale for risk interventions in American medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Robert A

    2012-06-01

    Two vaccines to prevent Lyme disease (LD) were developed and tested in the 1990s. Despite evidence of their safety and efficacy in clinical trials and initial postmarketing surveillance, one vaccine was withdrawn before the regulatory review and the other after only three years on the market. An investigation of their history can illuminate (1) the challenges faced by many new risk-reducing products and practices and (2) the important role played by their social and psychological, as distinct from their biomedical or scientific, efficacy in how they are used, and their ultimate market success or failure. This article reviewed medical and popular literature on LD vaccines, analyzed the regulatory hearings, and conducted interviews with key participants. Even if proved safe and effective, LD vaccines faced regulatory and market challenges because the disease was geographically limited, treatable, and preventable by other means. Pharmaceutical companies nevertheless hoped to appeal to consumers' desire for protection and control and to their widespread fear of the disease. The LD advocacy community initially supported the vaccines but soon became critical opponents. The vaccines' success was seen as threatening their central position that LD was chronic, protean, and difficult to treat. The activists' opposition flipped the vaccines' social and psychological efficacy. Instead of the vaccines restoring control and reducing fear, demand was undermined by beliefs that the vaccines caused an LD-like syndrome. The social and psychological efficacy of many risk-reducing practices and products, such as new "personalized vaccines," is to provide insurance and reduce fear. Yet the actions of self-interested actors can easily undermine this appeal. In addition to evaluating the scientific efficacy and safety of these practices and products, policymakers and others need to understand, anticipate, and perhaps shape the potential social and psychological work they might do.

  4. Universal fungal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-01-01

    The complex nature of fungal pathogens, the intricate host-pathogen relationship and the health status of subjects in need of antifungal vaccination continue to hamper efforts to develop fungal vaccines for clinical use. That said, the rise of the universal vaccine concept is hoped to revive fungal vaccine research by expanding the pool of vaccine candidates worthy of clinical evaluation. It can do so through antigenic commonality-based screening for vaccine candidates from a wide range of pathogens and by reassessing the sizable collection of already available experimental and approved vaccines. Development of experimental vaccines protective against multiple fungal pathogens is evidence of the utility of this concept in fungal vaccine research. However, universal fungal vaccines are not without difficulties; for instance, development of vaccines with differential effectiveness is an issue that should be addressed. Additionally, rationalizing the development of universal fungal vaccines on health or economic basis could be contentious. Herein, universal fungal vaccines are discussed in terms of their potential usefulness and possible drawbacks. PMID:22922769

  5. Ethics in biomedical engineering.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Ahmed; Flexman, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This session focuses on a number of aspects of the subject of Ethics in Biomedical Engineering. The session starts by providing a case study of a company that manufactures artificial heart valves where the valves were failing at an unexpected rate. The case study focuses on Biomedical Engineers working at the company and how their education and training did not prepare them to deal properly with such situation. The second part of the session highlights the need to learn about various ethics rules and policies regulating research involving human or animal subjects.

  6. A biomedical engineer's library.

    PubMed

    Webster, J G

    1982-01-01

    A survey resulted in a list of the 101 textbooks used by 62 biomedical engineering educational programs. A second list shows the textbooks used by each school. A third list shows the 27 textbooks used at two or more schools and the number of times each is used. This selected compilation should be useful to (a) biomedical engineering curriculum committees considering program revision, (b) teachers considering course revision, (c) university and industrial librarians updating their collections, (d) individuals building a personal library, and (e) students desiring information about the emphasis of various educational programs.

  7. Rethinking Social Network Assessment for Students with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenman, Laura T.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Culnane, Mary; Freedman, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Social networks of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) have been characterized as smaller and less diverse than those of typical peers. Advocates have focused on strengthening those social networks by expanding circles of social support, protection, and friendship. As young adults with ID experience increasing levels of community…

  8. Integrated Design System (IDS) Tools for the Spacecraft Aeroassist/Entry Vehicle Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David; Braun, Robert; Langhoff, Steven R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The definition of the Integrated Design System technology focus area as presented in the NASA Information Technology center of excellence strategic plan is described. The need for IDS tools in the aeroassist/entry vehicle design process is illustrated. Initial and future plans for spacecraft IDS tool development are discussed.

  9. Vaccines against poverty

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  10. Physician communication about adolescent vaccination: How is human papillomavirus vaccine different?

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Melissa B; Moss, Jennifer L; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Hall, Megan E; Shah, Parth D; Brewer, Noel T

    2015-08-01

    Low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage stands in stark contrast to our success in delivering other adolescent vaccines. To identify opportunities for improving physicians' recommendations for HPV vaccination, we sought to understand how the communication context surrounding adolescent vaccination varies by vaccine type. A national sample of 776 U.S. physicians (53% pediatricians, 47% family medicine physicians) completed our online survey in 2014. We assessed physicians' perceptions and communication practices related to recommending adolescent vaccines for 11- and 12-year-old patients. About three-quarters of physicians (73%) reported recommending HPV vaccine as highly important for patients, ages 11-12. More physicians recommended tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) (95%) and meningococcal vaccines (87%, both p<0.001) as highly important for this age group. Only 13% of physicians perceived HPV vaccine as being highly important to parents, which was far fewer than perceived parental support for Tdap (74%) and meningococcal vaccines (62%, both p<0.001). Physicians reported that discussing HPV vaccine took almost twice as long as discussing Tdap. Among physicians with a preferred order for discussing adolescent vaccines, most (70%) discussed HPV vaccine last. Our findings suggest that primary care physicians perceived HPV vaccine discussions to be burdensome, requiring more time and engendering less parental support than other adolescent vaccines. Perhaps for this reason, physicians in our national study recommended HPV vaccine less strongly than other adolescent vaccines, and often chose to discuss it last. Communication strategies are needed to support physicians in recommending HPV vaccine with greater confidence and efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Constraint reasoning in deep biomedical models.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jorge; Barahona, Pedro

    2005-05-01

    Deep biomedical models are often expressed by means of differential equations. Despite their expressive power, they are difficult to reason about and make decisions, given their non-linearity and the important effects that the uncertainty on data may cause. The objective of this work is to propose a constraint reasoning framework to support safe decisions based on deep biomedical models. The methods used in our approach include the generic constraint propagation techniques for reducing the bounds of uncertainty of the numerical variables complemented with new constraint reasoning techniques that we developed to handle differential equations. The results of our approach are illustrated in biomedical models for the diagnosis of diabetes, tuning of drug design and epidemiology where it was a valuable decision-supporting tool notwithstanding the uncertainty on data. The main conclusion that follows from the results is that, in biomedical decision support, constraint reasoning may be a worthwhile alternative to traditional simulation methods, especially when safe decisions are required.

  12. Black Phosphorus and its Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jane Ru; Yong, Kar Wey; Choi, Jean Yu; Nilghaz, Azadeh; Lin, Yang; Xu, Jie; Lu, Xiaonan

    2018-01-01

    Black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, has attracted recent scientific attention since its first successful exfoliation in 2014 owing to its unique structure and properties. In particular, its exceptional attributes, such as the excellent optical and mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electron-transfer capacity, contribute to its increasing demand as an alternative to graphene-based materials in biomedical applications. Although the outlook of this material seems promising, its practical applications are still highly challenging. In this review article, we discuss the unique properties of BP, which make it a potential platform for biomedical applications compared to other 2D materials, including graphene, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), tungsten diselenide (WSe2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). We then introduce various synthesis methods of BP and review its latest progress in biomedical applications, such as biosensing, drug delivery, photoacoustic imaging and cancer therapies (i.e., photothermal and photodynamic therapies). Lastly, the existing challenges and future perspective of BP in biomedical applications are briefly discussed. PMID:29463996

  13. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine After Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine With Standard Titer Measles Vaccine After Inactivated Vaccine: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Samb, Badara; Ibrahim, Salah A; Libman, Michael D; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) and standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine), respectively. The original datasets were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified by trial. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.83) after an inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) compared with a standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine). Girls had a MRR of 1.89 (1.27-2.80), whereas there was no effect for boys, the sex-differential effect being significant (P = 0.02). Excluding measles cases did not alter these conclusions, the MRR after inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) being 1.40 (1.06-1.86) higher overall and 1.92 (1.29-2.86) for girls. Control for variations in national immunization schedules for other vaccines did not modify these results. After 9 months of age, all children had been immunized against measles, and mortality in girls was higher when they had received inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) rather than live standard titer MV (after an inactivated vaccine).

