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Sample records for vacuum cleaners

  1. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  2. Comparison of work rates, energy expenditure, and perceived exertion during a 1-h vacuuming task with a backpack vacuum cleaner and an upright vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Mengelkoch, Larry J; Clark, Kirby

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two types of industrial vacuum cleaners, in terms of cleaning rates, energy expenditure, and perceived exertion. Twelve industrial cleaners (six males and six females, age 28-39 yr) performed two 1-h vacuuming tasks with an upright vacuum cleaner (UVC) and a backpack vacuum cleaner (BPVC). Measures for oxygen uptake (VO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected continuously during the 1-h vacuuming tasks. Cleaning rates for the UVC and BPVC were 7.23 and 14.98 m2min(-1), respectively. On a separate day subjects performed a maximal treadmill exercise test to determine their maximal aerobic capacity (peak VO2). Average absolute energy costs (in Metabolic equivalents), relative energy costs of the vacuum task compared to the subjects' maximal aerobic capacity (% peak VO2), and RPE responses for the 1-h vacuuming tasks were similar between vacuum cleaners, but % peak VO2 and RPE values differed between genders. These results indicate that the BPVC was more efficient than the UVC. With the BPVC, experienced workers vacuumed at a cleaning rate 2.07 times greater than the UVC and had similar levels of energy expenditure and perceived effort, compared to the slower cleaning rate with the UVC.

  3. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  4. Assessment of penetration through vacuum cleaners and recommendation of wet cyclone technology.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngjin; Han, Taewon

    2013-04-01

    In many commercial vacuum cleaners, the captured aerosol particles contained in the dust collector may accidentally release from the exhaust filtration owing to leakage or penetration. Vacuum cleaners may cause dust to become airborne by exhausting air that is not completely filtered. This may cause the operator to inhale dust, in turn causing health problems. This study aimed to investigate the dust penetration rates from three commercial vacuum cleaners and suggest the best technique for completely filtering exhaust air using a combination of cyclonic separation and water filtration. The commercial vacuum cleaners were tested inside a custom-built hood, and the exhausted particles were monitored using a sampling probe in conjunction with an aerosol particle sizer Quartzose mineral dusts were added to each vacuum cleaner through the dust transport line. A 2400 L/min wet cyclone was employed as the proposed vacuum cleaner It was designed using Stokes scaling, and its collection characteristics were evaluated using polystyrene latex beads. Surprisingly, the conventional vacuum cleaners failed to capture an overall average of approximately 14% of the particles in the given size range. However, only approximately 3.8% of the collected particles escaped from the vacuum cleaner that used the wet cyclone technology. Thus, the proposed vacuum cleaner should potentially be an effective method for vacuuming household dust. The successful investigation of conventional vacuum cleaners is useful for both manufacturers and users. As an effective vacuum cleaning mechanism, household dust is able to migrate along the thin water, film that forms on the inner walls of the cyclone vacuum cleaner. It collects dust in a small water inflow (3 mL/min), which allows it to capture a higher percentage of contaminants than most of the currently available vacuum cleaners. The significantly low accidental exposure rates achieved by this new vacuum cleaner enable healthy conditions in various

  5. 7 CFR 58.230 - Heavy duty vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. 58.230 Section 58.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....230 Heavy duty vacuum cleaners. Each plant handling dry milk products shall be equipped with a heavy...

  6. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2009-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf" vacuum cleaner has been used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating percent removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner

  7. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  8. Cleaner Vacuum-Bag Curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemons, J. M.; Penn, B. G.; Ledbetter, Frank E., III; Daniels, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    Improvement upon recommended procedures saves time and expense. Autoclave molding in vacuum bag cleaner if adhesive-backed covering placed around caul plate as well as on mold plate. Covering easy to remove after curing and leaves caul plate free of resin deposits.

  9. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  10. Life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of European regulation.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Mendoza, Joan Manuel F; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa

    2016-07-15

    Energy efficiency of vacuum cleaners has been declining over the past decades while at the same time their number in Europe has been increasing. The European Commission has recently adopted an eco-design regulation to improve the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. In addition to the existing directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), the regulation could potentially have significant effects on the environmental performance of vacuum cleaners. However, the scale of the effects is currently unknown, beyond scant information on greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this paper considers for the first time life cycle environmental impacts of vacuum cleaners and the effects of the implementation of these regulations at the European level. The effects of electricity decarbonisation, product lifetime and end-of-life disposal options are also considered. The results suggest that the implementation of the eco-design regulation alone will reduce significantly the impacts from vacuum cleaners (37%-44%) by 2020 compared with current situation. If business as usual continued and the regulation was not implemented, the impacts would be 82%-109% higher by 2020 compared to the impacts with the implementation of the regulation. Improvements associated with the implementation of the WEEE directive will be much smaller (<1% in 2020). However, if the WEEE directive did not exist, then the impacts would be 2%-21% higher by 2020 relative to the impacts with the implementation of the directive. Further improvements in most impacts (6%-20%) could be achieved by decarbonising the electricity mix. Therefore, energy efficiency measures must be accompanied by appropriate actions to reduce the environmental impacts of electricity generation; otherwise, the benefits of improved energy efficiency could be limited. Moreover, because of expected lower life expectancy of vacuum cleaners and limited availability of some raw materials, the eco-design regulation should be

  11. Vacuum cleaner emissions as a source of indoor exposure to airborne particles and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Knibbs, Luke D; He, Congrong; Duchaine, Caroline; Morawska, Lidia

    2012-01-03

    Vacuuming can be a source of indoor exposure to biological and nonbiological aerosols, although there are few data that describe the magnitude of emissions from the vacuum cleaner itself. We therefore sought to quantify emission rates of particles and bacteria from a large group of vacuum cleaners and investigate their potential determinants, including temperature, dust bags, exhaust filters, price, and age. Emissions of particles between 0.009 and 20 μm and bacteria were measured from 21 vacuums. Ultrafine (<100 nm) particle emission rates ranged from 4.0 × 10(6) to 1.1 × 10(11) particles min(-1). Emission of 0.54-20 μm particles ranged from 4.0 × 10(4) to 1.2 × 10(9) particles min(-1). PM(2.5) emissions were between 2.4 × 10(-1) and 5.4 × 10(3) μg min(-1). Bacteria emissions ranged from 0 to 7.4 × 10(5) bacteria min(-1) and were poorly correlated with dust bag bacteria content and particle emissions. Large variability in emission of all parameters was observed across the 21 vacuums, which was largely not attributable to the range of determinant factors we assessed. Vacuum cleaner emissions contribute to indoor exposure to nonbiological and biological aerosols when vacuuming, and this may vary markedly depending on the vacuum used.

  12. Kuipers uses vacuum cleaner while performing maintenance in the Columbus Module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-02-22

    ISS030-E-093398 (22 Feb. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, uses a vacuum cleaner while performing the scheduled extensive cleanup of ventilation systems in the Columbus laboratory of the International Space Station.

  13. The hydrodynamic basis of the vacuum cleaner effect in continuous-flow PCNL instruments: an empiric approach and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Mager, R; Balzereit, C; Gust, K; Hüsch, T; Herrmann, T; Nagele, U; Haferkamp, A; Schilling, D

    2016-05-01

    Passive removal of stone fragments in the irrigation stream is one of the characteristics in continuous-flow PCNL instruments. So far the physical principle of this so-called vacuum cleaner effect has not been fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to empirically prove the existence of the vacuum cleaner effect and to develop a physical hypothesis and generate a mathematical model for this phenomenon. In an empiric approach, common low-pressure PCNL instruments and conventional PCNL sheaths were tested using an in vitro model. Flow characteristics were visualized by coloring of irrigation fluid. Influence of irrigation pressure, sheath diameter, sheath design, nephroscope design and position of the nephroscope was assessed. Experiments were digitally recorded for further slow-motion analysis to deduce a physical model. In each tested nephroscope design, we could observe the vacuum cleaner effect. Increase in irrigation pressure and reduction in cross section of sheath sustained the effect. Slow-motion analysis of colored flow revealed a synergism of two effects causing suction and transportation of the stone. For the first time, our model showed a flow reversal in the sheath as an integral part of the origin of the stone transportation during vacuum cleaner effect. The application of Bernoulli's equation provided the explanation of these effects and confirmed our experimental results. We widen the understanding of PCNL with a conclusive physical model, which explains fluid mechanics of the vacuum cleaner effect.

  14. Visualization of vacuum cleaner-induced flow in a carpet by using magnetic resonance velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeesoo; Song, Simon

    2016-11-01

    Understanding characteristics of in-carpet flow induced by a vacuum cleaner nozzle is important to improve the design and performance of the cleaner nozzle. However, optical visualization techniques like PIV are limited to uncover the flow details because a carpet is opaque porous media. We have visualized a mean flow field in a cut-pile type carpet by magnetic resonance velocimetry. The flow was generated by a static vacuum cleaner nozzle, and the working fluid is a copper sulfate aqueous solution. Three dimensional, three component velocity vectors were obtained in a measurement domain of 336 x 128 x 14 mm3 covering the entire nozzle span and a 7-mm thick carpet below the nozzle. The voxel size was 1 x 1 x 0.5 (depthwise) mm3. Based on the visualization data, the permeability, the Forchheimer coefficient and pressure distribution were calculated for the carpet. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) Grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2016R1A2B3009541).

  15. Measurement of flow inside a vacuum cleaner head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iguchi, Ryotaro; Ban, Hisataka; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Vacuum cleaner head with rotating brushes is widely used as a home appliance. Although it efficiently collects dusts from the floor, flow field of the air and motion of the dust inside the head have not been fully investigated. In this study, we performed 3D-PIV (particle tracking velocimetry) measurement of velocity field inside the head. Water was used as working fluid, which allows a use of fluorescent particle to reduce unwanted reflection from the brushes and inner surface of the head. Mean velocity field and turbulence statistics in the head with and without the brush will be presented.

  16. Microbial Contents of Vacuum Cleaner Bag Dust and Emitted Bioaerosols and Their Implications for Human Exposure Indoors

    PubMed Central

    Veillette, Marc; Knibbs, Luke D.; Pelletier, Ariane; Charlebois, Remi; Blais Lecours, Pascale; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Vacuum cleaners can release large concentrations of particles, both in their exhaust air and from resuspension of settled dust. However, the size, variability, and microbial diversity of these emissions are unknown, despite evidence to suggest they may contribute to allergic responses and infection transmission indoors. This study aimed to evaluate bioaerosol emission from various vacuum cleaners. We sampled the air in an experimental flow tunnel where vacuum cleaners were run, and their airborne emissions were sampled with closed-face cassettes. Dust samples were also collected from the dust bag. Total bacteria, total archaea, Penicillium/Aspergillus, and total Clostridium cluster 1 were quantified with specific quantitative PCR protocols, and emission rates were calculated. Clostridium botulinum and antibiotic resistance genes were detected in each sample using endpoint PCR. Bacterial diversity was also analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), image analysis, and band sequencing. We demonstrated that emission of bacteria and molds (Penicillium/Aspergillus) can reach values as high as 1E5 cell equivalents/min and that those emissions are not related to each other. The bag dust bacterial and mold content was also consistent across the vacuums we assessed, reaching up to 1E7 bacterial or mold cell equivalents/g. Antibiotic resistance genes were detected in several samples. No archaea or C. botulinum was detected in any air samples. Diversity analyses showed that most bacteria are from human sources, in keeping with other recent results. These results highlight the potential capability of vacuum cleaners to disseminate appreciable quantities of molds and human-associated bacteria indoors and their role as a source of exposure to bioaerosols. PMID:23934489

  17. Assessment of Nanoparticle Exposure in Nanosilica Handling Process: Including Characteristics of Nanoparticles Leaking from a Vacuum Cleaner

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Boowook; KIM, Hyunwook; YU, Il Je

    2013-01-01

    Nanosilica is one of the most widely used nanomaterials across the world. However, their assessment data on the occupational exposure to nanoparticles is insufficient. The present study performed an exposure monitoring in workplace environments where synthetic powders are prepared using fumed nanosilica. Furthermore, after it was observed during exposure monitoring that nanoparticles were emitted through leakage in a vacuum cleaner (even with a HEPA-filter installed in it), the properties of the leaked nanoparticles were also investigated. Workers were exposed to high-concentration nanosilica emitted into the air while pouring it into a container or transferring the container. The use of a vacuum cleaner with a leak (caused by an inadequate sealing) was found to be the origin of nanosilica dispersion in the indoor air. While the particle size of the nanosilica that emitted into the air (during the handling of nanosilica by a worker) was mostly over 100 nm or several microns (µm) due to the coagulation of particles, the size of nanosilica that leaked out of vacuum cleaner was almost similar to the primary size (mode diameter 11.5 nm). Analysis of area samples resulted in 20% (60% in terms of peak concentration) less than the analysis of the personals sample. PMID:24366536

  18. Assessment of nanoparticle exposure in nanosilica handling process: including characteristics of nanoparticles leaking from a vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Kim, Boowook; Kim, Hyunwook; Yu, Il Je

    2014-01-01

    Nanosilica is one of the most widely used nanomaterials across the world. However, their assessment data on the occupational exposure to nanoparticles is insufficient. The present study performed an exposure monitoring in workplace environments where synthetic powders are prepared using fumed nanosilica. Furthermore, after it was observed during exposure monitoring that nanoparticles were emitted through leakage in a vacuum cleaner (even with a HEPA-filter installed in it), the properties of the leaked nanoparticles were also investigated. Workers were exposed to high-concentration nanosilica emitted into the air while pouring it into a container or transferring the container. The use of a vacuum cleaner with a leak (caused by an inadequate sealing) was found to be the origin of nanosilica dispersion in the indoor air. While the particle size of the nanosilica that emitted into the air (during the handling of nanosilica by a worker) was mostly over 100 nm or several microns (µm) due to the coagulation of particles, the size of nanosilica that leaked out of vacuum cleaner was almost similar to the primary size (mode diameter 11.5 nm). Analysis of area samples resulted in 20% (60% in terms of peak concentration) less than the analysis of the personals sample.

  19. Pyrethroid Pesticides and Their Metabolites in Vacuum Cleaner Dust Collected from Homes and Day-Care Centers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the concentrations of 13 selected pyrethroid pesticides and their degradation products in samples of indoor dust that had been collected in vacuum cleaner bags during the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persis...

  20. The Evaluation of Carpet Steam/Heat Cleaners as Biological Sampling Device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-08

    Vacuum Cleaner Evaluation as sampling Device Test Plan DHS Page 16 of 16 Fumigants , and Issues Related to Laboratory-scale Studies. Appl. Environ...ECBC Wet/dry Vacuum Cleaner Evaluation as sampling Device Test Plan DHS Page 1 of 16 Test Plan for The Evaluation of Carpet Steam...b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ECBC Wet/dry Vacuum Cleaner

  1. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals in vacuum cleaner dust from 39 Wisconsin homes.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Imm, Pamela; Anderson, Henry

    2012-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been used as surfactants and stain repellants in a variety of consumer products for more than 50years and there is growing concern regarding their persistence and toxicity. Human exposure to these chemicals is essentially universal in North America and researchers have linked them to a variety of health problems ranging from higher rates of cancer, to developmental and reproductive problems, and higher cholesterol levels. Major exposure pathways are food and water ingestion, dust ingestion via hand to mouth transfer. In an effort to assess residential exposure, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services tested vacuum cleaner contents from thirty-nine homes for 16 perflouroalkyl chemicals. PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, PFHpA and PFNA were found in all of the vacuum dust samples and dust from eight homes contained all 16 PFCs included in our analysis. The most commonly detected compounds were perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) which together made up 70% of the total PFC residues in dust from these homes. Summed PFC concentrations in these dust samples ranged from 70 to 2513ng/g (median 280ng/g). Our investigation suggests that these chemicals may be ubiquitous contaminants in US homes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) technique for calcifying tendonitis deposits excision and removal of the calcific debris.

    PubMed

    Ehud, Atoun; Ehud, Rath; Alexander, Van Tongel; Ali, Narvani; Giusseppe, Sforza; Ofer, Levy

    2012-07-01

    A new technical tip for the improvement of the arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic calcifying tendinitis is described. Arthroscopic excision of calcifying tendonitis may result with multiple minute calcific debris in the subacromial bursa, causing severe post operative pain due to chemical irritation of the bursa. We suggest the use of a bladeless shaver barrel as a "Hoover" (vacuum cleaner) for arthroscopic clearance of these miniature calcific debris from the subacromial space after resection of the major deposits. The use of this technique resulted in good clinical outcome with improved post operative pain.

  3. Sampling and inactivation of wet disseminated spores from flooring materials using commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Katy-Anne; Paton, Susan; Pottage, Thomas; Bennett, Allan

    2018-05-09

    Four commercially available robotic vacuum cleaners were assessed for sampling efficiency of wet disseminated Bacillus atrophaeus spores on carpet, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) and laminate flooring. Furthermore, their operability was evaluated and decontamination efficiency of one robot was assessed using a sodium hypochlorite solution. In an environmental chamber, robots self-navigated around 4 m 2 of flooring containing a single contaminated 0.25 m 2 tile (ca. 10 4 spores per cm 2 ). Contamination levels at pre-determined locations were assessed by macrofoam swabs (PVC and laminate) or water soluble tape (carpet), before and after sampling. Robots were dismantled post-sampling and spore recoveries assessed. Aerosol contamination was also measured during sampling. Robot sampling efficiencies were variable, however, robots recovered most spores from laminate (up to 17.1%), then PVC, and lastly carpet. All robots spread contamination from the 'hotspot' (all robots spread < 0.6% of the contamination to other areas) and became surface contaminated. Spores were detected at low levels during air sampling (<5.6 spores l -1 ). Liquid decontamination inactivated 99.1% of spores from PVC. Robotic vacuum cleaners show promise for both sampling and initial decontamination of indoor flooring. In the event of a bioterror incident, e.g. deliberate release of Bacillus anthracis spores, areas require sampling to determine the magnitude and extent of contamination, and to establish decontamination efficacy. In this study we investigate robotic sampling methods against high concentrations of bacterial spores applied by wet deposition to different floorings, contamination spread to other areas, potential transfer of spores to the operators and assessment of a wet vacuum robot for spore inactivation. The robots' usability was evaluated and how they can be employed in real life scenarios. This will help to reduce the economic cost of sampling and the risk to sampling/decontamination teams

  4. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  5. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in vacuum cleaner dust collected in Japanese homes.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Takatah, Yumiko; Arakawa, Ryuichi

    2003-10-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are shown to be globally distributed, environmentally persistent and bioaccumulative. Although there is evidence that these compounds exist in the serum of non-occupationally exposed humans, the pathways leading to the presence of PFOS and PFOA are not well characterized. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the vacuum cleaner dust collected in Japanese homes were measured. The compounds were detected in all the dust samples and the ranges were 11-2500 ng g(-1) for PFOS and 69-3700 ng g(-1) for PFOA. It was ascertained that PFOS and PFOA were present in the dust in homes, and that the absorption of the dust could be one of the exposure pathways of the PFOS and PFOA to humans. With regard to risk management, it is important to consider the usage of PFOS and PFOA in the indoor environment in order to avoid further pollution.

  6. A Vacuum-Aspirator for Counting Termites

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Jones; Joe K. Mauldin

    1983-01-01

    An aspirator-system powered by a vacuum cleaner is described for manually counting termites. It is significantly faster and termite survival is at least as high as when using a mouth-aspirator for counting large numbers of termites.

  7. Enticed by the punschrulle: Preliminary investigation of the Seve Nappe Complex's incorporation into the Scandinavian Caledonides via 'vacuum-cleaner' exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Chris; Majka, Jaroslaw; Schneider, David; Bukala, Michal; Walczak, Katarzyna

    2017-04-01

    Recent discoveries of ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) of the Scandinavian Caledonides provide the basis for new investigations into the subduction - exhumation dynamics of the Baltoscandian margin during Caledonian tectonism. Specifically, exhumation of (U)HP complexes during subduction remains enigmatic. The recently proposed 'vacuum-cleaner' model details a method of exhumation for the SNC driven by conditions of underpressure within the subduction channel. This model, however, still requires extensive testing. Metasedimentary rocks hosting eclogite boudins of the SNC in Norrbotten, Sweden, preserve both metre-scale folding and a pervasive foliation which were developed during exhumation, as purposed by previous studies. Thus, the SNC host-rock offers an excellent region to test the vacuum-cleaner exhumation model. Preliminary investigation of the host-rock reveals a regional mineral assemblage of Qz + Ms + Grt + Bt + Ksp + Pl + Czo + Aln + Ttn (+ Tur + St). Garnet inclusions (Qz + Rt + Ms) are interpreted to represent the peak pressure assemblage. Chemical profiles of Grt show homogenization of the cores with thin retrogressive rims. Homogenization of Grt requires temperatures >700°C, interpreted to represent peak temperature conditions. Field observations of exhumation-related folds uncovered an axial-planar alignment of mica within the fold hinges, and an abundance of Aln and Czo requires upper-greenschist to lower-amphibolite facies conditions and presence of fluids. The current host-rock mineral assemblage is representative of retrogressive metamorphism at <550-600°C contemporaneous with deformation. Microstructures of the metasedimentary rocks are variable and strongly correlated with competency of the rock. Competent domains abundant in e.g. Qz, Grt, Czo, Ksp etc. exhibit coarse-grained subgrain and bulging-grain recrystallized Qz and development of micrometer-scale shear bands. Less competent domains, dominated by

  8. Mercury Vacuum Cleaner, Operational Test and Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    Indirect readings were obtained by air sampling with hopcalite tubes and subsequent analysis by the USAF OEHL Analytical Services Division. - r...during the operational and storage modes of the MRS-3 vacuum. During the operational mode, indirect ( hopcalite ) air sampling was periodically taken at...from the top and bottom sides of the HEPA and charcoal filter. During the storage mode, indirect ( hopcalite and dosimeter coil) air sampling was

  9. Swimming pool cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Swimming pool cleaner poisoning occurs when someone swallows this type of cleaner, touches it, or breathes in ... The harmful substances in swimming pool cleaner are: Bromine ... copper Chlorine Soda ash Sodium bicarbonate Various mild acids

  10. Sozzy: a hormone-driven autonomous vacuum cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masaki

    1994-02-01

    Domestic robots are promising examples of the application of robotics to personal life. There have been many approaches in this field, but no successful results exist. The problem is that domestic environments are more difficult for robots than other environments, such as factory floors or office floors. Consequently, conventional approaches using a model of human intelligence to design robots have not been successful. In this paper, we report on a prototyped domestic vacuum-cleaning robot that is designed to be able to handle complex environments. The control software is composed of two layers, both of which are generally inspired by behaviors of living creatures. The first layer corresponds to a dynamically reconfigurable system of behaviors implemented in the subsumption architecture. The ability of the robot to support alternate configurations of its behaviors provides the robot with increased robustness. We have conveniently labeled particular configurations as specific `emotions' according to the interpretation of observers of the robot's behavior. The second layer simulates the hormone system. The hormone system is modeled using state variables, increased or decreased by stimuli from the environment. The hormone condition selects the robot's most suitable emotion, according to the changing environments. The robot hardware is built of off-the-shelf parts, such as an embedded CPU, inexpensive home-appliance sensors, and small motors. These parts keep the total building cost to a minimum. The robot also has a vacuum cleaning function to demonstrate its capability to perform useful tasks. We tested the robot in our laboratory, and successfully videotaped its robust behaviors. We also confirmed the hormone system to enhance the robot's plasticity and lifelike quality.

  11. Cutaneous and respiratory symptoms among professional cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Carrie B; Obadia, Maya; Liss, Gary M; Ribeiro, Marcos; Holness, D Linn; Tarlo, Susan M

    2009-06-01

    Occupational dermatitis is very common and has a large economic impact. Cleaners are at an increased risk for both work-related cutaneous and respiratory symptoms. To compare the prevalence of occupational cutaneous symptoms among professional indoor cleaners to other building workers (OBW) and to determine associations with exposures and with respiratory symptoms among cleaners. A questionnaire completed by indoor professional cleaners and OBW to compare rash and respiratory symptoms between these groups examined workplace factors such as training, protective equipment and work tasks. In total, 549 of the 1396 professional cleaners (39%) and 593 of the 1271 OBW (47%) completed questionnaires. The prevalence of rash was significantly higher in the cleaners compared to the OBW. For male cleaners, 21% (86/413) had a rash in the past 12 months compared to only 11% (13/115) of OBW (P < 0.05). The rashes experienced by the cleaners were more likely to be on their hands and worse at work. Cleaners washed their hands significantly more often than OBW. Cleaners with a rash were less likely to have received workplace training regarding their skin and were more likely to find the safety training hard to understand. Cleaners with a rash within the past year were significantly more likely to have work-related asthma symptoms than cleaners without a rash (P < 0.001). This study demonstrates a strong link between work-related symptoms of asthma and dermatitis among cleaners. Effective preventive measures, such as the use of protective skin and respiratory equipment, should be emphasized.

  12. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10% R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50% R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) cleaners chemical composition. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  14. 7 CFR 2902.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 2902.30 Section 2902.30 Agriculture... Glass cleaners. (a) Definition. Cleaning products designed specifically for use in cleaning glass... qualifying biobased glass cleaners. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting...

  15. Chemical Aging of Environmentally Friendly Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, K.; Biegert, L.; Olsen, B.; Weber, B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Use of cleaners in the manufacturing area demands bottles that will hold a sufficient amount of material and allow for easy and controlled dispensing by the operator without contamination or material leaching from the bottle. The manufacturing storage conditions are also a factor that may affect cleaner chemical integrity and its potential to leave a residue on the part. A variety of squeeze bottles stored in mild (72 F, 10 % R.H., dark) and harsh (105 F, 50 % R.H., fluorescent lighting) conditions were evaluated to determine the effect of environment and bottle exposure on the chemical composition of TCA (1,1,1 trichloroethane) replacement solvents. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) bottles were found to be quite permeable to all the cleaners evaluated in this study indicating this bottle type should not be used in the manufacturing area. Fluorinated Polyethylene (FLPE) bottles showed little cleaner loss and change in cleaner chemical composition over time suggesting these bottles would be acceptable for use. Chemical analysis indicates limonene-containing cleaners show increased non-volatile residue (NVR) content with storage under harsh conditions. Some cleaners use BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) as stabilizer and to protect against limonene oxidation. Under harsh conditions, BHT was quickly depleted resulting in higher NVR levels.

  16. QFD analysis of RSRM aqueous cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, Roy D.; Jones, Randy K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) analysis of the final down-selected aqueous cleaners to be used on the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) program. The new cleaner will replace solvent vapor degreasing. The RSRM Ozone Depleting Compound Elimination program is discontinuing the methyl chloroform vapor degreasing process and replacing it with a spray-in-air aqueous cleaning process. Previously, 15 cleaners were down-selected to two candidates by passing screening tests involving toxicity, flammability, cleaning efficiency, contaminant solubility, corrosion potential, cost, and bond strength. The two down-selected cleaners were further evaluated with more intensive testing and evaluated using QFD techniques to assess suitability for cleaning RSRM case and nozzle surfaces in preparation for adhesive bonding.

  17. 21 CFR 872.3530 - Mechanical denture cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mechanical denture cleaner. 872.3530 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3530 Mechanical denture cleaner. (a) Identification. A mechanical denture cleaner is a device, usually AC-powered, that consists of a container for...

  18. Comparison of pesticides and other compounds in carpet dust samples collected from used vacuum cleaner bags and from a high-volume surface sampler.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of the association between residential pesticide use and cancer risk require an assessment of past pesticide exposures. Pesticide levels in carpet dust are believed to reflect long-term pesticide use. Recent epidemiologic studies have found collection of dust samples using the high-volume surface sampler (HVS3) to be expensive and cumbersome. We compared the levels of pesticides and other compounds in dust obtained from subjects' personal used vacuum cleaner bags to that collected by the HVS3 to see if this simpler method could replace the HVS3 in epidemiologic research. We visited the homes of 15 subjects, took the used bags from their vacuums, and collected carpet dust samples with the HVS3. The samples were analyzed for 42 target compounds: 26 pesticides, 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. The two methods agreed in detecting the presence of the target compounds between 80% and 100% of the time. Neither sampling method was consistently more sensitive. The median target compound concentrations were similar, and a paired t-test showed no significant differences. For many compounds, the concentrations of compounds in the HVS3 samples were higher than those in the used bag samples at the upper end of the concentration ranges. However, the Spearman rank correlation coefficients were 0.85 or higher for most compounds, indicating that homes would be ranked similarly using both methods. Overall, there appears to be no clear difference in the quality of the pesticide, PAH, or PCB concentration data for the two dust collection methods. Images Figure 1 PMID:9799187

  19. Evaluation of Alkaline Cleaner Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partz, Earl

    1998-01-01

    Alkaline cleaners used to process aluminum substrates have contained chromium as the corrosion inhibitor. Chromium is a hazardous substance whose use and control are described by environmental laws. Replacement materials that have the characteristics of chromated alkaline cleaners need to be found that address both the cleaning requirements and environmental impacts. This report will review environmentally friendly candidates evaluated as non-chromium alkaline cleaner replacements and methods used to compare those candidates one versus another. The report will also list characteristics used to select candidates based on their declared contents. It will also describe and evaluate methods used to discriminate among the large number of prospective candidates.

  20. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General purpose household cleaners. (a) Definition. Products designed... procurement preference for qualifying biobased general purpose household cleaners. By that date, Federal... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section...

  1. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.

    2018-03-01

    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  2. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  3. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  4. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  5. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device may...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device may...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating air cleaner is a device used to remove particles from the air for medical purposes. The device may...

  8. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women cooks and cleaners.

    PubMed

    Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Minov, Jordan; Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Stoleski, Saso; Mijakoski, Dragan

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in 43 women cleaners (aged 26 to 57) and 37 women cooks (aged 29 to 55) and compare them with 45 controls (women office workers aged 27 to 58). The evaluation of all subjects included a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common aeroallergens, spirometry, and histamine challenge (PC20 < or = 8 mg mL(-1)). We found higher BHR prevalence in cleaners and cooks than in office workers (30.2 % and 29.7 %, vs. 17.7 %, respectively), but statistical significance was not reached. The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe BHR was similar in all groups. Borderline BHR prevalence was significantly higher in cleaners than in controls (16.2 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.032) whereas the difference was on the verge of significance in cooks (13.5 % vs. 6.6 %, P=0.081). Moderate to severe BHR was strongly associated with positive family history of asthma and atopy in all groups. Mild BHR was significantly associated with daily smoking in cleaners (P=0.031) and cooks (P=0.021), as well as with the duration of exposure in cleaners (P=0.038). Borderline BHR was closely related to daily smoking and duration of exposure in both cleaners and cooks. Our findings indicate an important role of workplace exposure in borderline BHR development, as well as the significant effect of smoking on mild BHR development in women cleaners and cooks.

  9. Downhole vacuum cleans up tough fishing, milling jobs

    SciTech Connect

    LaLande, P.; Flanders, B.

    1996-02-01

    A unique tool developed to effect reverse circulation downhole is being used successfully in problem milling and fishing operations where conventional techniques fail to recover junk in the hole. Jointly developed by several major operators in conjunction with Baker Oil Tools, the patented Reverse Circulating Tool (RCT) acts as a downhole vacuum cleaner, catching and retaining debris circulated from the wellbore while allowing fishing, milling and washover operations to continue uninterrupted. As described in several case histories overviewed, the unique vacuuming action efficiently cleans up junk and debris in even the most difficult fishing and milling applications. Downhole operations proceedmore » normally, but without threat of damage from milled debris. Developers hold both mechanical and method patents on the RCT.« less

  10. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred...

  11. 7 CFR 2902.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food cleaners. 2902.45 Section 2902.45 Agriculture... Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The preferred...

  12. Metal cleaner poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Metal cleaners contain organic compounds called hydrocarbons, including: 1,2-butylene oxide Boric acid Cocoyl sarcosine Dicarboxylic fatty acid Dimethoxymethane Dodecanedioic acid N-propyl bromide Sodium hydroxide T-butanol

  13. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a)...

  15. 7 CFR 3201.30 - Glass cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Glass cleaners. 3201.30 Section 3201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.30 Glass cleaners. (a)...

  16. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.45 - Food cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food cleaners. 3201.45 Section 3201.45 Agriculture... Items § 3201.45 Food cleaners. (a) Definition. Anti-microbial products designed to clean the outer layer of various food products, such as fruit, vegetables, and meats. (b) Minimum biobased content. The...

  19. Genesis Ultrapure Water Megasonic Wafer Spin Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, Judith H.; Stansbery, Eileen K.; Calaway, Michael J.; Rodriquez, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    A device removes, with high precision, the majority of surface particle contamination greater than 1-micron-diameter in size from ultrapure semiconductor wafer materials containing implanted solar wind samples returned by NASA's Genesis mission. This cleaning device uses a 1.5-liter/minute flowing stream of heated ultrapure water (UPW) with 1- MHz oscillating megasonic pulse energy focused at 3 to 5 mm away from the wafer surface spinning at 1,000 to 10,000 RPM, depending on sample size. The surface particle contamination is removed by three processes: flowing UPW, megasonic cavitations, and centripetal force from the spinning wafer. The device can also dry the wafer fragment after UPW/megasonic cleaning by continuing to spin the wafer in the cleaning chamber, which is purged with flowing ultrapure nitrogen gas at 65 psi (.448 kPa). The cleaner also uses three types of vacuum chucks that can accommodate all Genesis-flown array fragments in any dimensional shape between 3 and 100 mm in diameter. A sample vacuum chuck, and the manufactured UPW/megasonic nozzle holder, replace the human deficiencies by maintaining a consistent distance between the nozzle and wafer surface as well as allowing for longer cleaning time. The 3- to 5-mm critical distance is important for the ability to remove particles by megasonic cavitations. The increased UPW sonication time and exposure to heated UPW improve the removal of 1- to 5-micron-sized particles.

  20. [Research and production of air cleaner for traveller train carriage].

    PubMed

    Bi, Z

    1998-07-01

    After the traveller train carriage is closed, the air pollution would be serious in the carriage. In order to control the air pollution, the air cleaning technology must be studied and the air cleaner for the carriage must be designed. The authors discussed. 1. Working out a technology scheme and main technology parameter for the air cleaner, and the structure design of the air cleaner. 2. Texting the function and performance of the air cleaner. 3. Investigating the effectiveness of the cleaner in same train sections. Thereby it will be confirmed that the air cleaner can improve the air environment in the carriage, and give convincingly security to the health of attendants and travellers.

  1. Fire Testing of Ethanol-Based Hand Cleaner

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-04-01

    A variety of laboratory and full-scale fire tests were conducted on an ethanol-based gel-type hand cleaner currently used in commercial aircraft lavatories. The waterless-type hand cleaner has a relatively low flash point, raising concern over its fi...

  2. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  3. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that uses...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that uses...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that uses...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that uses...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4410 - Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. 878.4410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4410 Low energy ultrasound wound cleaner. (a) Identification. A low energy ultrasound wound cleaner is a device that uses...

  8. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ALTERNATIVE METAL FINISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method applied to eliminate or significantly reduce the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant released to the environment. The emphasis of cleaner technologies is on process changes that can prevent poll...

  9. The effectiveness of stand alone air cleaners for shelter-in-place.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Siegel, J A; Corsi, R L

    2005-04-01

    Stand-alone air cleaners may be efficient for rapid removal of indoor fine particles and have potential use for shelter-in-place (SIP) strategies following acts of bioterrorism. A screening model was employed to ascertain the potential significance of size-resolved particle (0.1-2 microm) removal using portable high efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) air cleaners in residential buildings following an outdoor release of particles. The number of stand-alone air cleaners, air exchange rate, volumetric flow rate through the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and size-resolved particle removal efficiency in the HVAC filter were varied. The effectiveness of air cleaners for SIP was evaluated in terms of the outdoor and the indoor particle concentration with air cleaner(s) relative to the indoor concentration without air cleaners. Through transient and steady-state analysis of the model it was determined that one to three portable HEPA air cleaners can be effective for SIP following outdoor bioaerosol releases, with maximum reductions in particle concentrations as high as 90% relative to conditions in which an air cleaner is not employed. The relative effectiveness of HEPA air cleaners vs. other removal mechanisms was predicted to decrease with increasing particle size, because of increasing competition by particle deposition with indoor surfaces and removal to HVAC filters. However, the effect of particle size was relatively small for most scenarios considered here. The results of a screening analysis suggest that stand-alone (portable) air cleaners that contain high efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters can be effective for reducing indoor fine particle concentrations in residential dwellings during outdoor releases of biological warfare agents. The relative effectiveness of stand-alone air cleaners for reducing occupants' exposure to particles of outdoor origin depends on several factors, including the type of heating, ventilating and air

  10. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: Field testing results

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC) is a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner initially designed to replace the first stage lint cleaning in a cotton gin. Previous studies conducted in the ginning laboratory in Lubbock, Texas, demonstrated improvements in some fiber properties, as well as minim...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.80 - Electronic components cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.80 Electronic components cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to wash or remove dirt or extraneous matter from electronic parts, devices, circuits, or systems... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electronic components cleaners. 3201.80 Section 3201...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.80 - Electronic components cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.80 Electronic components cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to wash or remove dirt or extraneous matter from electronic parts, devices, circuits, or systems... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electronic components cleaners. 3201.80 Section 3201...

  13. [Effectiveness and limits of the cleaners steam in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Meunier, O; Meistermann, C; Schwebel, A

    2009-05-01

    We assessed bactericidal activity of the cleaners steam used for the bio-cleaning of the hospital surfaces. We performed of samples (Rodac) before and after use of cleaner steam and compared with bactericidal effect of disinfecting detergent used in hospital for surfaces. We studied this effectiveness for different time of steam contact. Finally, we wanted to prove, by air sampling, that aero-bio-contamination was possible generated by using cleaners steam. We show that bactericidal effect of the cleaner steam is superior of some tested disinfecting detergent, for the treatment of one square meter till 2 min. This effectiveness diminishes to be just identical in that some disinfecting detergent when use of the cleaner steam is up to two or four square meters surfaces till 2 min. On the other hand, the cleaner steam is less efficient in terms of bacterial destruction when the time of contact steam-soil is superior in 2 min for six square meter surface. The air bacterial pollution, generated by the use of the cleaner steam, is restricted and not significantly augmented if measured in 44 cm above the soil in the course of cleaning. The cleaner steam is indeed a very good equipment for the cleaning of surfaces but it is necessary to respect a time of minimal contact of 2 min for four square meters surfaces treaties to acquire an antibacterial effect at least so important as that acquired with used disinfecting detergent. The disinfection of surfaces is then user-dependent and the time of requested contact is can be not compatible with hospital obligations.

  14. Biting cleaner fish use altruism to deceive image-scoring client reef fish.

    PubMed Central

    Bshary, Redouan

    2002-01-01

    Humans are more likely to help those who they have observed helping others previously. Individuals may thus benefit from being altruistic without direct reciprocity of recipients but due to gains in 'image' and associated indirect reciprocity. I suggest, however, that image-scoring individuals may be exploitable by cheaters if pay-offs vary between interactions. I illustrate this point with data on cleaner-client reef fish interactions. I show the following: (i) there is strong variation between cleaners with respect to cheating of clients (i.e. feeding on client tissue instead of parasites); (ii) clients approach cleaners, that they observe cooperating with their current client and avoid cleaners that they observe cheating; (iii) cleaners that cheat frequently are avoided more frequently than more cooperative cleaners (iv) cleaners that cheat frequently behave altruistically towards their smallest client species; (v) altruistic acts are followed by exploitative interactions. Thus, it appears that cleaners indeed have an image score, which selects for cooperative cleaners. However, cheating cleaners use altruism in potentially low-pay-off interactions to deceive and attract image-scoring clients that will be exploited. PMID:12396482

  15. Critically safe vacuum pickup for use in wet or dry cleanup of radioactive materials

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    A vacuum pickup of critically safe quantity and geometric shape is used in cleanup of radioactive materials. Collected radioactive material is accumulated in four vertical, parallel, equally spaced canisters arranged in a cylinder configuration. Each canister contains a filter bag. An upper intake manifold includes four 90 degree spaced, downward facing nipples. Each nipple communicates with the top of a canister. The bottom of each canister communicates with an exhaust manifold comprising four radially extending tubes that meet at the bottom of a centrally located vertical cylinder. The top of the central cylinder terminates at a motor/fan power head. A removable HEPA filter is located intermediate the top of the central cylinder and the power head. Four horizontal bypass tubes connect the top of the central cylinder to the top of each of the canisters. Air enters the vacuum cleaner via a hose connected to the intake manifold. Air then travels down the canisters, where particulate material is accumulated in generally equal quantities in each filter bag. Four air paths of bag filtered air then pass radially inward to the bottom of the central cylinder. Air moves up the central cylinder, through the HEPA filter, through a vacuum fan compartment, and exits the vacuum cleaner. A float air flow valve is mounted at the top of the central cylinder. When liquid accumulates to a given level within the central cylinder, the four bypass tubes, and the four canisters, suction is terminated by operation of the float valve.

  16. Hospital trash: cleaners speak of their role in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Messing, K

    1998-06-01

    Feminist researchers have contrasted the caring provided by women in hospitals with a more fragmented "curing" approach, which they identify with the predominantly male professions of medicine and surgery. The author spoke with hospital cleaners about their jobs and their health. Several themes emerged: the invisibility of the cleaning function, lack of respect for cleaners, representations of cleaning as undemanding, and assumptions that women's work in cleaning is particularly easy. Cleaners use various strategies to combat these stereotypes but receive little help from administrators or fellow employees. There is a hierarchy in the status of Québec hospital workers with curing (doctors) at the top, followed by caring and healing (nurses, therapists, and attendants), and hygiene (cleaners, sterilizers, and launderers) at the bottom. Authority hierarchies in health care are not related to gender in a simple way, although there is discrimination against women cleaners. The fact that cleaning, especially cleaning performed by women, is invisible to managers, other hospital personnel, and patients has important consequences for cleaners' and for patients' health.

  17. Evaluation of the efficiency of denture cleaners for removing denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    Harada-Hada, Kae; Hong, Guang; Abekura, Hitoshi; Murata, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We developed a new scoring index for assessing the removability of denture adhesives and evaluated the removal efficiency of denture cleaners. Although our understanding of the importance of denture care is increasing, little is known about the effectiveness and efficiency of denture cleaners on denture adhesives. Therefore, guidelines for proper cleaning are necessary. We used five denture cleaner solutions on two cream adhesives, one powder adhesive and one cushion adhesive. After immersion in the denture cleaners for a designated time, we evaluated the area of the sample plate still covered by denture adhesive. Cream adhesives were removed more completely after immersion in majority of the denture cleaners than in water. Powder adhesive was removed more quickly than cream adhesives. Cushion adhesive was not removed by immersion in either the denture cleaners or water control. Some denture cleaners could liquefy cream adhesives more than water, but these differences were not observed in case of powder and cushion adhesives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  19. Epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng

    2008-09-01

    The cleaning profession has been associated with multiple ergonomic and chemical hazards which elevate the risk for occupational injury. This study investigated the epidemiology of occupational injury among cleaners in healthcare work settings in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Incidents of occupational injury among cleaners, resulting in lost time from work or medical care, over a period of 1 year in two healthcare regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person-years obtained from payroll data. Detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. A total of 145 injuries were identified among cleaners, with an annual incidence rate of 32.1 per 100 person-years. After adjustment for age, gender, subsector, facility, experience and employment status, Poisson regression models demonstrated that a significantly higher relative risk (RR) of all injury, musculoskeletal injury and cuts was associated with cleaning work in acute care facilities, compared with long-term care facilities. Female cleaners were at a higher RR of all injuries and contusions than male cleaners. A lower risk of all injury and allergy and irritation incidents among part-time or casual workers was found. Cleaners with >10 years of experience were at significantly lower risk for all injury, contusion and allergy and irritation incidents. Cleaners were found to be at an elevated risk of all injury categories compared with healthcare workers in general.

  20. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045 Section 880.5045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5045 - Medical recirculating air cleaner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical recirculating air cleaner. 880.5045 Section 880.5045 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5045 Medical recirculating air cleaner. (a) Identification. A medical recirculating...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.55 - Ink removers and cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ink removers and cleaners. 3201.55 Section 3201.55... Designated Items § 3201.55 Ink removers and cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemical products designed to remove ink, haze, glaze, and other residual ink contaminants from the surfaces of equipment, such as rollers...

  3. 7 CFR 3201.55 - Ink removers and cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ink removers and cleaners. 3201.55 Section 3201.55... Designated Items § 3201.55 Ink removers and cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemical products designed to remove ink, haze, glaze, and other residual ink contaminants from the surfaces of equipment, such as rollers...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.55 - Ink removers and cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ink removers and cleaners. 3201.55 Section 3201.55... Designated Items § 3201.55 Ink removers and cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemical products designed to remove ink, haze, glaze, and other residual ink contaminants from the surfaces of equipment, such as rollers...

  5. 7 CFR 2902.55 - Ink removers and cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ink removers and cleaners. 2902.55 Section 2902.55... Items § 2902.55 Ink removers and cleaners. (a) Definition. Chemical products designed to remove ink, haze, glaze, and other residual ink contaminants from the surfaces of equipment, such as rollers, used...

  6. 7 CFR 2902.35 - Bathroom and spa cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bathroom and spa cleaners. 2902.35 Section 2902.35... Items § 2902.35 Bathroom and spa cleaners. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean and/or prevent deposits on surfaces found in bathrooms and spas including, but not necessarily limited to, bath...

  7. Cleaner wrasse prefer client mucus: support for partner control mechanisms in cleaning interactions.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Bshary, Redouan

    2003-11-07

    Recent studies on cleaning behaviour suggest that there are conflicts between cleaners and their clients over what cleaners eat. The diet of cleaners usually contains ectoparasites and some client tissue. It is unclear, however, whether cleaners prefer client tissue over ectoparasites or whether they include client tissue in their diet only when searching for parasites alone is not profitable. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we trained cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus to feed from plates and offered them client mucus from the parrotfish Chlorurus sordidus, parasitic monogenean flatworms, parasitic gnathiid isopods and boiled flour glue as a control. We found that cleaners ate more mucus and monogeneans than gnathiids, with gnathiids eaten slightly more often than the control substance. Because gnathiids are the most abundant ectoparasites, our results suggest a potential for conflict between cleaners and clients over what the cleaner should eat, and support studies emphasizing the importance of partner control in keeping cleaning interactions mutualistic.

  8. Aging Effects of Environmentally-Friendly Cleaners on Adhesive Bond Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.; Anderson, G. L.; Evans, K. B.; Olsen, B. D.; Weber, B. L.; McCool, A. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment many chlorinated solvents are being phased out of use in manufacturing industries. Replacement of the ODC (ozone- depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past nine years at Thiokol Propulsion, Cordant Technologies. Many of the non-ODC cleaners contain compounds that can potentially degrade over time under conditions of high temperature, humidity and exposure to light. The chemical composition of environmentally conditioned cleaners and the subsequent effect on aluminum/amine-cured epoxy bond integrity as measured by Tapered Double Cantilever Beam were evaluated. From this study it is observed that moisture content increases for those cleaners containing polar compounds. Non-volatile residue content increases as stabilizers are depleted and the chemical compound limonene is oxidized. A change in aluminum/ amine-cured epoxy bond fracture toughness is observed as some of these cleaners age with increases in moisture and NVR content.

  9. Effects of noncontact cleaners on transparent solar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, H.L.; Lind, M.A.

    1979-04-01

    A brief study has been undertaken to evaluate the performance of noncontact cleaning agents for use on solar collectors. Several techniques are used to compare cleansing agents which have been recommended by their respective manufacturers for cleaning solar mirrors. Wetting and residue buildup properties are evaluated for over 50 of these commercially available cleaners. The wetting properties of each cleaner are evaluated by measuring the growth of the contact area of a constant volume drop as a function of time. Losses due to residue buildup are solar weighted and considered equally with the wetting parameters and cost figures to constructmore » a figure of merit for cleaner comparison.« less

  10. Adult Cleaner Wrasse Outperform Capuchin Monkeys, Chimpanzees and Orang-utans in a Complex Foraging Task Derived from Cleaner – Client Reef Fish Cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Darby; Essler, Jennifer; Pinto, Ana I.; Wismer, Sharon; Stoinski, Tara; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    The insight that animals' cognitive abilities are linked to their evolutionary history, and hence their ecology, provides the framework for the comparative approach. Despite primates renowned dietary complexity and social cognition, including cooperative abilities, we here demonstrate that cleaner wrasse outperform three primate species, capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees and orang-utans, in a foraging task involving a choice between two actions, both of which yield identical immediate rewards, but only one of which yields an additional delayed reward. The foraging task decisions involve partner choice in cleaners: they must service visiting client reef fish before resident clients to access both; otherwise the former switch to a different cleaner. Wild caught adult, but not juvenile, cleaners learned to solve the task quickly and relearned the task when it was reversed. The majority of primates failed to perform above chance after 100 trials, which is in sharp contrast to previous studies showing that primates easily learn to choose an action that yields immediate double rewards compared to an alternative action. In conclusion, the adult cleaners' ability to choose a superior action with initially neutral consequences is likely due to repeated exposure in nature, which leads to specific learned optimal foraging decision rules. PMID:23185293

  11. Asthma risk, cleaning activities and use of specific cleaning products among Spanish indoor cleaners.

    PubMed

    Zock, J P; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Almar, E; Muniozguren, N; Payo, F; Sánchez, J L; Antó, J M

    2001-02-01

    Recent studies have shown an excess risk of asthma for cleaners, but it is not clear which cleaning-related exposures induce or aggravate asthma. Risk factors for asthma were studied among indoor cleaners participating in the Spanish part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey in 1992. In 1998, 78 of the 91 subjects reporting cleaning-related jobs in 1992 were identified. Of these, 67 indoor cleaners were interviewed by telephone about their cleaning activities and their use of cleaning products in 1992. These data were related to asthma prevalence in 1992, and the cleaners were compared with a reference group of office workers. Asthma prevalence was 1.7 times higher [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1-2.6] among the cleaners than among the referents, being highest among private home cleaners (3.3, 95% CI 1.9-5.8). The prevalence of housedust mite sensitization amounted to 28% for the home cleaners and was significantly (P<0.01) higher than for other indoor cleaners (3%), but similar to the corresponding prevalence of office workers (22%). More than half of the cleaners reported work-related respiratory symptoms. The asthma risk of the home cleaners was mainly associated with kitchen cleaning and furniture polishing, with the use of oven sprays and polishes. The asthma risk of Spanish cleaners is primarily related to the cleaning of private homes. This relationship may be explained by the use of sprays and other products in kitchen cleaning and furniture polishing.

  12. Reputation management promotes strategic adjustment of service quality in cleaner wrasse.

    PubMed

    Binning, Sandra A; Rey, Olivia; Wismer, Sharon; Triki, Zegni; Glauser, Gaétan; Soares, Marta C; Bshary, Redouan

    2017-08-21

    Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception. Cortisol injection can reproduce this pattern. Here, we tested whether cleaners from socially-complex versus simple habitats respond differently to cortisol injections in terms of their cleaning interactions with clients. We found that only cleaners from the socially-complex habitat respond to cortisol injection with strategies functioning as tactical deception: i.e. increased tactile stimulation to small clients and increased cheating of large clients relative to small ones. At the socially-simple site, where reputation management is less important, cortisol-treated fish increased their overall levels of cheating, especially of small clients. Thus, strategic adjustments to cooperative behaviour and tactical deception are likely context-dependent, forming part of general reputation management abilities in cleaner wrasse.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL 1 CRUDE OIL CLEANER

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: this surface washing agent is used in oil spill cleanups on solid surfaces including beaches, rocks, machines, buildings, and tools. The oil and cleaner form a loose emulsion that can be rinsed away.

  14. An overview of cleaner fish use in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Warberg, M

    2017-11-21

    Sea lice infestations represent one of the most significant challenges facing the salmon farming industry, giving rise to lost production, additional costs of treatment and potential negative interactions with wild stocks. At present, cleaner fish, which actively remove lice from salmon, are an effective, biological, long-term option which has been adopted by many countries. In Ireland, several key studies were conducted in the 1990s on the use of wild-caught wrasse (corkwing, goldsinny and rock cook) as cleaner fish in experimental and commercial scale trials. More recently, the National University of Ireland Galway (NUIG), at their marine research facility in Carna (CRS), has undertaken applied research on ballan wrasse and lumpsucker. Currently, CRS is providing lumpsucker juveniles and research and development for the Irish salmon industry with support from BIM (Ireland's Seafood Development Agency) and Marine Harvest Ireland. There is a large amount of research currently being carried out in this area in all countries that are utilizing cleaner fish technology. The current focus in Ireland is the development of a native lumpsucker broodstock to facilitate its sustainable production. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the research, challenges and use of cleaner fish in Ireland. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Fish Diseases Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Testing antimicrobial cleaner efficacy on gypsum wallboard contaminated with Stachybotrys chartarum.

    PubMed

    Menetrez, Marc Y; Foarde, Karin K; Webber, Tricia D; Dean, Timothy R; Betancourt, Doris A

    2007-11-01

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the problem. The efficacy of antimicrobial cleaners to remove, eliminate or control mold growth on surfaces can easily be tested on non-porous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial cleaner efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment such as gypsum board can be more complicated and prone to incorrect conclusions regarding residual organisms. The mold Stachybotrys chartarum has been found to be associated with idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in infants and has been studied for toxin production and its occurrence in water damaged buildings. Growth of S. chartarum on building materials such as gypsum wallboard has been frequently documented. Research to control S. chartarum growth using 13 separate antimicrobial cleaners on contaminated gypsum wallboard has been performed in laboratory testing. Popular brands of cleaning products were tested by following directions printed on the product packaging. A variety of gypsum wallboard surfaces were used to test these cleaning products at high relative humidity. The results indicate differences in antimicrobial efficacy for the six month period of testing. Results for the six types of GWB surfaces varied extensively. However, three cleaning products exhibited significantly better results than others. Lysol All-Purpose Cleaner-Orange Breeze (full strength) demonstrated results which ranked among the best in five of the six surfaces tested. Both Borax and Orange Glo Multipurpose Degreaser demonstrated results which ranked among the best in four of the six surfaces tested. The best antimicrobial cleaner to choose is often dependent on the type of surface to be cleaned of S. chartarum contamination. For Plain GWB, no paint, the

  16. Cleaner, More Efficient Diesel Engines

    ScienceCinema

    Musculus, Mark

    2018-01-16

    Mark Musculus, an engine combustion scientist at Sandia National Laboratories, led a study that outlines the science base for auto and engine manufacturers to build the next generation of cleaner, more efficient engines using low-temperature combustion. Here, Musculus discusses the work at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility.

  17. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    PubMed

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL CLEANER EFFICACY ON GYPSUM WALLBOARD CONTAMINATED WITH STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reducing occupant exposure to indoor mold growth is the goal of this research, through the efficacy testing of antimicrobial cleaners. Often mold contaminated building materials are not properly removed, but instead surface cleaners are applied in an attempt to alleviate the prob...

  19. Cleaner fish drives local fish diversity on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Grutter, Alexandra S; Murphy, Jan Maree; Choat, J Howard

    2003-01-08

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse habitats in the world, yet our understanding of the processes affecting their biodiversity is limited. At the local scale, cleaner fish are thought to have a disproportionate effect, in relation to their abundance and size, on the activity of many other fish species, but confirmation of this species' effect on local fish diversity has proved elusive. The cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus has major effects on fish activity patterns and may indirectly affect fish demography through the removal of large numbers of parasites. Here we show that small reefs where L. dimidiatus had been experimentally excluded for 18 months had half the species diversity of fish and one-fourth the abundance of individuals. Only fish that move among reefs, however, were affected. These fish include large species that themselves can affect other reef organisms. In contrast, the distribution of resident fish was not affected by cleaner fish. Thus, many fish appear to choose reefs based on the presence of cleaner fish. Our findings indicate that a single small and not very abundant fish has a strong influence on the movement patterns, habitat choice, activity, and local diversity and abundance of a wide variety of reef fish species.

  20. Multibar sawless lint cleaner: fiber quality analysis after 3rd year of field testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After two years of field testing a prototype spiked-tooth lint cleaner, the Multibar Sawless Lint Cleaner (MBSLC), a final year of field evaluation was conducted at commercial cotton gin in West Texas located approximately 30 miles Southwest of Lubbock, Texas.The cotton lint cleaner was tested in a ...

  1. Survival and stress responses of E. coli exposed to alkaline cleaners

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of alkaline cleaners commonly used in food processing environments on survival and stress responses of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. Alkaline cleaners containing either sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide and hypochlorite had gre...

  2. Clinical, parasitological and immunological features of canal cleaners hyper-exposed to Schistosoma mansoni in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    SATTI, M Z; SULAIMAN, S M; HOMEIDA, M M A; YOUNIS, S A; GHALIB, H W

    1996-01-01

    The present work was a longitudinal study on Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyperexposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of therapy on the parasitological and humoral immune parameters. Chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 28) were more resistant to reinfection (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05) than newly recruited canal cleaners (n = 17). Chronically infected canal cleaners had a significantly higher degree of Symmers' fibrosis (χ2 = 19.1, P < 0.0001), significantly larger portal vein diameter (P < 0.05) and enlarged spleen (χ2 = 4.2, P < 0.05) than recently infected, newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA was used to detect IgG, IgA and IgM in response to whole worm homogenate (WWH) and cercarial homogenate (CH). Chronically infected canal cleaners had significantly higher IgG to WWH antigen than newly recruited canal cleaners and normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05), while both chronically infected and newly recruited canal cleaners had higher IgG levels to CH antigen than normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05). The newly recruited canal cleaners had a significantly higher IgM level to CH antigen than chronically infected canal cleaners (P < 0.05). The IgG level to WWH antigen increased significantly after treatment in newly recruited canal cleaners and normally exposed individuals (P < 0.05). The IgA level to CH antigen increased significantly after treatment in the chronically infected group (P < 0.05). Comparison of the serological parameters between the different study groups with regards to infection and treatment is discussed. PMID:9099926

  3. Influence of grid bar shape on field cleaner performance - Screening tests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extractor type cleaners are used on cotton strippers and in the seed cotton cleaning machinery in the ginning process to remove large foreign material such as burrs and sticks. Previous research on the development of extractor type cleaners focused on machine design and operating parameters that max...

  4. Environmental Technology Verification: Supplement to Test/QA Plan for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners; Bioaerosol Inactivation Efficiency by HVAC In-Duct Ultraviolet Light Air Cleaners

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Air Pollution Control Technology Verification Center has selected general ventilation air cleaners as a technology area. The Generic Verification Protocol for Biological and Aerosol Testing of General Ventilation Air Cleaners is on the Environmental Technology Verification we...

  5. CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Joint Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Dressler, K.; Hooper, R.

    2005-12-01

    The CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory* initiative is a distributed network for research on complex environmental systems that focuses on the intersecting water-related issues of both the CUAHSI and CLEANER communities. It emphasizes research on the nation's water resources related to human-dominated natural and built environments. The network will be comprised of: interacting field sites with an integrated cyberinfrastructure; a centralized technical resource staff and management infrastructure to support interdisciplinary research through data collection from advanced sensor systems, data mining and aggregation from multiple sources and databases; cyber-tools for analysis, visualization, and predictive multi-scale modeling that is dynamically driven. As such, the network will transform 21st century workforce development in the water-related intersection of environmental science and engineering, as well as enable substantial educational and engagement opportunities for all age levels. The scientific goal and strategic intent of the CLEANER-Hydrologic Observatory Network is to transform our understanding of the earth's water cycle and associated biogeochemical cycles across spatial and temporal scales-enabling quantitative forecasts of critical water-related processes, especially those that affect and are affected by human activities. This strategy will develop scientific and engineering tools that will enable more effective adaptive approaches for resource management. The need for the network is based on three critical deficiencies in current abilities to understand large-scale environmental processes and thereby develop more effective management strategies. First we lack basic data and the infrastructure to collect them at the needed resolution. Second, we lack the means to integrate data across scales from different media (paper records, electronic worksheets, web-based) and sources (observations, experiments, simulations). Third, we lack sufficiently accurate

  6. 7 CFR 2902.50 - Multipurpose cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.50 Multipurpose cleaners. (a) Definition. Products used to clean dirt, grease, and grime from a variety of items in both industrial and domestic settings. This designated item does not include...

  7. A novel lens cleaner to prevent water drop adhesions during colonoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Naito, Yuji; Yasuda, Ritsu; Murakami, Takaaki; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Hirose, Ryohei; Inada, Yutaka; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Handa, Osamu; Konishi, Hideyuki; Rani, Rafiz Abdul; Itoh, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims  Water drop adhesions (WDA) impair endoscopic view during gastrointestinal endoscopy. We developed a novel lens cleaner designed using two types of harmLess surfactants and it is reported to be useful for preventing lens cloudiness during colorectal ESD. In the current study, we examined the ability of it for preventing and removing WDA. Patients and methods  During laboratory experiments, the cleaner (Cleash; Fujifilm Co., Tokyo, Japan and Nagase Medicals Co., Hyogo, Japan) was applied to the endoscopic lens and an air/water device (AWD) (water 200 mL, dimethicone 1 mL, Cleash 1 mL). The endoscope was submerged in water 100 times for 5 cycles. Rates of WDA were calculated for various groups (lens and AWD with or without Cleash) and compared to a normal cleaner (SL cleaner). During clinical research, 30 colonoscopies and 30 esophagogastroduodenoscopies were analyzed. For the Cleash group, the cleaner was applied to both lens and AWD. The numbers of WDA and WDA with non-rapid removal were calculated, compared to those of the SL cleaner group. Results  The mean WDA rate for the Cleash setting (lens: Cleash; AWD: Cleash) was 11.0 %, which was significantly lower than other settings (lens: SL cleaner; AWD: water, 31.0 %; P  < 0.001) (lens: Cleash; AWD: water, 19.0 %; P  < 0.001). Clinical research of colonoscopies indicated that the numbers of WDA (number/15 sec) and WDA with non-rapid removal were 0.38 and 0.17 for the Cleash group and 0.91 and 0.46 for the SL cleaner groups ( P  < 0.001, P  < 0.001). For esophagogastroduodenoscopies, the results were 0.47 and 0.24 for the Cleash group and 0.54 and 0.42 for the SL cleaner group ( P  = 0.72, P  = 0.018). Conclusion  A clear and beautiful image without WDA is useful not only for routine endoscopy but also, more importantly, for magnifying endoscopy and other endoscopic treatments. The use of Cleash to lens and AWD showed positive results for

  8. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A cleaner technology is a source reduction or recycle method |applied to eliminate or significantly reduce hazardous waste generation. Source reduction includes product changes and source control. Source control can be further characterized as input material changes, technology...

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 86-005-1679, Dutch Girl Cleaners, Springdale, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, G.A.; Todd, W.

    1986-03-01

    An environmental survey at Dutch Girl Cleaners in the Thriftway Mini Mall, Springdale, Ohio, was conducted on October 25, 1985, and air samples collected on October 30, 1985 from the cleaners, an adjacent supermarket and the enclosed pedestrian mall were analyzed for perchloroethylene.

  10. Removing seed coat fragments with a lint cleaner grid bar air knife

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat fragments (SCF) in ginned lint cause spinning problems at the textile mill and undesirable defects in finished goods. Work continued on developing an air knife that may help remove SCF from ginned lint. The air knife is mounted on the 1st lint cleaner grid bar of a saw-type lint cleaner,...

  11. Impacts of air cleaners on indoor air quality in residences impacted by wood smoke.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Gibson, Mark D; MacNeill, Morgan; Ward, Tony J; Wallace, Lance A; Kuchta, James; Seaboyer, Matt; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Guernsey, Judith Read; Stieb, David M

    2014-10-21

    Residential wood combustion is an important source of ambient air pollution, accounting for over 25% of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Canada. In addition to these ambient contributions, wood smoke pollutants can enter the indoor environment directly when loading or stoking stoves, resulting in a high potential for human exposure. A study of the effectiveness of air cleaners at reducing wood smoke-associated PM2.5 of indoor and outdoor origin was conducted in 31 homes during winter 2009-10. Day 1, the residents' wood burning appliance operated as usual with no air cleaner. Days 2 and 3, the wood burning appliance was not operational and the air cleaner was randomly chosen to operate in "filtration" or "placebo filtration" mode. When the air cleaner was operating, total indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower than on placebo filtration days (p = 0.0001) resulting in a median reduction of 52%. There was also a reduction in the median PM2.5 infiltration factor from 0.56 to 0.26 between these 2 days, suggesting the air cleaner was responsible for increased PM2.5 deposition on filtration days. Our findings suggest that the use of an air cleaner reduces exposure to indoor PM2.5 resulting from both indoor and ambient wood smoke sources.

  12. Guide to Air Cleaners in the Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... In-duct Particle Removal Flat or panel air filters Pleated or extended surface filters In-duct Gaseous Pollutant Removal In-duct Pollutant ... can remove particles from the air — mechanical air filters and electronic air cleaners. Mechanical air filters remove ...

  13. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  14. Visibility and social recognition as psychosocial work environment factors among cleaners in a multi-ethnic workplace intervention.

    PubMed

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-12-24

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants' low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called "Make a Difference" designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom's "readiness for cleaning", and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners' psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners' experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered.

  15. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  16. Pesticide Reduction Campaign: Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Greener Pesticides for Cleaner Waterways project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  17. A randomised controlled trial among cleaners--effects on strength, balance and kinesiophobia.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Ektor-Andersen, John; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2011-10-10

    Cleaners constitute a job group with poor health and low socioeconomic resources. Therefore, there is a great need for scientifically documented health promoting initiatives for cleaners. However, both workplace initiatives and high quality intervention studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 3-month workplace trial with interventions to improve physical or cognitive behavioural resources among cleaners. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted among 294 female cleaners from 9 workplaces. The participants were allocated to three groups: Physical coordination training (PCT, n = 95), Cognitive behavioural theory-based training (CBTr, n = 99) and Reference group (REF, n = 100). Interventions were conducted during work hours for an average of 1 hour/week. Muscle strength was measured by maximal voluntary contractions in trunk/extension, and shoulder abduction/elevation. Postural balance was measured on a force platform. Kinesiophobia was measured with Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Test and questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 3-month follow-up and analyses followed the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle with last observation carried forward in case of missing data at follow-up. Reports and analyses are given on true observations as well. ITT-analyses revealed that PCT improved strength of the trunk (p < .05) and postural balance (p < .05) compared to CBTr and REF. Based on true observations the strength and balance improvements corresponded to ~20% and ~16%, respectively. ITT-analyses showed that CBTr reduced kinesiophobia compared to PCT and REF (p < .05). Based on true observations, the improvement corresponded to a ~16% improvement. This workplace-based intervention study including PCT and CBTr among cleaners improved strength and postural balance from PCT, and kinesiophobia from CBTr. The improved strength, postural balance and kinesiophobia may improve the cleaners' tolerance for high physical work

  18. Field evaluation of an engineering control for respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, Scott; Heitbrink, William A

    2007-11-01

    During mortar removal with a right angle grinder, a building renovation process known as "tuck pointing," worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica can be as high as 5 mg/m(3), 100 times the recommended exposure limit developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. To reduce the risk of silicosis among these workers, a vacuum cleaner can be used to exhaust 80 ft(3)/min (2.26 m(3)/min) from a hood mounted on the grinder. Field trials examined the ability of vacuum cleaners to maintain adequate exhaust ventilation rates and measure exposure outcomes when using this engineering control. These field trials involved task-based exposure measurement of respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal. These measurements were compared with published exposure data. Vacuum cleaner airflows were obtained by measuring and digitally logging vacuum cleaner static pressure at the inlet to the vacuum cleaner motor. Static pressures were converted to airflows based on experimentally determined fan curves. In two cases, video exposure monitoring was conducted to study the relationship between worker activities and dust exposure. Worker activities were video taped concurrent with aerosol photometer measurement of dust exposure and vacuum cleaner static pressure as a measure of airflow. During these field trials, respirable crystalline silica exposures for 22 samples had a geometric mean of 0.06 mg/m(3) and a range of less than 0.01 to 0.86 mg/m(3). For three other studies, respirable crystalline silica exposures during mortar removal have a geometric means of 1.1 to 0.35. Although this field study documented noticeably less exposure to crystalline silica, video exposure monitoring found that the local exhaust ventilation provided incomplete dust control due to low exhaust flow rates, certain work practices, and missing mortar. Vacuum cleaner airflow decrease had a range of 3 to 0.4 ft(3)/min (0.08 to 0.01 m(3)/sec(2)) over a range

  19. 7 CFR 3201.83 - Furniture cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.83 Furniture cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean and provide protection to the surfaces of household furniture other than the upholstery. (b...

  20. 7 CFR 3201.83 - Furniture cleaners and protectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.83 Furniture cleaners and protectors. (a) Definition. Products designed to clean and provide protection to the surfaces of household furniture other than the upholstery. (b...

  1. RESIDENTIAL AIR CLEANERS: A SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication will provide up-to-date information on the types of air cleaners available to the consumer, provides available information on their general effectiveness in removing indoor air pollutants, discusses some factors to consider in deciding whether to use an air-clean...

  2. A Case Study of Air Cleaner by the Intelligent Interaction and Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Huai; Sun, Yuwen

    2018-02-01

    The pure and fresh air can not only contribute to our physical and mental health, but also can be beneficial to ease the pressure and relax the mood. The vertical intelligent air cleaner can remove the harmful gases from the air and absorb the suspended particles in the air, especially all kinds of the bacteria and viruses. The air cleaner is good for improving the air quality of the indoor and maintaining the health of the people. The designing of the vertical air cleaner is as follows: The designing of the vertical intelligent make full use of the developed air purification technology. The smart home is inserted into the work. Simultaneously, in the aspect of the design of intelligent products, the intelligent interactive processes are scientifically planned. Moreover, the emotional design and the user experience are fully considered, which can enhance the comprehensive design ability.

  3. Comparative in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of commercial ear cleaners.

    PubMed

    Swinney, Alison; Fazakerley, Jennifer; McEwan, Neil; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of ear cleaners against Staphylococcus intermedius, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Malassezia pachydermatis. Single isolates of each organism were incubated in duplicate at 38 degrees C for 30 min with each ear cleaner diluted 1/2 to 1/256 in phosphate-buffered saline. Positive and negative controls were included. Aliquots were then incubated for 16-18 h on sheep blood agar (bacteria) or for 3 days on Sabouraud's dextrose agar (Malassezia) at 38 degrees C. The lowest dilutions exhibiting 100% antimicrobial efficacy for S. intermedius were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum 1/16; Otoclean 1/4; EpiOtic 1/2; MalAcetic 1/2; and Triz Plus 1/2. The results for P. aeruginosa were Sancerum and Triz Plus 1/16; Cleanaural Dog and EpiOtic 1/8; Otoclean 1/4; and MalAcetic 1/2. Results for M. pachydermatis were: Cleanaural Dog 1/32; Sancerum, Otoclean, EpiOtic and Triz Plus 1/8; and MalAcetic 1/4. Cleanaural Cat, MalAcetic HC and Triz EDTA did not display any antimicrobial activity at any dilution. Antimicrobial activity appeared to be associated with the presence of isopropyl alcohol, parachlorometaxylenol and a low pH. The results of this study may help clinicians make evidence-based decisions when selecting ear cleaners for use in individual cases.