  14. Egg-Independent Influenza Vaccines and Vaccine Candidates

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Ilaria; Pozzi, Teresa; Rossi, Stefania; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination remains the principal way to control seasonal infections and is the most effective method of reducing influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. Since the 1940s, the main method of producing influenza vaccines has been an egg-based production process. However, in the event of a pandemic, this method has a significant limitation, as the time lag from strain isolation to final dose formulation and validation is six months. Indeed, production in eggs is a relatively slow process and production yields are both unpredictable and highly variable from strain to strain. In particular, if the next influenza pandemic were to arise from an avian influenza virus, and thus reduce the egg-laying hen population, there would be a shortage of embryonated eggs available for vaccine manufacturing. Although the production of egg-derived vaccines will continue, new technological developments have generated a cell-culture-based influenza vaccine and other more recent platforms, such as synthetic influenza vaccines. PMID:28718786

  15. Vaccines and vaccination strategies against human cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Okwor, Ifeoma; Uzonna, Jude

    2009-05-01

    One might think that the development of a vaccine against cutaneous leishmaniasis would be relatively straightforward because the type of immune response required for protection is known and natural immunity occurs following recovery from primary infection. However, there is as yet no effective vaccine against the disease in humans. Although vaccination in murine studies has yielded promising results, these vaccines have failed miserably when tested in primates or humans. The reasons behind these failures are unknown and remain a major hurdle for vaccine design and development against cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, recovery from natural, deliberate or experimental infections results in development of long-lasting immunity to re-infection. This so called infection-induced resistance is the strongest anti-Leishmania immunity known. Here, we briefly review the different approaches to vaccination against cutaneous leishmaniasis and argue that vaccines composed of genetically modified (attenuated) parasites, which induce immunity akin to infection-induced resistance, may provide best protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans.

  16. European Vaccine Initiative: lessons from developing malaria vaccines.

    PubMed

    Geels, Mark J; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Imbault, Nathalie; van Schooten, Harry; McWade, Terry; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Dobbelaer, Roland; Craig, Alister G; Leroy, Odile

    2011-12-01

    For over 10 years, the European Vaccine Initiative (EVI; European Malaria Vaccine Initiative until 2009) has contributed to the development of 24 malaria candidate vaccine antigens with 13 vaccine candidates being advanced into Phase I clinical trials, two of which have been transitioned for further clinical development in sub-Saharan Africa. Since its inception the EVI organization has operated as a funding agency, but with a clear service-oriented strategy. The scientific successes and difficulties encountered during these years and how these efforts have led to standardization and harmonization in vaccine development through large-scale European consortia are discussed. In the future, the EVI will remain instrumental in the pharmaceutical and clinical development of vaccines against 'diseases of poverty' with a continued focus on malaria. EVI will continue to focus on funding and managing preclinical evaluation up to Phase I/II clinical trials and strengthening the vaccine-development infrastructure in Europe, albeit with a global orientation.

  17. Downregulation of Id1 by small interfering RNA in gastric cancer inhibits cell growth via the Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    YANG, GUANG; ZHANG, YAN; XIONG, JIANJUN; WU, JING; YANG, CHANGFU; HUANG, HONGBING; ZHU, ZHENYU

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitor of differentiation or DNA binding (Id1) is a member of the helix-loop-helix transcription factor family that is overexpressed in various types of cancer, including gastric carcinoma. Previous studies showed that Id1 is a prognostic marker in patients with gastric cancer. However, the role of Id1 in the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells has yet to be clarified. In the present study, we downregulated the Id1 gene in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells by RNA interference, and we also constructed a recombinant plasmid-expressing Id1 to investigate its effects on the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells. Results showed that the downregulation of Id1 inhibited proliferation of SGC-7901 cells, while the upregulation of Id1 had no effect on SGC-7901 cell proliferation. The potential mechanism was also investigated. The changes of certain proteins associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis and the cell cycle were detected by western blotting. Furthermore, we demonstrated a positive correlation between Id1 and phospho-Akt expression in SGC-7901 cells. PMID:22245935

  18. The development of vaccination perspectives among chiropractic, naturopathic and medical students: a case study of professional enculturation.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Angus; Wilson, Kumanan; Clarkin, Chantalle; Walji, Rishma; Kilian, Brendan C; Kilian, Carney C; Lohfeld, Lynne; Alolabi, Bashar; Hagino, Carol; Busse, Jason W

    2015-12-01

    An important influence on parents' decisions about pediatric vaccination (children under 6 years of age) is the attitude of their health care providers, including complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Very limited qualitative research exists, however, on how attitudes towards vaccination develop among healthcare professionals in-training. We explored perspective development among three groups of students: medical, chiropractic, and naturopathic. We conducted focus group sessions with participants from each year of study at three different healthcare training programs in Ontario, Canada. Semi-structured and open-ended questions were used to elicit dynamic interaction among participants and explore how they constructed their attitudes toward vaccination at the beginning and part way through their professional training. Analyses of verbatim transcripts of audiotaped interviews were conducted both inductively and deductively using questions structured by existing literature on learning, professional socialization and interprofessional relations. We found five major themes and each theme was illustrated with representative quotes. Numerous unexpected insights emerged within these themes, including students' general open-mindedness towards pediatric vaccination at the beginning of their training; the powerful influence of both formal education and informal socialization; uncritical acceptance of the vaccination views of senior or respected professionals; students' preference for multiple perspectives rather than one-sided, didactic instruction; the absence of explicit socio-cultural tensions among professions; and how divergences among professional students' perspectives result from differing emphases with respect to lifestyle, individual choice, public health and epidemiological factors-rather than disagreement concerning the biomedical evidence. This last finding implies that their different perspectives on pediatric vaccination may be complementary

  19. KaBOB: ontology-based semantic integration of biomedical databases.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Kevin M; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Hunter, Lawrence E

    2015-04-23

    The ability to query many independent biological databases using a common ontology-based semantic model would facilitate deeper integration and more effective utilization of these diverse and rapidly growing resources. Despite ongoing work moving toward shared data formats and linked identifiers, significant problems persist in semantic data integration in order to establish shared identity and shared meaning across heterogeneous biomedical data sources. We present five processes for semantic data integration that, when applied collectively, solve seven key problems. These processes include making explicit the differences between biomedical concepts and database records, aggregating sets of identifiers denoting the same biomedical concepts across data sources, and using declaratively represented forward-chaining rules to take information that is variably represented in source databases and integrating it into a consistent biomedical representation. We demonstrate these processes and solutions by presenting KaBOB (the Knowledge Base Of Biomedicine), a knowledge base of semantically integrated data from 18 prominent biomedical databases using common representations grounded in Open Biomedical Ontologies. An instance of KaBOB with data about humans and seven major model organisms can be built using on the order of 500 million RDF triples. All source code for building KaBOB is available under an open-source license. KaBOB is an integrated knowledge base of biomedical data representationally based in prominent, actively maintained Open Biomedical Ontologies, thus enabling queries of the underlying data in terms of biomedical concepts (e.g., genes and gene products, interactions and processes) rather than features of source-specific data schemas or file formats. KaBOB resolves many of the issues that routinely plague biomedical researchers intending to work with data from multiple data sources and provides a platform for ongoing data integration and development and for

  20. Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: a systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Eckersberger, Elisabeth; Smith, David M D; Paterson, Pauline

    2014-04-17

    Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances in nano-scaled biosensors for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianling; Chen, Guihua; Jiang, Hui; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Xuemei

    2013-08-21

    Recently, a growing amount of attention has been focused on the utility of biosensors for biomedical applications. Combined with nanomaterials and nanostructures, nano-scaled biosensors are installed for biomedical applications, such as pathogenic bacteria monitoring, virus recognition, disease biomarker detection, among others. These nano-biosensors offer a number of advantages and in many respects are ideally suited to biomedical applications, which could be made as extremely flexible devices, allowing biomedical analysis with speediness, excellent selectivity and high sensitivity. This minireview discusses the literature published in the latest years on the advances in biomedical applications of nano-scaled biosensors for disease bio-marking and detection, especially in bio-imaging and the diagnosis of pathological cells and viruses, monitoring pathogenic bacteria, thus providing insight into the future prospects of biosensors in relevant clinical applications.

  2. Timeliness of MMR vaccination and barriers to vaccination in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Y W; Park, B H; Kim, K H; Han, Y R; Go, U Y; Choi, W S; Kong, K A; Park, H

    2011-02-01

    The documented vaccine coverage rate of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination is almost 99% in Korea, but measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of measles vaccination in preschool children in Korea. We assessed 452 children aged 15-23 months and 300 children aged 4-6 years in September 2007. Questionnaires were administered in order to estimate measles vaccination rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, child being sick during the recommended vaccination period, and recommended vaccination period not being over were significant preventive factors to timely vaccination (P < 0·05). Children with working mothers, single parents, those not being cared for by their parents, and those younger among siblings were at a higher risk of not being vaccinated on time. In order to increase timely vaccination, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.

  3. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden.