  4. Visibility and Social Recognition as Psychosocial Work Environment Factors among Cleaners in A Multi-Ethnic Workplace Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hviid, Kirsten; Smith, Louise Hardman; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the psychosocial work environment of immigrant cleaners at a Danish workplace. Today, many cleaners working in Danish cleaning jobs are women from the established immigrant communities, but also labour migrants from the newer EU member states have found their way to the cleaning industry. Studies have drawn attention to immigrants’ low position in the cleaning industry and their increased risk of work injuries. This article is based on a case study of an intervention called “Make a Difference” designed to improve the work environment among cleaners at a multi-ethnic workplace. We used semi-structured interviews, photo logs, observation and participation to investigate how the cleaners experienced their work environment. The cleaners reported an overload of heavy work, related to the concept of a classroom’s “readiness for cleaning”, and they expressed strained social relations and communication in addition to a lack of social recognition and invisibility at the workplace, a school. We analysed these psychosocial work environmental problems by investigating the different forms of social relationships and communication within the group of cleaners, and between the cleaners and the teachers and pupils at the school. Moreover, we discussed why the intervention, based on training of language and cleaning skills and social interaction, only partially improved the cleaners’ psychosocial work environment problems. In this article, we argue that social divisions based on ethnicity between the new and the established group of cleaners, combined with their marginal position and poor work organisation at the school, reinforced the cleaners’ experiences of psychosocial work environment problems. This article suggests that increased effort towards social inclusion at work and improved work organisation, especially for the new labour migrants from newer EU-countries, should be considered. PMID:23263660

  5. Duration of employment is not a predictor of disability of cleaners: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gamperiene, Migle; Nygård, Jan F; Brage, Sören; Bjerkedal, Tor; Bruusgaard, Dag

    2003-01-01

    Cleaning is a high-risk occupation for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Sickness absence is twice as high as in other occupations. Disability pensions for musculoskeletal disorders are twice as high in cleaners as in other employed women. However, a result from Norwegian and Danish studies shows that female cleaners do not report higher morbidity of musculoskeletal disorders than other women. The objective was to analyse whether female cleaners have a higher risk of obtaining a disability pension than women in other unskilled occupations and whether the length of employment influences the risk. The material is from the National Census in 1980 and 1990 and supplemented with disability pensioning data from the National Insurance Administration and the Population registry. Women aged 20-49, working as cleaners, seamstresses, nursing, kitchen, or shop assistants in 1980 were followed until 1990 or until receiving disability pension. Female cleaners aged 30-59 years in 1990 were categorized into two cohorts by occupation in 1980. They were followed from 1991 to 1994, to the date they died, or received disability pension. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratio for disability pension and mortality was calculated by Poisson regression. Cox regression calculated the relative risk of obtaining disability pension. Disability pension rates were higher among cleaners than among other women in unskilled occupations (1.4 per 1,000 person years (CI 95% 1.35-1.46)), but the risk of obtaining disability pension did not increase with increasing exposure to cleaning (HR 0.8 (CI 95% 0.6-1.2)). The cleaning occupation has high disability rates compared with other unskilled occupations. A contribution factor to these high rates is a selection of women with poor health into the occupation.

  6. Do air cleaners make a difference in treating allergic disease in homes?

    PubMed

    Reisman, R E

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to objectively critique available data regarding the clinical benefits of room air cleaners and to provide physicians and patients with a reasonable recommendation of their utility in treatment of inhalant allergic disease. Data were obtained from published studies and reviews. The specific reviewed studies met the following criteria: 1) selection of patients with clinical allergic disease confirmed by detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E; 2) use of an effective air filter; 3) clinical and laboratory evaluation of results; and 4) measurement of the results of air filtration on environmental allergen or airborne particulate levels. The studies were conducted in a double-blind manner. Conclusions of two previous reviews are also incorporated in this paper. The results of the published studies and summary reviews show minimal, if any, effectiveness of room air cleaners in treatment of allergic respiratory disease. Room air cleaners should not be recommended for people with inhalant allergic disease.

  7. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 3201.48 Section 3201.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48...

  8. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 3201.48 Section 3201.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 3201.48 Section 3201.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.48...

  10. Regenerating using aqueous cleaners with ozone and electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcginness, Michael P.

    1994-01-01

    A new process converts organic oil and grease contaminates in used water based cleaners into synthetic surfactants. This permits the continued use of a cleaning solution long after it would have been dumped using previously known methods. Since the organic soils are converted from contaminates to cleaning compounds the need for frequent bath dumps is totally eliminated. When cleaning solutions used in aqueous cleaning systems are exhausted and ready for disposal, they will always contain the contaminates removed from the cleaned parts and drag-in from prior cleaning steps. Even when the cleaner is biodegradable these contaminants will frequently cause the waste cleaning solution to be a hazardous waste. Chlorinated solvents are rapidly being replaced by aqueous cleaners to avoid the new ozone-depletion product-labeling-law. Many industry standard halocarbon based solvents are being completely phased out of production, and their prices have nearly tripled. Waste disposal costs and cradle-to-grave liability are also major concerns for industry today. This new process reduces the amount of water and chemicals needed to maintain the cleaning process. The cost of waste disposal is eliminated because the water and cleaning compounds are reused. Energy savings result by eliminating the need for energy currently used to produce and deliver fresh water and chemicals as well as the energy used to treat and destroy the waste from the existing cleaning processes. This process also allows the cleaning bath to be maintained at the peak performance of a new bath resulting in decreased cycle times and decreased energy consumption needed to clean the parts. This results in a more efficient and cost effective cleaning process.

  11. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carpet and upholstery cleaners. 3201.34 Section 3201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carpet and upholstery cleaners. 3201.34 Section 3201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet...

  13. 7 CFR 2902.48 - General purpose household cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General purpose household cleaners. 2902.48 Section 2902.48 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.48 General...

  14. 7 CFR 3201.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carpet and upholstery cleaners. 3201.34 Section 3201.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.34 Carpet...

  15. You Can Help Keep the Air Cleaner -- Every Day

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be high: Conserve electricity and set your air conditioner at a higher temperature. Choose a cleaner commute—share a ride to work or use public transportation. Bicycle or walk to errands when ... quality is forecast. Pesticides Days when particle pollution ...

  16. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    PubMed

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  17. Design and prototype tests of a seismic attenuation system for the advanced-LIGO output mode cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, A.; DeSalvo, R.; Galli, C.; Gennaro, G.; Mantovani, M.; Márka, S.; Sannibale, V.; Takamori, A.; Torrie, C.

    2006-04-01

    Both present LIGO and advanced LIGO (Ad-LIGO) will need an output mode cleaner (OMC) to reach the desired sensitivity. We designed a suitable OMC seismically attenuated optical table fitting to the existing vacuum chambers (horizontal access module, HAM chambers). The most straightforward and cost-effective solution satisfying the Ad-LIGO seismic attenuation specifications was to implement a single passive seismic attenuation stage, derived from the 'seismic attenuation system' (SAS) concept. We built and tested prototypes of all critical components. On the basis of these tests and past experience, we expect that the passive attenuation performance of this new design, called HAM-SAS, will match all requirements for the LIGO OMC, and all Ad-LIGO optical tables. Its performance can be improved, if necessary, by implementation of a simple active attenuation loop at marginal additional cost. The design can be easily modified to equip the LIGO basic symmetric chamber (BSC) chambers and leaves space for extensive performance upgrades for future evolutions of Ad-LIGO. Design parameters and prototype test results are presented.

  18. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carpet and upholstery cleaners. 2902.34 Section 2902.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.34 Carpet and...

  20. 7 CFR 2902.34 - Carpet and upholstery cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... upholstery cleaners shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product. The applicable minimum biobased... compliance date. No later than May 14, 2009, procuring agencies, in accordance with this part, will give a...

  1. Cleaner production in a remanufacturing process of air compressors.

    PubMed

    Esquer, Javier; Arvayo, Jose Angel; Alvarez-Chavez, Clara Rosalia; Munguia-Vega, Nora Elba; Velazquez, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This article provides relevant results of a cleaner production program conducted in a company dedicated to remanufacturing air compressors in the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The overall study design was based on an integration of acknowledged cleaner production and pollution prevention programs. Although this kind of program also involves environmental issues, this study focused on occupational health and safety by addressing different aspects of the work environment: ergonomic, physical (noise and lighting), and chemical. Particularly, ergonomic aspects were evaluated through the Modular Arrangement of Predetermined Time Standards (MODAPTS) method. For physical aspects, noise and lighting were addressed through Standard No. NOM-011-STPS-2001 and Standard No. NOM-025-STPS-2008 respectively. In addition, chemical aspects were analyzed through material safety data sheets and different search tools. Root causes of each risk were identified, and options to prevent, eliminate, and/or reduce each risk have been provided.

  2. Risk Assessment: Perchloroethylene Dry Cleaners Refined Human Health Risk Characterization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 2005 memo and appendices describe the methods by which EPA conducted its refined risk assessment of the Major Source and Area Source facilities within the perchloroethylene (perc) dry cleaners source category.

  3. 99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. ZINC ROUGHER CELLS ON LEFT, ZINC CLEANER CELLS ON RIGHT, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ONE STYLE OF DENVER AGITATOR IN LOWER RIGHT CELL. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  4. GAS-PHASE AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS DURING APPLICATION OF A WATER-BASED CLEANER WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests in a controlled environment test room to measure concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and particles during application of a cleaner to realistic surfaces (counter tops, glass, walls). (NOTE: Users of water-based cleaners applied with hand-pump spray...

  5. A randomized trial of air cleaners and a health coach to improve indoor air quality for inner-city children with asthma and secondhand smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Butz, Arlene M; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Breysse, Patrick; Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Eggleston, Peyton; Diette, Gregory; Williams, D'Ann; Yuan, Jie; Bernert, John T; Rand, Cynthia

    2011-08-01

    To test an air cleaner and health coach intervention to reduce secondhand smoke exposure compared with air cleaners alone or no air cleaners in reducing particulate matter (PM), air nicotine, and urine cotinine concentrations and increasing symptom-free days in children with asthma residing with a smoker. Randomized controlled trial, with randomization embedded in study database. The Johns Hopkins Hospital Children's Center and homes of children. Children with asthma, residing with a smoker, randomly assigned to interventions consisting of air cleaners only (n = 41), air cleaners plus a health coach (n = 41), or delayed air cleaner (control) (n = 44). Changes in PM, air nicotine, and urine cotinine concentrations and symptom-free days during the 6-month study. The overall follow-up rate was high (91.3%). Changes in mean fine and coarse PM (PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10)) concentrations (baseline to 6 months) were significantly lower in both air cleaner groups compared with the control group (mean differences for PM(2.5) concentrations: control, 3.5 μg/m(3); air cleaner only, -19.9 μg/m(3); and air cleaner plus health coach, -16.1 μg/m(3); P = .003; and PM(2.5-10) concentrations: control, 2.4 μg/m(3); air cleaner only, -8.7 μg/m(3); and air cleaner plus health coach, -10.6 μg/m(3); P = .02). No differences were noted in air nicotine or urine cotinine concentrations. The health coach provided no additional reduction in PM concentrations. Symptom-free days were significantly increased [corrected] in both air cleaner groups compared with the control group (P = .03). Although the use of air cleaners can result in a significant reduction in indoor PM concentrations and a significant increase in symptom-free days, it is not enough to prevent exposure to secondhand smoke.

  6. 7 CFR 3201.104 - Metal cleaners and corrosion removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Definition. (1) Products that are designed to clean and remove grease, oil, dirt, stains, soils, and rust..., dirt, stains, and soils from stainless steel surfaces. (iii) Other metal cleaners. Products that are designed to clean and remove grease, oil, dirt, stains, and soils from metal surfaces other than stainless...

  7. Stimulation of dopamine D₁ receptor improves learning capacity in cooperating cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Messias, João P M; Santos, Teresa P; Pinto, Maria; Soares, Marta C

    2016-01-27

    Accurate contextual decision-making strategies are important in social environments. Specific areas in the brain are tasked to process these complex interactions and generate correct follow-up responses. The dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the telencephalon in the teleost fish brain are neural substrates modulated by the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA), and are part of an important neural circuitry that drives animal behaviour from the most basic actions such as learning to search for food, to properly choosing partners and managing decisions based on context. The Indo-Pacific cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is a highly social teleost fish species with a complex network of interactions with its 'client' reef fish. We asked if changes in DA signalling would affect individual learning ability by presenting cleaner fish two ecologically different tasks that simulated a natural situation requiring accurate decision-making. We demonstrate that there is an involvement of the DA system and D1 receptor pathways on cleaners' natural abilities to learn both tasks. Our results add significantly to the growing literature on the physiological mechanisms that underlie and facilitate the expression of cooperative abilities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Evaluation of ozone generation and indoor organic compounds removal by air cleaners based on chamber tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin; Lee, Grace Whei-May; Hsieh, Ching-Pei; Lin, Chi-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Ozone can cause many health problems, including exacerbation of asthma, throat irritation, cough, chest ache, shortness of breath, and respiratory infections. Air cleaners are one of the sources of indoor ozone, and thus the evaluation of ozone generated by air cleaners is desired significant issue. Most evaluation methods proposed are based on chamber tests. However, the adsorption and desorption of ozone on the wall of test chamber and the deposition of ozone resulted from the surface reaction can influence the evaluation results. In this study, we developed a mass balance model that took the adsorption, desorption and deposition of ozone into consideration to evaluate the effective ozone emission rates of six selected air cleaners. The experiments were conducted in a stainless steel chamber with a volume of 11.3 m 3 at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity. The adsorption, desorption and deposition rate constants of ozone obtained by fitting the model to the experimental data were k a = 0.149 ± 0.052 m h -1, k d = 0.013 ± 0.007 h -1, and k r = 0.050 ± 0.020 h -1, respectively. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 1, 2, and 3 ranged between 13,400-24,500 μg h -1, 7190-10,400 μg h -1, and 4880-6560 μg h -1, respectively, which were more stable than those of No.4, 5, and 6. The effective ozone emission rates of Air Cleaners No. 4, 5, and 6 increased with the time of operation which might be relevant to the decrease of ozone removal by the "aging" filter installed in these cleaners. The removal of toluene and formaldehyde by these six air cleaners were also evaluated and the clean air delivery rates (CADRs) of these two pollutants ranged from non-detectable to 0.42 ± 0.08 m 3 h -1, and from non-detectable to 0.75 ± 0.07 m 3 h -1, respectively. The CADRs showed an insignificant relationship with the effective ozone emission rates. Thus, the removal of toluene and formaldehyde might be resulted from the adsorption on the filters and the

  9. Vacuum force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  10. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  11. Life-History Traits and Population Structure of Pederson Cleaner Shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Jessica A; Chadwick, Nanette E

    2017-12-01

    Cleaner organisms perform key functional roles in reducing rates of parasitism in marine communities. Pederson cleaner shrimps Ancylomenes pedersoni are major cleaners of reef fishes in the tropical western Atlantic and form obligate symbioses with host sea anemones. Information about their life-history traits would contribute to understanding how symbiosis impacts life-history evolution in crustaceans, but little is known about patterns of growth and reproduction in this anemone shrimp. We quantified growth, sexual reproduction, senescence, and mortality in individuals of A. pedersoni under laboratory conditions and their abundance and population size structure on coral reefs in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were fitted to the data to determine age-size relationships, and the Beverton-Holt model was used to estimate mortality rates and size at maximum yield. Individuals grew rapidly when young, then slowed their growth after reaching sexual maturity at ~6 months. Individuals were gonochoric, with males attaining significantly smaller body sizes and shorter life spans than did females. Prior to death at <2 years, members of both genders exhibited senescence during which they ceased reproducing, shrank (females only), and decreased their activity levels over ~1-4 weeks. Field populations were abundant and composed mostly of juveniles during both years examined. Populations appeared to be stable but highly dynamic in terms of individuals, reaching maximum yield at 4 months of age. We conclude that obligate symbiosis with large sea anemones and cleaner mutualism with reef fishes both contribute to explaining aspects of the life history of Pederson shrimps, especially their apparent mating system of pure-search polygynandry. This life-history information also provides a scientific basis for sustainable fishery management and aquaculture of this key coral reef organism.

  12. Region specific changes in nonapeptide levels during client fish interactions with allopatric and sympatric cleaner fish

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Marta C.; Cardoso, Sónia C.; Mazzei, Renata; André, Gonçalo I.; Morais, Marta; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships are crucially dependent on individual ability to learn and remember ecologically relevant cues. However, the way animals recognize cues before engaging in any social interaction and how their response is regulated by brain neuromodulators remains unclear. We examined the putative involvement of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), acting at different brain regions, during fish decision-making in the context of cooperation, by trying to identify how fish distinguish and recognize the value of other social partners or species. We hypothesized that the behavioural responses of cleaner fish clients to different social contexts would be underlain by changes in brain AVT and IT levels. We have found that changes in AVT at the level of forebrain and optic tectum are linked with a response to allopatric cleaners (novel or unfamiliar stimuli) while those at cerebellum are associated with the willingness to be cleaned (in response to sympatric cleaners). On the other hand, higher brain IT levels that were solely found in the diencephalon, also in response to allopatric cleaners. Our results are the first to implicate these nonapeptides, AVT in particular, in the assessment of social cues which enable fish to engage in mutualistic activities. PMID:28683143

  13. Determinants of hand dermatitis, urticaria and loss of skin barrier function in professional cleaners in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Douwes, Jeroen; Slater, Tania; Shanthakumar, Mathangi; McLean, Dave; Firestone, Ridvan Tua; Judd, Lissa; Pearce, Neil

    2017-04-01

    This study assessed the risk of dermatitis, urticaria and loss of skin barrier function in 425 cleaners and 281 reference workers (retail workers and bus drivers). Symptoms, atopy and skin barrier function were assessed by questionnaire, skin prick tests, and measurement of transepidermal water loss. Cleaners had an increased risk of current (past 3 months) hand/arm dermatitis (14.8% vs. 10.0%; OR = 1.9, p < 0.05) and urticaria (11% vs. 5.3%; OR = 2.4, p < 0.05) and were more likely to have dermatitis as adults (17.6% vs. 11.4%; OR = 1.8, p < 0.05). The risk of atopy was not increased, but associations with symptoms were more pronounced in atopics. Transepidermal water loss was significantly higher in cleaners. Wet-work was a significant risk factor for dermatitis and hand washing and drying significantly reduced the risk of urticaria. In conclusion, cleaners have an increased risk of hand/arm dermatitis, urticaria and loss of skin barrier function.

  14. FRACTIONAL AEROSOL FILTRATION EFFICIENCY OF IN-DUCT VENTILATION AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The filtration efficiency of ventilation air cleaners is highly particle-size dependent over the 0.01 to 3 μm diameter size range. Current standardized test methods, which determine only overall efficiencies for ambient aerosol or other test aerosols, provide data of limited util...

  15. A cleaner production approach to urban water management: potential for application in Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent; Hoko, Zvikomborero

    Water quality is an urgent problem in the Lake Chivero catchment, Zimbabwe, whilst water scarcity will be a problem soon. This study focused on assessing the potential impacts of the application of cleaner production principles in urban water supply and sanitation in the context of sustainable management of water resources. The cleaner production principles are explained together with how they can be applied to urban water management. Data from City of Harare and previous studies were collected and analysed. The study focused mainly on water, nitrogen and phosphorus. About 304,000 m 3/d of wastewater, containing 30,000 kg/d TN and 3600 kg/d TP are currently produced and treated at five sewage treatment works in Harare. Water conservation, treatment and reuse strategies were developed for different land uses starting from water-saving devices, regulation, leak detection and repair, to wastewater treatment and reuse. This study showed that the application of the cleaner production principles would reduce total wastewater production from 487,000 m 3/d to 379,000 m 3/d (a 27% reduction) based on year 2015 projections. A very large investment in treatment infrastructure can be postponed for about 10 years. In terms of amounts treated and discharged at central level this translates to reductions of 47% on flows, 34% on TN, and 44% on TP. River discharges can be eliminated. It was concluded that a cleaner production approach could substantially reduce current water pollution and long-term scarcity problems in Harare.

  16. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Larson, Timothy; Noullett, Melanie; Kennedy, Susan; Copes, Ray; Brauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Communities impacted by fine-particle air pollution (particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm; PM(2.5)) from forest fires and residential wood burning require effective, evidence-based exposure-reduction strategies. Public health recommendations during smoke episodes typically include advising community members to remain indoors and the use of air cleaners, yet little information is available on the effectiveness of these measures. Our study attempted to address the following objectives: to measure indoor infiltration factor (F(inf)) of PM(2.5) from forest fires/wood smoke, to determine the effectiveness of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaners in reducing indoor PM(2.5), and to analyze the home determinants of F(inf) and air cleaner effectiveness (ACE). We collected indoor/outdoor 1-min PM(2.5) averages and 48-h outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples for 21 winter and 17 summer homes impacted by wood burning and forest fire smoke, respectively, during 2004-2005. A portable HEPA filter air cleaner was operated indoors with the filter removed for one of two sampling days. Particle F(inf) and ACE were calculated for each home using a recursive model. We found mean F(inf)+/-SD was 0.27+/-0.18 and 0.61+/-0.27 in winter (n=19) and summer (n=13), respectively, for days when HEPA filters were not used. Lower F(inf)+/-SD values of 0.10+/-0.08 and 0.19+/-0.20 were found on corresponding days when HEPA filters were in place. Mean+/-SD ACE ([F(inf) without filter-F(inf) with filter]/F(inf) without filter) in winter and summer were 55+/-38% and 65+/-35%, respectively. Number of windows and season predicted F(inf) (P<0.001). No significant predictors of ACE were identified. Our findings show that remaining indoors combined with use of air cleaner can effectively reduce PM(2.5) exposure during forest fires and residential wood burning.

  17. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; Macintosh, David L

    2008-08-06

    Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30-55% lower cat allergen levels, 90-99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90-98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50-75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice.

  18. Design and development of automatic sharia compliant wheelchair wheels cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, Muhammad Farid; Rasli, Ibrahim Ismail Mohammad; Jamaludin, M. Z. Z. Wan; Isa, W. A. Mohamad; M., H.; Rashid, A. H. Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Sharia compliant wheelchair wheel cleaner was developed in order to assist the muslim Person with Disabilities (PWD) to pray in the mosque without leaving their wheelchair because of the filthy wheels. Though there are many wheelchair wheel cleaning system in the market, it is very rare to find sharia compliant cleaning system that applies sertu concept which is one of the cleaning and purification technique in Islamic practice. The sertu concept is based on 6:1 ratio that refers to the six times pipe water cleaning and one time soiled water cleaning. The development process consists of design stage, fabrication and system installation stage and followed by testing stage. During the design stage, the proposed prototype underwent design brainstorming, operation programming and structural simulation analysis. Once fabricated, the cleaner prototype underwent was tested. The results showed that the prototype can cater load up to 100kg with 1.31×10-6 mm shaft bending displacement. The water ejection timing varied approximately 3% compared to the program.

  19. Evaluation of alternative cleaners for solder flux and mold release removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, D.E.; Reich, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a solvent substitution program, an evaluation of selected alternative cleaners for solder flux and mold release removal has been performed. Six cleaners were evaluated for their efficiency in removing a rosin mildly activated flux and a silicone mold release from copper, 17-4PH stainless steel, polyimide quartz glass and tin-lead surfaces. A parallel effort also studied deionized water removal of organic acid fluxes. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine relative elemental cleanliness of the outermost atomic layers. An Omega Meter Test was used to measure residual ionic contamination. Water drop contact angles weremore » used to measure the effectiveness of silicone removal from Cu substrates. In most cases, the cleanliness levels were good to excellent. 10 refs., 8 figs., 19 tabs.« less

  20. Use of GC/MS and Microtome Techniques as Methods to Evaluate ODC Free Cleaner Diffusion and Evaporation in Insulation and Phenolic Case Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biegert, L. L.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) many chlorinated solvents used in the aerospace industry are being phased out. Replacement of the ODC (ozone-depleting chemicals) with less volatile, non-ozone depleting cleaners has been extensively studied over the past seven years at Thiokol Propulsion, a Division of Cordant Technologies, Inc. The down selection of ODC replacement cleaners has been based on several factors including the diffusion evaporation of the cleaners in selected substrates. Methodologies were developed to evaluate the cleaner content in substrates. Methods of cutting thin slices of material (microtoming) were combined with GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy) analysis. Substrates evaluated in this study include potential solid rocket motor materials: ASNBR (asbestos-filled nitrile butadiene rubber) and CFEPDM (carbon-filled ethylene propylene dimonomer) insulation and glass (GCP), carbon (CCP) and silica (SCP) cloth phenolic substrates with fibers either parallel (0 deg) or perpendicular (90 deg) to the surface. Residue profiles indicate both cleaner and substrate composition affect the diffusion and subsequent evaporation of the cleaner from the substrate surface.

  1. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  2. COMPUTATIONS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PARTICLE FILTERS AND ELECTRONIC AIR CLEANERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses computations on the performance of particle filters and electronic air cleaners (EACs). The collection efficiency of particle filters and ACs is calculable if certain factors can be assumed or calibrated. For fibrous particulate filters, measurement of colle...

  3. Evaluation of cleaner production options in dyeing and printing industry: Using combination weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hong; Zhang, Yun; Hou, Haochen; Sun, Xiaoyang; Qin, Chenglu

    2018-03-01

    The textile industry has a high environmental impact so that implementing cleaner production audit is an effective way to achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. But the evaluation method in current cleaner production audit divided the evaluation of CPOs into two parts: environment and economy. The evaluation index system was constructed from three criteria of environment benefits, economy benefits and product performance; weights of five indicators were determined by combination weights of entropy method and factor weight sorting method. Then efficiencies were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that the best alkali recovery option was the nanofiltration membrane method (S=0.80).

  4. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, Theodore A; Minegishi, Taeko; Allen, Joseph G; MacIntosh, David L

    2008-01-01

    Background Reducing exposure to environmental agents indoors shown to increase asthma symptoms or lead to asthma exacerbations is an important component of a strategy to manage asthma for individuals. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that portable air cleaning devices can reduce concentrations of asthma triggers in indoor air; however, their benefits for breathing problems have not always been reproducible. The potential exposure benefits of whole house high efficiency in-duct air cleaners for sensitive subpopulations have yet to be evaluated. Methods We used an indoor air quality modeling system (CONTAM) developed by NIST to examine peak and time-integrated concentrations of common asthma triggers present in indoor air over a year as a function of natural ventilation, portable air cleaners, and forced air ventilation equipped with conventional and high efficiency filtration systems. Emission rates for asthma triggers were based on experimental studies published in the scientific literature. Results Forced air systems with high efficiency filtration were found to provide the best control of asthma triggers: 30–55% lower cat allergen levels, 90–99% lower risk of respiratory infection through the inhalation route of exposure, 90–98% lower environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) levels, and 50–75% lower fungal spore levels than the other ventilation/filtration systems considered. These results indicate that the use of high efficiency in-duct air cleaners provide an effective means of controlling allergen levels not only in a single room, like a portable air cleaner, but the whole house. Conclusion These findings are useful for evaluating potential benefits of high efficiency in-duct filtration systems for controlling exposure to asthma triggers indoors and for the design of trials of environmental interventions intended to evaluate their utility in practice. PMID:18684328

  5. 103. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. DETAIL OF ZINC CLEANER CELL INTERIOR (EXPOSED AT F/45 FOR DEPTH OF FIELD PURPOSES). NOTE GALIGHER STYLE BAFFLES AND TENDENCY OF ZINC TO BUILD UP ON CELL COMPONENTS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. Patterns of resource-use and competition for mutualistic partners between two species of obligate cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, T. C.; Horii, S. S.

    2012-12-01

    Cleaner mutualisms on coral reefs, where specialized fish remove parasites from many species of client fishes, have greatly increased our understanding of mutualism, yet we know little about important interspecific interactions between cleaners. Here, we explore the potential for competition between the cleaners Labroides dimidiatus and Labroides bicolor during two distinct life stages. Previous work has demonstrated that in contrast to L. dimidiatus, which establish cleaning stations, adult L. bicolor rove over large areas, searching for clients. We show that site-attached juvenile L. bicolor associate with different microhabitat than juvenile L. dimidiatus and that L. bicolor specialize on a narrower range of species than L. dimidiatus as both juveniles and adults. Further, we present evidence suggesting that differences in resource-use are influenced by competitive interactions between the two species. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology and evolution of the mutualism.

  7. Cleaning devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Horst W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Cleaning devices are described which include a vacuum cleaner nozzle with a sharp rim for directing incoming air down against the floor; a vacuum cleaner wherein electrostatically charged brushes that brush dirt off a floor, are electrically grounded to remove charges that could tend to hold dirt to the brushes; a vacuum cleaner head having slots that form a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and that includes an outlet that blows a stream of air at the floor region which lies between the vortices; a cleaning device that sweeps a group of brushes against the ground along a first direction, and then sweeps them along the same ground area but in a second direction angled from the first by an amount such as 90.degree., to sweep up particles lying in crevices extending along any direction; a device that gently cleans a surface to remove bacteria for analysis, including an inclined wall along which cleaning fluid flows onto the surface, a vacuum chamber for drawing in the cleaning fluid, and a dividing wall spaced slightly from the surface to separate the fluid source from the vacuum cleaner chamber; and a device for providing pulses of pressured air including a chamber to which pressured air is supplied, a ball that circulates around the chamber to repeatedly close an outlet, and an air source that directs air circumferentially to move the ball around the chamber.

  8. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  9. [Study on the acquiring data time and intervals for measuring performance of air cleaner on formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhigang; Wang, Guifang; Xu, Dongqun; Han, Keqin; Li, Yunpu; Zhang, Aijun; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2004-09-01

    The measuring time and measuring intervals to evaluate different type of air cleaner performance to remove formaldehyde were provided. The natural decay measurement and formaldehyde removal measurement were conducted in 1.5 m3 and 30 m3 test chamber. The natural decay rate was determined by acquiring formaldehyde concentration data at 15 minute intervals for 2.5 hours. The measured decay rate was determined by acquiring formaldehyde concentration data at 5 minute intervals for 1.2 hours. When the wind power of air cleaner is smaller than 30 m3/h or measuring performance of no wind power air clearing product, the 1.5 m3 test chamber can be used. Both the natural decay rate and the measured decay rate are determined by acquiring formaldehyde concentration data at 8 minute intervals for 64 minutes. There were different measuring time and measuring intervals to evaluate different type of air cleaner performance to remove formaldehyde.

  10. Industrial-hygiene report, perchloroethylene, Carman's Classic Cleaners, Richmond, California, July 28, 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, H.R.

    1978-03-01

    The survey was part of an industrywide mortality and industrial hygiene study of dry cleaning workers exposure to perchlorethylene. To gather data for this larger study, an on site visit was made to the Carman's Classic Cleaners located in Richmond, California. Carman's Classic Cleaners has been using PCE since the present owner had the building constructed in 1954. About 621 kilograms of clothing were dry cleaned each week, with about 129 liters of PCE consumed monthly. The workforce of six includes two pressers, a full time employee who works at the counter and also sews, a part time maintenance man,more » the owner, and his wife. The owner did all the dry cleaning and spotting while his wife marked clothing and worked the counter. Air samples were collected using battery operated pumps and charcoal tubes. The time weighted average exposure to PCE during the 5 hours of operation was 25 parts per million (ppm) for the dry cleaner and 2ppm for the presser. Samples collected in the vicinity of the front counter, washer, and spotting table indicated PCE levels of 3, 29, and 21ppm, respectively. Five minute peak samples during clothing transfer indicated PCE levels of 22, 38, and 17ppm. These exposures were well within the current standards. However, as PCE is a suspected carcinogen, it is necessary that levels be lowered as much as possible. The author recommends measures to help bring this about.« less

  11. Partitioning of residual D-limonene cleaner vapor among organic materials in weapons

    SciTech Connect

    LeMay, J.D.

    1993-03-01

    D-limonene is a replacement solvent selected by Sandia and Allied-Signal to clean solder flux from electronics assemblies in firesets and programmers. D-limonene is much slower drying than the solvents it has replaced and this has raised concerns that residual quantities of the cleaner could be trapped in the electronics assemblies and eventually carried into warhead assemblies. This paper describes a study designed to evaluate how vapors from residual d-limonene cleaner would be partitioned among typical organic materials in a Livermore device. The goal was to identify possible compatibility problems arising from the use of d-limonene and, in particular, any interactionsmore » it may have with energetic materials. To predict the partitioning behavior of d-limonene, a simple model was developed and its predictions are compared to the experimental findings.« less

  12. POLLUTION PREVENTION FOR CLEANER AIR: EPA'S AIR AND ENERGY ENGINEERING RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) in pollution prevention research for cleaner air. For more than 20 years, AEERL has been conducting research to identify control approaches for the pollutants and sources which contribu...

  13. Using Pipe Cleaners to Bring the Tree of Life to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Kristy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees, such as the "Tree of Life," are commonly found in biology textbooks and are often used in teaching. Because students often struggle to understand these diagrams, I developed a simple, inexpensive classroom model. Made of pipe cleaners, it is easily manipulated to rotate branches, compare topologies, map complete lineages,…

  14. Large Cleaner Detectors for the UCN τ Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Francisco; UCNtau Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The UCN τ experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory measures the neutron β-decay lifetime by storing ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in a magneto-gravitational trap for holding times longer than the neutron's lifetime. Neutrons with energies above the trapping potential can escape the trap, giving rise to a systematic error. To mitigate this effect, a large polyethylene sheet is lowered into the trap to remove the high energy unbound neutrons. High energy UCN upscatter in the polyethylene sheet and leave the trap. Such a ``UCN spectrum cleaner,'' covering half the trap top, was shown to be effective in removing high-energy neutrons in previous run cycles. During this run cycle, the UCN τ collaboration has added two thermal neutron detectors on the spectrum cleaner. The new thermal neutron detectors will monitor high-energy neutrons throughout upcoming run cycles, providing important information on the neutron normalization, spectral cleaning, and heating during storage. These detectors use LiF-ZnS sheets coupled to a wavelength-shifting plastic slab, with silicon photomultipliers attached to the edges. We will present results of the light detection simulation and performance tests of these detectors.

  15. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  16. Risk assessment of amorphous silicon dioxide nanoparticles in a glass cleaner formulation

    PubMed Central

    Scheel, Julia; Karsten, Stefan; Stelter, Norbert; Wind, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Since nanomaterials are a heterogeneous group of substances used in various applications, risk assessment needs to be done on a case-by-case basis. Here the authors assess the risk (hazard and exposure) of a glass cleaner with synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide (SAS) nanoparticles during production and consumer use (spray application). As the colloidal material used is similar to previously investigated SAS, the hazard profile was considered to be comparable. Overall, SAS has a low toxicity. Worker exposure was analysed to be well controlled. The particle size distribution indicated that the aerosol droplets were in a size range not expected to reach the alveoli. Predictive modelling was used to approximate external exposure concentrations. Consumer and environmental exposure were estimated conservatively and were not of concern. It was concluded based on the available weight-of-evidence that the production and application of the glass cleaner is safe for humans and the environment under intended use conditions. PMID:22548260

  17. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  18. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Weilin; Dong, Lei; An, Na; Ouyang, Xiangying

    2010-07-06

    Dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients' mouths during treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic. We applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to solve the governing equations of airflow, energy and dispersion of different-sized airborne droplets/aerosol particles. In a dental clinic, we measured the supply air velocity and temperature of the ventilation system, the airflow rate and the particle removal efficiency of the air cleaner to determine the boundary conditions for the CFD simulations. Our results indicate that use of an air cleaner in a dental clinic may be an effective method for reducing DHCWs' exposure to airborne droplets and aerosol particles. Further, we found that the probability of droplet/aerosol particle removal and the direction of airflow from the cleaner are both important control measures for droplet and aerosol contamination in a dental clinic. Thus, the distance between the air cleaner and droplet/aerosol particle source as well as the relative location of the air cleaner to both the source and the DHCW are important considerations for reducing DHCWs' exposure to droplets/aerosol particles emitted from the patient's mouth during treatments.

  19. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Weilin; Dong, Lei; An, Na; Ouyang, Xiangying

    2010-01-01

    Dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients' mouths during treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic. We applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to solve the governing equations of airflow, energy and dispersion of different-sized airborne droplets/aerosol particles. In a dental clinic, we measured the supply air velocity and temperature of the ventilation system, the airflow rate and the particle removal efficiency of the air cleaner to determine the boundary conditions for the CFD simulations. Our results indicate that use of an air cleaner in a dental clinic may be an effective method for reducing DHCWs' exposure to airborne droplets and aerosol particles. Further, we found that the probability of droplet/aerosol particle removal and the direction of airflow from the cleaner are both important control measures for droplet and aerosol contamination in a dental clinic. Thus, the distance between the air cleaner and droplet/aerosol particle source as well as the relative location of the air cleaner to both the source and the DHCW are important considerations for reducing DHCWs' exposure to droplets/aerosol particles emitted from the patient's mouth during treatments. PMID:20031985

  20. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  1. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    PubMed

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  2. Cleaner Technology in the Hard Disk Drive Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moolla, Premchai; Chompu-inwai, Rungchat

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this research are to improve raw material and energy consumption efficiency, as well as reduce defects and the use of chemicals in the arm coil assembly process of hard disk drive manufacturing in the case study company by applying the Cleaner Technology concepts. The four main sequential steps used in this research were: (1) pre-assessment, (2) assessment, (3) feasibility study, and (4) implementation. In the first step, raw data, such as process flows, raw material usage and defects data were collected. In the second step, the loss during production and causes of loss were analyzed. Opportunities to reduce raw material, chemical and energy wastage could then be recommended. The next step was to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a particular Cleaner Technology opportunity. Finally, in the last step, after a thorough evaluation and implementation of the opportunities to apply Cleaner Technology, the results showed that arm coil defects could be reduced by improving the production process using the ECRS technique. ECRS stands for Eliminate, Combine, Rearrange and Simplify. This improvement reduced arm coil defect rates from 0.48% to 0.15%, thus saving approximately 139,638 Thai Baht per month. In addition, production stoppage decision made by workers was used to increase employee involvement in defect detection. Allowing workers to participate in such a decision was an effective way to reduce defect rate and could motivate workers to produce a better quality job. This resulted in arm coil defects reducing from 0.41% to 0.025%, with about 74,562 Thai Baht per month saving. Additionally, an increase in the efficiency of electricity consumption occurred, by increasing the speed of the infrared oven conveyor belt, improving average productivity from 533 pieces/hour to 560 pieces/hour, without adversely affecting product costs and quality, thus producing products of up to the value of 206,242 Thai Baht per month. Furthermore, the new

  3. Fish mucus versus parasitic gnathiid isopods as sources of energy and sunscreens for a cleaner fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckes, Maxi; Dove, Sophie; Siebeck, Ulrike E.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2015-09-01

    The cleaning behaviour of the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus is extensively used as a model system for understanding cooperation. It feeds mainly on blood-sucking gnathiid isopods and also on the epidermal mucus of client fish; the nutritional quality of these foods, however, is unknown. The epidermal mucus of reef fish contains ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (mycosporine-like amino acids, MAAs), which are only obtained via the diet; nevertheless, while La. dimidiatus has high amounts of MAAs in its mucus, their source is unknown. Therefore, the energetic value (calories and protein estimated using carbon and nitrogen) and MAA level in gnathiids and mucus from several clients [parrotfishes, wrasses (Labridae), and a snapper (Lutjanidae)] were determined. The energetic value of mucus and gnathiids varied among fishes. Overall, carbon, nitrogen, calories, and protein per dry weight were higher in the mucus of most client species compared to gnathiids. Thus, depending on the client species, mucus may be energetically more advantageous for cleaner wrasse to feed on than gnathiids. UV absorbance, a confirmed proxy for MAA levels, indicated high MAA levels in mucus, whereas gnathiids had no detectable MAAs. This suggests that La. dimidiatus obtain MAAs from mucus but not from gnathiids. Hence, in addition to energy, the mucus of some clients also provides La. dimidiatus with the added bonus of UV-absorbing compounds. This may explain why cleaner fish prefer to feed on mucus over gnathiid isopods. The likely costs and benefits to clients of the removal of UV protecting mucus and parasitic gnathiids, respectively, and the variation in benefits gained by cleaner fish from feeding on these foods may explain some variation in cooperation levels in cleaning interactions.

  4. Sudden death involving inhalation of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) with spray cleaner: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kentaro; Maruyama-Maebashi, Kyoko; Takatsu, Akihiro; Fukui, Kenji; Nagai, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Miwako; Ochiai, Eriko; Iwadate, Kimiharu

    2011-03-20

    Spray cleaner is a cleaning product containing compressed 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) to blow dust off electric devices and other sensitive equipment; however, it is also inhaled to induce euphoria. This report describes three cases of death involving HFC-152a inhalation with spray cleaner under different circumstances. In case 1, death was during inhalation for euphoria with which led to having frostbite. In case 2, death may have been associated with suicidal intention. Case 3 was also considered an accidental autoerotic death. In all three cases, HFC-152a was detected at 99.2-136.2mg/l in blood samples, 94.5-191.9 mg/l in urine samples and 3.6-18.4 mg in the gastric contents according to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. To prevent death associated with HFC-152a inhalation from spray cleaner, the danger of the sudden death should be announced to people, given the ready availability of commercial products containing HFC-152a. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF STACHYBOTRYS REGROWTH ON CONTAMINATED WALLBOARD AFTER TREATMENT WITH COMMON SURFACE CLEANERS/DISINFECTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes results of experiments assessing the efficacy of treating mold-contaminated gypsum wallboard with cleaners and/or disinfectants. Although the accepted recommendations for handling Stachybotrys chartarum contaminated gypsum wallboard are removal and replacement...

  6. Targeted Cleaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the creation of an effective carpet vacuuming program by combining area usage assessment and vacuuming requirements with a scheduling plan. Also explains vacuum cleaner suction and filtration and how it makes custodian work more efficient. A complementary article discusses creating an effective floor-maintenance plan for resilient…

  7. Comparison of vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes for urinary sediment analysis.

    PubMed

    Topcuoglu, Canan; Sezer, Sevilay; Kosem, Arzu; Ercan, Mujgan; Turhan, Turan

    2017-12-01

    Urine collection systems with aspiration system for vacuum tubes are becoming increasingly common for urinalysis, especially for microscopic examination of the urine. In this study, we aimed to examine whether vacuum aspiration of the urine sample has any adverse effect on sediment analysis by comparing results from vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes. The study included totally 213 urine samples obtained from inpatients and outpatients in our hospital. Urine samples were collected to containers with aspiration system for vacuum tubes. Each sample was aliquoted to both vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes. Urinary sediment analysis was performed using manual microscope. Results were evaluated using chi-square test. Comparison of the sediment analysis results from vacuum and non-vacuum urine tubes showed that results were highly concordant for erythrocyte, leukocyte and epithelial cells (gamma values 1, 0.997, and 0.994, respectively; p < .001). Results were also concordant for urinary casts, crystals and yeast (kappa values 0.815, 0.945 and 1, respectively; p < .001). The results show that in urinary sediment analysis, vacuum aspiration has no adverse effect on the cellular components except on casts.

  8. Generic Verification Protocol for Determination of Emissions from Cleaner Outdoor Wood-Fired Hydronic Heaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    This protocol describes the Environmental Technology Verification Program's considerations and requirements for verification of emissions reduction provided by cleaner outdoor wood-fired hydronic heaters. Outdoor wood-burning units provide heat and hot water for homes and other b...

  9. Effects of Friction Reduction on Fiber Damage in a Saw-Type Lint Cleaner

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    U.S. cotton is at a competitive disadvantage from a fiber-quality standpoint, because lint cleaning is required for mechanically harvested cotton, and lint cleaning causes fiber damage. Lint-cleaning research has focused mainly on modifying saw-type lint cleaners, but the work reported here focuses...

  10. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners: effects of a worksite intervention RCT.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas; Hansen, Åse Marie; Krustrup, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form. The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. Significant (p < 0.05) between-group reductions from baseline to follow-up were found for high-sensitive C-reactive protein (-0.54 ± 0.20 µg/ml; 95% CI -0.94, -0.14), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.32 ± 0.11 mmol/L; 95% CI -0.54, -0.10) and the ratios of LDL/HDL (-0.30 ± 0.08; 95% CI -0.46, -0.14), and LDL/TC cholesterol (-0.04 ± 0.02; 95% CI -0.07, -0.01). This study indicates that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs of cardiovascular overload.

  11. A novel cleaner production process of citric acid by recycling its treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a novel cleaner production process of citric acid was proposed to completely solve the problem of wastewater management in citric acid industry. In the process, wastewater from citric acid fermentation was used to produce methane through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent was further treated with air stripping and electrodialysis before recycled as process water for the later citric acid fermentation. This proposed process was performed for 10 batches and the average citric acid production in recycling batches was 142.4±2.1g/L which was comparable to that with tap water (141.6g/L). Anaerobic digestion was also efficient and stable in operation. The average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 95.1±1.2% and methane yield approached to 297.7±19.8mL/g TCODremoved. In conclusion, this novel process minimized the wastewater discharge and achieved the cleaner production in citric acid industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of air cleaners on indoor particulate matter components and oxidative potential in residential households in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ying; Johnson, Karoline; Norris, Christina; Shafer, Martin M; Bergin, Mike H; Zhang, Yinping; Zhang, Junfeng; Schauer, James J

    2018-06-01

    In many developing regions with poor air quality, the use of air filtration devices to clean indoor air is growing rapidly. In this study, we collected indoor, outdoor and personal exposure filter-based samples of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) with both properly operating, and sham air cleaners in six Beijing residences from July 24th to August 17th, 2016. Mass concentrations of PM 2.5 and several health relevant components of PM 2.5 including organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and 21 selected metals, were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of air cleaners. The effect of air purification on PM 2.5 reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity, a metric of the oxidative potential of the aerosol, was also evaluated. The average indoor PM 2.5 concentration during true filtration was 8.47μg/m 3 , compared to 49.0μg/m 3 during sham filtration; thus, air cleaners can significantly reduce the indoor PM 2.5 concentration to well below WHO guideline levels and significantly lower all major components of PM 2.5 . However, the utility of air cleaners in reducing overall personal exposure to PM 2.5 and its components was marginal in this study: the average personal exposure PM 2.5 concentration was 67.8 and 51.1μg/m 3 during true and sham filtration respectively, and it is likely due to the activity patterns of the subjects. Short-term exposure contributions from environments with high PM 2.5 concentrations, including exposure to traffic related emissions as well as uncharacterized indoor microenvironments, likely add substantially to the total PM 2.5 exposure burden. The toxicity assay indicates that the air cleaners can also significantly reduce ROS activity in the indoor environment; however, this decrease did not translate to a reduction in personal exposure. Elemental carbon, lead, and arsenic were well-correlated with the ROS activity, thus adding to the knowledge base of drivers for ROS activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake systems. (a) Vacuum brake assist unit integrity. The vacuum brake assist unit shall demonstrate integrity as... maintained on the pedal. (1) Inspection procedure. Stop the engine and apply service brake several times to...

  14. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  15. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT A FORMER DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at a former dry cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site restoration, wh...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROSOLS FROM A WATER-BASED CLEANER APPLIED WITH A HAND-PUMP SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of tests that were performed in a controlled-environment test room to measure particle concentrations and size distributions and concentrations of selected volatily organic compounds during, and following, application of water-based cleaners to realistic s...

  17. Household Contamination with Salmonella enterica1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dale D.; Roozen, Paivi M.; Szymanski, Maryanne H.; Scheenstra, Beth C.; Cady, Kirsten M.; Besser, Thomas E.; Chudek, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Household contamination with Salmonella enterica increases when occupational exposure exists (cattle farms with known salmonellosis in cattle, a salmonella research laboratory, or a veterinary clinic experiencing an outbreak of salmonellosis). Fifteen of 55 (27.2%) vacuum cleaner bags from households with occupational exposure to S. enterica were positive versus 1 of 24 (4.2% without known exposure. Use of a carpet cleaner and several cleaners/disinfectants reduced, but failed to eliminate, S. enterica from artificially contaminated carpet. PMID:12533294

  18. Improved Vacuum Bazooka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockman, John

    2003-04-01

    This apparatus is a modification to the well-known "vacuum bazooka" (PIRA 2B30.70). My vacuum bazooka is easy to construct and demonstrate, requires no precise fittings, foil, or vacuum grease, and propels ping-pong balls at a tremendous velocity!

  19. Early retirement among Danish female cleaners and shop assistants according to work environment characteristics and upper extremity complaints: an 11-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Christensen, Michael Victor; Maribo, Thomas

    2016-05-04

    Studies have shown a negative social gradient in the incidence of early retirement. To prevent undesired early retirement, there is a need for knowledge of specific predictors in addition to social factors with a limited potential for change. The main purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal complaints and working conditions as predictors of early retirement among Danish female cleaners. Using Cox regression with an adjustment for extraneous factors, we compared the risk of disability pension and retirement before the nominal retirement age (65 years) in an 11-year cohort study with registry-based follow-up of 1430 female cleaners and 579 shop assistants. In subsequent analyses of female cleaners, disability pension and voluntary early retirement were modeled according to work characteristics and upper extremity complaints. The adjusted hazard rate (HR) for disability pension among cleaners compared to the control group was 2.27 (95% CI 1.58 to 3.28) and, for voluntary early retirement, 1.01 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.20). In the subset of cleaners, the predictors of disability pension were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.98 (95% CI 1.47 to 2.67), elbow pain HR: 1.41 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.94) and symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand HR: 1.58 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.20). Predictors of voluntary early retirement were persistent shoulder pain HR: 1.40 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.67) and floor mopping for more than 10 h per week HR: 1.20 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.40). Cleaners have a twofold higher risk of disability pension compared to the control group. Risk factors for disability pension among cleaners were persistent shoulder and elbow pain together with symptoms of nerve entrapment of the hand. The findings of specific health related predictors of early retirement could be used in secondary prevention with targeted temporary reduced workload.

  20. Long-Term Effects of the Cleaner Fish Labroides dimidiatus on Coral Reef Fish Communities

    PubMed Central

    Waldie, Peter A.; Blomberg, Simon P.; Cheney, Karen L.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Grutter, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Cleaning behaviour is deemed a mutualism, however the benefit of cleaning interactions to client individuals is unknown. Furthermore, mechanisms that may shift fish community structure in the presence of cleaning organisms are unclear. Here we show that on patch reefs (61–285 m2) which had all cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus (Labridae) experimentally removed (1–5 adults reef−1) and which were then maintained cleaner-fish free over 8.5 years, individuals of two site-attached (resident) client damselfishes (Pomacentridae) were smaller compared to those on control reefs. Furthermore, resident fishes were 37% less abundant and 23% less species rich per reef, compared to control reefs. Such changes in site-attached fish may reflect lower fish growth rates and/or survivorship. Additionally, juveniles of visitors (fish likely to move between reefs) were 65% less abundant on removal reefs suggesting cleaners may also affect recruitment. This may, in part, explain the 23% lower abundance and 33% lower species richness of visitor fishes, and 66% lower abundance of visitor herbivores (Acanthuridae) on removal reefs that we also observed. This is the first study to demonstrate a benefit of cleaning behaviour to client individuals, in the form of increased size, and to elucidate potential mechanisms leading to community-wide effects on the fish population. Many of the fish groups affected may also indirectly affect other reef organisms, thus further impacting the reef community. The large-scale effect of the presence of the relatively small and uncommon fish, Labroides dimidiadus, on other fishes is unparalleled on coral reefs. PMID:21731670

  1. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  2. Electroweak vacuum instability and renormalized Higgs field vacuum fluctuations in the inflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we investigated the electroweak vacuum instability during or after inflation. In the inflationary Universe, i.e., de Sitter space, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ phi 2 > enlarge in proportion to the Hubble scale H2. Therefore, the large inflationary vacuum fluctuations of the Higgs field < δ phi 2 > are potentially catastrophic to trigger the vacuum transition to the negative-energy Planck-scale vacuum state and cause an immediate collapse of the Universe. However, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ phi 2 >, i.e., the vacuum expectation values have an ultraviolet divergence, and therefore a renormalization is necessary to estimate the physical effects of the vacuum transition. Thus, in this paper, we revisit the electroweak vacuum instability from the perspective of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time, and discuss the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field phi determined by the effective potential V eff( phi ) in curved space-time and the renormalized vacuum fluctuations < δ phi 2 >ren via adiabatic regularization and point-splitting regularization. We simply suppose that the Higgs field only couples the gravity via the non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling ξ(μ). In this scenario, the electroweak vacuum stability is inevitably threatened by the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field phi, or the formations of AdS domains or bubbles unless the Hubble scale is small enough H< ΛI .

  3. Water resources protection today: end-of-pipe technology and cleaner production. Case study of the Czech Odra River watershed.

    PubMed

    Chour, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on integrated watershed-based protection and sustainable use of water resources to increase the effectiveness of water pollution abatement. The approach includes improvements in end-of-pipe waste-water treatment technologies and implementation of Cleaner Production (CP) principles and policies within the watershed. An example of the general effectiveness of this approach is illustrated by the Czech Odra River Cleaner Production Project where reductions in pollution were achieved with improved industrial production. The CP theme is worth considering as an important challenge for the IWA.

  4. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    PubMed

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Field evaluation and health assessment of air cleaners in removing radon decay products in domestic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chih-Shan.

    In this study, field evaluations of two types of air cleaners were conducted in three single-family houses. The measurements included radon concentration, particle number concentration, and concentration and size distribution of radon decay products. The influence on the behavior of radon decay products by various indoor particles both with and without the air cleaning systems was investigated. A room model was used to calculate the changes in the aerosol parameters caused by the operation of the air cleaners. Using the James dosimetric models (1989 and 1990), the changes in the hourly bronchial dose rate per Bq m{sup {minus}3} radon formore » men, women, and children can be estimated for various domestic environments. 94 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.« less

  6. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  7. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    PubMed

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p < 0.01) compared to the reference session. The 24-h diastolic ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  8. Development of High Interruption Capability Vacuum Circuit Breaker -Technology of Vacuum Arc Control-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yoshimitsu; Kaneko, Eiji

    Vacuum circuit breakers (VCB) have been widely used for power distribution systems. Vacuum Interrupters, which are the current interruption unit, have been increased its interruption capability with the development of vacuum arc control technology by magnetic field. There are three major type electrodes: disk shaped electrodes, radial magnetic field electrodes, axial magnetic field (AMF) electrodes. In the disk shaped electrode, the vacuum arc between the electrodes is not controlled. In the AMF electrode, the vacuum arc is diffused and stabilized by an axial magnetic field, which is parallel to the arc current. In the last type of electrodes, the vacuum arc column is rotated by magnetic force generated by the current flowing in the electrodes. The interruption current and the voltage of one break VCB is increased to 100 kA, 144 kV respectively. This paper describes basic configurations and functions of VCB, vacuum arc control technology in vacuum interrupters, recent researches and applications of VCB.

  9. Electroweak vacuum instability and renormalized Higgs field vacuum fluctuations in the inflationary universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kohri, Kazunori; Matsui, Hiroki, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: matshiro@post.kek.jp

    In this work, we investigated the electroweak vacuum instability during or after inflation. In the inflationary Universe, i.e., de Sitter space, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} > enlarge in proportion to the Hubble scale H {sup 2}. Therefore, the large inflationary vacuum fluctuations of the Higgs field < δ φ {sup 2} > are potentially catastrophic to trigger the vacuum transition to the negative-energy Planck-scale vacuum state and cause an immediate collapse of the Universe. However, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >, i.e., the vacuum expectation values have an ultraviolet divergence, andmore » therefore a renormalization is necessary to estimate the physical effects of the vacuum transition. Thus, in this paper, we revisit the electroweak vacuum instability from the perspective of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time, and discuss the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ determined by the effective potential V {sub eff}( φ ) in curved space-time and the renormalized vacuum fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >{sub ren} via adiabatic regularization and point-splitting regularization. We simply suppose that the Higgs field only couples the gravity via the non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling ξ(μ). In this scenario, the electroweak vacuum stability is inevitably threatened by the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ, or the formations of AdS domains or bubbles unless the Hubble scale is small enough H < Λ {sub I} .« less

  10. Bactericidal efficacy of glycine-type amphoteric surfactant as a denture cleaner and its influence on properties of denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Makiko; Nishi, Yasuhiro; Kanie, Takahito; Ban, Seiji; Nagaoka, Eiichi

    2009-05-01

    The bactericidal efficacy of 1.00-4.50% glycine-type amphoteric surfactant (Gly) was evaluated by measuring its microorganism removal rate in denture plaque. Physical and mechanical properties such as surface roughness, color difference, and bending strength of two different denture base resins were determined before and after cleaning in Gly solutions, a commercial denture cleaner, and tap water. The microorganism removal rates of all the Gly solutions were higher than those of a commercial enzymatic denture cleaner (Polident) (p>0.05). The removal rate of Candida spp. by Polident was not significantly different from the removal rate using water. Changes in the surface roughness and color difference among the specimens were slight. There were no significant differences in the bending strengths of the two resins for all concentrations of Gly solution (p>0.05). These results suggested that glycine-type amphoteric surfactant solution may be effective as a denture cleaner in conjunction with an ultrasonic cleaning device.

  11. Socioeconomic disparities in indoor air, breath, and blood perchloroethylene level among adult and child residents of buildings with or without a dry cleaner.

    PubMed

    Storm, Jan E; Mazor, Kimberly A; Shost, Stephen J; Serle, Janet; Aldous, Kenneth M; Blount, Benjamin C

    2013-04-01

    In many cities, dry cleaners using perchloroethylene are frequently located in multifamily residential buildings and often cause elevated indoor air levels of perchloroethylene throughout the building. To assess individual perchloroethylene exposures associated with co-located dry cleaners, we measured perchloroethylene in residential indoor air, and in blood and breath of adults and children residing in buildings with a dry cleaner as part of the New York City (NYC) Perc Project. We also measured perchloroethylene in indoor air, and in blood and breath of residents of buildings without a dry cleaner for comparison. Here, we evaluate whether an environmental disparity in perchloroethylene exposures is present. Study participants are stratified by residential building type (dry cleaner or reference) and socioeconomic characteristics (race/ethnicity and income); measures of perchloroethylene exposure are examined; and, the influence of stratified variables and other factors on perchloroethylene exposure is assessed using multivariate regression. All measures of perchloroethylene exposure for residents of buildings with a dry cleaner indicated a socioeconomic disparity. Mean indoor air perchloroethylene levels were about five times higher in minority (82.5 ug/m(3)) than in non-minority (16.5 ug/m(3)) households, and about six times higher in low-income (105.5 ug/m(3)) than in high income (17.8 ug/m(3)) households. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in minority children (0.27 ng/mL) and adults (0.46 ng/mL) were about two and three times higher than in non-minority children (0.12 ng/mL) and adults (0.15 ng/mL), respectively. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in low income children (0.34 ng/mL) and adults (0.62 ng/mL) were about three and four times higher than in high income children (0.11 ng/mL) and adults (0.14 ng/mL), respectively. A less marked socioeconomic disparity was observed in perchloroethylene breath levels with minority and low income residents having

  12. Integrated Hydrologic Science and Environmental Engineering Observatory: CLEANER's Vision for the WATERS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, J. L.; Minsker, B. S.; Schnoor, J.; Haas, C.; Bonner, J.; Driscoll, C.; Eschenbach, E.; Finholt, T.; Glass, J.; Harmon, T.; Johnson, J.; Krupnik, A.; Reible, D.; Sanderson, A.; Small, M.; van Briesen, J.

    2006-05-01

    With increasing population and urban development, societies grow more and more concerned over balancing the need to maintain adequate water supplies with that of ensuring the quality of surface and groundwater resources. For example, multiple stressors such as overfishing, runoff of nutrients from agricultural fields and confined animal feeding lots, and pathogens in urban stormwater can often overwhelm a single water body. Mitigating just one of these problems often depends on understanding how it relates to others and how stressors can vary in temporal and spatial scales. Researchers are now in a position to answer questions about multiscale, spatiotemporally distributed hydrologic and environmental phenomena through the use of remote and embedded networked sensing technologies. It is now possible for data streaming from sensor networks to be integrated by a rich cyberinfrastructure encompassing the innovative computing, visualization, and information archiving strategies needed to cope with the anticipated onslaught of data, and to turn that data around in the form of real-time water quantity and quality forecasting. Recognizing this potential, NSF awarded $2 million to a coalition of 12 institutions in July 2005 to establish the CLEANER Project Office (Collaborative Large-Scale Engineering Analysis Network for Environmental Research; http://cleaner.ncsa.uiuc.edu). Over the next two years the project office, in coordination with CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc.; http://www.cuahsi.org), will work together to develop a plan for a WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network (WATERS Network), which is envisioned to be a collaborative scientific exploration and engineering analysis network, using high performance tools and infrastructure, to transform our scientific understanding of how water quantity, quality, and related earth system processes are affected by natural and human-induced changes to the environment

  13. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  14. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush.

  15. Sexual behaviour and substance use patterns amongst adolescent truck cleaners and risk of HIV / AIDS.

    PubMed

    Bansal, R K

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted at transport nagar in Indore, a major industrial and commercial center of Madhya Pradesh. Usually each truck has a staff of 3, comprising 1 senior driver, 1 junior driver, and a cleaner, usually a child or an adolescent. 210 such adolescent truck cleaners were surveyed by random sampling of the parked trucks present in the transport nagar. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to these adolescents using the oral interview technique. The age distribution of the adolescents indicated that 17 were 15-16 years old, 63 were 16-17, 61 were 17-18, and 69 were 18-19. When the income was low, the owners or the senior drivers provided the meals and minor expenses. 80% of the adolescents were illiterate, 10.5% were literate, 6.2% had primary education, and 3.3% had middle school education. 88.1% of the cleaners were away from home for 24-28 days a month, 7.1% for less than 24 days, and 4.8% for over 28 days. 25.2% of the cleaners had a history of sexual activity, commonly with prostitutes. 88.6% of the senior drivers regularly visited prostitutes, and in many cases the adolescents' payment to the prostitute was financed by the senior driver. 94.3% of these adolescents had engaged in unprotected sexual intercourse, and the remaining 5.7% had used condoms infrequently. 98.5% of them had not heard of HIV and AIDS. 4.3% had a history of sexually transmitted diseases and had been treated by general practitioners. Substance abuse was fairly common among these young people (140 smoked, 9 chewed tobacco, 2 used opium, and 2 used alcohol more than twice per week), and the cost for those substances was primarily met by the senior truck driver or the owner. The trend was similar for sexual activity, as 25.2% had engaged in sex (12.9% once, 7.1% twice, and 5.2% several times). Special programs are required for these adolescents to educate them about the risks of unprotected sex and drugs in order to prevent them from contracting HIV/AIDS.

  16. Evolution and diversification of National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs).

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Rene

    2010-07-01

    Since 1994 UNIDO and UNEP cooperate in a Programme to establish National Cleaner Production Centres (NCPCs) as a mechanism for delivery of Cleaner Production (CP) services to businesses, governments and other organisations. In 2007, 38 NCPCs were operational in 37 developing and transition countries. While initially set up in near-identical ways in each country, over time NCPCs evolved in response to both programme-internal and country-level factors. The resulting diversity among NCPCs is described and analysed here. Differentiation and specialisation had occurred in service areas or topics both within and between NCPCs, however without a clear strategy for integration and synergy. NCPCs were becoming part of expanding networks of business services providers nationally forcing some to focus on audit and training services (tier 1), and others on specialist services in CP technology and/or policy (tier 2) and/or networking services (tier 3). All NCPCs were on a trajectory from a project management organisation to a nationally-owned entity. The different management requirements were not proactively managed and technical aspects of CP service delivery overshadowed institutional and governance aspects of establishing and operating the NCPC institution. Differences in service delivery methods between NCPCs are most evident in three service areas: CP assessments; policy advice; and transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies. It is argued here that understanding root causes and benefits of this presently-observed differentiation, could lay the foundation for capturing and advancing best practice CP concepts, methods and policies. This in turn would enable strategic planning for customised interventions and support at the national level. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a foaming disinfectant and cleaner to reduce aerobic bacteria on poultry transport coops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry transportation coops are rarely washed and have been demonstrated to be a point of cross-contamination of broiler carcasses. Foaming disinfectants and cleaners, commonly used within processing plants, may be used to clean and disinfect poultry transportation coops. In this study, homogeniz...

  18. Lipophilic Super-Absorbent Swelling Gels as Cleaners for Use on Weapons Systems and Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    disruptive solid state cleaning technology to overcome limitations of currently employed cleaning techniques. Results were com- pared with a commercially...cleaners developed in this research will allow drastic reduction in the use of VOC containing sol- vents and HAP release. DISCLAIMER: The contents of...Grease cleaning .............................................................................................................. 12 4 Results and

  19. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  20. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  1. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  2. Effect of an aerobic exercise intervention on cardiac autonomic regulation: A worksite RCT among cleaners.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Kristiansen, Jesper; Korshøj, Mette

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to determine whether aerobic exercise during work hours affects cardiac autonomic regulation in cleaners characterized by high levels of occupational physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness. Eligible cleaners (n=116) were randomized to an aerobic exercise group (n=59) or a reference group (n=57) with lectures. The intervention group received two 30-min sessions per week of supervised aerobic exercise over 4months. Diurnal measurements of heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity (accelerometry) were obtained at baseline and at 4-month follow-up. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were derived during work, leisure time and sleep to evaluate cardiac autonomic regulation. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effect of the intervention on HRV indices, with adjustment for age, gender and daily use of antihypertensive and/or heart medication. Compared with the reference group, the exercise group increased all HRV indices apart from a reduction in LF/HF ratio from baseline to follow-up both during work (p<0.05) and leisure (p<0.05). In contrast, during sleep, the HRV indices tended to decrease in the exercise group compared with the reference group from baseline to follow-up, being significant for the HF spectral component (p=0.03). Among cleaners, a worksite aerobic exercise intervention improved cardiac autonomic regulation during work and leisure, but not during sleep. The health effect of this contrasting change in autonomic regulation needs further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of two cleaning methods for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet

    SciTech Connect

    Kominsky, J.R.; Freyberg, R.W.; Chesson, J.

    The research study examined the effectiveness of dry vacuuming and wet cleaning for the removal of asbestos fibers from carpet, and evaluated the potential for fiber reentrainment during carpet cleaning activities. Routine carpet cleaning operations using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtered dry vacuum cleaners and HEPA-filtered hot-water extraction cleaners were simulated on carpet artificially contaminated with asbestos fibers. Overall, wet cleaning the carpet with a hot-water extraction cleaner reduced the level of asbestos contamination by approximately 70 percent. There was no significant evidence of either an increase or a decrease in the asbestos concentration after dry vacuuming. The level ofmore » asbestos contamination had no significant effect on the difference between the carpet asbestos concentrations before and after cleaning. Airborne asbestos concentrations were between two and four times greater during the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet cleaning activities. The level of asbestos contamination in the carpet and the type of cleaning method used had no statistically significant effect on the difference between the airborne asbestos concentrations before and during cleaning.« less

  4. Evaluation of cleaners for photovoltaic modules exposed in an outdoor environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Power recovery of silicone encapsulated and glass covered photovoltaic modules, exposed for two years to a suburban environment, was measured after washing with a variety of cleaners including detergents, abrasive soap, and hydrocarbon solvents. Silicone encapsulated modules in operating environments may experience significant power losses or require extensive periodic cleaning. Glass front-faced modules in similar situations are much less affected. Organic hydrocarbon solvents or abrasives were found to be about five times more effective than mild detergents in cleaning encapsulated modules.

  5. The performance of cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, in a reversal learning task varies across experimental paradigms.

    PubMed

    Gingins, Simon; Marcadier, Fanny; Wismer, Sharon; Krattinger, Océane; Quattrini, Fausto; Bshary, Redouan; Binning, Sandra A

    2018-01-01

    Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners"). Using two-alternative forced-choice tests, fish had to learn to associate a food reward with a side (left or right) in their holding aquarium. Individuals were tested in one of four experimental treatments that differed slightly in procedure and/or physical set-up. Cleaners from all four treatment groups were equally able to solve the initial spatial task. However, groups differed in their ability to solve the reversal learning task: no individuals solved the reversal task when tested in small tanks with a transparent partition separating the two options, whereas over 50% of individuals solved the task when performed in a larger tank, or with an opaque partition. These results clearly show that seemingly insignificant details to the experimental set-up matter when testing performance in a spatial task and might significantly influence the outcome of experiments. These results echo previous calls for researchers to exercise caution when designing methodologies for cognition tasks to avoid misinterpretations.

  6. Vacuum fluctuations in an ancestor vacuum: A possible dark energy candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Lee, Da-Shin; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2018-02-01

    We consider an open universe created by bubble nucleation, and study possible effects of our "ancestor vacuum," a de Sitter space in which bubble nucleation occurred, on the present universe. We compute vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor for a minimally coupled scalar field, carefully taking into account the effect of the ancestor vacuum by the Euclidean prescription. We pay particular attention to the so-called supercurvature mode, a non-normalizable mode on a spatial slice of the open universe, which has been known to exist for sufficiently light fields. This mode decays in time most slowly, and may leave residual effects of the ancestor vacuum, potentially observable in the present universe. We point out that the vacuum energy of the quantum field can be regarded as dark energy if mass of the field is of order the present Hubble parameter or smaller. We obtain preliminary results for the dark energy equation of state w (z ) as a function of the redshift.

  7. Multivariate Modeling of Proteins Related to Trapezius Myalgia, a Comparative Study of Female Cleaners with or without Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hadrevi, Jenny; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Hellström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia. PMID:24023854

  8. Multivariate modeling of proteins related to trapezius myalgia, a comparative study of female cleaners with or without pain.

    PubMed

    Hadrevi, Jenny; Ghafouri, Bijar; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Hellström, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic trapezius myalgia is high in women with high exposure to awkward working positions, repetitive movements and movements with high precision demands. The mechanisms behind chronic trapezius myalgia are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in protein content between healthy and myalgic trapezius muscle using proteomics. Muscle biopsies from 12 female cleaners with work-related trapezius myalgia and 12 pain free female cleaners were obtained from the descending part of the trapezius. Proteins were separated with two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and selected proteins were identified with mass spectrometry. In order to discriminate the two groups, quantified proteins were fitted to a multivariate analysis: partial least square discriminate analysis. The model separated 28 unique proteins which were related to glycolysis, the tricaboxylic acid cycle, to the contractile apparatus, the cytoskeleton and to acute response proteins. The results suggest altered metabolism, a higher abundance of proteins related to inflammation in myalgic cleaners compared to healthy, and a possible alteration of the contractile apparatus. This explorative proteomic screening of proteins related to chronic pain in the trapezius muscle provides new important aspects of the pathophysiology behind chronic trapezius myalgia.

  9. Effort-reward imbalance at work and self-rated health of Las Vegas hotel room cleaners.

    PubMed

    Krause, Niklas; Rugulies, Reiner; Maslach, Christina

    2010-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) at work and self-rated health (SF-36) among 941 Las Vegas hotel room cleaners (99% female, 84% immigrant). Logistic regression models adjust for age, health behaviors, physical workload and other potential confounders. 50% reported ERI and 60% poor or fair general health. Significant associations were found between ERI and all SF-36 health measures. Workers in the upper quartile of the efforts/rewards ratio were 2-5 times more likely to experience poor or fair general health, low physical function, high levels of pain, fatigue, and role limitations due to physical and mental health problems. The cross-sectional design limits causal interpretation of these associations. However, the development of interventions to reduce ERI and to improve general health among room cleaners deserves high priority considering that both high ERI and low self-rated health have predicted chronic diseases and mortality in prospective studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  11. Overview of cleaner production as a result of clean technology research in Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, D.V.; Nhan, T.V.; Lan, N.N.

    Vietnam is beginning its industrialization process, and it currently lacks the capital necessary for expensive pollution control and treatment systems. Pollution strategies are critical for the country. This study evaluates the present status of industry and the pollution problems associated with industrial development in Vietnam. The purpose of the study is to identify sectors that may have potential for promoting cleaner production practices. 4 refs.

  12. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  13. Influence of Gap Distance on Vacuum Arc Characteristics of Cup Type AMF Electrode in Vacuum Interrupters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Shaoyong; Xiu, Shixin; Wang, Jimei; Shen, Zhengchao

    2006-11-01

    The greenhouse effect of SF6 is a great concern today. The development of high voltage vacuum circuit breakers becomes more important. The vacuum circuit breaker has minimum pollution to the environment. The vacuum interrupter is the key part of a vacuum circuit breaker. The interrupting characteristics in vacuum and arc-controlling technique are the main problems to be solved for a longer gap distance in developing high voltage vacuum interrupters. To understand the vacuum arc characteristics and provide effective technique to control vacuum arc in a long gap distance, the arc mode transition of a cup-type axial magnetic field electrode is observed by a high-speed charge coupled device (CCD) video camera under different gap distances while the arc voltage and arc current are recorded. The controlling ability of the axial magnetic field on vacuum arc obviously decreases when the gap distance is longer than 40 mm. The noise components and mean value of the arc voltage significantly increase. The effective method for controlling the vacuum arc characteristics is provided by long gap distances based on the test results. The test results can be used as a reference to develop high voltage and large capacity vacuum interrupters.