  4. Optimal vaccination choice, vaccination games, and rational exemption: an appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Piero; Posta, Pompeo Della; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Salinelli, Ernesto; Centrone, Francesca; Meo, Claudia; Poletti, Piero

    2009-12-10

    A threat for vaccination policies might be the onset of "rational" exemption, i.e. the family's decision not to vaccinate children after a seemingly rational comparison between the perceived risk of infection and the perceived risk of vaccine side effects. We study the implications of rational exemption by models of vaccination choice. By a simple model of individual choice we first prove the "elimination impossible" result in presence of informed families, i.e. aware of herd immunity, and suggest that limited information might explain patterns of universal vaccination. Next, we investigate vaccination choice in a game-theoretic framework for communities stratified into two groups, "pro" and "anti" vaccinators, having widely different perceived costs of infection and of vaccine side effects. We show that under informed families neither a Nash nor a Stackelberg behaviour (characterized, respectively, by players acting simultaneously and by an asymmetric situation with a "leader" and a "follower) allow elimination, unless "pro-vaccinators" assign no costs to vaccine side effects. Elimination turns out to be possible when cooperation is encouraged by a social planner, provided, however, he incorporates in the "social loss function" the preferences of anti-vaccinators only. This allows an interpretation of the current Italian vaccination policy.

  5. Rotavirus vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Patel, Manish M; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin; Fleming, Jessica; Lewis, Kristen; Jiang, Baoming; Gentsch, Jon; Steele, Duncan; Parashar, Umesh D

    2011-01-01

    Early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in the Americas, Europe, and in Australia have documented substantial declines in rotavirus disease burden following the introduction of vaccination. However, the full public health impact of rotavirus vaccines has not been realized as they have not been introduced into routine immunization programs in countries of Africa and Asia with the highest rotavirus disease morbidity and mortality burden. In this article, we review the epidemiology of rotavirus disease, the development and current status of rotavirus vaccines including newly available vaccine impact data from early-introducer countries, and future priorities for implementation and monitoring of rotavirus vaccination programs in developing countries. PMID:22108032

  6. [Main characteristics of current biomedical research, in Chile].

    PubMed

    Valdés S, Gloria; Armas M, Rodolfo; Reyes B, Humberto

    2012-04-01

    Biomedical research is a fundamental tool for the development of a country, requiring human and financial resources. To define some current characteristics of biomedical research, in Chile. Data on entities funding bio-medical research, participant institutions, and the number of active investigators for the period 2007-2009 were obtained from institutional sources; publications indexed in PubMed for 2008-2009 were analysed. Most financial resources invested in biomedical research projects (approximately US$ 19 million per year) came from the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica" (CONICYT), a state institution with 3 independent Funds administering competitive grant applications open annually to institutional or independent investigators in Chile. Other sources and universities raised the total amount to US$ 26 million. Since 2007 to 2009, 408 investigators participated in projects funded by CONICYT. The main participant institutions were Universidad de Chile and Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, both adding up to 84% of all funded projects. Independently, in 2009,160 research projects -mainly multi centric clinical trials- received approximately US$ 24 million from foreign pharmaceutical companies. Publications listed in PubMed were classified as "clinical research" (n = 879, including public health) or "basic biomedical research" (n = 312). Biomedical research in Chile is mainly supported by state funds and university resources, but clinical trials also obtained an almost equivalent amount from foreign resources. Investigators are predominantly located in two universities. A small number of MD-PhD programs are aimed to train and incorporate new scientists. Only a few new Medical Schools participate in biomedical research. A National Registry of biomedical research projects, including the clinical trials, is required among other initiatives to stimulate research in biomedical sciences in Chile.

  7. Glycoproteins functionalized natural and synthetic polymers for prospective biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Tabasum, Shazia; Noreen, Aqdas; Kanwal, Arooj; Zuber, Mohammad; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Zia, Khalid Mahmood

    2017-05-01

    Glycoproteins have multidimensional properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity, antimicrobial and adsorption properties; therefore, they have wide range of applications. They are blended with different polymers such as chitosan, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polycaprolactone (PCL), heparin, polystyrene fluorescent nanoparticles (PS-NPs) and carboxyl pullulan (PC) to improve their properties like thermal stability, mechanical properties, resistance to pH, chemical stability and toughness. Considering the versatile charateristics of glycoprotein based polymers, this review sheds light on synthesis and characterization of blends and composites of glycoproteins, with natural and synthetic polymers and their potential applications in biomedical field such as drug delivery system, insulin delivery, antimicrobial wound dressing uses, targeting of cancer cells, development of anticancer vaccines, development of new biopolymers, glycoproteome research, food product and detection of dengue glycoproteins. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed; highlighting the recent advancement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism is a risk factor of allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Cao, L; Han, X

    2017-08-30

    Some previous studies and meta-analysis investigated the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and allergic rhinitis risk. However, the results were conflicting. This meta-analysis, therefore, was performed to evaluate the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and allergic rhinitis risk. Online electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) were searched. The strength was evaluated by calculating the OR and 95% CI. Five studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. These studies included 681 cases and 629 controls. ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis risk (OR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.29; P = 0.001). In the subgroup analysis of race, Asians showed the increased allergic rhinitis risk (OR = 1.15; 95% CI 1.02 - 1.30; P = 0.03). In a stratified analysis by age, adults with ACE I/D polymorphism showed the increased allergic rhinitis risk (OR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.29; P = 0.006). However, children did not have the significantly increased allergic rhinitis risk (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 0.99 - 1.56; P = 0.06). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis risk.

  9. Vaxjo: a web-based vaccine adjuvant database and its application for analysis of vaccine adjuvants and their uses in vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Samantha; Ulysse, Guerlain; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) format.

  10. Vaxjo: A Web-Based Vaccine Adjuvant Database and Its Application for Analysis of Vaccine Adjuvants and Their Uses in Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Sayers, Samantha; Ulysse, Guerlain; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are compounds that enhance host immune responses to co-administered antigens in vaccines. Vaxjo is a web-based central database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes vaccine adjuvants and their usages in vaccine development. Basic information of a vaccine adjuvant stored in Vaxjo includes adjuvant name, components, structure, appearance, storage, preparation, function, safety, and vaccines that use this adjuvant. Reliable references are curated and cited. Bioinformatics scripts are developed and used to link vaccine adjuvants to different adjuvanted vaccines stored in the general VIOLIN vaccine database. Presently, 103 vaccine adjuvants have been curated in Vaxjo. Among these adjuvants, 98 have been used in 384 vaccines stored in VIOLIN against over 81 pathogens, cancers, or allergies. All these vaccine adjuvants are categorized and analyzed based on adjuvant types, pathogens used, and vaccine types. As a use case study of vaccine adjuvants in infectious disease vaccines, the adjuvants used in Brucella vaccines are specifically analyzed. A user-friendly web query and visualization interface is developed for interactive vaccine adjuvant search. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine adjuvants is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) format. PMID:22505817

  11. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  12. Digital fabrication of multi-material biomedical objects.

    PubMed

    Cheung, H H; Choi, S H

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a multi-material virtual prototyping (MMVP) system for modelling and digital fabrication of discrete and functionally graded multi-material objects for biomedical applications. The MMVP system consists of a DMMVP module, an FGMVP module and a virtual reality (VR) simulation module. The DMMVP module is used to model discrete multi-material (DMM) objects, while the FGMVP module is for functionally graded multi-material (FGM) objects. The VR simulation module integrates these two modules to perform digital fabrication of multi-material objects, which can be subsequently visualized and analysed in a virtual environment to optimize MMLM processes for fabrication of product prototypes. Using the MMVP system, two biomedical objects, including a DMM human spine and an FGM intervertebral disc spacer are modelled and digitally fabricated for visualization and analysis in a VR environment. These studies show that the MMVP system is a practical tool for modelling, visualization, and subsequent fabrication of biomedical objects of discrete and functionally graded multi-materials for biomedical applications. The system may be adapted to control MMLM machines with appropriate hardware for physical fabrication of biomedical objects.

  13. Negotiating roadblocks to IDS-physician equity joint ventures.

    PubMed

    Dubow, S F; Benoff, M

    1998-09-01

    Integrated delivery systems (IDSs) may find that forming an equity joint venture relationship with a physician group practice is the best way to integrate physicians into their networks. IDSs have a choice between two basic equity structures: affiliated group practice, in which a management services organization (MSO) handles all practice management infrastructure and the physician group is a physician-only organization; and integrated group practice, in which the physician group encompasses both the physician practice and the administrative infrastructure. The choice of equity structure and how it should be implemented hinge on several legal issues, including the existence of a corporate-practice-of-medicine statute in the IDS's state, compliance with the Federal antikickback statute and Stark laws, and various issues regarding the IDS's tax-exempt status. IDSs also should consider pragmatic issues, particularly those associated with aligning the economic incentives of the two partners.

  14. Access Control for Mobile Assessment Systems Using ID.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaharu; Ishii, Tadashi; Morino, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of shelters during disaster is critical to ensure the health of evacuees and prevent pandemic. In the Ishinomaki area, one of the areas most damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the highly organized assessment helped to successfully manage a total of 328 shelters with a total of 46,480 evacuees. The input and analysis of vast amounts of data was tedious work for staff members. However, a web-based assessment system that utilized mobile devices was thought to decrease workload and standardize the evaluation form. The necessary access of information should be controlled in order to maintain individuals' privacy. We successfully developed an access control system using IDs. By utilizing a unique numerical ID, users can access the input form or assessment table. This avoids unnecessary queries to the server, resulting in a quick response and easy availability, even with poor internet connection.

  15. Shape-Memory Polymers for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakacki, Christopher M.; Gall, Ken

    Shape-memory polymers (SMPs) are a class of mechanically functional "smart" materials that have generated substantial interest for biomedical applications. SMPs offer the ability to promote minimally invasive surgery, provide structural support, exert stabilizing forces, elute therapeutic agents, and biodegrade. This review focuses on several areas of biomedicine including vascular, orthopedic, and neuronal applications with respect to the progress and potential for SMPs to improve the standard of treatment in these areas. Fundamental studies on proposed biomedical SMP systems are discussed with regards to biodegradability, tailorability, sterilization, and biocompatibility. Lastly, a proposed research and development pathway for SMP-based biomedical devices is proposed based on trends in the recent literature.

  16. NASA Biomedical Informatics Capabilities and Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2009-01-01

    To improve on-orbit clinical capabilities by developing and providing operational support for intelligent, robust, reliable, and secure, enterprise-wide and comprehensive health care and biomedical informatics systems with increasing levels of autonomy, for use on Earth, low Earth orbit & exploration class missions. Biomedical Informatics is an emerging discipline that has been defined as the study, invention, and implementation of structures and algorithms to improve communication, understanding and management of medical information. The end objective of biomedical informatics is the coalescing of data, knowledge, and the tools necessary to apply that data and knowledge in the decision-making process, at the time and place that a decision needs to be made.

  17. Experiements with an inactivated hepatitis leptospirosis vaccine in vaccination programmes for dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M; Leemans-Dessy, S; Meijer, J W

    1977-06-25

    A fluid adjuvanted vaccine consisting of inactivated hepatitis virus (iH) and leptospirae antigens (L) was developed. The vaccine (Kavak iHL; Duphar) was tested in several vaccination programmes both alone and in combination with freeze dried measles (M) or distemper (D) vaccines. The results demonstrate that this new vaccine is also effective in pups with maternally derived antibodies, although a second vaccination at 14 weeks of age is recommended to boost the first vaccination. For the booster vaccination either the iHL-vaccine or the liver attenuated hepatitis vaccine (H) can be used.

  18. Rhodococcus equi (Prescottella equi) vaccines; the future of vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Giles, C; Vanniasinkam, T; Ndi, S; Barton, M D

    2015-09-01

    For decades researchers have been targeting prevention of Rhodococcus equi (Rhodococcus hoagui/Prescottella equi) by vaccination and the horse breeding industry has supported the ongoing efforts by researchers to develop a safe and cost effective vaccine to prevent disease in foals. Traditional vaccines including live, killed and attenuated (physical and chemical) vaccines have proved to be ineffective and more modern molecular-based vaccines including the DNA plasmid, genetically attenuated and subunit vaccines have provided inadequate protection of foals. Newer, bacterial vector vaccines have recently shown promise for R. equi in the mouse model. This article describes the findings of key research in R. equi vaccine development and looks at alternative methods that may potentially be utilised. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Topuzogullari, Murat; Cakir Koc, Rabia; Dincer Isoglu, Sevil; Bagirova, Melahat; Akdeste, Zeynep; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga N; Yesilkir Baydar, Serap; Canim Ates, Sezen; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2013-06-03

    Research on the conjugates of synthetic polyelectrolytes with antigenic molecules, such as proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates, is an attractive area due to their highly immunogenic character in comparison to classical adjuvants. For example, polyacrylic acid (PAA) is a weak polyelectrolyte and has been used in several biomedical applications such as immunological studies, drug delivery, and enzyme immobilization. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies that document immune-stimulant properties of PAA in Leishmania infection. Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in Leishmania parasites. In the study, LPG and PAA were conjugated by a multi-step procedure, and final products were analyzed with GPC and MALDI-TOF MS techniques. In cytotoxicity experiments, LPG-PAA conjugates did not indicate toxic effects on L929 and J774 murine macrophage cells. We assume that LPG-PAA conjugate can be a potential vaccine candidate, and will be immunologically characterized in further studies to prove its potential.

  20. DNA vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregersen, Jens-Peter

    2001-12-01

    Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.

  1. Parallel conduction of the phase I preventive and therapeutic trials based on the Tat vaccine candidate.

    PubMed

    Bellino, S; Francavilla, V; Longo, O; Tripiciano, A; Paniccia, G; Arancio, A; Fiorelli, V; Scoglio, A; Collacchi, B; Campagna, M; Lazzarin, A; Tambussi, G; Din, C Tassan; Visintini, R; Narciso, P; Antinori, A; D'Offizi, G; Giulianelli, M; Carta, M; Di Carlo, A; Palamara, G; Giuliani, M; Laguardia, M E; Monini, P; Magnani, M; Ensoli, F; Ensoli, B

    2009-09-01

    The native HIV-1 Tat protein was chosen as vaccine candidate for phase I clinical trials in both uninfected (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00529698) and infected volunteers (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00505401). The rationale was based on the role of Tat in the natural infection and AIDS pathogenesis, on the association of Tat-specific immune responses with the asymptomatic stage and slow-progression rate as well as on its sequence conservation among HIV clades (http://www.hiv1tat-vaccines.info/). The parallel conduction in the same clinical centers of randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase I studies both in healthy, immunologically competent adults and in HIV-infected, clinically asymptomatic, individuals represents a unique occasion to compare the vaccine-induced immune response in both the preventive and therapeutic setting. In both studies, the same lot of the native Tat protein was administered 5 times, every four weeks, subcute (SC) with alum adjuvant or intradermic (ID), in the absence of adjuvant, at 7.5 microg, 15 microg or 30 microg doses, respectively. The primary and secondary endpoints of these studies were the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate, respectively. The study lasted 52 weeks and monitoring was conducted for on additional 3 years. The results of both studies indicated that the Tat vaccine is safe and well tolerated both locally and systemically and it is highly immunogenic at all the dosages and by both routes of administration. Vaccination with Tat induced a balanced immune response in uninfected and infected individuals. In particular, therapeutic immunization induced functional antibodies and partially reverted the marked Th1 polarization of anti-Tat immunity seen in natural infection, and elicited a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Further, the number of CD4 T cells correlated positively with anti-Tat antibody titers. Based on these results, a phase II study is ongoing in infected drug

  2. The Numbers Game: Phasing in Generated ID Numbers at the University of Oregon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eveland, Sue

    2005-01-01

    With all the recent headlines about security breaches and information loss at financial and educational institutions, the higher education community needs to address the issue of using social security numbers as ID numbers. The University of Oregon undertook a change process to assign generated ID numbers to all records in their information…

  3. Cox-2-derived PGE2 induces Id1-dependent radiation resistance and self-renewal in experimental glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cook, Peter J; Thomas, Rozario; Kingsley, Philip J; Shimizu, Fumiko; Montrose, David C; Marnett, Lawrence J; Tabar, Viviane S; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Benezra, Robert

    2016-10-01

    In glioblastoma (GBM), Id1 serves as a functional marker for self-renewing cancer stem-like cells. We investigated the mechanism by which cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induces Id1 and increases GBM self-renewal and radiation resistance. Mouse and human GBM cells were stimulated with dimethyl-PGE2 (dmPGE2), a stabilized form of PGE2, to test for Id1 induction. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway governing the increase in Id1, a combination of short interfering RNA knockdown and small molecule inhibitors and activators of PGE2 signaling were used. Western blotting, quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were employed. Sphere formation and radiation resistance were measured in cultured primary cells. Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the Cox-2-Id1 axis in experimental GBM. In GBM cells, dmPGE2 stimulates the EP4 receptor leading to activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. This leads, in turn, to upregulation of the early growth response1 (Egr1) transcription factor and enhanced Id1 expression. Activation of this pathway increases self-renewal capacity and resistance to radiation-induced DNA damage, which are dependent on Id1. In GBM, Cox-2-derived PGE2 induces Id1 via EP4-dependent activation of MAPK signaling and the Egr1 transcription factor. PGE2-mediated induction of Id1 is required for optimal tumor cell self-renewal and radiation resistance. Collectively, these findings identify Id1 as a key mediator of PGE2-dependent modulation of radiation response and lend insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation resistance in GBM patients. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defensemore » Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology

  5. Parents with doubts about vaccines: which vaccines and reasons why.

    PubMed

    Gust, Deborah A; Darling, Natalie; Kennedy, Allison; Schwartz, Ben

    2008-10-01

    The goals were (1) to obtain national estimates of the proportions of parents with indicators of vaccine doubt, (2) to identify factors associated with those parents, compared with parents reporting no vaccine doubt indicators, (3) to identify the specific vaccines that prompted doubt and the reasons why, and (4) to describe the main reasons parents changed their minds about delaying or refusing a vaccine for their child. Data were from the National Immunization Survey (2003-2004). Groups included parents who ever got a vaccination for their child although they were not sure it was the best thing to do ("unsure"), delayed a vaccination for their child ("delayed"), or decided not to have their child get a vaccination ("refused"). A total of 3924 interviews were completed. Response rates were 57.9% in 2003 and 65.0% in 2004. Twenty-eight percent of parents responded yes to ever experiencing >or=1 of the outcome measures listed above. In separate analyses for each outcome measure, vaccine safety concern was a predictor for unsure, refused, and delayed parents. The largest proportions of unsure and refused parents chose varicella vaccine as the vaccine prompting their concern, whereas delayed parents most often reported "not a specific vaccine" as the vaccine prompting their concern. Most parents who delayed vaccines for their child did so for reasons related to their child's illness, unlike the unsure and refused parents. The largest proportion of parents who changed their minds about delaying or not getting a vaccination for their child listed "information or assurances from health care provider" as the main reason. Parents who exhibit doubts about immunizations are not all the same. This research suggests encouraging children's health care providers to solicit questions about vaccines, to establish a trusting relationship, and to provide appropriate educational materials to parents.