  14. Update on asthma and cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Zock, Jan-Paul; Vizcaya, David; Le Moual, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This paper summarises the recent literature on the relation between cleaning exposures and respiratory health, in particular asthma, including reviews, epidemiological surveys, surveillance programmes and exposure studies. The authors also aimed to identify gaps in the current knowledge and to recommend future research on the topic. Recent findings A large international general population study showed an increased risk of new-onset asthma associated with cleaning work, with professional use of cleaning products, and with domestic use of cleaning sprays. Three surveillance studies confirm the recognition of occupational asthma cases among cleaners and among others who use cleaning products at work. Six workforce-based studies show that respiratory symptoms are partly work-related, and are associated with certain specific exposures including sprays, chlorine bleach and other disinfectants. Summary Recent studies have strengthened the evidence of asthma and other adverse respiratory effects in cleaning workers. Similar effects were seen in other settings where cleaning products are used such as healthcare professionals and homemakers. Both new-onset asthma and work-exacerbated asthma due to cleaning exposures may play a role. Exposure to cleaning sprays, chlorine bleach and other disinfectants may be particularly relevant. The predominant effect mechanisms remain largely unclear and may include both specific sensitisation and irritant-related features. PMID:20093933

  15. Separate and unsanitary: African American women railroad car cleaners and the Women's Service Section, 1918-1920.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Robin Dearmon

    2011-01-01

    The Women's Service Section (WSS) investigated federally controlled railroad stations and yards at the end of World War I. Few women worked in car cleaning before the war, and railroad management preferred to block women workers, especially African Americans, from gaining any kind of foothold in railroad work. African American women were the single largest group of railroad car cleaners during this period but they were routinely denied adequate facilities, including toilets, locker rooms, and dining facilities throughout the railroad system. By raising the issues of facilities, workers' rights, and public health, these women shaped federal policy and widened the agenda of the WSS to include a direct attack on segregated workplaces. This article argues that African American women car cleaners launched an industrial campaign that wove together concerns about racism, sexism, and health issues, and successfully removed barriers to women working in a predominately male industry.

  16. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  17. 'Part of the job': male-to-male sexual experiences and abuse of young men working as 'truck cleaners' along the highways of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan Willem; Schunter, Bettina T

    2014-01-01

    As part of a study on the sexual health and social protection needs of men who have sex with men in Pakistan, 11 young men employed as assistants to truckers ('truck cleaners') who acknowledged having had sexual experiences with men, were interviewed and their social background and sexual initiation and their subsequent sexual lives were explored. For most truck cleaners, the first instance of sexual contact between the truck cleaner and the driver was forced and happened at an early age. Sex with other men, as well as with women (including sex workers) was widely reported. Drug and alcohol use was common. There is strong potential for HIV and STIs to spread through these sexual networks. Measures to prevent young men from entering into a career as truck helpers should be considered, as well as interventions to improve the health and social situation of those already employed.

  18. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    PubMed

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health assessment for Garden State Cleaners Company, Buena Borough, Atlantic City, New Jersey, Region 2. CERCLIS No. NJD053280160. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    The Garden State Cleaners Company is a dry cleaning establishment located in Buena Borough, New Jersey. Contaminated wastewater from on-site operations was routinely discharged to on-site soils. Analytical data has described significant soil and ground-water contamination from tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and other volatile organic compounds. Ground-water contamination downgradient (to the south) of the site has required the recommended closing of private wells and the installation of a municipal water supply system. An Administrative Order and Notice of Civil Administrative Penalty Assessment (AO and PSO) were issued to Garden State Cleaners in December 1985, requiring GSC to perform a full RI/FS. Municipalmore » water supplies have been made available to affected residens, but utilization is elective. The site was included on the NPL list in March 1989 and is currently ranked 105 of 108 sites in New Jersey. ATSDR and NJDOH consider the Garden State Cleaners site to be of public health concern. The site is being considered for follow-up health study or evaluation.« less

  20. Structural optimization of Beach-Cleaner snatch mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Lian-ge; Wei, Qin-rui; Zhou, Shui-ting; Peng, Qian; Zhao, Yuan-jiang; Wang, Fang

    2017-12-01

    In the working process of one Beach-Cleaner snatch institution, the second knuckle arm angular speed was too high, which resulted in the pick-up device would crash into the basic arm in the fold process. The rational position of joint to reduce the second knuckle arm angular speed and the force along the axis direction of the most dangerous point can be obtained from the kinematics simulation of snatch institution in the code of Automatic Dynamic Analysis off Mechanical Systems (ADAAMS). The feasible of scheme was validated by analyzing the optimized model in the software of ANSYS. The analysis results revealed: the open angle between the basic arm and the second knuckle arm improved from 125.0° too 135.24°, thee second knuckle arm angular speed decreased from 990.74rad/s to 58.53 rad/s, Not only improved work efficiency of snatch institution, but also prolonged its operation smoothness.

  1. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  2. Male cleaner wrasses adjust punishment of female partners according to the stakes

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; Pinto, Ana I.; Grutter, Alexandra S.; Wismer, Sharon; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Punishment is an important deterrent against cheating in cooperative interactions. In humans, the severity of cheating affects the strength of punishment which, in turn, affects the punished individual's future behaviour. Here, we show such flexible adjustments for the first time in a non-human species, the cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus), where males are known to punish female partners. We exposed pairs of cleaners to a model client offering two types of food, preferred ‘prawn’ items and less-preferred ‘flake’ items. Analogous to interactions with real clients, eating a preferred prawn item (‘cheating’) led to model client removal. We varied the extent to which female cheating caused pay-off reduction to the male and measured the corresponding severity of male punishment. Males punished females more severely when females cheated during interactions with high value, rather than low value, model clients; and when females were similar in size to the male. This pattern may arise because, in this protogynous hermaphrodite, cheating by similar-sized females may reduce size differences to the extent that females change sex and become reproductive competitors. In response to more severe punishment from males, females behaved more cooperatively. Our results show that punishment can be adjusted to circumstances and that such subtleties can have an important bearing on the outcome of cooperative interactions. PMID:21676980

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF OZONE EMISSIONS FROM AIR CLEANERS EQUIPPED WITH OZONE GENERATORS AND SENSOR AND FEEDBACK CONTROL CIRCUITRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper give results of a characterization of ozone emissions from air cleaners equipped with ozone generators and sensor and feedback control circuitry. Ozone emission rates of several consumer appliances, marketed as indoor air treatment or air purification systems, were det...

  4. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  5. Comparison of vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-08-01

    To compare vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification machines. Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. The vacuum rise time under normal and enhanced aspiration modes, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of the Infiniti Vision System, Stellaris Vision Enhancement System, and WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification System were tested. Vacuum rise time and limit accuracy were measured at limit settings of 400 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg. Surge area was recorded at vacuum limit settings of 200 mm Hg, 300 mm Hg, 400 mm Hg, and 500 mm Hg. The Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise times under normal and enhanced aspiration modes. At 4 seconds, the vacuum limit accuracy was greatest with the Infiniti at the 400 mm Hg limit and the Signature at the 600 mm Hg limit. The Stellaris did not reach either vacuum target. The Infiniti performed better than the other 2 machines during testing of occlusion break surge at all vacuum limit settings above 200 mm Hg. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time, greatest vacuum limit accuracy at 400 mm Hg, and least occlusion break surge. These results can be explained by the lower compliance of the Infiniti system.

  6. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  7. Vacuum-Gauge Connection For Shipping Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Robert H.

    1990-01-01

    External connector enables measurement of vacuum in stored part. Remote-readout connector added to shipping container and connected to thermo-couple vacuum gauge in vacuum-insulated cryogenic line packed in container. Enables monitoring of condition of vacuum without opening container.

  8. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning andmore » mounting the chambers are given.« less

  9. Effective Porosity Measurements by Wet- and Dry-type Vacuum Saturations using Process-Programmable Vacuum Saturation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. J.; Lee, K. S., , Dr; Lee, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most important factors in measuring effective porosity by vacuum saturation method is that the air in the pore space can be fully substituted by water during the vacuum saturation process. International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) suggests vacuuming a rock sample submerged in the water, while American Society of Test and Materials (ASTM) vacuuming the sample and water separately and then pour the water to the sample. In this study, we call the former wet-type vacuum saturation (WVS) method and the latter dry-type vacuum saturation (DVS) method, and compare the effective porosity measured by the two different vacuum saturation processes. For that purpose, a vacuum saturation system has been developed, which can support both WVS and DVS by only changing the process by programming. Comparison of effective porosity has been made for a cement mortar and rock samples. As a result, DVS can substitute more void volume to water than WVS, which in turn insists that DVS can provide more exact value of effective porosity than WVS.

  10. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  11. 41 CFR 301-11.15 - What expenses may be considered part of the daily lodging cost when I rent on a long-term basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., stove, refrigerator, chairs, tables, bed, sofa, television, or vacuum cleaner); (b) Cost of connecting/disconnecting and using utilities; (c) Cost of reasonable maid fees and cleaning charges; (d) Monthly telephone...

  12. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  13. Robot design for a vacuum environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belinski, S.; Trento, W.; Imani-Shikhabadi, R.; Hackwood, S.

    1987-01-01

    The cleanliness requirements for many processing and manufacturing tasks are becoming ever stricter, resulting in a greater interest in the vacuum environment. Researchers discuss the importance of this special environment, and the development of robots which are physically and functionally suited to vacuum processing tasks. Work is in progress at the Center for robotic Systems in Microelectronics (CRSM) to provide a robot for the manufacture of a revolutionary new gyroscope in high vacuum. The need for vacuum in this and other processes is discussed as well as the requirements for a vacuum-compatible robot. Finally, researchers present details on work done at the CRSM to modify an existing clean-room compatible robot for use at high vacuum.

  14. Airborne exposures associated with the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work.

    PubMed

    Fries, Michael; Williams, Pamela R D; Ovesen, Jerald; Maier, Andrew

    2018-04-19

    Many petroleum-based products are used for degreasing and cleaning purposes during vehicle maintenance and repairs. Although prior studies have evaluated chemical exposures associated with this type of work, most of these have focused on gasoline and exhaust emissions, with few samples collected solely during the use of an aerosol cleaning product. In this case study, we assess the type of airborne exposures that would be expected from the typical use of an aerosol brake cleaner during vehicle repair work. Eight exposure scenarios were evaluated over a two-day study in which the benzene content of the brake cleaner and potential for dilution ventilation and air flow varied. Both short-term (15 min) and task-based (≥1 hr) charcoal tube samples were collected in the breathing zone and adjacent work area and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THCs), toluene, and benzene. The majority of personal (N = 48) and area (N = 47) samples had detectable levels of THC and toluene, but no detections of benzene were found. For the personal short-term samples, average airborne concentrations ranged from 3.1 - 61.5 ppm (13.8-217.5 mg/m 3 ) for THC and 2.2 - 44.0 ppm (8.2-162.5 mg/m 3 ) for toluene, depending on the scenario. Compared to the personal short-term samples, average concentrations were generally 2 to 3 times lower for the personal task-based samples and 2 to 5 times lower for the area short-term samples. The highest exposures occurred when the garage bay doors were closed, floor fan was turned off, or greatest amount of brake cleaner was used. These findings add to the limited dataset on this topic and can be used to bound or approximate worker or consumer exposures from use of aerosol cleaning products with similar compositions and use patterns.

  15. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE, Perc) levels in residential dry cleaner buildings in diverse communities in New York City.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Michael J; Mazor, Kimberly A; Shost, Stephen J; Narang, Rajinder S; Aldous, Kenneth M; Storm, Jan E

    2005-10-01

    Fugitive tetrachloroethylene (PCE, perc) emissions from dry cleaners operating in apartment buildings can contaminate residential indoor air. In 1997, New York State and New York City adopted regulations to reduce and contain perc emissions from dry cleaners located in residential and other buildings. As part of a New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) study, indoor air perc levels were determined in 65 apartments located in 24 buildings in New York City where dry cleaners used perc on site. Sampling occurred during 2001-2003, and sampled buildings were dispersed across minority and nonminority as well as low-income and higher income neighborhoods. For the entire study area, the mean apartment perc level was 34 microg/m3, 10-fold lower than mean apartment levels of 340-360 microg/m3 documented before 1997. The maximum detected perc level was 5,000 microg/m3, 5-fold lower than the maximum of 25,000 microg/m3 documented before 1997. Despite these accomplishments, perc levels in 17 sampled apartments still exceeded the NYSDOH residential air guideline of 100 microg/m3, and perc levels in 4 sampled apartments exceeded 1,000 microg/m3. Moreover, mean indoor air perc levels in minority neighborhoods (75 microg/m3) were four times higher than in nonminority households (19 microg/m3) and were > 10 times higher in low-income neighborhoods (256 microg/m3) than in higher income neighborhoods (23 microg/m3). Logistic regression suitable for clustered data (apartments within buildings) indicated that perc levels on floors 1-4 were significantly more likely to exceed 100 microg/m3 in buildings located in minority neighborhoods (odds ratio = 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-30.5) than in nonminority neighborhoods. Factors that may be contributing to the elevated perc levels detected, especially in minority and low-income neighborhoods, are being explored.

  16. Differences in physical workload, psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders between two groups of female hospital cleaners with two diverse organizational models.

    PubMed

    Unge, Jeannette; Ohlsson, Kerstina; Nordander, Catarina; Hansson, Gert-Ake; Skerfving, Staffan; Balogh, Istvan

    2007-11-01

    To clarify if differences in the physical workload, the psychosocial factors and in musculoskeletal disorders can be attributed to work organizational factors. The physical workload (muscular activity of m. trapezius, positions and movements of the head, upper arms and wrists and heart rate) was assessed in 24 female hospital cleaners working in a traditional work organization (TO) and in 22 working in an extended one (i.e. with an enlarged work content and more responsibilities; EO). The psychosocial work environment was assessed as job demand, decision latitude and social support in 135 (TO) and 111 (EO) cleaners, and disorders of the neck and upper extremity by a physical examination. The EO group was associated with lower physical workload, in terms of heart rate ratio (23 vs 32; P<0.001), head and upper arm positions and movements (right upper arm, 50th percentile, 35 degrees/s vs 71 degrees/s; P<0.001) and wrist movements (20 degrees/s vs 27 degrees/s; P=0.001), than the TO group. The EO group reported higher decision latitude and lower work demand than the TO one, while we found no difference in social support. The prevalence of complaints and diagnoses in neck/shoulders were lower in the EO group (diagnoses 35% vs 48%; P=0.04). Moreover, the prevalence of subjects with at least ten physical finding in elbows/hands was lower in the EO group (10 vs 29; P<0.001). Hospital cleaners have a high prevalence of neck and upper limb disorders and a high physical workload. Comparing two groups of cleaners, with differences in the way of organizing the work, lower physical workload, more beneficial psychosocial factors and a better musculoskeletal health was found in the group with an extended organization. Hence, the differences found can be attributed to the organizational factors.

  17. Vocational training courses as an intervention on change of work practice among immigrant cleaners.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Flemming W; Frydendall, Karen B; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how knowledge and skills from vocational training courses on working techniques modified for immigrant cleaners are applied in practice and to identify factors that influence the implementation. The modifications of the standard course included language support with possibilities for translation and an extension of the duration of the course. The study is a prospective intervention study based on qualitative data. Data were collected as structured interviews and observations were carried out at the workplaces before and after the course. The study population included 31 immigrant cleaners from five different workplaces. Changes were observed in the use of working techniques (i.e., positioning of hands when using the floor mop). In some cases the use of the taught techniques was incorrect, partial, or only used part of the time. Interactions between individual factors (i.e., knowledge, awareness, capability, or work orientation) and environmental factors (i.e., equipment, time, workload, or physical surroundings) influenced the use of the techniques in practice. The course provided the participants with new working techniques through which some were able to reduce work related pain. However, with regard to incorrect and partial use of the working techniques, follow-up and post-training support is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Technical specification for vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Khaw, J.

    The vacuum systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are primarily of all-metal construction and operate at pressures from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -11/ Torr. The primary gas loads during operation result from thermal desorption and beam-induced desorption from the vacuum chamber walls. These desorption rates can be extremely high in the case of hydrocarbons and other contaminants. These specifications place a major emphasis on eliminating contamination sources. The specifications and procedures have been written to insure the cleanliness and vacuum integrity of all SLAC vacuum systems, and to assist personnel involved with SLAC vacuum systems in choosing andmore » designing components that are compatible with existing systems and meet the quality and reliability of SLAC vacuum standards. The specification includes requirements on design, procurement, fabrication, chemical cleaning, clean room practices, welding and brazing, helium leak testing, residual gas analyzer testing, bakeout, venting, and pumpdown. Also appended are specifications regarding acceptable vendors, isopropyl alcohol, bakeable valve cleaning procedure, mechanical engineering safety inspection, notes on synchrotron radiation, and specifications of numerous individual components. (LEW)« less

  19. IMPACT OF AN OZONE GENERATOR AIR CLEANER ON STYRENE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an investigation of the impact of an ozone generator air cleaner on vapor-phase styrene concentrations in a full-scale indoor air quality test chamber. The time history of the concentrations of styrene and ozone is well predicted by a simulation model u...

  20. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  1. Service the Carburetor Air Cleaner. Fuel System. Student Manual 1. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual, part of a small-engine repair series on servicing fuel systems, is designed for use by special needs students in Texas. The manual explains in pictures and short sentences, written on a low reading level, the job of servicing carburetor air cleaners. Along with the steps of this repair job, specific safety and caution…

  2. Notes on Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Introduced are two experiments: radon detection method shows real data using vacuum cleaner, soft toilet paper, and Geiger-Muller tube; critical potentials measurement describes the operation of Teltron tube with VELA. (YP)

  3. "Micro-robots" team up to act like vacuum cleaner

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, Alexey and Aronson, Igor

    2011-01-01

    "Micro-robots" designed by Argonne National Laboratory physicists Alexey Snezhko and Igor Aronson pick up free-floating particles. The competing hydrodynamic flows created by the four-aster assembly trap the particles. This video is courtesy of Nature Materials. Read more about the bots at http://go.usa.gov/KAT

  4. 16 CFR 501.3 - Replacement bags for vacuum cleaners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... statement appears on the principal display panel of the package accurately identifying the make and model of...) The name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor of the replacement bags, in...

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention.

    PubMed

    Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-08-13

    Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively

  6. Switching Circuit for Shop Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    No internal connections to machine tools required. Switching circuit controls vacuum system draws debris from grinders and sanders in machine shop. Circuit automatically turns on vacuum system whenever at least one sander or grinder operating. Debris safely removed, even when operator neglects to turn on vacuum system manually. Pickup coils sense alternating magnetic fields just outside operating machines. Signal from any coil or combination of coils causes vacuum system to be turned on.

  7. Vacuum Brazing of Accelerator Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Pant, K. K.; Lal, Shankar; Yadav, D. P.; Garg, S. R.; Raghuvanshi, V. K.; Mundra, G.

    2012-11-01

    Commonly used materials for accelerator components are those which are vacuum compatible and thermally conductive. Stainless steel, aluminum and copper are common among them. Stainless steel is a poor heat conductor and not very common in use where good thermal conductivity is required. Aluminum and copper and their alloys meet the above requirements and are frequently used for the above purpose. The accelerator components made of aluminum and its alloys using welding process have become a common practice now a days. It is mandatory to use copper and its other grades in RF devices required for accelerators. Beam line and Front End components of the accelerators are fabricated from stainless steel and OFHC copper. Fabrication of components made of copper using welding process is very difficult and in most of the cases it is impossible. Fabrication and joining in such cases is possible using brazing process especially under vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Several accelerator components have been vacuum brazed for Indus projects at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore using vacuum brazing facility available at RRCAT, Indore. This paper presents details regarding development of the above mentioned high value and strategic components/assemblies. It will include basics required for vacuum brazing, details of vacuum brazing facility, joint design, fixturing of the jobs, selection of filler alloys, optimization of brazing parameters so as to obtain high quality brazed joints, brief description of vacuum brazed accelerator components etc.

  8. Investigation of Dielectric Breakdown Characteristics for Double-break Vacuum Interrupter and Dielectric Breakdown Probability Distribution in Vacuum Interrupter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioiri, Tetsu; Asari, Naoki; Sato, Junichi; Sasage, Kosuke; Yokokura, Kunio; Homma, Mitsutaka; Suzuki, Katsumi

    To investigate the reliability of equipment of vacuum insulation, a study was carried out to clarify breakdown probability distributions in vacuum gap. Further, a double-break vacuum circuit breaker was investigated for breakdown probability distribution. The test results show that the breakdown probability distribution of the vacuum gap can be represented by a Weibull distribution using a location parameter, which shows the voltage that permits a zero breakdown probability. The location parameter obtained from Weibull plot depends on electrode area. The shape parameter obtained from Weibull plot of vacuum gap was 10∼14, and is constant irrespective non-uniform field factor. The breakdown probability distribution after no-load switching can be represented by Weibull distribution using a location parameter. The shape parameter after no-load switching was 6∼8.5, and is constant, irrespective of gap length. This indicates that the scatter of breakdown voltage was increased by no-load switching. If the vacuum circuit breaker uses a double break, breakdown probability at low voltage becomes lower than single-break probability. Although potential distribution is a concern in the double-break vacuum cuicuit breaker, its insulation reliability is better than that of the single-break vacuum interrupter even if the bias of the vacuum interrupter's sharing voltage is taken into account.

  9. Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.

    2001-01-01

    A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

  10. Vacuum-Induction, Vacuum-Arc, and Air-Induction Melting of a Complex Heat-Resistant Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. F.; Rowe, John P.; Freeman, J. W.

    1959-01-01

    The relative hot-workability and creep-rupture properties at 1600 F of a complex 55Ni-20Cr-15Co-4Mo-3Ti-3Al alloy were evaluated for vacuum-induction, vacuum-arc, and air-induction melting. A limited study of the role of oxygen and nitrogen and the structural effects in the alloy associated with the melting process was carried out. The results showed that the level of boron and/or zirconium was far more influential on properties than the melting method. Vacuum melting did reduce corner cracking and improve surface during hot-rolling. It also resulted in more uniform properties within heats. The creep-rupture properties were slightly superior in vacuum heats at low boron plus zirconium or in heats with zirconium. There was little advantage at high boron levels and air heats were superior at high levels of boron plus zirconium. Vacuum heats also had fewer oxide and carbonitride inclusions although this was a function of the opportunity for separation of the inclusions from high oxygen plus nitrogen heats. The removal of phosphorous by vacuum melting was not found to be related to properties. Oxygen plus nitrogen appeared to increase ductility in creep-rupture tests suggesting that vacuum melting removes unidentified elements detrimental to ductility. Oxides and carbonitrides in themselves did not initiate microcracks. Carbonitrides in the grain boundaries of air heats did initiate microcracks. The role of microcracking from this source and as a function of oxygen and nitrogen content was not clear. Oxygen and nitrogen did intensify corner cracking during hot-rolling but were not responsible for poor surface which resulted from rolling heats melted in air.

  11. Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krug, Eric; Philpot, Brian; Trott, Aaron; Lawrence, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC's) large rocket engine test facility requires the use of liquid propellants, including the use of cryogenic fluids like liquid hydrogen as fuel, and liquid oxygen as an oxidizer (gases which have been liquefied at very low temperatures). These fluids require special handling, storage, and transfer technology. The biggest problem associated with transferring cryogenic liquids is product loss due to heat transfer. Vacuum jacketed piping is specifically designed to maintain high thermal efficiency so that cryogenic liquids can be transferred with minimal heat transfer. A vacuum jacketed pipe is essentially two pipes in one. There is an inner carrier pipe, in which the cryogenic liquid is actually transferred, and an outer jacket pipe that supports and seals the vacuum insulation, forming the "vacuum jacket." The integrity of the vacuum jacketed transmission lines that transfer the cryogenic fluid from delivery barges to the test stand must be maintained prior to and during engine testing. To monitor the vacuum in these vacuum jacketed transmission lines, vacuum gauge readings are used. At SSC, vacuum gauge measurements are done on a manual rotation basis with two technicians, each using a handheld instrument. Manual collection of vacuum data is labor intensive and uses valuable personnel time. Additionally, there are times when personnel cannot collect the data in a timely fashion (i.e., when a leak is detected, measurements must be taken more often). Additionally, distribution of this data to all interested parties can be cumbersome. To simplify the vacuum-gauge data collection process, automate the data collection, and decrease the labor costs associated with acquiring these measurements, an automated system that monitors the existing gauges was developed by Invocon, Inc. For this project, Invocon developed a Wireless Integrated Microelectronic Vacuum Sensor System (WIMVSS) that provides the ability to gather vacuum

  12. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perico, E. L. D.; Tamayo, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ(H2) or Λ(R). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by bar PΛ = - bar rhoΛ, relating its background pressure bar PΛ with its mean energy density bar rhoΛ ≡ Λ/8πG. This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interaction between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely bar rhoΛ = Σibar rhoΛi. Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ(H2) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ(R) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.

  13. Cleaner cooking solutions to achieve health, climate, and economic cobenefits.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Jetter, James; Masera, Omar; Mehta, Sumi; Moss, Jacob; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2013-05-07

    Nearly half the world's population must rely on solid fuels such as biomass (wood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung) and coal for household energy, burning them in inefficient open fires and stoves with inadequate ventilation. Household solid fuel combustion is associated with four million premature deaths annually; contributes to forest degradation, loss of habitat and biodiversity, and climate change; and hinders social and economic progress as women and children spend hours every day collecting fuel. Several recent studies, as well as key emerging national and international efforts, are making progress toward enabling wide-scale household adoption of cleaner and more efficient stoves and fuels. While significant challenges remain, these efforts offer considerable promise to save lives, improve forest sustainability, slow climate change, and empower women around the world.

  14. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...

  15. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  16. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep

    PubMed Central

    Spilak, Michal P.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device. The first part of the experiment investigated the air-flow characteristics in the breathing zone. In the second part, particle removal efficiency was estimated. Measured in the breathing zone, the room air cleaner demonstrated high turbulence intensity, high velocity and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject’s movement in bed, the particle concentration was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between the duvet and the laying body. PMID:27898693

  17. A Comparison between Temperature-Controlled Laminar Airflow Device and a Room Air-Cleaner in Reducing Exposure to Particles While Asleep.

    PubMed

    Spilak, Michal P; Sigsgaard, Torben; Takai, Hisamitsu; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    People spend approximately one third of their life sleeping. Exposure to pollutants in the sleep environment often leads to a variety of adverse health effects, such as development and exacerbation of asthma. Avoiding exposure to these pollutants by providing a sufficient air quality in the sleep environment might be a feasible method to alleviate these health symptoms. We performed full-scale laboratory measurements using a thermal manikin positioned on an experimental bed. Three ventilation settings were tested: with no filtration system operated, use of portable air cleaner and use of a temperature-controlled laminar airflow (TLA) device. The first part of the experiment investigated the air-flow characteristics in the breathing zone. In the second part, particle removal efficiency was estimated. Measured in the breathing zone, the room air cleaner demonstrated high turbulence intensity, high velocity and turbulence diffusivity level, with a particle reduction rate of 52% compared to baseline after 30 minutes. The TLA device delivered a laminar airflow to the breathing zone with a reduction rate of 99.5%. During a periodical duvet lifting mimicking a subject's movement in bed, the particle concentration was significantly lower with the TLA device compared to the room air cleaner. The TLA device provided a barrier which significantly reduced the introduction of airborne particles into the breathing zone. Further studies should be conducted for the understanding of the transport of resuspended particles between the duvet and the laying body.

  18. Gas propagation in a liquid helium cooled vacuum tube following a sudden vacuum loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuley, Ram C.

    This dissertation describes the propagation of near atmospheric nitrogen gas that rushes into a liquid helium cooled vacuum tube after the tube suddenly loses vacuum. The loss-of-vacuum scenario resembles accidental venting of atmospheric air to the beam-line of a superconducting radio frequency particle accelerator and is investigated to understand how in the presence of condensation, the in-flowing air will propagate in such geometry. In a series of controlled experiments, room temperature nitrogen gas (a substitute for air) at a variety of mass flow rates was vented to a high vacuum tube immersed in a bath of liquid helium. Pressure probes and thermometers installed on the tube along its length measured respectively the tube pressure and tube wall temperature rise due to gas flooding and condensation. At high mass in-flow rates a gas front propagated down the vacuum tube but with a continuously decreasing speed. Regression analysis of the measured front arrival times indicates that the speed decreases nearly exponentially with the travel length. At low enough mass in-flow rates, no front propagated in the vacuum tube. Instead, the in-flowing gas steadily condensed over a short section of the tube near its entrance and the front appeared to `freeze-out'. An analytical expression is derived for gas front propagation speed in a vacuum tube in the presence of condensation. The analytical model qualitatively explains the front deceleration and flow freeze-out. The model is then simplified and supplemented with condensation heat/mass transfer data to again find the front to decelerate exponentially while going away from the tube entrance. Within the experimental and procedural uncertainty, the exponential decay length-scales obtained from the front arrival time regression and from the simplified model agree.

  19. Developing a vacuum cooking equipment prototype to produce strawberry jam and optimization of vacuum cooking conditions.

    PubMed

    Okut, Dilara; Devseren, Esra; Koç, Mehmet; Ocak, Özgül Özdestan; Karataş, Haluk; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to develop prototype cooking equipment that can work at reduced pressure and to evaluate its performance for production of strawberry jam. The effect of vacuum cooking conditions on color soluble solid content, reducing sugars total sugars HMF and sensory properties were investigated. Also, the optimum vacuum cooking conditions for strawberry jam were optimized for Composite Rotatable Design. The optimum cooking temperature and time were determined targeting maximum soluble solid content and sensory attributes (consistency) and minimum Hue value and HMF content. The optimum vacuum cooking conditions determined were 74.4 °C temperature and 19.8 time. The soluble solid content strawberry jam made by vacuum process were similar to those prepared by traditional method. HMF contents of jams produced with vacuum cooking method were well within limit of standards.

  20. FE Furukawa poses for a photo in the Node 3

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-31

    ISS028-E-019583 (31 July 2011) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Satoshi Furukawa, Expedition 28 flight engineer, holds hair clippers attached to a vacuum cleaner in the Tranquility node of the International Space Station.

  1. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...

  2. Vacuum status-display and sector-conditioning programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelly, J.; Yen, S.

    1990-08-01

    Two programs have been developed for observation and control of the AGS vacuum system, which include the following notable features: (1) they incorporate a graphical user interface and (2) they are driven by a relational database which describes the vacuum system. The vacuum system comprises some 440 devices organized into 28 vacuum sectors. The status-display program invites menu selection of a sector, interrogates the relational database for relevant vacuum devices, acquires live readbacks and posts a graphical display of their status. The sector-conditioning program likewise invites sector selection, produces the same status display and also implements process control logic on the sector devices to pump the sector down from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum over a period extending several hours. As additional devices are installed in the vacuum system, the devices are added to the relational database; these programs then automatically include the new devices.

  3. Nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects in two-dimensional supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system I. Vacuum charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, A.; Sveshnikov, K.; Voronina, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Based on the original combination of analytical methods, computer algebra tools and numerical calculations, proposed recently in Refs. 1-3, the nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects in the 2+1D supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system with Z > Zcr,1 are explored. Both the vacuum charge density ρV P(r→) and vacuum energy ℰV P are considered. The main result of the work is that in the overcritical region ℰV P turns out to be a rapidly decreasing function ˜-ηeffZ3/R with ηeff > 0 and R being the size of the external Coulomb source. Due to a lot of details of calculation the whole work is divided into two parts I and II. In the present part I, we consider the evaluation and behavior of the vacuum density ρV P, which further is used in part II for evaluation of the vacuum energy, with emphasis on the renormalization, convergence of the partial expansion for ρV P and behavior of the integral induced charge QV P in the overcritical region.

  4. Nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects in two-dimensional supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system II. Vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, A.; Sveshnikov, K.; Voronina, Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Nonperturbative vacuum polarization effects are explored for a supercritical Dirac-Coulomb system with Z > Zcr,1 in 2+1D, based on the original combination of analytical methods, computer algebra and numerical calculations, proposed recently in Refs. 1-3. Both the vacuum charge density ρV P(r→) and vacuum energy ℰV P are considered. Due to a lot of details of calculation the whole work is divided into two parts I and II. Taking account of results, obtained in the part I4 for ρV P, in the present part II, the evaluation of the vacuum energy ℰV P is investigated with emphasis on the renormalization and convergence of the partial expansion for ℰV P. It is shown that the renormalization via fermionic loop turns out to be the universal tool, which removes the divergence of the theory both in the purely perturbative and essentially nonperturbative regimes of the vacuum polarization. The main result of calculation is that for a wide range of the system parameters in the overcritical region ℰV P turns out to be a rapidly decreasing function ˜-ηeffZ3/R with ηeff > 0 and R being the size of the external Coulomb source. To the end the similarity in calculations of ℰV P in 2+1 and 3+1D is discussed, and qualitative arguments are presented in favor of the possibility for complete screening of the classical electrostatic energy of the Coulomb source by the vacuum polarization effects for Z ≫ Zcr,1 in 3+1D.

  5. Quantum vacuum noise in physics and cosmology.

    PubMed

    Davies, P. C. W.

    2001-09-01

    The concept of the vacuum in quantum field theory is a subtle one. Vacuum states have a rich and complex set of properties that produce distinctive, though usually exceedingly small, physical effects. Quantum vacuum noise is familiar in optical and electronic devices, but in this paper I wish to consider extending the discussion to systems in which gravitation, or large accelerations, are important. This leads to the prediction of vacuum friction: The quantum vacuum can act in a manner reminiscent of a viscous fluid. One result is that rapidly changing gravitational fields can create particles from the vacuum, and in turn the backreaction on the gravitational dynamics operates like a damping force. I consider such effects in early universe cosmology and the theory of quantum black holes, including the possibility that the large-scale structure of the universe might be produced by quantum vacuum noise in an early inflationary phase. I also discuss the curious phenomenon that an observer who accelerates through a quantum vacuum perceives a bath of thermal radiation closely analogous to Hawking radiation from black holes, even though an inertial observer registers no particles. The effects predicted raise very deep and unresolved issues about the nature of quantum particles, the role of the observer, and the relationship between the quantum vacuum and the concepts of information and entropy. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Running vacuum cosmological models: linear scalar perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Perico, E.L.D.; Tamayo, D.A., E-mail: elduartep@usp.br, E-mail: tamayo@if.usp.br

    In cosmology, phenomenologically motivated expressions for running vacuum are commonly parameterized as linear functions typically denoted by Λ( H {sup 2}) or Λ( R ). Such models assume an equation of state for the vacuum given by P-bar {sub Λ} = - ρ-bar {sub Λ}, relating its background pressure P-bar {sub Λ} with its mean energy density ρ-bar {sub Λ} ≡ Λ/8π G . This equation of state suggests that the vacuum dynamics is due to an interaction with the matter content of the universe. Most of the approaches studying the observational impact of these models only consider the interactionmore » between the vacuum and the transient dominant matter component of the universe. We extend such models by assuming that the running vacuum is the sum of independent contributions, namely ρ-bar {sub Λ} = Σ {sub i} ρ-bar {sub Λ} {sub i} . Each Λ i vacuum component is associated and interacting with one of the i matter components in both the background and perturbation levels. We derive the evolution equations for the linear scalar vacuum and matter perturbations in those two scenarios, and identify the running vacuum imprints on the cosmic microwave background anisotropies as well as on the matter power spectrum. In the Λ( H {sup 2}) scenario the vacuum is coupled with every matter component, whereas the Λ( R ) description only leads to a coupling between vacuum and non-relativistic matter, producing different effects on the matter power spectrum.« less

  7. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  8. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This generic type of device may include the cup, hosing, vacuum source, and vacuum control. (b) Classification...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This generic type of device may include the cup, hosing, vacuum source, and vacuum control. (b) Classification...

  10. Ammonium Laurate Surfactant for Cleaner Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Hanna M.; Meany, Brendan; Ticey, Jeremy

    2015-06-15

    Experiments probing the properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and those measuring bulk composites show vastly different results. One major issue limiting the results is that the procedures required to separate and test CNTs introduce contamination that changes the properties of the CNT. These contamination residues often come from the resist used in lithographic processing and the surfactant used to suspend and deposit the CNTs, commonly sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Here we present ammonium laurate (AL), a surfactant that has previously not been used for this application, which differs from SDS only by substitution of ionic constituents but shows vastlymore » cleaner depositions. In addition, we show that compared to SDS, AL-suspended CNTs have greater shelf stability and more selective dispersion. These results are verified using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, ζ-potential measurements, and Raman and absorption optical spectroscopy. This surfactant is simple to prepare, and the nanotube solutions require minimal sonication and centrifugation in order to outperform SDS.« less

  11. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Timothy Raymond; Thom, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC ) based solvents, such as Freon and 1,1,1, Trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanisms. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change to new ODC-free cleaners for the precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0* 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  12. Cold cathode vacuum gauging system

    DOEpatents

    Denny, Edward C.

    2004-03-09

    A vacuum gauging system of the cold cathode type is provided for measuring the pressure of a plurality of separate vacuum systems, such as in a gas centrifuge cascade. Each casing is fitted with a gauge tube assembly which communicates with the vacuum system in the centrifuge casing. Each gauge tube contains an anode which may be in the form of a slender rod or wire hoop and a cathode which may be formed by the wall of the gauge tube. The tube is provided with an insulated high voltage connector to the anode which has a terminal for external connection outside the vacuum casing. The tube extends from the casing so that a portable magnet assembly may be inserted about the tube to provide a magnetic field in the area between the anode and cathode necessary for pressure measurements in a cold cathode-type vacuum gauge arrangement. The portable magnetic assembly is provided with a connector which engages the external high voltage terminal for providing power to the anode within in the gauge tube. Measurement is made in the same manner as the prior cold cathode gauges in that the current through the anode to the cathode is measured as an indication of the pressure. By providing the portable magnetic assembly, a considerable savings in cost, installation, and maintenance of vacuum gauges for pressure measurement in a gas centrifuge cascade is realizable.

  13. Measurement of partial pressures in vacuum technology and vacuum physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    It is pointed out that the measurement of gaseous pressures of less than 0.0001 torr is based on the ionization of gas atoms and molecules due to collisions with electrons. The particle density is determined in place of the pressure. The ionization cross sections for molecules of various gases are discussed. It is found that the true pressure in a vacuum system cannot be determined with certainty if it is unknown which gas is present. Effects of partial pressure determination on the condition of the vacuum system are discussed together with ion sources, systems of separation, and ion detection.

  14. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  15. Adoption and sustained use of cleaner cooking fuels in rural India: a case control study protocol to understand household, network, and organizational drivers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen; Dhand, Amar; Tabak, Rachel G; Brownson, Ross C; Yadama, Gautam N

    2017-01-01

    Implementing efficient stoves and clean fuels in low and middle-income countries are critical for improving health of poor women and children and improve the environment. Cleaner biomass stoves, however, perform poorly against the World Health Organization's indoor air quality guidelines. This has shifted the focus to systematic dissemination and implementation of cleaner cooking systems such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) among poor communities. Even when there is some uptake of LPG by poor communities, its sustained use has been low. Concurrent use of LPG with traditional biomass cookstoves compromises reductions in household air pollution and limits health and environmental dividends. Therefore understanding key drivers of adoption and sustained implementation of clean fuels among the poor is critical. There is a significant gap, however, in the research to understand determinants and sustained exclusive use of clean fuels in rural poor communities. Using a case control study design, this study will explore the impact of affordability, accessibility, and awareness on adoption and sustained use of LPG among rural poor communities of India. The study uses a multistage random sampling to collect primary data from 510 households. Case group or LPG adopters constitute 255 households while control group or non-LPG adopters constitute the remaining 255 households. The study will deploy sophisticated stove use monitoring sensors in each of the stoves in 100 case group households to monitor stove use and stacking behavior (using clean and traditional systems of cooking) of participants for 12 months. Moreover, this will be the first study to explore the impact of personal social networks striated by gender on LPG adoption. This study is guided by the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) implementation science evaluation framework. Lessons from this study will feed into a larger discussion on developing a pro-poor strategy to foster

  16. A design of experiments test to define critical spray cleaning parameters for Brulin 815 GD and Jettacin cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keen, Jill M.; Evans, Kurt B.; Schiffman, Robert L.; Deweese, C. Darrell; Prince, Michael E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental design testing was conducted to identify critical parameters of an aqueous spray process intended for cleaning solid rocket motor metal components (steel and aluminum). A two-level, six-parameter, fractional factorial matrix was constructed and conducted for two cleaners, Brulin 815 GD and Diversey Jettacin. The matrix parameters included cleaner temperature and concentration, wash density, wash pressure, rinse pressure, and dishwasher type. Other spray parameters: nozzle stand-off, rinse water temperature, wash and rinse time, dry conditions, and type of rinse water (deionized) were held constant. Matrix response testing utilized discriminating bond specimens (fracture energy and tensile adhesion strength) which represent critical production bond lines. Overall, Jettacin spray cleaning was insensitive to the range of conditions tested for all parameters and exhibited bond strengths significantly above the TCA test baseline for all bond lines tested. Brulin 815 was sensitive to cleaning temperature, but produced bond strengths above the TCA test baseline even at the lower temperatures. Ultimately, the experimental design database was utilized to recommend process parameter settings for future aqueous spray cleaning characterization work.

  17. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  18. Troubleshooting crude vacuum tower overhead ejector systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, J.R.; Frens, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Routinely surveying tower overhead vacuum systems can improve performance and product quality. These vacuum systems normally provide reliable and consistent operation. However, process conditions, supplied utilities, corrosion, erosion and fouling all have an impact on ejector system performance. Refinery vacuum distillation towers use ejector systems to maintain tower top pressure and remove overhead gases. However, as with virtually all refinery equipment, performance may be affected by a number of variables. These variables may act independently or concurrently. It is important to understand basic operating principles of vacuum systems and how performance is affected by: utilities, corrosion and erosion, fouling, andmore » process conditions. Reputable vacuum-system suppliers have service engineers that will come to a refinery to survey the system and troubleshoot performance or offer suggestions for improvement. A skilled vacuum-system engineer may be needed to diagnose and remedy system problems. The affect of these variables on performance is discussed. A case history is described of a vacuum system on a crude tower in a South American refinery.« less

  19. Mold occurring on the air cleaner high-efficiency particulate air filters used in the houses of child patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Yun, Yeo Hong

    2014-09-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs were coded as HEPA-A, -B, and -C, respectively, and tested for the presence of mold. The colony forming units (CFUs) corresponding to the HEPA-A, -B, and -C filters were estimated to be 6.51 × 10(2) ± 1.50 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), 8.72 × 10(2) ± 1.69 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), and 9.71 × 10(2) ± 1.35 × 10(2) CFU/cm(2), respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, and other fungal groups were detected in the 2,494 isolates. The distribution of these fungal groups differed among the three filters. Cladosporium was the major fungal group in filters HEPA-A and -C, whereas Penicillium was the major fungal group in the filter HEPA-B. Nine fungal species, including some of the known allergenic species, were identified in these isolates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most common mold among all the three filters. This is the first report on the presence of fungi in the air cleaner HEPA filters from ADCPHs in Korea.

  20. Mold Occurring on the Air Cleaner High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters Used in the Houses of Child Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Ahn, Geum Ran; Son, Seung Yeol; Bae, Gwi-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are the known sources of irritation associated with atopic diseases (e.g., asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema). To quantitatively estimate their presence in the indoor environment of atopic dermatitis-inflicted child patient's houses (ADCPHs), the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters installed inside the air cleaners of three different ADCPHs were investigated for the presence of mold. The air cleaner HEPA filters obtained from the three different ADCPHs were coded as HEPA-A, -B, and -C, respectively, and tested for the presence of mold. The colony forming units (CFUs) corresponding to the HEPA-A, -B, and -C filters were estimated to be 6.51 × 102 ± 1.50 × 102 CFU/cm2, 8.72 × 102 ± 1.69 × 102 CFU/cm2, and 9.71 × 102 ± 1.35 × 102 CFU/cm2, respectively. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, and other fungal groups were detected in the 2,494 isolates. The distribution of these fungal groups differed among the three filters. Cladosporium was the major fungal group in filters HEPA-A and -C, whereas Penicillium was the major fungal group in the filter HEPA-B. Nine fungal species, including some of the known allergenic species, were identified in these isolates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the most common mold among all the three filters. This is the first report on the presence of fungi in the air cleaner HEPA filters from ADCPHs in Korea. PMID:25346608

  1. Long Term Effects on Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease after 12-Months of Aerobic Exercise Intervention - A Worksite RCT among Cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Korshøj, Mette; Lidegaard, Mark; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Occupational groups exposed to high occupational physical activity have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This may be explained by the high relative aerobic workload. Enhanced cardiorespiratory fitness reduces the relative aerobic workload. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the 12-months effects of worksite aerobic exercise on risk factors for CVD among cleaners. Methods One hundred and sixteen cleaners aged 18–65 years were randomized to a group performing aerobic exercise and a reference group receiving lectures. Outcomes were collected at baseline and after 12-months. A repeated measures 2×2 multi-adjusted mixed-model design was applied to compare the between-group differences using intention-to-treat analysis. Results Between-group differences (p<0.05) were found favouring the aerobic exercise group: cardiorespiratory fitness 2.15 (SE 1.03) mlO2/min/kg, aerobic workload -2.15 (SE 1.06) %HRR, resting HR -5.31 (SE 1.61) beats/min, high sensitive C-reactive protein -0.65 (SE 0.24) μg/ml. The blood pressure was unaltered. Stratified analyses on relative aerobic workload at baseline revealed that those with relative aerobic workloads ≥30% of HRR seems to impose a notable adverse effect on resting and ambulatory blood pressure. Conclusion This long-term worksite aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners led to several beneficial effects, but also potential adverse effects among those with high relative aerobic workloads. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN86682076 PMID:27513932

  2. Commander Truly cleans ARS filters on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-09-05

    STS008-13-336 (5 Sept 1983) --- On middeck, Richard M. Truly, STS-8 commander, uses vacuum cleaner to remove debris from air revitalization system (ARS) filter assembly. Open panel on middeck floor is the ARS access panel.

  3. Cleaner production options for reducing industrial waste: the case of batik industry in Malang, East Java-Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirait, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to conduct cleaner production options for improving the environmental performance during the production of batik industry, the case of UKM batik, Malang, East Java. Batik industry is one of small and medium textile industry which has contribution to economic growth in Malang. However, during production the batik, it generates wastewater that has potential to decrease the environmental performance. Wastewater from Celaket batik industry has BOD, COD, TSS, and pH level is far larger than the threshold of water quality standard as a result of use chemical substance during the dyes processing. In order to prevent generating wastewater, this study utilized cleaner production options, such as substitution of input material.Substitution of input material for dyes process was implemented by replacement chemical dyes (e.g.indigosol, nafthol, rapid) with natural dyes (e.g. Indigofero Tintoria). Modifying of technology/equipment was conducted by developing wastewater treatment equipment to reduce waste of batik production. The implementation of this strategy was carried out by changing input material from chemical dyes with natural dyes. The CP uptake could reduce significantly the environmental impact in term of reduction of COD, BOD, and TSS.

  4. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  5. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and maintained...

  6. 7 CFR 58.423 - Cheese vacuumizing chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vacuumizing chamber. 58.423 Section 58.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....423 Cheese vacuumizing chamber. The vacuum chamber shall be satisfactorily constructed and maintained...

  7. Engineering Matter Interactions Using Squeezed Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeytinoǧlu, Sina; Imamoǧlu, Ataç; Huber, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the vacuum fluctuations can be used to engineer the strength and the range of interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or wave guides, which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. Here, we show theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the antisqueezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allow for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic structure. Thus, the strength and range of the interactions can be engineered in a time-dependent way by changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a traveling-wave geometry, which also allows the implementation of chiral dissipative interactions. Using experimentally realized squeezing parameters and including realistic losses, we predict single-atom cooperativities C of up to 10 for the squeezed-vacuum-enhanced interactions.

  8. Lightweight Vacuum Jacket for Cryogenic Insulation. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, D. L.; Bell, J. E.; Brogren, E. W.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of producing a lightweight vacuum jacket using state-of-the-art technology and materials was examined. Design and analytical studies were made on a full-scale, orbital maneuvering system fuel tank. Preliminary design details were made for the tank assembly, including an optimized vacuum jacket and multilayer insulation system. A half-scale LH2 test model was designed and fabricated, and a force/stiffness proof test was conducted on the vacuum jacket. A vacuum leak rate of .000001 atmosphere ml of helium per second was measured, approximately 1500 hours of vacuum pressure were sustained, and 29 vacuum-pressure cycles were experienced prior to failure.

  9. 7 CFR 305.29 - Vacuum heat treatment schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vacuum heat treatment schedule. 305.29 Section 305.29... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.29 Vacuum heat treatment... vacuum at 8 hours. Maintain the vacuum until the end of the treatment. Gradually increase the temperature...

  10. [The evolution of vacuum extraction in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A

    2010-01-01

    Vacuum extraction is one of the methods for assisted vaginal delivery. In this article the evolution of vacuum extraction in obstetrics is been discussed. Historical facts and data from the invention up to state-of-the-art vacuum systems in modern obstetrics are presented.

  11. Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid Vacuum Pump to Provide Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Above-Knee Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Major, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Ryan; Fatone, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure. Phase 1 in vivo testing of the hybrid pump was performed by an able-bodied individual using prosthesis simulator boots walking on a treadmill, and phase 2 involved an above-knee prosthesis user walking with the hybrid pump and a commercial electric pump for comparison. Bench testing of 300 compression cycles produced a maximum vacuum of 24 in-Hg. In vivo testing demonstrated that the hybrid pump continued to pull vacuum during walking, and as opposed to the commercial electric pump, did not require reactivation of the electric system during phase 2 testing. The novelty of the hybrid pump is that while the electric system provides rapid, initial vacuum suspension, the mechanical system provides continuous air evacuation while walking to maintain suspension without reactivation of the electric system, thereby allowing battery power to be reserved for monitoring vacuum levels. PMID:27462383

  12. Gravitational collapse and the vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, M.

    2014-03-01

    To explain the accelerated expansion of the universe, models with interacting dark components (dark energy and dark matter) have been considered recently in the literature. Generally, the dark energy component is physically interpreted as the vacuum energy of the all fields that fill the universe. As the other side of the same coin, the influence of the vacuum energy on the gravitational collapse is of great interest. We study such collapse adopting different parameterizations for the evolution of the vacuum energy. We discuss the homogeneous collapsing star fluid, that interacts with a vacuum energy component, using the stiff matter case as example. We conclude this work with a discussion of the Cahill-McVittie mass for the collapsed object.

  13. Gravitational baryogenesis in running vacuum models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.; Pan, Supriya; Nunes, Rafael C.

    2017-08-01

    We study the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism for generating baryon asymmetry in the context of running vacuum models. Regardless of whether these models can produce a viable cosmological evolution, we demonstrate that they produce a nonzero baryon-to-entropy ratio even if the universe is filled with conformal matter. This is a sound difference between the running vacuum gravitational baryogenesis and the Einstein-Hilbert one, since in the latter case, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We consider two well known and most used running vacuum models and show that the resulting baryon-to-entropy ratio is compatible with the observational data. Moreover, we also show that the mechanism of gravitational baryogenesis may constrain the running vacuum models.

  14. Recovery of materials from waste printed circuit boards by vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yihui; Wu, Wenbiao; Qiu, Keqiang

    2010-11-01

    In this research, a two-step process consisting of vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum centrifugal separation was employed to treat waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). Firstly, WPCBs were pyrolysed under vacuum condition at 600 °C for 30 min in a lab-scale reactor. Then, the obtained pyrolysis residue was heated under vacuum until the solder was melted, and then the molten solder was separated from the pyrolysis residue by the centrifugal force. The results of vacuum pyrolysis showed that the type-A of WPCBs (the base plates of which was made from cellulose paper reinforced phenolic resin) pyrolysed to form an average of 67.97 wt.% residue, 27.73 wt.% oil, and 4.30 wt.% gas; and pyrolysis of the type-B of WPCBs (the base plates of which was made from glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin) led to an average mass balance of 72.20 wt.% residue, 21.45 wt.% oil, and 6.35 wt.% gas. The results of vacuum centrifugal separation showed that the separation of solder was complete when the pyrolysis residue was heated at 400 °C, and the rotating drum was rotated at 1200 rpm for 10 min. The pyrolysis oil and gas can be used as fuel or chemical feedstock after treatment. The pyrolysis residue after solder separation contained various metals, glass fibers and other inorganic materials, which could be recycled for further processing. The recovered solder can be reused directly and it can also be a good resource of lead and tin for refining. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dmour, Eshraq; Ahlback, Jonny; Einfeld, Dieter; Tavares, Pedro Fernandes; Grabski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3 GeV storage ring of MAX IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings. PMID:25177979

  16. Electric Propulsion Laboratory Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Engineer Paul Reader and his colleagues take environmental measurements during testing of a 20-inch diameter ion engine in a vacuum tank at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory (EPL). Researchers at the Lewis Research Center were investigating the use of a permanent-magnet circuit to create the magnetic field required power electron bombardment ion engines. Typical ion engines use a solenoid coil to create this magnetic field. It was thought that the substitution of a permanent magnet would create a comparable magnetic field with a lower weight. Testing of the magnet system in the EPL vacuum tanks revealed no significant operational problems. Reader found the weight of the two systems was similar, but that the thruster’s efficiency increased with the magnet. The EPL contained a series of large vacuum tanks that could be used to simulate conditions in space. Large vacuum pumps reduced the internal air pressure, and a refrigeration system created the cryogenic temperatures found in space.

  17. Hardware and circuit design of a vibrational cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fhong Soon, Chin; Thong, Kok Tung; Sek Tee, Kian; Nayan, Nafarizal; Khairul Ahmad, Mohd; Nurashikin Nordin, Anis

    2016-11-01

    Microtissue can be grown on soft substrates of hydrogel or liquid crystal gel. These gels are adherent to the microtissues and they may interfere fluorescence imaging as background noise due to their absorbance property. A microfluidic vibrational cleaner with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip platform was proposed and developed to remove the residual gel of liquid crystal adhered to the microtissues. The microtissues were placed in a microfluidic chip attaching to a microfluidic vibrational platform. In the system design, two motorised vibrators vibrating attached to a microfluidic platform and generating vibration signals at 148 Hz and 0.89 Grms to clean the microtissues. The acceleration of the vibration increased gradually from 0 to 0.96 Grms when the duty cycle of PWM pulses increased from 50 - 90%. It dropped slightly to 0.89 Grms at 100% duty cycle. Irrigation water valve was designed to control the fluid flow from water pump during cleaning process. Water pumps were included to flush the channels of the microfluidic device. The signals in controlling the pump, motor and valve were linearly proportional to the duty cycles of the pulse width modulation signals generated from a microcontroller.

  18. Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 4. An Inflationary Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2013-01-01

    This is the fourth paper in a series of four. The first paper in the series, "Vacuum Energy and Inflation: 1. A Liter of Vacuum Energy" [EJ1024183] discusses an example of vacuum energy. Vacuum energy is explained as an energy with a negative pressure whose energy density remains constant in an expanding space. Paper 2, "Vacuum…

  19. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  20. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  1. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  2. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  3. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  4. 46 CFR 153.368 - Pressure-vacuum valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure-vacuum valves. 153.368 Section 153.368 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.368 Pressure-vacuum valves. (a) The pressure side of a required pressure-vacuum relief valve...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5070 - Vacuum abortion system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum abortion system. 884.5070 Section 884.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5070 Vacuum abortion system. (a) Identification. A vacuum abortion system is a device designed to...

  9. The localized quantum vacuum field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, D.

    2008-03-01

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles.

  10. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. [Doc. No...

  12. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-12

    The results of investigations carried out into the availability and suitability of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of logging tools for geothermal wells are summarized. Design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes for application to the development of high temperature well logs are discussed. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data is presented in the appendix. (MHR)

  13. Compressed Air/Vacuum Transportation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Shyamal

    2011-03-01

    General theory of compressed air/vacuum transportation will be presented. In this transportation, a vehicle (such as an automobile or a rail car) is powered either by compressed air or by air at near vacuum pressure. Four version of such transportation is feasible. In all versions, a ``c-shaped'' plastic or ceramic pipe lies buried a few inches under the ground surface. This pipe carries compressed air or air at near vacuum pressure. In type I transportation, a vehicle draws compressed air (or vacuum) from this buried pipe. Using turbine or reciprocating air cylinder, mechanical power is generated from compressed air (or from vacuum). This mechanical power transferred to the wheels of an automobile (or a rail car) drives the vehicle. In type II-IV transportation techniques, a horizontal force is generated inside the plastic (or ceramic) pipe. A set of vertical and horizontal steel bars is used to transmit this force to the automobile on the road (or to a rail car on rail track). The proposed transportation system has following merits: virtually accident free; highly energy efficient; pollution free and it will not contribute to carbon dioxide emission. Some developmental work on this transportation will be needed before it can be used by the traveling public. The entire transportation system could be computer controlled.

  14. Vacuum chamber-free centrifuge with magnetic bearings.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Centrifuges are devices that separate particles of different densities and sizes through the application of a centrifugal force. If a centrifuge could be operated under atmospheric conditions, all vacuum-related components such as the vacuum chamber, vacuum pump, diffusion pump, and sealing could be removed from a conventional centrifuge system. The design and manufacturing procedure for centrifuges could then be greatly simplified to facilitate the production of lightweight centrifuge systems of smaller volume. Furthermore, the maintenance costs incurred owing to wear and tear due to conventional ball bearings would be eliminated. In this study, we describe a novel vacuum chamber-free centrifuge supported by magnetic bearings. We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum chamber-free centrifuge by presenting experimental results that verify its high-speed support capability and motoring power capacity.

  15. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  16. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1995-03-07

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  17. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  18. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  19. Cryogenic Insulation System for Soft Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augustynowicz, S. D.; Fesmire, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a cryogenic insulation system for operation under soft vacuum is presented in this paper. Conventional insulation materials for cryogenic applications can be divided into three levels of thermal performance, in terms of apparent thermal conductivity [k-value in milliwatt per meter-kelvin (mW/m-K)]. System k-values below 0.1 can be achieved for multilayer insulation operating at a vacuum level below 1 x 10(exp -4) torr. For fiberglass or powder operating below 1 x 10(exp -3) torr, k-values of about 2 are obtained. For foam and other materials at ambient pressure, k-values around 30 are typical. New industry and aerospace applications require a versatile, robust, low-cost thermal insulation with performance in the intermediate range. The target for the new composite insulation system is a k-value below 4.8 mW/m-K (R-30) at a soft vacuum level (from 1 to 10 torr) and boundary temperatures of approximately 77 and 293 kelvin (K). Many combinations of radiation shields, spacers, and composite materials were tested from high vacuum to ambient pressure using cryostat boiloff methods. Significant improvement over conventional systems in the soft vacuum range was demonstrated. The new layered composite insulation system was also shown to provide key benefits for high vacuum applications as well.

  20. Vacuum-assisted venous return reduces blood usage.

    PubMed

    Banbury, Michael K; White, Jennifer A; Blackstone, Eugene H; Cosgrove, Delos M

    2003-09-01

    To determine whether vacuum-assisted venous return has clinical advantages over conventional gravity drainage apart from allowing the use of smaller cannulas and shorter tubing. A total of 150 valve operations were performed at our institution between February and July 1999 using vacuum-assisted venous return with small venous cannulas connected to short tubing. These were compared with (1) 83 valve operations performed between April 1997 and January 1998 using the initial version of vacuum-assisted venous return, and (2) 124 valve operations performed between January and April of 1997 using conventional gravity drainage. Priming volume, hematocrit value, red blood cell usage, and total blood product usage were compared multivariably. These comparisons were covariate and propensity adjusted for dissimilarities between the groups and confirmed by propensity-matched pairs analysis. Priming volume was 1.4 +/- 0.4 L for small-cannula vacuum-assisted venous return, 1.7 +/- 0.4 L for initial vacuum-assisted venous return, and 2.0 +/- 0.4 L for gravity drainage (P <.0001). Smaller priming resulted in higher hematocrit values both at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass (27% +/- 5% compared with 26% +/- 4% and 25% +/- 4%, respectively, P <.0001) and at the end (30% +/- 4% compared with 28% +/- 4% and 27% +/- 4%, respectively, P <.0001). Red cell transfusions were used in 17% of the patients having small-cannula vacuum-assisted venous return, 27% of the initial patients having vacuum-assisted venous return, and 37% of the patients having gravity drainage (P =.001); total blood product usage was 19%, 27%, and 39%, respectively (P =.002). Although ministernotomy also was associated with reduced blood product usage (P <.004), propensity matching on type of sternotomy confirmed the association of vacuum-assisted venous return with lowered blood product usage. Vacuum-assisted venous return results in (1) higher hematocrit values during cardiopulmonary bypass and (2) decreased

  1. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  2. Challenges Achieved By Innovative Technologies Our Link to a Safer, Cleaner, Healthier Tomorrow - 12369

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Heidi; Shoffner, Peggy; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2012-07-01

    The River Corridor Closure Project is the nation's largest environmental cleanup closure project where innovative technologies are being utilized to overcome DOE's environmental clean-up challenges. DOE provides a Technology Needs Statement that specifies their on-site challenges and the criteria to overcome those challenges. This allows for both the private sector and federally funded organizations to respond with solutions that meet their immediate needs. DOE selects the company based on their ability to reduce risk to human health and the environment, improve efficiency of the cleanup, and lower costs. These technologies are our link to a cleaner, safer, healthier tomorrow. (authors)

  3. Impact of cleaner fuel use and improved stoves on acute respiratory infections: evidence from India.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Prabhat; Sharma, Anurag; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-11-01

    The use of cleaner fuel and improved stoves has been promoted as a means to lower harmful emissions from solid fuels. However, little is known about how exclusive use of cleaner fuels, mixed fuel use and improved stoves influences children's health. We compared the impact of using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) exclusively with mixed fuel use (LPG plus polluting fuels) and with exclusive use of polluting fuels on acute respiratory infections (ARI) among 16 157 children 0-4 years of age from households in the 2012 Indian Human Development Survey. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) procedures for multiple treatments were used for this evaluation. Children from households using LPG had a 5.0% lower probability of reporting ARI relative to exclusive users of polluting fuels, with larger effects (10.7%) in rural households. The probability of ARI in households using improved stoves and mixed fuel use was also lower in rural households, by 2.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The magnitude of effect varied across population subgroups, with the highest effects for children living in households living in kachha (low quality material) houses households identified as poor. Use of LPG and improved stoves lowered the probability of ARI among children younger than 5 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Use of electrostatic dust cloth for self-administered home allergen collection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Most epidemiologic studies employ a vacuum cleaner used by a trained technician to collect household allergens. This approach is labor intensive, equipment dependent, and impractical if study subjects reside over a wide geographic area. We examined the feasibility of a s...

  5. Breakdown-Resistant RF Connectors for Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caro, Edward R.; Bonazza, Walter J.

    1987-01-01

    Resilient inserts compensate for insulation shrinkage. Coaxial-cable connector for radio-frequency (RF) energy resists electrical breakdown in vacuum. Used on RF equipment in vacuum chambers as well as in spaceborne radar and communication gear.

  6. Product perception from sensory stimuli: the case of vacuum cleaner.

    PubMed

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúciar R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of consideration of different sensory stimuli in the perception of the product. So we conducted an experiment that examined whether there is a difference between the perception of sensory stimuli from artificially isolated. The result is an analysis of the different sensory modalities, relating them to product an between them.

  7. Effect of Bearing Cleaning on Long Term Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jett, Tim; Thom, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    For many years chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) based solvents, such as CFC-113 and 1,1,1, trichloroethane (TCA), were used as bearing cleaning solvents for space mechanism bearings. The 1995 ban on the production of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC) such as CFCs caused a change requiring the use of ODC-free cleaners for precision bearing cleaning. With this change the question arises; what effect if any do these new cleaners have on long term bearing life? The purpose of this study was to evaluate this effect. A one year test using 60 small electrical motors (two bearings per motor) was conducted in a high vacuum environment (2.0 x 10(exp -6) torr) at a temperature of 90 C. Prior to testing the bearings were cleaned with one of four cleaners. These cleaners included two aqueous based cleaners, a CFC based cleaner and supercritical carbon dioxide. Three space compatible greases were tested. After testing, the mass of each lubricated bearing was measured both pre and post test. Along with mass loss measurements a profilometer trace of each bearing was taken to measure post test wear of the bearings. In addition, the bearings were visually examined and analyzed using an optical microscope.

  8. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  9. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  10. Apparatus For Metal/Inert-Gas Welding In Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, C. O.

    1994-01-01

    Metal/inert-gas welding-torch assembly operates in vacuum. Plasma generated in interior chamber and focused onto workpiece in vacuum. Pinch rollers feed wire to weld puddle. Controlled flow of plasma reduces dispersal in vacuum, preventing extinction.

  11. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  12. Job strain associated with increases in ambulatory blood and pulse pressure during and after work hours among female hotel room cleaners.

    PubMed

    Feaster, Matt; Krause, Niklas

    2018-06-01

    Previously documented elevated hypertension rates among Las Vegas hotel room cleaners are hypothesized to be associated with job strain. Job strain was assessed by questionnaire. Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was recorded among 419 female cleaners from five hotels during 18 waking hours. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations of job strain with ABP and pulse pressure for 18-h, work hours, and after work hours. Higher job strain was associated with increased 18-h systolic ABP, after work hours systolic ABP, and ambulatory pulse pressure. Dependents at home but not social support at work attenuated effects. Among hypertensive workers, job strain effects were partially buffered by anti-hypertensive medication. High job strain is positively associated with blood pressure among female hotel workers suggesting potential for primary prevention at work. Work organizational changes, stress management, and active ABP surveillance and hypertension management should be considered for integrated intervention programs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fate of electroweak vacuum during preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2016-10-28

    Our electroweak vacuum may be metastable in light of the current experimental data of the Higgs/top quark mass. If this is really the case, high-scale inflation models require a stabilization mechanism of our vacuum during inflation. A possible candidate is the Higgs-inflaton/-curvature coupling because it induces an additional mass term to the Higgs during the slow roll regime. However, after inflation, the additional mass term oscillates, and it can destabilize our electroweak vacuum via production of large Higgs fluctuations during the inflaton oscillation era. In this paper, we study whether or not the Higgs-inflaton/-curvature coupling can save our vacuum bymore » properly taking account of Higgs production during the preheating stage. We put upper bounds on the Higgs-inflaton and -curvature couplings, and discuss possible dynamics that might relax them.« less

  14. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  15. Nearly Seamless Vacuum-Insulated Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanian, Christopher J.; Ou, Danny; Hu, Xiangjun

    2010-01-01

    A design concept, and a fabrication process that would implement the design concept, have been proposed for nearly seamless vacuum-insulated boxes that could be the main structural components of a variety of controlled-temperature containers, including common household refrigerators and insulating containers for shipping foods. In a typical case, a vacuum-insulated box would be shaped like a rectangular parallelepiped conventional refrigerator box having five fully closed sides and a hinged door on the sixth side. Although it is possible to construct the five-closed-side portion of the box as an assembly of five unitary vacuum-insulated panels, it is not desirable to do so because the relatively high thermal conductances of the seams between the panels would contribute significant amounts of heat leakage, relative to the leakage through the panels themselves. In contrast, the proposal would make it possible to reduce heat leakage by constructing the five-closed-side portion of the box plus the stationary portion (if any) of the sixth side as a single, seamless unit; the only remaining seam would be the edge seal around the door. The basic cross-sectional configuration of each side of a vacuum-insulated box according to the proposal would be that of a conventional vacuum-insulated panel: a low-density, porous core material filling a partially evacuated space between face sheets. However, neither the face sheets nor the core would be conventional. The face sheets would be opposite sides of a vacuum bag. The core material would be a flexible polymer-modified silica aerogel of the type described in Silica/Polymer and Silica/Polymer/Fiber Composite Aero - gels (MSC-23736) in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As noted in that article, the stiffness of this core material against compression is greater than that of prior aerogels. This is an important advantage because it translates to greater retention of thickness and, hence, of insulation performance when pressure is

  16. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  17. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  18. Investigating steam penetration using thermometric methods in dental handpieces with narrow internal lumens during sterilizing processes with non-vacuum or vacuum processes.

    PubMed

    Winter, S; Smith, A; Lappin, D; McDonagh, G; Kirk, B

    2017-12-01

    Dental handpieces are required to be sterilized between patient use. Vacuum steam sterilization processes with fractionated pre/post-vacuum phases or unique cycles for specified medical devices are required for hollow instruments with internal lumens to assure successful air removal. Entrapped air will compromise achievement of required sterilization conditions. Many countries and professional organizations still advocate non-vacuum sterilization processes for these devices. To investigate non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization of dental handpieces, using thermometric methods to measure time to achieve sterilization temperature at different handpiece locations. Measurements at different positions within air turbines were undertaken with thermocouples and data loggers. Two examples of widely used UK benchtop steam sterilizers were tested: a non-vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Little Sister 3; Eschmann, Lancing, UK) and a vacuum benchtop sterilizer (Lisa; W&H, Bürmoos, Austria). Each sterilizer cycle was completed with three handpieces and each cycle in triplicate. A total of 140 measurements inside dental handpiece lumens were recorded. The non-vacuum process failed (time range: 0-150 s) to reliably achieve sterilization temperatures within the time limit specified by the international standard (15 s equilibration time). The measurement point at the base of the handpiece failed in all test runs (N = 9) to meet the standard. No failures were detected with the vacuum steam sterilization type B process with fractionated pre-vacuum and post-vacuum phases. Non-vacuum downward/gravity displacement, type-N steam sterilization processes are unreliable in achieving sterilization conditions inside dental handpieces, and the base of the handpiece is the site most likely to fail. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on convection improvement of standard vacuum tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. H.; Du, W. P.; Qi, R. R.; He, J. X.

    2017-11-01

    For the standard all-glass vacuum tube collector, enhancing the vacuum tube axial natural convection can improve its thermal efficiency. According to the study of the standard all-glass vacuum tube, three kinds of guide plates which can inhibit the radial convection and increase axial natural convection are designed, and theory model is established. Experiments were carried out on vacuum tubes with three types of baffles and standard vacuum tubes without the improvement. The results show that T-type guide plate is better than that of Y-type guide plate on restraining convection and increasing axial radial convection effect, Y type is better than that of flat plate type, all guide plates are better than no change; the thermal efficiency of the tube was 2.6% higher than that of the unmodified standard vacuum tube. The efficiency of the system in the experiment can be increased by 3.1%.

  20. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum to...

  1. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum to...

  2. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum to...

  3. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum to...

  4. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9125 Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. (a) Identification. A vacuum-assisted blood collection system is a device intended for medical purposes that uses a vacuum to...

  5. P.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Australian Science Teachers Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Presents ideas from readers on techniques and equipment that might be useful in teaching secondary school science. Suggests how to construct cheap wall charts, modify a vacuum cleaner into a blower, construct a stereo microscope lamp holder, and outlines simple physics laboratory experiments. (JR)

  6. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  7. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 25.1433 Section 25.1433 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There...

  8. Plates for vacuum thermal fusion

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

  9. Researches on Position Detection for Vacuum Switch Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huajun; Guo, Yingjie; Li, Jie; Kong, Yihan

    2018-03-01

    Form and transformation character of vacuum arc is important influencing factor on the vacuum switch performance, and the dynamic separations of electrode is the chief effecting factor on the transformation of vacuum arcs forms. Consequently, how to detect the position of electrode to calculate the separations in the arcs image is of great significance. However, gray level distribution of vacuum arcs image isn’t even, the gray level of burning arcs is high, but the gray level of electrode is low, meanwhile, the forms of vacuum arcs changes sharply, the problems above restrict electrode position detection precisely. In this paper, algorithm of detecting electrode position base on vacuum arcs image was proposed. The digital image processing technology was used in vacuum switch arcs image analysis, the upper edge and lower edge were detected respectively, then linear fitting was done using the result of edge detection, the fitting result was the position of electrode, thus, accurate position detection of electrode was realized. From the experimental results, we can see that: algorithm described in this paper detected upper and lower edge of arcs successfully and the position of electrode was obtained through calculation.