  6. Biomedical engineering education--status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Magjarevic, Ratko; Zequera Diaz, Martha L

    2014-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering programs are present at a large number of universities all over the world with an increasing trend. New generations of biomedical engineers have to face the challenges of health care systems round the world which need a large number of professionals not only to support the present technology in the health care system but to develop new devices and services. Health care stakeholders would like to have innovative solutions directed towards solving problems of the world growing incidence of chronic disease and ageing population. These new solutions have to meet the requirements for continuous monitoring, support or care outside clinical settlements. Presence of these needs can be tracked through data from the Labor Organization in the U.S. showing that biomedical engineering jobs have the largest growth at the engineering labor market with expected 72% growth rate in the period from 2008-2018. In European Union the number of patents (i.e. innovation) is the highest in the category of biomedical technology. Biomedical engineering curricula have to adopt to the new needs and for expectations of the future. In this paper we want to give an overview of engineering professions in related to engineering in medicine and biology and the current status of BME education in some regions, as a base for further discussions.

  7. Framework for Optimal Global Vaccine Stockpile Design for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases: Application to Measles and Cholera Vaccines as Contrasting Examples.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J

    2016-07-01

    Managing the dynamics of vaccine supply and demand represents a significant challenge with very high stakes. Insufficient vaccine supplies can necessitate rationing, lead to preventable adverse health outcomes, delay the achievements of elimination or eradication goals, and/or pose reputation risks for public health authorities and/or manufacturers. This article explores the dynamics of global vaccine supply and demand to consider the opportunities to develop and maintain optimal global vaccine stockpiles for universal vaccines, characterized by large global demand (for which we use measles vaccines as an example), and nonuniversal (including new and niche) vaccines (for which we use oral cholera vaccine as an example). We contrast our approach with other vaccine stockpile optimization frameworks previously developed for the United States pediatric vaccine stockpile to address disruptions in supply and global emergency response vaccine stockpiles to provide on-demand vaccines for use in outbreaks. For measles vaccine, we explore the complexity that arises due to different formulations and presentations of vaccines, consideration of rubella, and the context of regional elimination goals. We conclude that global health policy leaders and stakeholders should procure and maintain appropriate global vaccine rotating stocks for measles and rubella vaccine now to support current regional elimination goals, and should probably also do so for other vaccines to help prevent and control endemic or epidemic diseases. This work suggests the need to better model global vaccine supplies to improve efficiency in the vaccine supply chain, ensure adequate supplies to support elimination and eradication initiatives, and support progress toward the goals of the Global Vaccine Action Plan. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. [Influenza vaccination. Effectiveness of current vaccines and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Tamames, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza is an annual challenge for health-care systems, due to factors such as co-circulation of 2 influenza A subtypes jointly with 2 influenza B lineages; the antigenic drift of these virus, which eludes natural immunity, as well as immunity conferred by vaccination; together with influenza impact in terms of morbidity and mortality. Influenza vaccines have been available for more than 70 years and they have progressed in formulation, production and delivery route. Recommendations on vaccination are focused on those with a higher probability of severe disease, and have a progressively wider coverage, and classically based on inactivated vaccines, but with an increasing importance of attenuated live vaccines. More inactivated vaccines are becoming available, from adyuvanted and virosomal vaccines to intradermal delivery, cell-culture or quadrivalent. Overall vaccine effectiveness is about 65%, but varies depending on characteristics of vaccines, virus, population and the outcomes to be prevented, and ranges from less than 10% to almost 90%. Future challenges are formulations that confer more extensive and lasting protection, as well as increased vaccination coverage, especially in groups such as pregnant women and health-care professionals, as well as being extended to paediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination of carp against SVCV with an oral DNA vaccine or an insect cells-based subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Embregts, C W E; Rigaudeau, D; Tacchi, L; Pijlman, G P; Kampers, L; Veselý, T; Pokorová, D; Boudinot, P; Wiegertjes, G F; Forlenza, M

    2018-03-19

    We recently reported on a successful vaccine for carp against SVCV based on the intramuscular injection of a DNA plasmid encoding the SVCV glycoprotein (SVCV-G). This shows that the intramuscular (i.m.) route of vaccination is suitable to trigger protective responses against SVCV, and that the SVCV G-protein is a suitable vaccine antigen. Yet, despite the general success of DNA vaccines, especially against fish rhabdoviruses, their practical implementation still faces legislative as well as consumer's acceptance concerns. Furthermore, the i.m. route of plasmid administration is not easily combined with most of the current vaccination regimes largely based on intraperitoneal or immersion vaccination. For this reason, in the current study we evaluated possible alternatives to a DNA-based i.m. injectable vaccine using the SVCV-G protein as the vaccine antigen. To this end, we tested two parallel approaches: the first based on the optimization of an alginate encapsulation method for oral delivery of DNA and protein antigens; the second based on the baculovirus recombinant expression of transmembrane SVCV-G protein in insect cells, administered as whole-cell subunit vaccine through the oral and injection route. In addition, in the case of the oral DNA vaccine, we also investigated the potential benefits of the mucosal adjuvants Escherichia coli lymphotoxin subunit B (LTB). Despite the use of various vaccine types, doses, regimes, and administration routes, no protection was observed, contrary to the full protection obtained with our reference i.m. DNA vaccine. The limited protection observed under the various conditions used in this study, the nature of the host, of the pathogen, the type of vaccine and encapsulation method, will therefore be discussed in details to provide an outlook for future vaccination strategies against SVCV. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A; Seeberger, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma , and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

  11. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A.; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases—malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development. PMID:28660174

  12. [The biomedical periodicals of Hungarian editions--historical overview].

    PubMed

    Berhidi, Anna; Geges, József; Vasas, Lívia

    2006-03-12

    The majority of Hungarian scientific results are published in international periodicals in foreign languages. Yet the publications in Hungarian scientific periodicals also should not be ignored. This study analyses biomedical periodicals of Hungarian edition from different points of view. Based on different databases a list of titles consisting of 119 items resulted, which contains both the core and the peripheral journals of the biomedical field. These periodicals were analysed empirically, one by one: checking out the titles. 13 of the titles are ceased, among the rest 106 Hungarian scientific journals 10 are published in English language. From the remaining majority of Hungarian language and publishing only a few show up in international databases. Although quarter of the Hungarian biomedical journals meet the requirements, which means they could be represented in international databases, these periodicals are not indexed. 42 biomedical periodicals are available online. Although quarter of these journals come with restricted access. 2/3 of the Hungarian biomedical journals have detailed instructions to authors. These instructions inform the publishing doctors and researchers of the requirements of a biomedical periodical. The increasing number of Hungarian biomedical journals published is welcome news. But it would be important for quality publications which are cited a lot to appear in the Hungarian journals. The more publications are cited, the more journals and authors gain in prestige on home and international level.

  13. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  14. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Grand, Roger Le; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-07-19

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  15. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Le Grand, Roger; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques. PMID:26344115

  16. Biomedical enhancements as justice.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jeesoo

    2015-02-01

    Biomedical enhancements, the applications of medical technology to make better those who are neither ill nor deficient, have made great strides in the past few decades. Using Amartya Sen's capability approach as my framework, I argue in this article that far from being simply permissible, we have a prima facie moral obligation to use these new developments for the end goal of promoting social justice. In terms of both range and magnitude, the use of biomedical enhancements will mark a radical advance in how we compensate the most disadvantaged members of society. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Conjugated vaccines].