  10. Advanced Photon Source accelerator ultrahigh vacuum guide

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Noonan, J.

    1994-03-01

    In this document the authors summarize the following: (1) an overview of basic concepts of ultrahigh vacuum needed for the APS project, (2) a description of vacuum design and calculations for major parts of APS, including linac, linac waveguide, low energy undulator test line, positron accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron ring, storage ring, and insertion devices, and (3) cleaning procedures of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) components presently used at APS.

  11. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.

  12. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in enclosed... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10...

  13. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in enclosed... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10...

  14. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in enclosed... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10...

  15. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in enclosed... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10...

  16. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in enclosed... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10...

  17. Preservatives in Personal Hygiene and Cosmetic Products, Topical Medications, and Household Cleaners in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pastor-Nieto, María Antonia; Alcántara-Nicolás, Francisco; Melgar-Molero, Virginia; Pérez-Mesonero, Raquel; Vergara-Sánchez, Aránzazu; Martín-Fuentes, Adriana; González-Muñoz, Patricia; de Eusebio-Murillo, Ester

    2017-10-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetic, household cleaning, and other industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Unfortunately, exposure to these substances can cause sensitization. Between January and June 2015, we analyzed the ingredients of 2300 products commercially available in Spain to identify the frequency of a wide variety of preservatives in different product categories. We analyzed 1093 skin care and cosmetic products sold exclusively in pharmacies (dermocosmetics), 458 household cleaning and personal hygiene and cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 636 topical medications, and 113 cosmetic products sold in a herbal shop. Phenoxyethanol, citric acid, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate were very common in all the cosmetic product categories. Parabens were present in 16.1% of dermocosmetic products, 14.45% of cosmetic products available in supermarkets, 0.88% of cosmetic products available in the herbal shop, 5.18% of topical medications, and in none of the cleaning products. Isothiazolinones were identified in 2.56% of dermocosmetic products, 18% of cosmetic products in supermarkets, 7.9% of cosmetic products in the herbal shop, 63.63% of household cleaners, and in none of the topical medications. Formaldehyde releasers were detected in 5.76% of dermocosmetic products, 6.42% of cosmetic products sold in supermarkets, 7.96% of cosmetic products sold in the herbal shop, 3.93% of topical medications, and 16.74% of household cleaners. Evaluation of the presence of preservatives in everyday products allows us to indirectly estimate exposure levels to each one. Measures restricting the use of the most problematic preservatives need to be strengthened. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. [Acroosteolysis in PVC autoclave cleaners: history of an occupational disease].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C; Osculati, A; Colosio, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the history of an occupational disease which has now disappeared: acroosteolysis of manual tank cleaners in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is a rare disease characterized by destructive alterations of the distal phalanges of the hands. All the available literature on this disease was examined. The history of acroosteolysis was studied within the general framework of the history of the discovery of adverse health effects of exposure to vinyl chloride, and this history was studied up to the end of the 1960's. The disease was observed for the first time in mid-1963 in Belgium (Jemeppe) in a chemical plant operated by Solvay, and affected two workers whose job was the manual cleaning of vessels used for the polymerization of vinyl chloride; similar cases occurred in almost all PVC production plants all over the world, but not in the plants where the main activity was the production of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Little more than one hundred cases are described in the scientific literature, and this number increases by a few dozen if we consider known but unpublished cases. These figures confirm the rarity of the disease, which peaked at the end of the 1960's and disappeared during the 1970's, probably due to the complete elimination of manual reactor cleaning. Observation of the disease lasted no more than fifteen years and the disease was not replicated in experimental conditions on animals. The disease was clinically characterized, had a short latency (from several months to several years), was rare and unequivocally linked to the manual cleaning of PVC polymerization tanks. However many questions still remain open: the period when the disease first appeared (many years after the start of PVC production in the world), the etiology of the disease (the most accredited hypothesis considers three concomitant factors: a chemical factor--one of the many substances used during polymerization, and particularly vinyl chloride monomer

  19. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. ...

  20. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. ...

  1. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. ...

  2. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. ...

  3. 7 CFR 58.913 - Evaporators and vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evaporators and vacuum pans. 58.913 Section 58.913....913 Evaporators and vacuum pans. All equipment used in the removal of moisture from milk or milk... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. ...

  4. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  5. Breathing Cleaner Fumes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-14

    There’s more than one way to study the impact of biofuels. For NASA scientists, it means trailing an aircraft from as little as 300 feet behind while flying 34,000 feet in the air. Earlier this year, a NASA-led team conducted a series of carefully choreographed flights over California in order to sniff out how aircraft emissions differ when using petroleum fuels or biofuels. Early results from the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS II) experiment confirm that blended biofuel is the cleaner-burning fuel. "Our findings show we definitely see a 50 percent reduction in soot emissions from the DC-8 when it burns the blended fuel as opposed to jet fuel alone," said Bruce Anderson, ACCESS principal investigator from NASA's Langley Research Center. The DC-8 is a NASA science workhorse: a flying laboratory equipped to collect—or, in this case, produce—data for basic Earth science research. During the ACESS experiment, scientists took advantage of the aircraft's segregated fuel tank. On the fly, the pilot switched the fuel type sent to each of the four engines. The engines burned either jet fuel, or a 50-50 blend of jet fuel and a renewable alternative produced from camelina plant oil. With each change of fuel, three other instrumented aircraft took turns lining up in the DC-8's wake and flying anywhere from 90 meters (300 feet) to more than 30 kilometers (20 miles) behind to catch a sniff. Richard Moore, a post-doctoral fellow at NASA Langley, took this photograph with a DSLR camera on May 7, 2014, during an ACCESS II test flight over Edwards Air Force Base in California. The photo was taken from Langley's HU-25C Guardian jet as it descended toward NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center after a successful three-hour sampling flight behind the DC-8. The aircraft trailing the DC-8 in the photo was a Falcon 20-E5 jet owned by the German Aerospace Center. The flight on May 7 was just the first in a series of flights that lasted throughout

  6. In-Vacuum Dissociator for Atomic-Hydrogen Masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal control and vacuum sealing achieved while contamination avoided. Simple, relatively inexpensive molecular-hydrogen dissociator for atomic-hydrogen masers used on Earth or in vacuum of space. No air cooling required, and absence of elastomeric O-ring seals prevents contamination. In-vacuum dissociator for atomic hydrogen masers, hydrogen gas in glass dissociator dissociated by radio-frequency signal transmitted from surrounding 3-turn coil. Heat in glass conducted away by contacting metal surfaces.

  7. Vacuum-jacketed transfer line installation technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1968-01-01

    Rolling-type spacers in the form of steel balls retained in appropriate sleeves affixed at intervals to the exterior of the transfer line facilitate the installation of a vacuum-jacketed line. They act as standoffs to position the transfer line concentrically within the vacuum jacket line.

  8. Thermodynamic performance of multi-stage gradational lead screw vacuum pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Shiwei; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of dry mechanical vacuum pump, the twin-screw vacuum pump has an outstanding pumping performance during operation, widely used in the semiconductor industry. Compared with the constant lead screw (CLS) vacuum pump, the gradational lead screw (GLS) vacuum pump is more popularly applied in recent years. Nevertheless, not many comparative studies on the thermodynamic performance of GLS vacuum pump can be found in the literature. Our study focuses on one type of GLS vacuum pump, the multi-stage gradational lead screw (MGLS) vacuum pump, gives a detailed description of its construction and illustrates it with the drawing. Based on the structural analysis, the thermodynamic procedure is divided into four distinctive processes, including sucking process, transferring (compressing) process, backlashing process and exhausting process. The internal mechanism of each process is qualitatively illustrated and the mathematical expressions of seven thermodynamic parameters are given under the ideal situation. The performance curves of MGLS vacuum pump are plotted by MATLAB software and compared with those of the CLS vacuum pump in the same case. The results can well explain why the MGLS vacuum pump has more favorable pumping performance than the CLS vacuum pump in saving energy, reducing noise and heat dissipation.

  9. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  10. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Cosmic vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, Artur D.

    2001-11-01

    Recent observational studies of distant supernovae have suggested the existence of cosmic vacuum whose energy density exceeds the total density of all the other energy components in the Universe. The vacuum produces the field of antigravity that causes the cosmological expansion to accelerate. It is this accelerated expansion that has been discovered in the observations. The discovery of cosmic vacuum radically changes our current understanding of the present state of the Universe. It also poses new challenges to both cosmology and fundamental physics. Why is the density of vacuum what it is? Why do the densities of the cosmic energy components differ in exact value but agree in order of magnitude? On the other hand, the discovery made at large cosmological distances of hundreds and thousands Mpc provides new insights into the dynamics of the nearby Universe, the motions of galaxies in the local volume of 10 - 20 Mpc where the cosmological expansion was originally discovered.

  11. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Ronald A.

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  12. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  13. Waveguide quantum electrodynamics in squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jieyu; Liao, Zeyang; Li, Sheng-Wen; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2018-02-01

    We study the dynamics of a general multiemitter system coupled to the squeezed vacuum reservoir and derive a master equation for this system based on the Weisskopf-Wigner approximation. In this theory, we include the effect of positions of the squeezing sources which is usually neglected in the previous studies. We apply this theory to a quasi-one-dimensional waveguide case where the squeezing in one dimension is experimentally achievable. We show that while dipole-dipole interaction induced by ordinary vacuum depends on the emitter separation, the two-photon process due to the squeezed vacuum depends on the positions of the emitters with respect to the squeezing sources. The dephasing rate, decay rate, and the resonance fluorescence of the waveguide-QED in the squeezed vacuum are controllable by changing the positions of emitters. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the stationary maximum entangled NOON state for identical emitters can be reached with arbitrary initial state when the center-of-mass position of the emitters satisfies certain conditions.

  14. Sugar maple sap volume increases as vacuum level is increased

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters; H. Clay Smith

    1975-01-01

    Maple sap yields collected by using plastic tubing with a vacuum pump increased as the vacuum level was increased. Sap volumes collected at the 10- and 15-inch mercury vacuum levels were statistically significantly higher than volumes collected at the 5-inch level. Although the 15-inch vacuum yielded more sap than the 10-inch vacuum, the difference was not...

  15. Outgassing of solid material into vacuum thermal insulation spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Pao-Lien

    1994-01-01

    Many cryogenic storage tanks use vacuum between inner and outer tank for thermal insulation. These cryogenic tanks also use a radiation shield barrier in the vacuum space to prevent radiation heat transfer. This shield is usually constructed by using multiple wraps of aluminized mylar and glass paper as inserts. For obtaining maximum thermal performance, a good vacuum level must be maintained with the insulation system. It has been found that over a period of time solid insulation materials will vaporize into the vacuum space and the vacuum will degrade. In order to determine the degradation of vacuum, the rate of outgassing of the insulation materials must be determined. Outgassing rate of several insulation materials obtained from literature search were listed in tabular form.

  16. Work organisation and gender among hospital cleaners in Quebec after the merger of 'light' and 'heavy' work classifications.

    PubMed

    Calvet, Bénédicte; Riel, Jessica; Couture, Vanessa; Messing, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In Québec, Canada, cleaning tasks were once divided into 'light' or 'heavy' cleaning, assigned respectively to women and men. These categories are being merged; in principle, both genders are assigned the same tasks. Activity analysis using observations and interviews examined work activity of male and female cleaners in two hospitals. In one hospital, work activity could be compared before (time 1) and after the work reorganisation (time 2). Some gender segregation of tasks appeared to have persisted at time 2, in both hospitals. Some route assignments contained components that were difficult for all cleaners, especially women of average strength. Only about one-third of the recommendations for improvement made at time 1 had been carried out by time 2, 12 years later. In a low-status job, it may be hard to meet equality, health and efficiency goals because commitment to improving equipment and worksite design may be lacking. Current attempts to desegregate jobs should be accompanied by attention to physical job demands in order to protect employee health and access to equal employment. The study also shows the need to follow up ergonomic interventions, particularly in low-status jobs such as cleaning, where recommendations can be forgotten.

  17. Better Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Looks at equipment, process, and training aspects of backpack vacuum cleaners that facilitate good ergonomics and high productivity levels, focusing on: designing new equipment for bodies and productivity; creating comfortable backpack harnesses; improving the work process via team training; and providing ergonomic training to ensure that backpack…

  18. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--PESTICIDES IN DUST ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pesticides in Dust data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 9 pesticides in 126 dust samples over 50 households. Samples were obtained by collecting dust samples from the indoor floor areas in the main activity room using a modified vacuum cleaner devic...

  19. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  20. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  1. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E., E-mail: esarant@eie.gr; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance inmore » spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.« less

  2. Ammonia emissions from air cleaners at pig farms in Denmark using a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Renato; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.

    2017-04-01

    Ammonia emissions from agricultural activities such as, cattle, pig and poultry farms have become an ever more important topic both for scientists as well as for regulatory bodies due to the severe impacts of ammonia on human health and the environment. In the European Union, the agricultural sector accounts for most of the ammonia emissions, and therefore the EU authorities have put in place reduction targets for the member states. In Denmark, most pig farmers have to deploy one or more ammonia abatement technologies in order to fulfill the national regulation when building new pig houses. A promising ammonia abatement technology is partial floor ventilation and subsequent cleaning using one or two step chemical air cleaners. The cleaned air will have ammonia concentration is the sub-ppm level and with high humidity. Here we present method of monitoring NH3 emissions from air cleaners deployed on pig farms using the G2103 Picarro laser spectrometer. The Picarro G2103 NH3 analyzer is a high precision cavity ring-down spectrometer using a high finesse optical cavity and a near infra-red light laser light source with a very narrow light band. The latter eliminates cross-interferences from other gases present in livestock air. Picarro instruments are built for field measurements and have been widely used for atmospheric monitoring of greenhouse gases and of air pollutants such as NH3.

  3. Main Vacuum Technical Issues of Evacuated Tube Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Li, S. S.; Wang, M. X.

    In the future, Evacuated Tube Transportation (ETT) would be built and faster than jets. ETT tube with diameter 2∼4m and length over 1000 km will be the largest scale vacuum equipment on earth. This paper listed some main vacuum technical issues to be solved in ETT as follow. How to build ultra-large-scale vacuum chamber like ETT tube with low cost and high reliability? How to pump gas out off the ETT tube in short time? How to release heat or reduce temperature in the vacuum tube? Hot to avoid vacuum electricity discharge? How to manufacture vehicles with airproof shells and equip the life support system? How to detect leakage and find leakage position efficiently and fast as possible? Some relative solutions and suggestions are put up.

  4. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, John D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  5. Development of a MEMS-Scale Turbomachinery Based Vacuum Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    MEMS -SCALE TURBOMACHINERY BASED VACUUM PUMP by Michael J. Shea June 2012 Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Gannon Second Reader...June 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a MEMS -Scale Turbomachinery Based Vacuum Pump 5...to develop a MEMS scale turbomachinery based vacuum pump. This would allow very high vacuum to be drawn for handheld mass spectroscopy. This

  6. Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Petroleum Dry Cleaners: 1985 Response to Petition for Reconsideration & Final Amendments to the Rule (50 FR 49022)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 27, 1985 Response to Petition for Reconsideration and Final Amendments to the Rule for the Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources; Petroleum Dry Cleaners.

  7. Vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Otsu, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Kubo, T.; Motobayashi, T.; Sato, H.; Yoneda, K.

    2013-12-01

    The first commissioning experiment of the SAMURAI spectrometer and its beam line was performed in March, 2012. The vacuum system for the SAMURAI spectrometer includes its beam line and the SAMURAI vacuum chamber with the windows for detecting neutrons and charged particles. The window for neutrons was made of stainless steel with a thickness of 3 mm and was designed with a shape of partial cylinder to support itself against the atmospheric pressure. The window for charged particles was of the combination of Kevlar and Mylar with the thickness of 280 and 75 μm, respectively. The pressure in the vacuum system was at a few Pa throughout the commissioning experiment.

  8. Moving characteristics of electrodes for vacuum circuit breaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Shun; Wang, Jimei

    1994-05-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of the gap of electrodes on the state of vacuum arc by experiment and theory. And the model of vacuum arc is set up. The optimal gap can be deduced from controlling the vacuum arc to be diffusion state, in order to get the optimal moving characteristics of electrodes.

  9. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  10. Carbon nanotubes based vacuum gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyk, N. N.; Il'in, O. I.; Il'ina, M. V.; Fedotov, A. A.; Klimin, V. S.; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    We have created an ionization type Vacuum gauge with sensor element based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Obtained asymmetrical current-voltage characteristics at different voltage polarity on the electrode with the CNTs. It was found that when applying a negative potential on an electrode with the CNTs, the current in the gap is higher than at a positive potential. In the pressure range of 1 ÷ 103 Torr vacuum gauge sensitivity was 6 mV/Torr (at a current of 4.5·10-5 A) and in the range of 10-5 ÷ 1 Torr was 10 mV/Torr (at a current of 1.3·10-5 A). It is shown that the energy efficiency of vacuum gauge can be increased in the case where electrode with CNT operates as an emitter of electrons.

  11. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-09-01

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Vacuum-based Surface Sampling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article Following a biological contamination incident, collection of surface samples is necessary to determine the extent and level of contamination, and to deem an area safe for reentry upon decontamination. Current sampling strategies targeting Bacillus anthracis spores prescribe vacuum-based methods for rough and/or porous surfaces. In this study, four commonly-used B. anthracis spore sampling devices (vacuum socks, 37 mm 0.8 µm MCE filter cassettes, 37 mm 0.3 µm PTFE filter cassettes, and 3MTM forensic filters) were comparatively evaluated for their ability to recover surface-associated spores. The vacuum sock device was evaluated at two sampling speeds (slow and fast), resulting in five total methods evaluated. Aerosolized spores (~105 cm-2) of a surrogate Bacillus species (Bacillus atrophaeus) were allowed to settle onto three material types (concrete, carpet, and upholstery). Ten replicate samples were collected using each vacuum method, from each of the three material types. In addition, stainless steel (i.e., nonporous) surfaces inoculated simultaneously were sampled with pre-moistened wipes. Recoveries from wipes of steel surfaces were utilized to verify the inoculum, and to normalize vacuum-based recoveries across trials. Recovery (CFU cm-2) and relative recovery (vacuum recovery/wipe recovery) were determined for each method and material type. Relative recoveries were compared by one-way and three-way ANOVA. Data analysis by one-

  13. Vacuum energy from noncommutative models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignemi, S.; Samsarov, A.

    2018-04-01

    The vacuum energy is computed for a scalar field in a noncommutative background in several models of noncommutative geometry. One may expect that the noncommutativity introduces a natural cutoff on the ultraviolet divergences of field theory. Our calculations show however that this depends on the particular model considered: in some cases the divergences are suppressed and the vacuum energy is only logarithmically divergent, in other cases they are stronger than in the commutative theory.

  14. Sealed vacuum canister and method for pick-up and containment of material

    DOEpatents

    Stoutenburgh, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum canister including a housing with a sealed vacuum chamber having a predetermined vacuum pressure therein and a valve having a first port for fluid communication with the vacuum chamber and a second port for receiving at least one of a fluid and a particulate material. The valve is operable between a first position to seal the vacuum chamber and retain the predetermined vacuum within the vacuum chamber, and a second position to access the vacuum chamber to permit vacuum fluid flow through the valve from the second port into the vacuum chamber. In operation of the vacuum canister to pick up material with the valve in the second position, when the second port is located adjacent at least one of a fluid and a particulate material, is effective to displace through the valve at least one of a fluid and a particulate material into the housing. The vacuum canister is desirably suitable for picking up and containing hazardous material such as radioactive material, in which the vacuum canister includes a protective layer of lead having a predetermined thickness that is effective to shield radiation emitted from the radioactive material contained within the housing. Advantageously, the vacuum canister includes a vacuum means for establishing a predetermined vacuum pressure within the vacuum chamber.

  15. An ultra-high vacuum chamber for scattering experiments featuring in-vacuum continuous in-plane variation of the angle between entrance and exit vacuum ports

    SciTech Connect

    Englund, Carl-Johan; Agåker, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.agaker@physics.uu.se; Fredriksson, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    A concept that enables in-vacuum continuous variation of the angle between two ports in one plane has been developed and implemented. The vacuum chamber allows for measuring scattering cross sections as a function of scattering angle and is intended for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering experiments. The angle between the ports can be varied in the range of 30°-150°, while the pressure change is less than 2 × 10{sup −10} mbars.

  16. Overview of Fabrication Techniques and Lessons Learned with Accelerator Vacuum Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Ader, C. R.; McGee, M. W.; Nobrega, L. E.

    Vacuum thin windows have been used in Fermilab's accelerators for decades and typically have been overlooked in terms of their criticality and fragility. Vacuum windows allow beam to pass through while creating a boundary between vacuum and air or high vacuum and low vacuum areas. The design of vacuum windows, including Titanium and Beryllium windows, will be discussed as well as fabrication, testing, and operational concerns. Failure of windows will be reviewed as well as safety approaches to mitigating failures and extending the lifetimes of vacuum windows. Various methods of calculating the strengths of vacuum windows will be explored, includingmore » FEA.« less

  17. Safety shield for vacuum/pressure-chamber windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimansky, R. A.; Spencer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Optically-clear shatter-resistant safety shield protects workers from implosion and explosion of vacuum and pressure windows. Plastic shield is inexpensive and may be added to vacuum chambers, pressure chambers, and gas-filling systems.

  18. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  19. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2001-01-01

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  20. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-08

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  1. Extreme-UV lithography vacuum chamber zone seal

    DOEpatents

    Haney, Steven J.; Herron, Donald Joe; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Replogle, William C.

    2003-04-15

    Control of particle contamination on the reticle and carbon contamination of optical surfaces in photolithography systems can be achieved by the establishment of multiple pressure zones in the photolithography systems. The different zones will enclose the reticle, projection optics, wafer, and other components of system. The system includes a vacuum apparatus that includes: a housing defining a vacuum chamber; one or more metrology trays situated within the vacuum chamber each of which is supported by at least one support member, wherein the tray separates the vacuum chamber into a various compartments that are maintained at different pressures; and conductance seal devices for adjoining the perimeter of each tray to an inner surface of the housing wherein the tray is decoupled from vibrations emanating from the inner surface of the housing.

  2. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Affinito, J.D.

    1996-08-20

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface. 3 figs.

  3. Quality care means valuing care assistants, porters, and cleaners too.

    PubMed

    Toynbee, P

    2003-12-01

    All too often, the focus of the very clever strategy papers produced in the upper reaches of the health department is on the next grand plan. Some of these reforms have been catastrophic for the quality of service that patients experience at ward level. Of these, the contracting out culture introduced in the 1980s and the 1990s has been the worst. Researching my book, Hard work-life in low pay Britain, I took six jobs at around the minimum wage, including work as a hospital porter, as a hospital cleaner, and as a care assistant. These are jobs at the sharp end, up close and very personal to the patients, strongly influencing their experiences of the services they were using. Yet they are low paid, undervalued jobs that fall below the radar of the policy makers. In hospitals they need to be brought back in-house and integrated into a team ethos. Paying these people more would cost more, but it would also harvest great rewards by using their untapped commitment.

  4. Use of enzymatic cleaners on US Navy ships. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, R.S.

    1996-03-01

    The Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, conducted a study to determine the feasibility of using enzymatic and bacterial products in cleaning applications aboard U.S. Navy ships. A review of the most recent technical literature and a survey of potential suppliers were conducted. In addition, shipboard systems, subsystems and housekeeping processes were evaluated to identify suitable applications for enzymatic and bacterial cleaners. The study identified numerous commercial products that, based on manufacturers` claims, would be effective and safe for use aboard ship to clean walls, floors, galley work surfaces, engine and machine parts, drains, pipes, grease traps, collection, holding andmore » transfer (CHT) tanks, ballast tanks and bilge areas. However, the study also revealed the absence of standardized test protocols essential for validation of manufacturers` claims, and recommended the cooperative development of such protocols by representatives from the commercial sector, Government and academia. The need to obtain meaningful cost information based on actual use scenarios and to investigate any permitting issues associated with the discharge of related wastes to pierside facilities was also identified.« less

  5. Microbial analysis of meatballs cooled with vacuum and conventional cooling.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Koçar, Gunnur

    2017-08-01

    Vacuum cooling is a rapid evaporative cooling technique and can be used for pre-cooling of leafy vegetables, mushroom, bakery, fishery, sauces, cooked food, meat and particulate foods. The aim of this study was to apply the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling techniques for the cooling of the meatball and to show the vacuum pressure effect on the cooling time, the temperature decrease and microbial growth rate. The results of the vacuum cooling and the conventional cooling (cooling in the refrigerator) were compared with each other for different temperatures. The study shows that the conventional cooling was much slower than the vacuum cooling. Moreover, the microbial growth rate of the vacuum cooling was extremely low compared with the conventional cooling. Thus, the lowest microbial growth occurred at 0.7 kPa and the highest microbial growth was observed at 1.5 kPa for the vacuum cooling. The mass loss ratio for the conventional cooling and vacuum cooling was about 5 and 9% respectively.

  6. Recycling of waste lead storage battery by vacuum methods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deqiang; Qiu, Keqiang

    2011-07-01

    Waste lead storage battery is the most important recyclable lead material not only in various European and other OECD countries but also in China. Pollution control of lead has become the focus of people's attention in the world. A vacuum process for recycling waste lead storage battery was developed in this work. The experimental results showed that all the valuable materials in waste lead storage battery could be satisfactorily recycled by vacuum technologies. The vacuum melting of lead grids and the vacuum reduction of lead pastes produce the lead bullion with the direct recovery ratio of 96.29% and 98.98%, respectively. The vacuum pyrolysis of plastics can produce pyrolysis oil with yield of more than 93 wt.%. These vacuum recycling technologies offer improvements in metallurgical and environmental performance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Window-assisted nanosphere lithography for vacuum micro-nano-electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Nannan; Institute of Electronic Engineering, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, 621900; Pang, Shucai

    2015-04-15

    Development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics is quite important for combining the advantages of vacuum tubes and solid-state devices but limited by the prevailing fabricating techniques which are expensive, time consuming and low-throughput. In this work, window-assisted nanosphere lithography (NSL) technique was proposed and enabled the low-cost and high-efficiency fabrication of nanostructures for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, thus allowing potential applications in many areas. As a demonstration, we fabricated high-density field emitter arrays which can be used as cold cathodes in vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices by using the window-assisted NSL technique. The details of the fabricating process have been investigated. This work provided amore » new and feasible idea for fabricating nanostructure arrays for vacuum micro-nano-electronic devices, which would spawn the development of vacuum micro-nano-electronics.« less

  8. Sealed vacuum canister and method for pick-up and containment of material

    DOEpatents

    Stoutenburgh, R.R.

    1996-02-13

    A vacuum canister is described including a housing with a sealed vacuum chamber having a predetermined vacuum pressure therein and a valve having a first port for fluid communication with the vacuum chamber and a second port for receiving at least one of a fluid and a particulate material. The valve is operable between a first position to seal the vacuum chamber and retain the predetermined vacuum within the vacuum chamber, and a second position to access the vacuum chamber to permit vacuum fluid flow through the valve from the second port into the vacuum chamber. The vacuum canister, in the operation to pick up material with the valve in the second position, when the second port is located adjacent at least one of a fluid and a particulate material, is effective to displace through the valve at least one of a fluid and a particulate material into the housing. The vacuum canister is desirably suitable for picking up and containing hazardous material such as radioactive material, in which the vacuum canister includes a protective layer of lead having a predetermined thickness that is effective to shield radiation emitted from the radioactive material contained within the housing. Advantageously, the vacuum canister includes a vacuum means for establishing a predetermined vacuum pressure within the vacuum chamber. 6 figs.

  9. Vacuum transfer system increases sugar maple sap yield

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters

    1978-01-01

    Yields of sugar maple sap collected from three plastic pipeline systems by gravity, vacuum pump, and a vacuum pump with a transfer tank were compared during 2 years in northern Vermont. The transfer system yielded 27 percent more sap one year and 17 percent more the next year. Higher vacuum levels at the tapholes were observed in the transfer system.

  10. Vacuum plasma coatings for turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Turbine blades, vacuum plasma spray coated with NiCrAlY, CoCrAlY or NiCrAlY/Cr2O3, were evaluated and rated superior to standard space shuttle main engine (SSME) coated blades. Ratings were based primarily on 25 thermal cycles in the MSFC Burner Rig Tester, cycling between 1700 F (gaseous H2) and -423 F (liquid H2). These tests showed no spalling on blades with improved vacuum plasma coatings, while standard blades spalled. Thermal barrier coatings of ZrO2, while superior to standard coatings, lacked the overall performance desired. Fatigue and tensile specimens, machined from MAR-M-246(Hf) test bars identical to the blades were vacuum plasma spray coated, diffusion bond treated, and tested to qualify the vacuum plasma spray process for flight hardware testing and application. While NiCrAlY/Cr2O3 offers significant improvement over standard coatings in durability and thermal protection, studies continue with an objective to develop coatings offering even greater improvements.

  11. Self contained, independent, in-vacuum spinner motor

    DOEpatents

    Ayers, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    An independent, self contained apparatus for operation within a vacuum chamber. A sealed enclosure is located in the chamber. The enclosure contains its own atmosphere independent of the vacuum in the chamber. A motor, power unit, and controls are located entirely within the enclosure. They do not have a direct structural connection outside of the enclosure in any way that would effect the atmosphere within the enclosure. The motor, power unit, and controls drive a spinner plate located outside the enclosure but within the vacuum chamber.

  12. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--METALS IN DUST ANALYTICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metals in Dust data set contains analytical results for measurements of up to 4 metals in 282 dust samples over 80 households. Samples were obtained by collecting dust samples from the indoor floor areas in the main activity room using a modified vacuum cleaner device that c...

  13. Expedition 11 Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips in Node 1/Unity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-04-17

    ISS011-E-05161 (17 April 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer, uses the ISS wet/dry vacuum cleaner assembly to catch floating debris from the top of a food can in the Unity node of the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Microscale Digital Vacuum Electronic Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammed M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement microscale digital vacuum electronic gates. In one embodiment, a microscale digital vacuum electronic gate includes: a microscale field emitter that can emit electrons and that is a microscale cathode; and a microscale anode; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are disposed within at least a partial vacuum; where the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode are separated by a gap; and where the potential difference between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is controllable such that the flow of electrons between the microscale field emitter and the microscale anode is thereby controllable; where when the microscale anode receives a flow of electrons, a first logic state is defined; and where when the microscale anode does not receive a flow of electrons, a second logic state is defined.

  15. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, T.G.; Thacker, L.H.; Fine, H.A.

    1995-04-18

    An instrument is disclosed for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets, the packets having a wall that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head for placement against the deformable wall of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate is placed beneath the packet to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head. 4 figs.

  16. Optical design and suspension system of the KAGRA output mode-cleaner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Junko; Winterflood, John; Li, Ju; Somiya, Kentaro

    2018-02-01

    KAGRA is a Japanese large scale, underground, cryogenic gravitational telescope which is under construction in the Kamioka mine. For using cryogenic test masses, the sensitivity of KAGRA is limited mainly by quantum noise. In order to reduce quantum noise, KAGRA employs an output mode-cleaner (OMC) at the output port that filters out junk light but allows the gravitational wave signal to go through. The requirement of the KAGRA OMC is even more challenging than other telescopes in the world since KAGRA plans to tune the signal readout phase so that the signal-to-noise ratio for our primary target source can be maximized. A proper selection of optical parameters and anti-vibration devices is required for the robust operation of the OMC. In this proceeding, we show our final results of modal-model simulations, in which we downselected the cavity length, the round-trip Gouy phase shift, the finesse, and the seismic isolation ratio for the suspended optics.

  17. Cleaner fuels for ships provide public health benefits with climate tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Sofiev, Mikhail; Winebrake, James J; Johansson, Lasse; Carr, Edward W; Prank, Marje; Soares, Joana; Vira, Julius; Kouznetsov, Rostislav; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Corbett, James J

    2018-02-06

    We evaluate public health and climate impacts of low-sulphur fuels in global shipping. Using high-resolution emissions inventories, integrated atmospheric models, and health risk functions, we assess ship-related PM 2.5 pollution impacts in 2020 with and without the use of low-sulphur fuels. Cleaner marine fuels will reduce ship-related premature mortality and morbidity by 34 and 54%, respectively, representing a ~ 2.6% global reduction in PM 2.5 cardiovascular and lung cancer deaths and a ~3.6% global reduction in childhood asthma. Despite these reductions, low-sulphur marine fuels will still account for ~250k deaths and ~6.4 M childhood asthma cases annually, and more stringent standards beyond 2020 may provide additional health benefits. Lower sulphur fuels also reduce radiative cooling from ship aerosols by ~80%, equating to a ~3% increase in current estimates of total anthropogenic forcing. Therefore, stronger international shipping policies may need to achieve climate and health targets by jointly reducing greenhouse gases and air pollution.

  18. New Technology Sparks Smoother Engines and Cleaner Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Automotive Resources, Inc. (ARI) has developed a new device for igniting fuel in engines-the SmartPlug.TM SmartPlug is a self-contained ignition system that may be retrofitted to existing spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines. The SmartPlug needs as little as six watts of power for warm-up, and requires no electricity at all when the engine is running. Unlike traditional spark plugs, once the SmartPlug ignites the engine, and the engine heats up, the power supply for the plug is no longer necessary. In the utility industry, SmartPlugs can be used in tractors, portable generators, compressors, and pumps. In addition to general-purpose applications, such as lawn mowers and chainsaws, SmartPlugs can also be used in the recreational, marine, aviation, and automotive industries. Unlike traditional ignition systems, the SmartPlug system requires no distributor, coil points, or moving parts. SmartPlugs are non-fouling, with a faster and cleaner burn than traditional spark plugs. They prevent detonation and are not sensitive to moisture, allowing them to be used on a variety of engines. Other advantages include no electrical noise, no high voltage, exceptionally high altitude capabilities, and better cold-start statistics than those of standard spark ignition systems. Future applications for the SmartPlug are being evaluated by manufacturers in the snowmobile industry.

  19. Dyonic Flux Tube Structure of Nonperturbative QCD Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandola, H. C.; Pandey, H. C.

    We study the flux tube structure of the nonperturbative QCD vacuum in terms of its dyonic excitations by using an infrared effective Lagrangian and show that the dyonic condensation of QCD vacuum has a close connection with the process of color confinement. Using the fiber bundle formulation of QCD, the magnetic symmetry condition is presented in a gauge covariant form and the gauge potential has been constructed in terms of the magnetic vectors on global sections. The dynamical breaking of the magnetic symmetry has been shown to lead the dyonic condensation of QCD vacuum in the infrared energy sector. Deriving the asymptotic solutions of the field equations in the dynamically broken phase, the dyonic flux tube structure of QCD vacuum is explored which has been shown to lead the confinement parameters in terms of the vector and scalar mass modes of the condensed vacuum. Evaluating the charge quantum numbers and energy associated with the dyonic flux tube solutions, the effect of electric excitation of monopole is analyzed using the Regge slope parameter (as an input parameter) and an enhancement in the dyonic pair correlations and the confining properties of QCD vacuum in its dyonically condensed mode has been demonstrated.

  20. Red rubber bulb, cheap and effective vacuum drainage.

    PubMed

    Vatanasapt, V; Areemit, S; Jeeravipoolvarn, P; Kuyyakanond, T; Kuptarnond, C

    1989-04-01

    Red rubber bulbs have been used for vacuum drainage in head, neck, breast and several other operations by the authors since 1975 quite effectively without any major problems. The vacuum pressure of the red rubber bulbs was found to be higher than the expensive commercially available vacuum wound drainage device. The question of remaining old blood and infective microorganisms inside the reservoir for the reused ones were tested by the manual cleaning process and the standard sterile technique using steam under increased pressure (autoclave). The result is quite satisfactory. We encourage the use of this cheap and effective (made in Thailand) vacuum wound drainage in Thai hospitals and Thai medical schools.