    PubMed

    Fritzell, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Encapsulated bacterial pathogens (e.g. Haemophilus influenzae type b [Hib], Neisseria meningitidis, or Streptococcus pneumoniae) target infants and young children who have lost any protective anti-capsular antibodies supplied maternally and whose immune systems are ineffective against T-independent antigens such as the polysaccharides of the capsule. The polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines overcome this limitation by converting the polysaccharide to a T-dependent antigen, which allows a vaccinated infant to mount a protective immune response. Where conjugated vaccines have been introduced into paediatric vaccination schedules, the incidence of invasive diseases caused by Hib, the group C meningococcus, or the pneumococcus has plummeted by at least 80%, a major public health success. Furthermore, surveillance has demonstrated that the conjugate vaccines provide 'herd protection' through their beneficial impact on nasopharyngeal colonisation among vaccinated children. Promising future approaches include enhancement of the number of capsular serogroups targeted by the meningococcal or pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

  18. MeNZB vaccine and epidemic control: when do you stop vaccinating?

    PubMed

    Loring, Belinda J; Turner, Nikki; Petousis-Harris, Helen

    2008-11-05

    New Zealand developed a strain-specific group B meningococcal vaccine to control an epidemic. Following a mass vaccination campaign of three doses to the population under 20 years of age, commencing in July 2004, the vaccine continued to be offered routinely as a four-dose schedule from 6 weeks of age. There is little international data on when to cease epidemic vaccination campaigns. The decision to stop using this vaccine needed to take into account a range of factors. These included epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness and duration of immunity, vaccine coverage, concomitant use with other vaccinations being added to the infant schedule, vaccine supply and cost-benefit criteria. This paper discusses these issues, along with the potential challenges for communication to both health professionals and the public.

  19. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or...western equine encephalitis (EEE and WEE) vaccines before live attenuated Venezuelan (VEE) vaccine had significantly lower rates of antibody response than...Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, VEE, vaccines, alphavirus, antibody responses, human studies 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  20. Monitoring vaccine and non-vaccine HPV type prevalence in the post-vaccination era in women living in the Basilicata region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Francesca; Puliti, Donella; Ocello, Cristina; Anastasio, Pasquale Silvio; Moliterni, Espedito Antonio; Perinetti, Emilia; Serradell, Laurence; Burroni, Elena; Confortini, Massimo; Mantellini, Paola; Zappa, Marco; Dominiak-Felden, Géraldine

    2018-01-15

    A large free-of-charge quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccination program, covering four cohorts annually (women 11, 14, 17 and 24 years), has been implemented in Basilicata since 2007. This study evaluated vaccine and non-vaccine HPV prevalence 5-7 years post-vaccination program implementation in vaccinated and unvaccinated women. This population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in the public screening centers of the Local Health Unit in Matera between 2012 and 2014. Cervical samples were obtained for Pap and HPV testing (HC2, LiPA Extra® assay) and participants completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. Detailed HPV vaccination status was retrieved from the official HPV vaccine registry. HPV prevalence was described overall, by type and vaccination status. The association between HPV type-detection and risk/protective factors was studied. Direct vaccine protection (qHPV vaccine effectiveness [VE]), cross-protection, and type-replacement were evaluated in cohorts eligible for vaccination, by analyzing HPV prevalence of vaccine and non-vaccine types according to vaccination status. Overall, 2793 women (18-50 years) were included, 1314 of them having been in birth cohorts eligible for the HPV vaccination program (18- to 30-year-old women at enrolment). Among the latter, qHPV vaccine uptake was 59% (at least one dose), with 94% completing the schedule; standardized qHPV type prevalence was 0.6% in vaccinated versus 5.5% in unvaccinated women (P <0.001); adjusted VE against vaccine type infections was 90% (95% CI: 73%-96%) for all fully vaccinated women and 100% (95% CI not calculable) in women vaccinated before sexual debut. No statistically significant difference in overall high-risk HPV, high-risk non-vaccine HPV, or any single non-vaccine type prevalence was observed between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. These results, conducted in a post-vaccine era, suggest a high qHPV VE and that a well-implemented catch-up vaccination program may be

  1. FastID: Extremely Fast Forensic DNA Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-19

    FastID: Extremely Fast Forensic DNA Comparisons Darrell O. Ricke, PhD Bioengineering Systems & Technologies Massachusetts Institute of...Technology Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA USA Darrell.Ricke@ll.mit.edu Abstract—Rapid analysis of DNA forensic samples can have a critical impact on...time sensitive investigations. Analysis of forensic DNA samples by massively parallel sequencing is creating the next gold standard for DNA

  2. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Saranya; Brokstad, Karl A.; Cox, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection. PMID:26343192

  3. Rotavirus vaccine strain transmission by vaccinated infants in the foster home.

    PubMed

    Miura, Hiroki; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Sugata, Ken; Koshiyama, Nozomi; Yoshikawa, Akiko; Komoto, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Koki; Ihira, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the transmission of rotavirus vaccine strains from vaccinated children to nonvaccinated siblings. We sought to fully elucidate the safety of rotavirus (RV) vaccination in closed contact circumstance, such as the foster home for future assessment of the vaccine safety in an neonatal intensive care unit. Stool samples were collected from 4 RV vaccinated (160 samples) and 23 unvaccinated (766 samples) infants. RV viral RNA loads were measured using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RV vaccine strain RNA was persistently detected in stool samples collected from the four vaccine recipients and one unvaccinated infant, but not in the stool samples collected from the 22 other unvaccinated infants. The unvaccinated infant who tested positive for the RV vaccine strain was vaccinated prior to enrollment in this study. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR data revealed a peak viral RNA load 1 week after vaccination followed by a gradual decrease. The current study suggests that RV vaccination may be safe in a close contact environment because there was limited transmission from RV vaccinated to unvaccinated infants. J. Med. Virol. 89:79-84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Military research needs in biomedical informatics.

    PubMed

    Reifman, Jaques; Gilbert, Gary R; Fagan, Lawrence; Satava, Richard

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) Biomedical Informatics Roadmap Meeting was devoted to developing a strategic plan in four focus areas: Hospital and Clinical Informatics, E-Health, Combat Health Informatics, and Bioinformatics and Biomedical Computation. The driving force of this Roadmap Meeting was the recent accelerated pace of change in biomedical informatics in which emerging technologies have the potential to affect significantly the Army research portfolio and investment strategy in these focus areas. The meeting was structured so that the first two days were devoted to presentations from experts in the field, including representatives from the three services, other government agencies, academia, and the private sector, and the morning of the last day was devoted to capturing specific biomedical informatics research needs in the four focus areas. This white paper summarizes the key findings and recommendations and should be a powerful tool for the crafting of future requests for proposals to help align USAMRMC new strategic research investments with new developments and emerging technologies.

  5. Trivalent MDCK cell culture-derived influenza vaccine Optaflu (Novartis Vaccines).

    PubMed

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Halperin, Scott A

    2009-06-01

    Annual influenza epidemics continue to have a considerable impact in both developed and developing countries. Vaccination remains the principal measure to prevent seasonal influenza and reduce associated morbidity and mortality. The WHO recommends using established mammalian cell culture lines as an alternative to egg-based substrates in the manufacture of influenza vaccine. In June 2007, the EMEA approved Optaflu, a Madin Darby canine kidney cell culture-derived influenza vaccine manufactured by Novartis Vaccines. This review examines the advantages and disadvantages of cell culture-based technology for influenza vaccine production, compares immunogenicity and safety data for Optaflu with that of currently marketed conventional egg-based influenza vaccines, and considers the prospects for wider use of cell culture-based influenza vaccines.

  6. Identifying ethical issues in the development of vaccines and in vaccination.

    PubMed

    Johari, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines are a widely accepted public health intervention. They are also a profitable tool for pharmaceutical companies manufacturing vaccines. There are many vaccines in the pipeline, for various diseases, or as combination vaccines for several diseases. However, there is also a growing concern about vaccines and the manner in which they are developed and approved by the authorities. Approvals are fast tracked and adverse events and serious adverse events following vaccination are seldom reported once the vaccine gets its marketing approval. Thus, vaccines have been clouded with many controversies and their use as a public health tool to prevent diseases is constantly under challenge.

  7. Vaccination of broiler chickens with dispersed dry powder vaccines as an alternative for liquid spray and aerosol vaccination.

    PubMed

    Corbanie, E A; Vervaet, C; van Eck, J H H; Remon, J P; Landman, W J M

    2008-08-18

    Vaccination of chickens with dispersable dry powder vaccines was compared with commercial liquid vaccines. A Clone 30 Newcastle disease vaccine virus was spray dried with mannitol or with a mixture of trehalose, polyvinylpyrrolidone and bovine serum albumin. A coarse (+/-30 microm) and fine (+/-7 microm) powder were produced with both formulations. A commercial reconstituted Clone 30 vaccine was applied as coarse liquid spray (+/-222 microm) or fine liquid aerosol (+/-24 microm). Reduction of virus concentration in the air after dispersion/nebulization was monitored by air sampling and was explained by sedimentation of coarse particles/droplets and evaporation of fine droplets. The vaccine formulations induced high haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres in the serum of 4-week-old broilers (2(7) at 4 weeks post-vaccination). The good serum antibody response with the fine liquid aerosol despite extensive inactivation of virus due to evaporation of droplets, suggested that powder formulations (without inactivation due to evaporation) might allow a significant reduction of vaccine dose, thereby offering new options for fine aerosol vaccination with low-titre vaccines.

  8. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan-Hong; Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m 2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients ( P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P < 0.050). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers.

  9. An information technology emphasis in biomedical informatics education.

    PubMed

    Kane, Michael D; Brewer, Jeffrey L

    2007-02-01

    Unprecedented growth in the interdisciplinary domain of biomedical informatics reflects the recent advancements in genomic sequence availability, high-content biotechnology screening systems, as well as the expectations of computational biology to command a leading role in drug discovery and disease characterization. These forces have moved much of life sciences research almost completely into the computational domain. Importantly, educational training in biomedical informatics has been limited to students enrolled in the life sciences curricula, yet much of the skills needed to succeed in biomedical informatics involve or augment training in information technology curricula. This manuscript describes the methods and rationale for training students enrolled in information technology curricula in the field of biomedical informatics, which augments the existing information technology curriculum and provides training on specific subjects in Biomedical Informatics not emphasized in bioinformatics courses offered in life science programs, and does not require prerequisite courses in the life sciences.

  10. Sustainable vaccine development: a vaccine manufacturer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Rappuoli, Rino; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2018-05-08

    Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing. However, these processes should be supported by a balanced project portfolio, and by managing sustainable vaccine procurement strategies for different types of markets. Collectively this will allow a gradual shift to a more streamlined and profitable vaccine production, which can significantly contribute to the worldwide effort to shape global health. Copyright © 2018 GlaxoSmithKine Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of NLM's National Center for Biotechnology Information, "is ...

  12. Manpower development for the biomedical industry space.

    PubMed

    Goh, James C H

    2013-01-01

    The Biomedical Sciences (BMS) Cluster is one of four key pillars of the Singapore economy. The Singapore Government has injected research funding for basic and translational research to attract companies to carry out their commercial R&D activities. To further intensify the R&D efforts, the National Research Foundation (NRF) was set up to coordinate the research activities of different agencies within the larger national framework and to fund strategic R&D initiatives. In recent years, funding agencies began to focus on support of translational and clinical research, particularly those with potential for commercialization. Translational research is beginning to have traction, in particular research funding for the development of innovation medical devices. Therefore, the Biomedical Sciences sector is projected to grow which means that there is a need to invest in human capital development to achieve sustainable growth. In support of this, education and training programs to strengthen the manpower capabilities for the Biomedical Sciences industry have been developed. In recent years, undergraduate and graduate degree courses in biomedical engineering/bioengineering have been developing at a rapid rate. The goal is to train students with skills to understand complex issues of biomedicine and to develop and implement of advanced technological applications to these problems. There are a variety of career opportunities open to graduates in biomedical engineering, however regardless of the type of career choices, students must not only focus on achieving good grades. They have to develop their marketability to employers through internships, overseas exchange programs, and involvement in leadership-type activities. Furthermore, curriculum has to be developed with biomedical innovation in mind and ensure relevance to the industry. The objective of this paper is to present the NUS Bioengineering undergraduate program in relation to manpower development for the biomedical

  13. Biomedical patents and ethics: a Canadian solution.

    PubMed

    Gold, E R

    2000-05-01

    World Trade Organization member states are preparing for the upcoming renegotiation of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights. One of the important elements of that renegotiation is the ethical considerations regarding the patenting of higher life forms and their component parts (e.g. DNA and cell-lines). The interface between the genetic revolution, patentability, and ethical considerations is the subject of this article. The author identifies, explores, and critiques four possible positions Canada may adopt in respect of patentability of biomedical material. First, Canada could do nothing. This approach would mean keeping biomedical materials outside the patent system and outside the stream of commerce. Canada would simply wait for an international consensus to develop before adopting a position of its own. Second, Canada could go it alone. It could implement a policy that balances the incentive effects of patents with the need to incorporate ethical and social values into the decision-making process regarding the use of biomedical materials. In respect of this option, the author proposes a model whereby non-profit bodies would hold the exclusive rights to research, use, and exploit biomedical materials. Third, Canada could follow the United States, Europe, and Japan by providing for almost unrestricted patenting of biomedical materials. This would be the most industry-friendly alternative. The fourth and final option is to use the medicare system to promote discussion of ethical considerations involved in the use of biomedical materials. The power of provincial health agencies may be used as a lever to ensure the discussion of ethical considerations concerning the use of biomedical materials. The author concludes that the fourth and final option is the best alternative for Canada while waiting for an international consensus to emerge.

  14. Writing intelligible English prose for biomedical journals.

    PubMed

    Ludbrook, John

    2007-01-01

    1. I present a combination of semi-objective and subjective evidence that the quality of English prose in biomedical scientific writing is deteriorating. 2. I consider seven possible strategies for reversing this apparent trend. These refer to a greater emphasis on good writing by students in schools and by university students, consulting books on science writing, one-on-one mentoring, using 'scientific' measures to reveal lexical poverty, making use of freelance science editors and encouraging the editors of biomedical journals to pay more attention to the problem. 3. I conclude that a fruitful, long-term, strategy would be to encourage more biomedical scientists to embark on a career in science editing. This strategy requires a complementary initiative on the part of biomedical research institutions and universities to employ qualified science editors. 4. An immediately realisable strategy is to encourage postgraduate students in the biomedical sciences to undertake the service courses provided by many universities on writing English prose in general and scientific prose in particular. This strategy would require that heads of departments and supervisors urge their postgraduate students to attend such courses. 5. Two major publishers of biomedical journals, Blackwell Publications and Elsevier Science, now provide lists of commercial editing services on their web sites. I strongly recommend that authors intending to submit manuscripts to their journals (including Blackwell's Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology) make use of these services. This recommendation applies especially to those for whom English is a second language.

  15. Vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in a district of Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Torun, Sebahat D; Bakırcı, Nadi

    2006-01-01

    Background In order to control and eliminate the vaccine preventable diseases it is important to know the vaccination coverage and reasons for non-vaccination. The primary objective of this study was to determine the complete vaccination rate; the reasons for non-vaccination and the predictors that influence vaccination of children. The other objective was to determine coverage of measles vaccination of the Measles Immunization Days (MID) 2005 for children aged 9 month to 6 years in a region of Umraniye, Istanbul, Turkey. Methods A '30 × 7' cluster sampling design was used as the sampling method. Thirty streets were selected at random from study area. Survey data were collected by a questionnaire which was applied face to face to parents of 221 children. A Chi-square test and logistic regression was used for the statistical analyses. Content analysis method was used to evaluate the open-ended questions. Results The complete vaccination rate for study population was 84.5% and 3.2% of all children were totally non-vaccinated. The siblings of non-vaccinated children were also non-vaccinated. Reasons for non-vaccination were as follows: being in the village and couldn't reach to health care services; having no knowledge about vaccination; the father of child didn't allow vaccination; intercurrent illness of child during vaccination time; missed opportunities like not to shave off a vial for only one child. In logistic regression analysis, paternal and maternal levels of education and immigration time of both parents to Istanbul were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated or non-vaccinated. Measles vaccination coverage during MID was 79.3%. Conclusion Efforts to increase vaccination coverage should take reasons for non-vaccination into account. PMID:16677375

  16. Vaccine chronicle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2013-10-01

    The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner's cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, which caused the stagnation of vaccine development. In 2010, many universal vaccines became available as the recommended vaccines, but several vaccines, including mumps, zoster, hepatitis B, and rota vaccines, are still voluntary vaccines, not universal routine applications. In this report, immunization strategies and vaccine development are reviewed for each vaccine item and future vaccine concerns are discussed.

  17. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Riedmann, Eva M.

    2012-01-01

    Two therapeutic HPV vaccine candidates successful in phase 1 Flu shot may prevent heart attacks and stroke CDX-1401 combined with TLR agonist: Positive phase 1 results Three MRSA vaccines in early clincial trials Ovarian cancer vaccine candidate DPX-Survivac: Positive interim results from phase 1 Chinese biotech partnership brings first hepatitis E vaccine to the market Therapeutic vaccine for treatment of genital herpes enters phase 2 Visionary concept: Printable vaccines PMID:23817319

  18. The Obligation to Participate in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, G. Owen; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Wertheimer, Alan

    2009-01-01

    The prevailing view is that participation in biomedical research is above and beyond the call of duty. While some commentators have offered reasons against this, we propose a novel public goods argument for an obligation to participate in biomedical research. Biomedical knowledge is a public good, available to any individual even if that individual does not contribute to it. Participation in research is a critical way to support that important public good. Consequently, we all have a duty to participate. The current social norm is that people participate only if they have a good reason to do so. The public goods argument implies that people should participate unless they have a good reason not to. Such a shift would be of great aid to the progress of biomedical research, eventually making our society significantly healthier and longer-lived. PMID:19567441

  19. New frontiers in biomedical science and engineering during 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lagoa, Ricardo; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB) is an international meeting held once a year. This, the fourth International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology (ICBEB2015), will be held in Shanghai, China, during August 18th-21st, 2015. This annual conference intends to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners at home and abroad to present the most recent frontiers and future challenges in the fields of biomedical science, biomedical engineering, biomaterials, bioinformatics and computational biology, biomedical imaging and signal processing, biomechanical engineering and biotechnology, etc. The papers published in this issue are selected from this Conference, which witness the advances in biomedical engineering and biotechnology during 2014-2015.