  1. Study of Vacuum Energy Physics for Breakthrough Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Marc G. (Technical Monitor); Maclay, G. Jordan; Hammer, Jay; Clark, Rod; George, Michael; Kim, Yeong; Kir, Asit

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments during a three year research project to investigate the use of surfaces, particularly in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), to exploit quantum vacuum forces. During this project, we developed AFM instrumentation to repeatably measure Casimir forces in the nanoNewton range at 10 6 torr, designed an experiment to measure attractive and repulsive quantum vacuum forces, developed a QED based theory of Casimir forces that includes non-ideal material properties for rectangular cavities and for multilayer slabs, developed theoretical models for a variety of microdevices utilizing vacuum forces, applied vacuum physics to a gedanken spacecraft, and investigated a new material with a negative index of refraction.

  2. Fast MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Laura; Morris, Elizabeth A; Dershaw, D David; Thornton, Cynthia M; Van Zee, Kimberly J; Tan, Lee K

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method for performing MRI-guided vacuum-assisted breast biopsy in a study of lesions that had subsequent surgical excision. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Twenty women scheduled for MRI-guided needle localization and surgical biopsy were prospectively entered in the study. MRI-guided biopsy was performed with a vacuum-assisted probe, followed by placement of a localizing clip, and then needle localization for surgical excision. Vacuum-assisted biopsy and surgical histology were correlated. Vacuum-assisted biopsy was successfully performed in 19 (95%) of the 20 women. The median size of 27 MRI-detected lesions that had biopsy was 1.0 cm (range, 0.4-6.4 cm). Cancer was present in eight (30%) of 27 lesions and in six (32%) of 19 women; among these eight cancers, five were infiltrating and three were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Among these 27 lesions, histology was benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy and at surgery in 19 (70%), cancer at vacuum-assisted biopsy in six (22%), atypical ductal hyperplasia at vacuum-assisted biopsy and DCIS at surgery in one (4%), and benign at vacuum-assisted biopsy with surgery showing microscopic DCIS that was occult at MRI in one (4%). The median time to perform vacuum-assisted biopsy of a single lesion was 35 min (mean, 35 min; range, 24-48 min). Placement of a localizing clip, attempted in 26 lesions, was successful in 25 (96%) of 26, and the clip was retrieved on specimen radiography in 22 (96%) of 23. One complication occurred: a hematoma that resolved with compression. MRI-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy is a fast, safe, and accurate alternative to surgical biopsy for breast lesions detected on MRI.

  3. Feed-through connector couples RF power into vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandy, G. L.

    1967-01-01

    Feed-through device connects RF power to an RF coil in a vacuum chamber. The coil and leads are water cooled and vacuum tight seals are provided at the junctions. The device incorporates silver soldered copper tubes, polytetrafluoroethylene electrical insulators, and O-ring vacuum seals.

  4. Heat transfer in a liquid helium cooled vacuum tube following sudden vacuum loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuley, R. C.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    Condensation of nitrogen gas rapidly flowing into a liquid helium (LHe) cooled vacuum tube is studied. This study aims to examine the heat transfer in geometries such as the superconducting RF cavity string of a particle accelerator following a sudden loss of vacuum to atmosphere. In a simplified experiment, the flow is generated by quickly venting a large reservoir of nitrogen gas to a straight long vacuum tube immersed in LHe. Normal LHe (LHe I) and superfluid He II are used in separate experiments. The rate of condensation heat transfer is determined from the temperature of the tube measured at several locations along the gas flow. Instantaneous heat deposition rates in excess of 200 kW/m2 result from condensation of the flowing gas. The gas flow is then arrested in its path to pressurize the tube to atmosphere and estimate the heat transfer rate to LHe. A steady LHe I heat load of ≈25 kW/m2 is obtained in this scenario. Observations from the He II experiment are briefly discussed. An upper bound for the LHe I heat load is derived based on the thermodynamics of phase change of nitrogen.

  5. Instrument for measurement of vacuum in sealed thin wall packets

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Thacker, Louis H.; Fine, H. Alan

    1995-01-01

    An instrument for the measurement of vacuum within sealed packets 12, the packets 12 having a wall 14 that it can be deformed by the application of an external dynamic vacuum to an area thereof. The instrument has a detector head 18 for placement against the deformable wall 14 of the packet to apply the vacuum in a controlled manner to accomplish a limited deformation or lift of the wall 14, with this deformation or lift monitored by the application of light as via a bifurcated light pipe 20. Retro-reflected light through the light pipe is monitored with a photo detector 26. A change (e.g., a decrease) of retro-reflected light signals the wall movement such that the value of the dynamic vacuum applied through the head be to achieve this initiation of movement is equal to the vacuum within the packet 12. In a preferred embodiment a vacuum plate 44 is placed beneath the packet 12 to ensure that no deformation occurs on the reverse surface 16 of the packet. A vacuum can be applied to a recess in this vacuum plate, the value of which can be used to calibrate the vacuum transducer in the detector head.

  6. 7 CFR 58.217 - Evaporators and/or vacuum pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....217 Evaporators and/or vacuum pans. Evaporators or vacuum pans or both, with open type condensers shall be equipped with an automatic condenser water level control, barometric leg, or so constructed so... Sanitary Standards for Milk and Milk Products Evaporators and Vacuum Pans. When enclosed type condensers...

  7. Quantum vacuum effects from boundaries of designer potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2009-04-15

    Vacuum energy in quantum field theory, being the sum of zero-point energies of all field modes, is formally infinite but yet, after regularization or renormalization, can give rise to finite observable effects. One way of understanding how these effects arise is to compute the vacuum energy in an idealized system such as a large cavity divided into disjoint regions by pistons. In this paper, this type of calculation is carried out for situations where the potential affecting a field is not the same in all regions of the cavity. It is shown that the observable parts of the vacuum energymore » in such potentials do not fall off to zero as the region where the potential is nontrivial becomes large. This unusual behavior might be interesting for tests involving quantum vacuum effects and for studies on the relation between vacuum energy in quantum field theory and geometry.« less

  8. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616

  9. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-12-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments.

  10. Vacuum Outgassing of High Density Polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Sze, J; Schildbach, M A

    A combination of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) was employed to identify the outgassing species, the total amount of outgassing, and the outgassing kinetics of high density polyethylene (HDPE) in a vacuum environment. The isoconversional kinetic analysis was then used to analyze the outgassing kinetics and to predict the long-term outgassing of HDPE in vacuum applications at ambient temperature. H{sub 2}O and C{sub n}H{sub x} with n as high as 9 and x centering around 2n are the major outgassing species from solid HDPE, but the quantities evolved can be significantly reduced by vacuum baking at 368more » K for a few hours prior to device assembly.« less

  11. Vacuum birefringence detection in all-optical scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataman, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we propose an all-optical vacuum birefringence experiment and evaluate its feasibility for various scenarios. Many petawatt-class lasers became operational and many more are expected to enter operation in the near future, therefore unprecedented electromagnetic fields (EL˜1014-1015 V/m and intensities IL˜1021-1023W/cm 2 ) will become available for experiments. In our proposal a petawatt-class laser disturbs the quantum vacuum and creates a delay in a counterpropagating probe laser beam. Placing this delayed beam in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), allows the measurement of the vacuum refraction coefficient via a phase shift. Coherent as well as squeezed light are both considered and the minimum phase sensitivity evaluated. We show that using existing technology with some moderately optimistic assumptions, at least part of the discussed scenarios are feasible for a vacuum birefringence detection experiment.

  12. Relaxation of vacuum energy in q-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.; Savelainen, M.; Volovik, G. E.

    2017-08-01

    The q-theory formalism aims to describe the thermodynamics and dynamics of the deep quantum vacuum. The thermodynamics leads to an exact cancellation of the quantum-field zero-point-energies in equilibrium, which partly solves the main cosmological constant problem. But, with reversible dynamics, the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe asymptotically approaches the Minkowski vacuum only if the Big Bang already started out in an initial equilibrium state. Here, we extend q-theory by introducing dissipation from irreversible processes. Neglecting the possible instability of a de-Sitter vacuum, we obtain different scenarios with either a de-Sitter asymptote or collapse to a final singularity. The Minkowski asymptote still requires fine-tuning of the initial conditions. This suggests that, within the q-theory approach, the decay of the de-Sitter vacuum is a necessary condition for the dynamical solution of the cosmological constant problem.

  13. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Timothy Andrew; Tucker, Dennis S.; Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 degrees C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 degrees C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed a significant increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 degrees C.

  14. Vacuum Strength of Two Candidate Glasses for a Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, T. a.; Tucker, D. S.; Herren, K. A.; Gregory, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    The strengths of two candidate glass types for use in a space observatory were measured. Samples of ultra-low expansion glass (ULE) and borosilicate (Pyrex) were tested in air and in vacuum at room temperature (20 C) and in vacuum after being heated to 200 C. Both glasses tested in vacuum showed an increase in strength over those tested in air. However, there was no statistical difference between the strength of samples tested in vacuum at room temperature and those tested in vacuum after heating to 200 C.

  15. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017718 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. Kondratyev and Coleman used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  16. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF SOIL OR HOUSE DUST SAMPLES USING CHLORPYRIFOS ELISA SAMPLES (BCO-L-1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract is included for completeness of documentation, but this SOP was not used in the study.

    The purpose of this SOP is to describe the procedures for analyzing both Stage II and Stage III soil and vacuum-cleaner collected house dust samples, and Stage III air samples u...

  18. Expanding space-time and variable vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmeggiani, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a cosmological model which contemplates the presence of a vacuum energy varying, very slightly (now), with time. The constant part of the vacuum energy generated, some 6 Gyr ago, a deceleration/acceleration transition of the metric expansion; so now, in an aged Universe, the expansion is inexorably accelerating. The vacuum energy varying part is instead assumed to be eventually responsible of an acceleration/deceleration transition, which occurred about 14 Gyr ago; this transition has a dynamic origin: it is a consequence of the general relativistic Einstein-Friedmann equations. Moreover, the vacuum energy (constant and variable) is here related to the zero-point energy of some quantum fields (scalar, vector, or spinor); these fields are necessarily described in a general relativistic way: their structure depends on the space-time metric, typically non-flat. More precisely, the commutators of the (quantum field) creation/annihilation operators are here assumed to depend on the local value of the space-time metric tensor (and eventually of its curvature); furthermore, these commutators rapidly decrease for high momentum values and they reduce to the standard ones for a flat metric. In this way, the theory is ”gravitationally” regularized; in particular, the zero-point (vacuum) energy density has a well defined value and, for a non static metric, depends on the (cosmic) time. Note that this varying vacuum energy can be negative (Fermi fields) and that a change of its sign typically leads to a minimum for the metric expansion factor (a ”bounce”).

  19. Vacuum system of the cyclotrons in VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Akhtar, J.

    2011-07-01

    The vacuum system of the K=130 Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) (operational since 1978) has been recently modernized and the same of the K{sub bend}=520 Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC), currently under commissioning, is being deployed for remote monitoring and control. The vacuum system of RTC is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum level of 2 X 10{sup -6} mbar inside 23 m{sup 3} volume of Resonator tank and DEE tank. This has been upgraded by replacing several valves, Freon units, gauges and pumps. The relay based manual control system has been replaced by PLC based automated system. The SCC vacuum system alsomore » has an elaborate arrangement comprising of turbo molecular pumping modules with associated isolation valves and characteristic gauges. This paper describes essential elements, typically used to obtain high (1X10{sup -7} mbar) vacuum using rotary pumps, diffusion pumps and cold traps/turbo-molecular pumps and other system components such as valves, gauges and baffles. The supervisory control methodology/scheme of both the vacuum systems, developed in-house using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open-source software tool for designing distributed control system, is also elaborated here. (author)« less

  20. Phacoemulsification tip vacuum pressure: Comparison of 4 devices.

    PubMed

    Payne, Marielle; Georgescu, Dan; Waite, Aaron N; Olson, Randall J

    2006-08-01

    To determine the vacuum pressure generated by 4 phacoemulsification devices measured at the phacoemulsification tip. University ophthalmology department. The effective vacuum pressures generated by the Sovereign (AMO), Millennium (Bausch & Lomb), Legacy AdvanTec (Alcon Laboratories), and Infiniti (Alcon Laboratories) phacoemulsification machines were measured with a device that isolated the phacoemulsification tip in a chamber connected to a pressure gauge. The 4 machines were tested at multiple vacuum limit settings, and the values were recorded after the foot pedal was fully depressed and the pressure had stabilized. The AdvanTec and Infiniti machines were tested with and without occlusion of the Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) side port (Alcon Laboratories). The Millennium machine was tested using venturi and peristaltic pumps. The machines generated pressures close to the expected at maximum vacuum settings between 100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg with few intermachine variations. There was no significant difference between pressures generated using 19- or 20-gauge tips (Millennium and Sovereign). The addition of an ABS side port decreased vacuum by a mean of 12.1% (P < .0001). Although there were some variations in vacuum pressures among phacoemulsification machines, particularly when an aspiration bypass tip was used, these discrepancies are probably not clinically significant.

  1. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  2. Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Steve P.; Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

  3. Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetič, M.; Ostrikov, K.; Ruzic, D. N.; Curreli, D.; Cvelbar, U.; Vesel, A.; Primc, G.; Leisch, M.; Jousten, K.; Malyshev, O. B.; Hendricks, J. H.; Kövér, L.; Tagliaferro, A.; Conde, O.; Silvestre, A. J.; Giapintzakis, J.; Buljan, M.; Radić, N.; Dražić, G.; Bernstorff, S.; Biederman, H.; Kylián, O.; Hanuš, J.; Miloševič, S.; Galtayries, A.; Dietrich, P.; Unger, W.; Lehocky, M.; Sedlarik, V.; Stana-Kleinschek, K.; Drmota-Petrič, A.; Pireaux, J. J.; Rogers, J. W.; Anderle, M.

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in vacuum sciences and applications are reviewed. Novel optical interferometer cavity devices enable pressure measurements with ppm accuracy. The innovative dynamic vacuum standard allows for pressure measurements with temporal resolution of 2 ms. Vacuum issues in the construction of huge ultra-high vacuum devices worldwide are reviewed. Recent advances in surface science and thin films include new phenomena observed in electron transport near solid surfaces as well as novel results on the properties of carbon nanomaterials. Precise techniques for surface and thin-film characterization have been applied in the conservation technology of cultural heritage objects and recent advances in the characterization of biointerfaces are presented. The combination of various vacuum and atmospheric-pressure techniques enables an insight into the complex phenomena of protein and other biomolecule conformations on solid surfaces. Studying these phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is regarded as the main issue in the development of alternative techniques for drug delivery, tissue engineering and thus the development of innovative techniques for curing cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review on recent advances in plasma medicine is presented as well as novel hypotheses on cell apoptosis upon treatment with gaseous plasma. Finally, recent advances in plasma nanoscience are illustrated with several examples and a roadmap for future activities is presented.

  4. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  5. Vacuum decay in an interacting multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S.; Alonso-Serrano, A.; Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.

    2016-08-01

    We examine a new multiverse scenario in which the component universes interact. We focus our attention to the process of "true" vacuum nucleation in the false vacuum within one single element of the multiverse. It is shown that the interactions lead to a collective behavior that might lead, under specific conditions, to a pre-inflationary phase and ensued distinguishable imprints in the comic microwave background radiation.

  6. Vacuum extraction failure is associated with a large head circumference.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Doron; Lipschuetz, Michal; Cohen, Sarah M; Yagel, Oren; Levitt, Lorinne; Herzberg, Shmuel; Ezra, Yossef; Yagel, Simcha; Amsalem, Hagai

    2018-04-24

    To determine whether large head circumference increases the risk of vacuum extraction failure. This EMR-based study included all attempted vacuum extractions performed in a tertiary center between January 2010 and June 2015. All term singleton live births were eligible. Cases were divided into four groups: head circumference ≥90th percentile both with birth weight ≥90th percentile and <90th percentile and fetal head circumference <90th percentile with birth weight ≥90th and <90th percentile. Risk of failed vacuum extraction was compared among these groups. Other neonatal and maternal parameters were also evaluated as potential risk factors. Multinomial multivariable regression provided adjusted odds ratio for vacuum extraction failure while controlling for potential confounders. During the study period, 48,007 deliveries met inclusion criteria, of which 3835 had an attempt at vacuum extraction. We identified 215 (5.6%) cases of vacuum extraction failure. The adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for vacuum extraction failure in cases of large fetal head circumference was 2.31 (95%CI, 1.7-3.15, p < .001). Primiparity, prolonged second stage and occipito-posterior presentation were also found to be significant risk factors for failed vacuum extraction. In this study, we found that large head circumference was associated with vacuum extraction failure rather than high birth weight.

  7. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  8. Traction force during vacuum extraction: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, K; Ajne, J; Yousaf, K; Sturm, D; Westgren, M; Ajne, G

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the traction force employed during vacuum extractions. Observational cross-sectional study. Obstetric Department, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden, and the Swedish National Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2013. Two hundred women with vacuum extraction at term and 130 obstetricians participating in a simulated setting. In a normal clinical setting, we used a specially adapted device to measure and record the force used to undertake vacuum extraction. In a subsequent part of the study, the force employed for vacuum extraction by a group of obstetricians in a fictive setting was estimated and objectively measured. Applied force during vacuum extraction in relation to the estimated level of difficulty in the delivery; perinatal diagnoses of asphyxia or head trauma; estimated force compared with objectively measured force employed in the fictive setting. The median (minimum-maximum) peak forces for minimum, average and excessive vacuum extraction in the clinical setting were 176 N (5-360 N), 225 N (115-436 N), and 241 N (164-452 N), respectively. In 34% of cases a force in excess of 216 N was employed. There was no correlation between the umbilical arterial pH at delivery and the traction force employed during extraction. Four cases of mild hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were observed, three of which were associated with a delivery whereby excessive traction force was employed during the vacuum extraction. In the fictive setting, the actual exerted force was twice the quantitative estimation. The measured forces in the clinical setting were four times higher than that estimated in the fictive setting. Higher than expected levels of traction force were used for vacuum extraction delivery. As obstetricians tend to underestimate the force applied during vacuum extraction, objective measurement with instantaneous feedback may be valuable in raising awareness. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Double Vacuum Bag Process for Resin Matrix Composite Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Tan-Hung (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A double vacuum bag molding assembly with improved void management and laminate net shape control which provides a double vacuum enviromnent for use in fabricating composites from prepregs containing air and/or volatiles such as reactive resin matrix composites or composites from solvent containing prepregs with non-reactive resins matrices. By using two vacuum environments during the curing process, a vacuum can be drawn during a B-stage of a two-step cycle without placing the composite under significant relative pressure. During the final cure stage, a significant pressure can be applied by releasing the vacuum in one of the two environments. Inner and outer bags are useful for creating the two vacuum environments with a perforated tool intermediate the two. The composite is placed intermediate a tool plate and a caul plate in the first environment with the inner bag and tool plate defining the first environment. The second environment is characterized by the outer bag which is placed over the inner bag and the tool plate.

  10. Vacuum polarization and Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, Shohreh

    Quantum gravity is one of the interesting fields in contemporary physics which is still in progress. The purpose of quantum gravity is to present a quantum description for spacetime at 10-33cm or find the 'quanta' of gravitational interaction.. At present, the most viable theory to describe gravitational interaction is general relativity which is a classical theory. Semi-classical quantum gravity or quantum field theory in curved spacetime is an approximation to a full quantum theory of gravity. This approximation considers gravity as a classical field and matter fields are quantized. One interesting phenomena in semi-classical quantum gravity is Hawking radiation. Hawking radiation was derived by Stephen Hawking as a thermal emission of particles from the black hole horizon. In this thesis we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation using a new method. Vacuum is defined as the possible lowest energy state which is filled with pairs of virtual particle-antiparticle. Vacuum polarization is a consequence of pair creation in the presence of an external field such as an electromagnetic or gravitational field. Vacuum polarization in the vicinity of a black hole horizon can be interpreted as the cause of the emission from black holes known as Hawking radiation. In this thesis we try to obtain the Hawking spectrum using this approach. We re-examine vacuum polarization of a scalar field in a quasi-local volume that includes the horizon. We study the interaction of a scalar field with the background gravitational field of the black hole in the desired quasi-local region. The quasi-local volume is a hollow cylinder enclosed by two membranes, one inside the horizon and one outside the horizon. The net rate of particle emission can be obtained as the difference of the vacuum polarization from the outer boundary and inner boundary of the cylinder. Thus we found a new method to derive Hawking emission which is unitary and well defined in quantum field theory.

  11. Compactified Vacuum in Ten Dimensions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurmser, Daniel

    1987-09-01

    Since the 1920's, theories which unify gravity with the other fundamental forces have called for more than the four observed dimensions of space-time. According to such a theory, the vacuum consists of flat four-dimensional space-time described by the Minkowski metric M ^4 and a "compactified" space B. The dimensions of B are small, and the space can only be observed at distance scales smaller than the present experimental limit. These theories have had serious difficulties. The equations of gravity severely restrict the possible choices for the space B. The allowed spaces are complicated and difficult to study. The vacuum is furthermore unstable in the sense that a small perturbation causes the compactified dimensions to expand indefinitely. There is an addition a semi-classical argument which implies that the compactified vacuum be annihilated by virtual black holes. It follows that a universe with compactified extra dimensions could not have survived to the present. These results were derived by applying the equations of general relativity to spaces of more than four dimensions. The form of these equations was assumed to be unchanged by an increase in the number of dimensions. Recently, it has been proposed that gravity in more than four dimensions may involve terms of higher order in the curvature as well as the linear terms present in ordinary general relativity. I illustrate the effect of such terms by considering the example B = S^6 where S ^6 is the six-dimensional sphere. Only when the extra terms are included is this choice of the compactified space allowed. I explore the effect of a small perturbation on such a vacuum. The ten-dimensional spherically symmetric potential is examined, and I determine conditions under which the formation of virtual black holes is forbidden. The example M^4 times S^6 is still plagued by the semi -classical instability, but this result does not hold in general. The requirement that virtual black holes be forbidden provides a

  12. Post-Planck constraints on interacting vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuting; Wands, David; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Xu, Lixin

    2014-07-01

    We present improved constraints on an interacting vacuum model using updated astronomical observations including the first data release from Planck. We consider a model with one dimensionless parameter, α, describing the interaction between dark matter and vacuum energy (with fixed equation of state w=-1). The background dynamics correspond to a generalized Chaplygin gas cosmology, but the perturbations have a zero sound speed. The tension between the value of the Hubble constant, H0, determined by Planck data plus WMAP polarization (Planck +WP) and that determined by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) can be alleviated by energy transfer from dark matter to vacuum (α>0). A positive α increases the allowed values of H0 due to parameter degeneracy within the model using only cosmic microwave background data. Combining with additional data sets of including supernova type Ia (SN Ia) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO), we can significantly tighten the bounds on α. Redshift-space distortions (RSD), which constrain the linear growth of structure, provide the tightest constraints on vacuum interaction when combined with Planck+WP, and prefer energy transfer from vacuum to dark matter (α<0) which suppresses the growth of structure. Using the combined data sets of Planck +WP+Union2.1+BAO+RSD, we obtain the constraint on α to be -0.083<α<-0.006 (95% C.L.), allowing low H0 consistent with the measurement from 6dF Galaxy survey. This interacting vacuum model can alleviate the tension between RSD and Planck +WP in the ΛCDM model for α <0, or between HST measurements of H0 and Planck+WP for α>0, but not both at the same time.

  13. Dark matter as an effect of the quantum vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between the quantum vacuum and a weak gravitational field is calculated for the vacuum fields of quantum electrodynamics. The result shows that the vacuum state is modified by the gravitational field, giving rise to a nonzero interaction energy. This suggests a model that fits in the main properties of the hypothetical dark matter in galactic haloes.

  14. Coleman cuts Kondratyev's hair in the JPM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-01-15

    ISS026-E-017725 (15 Jan. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman assists cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev of Russia's Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) with a haircut in the Kibo laboratory on the International Space Station. The two Expedition 26 flight engineers used a vacuum cleaner to remove free-floating hair particles from the air.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit interrupters. (ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of.... (2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run... PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices. (A) Specifications: (1) Glove...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... circuit interrupters. (ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of.... (2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run... PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices. (A) Specifications: (1) Glove...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... circuit interrupters. (ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of.... (2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run... PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices. (A) Specifications: (1) Glove...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... circuit interrupters. (ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of.... (2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run... PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices. (A) Specifications: (1) Glove...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1101 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... circuit interrupters. (ii) Glove bag systems may be used to remove PACM and/or ACM from straight runs of.... (2) The HEPA vacuum cleaner or other device used to prevent collapse of bag during removal shall run... PACM from pipe runs with the following specifications and work practices. (A) Specifications: (1) Glove...

  20. HEPA Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2006-01-01

    Poor indoor air quality in school facilities can detract from the health and productivity of students, teachers and other employees. Asthma--often triggered or aggravated by dust--is the No. 1 cause of chronic absenteeism in schools. Using vacuum cleaners equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to clean education institutions…

  1. Vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field in curved background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Domazet, Silvije; Guberina, Branko

    2012-01-01

    We study a supersymmetric model in curved background spacetime. We calculate the effective action and the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor using a covariant regularization procedure. A soft supersymmetry breaking induces a nonzero contribution to the vacuum energy density and pressure. Assuming the presence of a cosmic fluid in addition to the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric field an effective equation of state is derived in a self-consistent approach at one loop order. The net effect of the vacuum fluctuations of the supersymmetric fields in the leading adiabatic order is a renormalization of the Newton and cosmological constants.

  2. Characteristics of ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motor in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianjun; Zhou, Ningning; Tian, Xiu; Jin, Long; Xu, Zhike

    2009-03-01

    The characteristics of ultrasonic motor strongly depend on the properties of stator/rotor contact interface which are affected by ambient environment. With the developed apparatus, load properties of two ring type traveling wave ultrasonic motors in atmosphere, low vacuum and high vacuum were studied, respectively. Wear of friction material, variations of vacuum degree and the temperature of motor during the experiment were also measured. The results show that load properties of motor A in vacuum were poorer than those in atmosphere, when load torque M(f) was less than 0.55 N m. Compared to motor A, load properties of motor B were affected a little by environmental pressure. Wear of friction material in vacuum was more severe than wear in atmosphere. The temperature of motor in vacuum rose more quickly than it in atmosphere and had not reached equilibrium in 2 h experiment. However, the temperature of motor in atmosphere had reached equilibrium in about forth minutes. Furthermore, outgas was also observed during experiment under vacuum conditions.

  3. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sredniawski, J.

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTSmore » has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses.« less

  4. Cosmic vacuum and galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernin, A. D.

    2006-04-01

    It is demonstrated that the protogalactic perturbations must enter the nonlinear regime before the red shift z≈ 1; otherwise they would be destroyed by the antigravity of the vacuum dark energy at the subsequent epoch of the vacuum domination. At the zrrV={M/[(8π/3)ρV]}1/3, where M is the mass of a given over-density and ρV is the vacuum density. The criterion provides a new relation between the largest mass condensations and their spatial scales. All the real large-scale systems follow this relation definitely. It is also shown that a simple formula is possible for the key quantity in the theory of galaxy formation, namely the initial amplitude of the perturbation of the gravitational potential in the protogalactic structures. The amplitude is time independent and given in terms of the Friedmann integrals, which are genuine physical characteristics of the cosmic energies. The results suggest that there is a strong correspondence between the global design of the Universe as a whole and the cosmic structures of various masses and spatial scales.

  5. Decay of the de Sitter vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Paul R.; Mottola, Emil; Sanders, Dillon H.

    2018-03-01

    The decay rate of the Bunch-Davies state of a massive scalar field in the expanding flat spatial sections of de Sitter space is determined by an analysis of the particle pair creation process in real time. The Feynman definition of particle and antiparticle Fourier mode solutions of the scalar wave equation and their adiabatic phase analytically continued to the complexified time domain show conclusively that the Bunch-Davies state is not the vacuum state at late times. The closely analogous creation of charged particle pairs in a uniform electric field is reviewed and Schwinger's result for the vacuum decay rate is recovered by this same real time analysis. The vacuum decay rate in each case is also calculated by switching the background field on adiabatically, allowing it to act for a very long time, and then adiabatically switching it off again. In both the uniform electric field and de Sitter cases, the particles created while the field is switched on are verified to be real, in the sense that they persist in the final asymptotic flat zero-field region. In the de Sitter case, there is an interesting residual dependence of the rate on how the de Sitter phase is ended, indicating a greater sensitivity to spatial boundary conditions. The electric current of the created particles in the E -field case and their energy density and pressure in the de Sitter case are also computed, and the magnitude of their backreaction effects on the background field estimated. Possible consequences of the Hubble scale instability of the de Sitter vacuum for cosmology, vacuum dark energy, and the cosmological "constant" problem are discussed.

  6. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  7. Cosmological implications of the transition from the false vacuum to the true vacuum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowski, Aleksander; Szydłowski, Marek; Urbanowski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-01

    We study cosmology with running dark energy. The energy density of dark energy is obtained from the quantum process of transition from the false vacuum state to the true vacuum state. We use the Breit-Wigner energy distribution function to model the quantum unstable systems and obtain the energy density of the dark energy parametrization ρ _ {de}(t). We also use Krauss and Dent's idea linking properties of the quantum mechanical decay of unstable states with the properties of the observed Universe. In the cosmological model with this parametrization there is an energy transfer between dark matter and dark energy. The intensity of this process, measured by a parameter α , distinguishes two scenarios. As the Universe starts from the false vacuum state, for the small value of α (0<α <0.4) it goes through an intermediate oscillatory (quantum) regime of the density of dark energy, while for α > 0.4 the density of the dark energy jumps down. In both cases the present value of the density of dark energy is reached. From a statistical analysis we find this model to be in good agreement with the astronomical data and practically indistinguishable from the Λ CDM model.

  8. Engineering matter interactions using squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeytinoglu, Sina; Imamoglu, Atac; Huber, Sebastian

    Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the latter can be used to engineer the strength and the range of inter-particle interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or waveguides which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. In this submission, we demonstrate theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the anti-squeezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allows for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic cavity or waveguide. Thus, the strength and range of the resulting dipole-dipole coupling can be engineered by dynamically changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a travelling-wave geometry. ETH-Zurich.

  9. Engineering matter interactions using squeezed vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeytinoglu, Sina; Imamoglu, Atac; Huber, Sebastian

    Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the latter can be used to engineer the strength and the range of inter-particle interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or waveguides which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. In this talk, we demonstrate theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the anti-squeezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allows for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic cavity or waveguide. Thus, the strength and range of the resulting dipole-dipole coupling can be engineered by dynamically changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a travelling-wave geometry. ETH Zurich.

  10. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Mazets, Igor; Kurizki, Gershon

    2014-01-01

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry and in emerging technologies involving, e.g., microelectromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension, we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line. PMID:25002503

  11. Vacuum Chamber Documentation for U of H Collection

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-06-16

    Documentation for the University of Houston (UH) Clear Lake collection of their library books after the Vacuum Chamber runs were performed to remove the water from them. Vacuum Chamber B in Building 32 was used.

  12. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardaci, M. S.; Cea, P.; Cosmai, L.; Falcone, R.; Papa, A.

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  13. Toxicity resulting from exposure to oven cleaners as reported to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) from 2009 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Day, Rachael C; Bradberry, Sally M; Sandilands, Euan A; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2017-08-01

    Oven cleaning products contain corrosive substances, typically sodium or potassium hydroxide. To determine the reported toxicity from exposure to oven cleaning products. Telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service regarding oven cleaning products were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2009 to December 2015. There were 796 enquiries relating to 780 patients. Ninety-six percent of the products involved in the reported exposures contained sodium hydroxide and/or potassium hydroxide. Ingestion alone (n = 285) or skin contact alone (n = 208) accounted for the majority of cases; inhalation alone (n = 101), eye contact alone (n = 97), and multiple routes of exposure (n = 89) accounted for the remainder. Ninety-five percent of patients exposed by inhalation, 94% exposed dermally and 85% reporting eye exposure, developed features of toxicity. Patients exposed by multiple routes developed symptoms in 70% of cases. Only 103 of the 285 patients ingested oven cleaner directly, whereas 182 patients ingested food they considered to have been contaminated with oven cleaner. In 100 of the 103 direct ingestions where the features and World Health Organisation/International Programme on Chemical Safety/European Commission/European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists Poisoning Severity Score were known, 56 reported symptoms which were minor in 51 cases. The most common features following ingestion were vomiting (n = 26), abdominal pain (n = 22) or pharyngitis (n = 15). Skin burns (n = 91) predominantly involving the hands or arms, occurred in 44% of dermal exposures. Following inhalation, patients frequently developed respiratory features (n = 52) including coughing and chest pain/tightness. Eye pain (n = 43) and conjunctivitis (n = 33) commonly occurred following ocular exposure. Most (71%) patients exposed to an oven cleaner irrespective of the route of exposure developed

  14. Rhinitis and asthma symptoms in non‐domestic cleaners from the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Fátima Maçãira, Elayne; Algranti, Eduardo; Mendonça, Elizabete Medina Coeli

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to cleaning products has frequently been reported as a symptom trigger by workers with work‐related asthma diagnosed in workers' health clinics in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Objectives To estimate rhinitis and asthma symptoms prevalence and to analyse associated risk factors. Method A respiratory symptoms questionnaire (Medical Research Council 1976) and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire were applied to 341 cleaners working in the city of São Paulo, along with obtaining full occupational histories, skin prick tests and spirometry. Timing their symptoms onset in relation to occupational history allowed estimation of work‐related asthma and/or rhinitis. Risk factors related to selected outcomes were analysed by logistic regression. Results 11% and 35% of the cleaners had asthma and rhinitis, respectively. The risk of work‐related asthma/rhinitis increased with years of employment in non‐domestic cleaning (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.18, >0.92–3 years; OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.63, >3–6.5 years; OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.89, >6.5 years). Atopy was associated with asthma and rhinitis (OR 2.91, 95% CI 1.36 to 6.71; OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.35, respectively). There was a higher risk of rhinitis in women (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.70). Conclusions Cleaning workers are at risk of contracting work‐related asthma and/or rhinitis, and the risk increases with years of employment in non‐domestic cleaning. Women present higher risk of rhinitis than men. PMID:17303675

  15. Pilot Still and MS Gernhardt with stowage locker

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-12

    STS083-346-002 (4-8 April 1997) --- Astronaut Susan L. Still, pilot, appears excited about the chore of vacuuming in the Spacelab Science Module as astronaut Michael L. Gernhardt approaches with the vacuum cleaner. Gernhardt is one of three mission specialists who joined the flight operations crew and two payload specialists in support of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission. The crew members were less than a fourth of the way through a scheduled 16-day flight when a power problem cut short their planned stay.

  16. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  17. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D.; Swierkowski, Stefan P.; Tarte, Lisa A.; Hicks, Randall K.

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  18. Torsion pendulum measurements on viscoelastic materials during vacuum exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, T. C.; Evans, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    A torsional pendulum apparatus designed for testing in situ in vacuum, the dynamic mechanical properties of materials is described. The application of this apparatus to an experimental program to measure the effects of vacuum on the mechanical properties of two ablator materials (a foamed material and a filled elastomer) and a solid rocket propellant (a filled elastomer) is presented. Results from the program are discussed as to the effects of vacuum on the mechanical properties of these three materials. In addition, time-temperature-superposition, as a technique for accelerating vacuum induced changes in mechanical properties, is discussed with reference to the three materials tested in the subject program.

  19. Four wave mixing as a probe of the vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, Daniel M.

    2016-06-01

    Much attention has been paid to the quantum structure of the vacuum. Higher order processes in quantum electrodynamics are strongly believed to cause polarization and even breakdown of the vacuum in the presence of strong fields soon to be accessible in high intensity laser experiments. Less explored consequences of strong field electrodynamics include effects from Born-Infeld type of electromagnetic theories, a nonlinear electrodynamics that follows from classical considerations as opposed to coupling to virtual fluctuations. In this article, I will demonstrate how vacuum four wave mixing has the possibility to differentiate between these two types of vacuum responses: quantum effects on one hand and nonlinear classical extensions on the other.

  20. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    PubMed

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.