  20. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (IDS-C) and Self-Report (IDS-SR), and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Clinician Rating (QIDS-C) and Self-Report (QIDS-SR) in public sector patients with mood disorders: a psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, M H; Rush, A J; Ibrahim, H M; Carmody, T J; Biggs, M M; Suppes, T; Crismon, M L; Shores-Wilson, K; Toprac, M G; Dennehy, E B; Witte, B; Kashner, T M

    2004-01-01

    The present study provides additional data on the psychometric properties of the 30-item Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and of the recently developed Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS), a brief 16-item symptom severity rating scale that was derived from the longer form. Both the IDS and QIDS are available in matched clinician-rated (IDS-C30; QIDS-C16) and self-report (IDS-SR30; QIDS-SR16) formats. The patient samples included 544 out-patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 402 out-patients with bipolar disorder (BD) drawn from 19 regionally and ethnicically diverse clinics as part of the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP). Psychometric analyses including sensitivity to change with treatment were conducted. Internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 for all four scales (QIDS-C16, QIDS-SR16, IDS-C30 and IDS-SR30) in both MDD and BD patients. Sad mood, involvement, energy, concentration and self-outlook had the highest item-total correlations among patients with MDD and BD across all four scales. QIDS-SR16 and IDS-SR30 total scores were highly correlated among patients with MDD at exit (c = 0.83). QIDS-C16 and IDS-C30 total scores were also highly correlated among patients with MDD (c = 0.82) and patients with BD (c = 0.81). The IDS-SR30, IDS-C30, QIDS-SR16, and QIDS-C16 were equivalently sensitive to symptom change, indicating high concurrent validity for all four scales. High concurrent validity was also documented based on the SF-12 Mental Health Summary score for the population divided in quintiles based on their IDS or QIDS score. The QIDS-SR16 and QIDS-C16, as well as the longer 30-item versions, have highly acceptable psychometric properties and are treatment sensitive measures of symptom severity in depression.

  1. Combination of electron beam irradiation and thermal treatment to enhance the shelf-life of traditional Indian fermented food (Idli)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulmule, Manoj D.; Shimmy, Shankar M.; Bambole, Vaishali; Jamdar, Sahayog N.; Rawat, K. P.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    Idli, a steam-cooked breakfast food item consumed in India, is famous as a staple food for its spongy texture and unique fermented taste. Idli preparation is a time consuming process; although instant Idli pre-mixes as powder or batter are available in the market, they do not have the distinctive taste and aroma similar to the Idli prepared at home. Hence ready-to-eat (RTE) form of this food is in demand. Therefore, an attempt was made to prepare RTE Idli bearing similar taste as home-cooked Idli with an extended shelf-life of up to two months at an ambient temperature using Electron Beam Irradiation (EBI) at dosages 2.5 kGy, 5 kGy and 7.5 kGy and combination processing comprised of EBI dosage at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment (80 °C for 20 min). The treated Idli's were microbiologically and sensorially evaluated at storage periods of zero day, 14 days, 30 days and 60 days. Idli's irradiated at 7.5 kGy and subjected to combination processing at 2.5 kGy and thermal treatment were shelf-stable for 60 days. 2.5 kGy and 5 kGy radiation dosages alone were not sufficient to preserve Idli samples for more than 14 days. Undesirable change in sensory properties of Idli was observed at an EBI dosage of 7.5 kGy. Sensory properties of combination processed Idli's were found to undergo minor change over the storage period. The present work suggests that lowest radiation dosage in combination with thermal treatment could be useful to achieve the extended shelf-life without considerably impairing the organoleptic quality of Ready-to-Eat Idli.

  2. Measles Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... World Health Organization Pan American Health Organization Measles Vaccination Pronounced (MEE-zills) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... also be up to date on their MMR vaccination. The MMR vaccine is very safe and effective. ...

  3. Evaluation of a new five-injection, two-site,intradermal schedule for purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine: A randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, M K; Madhusudana, S N; Mahendra, B J; Ashwath Narayana, D H; Ananda Giri, M S; Popova, O; Vakil, H B

    2005-07-01

    Human rabies is an ongoing significant public health problem inmany developing countries, with India reporting the highest incidence of rabies-related deaths (∼20,000 per year). Many people living in India cannot afford the standard IM postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with cell-culture vaccines, which are administered using a 5-dose regimen developed in Essen, Germany. A potentially less expensive intradermal (ID) regimen, based on the Essen regimen, has been developed at the Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS), Bangalore, India. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and local and systemic tolerability of the KIMS-1D regimen with those of the standard Essen IM regimen in healthy adult volunteers in India. This randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial was conductedat the Antirabies Clinic, Medical College, KIMS. Healthy adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) using the KIMS-1D regimen (0.1 mL injected ID at 2 body sites on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28 ["2-2-2-2-2"]) or the Essen IM regimen (1 mL injected IM at 1 body site on the same days Subjects were followed up for 365 days by the treating physician and encouraged to voluntarily report any adverse events (AEs). Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations were measured before the first injection on day 0 (baseline) and on days 14, 28, 90, 180, and 365, using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Ninety-one subjects were enrolled and included in the tolerabilityand immunogenicity analyses. The ID group comprised 45 subjects (26 men, 19 women; mean [SD] age, 20.84 [1.48] years); the IM group, 46 subjects (28 men, 18 women; mean [SD] age, 21.02 [1.16] years). The most common local AEs were pain at the injection site (2/225 [0.9%] in the ID group and 10/230 [4.3%] in the IM group; P < 0.006) and itching at the injection site (5/225 [2.2%] in the ID group and none in the IM group; P = 0.026). All of

  4. Immunosuppressant effect of IDS 30, a stinging nettle leaf extract, on myeloid dendritic cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Broer, Johanna; Behnke, Bert

    2002-04-01

    Dendritic cells are important antigen presenting cells that play a role in the initiation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The stinging nettle leaf extract IDS 30 (Hox alpha) has been recommended for adjuvant therapy of rheumatic diseases. We investigated the immunomodulating effect of IDS 30 extract on the maturation of hematopoietic dendritic cells. Human dendritic cells were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Dendritic cell maturation was induced by keyhole limped hemocyanin (KLH). Dendritic cell phenotype was characterized by flow cytometric analysis; dendritic cell cytokine production was measured by ELISA. The ability of dendritic cells to activate naive autologous T cells was evaluated by mixed leukocyte reaction. IDS 30 prevented the maturation of dendritic cells, but did not affect their viability. IDS 30 reduced the expression of CD83 and CD86. It increased the expression of chemokine receptor 5 and CD36 in a dose dependent manner. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was reduced. Application of IDS 30 to dendritic cells in culture caused a high endocytosis of dextran and a low capacity to stimulate T cell proliferation. Our in vitro results showed the suppressive effect of IDS 30 on the maturation of human myeloid dendritic cells, leading to reduced induction of primary T cell responses. This may contribute to the therapeutic effect of IDS 30 on T cell mediated inflammatory diseases like RA.

  5. Effect of Refrigeration on Inoculated Micro-ID Strips

    PubMed Central

    Burdash, Nicholas M.; West, Marcia E.

    1981-01-01

    Since reading results after 4 h with the Micro-ID system is not always convenient, a study of 500 isolates indicated that identification at the species level is essentially unchanged when inoculated strips are refrigerated overnight and then incubated or incubated and then refrigerated overnight before reading. PMID:7026604

  6. Vaccination of school children with live mumps virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Furesz, J; Nagler, F P

    1970-05-30

    Live, attenuated mumps virus vaccine (Mumpsvax) was administered to 146 school children 6 to 9 years of age. One child developed clinical mumps nine days after vaccination; epidemiological and serological data strongly suggest that this child had become infected before vaccination. Apart from this single instance there were no apparent clinical reactions that could be ascribed to the administration of the vaccine. Sixty-three of the 146 children with no clinical history of mumps had an initial serum neutralizing antibody titre of less than 1:2. Specific antibodies to mumps virus were detected in 93.5% of the sera of the susceptible children 28 days after vaccination, and the geometric mean antibody titre of these sera was low (1:6). Of the 80 initially seropositive children 21 (26.2%) showed a significant antibody response to the vaccine and this was influenced by the pre-existing antibody level. These data have further demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the live mumps vaccine in children.

  7. Vaccination of School Children With Live Mumps Virus Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Furesz, J.; Nagler, F. P.

    1970-01-01

    Live, attenuated mumps virus vaccine (Mumpsvax) was administered to 146 school children 6 to 9 years of age. One child developed clinical mumps nine days after vaccination; epidemiological and serological data strongly suggest that this child had become infected before vaccination. Apart from this single instance there were no apparent clinical reactions that could be ascribed to the administration of the vaccine. Sixty-three of the 146 children with no clinical history of mumps had an initial serum neutralizing antibody titre of less than 1:2. Specific antibodies to mumps virus were detected in 93.5% of the sera of the susceptible children 28 days after vaccination, and the geometric mean antibody titre of these sera was low (1:6). Of the 80 initially seropositive children 21 (26.2%) showed a significant antibody response to the vaccine and this was influenced by the pre-existing antibody level. These data have further demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the live mumps vaccine in children. PMID:5420994

  8. Vaccines against Botulism.</